Sample records for quality antioxidant capacity

  1. Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Quality of Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) Products.

    PubMed

    Tolić, Mandica-Tamara; Jurčević, Irena Landeka; Krbavčić, Ines Panjkota; Marković, Ksenija; Vahčić, Nada

    2015-06-01

    Chokeberries ( Aronia melanocarpa ) are rarely used in diet in Croatia but they have high content of polyphenolic compounds and one of the highest in vitro antioxidant activities among fruits. The aim of this study is to compare the quality, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of different chokeberry products (juices, powders, fruit tea, capsules and dried berries). It can be expected that processing influences antioxidant activity and phenolic content of final products reaching consumers. Characterisation of phenolic compounds was carried out by using spectroscopic methods (Folin-Ciocalteu and pH differential methods). Antioxidant activity of chokeberry products was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The results show that the investigated products contain high amount of phenols (3002 to 6639 mg per L and 1494 to 5292 mg per 100 g of dry matter) and lower amount of total anthocyanins (150 to 1228 mg per L and 141 to 2468 mg per 100 g of dry matter). The examined juices and other chokeberry products possess high antioxidant capacity (12.09 to 40.19 mmol per L or 58.49 to 191.31 mmol per 100 g of dry matter, respectively) and reducing power (38.71 to 79.86 mmol per L or 13.50 to 68.60 mmol per 100 g of dry matter, respectively). On the basis of phenolic content and antioxidant activity, capsules and powders stand out among other products. The study indicates that there are significant differences (p<0.05) in the quality, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity among examined products.

  2. Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Quality of Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) Products

    PubMed Central

    Jurčević, Irena Landeka; Krbavčić, Ines Panjkota; Marković, Ksenija; Vahčić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) are rarely used in diet in Croatia but they have high content of polyphenolic compounds and one of the highest in vitro antioxidant activities among fruits. The aim of this study is to compare the quality, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of different chokeberry products (juices, powders, fruit tea, capsules and dried berries). It can be expected that processing influences antioxidant activity and phenolic content of final products reaching consumers. Characterisation of phenolic compounds was carried out by using spectroscopic methods (Folin–Ciocalteu and pH differential methods). Antioxidant activity of chokeberry products was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The results show that the investigated products contain high amount of phenols (3002 to 6639 mg per L and 1494 to 5292 mg per 100 g of dry matter) and lower amount of total anthocyanins (150 to 1228 mg per L and 141 to 2468 mg per 100 g of dry matter). The examined juices and other chokeberry products possess high antioxidant capacity (12.09 to 40.19 mmol per L or 58.49 to 191.31 mmol per 100 g of dry matter, respectively) and reducing power (38.71 to 79.86 mmol per L or 13.50 to 68.60 mmol per 100 g of dry matter, respectively). On the basis of phenolic content and antioxidant activity, capsules and powders stand out among other products. The study indicates that there are significant differences (p<0.05) in the quality, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity among examined products. PMID:27904346

  3. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH 45   min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  5. Effects of dietary marigold extract supplementation on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with marigold extract on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. A total of 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The chickens of control group were fed with basal diet and other experimental groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.60% marigold extract respectively (the corresponding concentrations of lutein were 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg). The results showed that marigold extract supplementation increased the yellowness values of shank, beak, skin and muscle and the redness (a*) value of thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, and the activities of superoxide dismutase in liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01) and significantly decreased the malondialdehyde contents of liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly decreased the drip loss and shear force of thigh muscles (linear, p<0.01). There was no significant effect on growth performance with marigold extract supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of marigold extract significantly increased the yellowness values of carcass, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

  6. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  7. Modified Folin-Ciocalteu antioxidant capacity assay for measuring lipophilic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Berker, Kadriye Isil; Ozdemir Olgun, F Ayca; Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2013-05-22

    The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method of performing a total phenolics assay, originally developed for protein determination, has recently evolved as a total antioxidant capacity assay but was found to be incapable of measuring lipophilic antioxidants due to the high affinity of the FC chromophore, that is, multivalent-charged phospho-tungsto-molybdate(V), toward water. Thus, the FC method was modified and standardized so as to enable simultaneous measurement of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in NaOH-added isobutanol-water medium. Optimal conditions were as follows: dilution ratio of aqueous FC reagent with iso-BuOH (1:2, v/v), final NaOH concentration of 3.5 × 10(-2) M, reaction time of 20 min, and maximum absorption wavelength of 665 nm. The modified procedure was successfully applied to the total antioxidant capacity assay of trolox, quercetin, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, glutathione, and cysteine, as well as of lipophilic antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E), butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, lauryl gallate, and β-carotene. The modified FC method reliably quantified ascorbic acid, whereas the conventional method could not. The modified method was reproducible and additive in terms of total antioxidant capacity values of constituents of complex mixtures such as olive oil extract and herbal tea infusion. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidant compounds correlated well with those found by the Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity reference method.

  8. Effect of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chen, Xingyong; Wang, Li; Geng, Zhaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol has been acknowledged with many beneficial biological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers. One hundred and eighty 21-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to two groups and fed on a 0 mg kg -1 or 400 mg kg -1 resveratrol-supplemented diet for 21 days. Then, chickens were slaughtered and pectoralis major muscle (PM) samples were collected for analysis. The results showed that resveratrol not only tended to increase (P < 0.10) PM pH 24h but also significantly decreased (P < 0.05) PM L* 45min , pH decline, drip loss and lactate content. Meanwhile, PM total antioxidative capacity and catalase activity were significantly increased (P < 0.05) by resveratrol, while malondialdehyde content was decreased (P < 0.10). Moreover, resveratrol significantly increased (P < 0.05) PM peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1 mRNA levels, along with increased (P < 0.05) citrate synthase activity. Resveratrol can be used as a feed additive to improve meat quality of broilers, which may be associated with improved muscle antioxidative status and mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of dietary marigold extract supplementation on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with marigold extract on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. Methods A total of 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The chickens of control group were fed with basal diet and other experimental groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.60% marigold extract respectively (the corresponding concentrations of lutein were 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg). Results The results showed that marigold extract supplementation increased the yellowness values of shank, beak, skin and muscle and the redness (a*) value of thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, and the activities of superoxide dismutase in liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01) and significantly decreased the malondialdehyde contents of liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly decreased the drip loss and shear force of thigh muscles (linear, p<0.01). There was no significant effect on growth performance with marigold extract supplementation. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation of marigold extract significantly increased the yellowness values of carcass, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. PMID:27282969

  11. An integrated approach to evaluate food antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2007-11-01

    Many methods are available for determining food antioxidant capacity, which is an important topic in food and nutrition research and marketing. However, the results and inferences from different methods may vary substantially because each complex chemical reaction generates unique values. To get a complete and dynamic picture of the ranking of food antioxidant capacity, relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI), a hypothetical concept, is created from the perspective of statistics by integrating the antioxidant capacity values generated from different in vitro methods. RACI is the mean value of standard scores transformed from the initial data generated with different methods for each food item. By comparing the antioxidant capacity of 20 commonly consumed vegetables in the U.S. market that were measured with 7 chemical methods, we demonstrated that the RACI correlated strongly with each method. The significant correlation of RACI with an independent data set further confirmed that RACI is a valid tool to assess food antioxidant capacity. The key advantage of this integrated approach is that RACI is in a numerical scale with no units and has consistent agreement with chemical methods. Although it is a relative index and may not represent a specific antioxidant property of different food items, RACI provides a reasonably accurate rank of antioxidant capacity among foods. Therefore, it can be used as an integrated approach to evaluate food antioxidant capacity.

  12. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    PubMed

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  13. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    PubMed Central

    Grajales-García, Eva M.; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Goñi, Isabel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50%) and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80) of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g) than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g). The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics. PMID:22312252

  14. Chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity of tortilla made with a blend of quality protein maize and black bean.

    PubMed

    Grajales-García, Eva M; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Goñi, Isabel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50%) and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80) of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g) than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g). The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  15. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  16. Effects of clarification on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Leiliane Teles; de Freitas Cabral, Marília; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen Luiza

    2014-11-01

    The effects of a clarifying process using pectinases and chitosan on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice were evaluated. Clarification of acaí pulp resulted (P ≤ 0.05) in a 50 % loss of total anthocyanin (4.2730 mg/100 mL) and 29 % reduction in antioxidant capacity (33.60 μM FeSO4/g). A high association (P ≤ 0.05) was found between the decrease of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin loss. The use of pectinases associated with chitosan as an aid for clarification of açaí juice proved to be highly effective and resulted in a clear juice with a brighter purple to red color that was free of lipids, insoluble solids, and others substances that cause hazes. The obtained clarified açaí juice is a genuinely high-value anthocyanin-rich product that could be used as colorant and functional ingredient to fruit juices and soft drinks.

  17. Antioxidants and Antioxidant Capacity of Biofortified Carrots (Daucus Carota, L.) of Various Colors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of seven colored carrots were determined. Five anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and four carotenoids, were quantified by HPLC. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant capacities of the hydrophilic and hyd...

  18. Antioxidant capacity of different broccoli (Brassica oleracea) genotypes using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay.

    PubMed

    Kurilich, Anne C; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A; Wallig, Matthew A; Klein, Barbara P

    2002-08-28

    Antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts from eight broccoli genotypes was compared using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Each genotype was analyzed for carotenoid, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and flavonoid content. Results indicate that the antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic extracts ranged from 65.8 to 121.6 micromol trolox equivalents (TE)/g of tissue, and the capacity of lipophilic extracts ranged from 3.9 to 17.5 micromol TE/g. Ascorbic acid and flavonoid content of the hydrophilic extracts did not explain the total variation in antioxidant capacity of those extracts, suggesting either the presence of other antioxidant components that have yet to be identified or that the known antioxidants are producing synergistic effects. The carotenoids did correlate with antioxidant capacity of the lipophilic extracts and accounted for the majority of the variability in that fraction. The variability in hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity found among these genotypes suggests that potential efficacy from antioxidants will vary considerably from genotype to genotype.

  19. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries.

    PubMed

    Protti, Michele; Gualandi, Isacco; Mandrioli, Roberto; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica; Mercolini, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Goji berries and derived products represent a relevant source of micronutrients, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of these fruits. Three brands of dried goji berries have been analysed by a multidisciplinary approach to get an insight into both their content of selected antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The former goal has been achieved by developing a liquid chromatographic method coupled to mass spectrometry and combined to a fast solid phase extraction. Several significant representative antioxidant compounds belonging to the following classes: flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and carotenoids have been taken into account. Quercetin and rutin were found to be the predominant flavonoids, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. The AC of the goji berries has been evaluated by four analytical methods in order to estimate the contributions of different reactions involved in radicals scavenging. In particular, AC has been determined using 3 standardised methods (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC) and a recently proposed electrochemical method, which measures the scavenging activity of antioxidants towards OH radicals generated both by hydrogen peroxide photolysis and the Fenton reaction. The results obtained from chemical composition and antioxidant capacity assays confirm the high nutritional and commercial value of goji berries and highlight that the three brands do not exhibit significant differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant capacity of lycopene-containing foods.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Z; Powell, L C

    2001-03-01

    Increased consumption of tomatoes and tomato products has been associated with decreased cancer risks. One fat-soluble compound identified in tomatoes which may be responsible for this association is lycopene. There may, however, be other antioxidants present in tomato-based foods, and total antioxidant capacity may be another way to rate the health benefits of these foods. In this work, we examined the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of aqueous and organic extracts of lycopene-containing foods: ketchup, fresh tomatoes, tomato paste, tomato sauce, tomato soup, tomato juice, vegetable juice, canned tomatoes and watermelon. Antioxidant activity in these food extracts was greater in the aqueous versus organic fractions, except for watermelon and tomato sauce where the levels were similar in the two fractions. Lycopene levels in the food samples tested, however, were relatively greater in the organic fractions, with the exception of the two juices, which had similar levels in the two fractions, and two highly concentrated tomato products, tomato paste and ketchup, which had relatively higher lycopene levels in the aqueous fractions. The foods with the highest antioxidant capacity per serving overall (tomato soup was highest) did not have the highest lycopene levels. This indicates that it may be important to consume a variety of tomato-containing products in order to obtain the largest variety of dietary antioxidants possible.

  1. Effects of nano-TiO2 -LDPE packaging on postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) stored at refrigeration temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Ye, Qingyang; Jiang, Lei; Luo, Zisheng

    2017-03-01

    Nano-TiO 2 -low-density polyethylene (NTLDPE) packaging was prepared, and the effects of NTLDPE packaging on quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry fruits were investigated. With increased barrier properties, NTLDPE packaging quickly formed a relative lower O 2 and higher CO 2 air composition in comparison with LDPE. It was also more efficient in maintaining the overall quality of strawberry fruit, as reflected by lower decay rate and weight loss, as well as retarding the decrease in firmness and titratable acid. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in NTLDPE-packed fruits were 10.8% and 21.9% lower, respectively. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes involved in ROS scavenging in NTLDPE-packed fruits were significantly higher at the later period of storage time. Anthocyanin accumulation was inhibited, whereas ascorbic acid and total phenolics contents were better retained and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 13.2% higher in NTLDPE-packed fruit by the end of storage. These data indicate that the beneficial effects of NTLDPE packaging on postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry are probably associated with the promotion of ROS scavenging and related antioxidant enzyme activities, and NTLDPE packaging together with refrigeration storage is a promising method for strawberry fruit preservation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Total antioxidant capacity in children with acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, M; Boleken, M E; Kanmaz, T; Erel, O; Yucesan, S

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate antioxidant capacity by using a novel automated method in children with acute appendicitis. Blood samples were obtained from consecutive patients with acute appendicitis (appendicitis group, n = 12) and acute abdominal pain due to non surgical disease (non-appendicitis group, n = 11), and from patients with inguinal hernia (healthy group, n = 12) as the control group. At admission, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of plasma were evaluated in all patients by a method recently developed by Erel. Four other major individual plasma antioxidant components, the levels of total protein, albumin, uric acid and bilirubin, were also evaluated. Total antioxidant capacity in patients with acute appendicitis was statistically compared with the two other groups. While the TAC level in the appendicitis group was significantly greater than in the non-appendicitis group, no significant difference was found in healthy groups (p < 0.05, p > 0.05, 1.94 +/- 0.38, 1.40 +/- 0.36, and 1.99 +/- 0.35 respectively). Individual components of total antioxidant capacity, i.e. total protein, albumin, uric acid and bilirubin concentrations, were also higher in the patients with acute appendicitis than those of the other two control groups. Our data show that children with acute appendicitis do not have deficient blood plasma antioxidant capacity. These results provide evidence that acute appendicitis results in more induction of antioxidative response than non-surgical diseases.

  3. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sofia D.; Schwieterman, Michael L.; Abrahan, Carolina E.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Folta, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv “Ceasar”) grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production. PMID:27635127

  4. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  5. Chrysanthemum morphology, photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant capacity are differentially modified by light quality.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liang; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2017-06-01

    The effect of light quality on leaf morphology, photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant capacity of leaves that fully developed under a specific spectrum was investigated in Chrysanthemum cv. Four light treatments were applied at 100μmolm -2 s -1 and a photoperiod of 14h using light-emitting diodes, which were 100% red (R), 100% blue (B), 75% red with 25% blue (RB) and white (W), respectively. Intraspecific variation was investigated by studying the response of eight cultivars. Overall, red light significantly decreased the leaf area while the thinnest leaves were observed for W. Chlorophyll content and Chl a/b ratio was highest for W and lowest under R. B and RB resulted in the highest maximum quantum yield (F v /F m ) and quantum efficiency (Φ PSII ). A negative correlation between heat dissipation (NPQ) and Φ PSII was found. Blue light induced the highest hydrogen peroxide content, which is a proxy for total ROS generation, followed by W and RB while low contents were found under R. The antioxidative response was not always correlated with hydrogen content and differed depending on the light quality treatment. Blue light enhanced the proline levels, while carotenoids, total flavonoid and phenolic compounds were higher under W. Intraspecific variation in the responses were observed for most parameters with exception of leaf thickness; this intraspecific variation was most pronounced for total phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants.

  7. Dietary total antioxidant capacity and mortality in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Sánchez, P; Sánchez-Villegas, A; Ruano-Rodríguez, C; Gea, A; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J; Covas, M I; Corella, D; Schröder, H; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M; Santos-Lozano, J M; Pintó, X; Arós, F; Fiol, M; Tresserra-Rimbau, A; Ros, E; Martínez-González, M A; Serra-Majem, L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the dietary total antioxidant capacity, the dietary intake of different antioxidants and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A total of 7,447 subjects from the PREDIMED study (multicenter, parallel group, randomized controlled clinical trial), were analyzed treating data as an observational cohort. Different antioxidant vitamin intake and total dietary antioxidant capacity were calculated from a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline and updated yearly. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between dietary total antioxidant capacity and mortality. Dietary total antioxidant capacity was estimated using ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. A total of 319 deaths were recorded after a median follow-up of 4.3 years. Subjects belonging to the upper quintile of antioxidant capacity were younger, ex-smokers, with high educational level, and more active and had higher alcohol intake. Multivariable-adjusted models revealed no statistically significant difference between total dietary antioxidant capacity and mortality (Q5 vs. Q1 ref HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.60-1.20) neither for the intake of all the vitamins studied. No statistically significant association was found between antioxidant capacity and total mortality in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

  8. Effect of the type of brewing water on the chemical composition, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of Chinese teas.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Zou, Chun; Gao, Ying; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Chen, Gen-Sheng; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2017-12-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, sensory quality, and antioxidant activity of tea infusions prepared with purified water (PW), mineral water (MW), mountain spring water (MSW), and tap water (TW) from Hangzhou were investigated. The results showed that the taste quality, catechin concentration, and antioxidant capacity of green, oolong, and black tea infusions prepared using MW and TW were significantly lower than those prepared using PW. Extraction of catechins and caffeine was reduced with high-conductivity water, while high pH influenced the stability of catechins. PW and MSW were more suitable for brewing green and oolong teas, while MSW, with low pH and moderate ion concentration, was the most suitable water for brewing black tea. Lowering the pH of mineral water partially improved the taste quality and increased the concentration of catechins in the infusions. These results aid selection of the most appropriate water for brewing Chinese teas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jiahui; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Wang, Shuhao; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-08-01

    The effects of dietary carnosine were evaluated on the growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics in thigh muscle of 256 one-day-old male broilers assigned to four diets - basal diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200 or 400 mg kg -1 carnosine respectively - during a 42 day experiment. Carnosine concentration and carnosine synthase expression in thigh muscle were linearly increased (P < 0.05) and the feed/gain ratio was decreased (P < 0.05) in the starter period by carnosine addition. Dietary supplementation with carnosine resulted in linear increases in pH 45 min , redness and cohesiveness and decreases in drip loss, cooking loss, shear force and hardness (P < 0.05). Carnosine addition elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced contents of malondialdehyde and carbonyl compounds (P < 0.05). Dietary carnosine linearly decreased diameters and increased densities of muscle fibers (P < 0.01). The ratios of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) I and IIa were increased while that of MyHC IIb was decreased (P < 0.01). The mRNA expressions of genes related to fiber type transformation were linearly up-regulated (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that carnosine supplementation was beneficial to improve the growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics of broilers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Influence of ultra-high pressure homogenisation on antioxidant capacity, polyphenol and vitamin content of clear apple juice.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Rüfer, Corinna E; Gervilla, Ramón; Guamis, Buenaventura; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Saldo, Jordi

    2011-07-15

    Ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) is a recently developed technology and is still under study to evaluate its effect on different aspects of its application to food products. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the effect of UHPH treatments on quality characteristics of apple juice such as antioxidant capacity, polyphenol composition, vitamin C and provitamin A contents, in comparison with raw (R) and pasteurised (PA) apple juice. Several UHPH treatments that include combinations of pressure (100, 200 and 300MPa) and inlet temperatures (4 and 20°C) were assayed. Apple juice was pasteurised at 90°C for 4min. Antioxidant capacity was analysed using the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay while total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. According to the FRAP and DPPH assays, UHPH processing did not change apple juice antioxidant capacity. However, significant differences were detected between samples analysed by TEAC and ORAC assays. In spite of these differences, high correlation values were found between the four antioxidant capacity assays, and also with total polyphenol content. The analysis and quantification of individual phenols by HPLC/DAD analytical technique reflects that UHPH-treatment prevented degradation of these compounds. Vitamin C concentrations did not change in UHPH treated samples, retaining the same value as in raw juice. However, significant losses were observed for provitamin A content, but lower than in PA samples. UHPH-treatments at 300MPa can be an alternative to thermal treatment in order to preserve apple juice quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous total antioxidant capacity assay of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the same acetone-water solution containing 2% methyl-beta-cyclodextrin using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method.

    PubMed

    Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Güçlü, Kubilay; Güngör, Nilay; Apak, Reşat

    2008-12-07

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). This work reports the capacity assay of both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants simultaneously, by making use of their 'host-guest' complexes with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD), a cyclic oligosaccharide, in acetonated aqueous medium using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Thus the order of antioxidant potency of various compounds irrespective of their lipophilicity could be established in the same solvent medium. M-beta-CD was introduced as the water solubility enhancer for lipophilic antioxidants. Two percent M-beta-CD (w/v) in an acetone-H(2)O (9:1, v/v) mixture was found to sufficiently solubilize beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamin E, vitamin C, synthetic antioxidants and other phenolic antioxidants. This assay was validated through linearity, additivity, precision, and recovery. The validation results demonstrate that the CUPRAC assay is reliable and robust. In acetonated aqueous solution of M-beta-CD, only CUPRAC and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays were capable of measuring carotenoids together with hydrophilic antioxidants. The CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of a wide range of polyphenolics and flavonoids were experimentally reported in this work as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in the CUPRAC assay, and compared to those found by reference methods, ABTS/horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-H(2)O(2) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays.

  12. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of Cordia dichotoma seeds.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of air-dried Cordia dichotoma seeds. Total polyphenolic content was analyzed via the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total triterpenoid content and amino acids was analyzed colorimetrically. The rosmarinic acid content was examined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The ethanolic extracts contained polyphenolic compounds (1.0%), triterpenoids (0.075%), amino acids (1.39%), and rosmarinic acid (0.0028%). The results from this study indicate that C. dichotoma seeds are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and amino acids, which can be used for quality assessment. The ethanolic extract of C. dichotoma seeds has good antioxidant capacity.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  14. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages.

  15. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in rice brans of different color.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok; McClung, Anna M; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a byproduct of the rice milling process, contains most of the phytochemicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of lipophilic, solvent-extractable (free), and cell wall-bound (bound) phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacities from brans of white, light brown, brown, purple, and red colors, and broccoli and blueberry for comparison. The concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants of vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols) and γ-oryzanols were 319.67 to 443.73 and 3861.93 to 5911.12 μg/g bran dry weight (DW), respectively, and were not associated with bran color. The total phenolic, total flavonoid, and antioxidant capacities of ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, and iron-chelating in the free fraction were correlated with the intensity of bran color, while variations of these in the bound fraction were less than those in the free fraction among brans. Compounds in the bound fraction had higher antioxidant capacity of ORAC than DPPH, relative to those in the free fraction. The bound fraction of light-color brans contributed as much to its total ORAC as the free fraction. Total proanthocyanidin concentration was the highest in red rice bran, while total anthocyanin was highest in purple brans. The predominant anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-glucoside. Red and purple brans had several fold higher total phenolics and flavonoids as well as ORAC and DPPH, from both free and bound fractions, than freeze-dried blueberry and broccoli. These results indicate that rice brans are natural sources of hydrophilic and lipophilic phytochemicals for use in quality control of various food systems as well as for nutraceutical and functional food application.

  16. Development and Validation of a Kit to Measure Drink Antioxidant Capacity Using a Novel Colorimeter.

    PubMed

    Priftis, Alexandros; Stagos, Dimitrios; Tzioumakis, Nikolaos; Konstantinopoulos, Konstantinos; Patouna, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Georgios E; Tsatsakis, Aristides; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2016-08-30

    Measuring the antioxidant capacity of foods is essential, as a means of quality control to ensure that the final product reaching the consumer will be of high standards. Despite the already existing assays with which the antioxidant activity is estimated, new, faster and low cost methods are always sought. Therefore, we have developed a novel colorimeter and combined it with a slightly modified DPPH assay, thus creating a kit that can assess the antioxidant capacity of liquids (e.g., different types of coffee, beer, wine, juices) in a quite fast and low cost manner. The accuracy of the colorimeter was ensured by comparing it to a fully validated Hitachi U-1900 spectrophotometer, and a coefficient was calculated to eliminate the observed differences. In addition, a new, user friendly software was developed, in order to render the procedure as easy as possible, while allowing a central monitoring of the obtained results. Overall, a novel kit was developed, with which the antioxidant activity of liquids can be measured, firstly to ensure their quality and secondly to assess the amount of antioxidants consumed with the respective food.

  17. Uric acid contributes greatly to hepatic antioxidant capacity besides protein.

    PubMed

    Mikami, T; Sorimachi, M

    2017-12-20

    Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60 % of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined. The results showed that a decrease in hepatic uric acid content via allopurinol administration significantly reduced hepatic total-radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) content in protein-free cytosol. Additionally, treating protein-free cytosol with uricase led to a further reduction of hepatic TRAP content. Allantoin was also detected in the solution containing protein-free cytosol that reacted with ROS. These findings suggest that in the absence of protein, uric acid contributes greatly to antioxidant capacity in the liver, where uric acid is converted to allantoin by scavenging ROS.

  18. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1 RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 ± 1.2% and 85 ± 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 ± 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 ± 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

  19. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality.

  20. Iron-binding antioxidant capacity is impaired in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Van Campenhout, Ann; Van Campenhout, Christel; Lagrou, Albert R; Moorkens, Greta; De Block, Christophe; Manuel-y-Keenoy, Begoña

    2006-05-15

    Increased lipid peroxidation contributes to diabetic complications and redox-active iron is known to play an important role in catalyzing peroxidation reactions. We aimed to investigate if diabetes affects the capacity of plasma to protect against iron-driven lipid peroxidation and to identify underlying factors. Glycemic control, serum iron, proteins involved in iron homeostasis, plasma iron-binding antioxidant capacity in a liposomal model, and non-transferrin-bound iron were measured in 40 type 1 and 67 type 2 diabetic patients compared to 100 nondiabetic healthy control subjects. Iron-binding antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in the plasma of diabetic subjects (83 +/- 6 and 84 +/- 5% in type 1 and type 2 diabetes versus 88 +/- 6% in control subjects, p < 0.0005). The contribution of transferrin, ceruloplasmin, and albumin concentrations to the iron-binding antioxidant capacity was lost in diabetes (explaining only 4.2 and 6.3% of the variance in type 1 and type 2 diabetes versus 13.9% in control subjects). This observation could not be explained by differences in Tf glycation, lipid, or inflammatory status and was not associated with higher non-transferrin-bound iron levels. Iron-binding antioxidant capacity is decreased in diabetes mellitus.

  1. Plasma antioxidant capacity is reduced in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Carmen; Mac-Dowell, Karina; Leza, Juan Carlos; Giraldez, Marisa; Bailón, Concepción; Castro, Carmen; Miranda-Azpiazu, Patricia; Fraguas, David; Arango, Celso

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that children with autism have impaired detoxification capacity and may suffer from chronic oxidative stress. To our knowledge, there has been no study focusing on oxidative metabolism specifically in Asperger syndrome (a milder form of autism) or comparing this metabolism with other psychiatric disorders. In this study, total antioxidant status (TAOS), non-enzymatic (glutathione and homocysteine) and enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma or erythrocyte lysates in a group of adolescent patients with Asperger syndrome, a group of adolescents with a first episode of psychosis, and a group of healthy controls at baseline and at 8-12 weeks. TAOS was also analyzed at 1 year. TAOS was reduced in Asperger individuals compared with healthy controls and psychosis patients, after covarying by age and antipsychotic treatment. This reduced antioxidant capacity did not depend on any of the individual antioxidant variables measured. Psychosis patients had increased homocysteine levels in plasma and decreased copper and ceruloplasmin at baseline. In conclusion, Asperger patients seem to have chronic low detoxifying capacity. No impaired detoxifying capacity was found in the first-episode psychosis group in the first year of illness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant capacity and oxygen radical diseases in the preterm newborn.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S; Witz, G; Anwar, M; Hiatt, M; Hegyi, T

    2000-06-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity may be different manifestations of oxygen radical diseases of prematurity (ORDP). To test the hypothesis that the antioxidant capacity of cord blood serum will predict risk of ORDP. An inception cohort of premature neonates was followed up from birth until discharge or death to determine if outcome was related to cord blood serum antioxidant capacity, as determined by a manual assay measuring the relative inhibition of oxidation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS). Possible correlations between antioxidant capacity and various perinatal factors were also tested. Level 3 newborn intensive care unit. All inborn very low-birth-weight neonates from whom cord blood was available and for whom maternal consent was obtained were included. Newborns who died in the first week of life or who had major congenital malformations were excluded. A convenience sample of newborns weighing more than 1500 g was used to perfect assay and explore confounders. Significant ORDP was defined as the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage greater than grade 2, retinopathy of prematurity greater than stage 1, bronchopulmonary dysplasia at the postconceptional age of 36 weeks, or necrotizing enterocolitis with the hypothesis that neonates with ORDP will have lower antioxidant capacity in cord blood serum. Serum antioxidant capacity at birth correlated with gestational age for the entire sample of 41 neonates and for the 26 neonates born before 32 weeks' gestation. After correction for gestational age, cord serum antioxidant capacity did not correlate with maternal smoking, preeclampsia, chorioamnionitis, cord pH Apgar scores, or any of the ORDP studied. Cord serum antioxidant capacity correlates with gestational age but does not predict ORDP risk.

  3. Development of Active Films From Pectin and Fruit Extracts: Light Protection, Antioxidant Capacity, and Compounds Stability.

    PubMed

    Eça, Kaliana S; Machado, Mariana T C; Hubinger, Miriam D; Menegalli, Florencia C

    2015-11-01

    Pectin films containing fruit extracts were developed and tested in relation to ultraviolet light transmission, phytochemical contents, and antioxidant capacity during 90 d shelf life storage. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts from 5 different fruits (acerola, cashew apple, papaya, pequi, and strawberry) were obtained. Because the alcoholic extracts from acerola, cashew apple, and strawberry presented the highest phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity, they were incorporated into pectin films individually or as a mixture. Incorporation of these extracts into pectin films provided antioxidant capacity while retaining the physical properties. The pectin films containing fruit extract acted as adequate light barrier and prevented photooxidation. Among the prepared films, the pectin film containing acerola extract afforded the highest antioxidant capacity, with a half-life of 99 d. Overall, the results revealed that incorporation of fruit extracts into pectin films potentially produces antioxidant films and coatings for different food applications. The production of pectin films incorporated with fruit extract is based on combination of the antioxidant activity, natural color, and optical barrier properties from fruit phytochemical components to the active film. This film could be potentially used as active packing on food products in order to protect their nutrients against free radicals action and photooxidation and, hence, preserve the quality, integrity, and safety of food during the storage period. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Beer increases plasma antioxidant capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Ghiselli, A; Natella, F; Guidi, A; Montanari, L; Fantozzi, P; Scaccini, C

    2000-02-01

    The positive association of a moderate intake of alcoholic beverages with a low risk for cardiovascular disease, in addition to ethanol itself, may be linked to their polyphenol content. This article describes the effect of acute ingestion of beer, dealcoholized beer, and ethanol (4.5% v/v) on the total plasma antioxidant status of subjects, and the change in the high performance liquid chromatography profile of some selected phenolic acids (caffeic, sinapic, syringic, and vanillic acids) in 14 healthy humans. Plasma was collected at various times: before (T0), 1 hour after (T1), and 2 hours after (T2) drinking. The study is part of a larger research planned to identify both the impact of brewing on minor components potentially present in beer and their metabolic fate in humans. Beer was able to induce a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma antioxidant capacity at T1 (mean +/- SD: T0 1,353 +/- 320 microM; T1 1,578 +/- 282 microM), returning close to basal values at T2. All phenolic acids measured in plasma tended to increase after beer intake (20% at T1, 40% at T2). Syringic and sinapic acid reached statistical significance (P < 0.05 by one-way analysis of variance-Fisher's test) at T1 and T2, respectively. Plasma metabolic parameters (glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid) and plasma antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and glutathione) remained unchanged. Ethanol removal impaired the absorption of phenolic acids, which did not change over the time of the experiment, accounting for the low (and not statistically significant) increase in plasma antioxidant capacity after dealcoholized beer drinking. Ethanol alone did not affect plasma antioxidant capacity or any of the antioxidant and metabolic parameters measured.

  5. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant capacity and vitamin E in barley: Effect of genotype and storage.

    PubMed

    Do, Thu Dung T; Cozzolino, Daniel; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Box, Amanda; Able, Amanda J

    2015-11-15

    Antioxidants, including vitamin E, may have a positive effect on human health and prolong storage of food items. Vitamin E content and antioxidant capacity were measured in 25 barley genotypes before and after 4 months storage at 10 °C using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, respectively. As expected, α-tocotrienol (α-T3) and α-tocopherol (α-T) were the predominant tocol isomers. Vitamin E content and antioxidant capacity varied significantly among genotypes. Vitamin E ranged from 8.5 to 31.5 μg/g dry weight (DW) while ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) varied from 57.2 to 158.1 mg AEAC/100 g fresh weight (FW). Generally, lower vitamin E content or antioxidant capacity was observed in hulless or coloured genotypes. These results suggest that some genotypes are potential candidates for breeding of barley cultivars with high vitamin E content or antioxidant capacity at harvest, even after storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolution of antioxidant capacity during storage of selected fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kevers, Claire; Falkowski, Michael; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques; Pincemail, Joël

    2007-10-17

    Interest in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is, to a large extent, due to its content of bioactive nutrients and their importance as dietary antioxidants. Among all of the selected fruits and vegetables, strawberries and black grapes have relatively high antioxidant capacities associated with high contents of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and flavonols. More interesting, the results of this study indicated that in most fruits and vegetables storage did not affect negatively the antioxidant capacity. Better, in some cases, an increase of the antioxidant capacity was observed in the days following their purchase, accompanied by an increase in phenolic compounds. In general, fruits and vegetables visually spoil before any significant antioxidant capacity loss occurs except in banana and broccoli. When ascorbic acid or flavonoids (aglycons of flavonols and anthocyanins) were concerned, the conclusions were similar. Their content was generally stable during storage.

  8. [Intervention of antioxidant system function of aged rats by giving fruit juices with different antioxidant capacities].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Chang-jiang; Yang, Ji-jun; Wei, Jing-yu; Li, Yun-feng; Pang, Wei; Jiang, Yu-gang; Cheng, Shuang

    2005-03-01

    To observe the effects of fruit juices with different antioxidant capacity on antioxidant system function of aged rats. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: pomegranate juice and apple juice as two experimental groups, while distilled water as normal control group. They were administrated fruit juices or distilled water respectively by gavage daily for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the antioxidant system function was assessed. The aged rats in pomegranate juice group showed significantly higher serum antioxidant capacity (0.90 +/- 0.13) mmol/L than that in control group (0.79 +/- 0.10) mmol/L (P < 0.05). The concentrations of serum carbonyl and oxLDL were decreased significantly in pomegranate juice group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The percentage of injured blood lymphocyte DNA and the ratio of tail length/total length were declined significantly in pomegranate juice group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). The apple juice showed no effects except decreased ratio of tail length/total length of injured lymphocyte DNA. There were no changes in concentrations of serum vitamin C, vitamin E, urinary 8-OH-dG excretion and the activities of serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT among three groups. The pomegranate juice should possess higher antioxidant capacity and might improve the antioxidant system function of aged rats, while the apple juice is relatively lower in antioxidant capacity and not very effective. The polyphenols in pomegranate juice might be the important functional components.

  9. Uric acid and serum antioxidant capacity: a reaction to atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Nieto, F J; Iribarren, C; Gross, M D; Comstock, G W; Cutler, R G

    2000-01-01

    the evidence of a potential beneficial role of antioxidants in preventing atherosclerotic disease is not entirely consistent. to assess the longitudinal association of serum total antioxidant capacity and serum antioxidants with the presence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Prospective case-control study nested within an historical cohort. Cases were 150 individuals with elevated carotid intimal-medial thickness measured by B-mode ultrasound at the first two examinations of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-92). Controls were 150 age-gender-matched individuals with low carotid intimal-medial thickness. Serum antioxidant vitamins, uric acid, and serum total antioxidant capacity were measured in frozen serum samples collected from the same individuals in 1974 (13-15 years prior to the determination of case-control status). Compared to controls, atherosclerosis cases had significantly higher levels of serum total antioxidant capacity in 1974 than controls. This difference was almost entirely explained by increased serum concentration of uric acid in cases. In contrast with cross-sectional results, uric acid serum concentration in 1974, was significantly higher in cases than in controls, even after adjusting for the main cardiovascular risk factors. Cases had significantly lower levels of alpha-carotene in the 1974 sera than controls, but no other differences in serum antioxidant vitamin concentrations were observed. The higher serum uric acid concentration seemed associated with elevated total serum antioxidant capacity among individuals with atherosclerosis. This finding is consistent with experimental evidence suggesting that hyperuricemia may be a compensatory mechanism to counteract oxidative damage related to atherosclerosis and aging in humans.

  10. Antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) - comparison between permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity and other antioxidant methods.

    PubMed

    Popović, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Slavko, Kevrešan; Sandra, Bijelić

    2012-09-15

    Ethanol extracts (80% in water) of 10 cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes were studied for antioxidant properties, using methods including DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-) and ()OH antiradical powers, FRAP, total phenolic and anthocyanin content (TPC and ACC) and also one relatively new, permanganate method (permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity-PRAC). Lipid peroxidation (LP) was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant positive correlations were obtained between TPC, ACC and DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-), and ()OH antiradical powers, and also between PRAC and TPC, ACC and FRAP. PCA found two major clusters of cornelian cherry, based on antiradical power, FRAP and PRAC and also on chemical composition. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between PRAC method and FRAP and ACC. There was a huge variation between C. mas genotypes in terms of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of total antioxidant capacity by a new spectrophotometric method based on Ce(IV) reducing capacity measurement.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2007-02-28

    Dietary antioxidants widely found in fruits and vegetables may serve the task of reducing oxidative damage in humans induced by free radicals and reactive oxygen species under 'oxidative stress' conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a simple, low-cost, sensitive, and diversely applicable indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of total antioxidant capacity of several plants. The method is based on the oxidation of antioxidants with cerium(IV) sulfate in dilute sulfuric acid at room temperature. The Ce(IV) reducing capacity of the sample is measured under carefully adjusted conditions of oxidant concentration and pH such that only antioxidants and not other organic compounds would be oxidized. The spectrophotometric determination of the remaining Ce(IV) was performed after completion of reaction with antioxidants. Quercetin and gallic acid were used as standards for flavonoids and phenolic acids, respectively, and results of antioxidant measurements were reported as trolox equivalents. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the assay of total antioxidant capacity due to simple compounds such as trolox, quercetin, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin, naringin, naringenin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, and due to phenolic acids and flavonoids in the arieal parts of nettle (Urtica Dioica L.). Blank correction of significantly absorbing plant extracts at 320nm could be made with the aid of spectrophotometric titration. Plant selection was made in respect to high antioxidant content, and extraction was made with water. The proposed method was reproducible, and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC coefficients) of the tested antioxidant compounds were correlated to those found by reference methods such as ABTS and CUPRAC. Since the TEAC coefficients found with the proposed method of naringin-naringenin and rutin-catechin pairs were close to each other, this Ce(IV)-based assay

  12. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P < 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P < 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after thawing did not change during the study period in ALA group, but decreased in PA group (P < 0.006). After 3h of incubation LPO increased in the ALA group (P < 0.02), while LPO did not differ between phases within groups. In conclusion, feeding of neither saturated nor polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for food antioxidants: vitamins, polyphenolics, and flavonoids in food extracts.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektas Oğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds through their combat with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and free radicals that may cause tissue damage leading to various diseases. This work reports the development of a simple and widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols, vitamins C and E, and plasma antioxidants utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. This novel method based on an electron-transfer mechanism was named by our research group as 'cupric reducing antioxidant capacity', abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. The method is comprised of mixing the antioxidant solution with aqueous copper(II) chloride, alcoholic neocuproine, and ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7, and subsequently measuring the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Since the color development is fast for compounds like ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds are assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min. The flavonoid glycosides are hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycones by refluxing in 1.2 M: HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power towards Cu(II)-Nc. The CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of synthetic mixtures are equal to the sum of individual capacities of antioxidant constituents, indicating lack of chemical deviations from Beer's law. Tests on antioxidant polyphenols demonstrate that the highest CUPRAC capacities are observed for epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, fisetin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and caffeic acid in this order, in accord with the number and position of the -OH groups as well the conjugation level of the molecule. The parallelism of the linear calibration curves of pure antioxidants in water and in a given complex matrix (plant extract) demonstrates that there are no chemical interactions of interferent nature among the solution constituents

  14. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory quality of dried jujube fruits as affected by cultivar and drying method.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Figiel, Adam; Legua, Pilar; Lech, Krzysztof; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different dying methods, such as convective drying (CD: 50, 60, 70 °C), vacuum-microwave drying (VMD: 120, 480, 480-120 W), a combination of convective pre-drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying [(CPD (60 °C)-VMFD (480-120 W)], and freeze-drying (FD) on key quality parameters of dried jujube fruits (cv. "GAL", "MSI", and "PSI"). The parameters studied included bioactive compounds (flavan-3-ols and flavonols, identified by LC-PDA-MS, and vitamin C), antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP), and sensory attributes (e.g. hardness, jujube-ID, and sweetness). The best quality of the dried product (high contents of bioactive compounds and high intensity of key sensory attributes) was found in fruits treated by FD and VMD 480-120 W. The best cultivars were "PSI" and "GAL" from the point of view of bioactive content and sensory quality, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of brewing time and temperature on antioxidant capacity and phenols of white tea: Relationship with sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Burillo, S; Giménez, R; Rufián-Henares, J A; Pastoriza, S

    2018-05-15

    White tea is highly consumed due to its sensory properties and health benefits, although most scientific reports don't include the analysis of both properties. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to unravel the best brewing conditions for optimal extraction of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity, while realising the best sensory properties. Infusions of eighty commercial teas (sold in bags or leaves) were obtained at different time-temperature ratios, studying bioactive compounds (caffeine and individual catechins), antioxidant capacity and sensory analysis. Brewing at 98 °C for 7 min was the best condition to obtain a high content of antioxidant polyphenols and pleasant sensory properties. Those teas sold in bags give rise to tea brews with almost double antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, it is very important to link sensory and chemical data to obtain optimal sensorial quality and the highest healthy properties in white tea infusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure dependent antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic Fucus vesiculosus by UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS.

    PubMed

    Hermund, Ditte B; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Jónsdóttir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2018-02-01

    Brown algae are rich in polyphenolic compounds, phlorotannins, which have been found to possess high in vitro antioxidant capacity, especially DPPH radical scavenging activity, due to the high number of hydroxyl groups. Whereas, the overall antioxidant capacity of brown algae extracts has been widely studied, the antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins has been rarely explored. The aim of this study was to determine the structure dependant antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus. The antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins was determined by an on-line method using liquid chromatography and an electrochemical detector followed by quadrupole Time of Flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS). Tentative structural elucidation of 13 phlorotannin isomers from EAF was obtained by LC-DAD-QTOFMS, ranging from 374 to 870Da. On-line determination of antioxidant capacity of the individual phlorotannins generally showed that low molecular phlorotannins exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and that the capacity decreased with polymerisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. No correlation is found for vegetables between antioxidant capacity and potential benefits in improving antioxidant function in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Linlin; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Meng, Bin; Guo, Changjiang

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables vary greatly in antioxidant capacity in vitro. This study was to investigate the actions of three vegetables different remarkably in antioxidant capacity in vitro on antioxidant function in aged rats. Sixty female aged Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, lotus root, rape and cucumber (high, moderate and low in antioxidant capacity, respectively) treated groups. After 6 weeks of feeding, there were no significant differences in plasma FRAP value and contents of vitamin C, vitamin E, uric acid and total phenolics among different groups, whereas the content of reduced glutathione was significantly higher in the rape and cucumber groups. Plasma superoxide dismutase activity also was significantly increased in the rape and cucumber groups. Plasma contents of malondialdehyde, carbonyls and hemolysis were decreased significantly in 3 vegetable-treated groups. Meanwhile, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion was lower significantly in the rape group and the ratio of comet tail length to total length of blood mononuclear cells was decreased significantly in 3 vegetables treated groups. These results suggest that 3 vegetables tested are effective in improving antioxidant function to some extent in aged rats and no correlation is found between antioxidant capacity in vitro and improvements of antioxidant function. The benefits observed in this study may come from additive or synergistic combinations of antioxidants contained in vegetables. PMID:24895483

  18. Measuring antioxidant capacity using the ORAC and TOSC assays.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Andrew R; Murray, Byron K; Robison, Richard A; O'Neill, Kim L

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that there may be a link between oxidative stress and the development of several types of chronic diseases. Studies have also shown that diets rich in fruits and vegetables may decrease the incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases. The antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals these foods contain may be partially responsible for the decreased incidence of these diseases in people who regularly consume them. While there are several assays currently used to assess the antioxidant activity of phytochemicals and other antioxidant compounds, two are reviewed here in detail. The first is the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, which measures the decrease in fluorescence decay caused by antioxidants, and the second is the total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay, which measures the decrease in ethylene gas production caused by the inhibition of the thermal hydrolysis of ABAP (2,2'-Azobis(2-methyl-(propionamidine) dihydrochloride) by KMBA (alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyric acid sodium salt) in the presence of antioxidant compounds. These two assays are discussed here, with an in depth review of their methodology and correlation.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Chinese five-spice ingredients.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xinyan; Soong, Yean Yean; Lim, Siang Wee; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds in spices were reportedly found to possess high antioxidant capacities (AOCs), which may prevent or reduce risk of human diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. The potential AOC of Chinese five-spice powder (consist of Szechuan pepper, fennel seed, cinnamon, star anise and clove) with varying proportion of individual spice ingredients was investigated through four standard methods. Our results suggest that clove is the major contributor to the AOC of the five-spice powder whereas the other four ingredients contribute to the flavour. For example, the total phenolic content as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values increased linearly with the clove percentage in five-spice powder. This observation opens the door to use clove in other spice mixtures to increase their AOC and flavour. Moreover, linear relationships were also observed between AOC and the total phenolic content of the 32 tested spice samples.

  20. Juice components and antioxidant capacity of four Tunisian Citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Wannes, Wissem Aidi; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Jegham, Sabrine; Ben Njima, Yosra; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Zemni, Hassene; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-01-15

    Juices from four Citrus species of Tunisia were investigated mainly for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice had the highest content of total flavonoids (85.33 mg CE L(-1)). The latter also occurred in high quantity (82.01 mg CE L(-1)) in Citrus lemon (lemon) juice which was also marked by its richness in total aroma (70.16 µg mL(-1)) and in total fatty acids (48.10 µg mL(-1)). Mandarin and lemon juices had the highest antioxidant activity, as determined b the β-carotene bleaching assay (26.67% and 22.67%, respectively). Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) juice was characterised by the highest content of total polyphenols (784.67 mg GAE L(-1)) and by the greatest inhibition of DPPH (96.10%). Citrus sinensis (blood orange) juice was only marked by the high quantity of ascorbic acid (36.90 mg mL(-1)). GC/MS analysis of juice aroma showed the predominance of limonene (48.85-69.59%) in mandarin and in bitter and blood oranges, but of camphene (89.05%) in lemon. GC analysis of juice fatty acids revealed their richness in oleic acid (23.13-39.52%). HPLC analysis of juice phenolics indicated the predominance of phenolic acids (73.13-86.40%). The Citrus species used in this study were considered valuable varieties from the point of view of antioxidant capacity and nutrition. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Measurement of Antioxidant Capacity by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Based on Copper(II) Reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Jiang, Jia; Han, Dandan; Yu, Xinyu; Wang, Kun; Zang, Shuang; Lu, Dayong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei

    2016-04-05

    A new method is proposed for measuring the antioxidant capacity by electron spin resonance spectroscopy based on the loss of electron spin resonance signal after Cu(2+) is reduced to Cu(+) with antioxidant. Cu(+) was removed by precipitation in the presence of SCN(-). The remaining Cu(2+) was coordinated with diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into n-butanol and determined by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Eight standards widely used in antioxidant capacity determination, including Trolox, ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were investigated. The standard curves for determining the eight standards were plotted, and results showed that the linear regression correlation coefficients were all high enough (r > 0.99). Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values for the antioxidant standards were calculated, and a good correlation (r > 0.94) between the values obtained by the present method and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity method was observed. The present method was applied to the analysis of real fruit samples and the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of these fruits.

  2. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  3. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multielement analysis and antioxidant capacity of Merlot wine clones developed in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Neda O; Pejin, Boris; Novaković, Miroslav M; Stanković, Dalibor M; Mutić, Jelena J; Pajović, Snežana B; Tešević, Vele V

    2018-02-01

    The overall aim of this paper was to compare the multielement composition and antioxidant capacity of two Montenegrin Merlot wines obtained from specific vine clones (VCR1 and VCR 101) along with commercial Merlot wine throughout the consecutive vintages in 2010 and 2011. Elemental composition was analysed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Additionally, antioxidant capacity was assessed by cyclic voltammetry. VCR 1 wine from 2011 stood out for its elemental composition. On the other hand, antioxidant capacity of VCR 101 wines was the highest one for the both vintages. According to the experimental data obtained, all three wines are good source of essential elements and products with a significant antioxidant activity and specific geographical origin.

  5. Chemical evaluation, antioxidant capacity, and consumer acceptance of several oak infusions.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Medina-Medrano, Jose Roberto; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Gonzalez-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Ramos-Gómez, Minerva; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Guzmán-Maldonado, Horacio; González-Herrera, Silvia Marina

    2012-02-01

    As part of an ongoing screening on natural products, 4 oak leaves were analyzed as potential nutraceutical beverages. The phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory preferences of leaves infusions from Quercus resinosa, Q. sideroxyla, Q. eduadii, and Q. durifolia in comparison with 2 commercial green teas were investigated. Herbal infusions from oak leaves and Green teas (1%, 80 °C, 10 min) were evaluated for total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), HPLC analysis, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), soluble solids, pH, color, and consumer preference analysis. Q. resinosa leaves infusions have shown the highest TPC, TEAC, and ORAC values but they have attained the lowest preference score. Quercus leaves infusions with higher content of gallic acid and catechins showed best antioxidant capacity but lower consumer preference. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Dietary Probiotic Bacillus subtilis Strain fmbj Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wen Kai; Zhang, Fei Jing; He, Tian Jin; Su, Peng Wei; Ying, Xiong Zhi; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the dietary effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain fmbj (BS fmbj) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat during storage. Treatment groups were fed the basal diet with BS fmbj at 0 g/kg (CON), 0.2 g/kg (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg (BS-2), or 0.4 g/kg (BS-3) doses without antibiotics. During 8 days of storage at 4°C, BS-2 group showed a significant improvement (P < 0.05) on meat quality (pH, Drip loss, Cooking loss, Shear force, color L*, a*, b*), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS+, H2O2), tissues antioxidant enzyme capacity (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, T-SH), mitochondria antioxidant enzyme capacity (MnSOD, GPx, GSH), mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, HO-1, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and mitochondrial function genes (avUCP, NRF1, NRF2, TFAM, PGC-1α), oxidative damage index (MDA, ROS, PC, 8-OHdG), and MMP level in chicken breast meat as compared to the CON group. These results indicate that dietary BS fmbj in broiler diets can protect breast meat against the storage-induced oxidative stress by improving their free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity during 8 days of storage at 4°C. PMID:27907152

  7. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.

  8. Effect of different cultural systems on antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, and fruit quality of strawberries (Fragaria x aranassa Duch.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiow Y; Millner, Patricia

    2009-10-28

    The effect of cultivation practices for controlling strawberry black root rot (BRR) on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity, and flavonoid content in two strawberry cultivars Allstar and Chandler (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) was evaluated. Strawberry fruits used in this study were from plants grown in soils which had a prior history of BRR and red stele, and had not been fumigated during the seven years prior to the study. Results from this study showed that fruit from plants grown in compost socks had significantly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acid (TA), fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, and citric acid than fruit produced in the black plastic mulch or matted row systems. Cultivar Chandler surpassed cv. Allstar in sugar content, acid content, and flavonoid content regardless of preplanting vinegar drenching and various culture treatments. However, preplanting vinegar treatment increased cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins but decreased sugar content in fruits of both cultivars.

  9. Effect of the composition of extra virgin olive oils on the differentiation and antioxidant capacities of twelve monovarietals.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Edwar; Paucar, Fiorela; Tapia, Francisco; Ortiz, Jaime; Jimenez, Paula; Romero, Nalda

    2018-03-15

    The effect of the composition of twelve varieties of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) on their differentiation based in agronomic criteria and on the antioxidant capacity was studied. Principal component analysis permitted an overview of the samples and their compositions, showing evidence of grouping and correlation between antioxidant capacity, oleuropein and ligstroside derivatives (OLD) and specific extinction at 270. Oleic and linoleic acids, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA (OLD), unsaturated/saturated ratio and induction time (IT) allowed the correct classification of samples according to year of harvest, ripening stage and variety. The antioxidant capacity of EVOOs was satisfactory predicted through a partial least square model based on ΔK, hydroxytyrosol, pinoresinol, oleuropein derivate and IT. Validation of the model gave a correlation R>0.83 and an error of 7% for independent samples. This model could be a useful tool for the olive industry to highlight the nutritional quality of EVOOs and improve their marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of phytococktail extracts from trans-Himalayan cold desert

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Himalayan plants are widely used in traditional system of medicine both as prophylactics and therapeutics for high altitude maladies. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds of methanol and n-hexane extracts of the phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata) from trans-Himalaya. Methods The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI) property of the extracts were determined. Total antioxidant power was determined by ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, flavonol, proanthocyanidin and carotenoid were also estimated for both extracts. We have identified and quantified the phyto-chemotypes present in the methanol and n-hexane extracts by hyphenated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. Results Antioxidant capacity assays using DPPH, ABTS, NO, LPI and FRAP exhibited analogous results where the phytococktail showed high antioxidant action. The phytococktail was also found to possess high quantity of total polyphenol, flavonoid, flavonol and carotenoid. A significant and linear correlation was found between the antioxidant capacities and bioactive principles. A total of 32 phyto-chemotypes were identified from these extracts by GC/MS chemometric fingerprinting. Major phyto-chemotypes identified by GC/MS were glycosides, phenylpropanoids and derivatives, terpenoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, fatty acids and esters, alkaloids and derivatives, organic acid esters and aromatic ethers with positive biological and pharmacological actions. Conclusion The phytococktail extracts were found to contain considerable amount of diverse bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacities. The presence of hydrophilic and lipophilic

  11. Antioxidant Capacity as a Marker for Assessing the In Vitro Performance of the Endangered Cistus heterophyllus

    PubMed Central

    López-Orenes, Antonio; Ros-Marín, Antonio F.; Ferrer, María A.; Calderón, Antonio A.

    2013-01-01

    Cistus heterophyllus subsp. carthaginensis is an endemic and endangered species from the SE Mediterranean coastal region of Spain. Within the framework of the efforts aiming to species conservation, in vitro culture techniques could be of interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of C. heterophyllus shoot cultures as a possible marker of in vitro performance. The effects of five different basal salt formulations and cytokinin levels on in vitro performance and antioxidant capacity were examined. K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios initially present in culture media greatly affected the antioxidant capacity (the lower the ratios the higher the antioxidant capacity). Increasing concentrations of BA resulted in higher antioxidant capacity. The results obtained point to antioxidant capacity as being a marker of incidence of stress conditions in in vitro cultured C. heterophyllus. A good correlation was found between antioxidant capacity and total soluble phenolics present in Cistus extracts. Catechin was identified in all the extracts and its levels were found to change parallel to the antioxidant capacity, pointing to a prominent role played by this flavonoid in C. heterophyllus defence against oxidative stress, which in turn affects the in vitro performance of this species. PMID:24453805

  12. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, P<.01) and moderately correlated with ORAC (r=0.34, P<.05). Pearson correlation analyses showed that plasma TAC values by VCEAC and ORAC had positive correlation with plasma uric acid (r=0.56 for VCEAC; r=0.49 for ORAC) and total phenolics (r=0.63 for VCEAC; r=0.36 for ORAC). However, TAC measured by FRAP was correlated only with uric acid (r=0.69). After multivariate adjustment, plasma TAC determined by VCEAC was positively associated with dietary intakes of γ-tocopherol (P<.001), β-carotene (P<.05), anthocyanidins (P<.05), flavones (P<.05), proanthocyanidins (P<.01) and TAC (P<.05), as well as with plasma total phenolics (P<.05), α-tocopherol (P<.001), β-cryptoxanthin (P<.05) and uric acid (P<.05). The findings indicate that plasma TAC measured by VCEAC reflects both dietary and plasma antioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant Capacity Determination in Plants and Plant-Derived Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Aneta; Cimpeanu, Carmen; Predoi, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the analytical methods applied to antioxidant and antioxidant capacity assessment in plant-derived products. Aspects related to oxidative stress, reactive oxidative species' influence on key biomolecules, and antioxidant benefits and modalities of action are discussed. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant balance is critically discussed. The conventional and nonconventional extraction procedures applied prior to analysis are also presented, as the extraction step is of pivotal importance for isolation and concentration of the compound(s) of interest before analysis. Then, the chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrochemical methods for antioxidant and antioxidant capacity determination in plant-derived products are detailed with respect to their principles, characteristics, and specific applications. Peculiarities related to the matrix characteristics and other factors influencing the method's performances are discussed. Health benefits of plants and derived products are described, as indicated in the original source. Finally, critical and conclusive aspects are given when it comes to the choice of a particular extraction procedure and detection method, which should consider the nature of the sample, prevalent antioxidant/antioxidant class, and the mechanism underlying each technique. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for each method. PMID:28044094

  14. Dietary resveratrol supplementation improves meat quality of finishing pigs through changing muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidative status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Luo, Junqiu; Yu, Bing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Chen, Jiali; Chen, Daiwen

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of resveratrol (0, 300, 600 mg/kg) on meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidative capacity of finishing pigs. The results showed that resveratrol not only increased m. longissimus dorsi (LM) pH(24 h), a*, crude protein and myoglobin content but also decreased L*(24 h), shear force, drip loss, glycolytic potential, as well as backfat depth, LM lactate dehydrogenase activity and mRNA level. Meanwhile, LM total antioxidative capacity, glutathione peroxidase activity and its mRNA level were increased by resveratrol, while malonaldehyde content was decreased. In addition, resveratrol increased myosin heavy chain (MyHC)IIa mRNA level and decreased MyHCIIb mRNA level, along with decreased myofiber cross-sectional area. In conclusion, these results suggest that resveratrol is an effective feed additive to improve pork quality, and the underlying mechanism may be partly due to the changed muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidative capacity induced by resveratrol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidants, low molecular weight carbohydrates, and total antioxidant capacity in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa): effects of cultivar, ripening, and storage.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Marie E; Ekvall, Jimmy; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Nilsson, Jessica; Pillai, Deepa; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Svensson, Ulla; Akesson, Björn; Nyman, Margareta G L

    2004-05-05

    Four cultivars of strawberries (Senga Sengana, BFr77111, Elsanta, and Honeoye) were studied for their content of antioxidants, total antioxidant capacity, and low molecular weight carbohydrates in relation to harvest year, ripening stage, and cold storage. For ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and total antioxidative capacity, measured in both water-soluble and water-insoluble extracts, there was a 2-5-fold variation among cultivars. Unripe berries contained lower concentrations of chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid and also quercetin and kaempferol compared with riper berries. During cold storage for up to 3 days, relatively few changes in the concentration of the different antioxidants occurred. The concentrations of several investigated parameters were interrelated, for example, for ascorbic acid and water-soluble antioxidant capacity and for ellagic acid and water-insoluble antioxidant capacity. The dominating sugars in strawberries were fructose and glucose, but considerable amounts of sucrose were also present, and their contents varied among cultivars, giving a predicted glycemic index of approximately 81. Verbascose, raffinose, and stachyose were found in only minor amounts. The study shows that the concentration of a number of bioactive compounds in strawberries varied according to cultivar, ripening stage, and storage. This information should make it possible to select strawberries with an optimal content of bioactive compounds.

  16. Phenolics and antioxidant capacity of table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Mariane; Jorquera, Katterin; Cancino, Beatriz; Ruby, Rene; Henriquez, Carolina

    2011-09-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) possess health-promoting effects attributed to their supply of a wide variety of bioactive phenolics. Juice and skin fractions of 4 varieties of table grapes: Red Globe, Crimson Seedless, Autumn Royal, and Ribier were prepared to determine and compare their total phenolics content, antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC), anthocyanins, and specific phenolics (caffeic acid, gallic acid, resveratrol, and catechin) content, since a series of positive health benefits are expected from the intake of any of these fractions. Higher amounts of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were observed in the skin fractions (P < 0.05). Blue grapes (Autumn Royal and Ribier) exhibited higher phenolics content and antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) than red grapes. The most abundant phenolic compound observed was catechin (P < 0.05). Significant correlations between the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics were observed in grape juice and skin fractions. Autumn Royal juice provides a very high amount of phenolics, anthocyanins, and exhibits the highest antioxidant capacity, offering the best health promoting properties compared with the other grape varieties studied. Grapes possess health-promoting effects attributed to their supply of a wide variety of bioactive phenolics. Grape juice made with blue grapes (Autumn Royal, Ribier) exhibit higher phenolics content and antioxidant capacity than juice elaborated with red grapes (Red Globe, Crimson Seedless). The skin is a good source of phenolics and has a high antioxidant capacity. Specific health-promoting phenolics are more abundant in blue grapes, mainly in their skin fraction, which should not be discarded. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Tests measuring the combined antioxidant effect of the nonenzymatic defenses in biological fluids may be useful in providing an index of the organism's capability to counteract reactive species known as pro-oxidants, resist oxidative damage, and combat oxidative stress-related diseases. The selected chromogenic redox reagent for the assay of human serum should be easily accessible, stable, selective, and respond to all types of biologically important antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid, and bilirubin, regardless of chemical type or hydrophilicity. Our recently developed cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) spectrophotometric method for a number of polyphenols and flavonoids using the copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in ammonium acetate buffer is now applied to a complete series of plasma antioxidants for the assay of total antioxidant capacity of serum, and the resulting absorbance at 450 nm is recorded either directly (e.g., for ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and glutathione) or after incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 min (e.g., for uric acid, bilirubin, and albumin), quantitation being made by means of a calibration curve. The lipophilic antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, are assayed in dichloromethane. Lipophilic antioxidants of serum are extracted with n-hexane from an ethanolic solution of serum subjected to centrifugation. Hydrophilic antioxidants of serum are assayed in the centrifugate after perchloric acid precipitation of proteins. The CUPRAC molar absorptivities, linear ranges, and TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) coefficients of the serum antioxidants are established, and the results are evaluated in comparison with the findings of the ABTS/TEAC reference method. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) are 0.7 and 1.5%, respectively, for serum. The CUPRAC assay proved to be efficient for glutathione and thiol-type antioxidants

  19. Salicylic acid improves root antioxidant defense system and total antioxidant capacities of flax subjected to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Soengas, Pilar; Obregon, Sara; Cartea, Maria Elena; Djebali, Wahbi; Chaïbi, Wided

    2013-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) disrupts the normal growth and development of plants, depending on their tolerance to this toxic element. The present study was focused on the impacts of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) on the response and regulation of the antioxidant defense system and membrane lipids to 16-day-old flax plantlets under Cd stress. Exposure of flax to high Cd concentrations led to strong inhibition of root growth and enhanced lipid peroxides, membrane permeability, protein oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production to varying degrees. Concomitantly, activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), guaïcol peroxydase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxydase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and the total antioxidant capacities (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) were significantly altered by Cd. In contrast, exogenous SA greatly reduced the toxic effects of Cd on the root growth, antioxidant system, and membrane lipid content. The Cd-treated plantlets pre-soaked with SA exhibited less lipid and protein oxidation and membrane alteration, as well as a high level of total antioxidant capacities and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes except of CAT. These results may suggest that SA plays an important role in triggering the root antioxidant system, thereby preventing membrane damage as well as the denaturation of its components.

  20. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Brewing Conditions on the Antioxidant Capacity of Twenty-four Commercial Green Tea Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R2 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea ; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmol GAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmol TE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmol TE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. PMID:26304363

  2. Antioxidant capacity of 3D human skin EpiDerm model: effects of skin moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Grazul-Bilska, A T; Bilski, J J; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Abdullah, K M; Abdullah, A

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of skin moisturizers on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of human skin using EpiDerm model. Three different skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients (samples 1-3) or aloe vera extract were topically applied to EpiDerm units and incubated for 2 and 24 h to determine acute and longer-term effects of applied samples on TAC and glutathione peroxidase activity in medium and/or homogenized skin tissues. Total antioxidant capacity in medium and skin homogenates was enhanced (P < 0.0001) by gel containing antioxidant ingredients (sample 2) after 2 and 24 h of incubation. Total antioxidant capacity in medium was also enhanced (P < 0.001) by cream containing antioxidant ingredients (sample 3) after 24 h of incubation. Overall, TAC in medium was greater (P < 0.02) after 24 h than 2 h of incubation. Skin moisturizer cream with high antioxidant levels determined by using oxygen radical absorbance capacity testing (sample 1) and aloe vera extract did not affect TAC. Glutathione peroxidase activity was enhanced (P < 0.0001) in medium and skin homogenates by sample 2 but not by any other sample. These data demonstrate high potential of gel and cream (samples 2 and 3) containing antioxidant ingredients in enhancing antioxidant capacity of EpiDerm which will likely contribute to overall skin health. Results of this experiment will help to better understand mechanisms of effects of skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients on skin function at the tissue level and to establish effective strategies for skin protection and clinical treatments of skin disorders and possibly healing wounds.

  3. Comparison of antioxidant capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye; Ozcan, Tulay; Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Sahin, Saliha

    2018-05-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of using either grain or commercial starter culture on the antioxidative capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs. The antioxidant capacity of kefir samples during fermentation and 21 d of storage was assessed by using 3 assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolorization; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH • ) radical scavenging activity assay; and Fe +3 -reducing power (ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, FRAP). Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were also quantified. All kefir samples exhibited varying values for DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays depending on the starter culture and milk type. Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were similar in all kefir samples during storage. The results of this study suggest that milk type (cow or ewe) and culture type (kefir grains or commercial starter) were the significant parameters for the antioxidative activity of kefir. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunjian; Li, Chunying; Liu, Shuaihua; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82–32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34–24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging test. Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacity decreased in the following order: green > oolong > black > dark tea. A positive correlation existed between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content (R 2 = 0.67–0.87). The antioxidant capacities of five major catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin) were determined by online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging; the antioxidant activity of tea was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins (EGCG or ECG). PMID:25243234

  5. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran Taj; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ellahi, Muhammad Yaqoob; Khalique, Anjum

    2017-08-24

    Antioxidant capacity of milk is largely due to vitamins A, E, carotenoids, zinc, selenium, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and enzyme systems. Cow milk has antioxidant capacity while the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk has been studied in a limited way. The information regarding the effect of pasteurization and boiling on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk is also scared. Cow and buffalo milk was exposed to two different heat treatments i.e. 65 °C for 30 min and boiling for 1 min. After heat treatments, milk samples were cooled down to 4 °C packaged in transparent 250 ml polyethylene PET bottles and stored at 4 °C for 6 days. Milk composition, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid, vitamin C, A, E, selenium, Zinc, fatty acid profile, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were studied in raw, pasteurized and boiled cow and buffalo milk at 0, 3 and 6 days of storage period. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (42.1, 41.3 and 40.7%) and buffalo (58.4, 57.6 and 56.5%) samples was found, respectively. Reducing power (RP) of raw cow and buffalo milk was 6.74 and 13.7 while pasteurization and boiling did not showed significant effect on RP of both cow and buffalo milk. DPPH activity of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (24.3, 23.8 and 23.6%) and buffalo (31.8, 31.5 and 30.4%) samples was noted, respectively. Storage period up to 3 days was non-significant while DPPH assay after 6 days of storage period indicated significant decline in antioxidant activity of milk samples. Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid (AALA) of buffalo and cow milk were recorded 11.7 and 17.4%, respectively. Pasteurization and boiling did not showed any impact on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk. The Loss of vitamin C in pasteurization (40 and 42%) and boiling (82 and 61%) of

  6. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  7. Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoshimi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Mishima, Satoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2009-02-26

    Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen) are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP), its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ), and an ethanol extract of bee pollen. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-, superoxide anion (O2.-)-, and hydroxyl radical (HO.)- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF). The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or vitamin C. On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

  8. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant capacity in eight edible beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work we explored the use of microwave as a fast method for the extraction of antioxidants from beans. Antioxidant capacity of the extracts from meat and the hull of eight common beans was determined, using the ß-carotene bleaching method. Microwave-assisted extraction was achieved using two ...

  9. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Piljac-Zegarac, J; Belscak, A; Piljac, A

    2009-06-01

    Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of leaf infusions prepared from six highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), one wild lowbush blueberry cultivar (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and one commercially available mix of genotypes were determined. In order to simulate household tea preparation conditions, infusions were prepared in water heated to 95 degrees C. The dynamics of extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants were monitored over the course of 30 minutes. Extraction efficiency, quantified in terms of the total phenol (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity of infusions, evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, were compared with cultivar type and extraction time. The 30-minute infusions exhibited the highest TP content and antioxidant capacity according to all three assays. Wild blueberry infusion had the highest TP content (1,879 mg/L gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) and FRAP values (20,050 microM). The range of TP values for 30-minute infusions was 394-1,879 mg/L GAE with a mean of 986 mg/L GAE across cultivars; FRAP values fell between 3,015 and 20,050 microM with a mean of 11,234 microM across cultivars. All 30-minute infusions exhibited significant scavenging capacity for DPPH(*) and ABTS(*+) radicals, comparable to different concentrations of catechin, gallic acid, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid. Overall, tested infusions showed significant reducing capacity as well as radical scavenging potential, which places blueberry leaf tea high on the list of dietary sources of antioxidants.

  10. Total anti-oxidant capacity of saliva in chronic periodontitis patients before and after periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Shirzaiy, M; Ansari, S M; Dehghan, J H; Ghaeni, S H

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease is among the most common inflammatory conditions which is associated with many different factors. One of the contributing factors to the pathogenesis of this condition may compromise the defensive mechanism of antioxidants. The present study evaluates the antioxidant capacity of saliva in periodontal patients before and after periodontal treatment. In this cross sectional study, 31 patients systemically healthy non smokers with chronic periodontitis were recruited. The antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured before the initial phase of periodontal therapy and after completion of the treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 software. Paired T-Test, Independent sample T-test and ANOVA tests were used as appropriated. The mean and standard deviation antioxidant capacity of the saliva after the treatment.(0.962± 0.287µM)was significantly higher than before the treatment (0.655 ± 0.281 µM ,p<0.001). The mean difference of antioxidant capacity of the saliva before and after periodontal treatment was higher among men than among women; however, the difference was not significant (P=0.07). The mean difference of salivary antioxidant capacity was not significantly differed among different ages (P=0.772). The antioxidant capacity of saliva was higher after periodontal therapy among patients with periodontal disease, however the change was not varied across the ages and gender. Therefore, the alterations in the defensive mechanism of antioxidants could be the key factors contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.

  11. Plasmatic antioxidant capacity due to ascorbate using TEMPO scavenging and electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Piehl, Lidia L; Facorro, Graciela B; Huarte, Mónica G; Desimone, Martín F; Copello, Guillermo J; Díaz, Luis E; de Celis, Emilio Rubín

    2005-09-01

    Ascorbate is the most effective water-soluble antioxidant and its plasma concentration is usually measured by different methods including colorimetric assays, HPLC or capillary electrophoresis. Plasma antioxidant capacity is determined by indexes such as total reactive antioxidant potential, total antioxidant reactivity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, etc. We developed an alternative method for the evaluation of the plasma antioxidant status due to ascorbate. TEMPO kinetics scavenging analyzed by ESR spectroscopy was performed on plasma samples in different antioxidant situations. Plasma ascorbate concentrations were determined by capillary electrophoresis. Ascorbyl radical levels were measured by ESR. Plasma reactivity with TEMPO (PR-T) reflected plasma ascorbate levels. Average PR-T for normal plasmas resulted 85+/-27 micromol/l (n=43). PR-T during ascorbic acid intake (1 g/day) increased to an average value of 130+/-20 micromol/l (p<0.001, n=20). PR-T correlated with the plasmatic ascorbate levels determined by capillary electrophoresis (r=0.92), presenting as an advantage the avoiding of the deproteination step. Plasma ascorbyl radical levels increase from 16+/-2 to 24+/-3 nmol/l (p<0.005, n=14) after ascorbate intake. PR-T could be considered as a measure of the plasmatic antioxidant capacity due to the plasma ascorbate levels and could be useful to investigate different antioxidant situations.

  12. Quality parameters and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of some Mexican honeys.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Beatriz A; Mendoza, Sandra; Iturriga, Montserrat H; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A total of 14 Mexican honeys were screened for quality parameters including color, moisture, proline, and acidity. Antioxidant properties of complete honey and its methanolic extracts were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of complete honeys against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Sthapylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was determined. Most of honeys analyzed showed values within quality parameters established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2001. Eucalyptus flower honey and orange blossom honey showed the highest phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Bell flower, orange blossom, and eucalyptus flower honeys inhibited the growth of the 4 evaluated microorganisms. The remaining honeys affected at least 1 of the estimated growth parameters (increased lag phase, decreased growth rate, and/or maximum population density). Microorganism sensitivity to the antimicrobial activity of honeys followed the order B. cereus > L. monocytogenes > Salmonella Typhimurium > S. aureus. The monofloral honey samples from orange blossoms, and eucalyptus flowers demonstrated to be good sources of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. All the Mexican honey samples examined proved to be good sources of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents that might serve to maintain health and protect against several diseases. The results of the study showed that Mexican honeys display good quality parameters and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Mexican honey can be used as an additive in the food industry to increase the nutraceutical value of products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in obese Malaysian subjects.

    PubMed

    Lim, S H; Fan, S H; Say, Y H

    2012-12-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the complex biochemical pathways that lead to the pathogenesis of obesity. Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity have been identified to be associated with obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of Malaysian subjects and to evaluate its potential association with obesity and related anthropometric measurements. Plasma TAC of 362 multi-ethnic Malaysian subjects from the Kampar Health Clinic (138 males, 224 females; 124 ethnic Malays, 152 Chinese, 86 Indians; 192 non-obese, 170 obese) was measured using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) 96-well plate assay. Plasma TAC was significantly lower in obese subjects (M +/- SE = 292 +/- 10.4 micromol/L) compared to non-obese subjects (397 +/- 8.58 micromol/L), whereas it was significantly higher in males and those in the 21-30 age group. Those with salty food preference and practising a strict vegetarian diet also had significantly higher plasma TAC. However, no association was found for other dietary habits (coffee intake) and lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking). Plasma TAC was also significantly negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, waist and hip circumferences, weight, body mass index, total body fat, % subcutaneous fat, visceral fat level, resting metabolism and % skeletal muscle. Plasma TAC was found to be associated with obesity, strict vegetarian practice, salty food preference and all obesity anthropometric indicators, except systolic blood pressure and pulse rate. Obese people have decreased plasma TAC indicating a compromised systemic antioxidant defence and increased oxidative stress.

  14. Assays for hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL))) of plasma and other biological and food samples.

    PubMed

    Prior, Ronald L; Hoang, Ha; Gu, Liwei; Wu, Xianli; Bacchiocca, Mara; Howard, Luke; Hampsch-Woodill, Maureen; Huang, Dejian; Ou, Boxin; Jacob, Robert

    2003-05-21

    Methods are described for the extraction and analysis of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, using modifications of the oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC(FL)) procedure. These methods provide, for the first time, the ability to obtain a measure of "total antioxidant capacity" in the protein free plasma, using the same peroxyl radical generator for both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Separation of the lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant fractions from plasma was accomplished by extracting with hexane after adding water and ethanol to the plasma (hexane/plasma/ethanol/water, 4:1:2:1, v/v). Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants were efficiently partitioned between hexane and aqueous solvents. Conditions for controlling temperature effects and decreasing assay variability using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe were validated in different laboratories. Incubation (37 degrees C for at least 30 min) of the buffer to which AAPH was dissolved was critical in decreasing assay variability. Lipophilic antioxidants represented 33.1 +/- 1.5 and 38.2 +/- 1.9% of the total antioxidant capacity of the protein free plasma in two independent studies of 6 and 10 subjects, respectively. Methods are described for application of the assay techniques to other types of biological and food samples.

  15. Influence of Protein-Phenolic Complex on the Antioxidant Capacity of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Products.

    PubMed

    Guimarães Drummond E Silva, Fernanda; Miralles, Beatriz; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Amigo, Lourdes; Iglesias, Amadeu Hoshi; Reyes Reyes, Felix Guillermo; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2017-02-01

    The impact of the naturally present phenolic compounds and/or proteins on the antioxidant capacity of flaxseed products (phenolic fraction, protein concentrates, and hydrolysates) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion was studied. For that, whole and phenolic reduced products were assessed. Four glycosylated phenolic compounds (secoisolariciresinol and ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) were identified in flaxseed products. Phenolic fraction exerts the highest antioxidant capacity that increased by alkaline hydrolysis and by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The action of Alcalase and digestive enzymes resulted in an increase of the antioxidant capacity of whole and phenolic reduced products. Principal component analysis showed that proteinaceous samples act as antioxidant is by H + transfer, while those samples containing phenolic compounds exert their effects by both electron donation and H + transfer mechanisms. Protein/peptide-phenolic complexation, confirmed by fluorescence spectra, exerted a positive effect on the antioxidant capacity, mainly in protein concentrates.

  16. Antioxidants in medicinal plant extracts. A research study of the antioxidant capacity of Crataegus, Hamamelis and Hydrastis.

    PubMed

    Periera da Silva, A; Rocha, R; Silva, C M; Mira, L; Duarte, M F; Florêncio, M H

    2000-12-01

    The antioxidant capacity of extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrastis canadensis, plants native to Europe and North America which have long been used in herbal medicine for the treatment of cardiac and circulatory functions, has been investigated. The total antioxidant potential conferred by all hydrogen donating antioxidants present in these extracts has been assessed by the ABTS assay and the relative order of antioxidant potential has been established. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for the chemical identification of the antioxidant volatile compounds present in the extracts. The GC-MS data were related to the results obtained using the ABTS assay.

  17. Phytochemical properties and antioxidant capacities of various colored berries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Xin, Xiulan; Yuan, Qipeng; Su, Donghai; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-30

    Berries are known to be rich in anthocyanins. These compounds give berries their distinctive colors and, more importantly, have several health benefits, such as contributing to the prevention of heart disease, cancer and inflammatory disease. In this study, anthocyanin-rich extracts from 12 colored berries found in northern China were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS). Total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant capacity (AOC) of the berries were assayed. The contribution of anthocyanins in the berries to their antioxidant capacity and bioactivity was also investigated. The 12 berries analyzed had typical profiles with different anthocyanin compositions, which can be considered as an indicator for differentiating berries. Cyanidin-3-xylosyl-galactoside and cyanidin-3-xylosyl-rutinoside were identified for the first time in Acanthopanax S. and Chinese dwarf cherry respectively. All berry extracts showed potent antioxidant activity, and TPC correlated well with AOC. Blue honeysuckle, blackcurrant and blueberry had higher TAC/TPC ratio, with anthocyanins contributing more to AOC. The higher flavonoid content in yellow raspberry and sea buckthorn might increase their antioxidant activity. In addition, wild raspberry had higher antioxidant activity than cultivated raspberries, but they all had lower anthocyanin content with less contribution to AOC. There is great potential to improve human health through consumption of these colored berries, especially those high in AOC. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. In vitro total antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of three common oat-derived avenanthramides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Boxin; Wise, Mitchell L; Chu, YiFang

    2014-10-01

    To better understand mechanisms underlying the health benefits of oats, the free radical scavenging capacities of oat avenanthramides 2c, 2f, and 2p and their ability to inhibit NF-κB activation were evaluated. The antioxidant capacities of 2c, 2f, and 2p against peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, singlet oxygen, and peroxynitrite were determined by using ORAC, HORAC, SORAC, SOAC, and NORAC assays, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity of 2c was approximately 1.5-fold those of 2f and 2p. Total antioxidant capacity was primarily attributable to SORAC and ORAC for 2c (>77%, p<0.05), and to ORAC and SOAC for 2f. ORAC accounted for approximately 32% of total antioxidant capacity in 2p. EC50 values for inhibiting TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in C2C12 cells were 64.3, 29.3, and 9.10 μM for 2c, 2f, and 2p, respectively. Differences in antioxidant capacities and ability to inhibit NF-κB among the avenanthramides could be ascribed to structural variations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: vaccinium, rubus, and ribes.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Richard A; Hummer, Kim E; Finn, Chad E; Frei, Balz; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2002-01-30

    Fruits from 107 genotypes of Vaccinium L., Rubus L., and Ribes L., were analyzed for total anthocyanins (ACY), total phenolics (TPH), and antioxidant capacities as determined by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Fruit size was highly correlated (r = 0.84) with ACY within Vaccinium corymbosum L., but was not correlated to ACY across eight other Vaccinium species, or within 27 blackberry hybrids. Certain Vaccinium and Ribes fruits with pigmented flesh were lower in ACY, TPH, ORAC, and FRAP compared to those values in berries with nonpigmented flesh. ORAC values ranged from 19 to 131 micromol Trolox equivalents/g in Vaccinium, from 13 to 146 in Rubus, and from 17 to 116 in Ribes. Though ACY may indicate TPH, the range observed in ACY/TPH ratios precludes prediction of ACY from TPH and vice versa for a single genotype. In general, TPH was more highly correlated to antioxidant capacity than ACY was. This study demonstrates the wide diversity of phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacities within and across three genera of small fruit.

  20. Biochemical Characterization of Dovyalis hebecarpa Fruits: A Source of Anthocyanins with High Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Bochi, Vivian Caetano; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2015-10-01

    Dovyalis hebecarpa, which is also known as the Ceylon gooseberry, is an attractive exotic purple berry that is produced in the southwest of Brazil with high yields. Current literature lacks information about the nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of this fruit. As such, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the proximate composition, phytochemical content, and antioxidant capacity of D. hebecarpa over two seasons through the application of a range of different methods, including FRAP, ABTS, and ORAC assays. The proximate composition and biometric parameters were monitored for quality purposes. The results significantly changed between seasons in accordance with variations in rain incidence and average temperatures. The Ceylon gooseberry contained a similar or higher content of anthocyanins (ACY) than other berries commonly consumed in human diet. These ACY were identified at higher levels in the fruit's skin (284 to 351 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g of fresh weight [FW]) than in its pulp (49 to 69 mg/100 g of FW). The use of an ORAC assay identified higher antioxidant activity (145 μmol of Trolox equivalents [TE]/g in the skins and 179 μmol of TE/g in the pulp on a FW basis) than all other methods used to determine antioxidant activity. Thus, D. hebecarpa is a rich source of ACY that demonstrates high antioxidant activity against the peroxyl radicals formed in ORAC assay conditions. Ceylon gooseberry fruit is a source of phytochemicals that could be used in the human diet providing defense against free radicals damage. Moreover, the skins of the fruit, which are not typically consumed, contained higher levels of polyphenols than the pulp. This indicates that the skins of the Ceylon gooseberry may represent a promising source of natural pigments and antioxidants for industrial applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Addition of whole, semiskimmed, and skimmed bovine milk reduces the total antioxidant capacity of black tea.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Lisa; Petit, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that populations consuming fruits, vegetables, tea, cocoa, and red wine have lower incidences of cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and eye disease. These health effects have largely been attributed to the polyphenol content of the foods and drinks studied. Black tea is rich in a range of polyphenolic compounds that could potentially have health-promoting properties. The scale of consumption of tea in the United Kingdom means that it could be an appropriate vehicle for increasing the antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of human plasma. However, it is common practice in the United Kingdom to add milk to tea, and some studies have suggested that this may decrease the overall antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to analyze and compare the antioxidant capacity of 5 brands of tea and to test the hypothesis that the addition of different volumes of whole milk, semiskimmed, and skimmed milk may affect the antioxidant capacity. Each of the teas analyzed was a significant source of antioxidants. The addition of 10, 15, and 20 mL of whole, semiskimmed, and skimmed bovine milk to a 200-mL tea infusion decreased the total antioxidant capacity of all the brands of tea. Skimmed milk decreased the total antioxidant capacity of the tea infusion significantly (P < .05) more than either whole milk or semiskimmed milk. We conclude that black tea is a valuable source of antioxidants and that the effect of milk on the total antioxidant capacity may be related to the fat content of the milk. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of the Maillard reaction on the antioxidant capacity of bovine lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Joubran, Yousef; Mackie, Alan; Lesmes, Uri

    2013-12-15

    Studies raise the notion that the Maillard reaction (MR) may be harnessed to modify the antioxidant capacity of alimentary proteins. However, little is known about the impact of MR on bioactive proteins. Glucose and fructose were used as model moieties reacting with lactoferrin (LF). UV absorbance and SDS-PAGE analyses were used to monitor MR progression during 36 h of mild thermal processing (60 °C, 79% RH). FTIR and CD did not reveal changes in LF structure; However, dynamic light scattering showed MR increased mean particle sizes and sample turbidity at 3antioxidant assays showed marked increases in antioxidant capacity of Maillard conjugates as a function of reaction time (12 and 36 h), protein:monosaccharide mole ratio (1:1 or 1:3) and moiety type, compared to unprocessed LF. Overall, a link between conjugates' antioxidant capacity and processing parameters is described to enable future attempts to enhance LF functionality in foods containing carbohydrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coffee component 3-caffeoylquinic acid increases antioxidant capacity but not polyphenol content in experimental cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Crespo, Silvia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M; Cavia-Saiz, Monica; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-05-01

    Although coffee has antioxidant capacity, it is not known which of its bioactive compounds is responsible for it, nor has it been analyzed in experimental cerebral infarction. We studied the effect one of its compounds, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), at doses of 4, 25 and 100 μg on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma polyphenol content, measuring the differences before and after inducing a cerebral infarction in an experimental rat model. We compared them with 3-caffeoylquinic-free controls. The increase in total antioxidant capacity was only higher than in controls in 3-CQA treated animals with the highest dose. This increase in antioxidant capacity was not due to an increase in polyphenols. No differences between the experimental and control group were found regarding polyphenol content and cerebral infarction volume. In conclusion, this increase in antioxidant capacity in the group that received the highest dose of 3-CQA was not able to reduce experimental cerebral infarction.

  4. Influence of extraction solvent on antioxidant capacity value of oleaster measured by ORAC method.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Gorkem; Sogut, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a widely used hydrogen atom transfer-based method which measures the antioxidant capacity of natural products. ORAC values of oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), which was extracted with ethanol/acetone (7:3, v/v), ethanol/water (1:1, v/v) and methanol/water (1:1, v/v) in order to evaluate the effects of solvent type on antioxidant capacity, were examined. In general, results revealed that ethanol/water extracts exhibited better antioxidant capacity values. Furthermore, results obtained by using ORAC-eosin y (ORAC-EY), one of the widely used derivative of fluorescein (FL), as a fluorescent probe were compared with those obtained by using ORAC-FL. According to the results, ORAC-EY values were found to be compatible with ORAC-FL values.

  5. Water stress induces changes in polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity in poplar plants (Populus spp.).

    PubMed

    Popović, B M; Štajner, D; Ždero-Pavlović, R; Tumbas-Šaponjac, V; Čanadanović-Brunet, J; Orlović, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper is aimed to characterize young poplar plants under the influence of water stress provoked by polyethileneglycol 6000 (PEG 6000). Three polar genotypes (M1, B229, and PE19/66) were grown in hydroponics and subjected to 100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000 during six days. Polyphenol characterization, two enzymatic markers and antioxidant capacity in leaves and roots were investigated in stressed plants. Total phenol content, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and DPPH antiradical power (DPPH ARP) were determined for estimating total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were determined as enzymatic markers. Polyphenol characterization of poplar samples was performed by HPLC-PDA analysis. All results were subjected to correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Inspite of the decrease of total phenol content in investigated genotypes, as well as total antioxidant capacity, some of polyphenols were affected by stress like flavonoids chrysin, myricetine, kaempferol and isoferulic acid in roots of B229 genotype (Populus deltoides). Genotype B229 also showed the increase of antioxidant capacity and PAL activity in root and leaves under stress what could be the indicator of the adaptability of poplar plants to water stress. Significant positive correlations were obtained between PAL, antioxidant capacity as well as phenolic acids among themselves. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between flavonoids, FRAP, DPPH antiradical power and both investigated enzymes of polyphenol metabolism, PAL and PPO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Modified cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay for measuring the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins in admixture with polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Cekiç, Sema Demirci; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2009-07-15

    Proteins are not considered as true antioxidants but are known to protect antioxidants from oxidation in various antioxidant activity assays. This study aims to investigate the contribution of proteins, especially thiol-containing proteins, to the observed overall antioxidant capacity measured by known methods. To determine the antioxidant properties of thiol-containing proteins, the CUPRAC method of antioxidant assay using the oxidizing reagent Cu(II)-neocuproine previously used for simultaneous analysis of cystine and cysteine was adopted. While the CUPRAC method is capable of determining all antioxidant compounds including thiols in complex sample matrices, the Ellman method of thiol quantitation basically does not respond to other antioxidants. The antioxidant quantities in the selected samples were assayed with the ABTS and FRAP methods as well as with the CUPRAC method. In all applied methods, the dilutions were made with a standard pH 8 buffer used in the Ellman method by substituting the Na(2)EDTA component of the buffer with sodium citrate. On the other hand, the standard CUPRAC protocol was modified by substituting the pH 7 ammonium acetate buffer (at 1M concentration) with 8M urea buffer adjusted to pH 7 by neutralizing with 6M HCl. Urea helps to partly solubilize and denaturate proteins so that their buried thiols be oxidized more easily. All methods used in the estimation of antioxidant properties of proteins (i.e., CUPRAC, Ellman, ABTS, and FRAP) were first standardized with a simple thiol compound, cysteine, by constructing the calibration curves. The molar absorptivities of these methods for cysteine were: epsilon(CUPRAC)=7.71x10(3), epsilon(Ellman)=1.37x10(4), epsilon(ABTS)=2.06x10(4), and epsilon(FRAP)=2.98x10(3)L mol(-1)cm(-1). Then these methods were applied to various samples containing thiols, such as glutathione (reduced form:GSH), egg white, whey proteins, and gelatin. Additionally, known quantities of selected antioxidants were added to

  7. Onion quercetin monoglycosides alter microbial activity and increase antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Grzelak-Błaszczyk, Katarzyna; Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Czarnecki, Andrzej; Klewicki, Robert; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Fotschki, Bartosz; Jurgoński, Adam

    2018-06-01

    The effects on fermentation processes in the digestive tract, the biochemical parameters and antioxidant capacity of blood in rats fed high-fat diets with quercetin (Q) and quercetin with quercetin monoglycosides (Q+MQ) preparations obtained from onion waste were evaluated. Four groups of eight animals were fed for 4 weeks with a control diet (C), a high-fat diet (HF) and high-fat diets with 0.15% addition of Q and Q+MQ preparations. HF caused an increase in alanine transaminase (ALT), non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) and the atherogenic index AII vs. C and a decrease in the proportion of HDL in total cholesterol (TC). Q and Q+MQ showed a tendency to moderate the values aspartate transaminase (P=.087), ALT (P<.05), TC (P=.068), non-HDL cholesterol (P<.05), triglycerides (P=.064) and the atherogenic index AII (P<.05). Q+MQ significantly increased the activity of α-glucosidase (P<.05 vs. HF), β-glucosidase (P<.05) and β-galactosidase (P<.05 vs. C and Q). Q increased activity of β-glucosidase (P<.001 vs. C and HF). Both increased the activity of β-glucuronidase (P<.05 vs. C and HF). Both increased the antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic fraction in serum (P<.05 vs. C and HF), and Q enhanced that of the lipid fraction (P<.001). Q preparation contained 70% quercetin, and Q+MQ preparation contained 29% quercetin and 13% quercetin monoglycosides, mainly quercetin-4'-glucoside. Both exhibited high antioxidant capacity. Supplementation with Q and Q+MQ increased the enzymatic activity of the intestinal microbiota and the antioxidant capacity of blood and revealed a tendency to improve the blood lipid profile. MQ were particularly effective in stimulating the bacterial enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of low-frequency magnetic field on plasma antioxidant capacity and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Ciejka, Elzbieta B; Goraca, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Low-frequency magnetic field is widely applied as magnetotherapy in physiotherapeutic treatment. Recognition of positive and negative effects of the magnetic field has been the subject of numerous studies. Experimental studies concern, among others, the effect of this field on the heart rate and plasma antioxidant capacity. The aim of the study was to check whether a time-variable magnetic field of constant frequency and induction affects the heart rate and plasma antioxidant capacity. The tests were performed on Spraque-Dawley rats exposed to the magnetic field of the following parameters: frequency - 40 Hz, induction - 7 mT, time of exposure - 30 and 60 minutes. The measurements of ECG and plasma antioxidant capacity expressed in the number of reduced iron ions were performed on experimental animals: before, after a single exposure and after 14 days of exposure. A significant decrease of the heart rate was observed after 14 days of exposure. A variable magnetic field of the parameters: frequency - 40 Hz, induction - 7 mT and exposure time of 14 days caused an increase of the organism antioxidant defence, whereas a variable magnetic field of the frequency of 40 Hz, induction - 7 mT and exposure time 60 minutes for 14 days caused a significant decrease of the organism antioxidant defence. The exposure time affects heart rate, plasma antioxidant capacity and the organism defense ability against free radicals.

  9. Demonstrating the Antioxidative Capacity of Substances with Lightsticks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieczorek, Robert R.; Sommer, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of phytochemical compounds is often discussed in life science courses (to prevent or slow cancer) and food science courses (to prevent the oxidation of sensitive ingredients). Thus, we developed a laboratory experiment where the photochemical reaction of lightsticks is used to qualitatively demonstrate the antioxidative…

  10. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a "living fossil" species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  11. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a “living fossil” species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant. PMID:24772177

  12. Effects of exogenous melatonin on antioxidant capacity in Actinidia seedlings under salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Ni, Zhiyou; Pan, Dongming

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the alleviation of exogenous melatonin (MT) in Actinidia seedlings under 100 mM NaCl stress, one-year-old Actinidia deliciosa seedlings were treated with 0.1, 0.5 and 1μM of exogenous melatonin solution, respectively. The results showed that the antioxidant substance (ASA, TPC, TFC and TFAC) contents and antioxidative capacity (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) of Actinidia seedlings under salt stress were significantly increased compared with the CK. At the same time, the antioxidant substance contents of Actinidia seedlings with MT pretreatment were significantly higher than those of CK and S, then the antioxidative capacity was improved, and the damage of Actinidia seedlings under salt stress was alleviated. And the treatment with 0.1μM MT solution was the most significant.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  14. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  15. Storage at -80°C preserves the antioxidant capacity of preterm human milk.

    PubMed

    Akdag, Arzu; Sari, Fatma Nur; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Isikoglu, Semra; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2014-09-01

    It is essential to establish optimum parameters for maintaining the quality of stored milk until the moment of consumption with minimal deterioration of its properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidation status (TOS) of fresh and freeze-stored samples (at -80°C) of preterm human milk (HM). Samples of colostrum were collected from 98 healthy women within the first 4 days after delivery. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for three months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of TAC and TOS levels. The mean gestational age and the birth weight of the infants were 31.26 ± 2.93 weeks and 1620 ± 581.91 g; respectively. There were no significant correlations between maternal age, route of delivery and milk oxidative stress. There was no significant difference between the levels of TAC, TOS and the oxidative stress index in fresh and freeze-stored samples of colostrum in preterm HM (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of preterm HM at -80°C for three months preserves the antioxidant capacity without changing oxidative status of HM, which could be noteworthy for the preterm infant nutrition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genetic markers for antioxidant capacity in a reef-building coral.

    PubMed

    Jin, Young K; Lundgren, Petra; Lutz, Adrian; Raina, Jean-Baptiste; Howells, Emily J; Paley, Allison S; Willis, Bette L; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2016-05-01

    The current lack of understanding of the genetic basis underlying environmental stress tolerance in reef-building corals impairs the development of new management approaches to confronting the global demise of coral reefs. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), an approximately 51% decline in coral cover occurred over the period 1985-2012. We conducted a gene-by-environment association analysis across 12° latitude on the GBR, as well as both in situ and laboratory genotype-by-phenotype association analyses. These analyses allowed us to identify alleles at two genetic loci that account for differences in environmental stress tolerance and antioxidant capacity in the common coral Acropora millepora. The effect size for antioxidant capacity was considerable and biologically relevant (32.5 and 14.6% for the two loci). Antioxidant capacity is a critical component of stress tolerance because a multitude of environmental stressors cause increased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species. Our findings provide the first step toward the development of novel coral reef management approaches, such as spatial mapping of stress tolerance for use in marine protected area design, identification of stress-tolerant colonies for assisted migration, and marker-assisted selective breeding to create more tolerant genotypes for restoration of denuded reefs.

  17. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant capacity of Melochia corchorifolia extracts.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Ganga; Rao, Y Venkateswara; Rao, T Mallikarjuna

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate hepato protective and antioxidant capacity of Melochia corchorifolia (M. corchorifolia) aerial part extracts. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using three free radicals (Superoxide, Hydroxyl and DPPH) and hepatoprotective activity was assessed against CCl4 induced liver intoxication in rats. The extracts produced concentration dependent percentage protection in decrease of serum enzymes and percentage inhibition on free radicals. Among all extracts methanol extract showed better activity with percentage protection of SGOT (78.98%), SGPT (79.65%), ALP (82.48%) and total bilirubin (80.0%) levels against CCl4 liver intoxication and also methanolic extract showed better activity with IC50 values on superoxide, hydroxyl and DPPH radicals were 127 μ g, 240 μ g and 179 μ g. From the results obtained during the study it could be concluded that M. corchorifolia aerial part extracts have antioxidant and hepatoprotective components. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules which are responsible for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of drying method to antioxidants capacity of Limnophila aromatica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Tran Thi Ngoc; Vu, Nguyen Hoang

    2017-09-01

    Limnophila aromatica is widely used in South East Asian countries to make spices in food and medicine in traditional medicine. The use value of vegetables is known because some of the lesser constituents in plants are called antioxidants. These active ingredients have not been fully researched and their pharmacological effects are underestimated. In this study, the drying temperature at 40 °C was showed that the antioxidant activity decreased the most. The drying temperature of 50 °C is suitable for convection drying method and drying temperature of 60 °C suitable for vacuum drying, as it retains the most antioxidant properties. Regarding the drying method, freeze drying proved to be effective when retaining high antioxidant capacity. Using The convection drying at 50 °C and the vacuum drying at 60 °C, the antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica was not different. Over 6 weeks of preservation, the dried product has deterioration in antioxidant properties.

  19. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    PubMed

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (p<0.05). As the puffing pressure increased, the amount of total polyphenols and total flavonoids decreased. The antioxidant capacity of cacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant capacity of trans-resveratrol dietary supplements alone or combined with the mycotoxin beauvericin.

    PubMed

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) is a polyphenol with multiples biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and antiplatelet. It occurs naturally in grapes and derivate, peanuts and berries. Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin present in cereals that produces cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The general objective of this research was to evaluate whether trans-RSV could be used as a good polyphenol against damages produced by BEA. Because trans-RSV can be ingested through dietary supplements, to reach this goal, the following specific objectives were proposed: to determine a) the trans-RSV content in different polyphenol dietary supplements by capillary electrophoresis, b) the antioxidant capacity of the trans-RSV in polyphenol supplements, and c) the influence of BEA in the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV when they are in combination by photochemioluminiscence assay. The results obtained in this study showed that all polyphenol dietary supplements present higher RSV content that the content of the label. The polyphenol supplements present antioxidant capacity. And the combination of trans-RSV and BEA did not affect the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV. Thus, RSV could contribute to decrease oxidant effects produced by BEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vitamin C and E Supplements Enhance the Antioxidant Capacity of Erythrocytes Obtained from Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Zhou, Shuai; Sun, Yanan; Zhao, Yuqi; Ren, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yingfang; Zhang, Naili

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C and E supplements on the antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes obtained from young and aged rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 and 24 months were used. Vitamins C and E were injected at doses of 200 mg/kg (day) intraperitoneally in young and aged groups. The antioxidant capacity, oxidant stress parameters, and deformability of red blood cells collected from different age stages were evaluated. An in vitro oxidation system was constructed to explore the mechanisms of antioxidant capacity change in the vitamin treatment groups. Treatment with vitamins C and E can effectively restore the antioxidant capacity and deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) in aged rats. Under in vitro oxidative conditions, an age-dependent decline in the influx rate of L-cysteine was observed. This was significantly improved following treatment with vitamins C and E. We present evidence of an improvement in the antioxidant capacity of RBCs by treatment with vitamins C and E in aged rats. These observations also suggest that treatment with vitamins C and E improves glutathione synthesis by enhancing the influx rate of L-cysteine through the modification of membrane proteins and lipids.

  2. Antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk: is -80°C optimal temperature for freeze storage?

    PubMed

    Sari, Fatma Nur; Akdag, Arzu; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-06-01

    To determine total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status in fresh and freeze stored (at -80°C) breast milk during the stages of lactation. Samples of colostrum, transitional and mature milk were collected from 44 healthy women at 3, 8 and 30 days after birth. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for two months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status. Antioxidant capacity of transitional and mature milk decreased (p = 0.0001, p = 0.028, respectively); however, antioxidant capacity of colostrum did not change by storage at -80°C (p > 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk significantly decreased during the stages of lactation (p < 0.0001, p = 0.028, respectively). Total oxidation status showed no significant difference in fresh and stored breast milk during the stages of lactation (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of breast milk at -80°C for two months seems not to be the optimal condition to preserve the antioxidant capacity of breast milk.

  3. Antioxidant Capacity, Anticancer Ability and Flavonoids Composition of 35 Citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Qian, Jing; Cao, Jinping; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Yang, Rongxi; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde

    2017-07-05

    Citrus ( Citrus reticulate Blanco) is one of the most commonly consumed and widely distributed fruit in the world, which is possessing extensive bioactivities. Present study aimed to fully understand the flavonoids compositions, antioxidant capacities and in vitro anticancer abilities of different citrus resources. Citrus fruits of 35 varieties belonging to 5 types (pummelos, oranges, tangerines, mandarins and hybrids) were collected. Combining li quid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD), a total of 39 flavonoid compounds were identified, including 4 flavones, 9 flavanones and 26 polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs). Each citrus fruit was examined and compared by 4 parts, flavedo, albedo, segment membrane and juice sacs. The juice sacs had the lowest total phenolics, following by the segment membrane. Four antioxidant traits including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were applied for the antioxidant capacities evaluation. Three gastric cancer cell lines, SGC-7901, BGC-823 and AGS were applied for the cytotoxicity evaluation. According to the results of correlation analysis, phenolics compounds might be the main contributor to the antioxidant activity of citrus extracts, while PMFs existing only in the flavedo might be closely related to the gastric cancer cell line cytotoxicity of citrus extracts. The results of present study might provide a theoretical guidance for the utilization of citrus resources.

  4. Structurally modified pectin for targeted lipid antioxidant capacity in linseed/sunflower oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Celus, Miete; Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Kyomugasho, Clare; Maes, Ine; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-02-15

    The present work explored the lipid antioxidant capacity of citrus pectin addition to 5%(w/v) linseed/sunflower oil emulsions stabilized with 0.5%(w/v) Tween 80, as affected by pectin molecular characteristics. The peroxide formation in the emulsions, containing tailored pectin structures, was studied during two weeks of storage at 35°C. Low demethylesterified pectin (≤33%) exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than high demethylesterified pectin (≥58%), probably due to its higher chelating capacity of pro-oxidative metal ions (Fe 2+ ), whereas the distribution pattern of methylesters along the pectin chain only slightly affected the antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, pectin addition to the emulsions caused emulsion destabilization probably due to depletion or bridging effect, independent of the pectin structural characteristics. These results evidence the potential of structurally modified citrus pectin as a natural antioxidant in emulsions. However, optimal conditions for emulsion stability should be carefully selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of drying treatments on antioxidant capacity of forage legume leaves.

    PubMed

    Sang, Saw Yei; Jamharee, Fazrina; Prasad, K Nagendra; Azlan, Azrina; Maliki, Nurzillah

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant capacities of four common forage legume leaves namely, Arachis pintoi (Pintoi), Calapogonium mucunoides (Calapo), Centrosema pubescens (Centro), and Stylosanthes guanensis (Stylo). Two different drying methods (oven-drying and freeze-drying) were employed and antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assays. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Freeze-dried extract showed the highest antioxidant activities by DPPH (EC50 values 1.17-2.13 mg/ml), FRAP (147.08-246.42 μM of Fe(2+)/g), and β-carotene bleaching (57.11-78.60%) compared to oven drying. Hence, freeze drying treatment could be considered useful in retention of antioxidant activity and phenolic content.

  6. Antioxidant Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Quality Improvement of Fermented Sausage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Hu, Ping; Lou, Lijiao; Zhan, Jianlong; Fan, Min; Li, Dan; Liao, Qianwei

    2017-12-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus (SR6) and Lactobacillus paracasei (SR10-1) were assessed for their antioxidant activities and inoculated into sausages to investigate their effects on quality during fermentation. The results showed that L. curvatus SR6 had better DPPH• scavenging activity (59.67% ± 6.68%) and reducing power (47.31% ± 4.62%) and L. paracasei SR10-1 had better OH• scavenging activity (285.67% ± 2.00%) and anti-lipid peroxidation capacity (63.89% ± 0.93%). The superoxide dismutase activity of the cell culture fluid was greater than 47.00 U/mL, and the catalase activity of the cell-free extracts was greater than 1.00 U/mL. In the sausage model, lactic acid bacteria rapidly became the dominant microflora and reduced the moisture content, water activity, nitrite, and pH. The bacteria significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of the sausage extracts, which improved the sensory characteristics and safety of the sausages. These results illustrate that both strains have excellent antioxidant activities and can be used as antioxidant starters in fermented meat products. The study illustrated the antioxidant and antioxidase activities of Lactobacillus curvatus SR6 and Lactobacillus paracasei SR10-1 and demonstrated the changes in the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of fermented sausages. The findings provide valuable information for the meat industry on the application of functional starters in fermented meat products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity: Experimental Determination by EPR Spectroscopy and Mathematical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Chorążewski, Mirosław

    2015-07-22

    A new method of determining antioxidant capacity based on a mathematical model is presented in this paper. The model was fitted to 1000 data points of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy measurements of various food product samples such as tea, wine, juice, and herbs with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values from 20 to 2000 μmol TE/100 mL. The proposed mathematical equation allows for a determination of TEAC of food products based on a single EPR spectroscopy measurement. The model was tested on the basis of 80 EPR spectroscopy measurements of herbs, tea, coffee, and juice samples. The proposed model works for both strong and weak antioxidants (TEAC values from 21 to 2347 μmol TE/100 mL). The determination coefficient between TEAC values obtained experimentally and TEAC values calculated with proposed mathematical equation was found to be R(2) = 0.98. Therefore, the proposed new method of TEAC determination based on a mathematical model is a good alternative to the standard EPR method due to its being fast, accurate, inexpensive, and simple to perform.

  8. Comparison of ozone-specific (OZAC) and oxygen radical (ORAC) antioxidant capacity assays for use with nasal lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Joseph M; Santiag, Lizzie Y; Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz; Ultman, James S

    2011-10-01

    Antioxidants in respiratory mucus protect the underlying airway epithelium from damage by ozone (O(3)), a common outdoor air pollutant. To understand O(3)-antioxidant interactions and the variation of these interactions among individuals, in vitro assays are needed to measure the total antioxidant capacity of airway lavage fluid, a convenient source of (diluted) mucous samples. Here, we compare the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), a general method that uses peroxyl radicals as a reactive substance, to the recently developed ozone specific antioxidant capacity (OZAC), a procedure that directly employs O(3). For prepared model mucous antioxidant solutions containing uric acid, ascorbic acid or glutathione, the ORAC and OZAC methods yielded comparable antioxidant capacities. The addition of EDTA or DETAPAC, necessary to prevent auto-oxidation of test solutions during the ORAC assay, unpredictably altered ORAC measurements. EDTA did not have a significant effect on OZAC measurements in either prepared uric acid or ascorbic acid solutions. When assessing antioxidant capacities of nasal lavage samples, the ORAC and OZAC assays were no longer comparable. Because the OZAC of nasal lavage samples was positively related to measured uric acid concentrations whereas the ORAC data were not, the OZAC method appears to provide more realistic mucous antioxidant capacities than the ORAC method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effect of processing on the antioxidant capacity of the plum (Prunus domestica)].

    PubMed

    Valero, Yolmar; Colina, Jhoana; Ineichen, Emilio

    2012-12-01

    Fruits are considered sources of antioxidant compounds whose properties could impair due to processing. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of blanching and osmotic dehydration on the total polyphenols content, tannins and antioxidant capacity of plums (Prunus domestica) in yellow and red varieties. The total phenolic content in plums was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins were determined by vanillin assay. The antiradical efficiency (AE) and ferric reducing power (FRP) were used to estimate the total antioxidant capacity. The content of total polyphenols and tannins were higher in the red plum. The content of polyphenols in the pulp was higher that the peel while for tannins the opposite was observed in both varieties. The red plum had higher antioxidant capacity. The AE was low and slow kinetics for the two varieties. There was a linear correlation between polyphenols and tannins with antiradical efficiency; however, there was no correlation with the reducing power. The total polyphenols content was increased with blanching, while the tannins and the AE decreased, ferric reducing power is unaffected. For osmotic dehydration, the tannins and the AE were decreased, while the total polyphenols content and ferric reducing power are unaffected. It is recommended the blanched as an alternative to consumption and conservation in the plum.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Teucrium arduini L. (Lamiaceae) flower and leaf infusions (Teucrium arduini L. antioxidant capacity).

    PubMed

    Samec, D; Gruz, J; Strnad, M; Kremer, D; Kosalec, I; Grubesić, R Jurisić; Karlović, K; Lucic, A; Piljac-Zegarac, J

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as total phenol (TP, Folin-Ciocalteu method) and phenolic acid (UPLC-MS/MS) contents of leaf and flower infusions of Teucrium arduini L. from six different mountainous localities in Croatia (Ucka, Vosac, Sveti Jure, Snjeznica, Vaganac, Susanj) were analysed in this study. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The antioxidant potency composite index (ACI), giving equal weight to all three methods used to quantify antioxidant capacity, was the highest for the sample from Vosac (96.7) among flower infusions, while maximum ACI (100) was determined for the infusion from Ucka among leaf infusions. Strong positive correlation was found between the total phenols and ACI for leaf (r=0.953) and flower (r=0.977) infusions. Our results point to significantly (p<0.05) different TP content between leaf and flower infusions, as well as across localities. Leaf infusions of T. arduini from Susanj exhibited marked antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, while none of the tested infusions exhibited antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacterial species, or the tested fungal species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavor profile change of pomegranate wine during fermentation and aging process.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yongli; Wu, Jin; Wang, Xuejiao; Sun, Xuchun; Hackman, Robert M; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2017-10-01

    Antioxidant properties and flavor characteristic profile of pomegranate wine during winemaking were investigated. The total phenol content and radical scavenging activity exhibited a slightly decrease in the end edge. Punicalagins and gallic acid were revealed to be the most abundant phenolic compounds, followed by ellagic acid and vanillic acid. These constituents were mainly responsible for the effective antioxidant capacity of pomegranate wine. The major changes of flavor qualities occurred in the initial stage, particularly 0-4day of fermentation. Fermentation significantly reduced the relative content of aldehydes, ketones, heterocyclic and aromatic compounds, but promoted the generation of esters and alcohols. This is the first time of using E-nose and E-tongue to monitor odour and taste changes in the brewing process of pomegranate wine. The study may provide a promising instruction for improving functional features and quality control of the pomegranate wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of selected plant leaves commonly consumed in Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watu, Aswani; Metussin, Nurzaidah; Yasin, Hartini M.; Usman, Anwar

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the total antioxidant capacity and fluorescence imaging of several selected plants, namely Centella asiatica, Aidia borneensis and Anacardium occidentale, which are grown and traditionally consumed in Brunei Darussalam. The total antioxidant capacities of aqueous-methanolic infusions of their leaves were measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and microscopic fluorescence images were measured to identify the fluorescent substances bound in the leaves. We found that the total antioxidant capacity of their infusions is estimated to be 150, 25, 15 folds, respectively, lower compared with that of the standard gallic acid. Accordingly, we demonstrated that the relative antioxidant activity of young and matured leaves agrees with the intensity of red light emission of their fresh leaves upon UV excitation. Thus, this non-invasive spectroscopic method can be potentially utilized to indicate the antioxidants in plant leaves qualitatively.

  13. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 m...

  14. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.f.) from the Cerrado and Amazon biomes.

    PubMed

    Cândido, T L N; Silva, M R; Agostini-Costa, T S

    2015-06-15

    Pulp of buriti palms (Mauritia flexuosa L.f.) from two Brazilian regions had their phenolic and carotenoid contents and antioxidant capacity evaluated through different methods (ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and ORAC). Buriti pulp from the Cerrado presented higher phenolic levels (435.08 mg AGE 100 g(-1)) and elevated antioxidant capacity in all tests. The fruits from the Amazon region had a higher total carotenoid content (52.86 mg 100 g(-1)). Carotenoid profile has confirmed β-carotene predominance in both regions studied. The buritis' region of origin influenced bioactive compound contents and antioxidant capacity of the fruits analyzed. A significant positive correlation (r ⩽ 0.95; p<0.05) was observed between total phenolics and antioxidant capacity through the different methods applied. Results showed promising prospects for the future exploitation of buriti fruits as a potential source of carotenoids and natural antioxidants. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of monochromatic light on quality properties and antioxidation of meat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ke, Y Y; Liu, W J; Wang, Z X; Chen, Y X

    2011-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that blue monochromatic light was better to promote the growth and development of broilers than red light. However, consumer research suggests that the eating quality of the meat is more important. The present study was, therefore, designed to further evaluate the effects of various monochromatic lights on the muscle growth and quality properties and antioxidation of meat. A total of 288 newly hatched Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL), and white light (WL) by a light-emitting diode system for 49 d, respectively. Results showed that the broilers reared under BL significantly increased BW and carcass yield as compared with RL, WL, and GL (P < 0.05), but no statistical difference was found between GL and BL in weight of thigh muscle and carcass yield (P > 0.05). Compared with RL, the muscles of breast and thigh in GL and BL had higher pH, water-holding capacity, and protein content, whereas cooking loss, lightness value, shear value, and fat content were lower (P < 0.05). Moreover, BL significantly elevated superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capability activities and reduced malondialdehyde content both in breast and thigh muscles as compared with RL and WL (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities between GL and BL (P > 0.05). These results suggest that BL better improves meat quality of Arbor Acre broilers by elevating antioxidative capacity than does RL.

  16. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, Hadis; Daneshzad, Elnaz; Surkan, Pamela J; Azadbakht, Leila

    2018-05-01

    Measurement of dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) is considered a new holistic dietary approach and assesses total antioxidants present in the overall diet. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive review of the literature on the association between DTAC and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were used to conduct a comprehensive search for articles published on this topic through September 2017. There was no limit on earliest year of publication. The search was based on the following keywords: dietary total antioxidant capacity, nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, ferric reducing ability of plasma, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), waist circumference (WC), insulin resistance, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin, obesity, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), blood pressure (BP), and body mass index. In total, 16 papers were identified for inclusion in the present systematic review. Most well-designed studies that evaluated associations between DTAC and CVD risk factors showed inverse associations for fasting blood glucose, CRP, BP, and WC and positive associations for HDL-C. However, there was no association between DTAC and LDL-C or TC in any of the studies. Results regarding the association of DTAC with insulin, HOMA-IR, high-sensitivity CRP, and TG in the published literature were inconsistent. Findings indicated a substantial association between high DTAC and most CVD-related risk factors.

  17. Development of a low-cost optical sensor for cupric reducing antioxidant capacity measurement of food extracts.

    PubMed

    Bener, Mustafa; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2010-05-15

    A low-cost optical sensor using an immobilized chromogenic redox reagent was devised for measuring the total antioxidant level in a liquid sample without requiring sample pretreatment. The reagent, copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) complex, was immobilized onto a cation-exchanger film of Nafion, and the absorbance changes associated with the formation of the highly colored Cu(I)-Nc chelate as a result of reaction with antioxidants was measured at 450 nm. The sensor gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of standard antioxidant compounds. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values of various antioxidants reported in this work using the optical sensor-based "cupric reducing antioxidant capacity" (CUPRAC) assay were comparable to those of the standard solution-based CUPRAC assay, showing that the immobilized Cu(II)-Nc reagent retained its reactivity toward antioxidants. Common food ingredients like oxalate, citrate, fruit acids, and reducing sugars did not interfere with the proposed sensing method. This assay was validated through linearity, additivity, precision, and recovery, demonstrating that the assay is reliable and robust. The developed optical sensor was used to screen total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of some commercial fruit juices without preliminary treatment and showed a promising potential for the preparation of antioxidant inventories of a wide range of food plants.

  18. The impact of high pressure processing on the phenolic profile, hydrophilic antioxidant and reducing capacity of purée obtained from commercial tomato varieties.

    PubMed

    Jeż, Maja; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Zielińska, Danuta; Białobrzewski, Ireneusz; Błaszczak, Wioletta

    2018-09-30

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (450-550-650 MPa/5-10-15 min) on polyphenols profile of purée obtained from commercial tomato varieties (Maliniak, Cerise, Black Prince and Lima) was investigated. Individual polyphenols, total phenolic index (TPI) were quantified using a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). Photochemiluminescence (PCLACW), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic extract. The results demonstrated that at certain processing conditions, HHP may enhance or decrease the nutritional quality of tomato purée. However, the tomato variety was a key factor influencing the polyphenols profile and the antioxidant capacity. A significant positive correlation was found among TPI, FRAP or CV parameters and the concentration of caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and p-coumaric acids, and epicatechin. On the other hand, significant positive correlation was observed among antioxidant capacity (PCLACW), TPC, rutin and naringenin concentration as well as chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. This beneficial effect on the human organism is ascribed to the antioxidant compounds these foods contain. Unfortunately, many products, particularly vegetables, need to be subjected to thermal processing before consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins). Fractions of violet and yellow pigments were obtained by separation of betalain pigments from fresh roots of 3 red beet cultivars using column chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE). The betalain pigment content was determined in all samples before and after thermal treatment (90°C/30 min) by spectrophotometry, according to Nilsson's method [1970] and antioxidant capacity was assessed based on ABTS. Betalain pigments in the separated fractions were identified using HPLC-MS. After thermal treatment of betacyanin fractions a slight, but statistically significant degradation of pigments was observed, while the antioxidant capacity of these fractions did not change markedly. Losses of betacyanin content amounted to 13-15% depending on the cultivar, while losses of antioxidant capacity were approx. 7%. HPLC/MS analyses showed that before heating, betanin was the dominant pigment in the betacyanin fraction, while after heating it was additionally 15-decarboxy-betanin. Isolated fractions of yellow pigments in red beets are three times less heat-resistant than betacyanin fractions. At losses of yellow pigment contents in the course of thermal treatment reaching 47%, antioxidant capacity did not change markedly (a decrease by approx. 5%). In the yellow pigment fractions neobetanin was the dominant peak in the HPLC chromatogram, while vulgaxanthin was found in a much smaller area, whereas after heating

  20. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers.

    PubMed

    Lovrić, Vanja; Putnik, Predrag; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Jukić, Marijana; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2017-06-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70% aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95% confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70% aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50% aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  1. Microbial Biotransformation of a Polyphenol-Rich Potato Extract Affects Antioxidant Capacity in a Simulated Gastrointestinal Model

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Joelle; Sadeghi Ekbatan, Shima; Sabally, Kebba; Iskandar, Michèle M.; Hussain, Raza; Sleno, Lekha; Rodes, Laetitia; Prakash, Satya

    2018-01-01

    A multistage human gastrointestinal model was used to digest a polyphenol-rich potato extract containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin as the primary polyphenols, to assess for their microbial biotransformation and to measure changes in antioxidant capacity in up to 24 h of digestion. The biotransformation of polyphenols was assessed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Among the colonic reactors, parent (poly)phenols were detected in the ascending (AC), but not the transverse (TC) or descending (DC) colons. The most abundant microbial phenolic metabolites in all colonic reactors included derivatives of propionic acid, acetic acid, and benzoic acid. As compared to the baseline, an earlier increase in antioxidant capacity (T = 8 h) was seen in the stomach and small intestine vessels as compared to the AC (T = 16 h) and TC and DC (T = 24 h). The increase in antioxidant capacity observed in the DC and TC can be linked to the accumulation of microbial smaller-molecular-weight phenolic catabolites, as the parent polyphenolics had completely degraded in those vessels. The colonic microbial digestion of potato-based polyphenols could lead to improved colonic health, as this generates phenolic metabolites with significant antioxidant potential. PMID:29558385

  2. Enrichment of Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin E in Pita Made from Barley.

    PubMed

    Do, Thi Thu Dung; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Box, Amanda; Able, Amanda J

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to enhance total antioxidant and vitamin E content of pita bread, by replacing 50% of the standard baker's flour with flours milled from covered (WI2585 and Harrington) or hulless (Finniss) barley genotypes, previously shown to have high antioxidant and vitamin E levels at harvest. Pita breads were made from either 100% baker's flour (control) or 50% malt flour, whole-grain flour, or flour from barley grains pearled at 10%, 15%, and 20% grain weight. Antioxidant capacity and vitamin E content of flours and pitas were determined by their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The physical and sensory properties of the pitas were also assessed. All pitas made from either whole grain or pearled barley flour had a higher antioxidant capacity and most also had higher vitamin E content than standard pita. The antioxidant and vitamin E levels were reduced in pearled compared to whole grains, however the extent of that reduction varied among genotypes. The greatest antioxidant and vitamin E levels were found in pita made from malt flour or Finniss whole grain flour. Furthermore, sensory analysis suggested these pitas were acceptable to consumers and retained similar physical and sensory properties to those in the control pita. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Total phenolic, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of selected elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L.) accessions

    PubMed Central

    Özgen, Mustafa; Scheerens, Joseph C.; Reese, R. Neil; Miller, Raymond A.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen purple-black American elderberry accessions (Sambucus canadensis L.) obtained from various sites in midwestern USA and then grown at a single Ohio production site in USA were analyzed for their total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents and for their antioxidant capacity by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH radical scavenging assays. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the pH differential methods, respectively. Overall, the phytonutrient contents and antioxidant capacity of our elderberry accessions were similar to those typically reported for black raspberries, blackberries and other dark-fleshed small fruits. Variability among accessions was greatest for TMA content (CV 37.5%); individuals ranged nearly threefold from 1308 to 4004 μg cy3-GE/g on a fresh weight basis. Variation among accessions was also evident for TP, FRAP and DPPH values (CV 14.4, 21.7 and 26.8%, respectively). TP and TMA values were very highly correlated (r = 0.93), although individuals differed in the estimated proportion of total phenolics attributable to anthocyanins. Both TP and TMA also highly correlated to antioxidant capacity values (r = 0.70–0.85). Within this limited study of 14 accessions, variability for phytonutrient content and antioxidant capacity suggested the employment of wild germplasm within an elderberry improvement program to incorporate an array of superior horticultural, post-harvest or processing traits into new or existing cultivars with superior phytonutrient profiles. PMID:20931079

  4. The impact of red cabbage fermentation on bioavailability of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of human plasma.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Romaszko, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The effect of red cabbage fermentation on anthocyanin bioavailability and plasma antioxidant capacity in humans was studied. In a randomized crossover study, 13 volunteers consumed fresh and fermented red cabbage. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after consumption. Analyses of anthocyanins by HPLC-MS/MS and plasma antioxidant capacity by photochemiluminescence assay were conducted. Red cabbage products contained 20 different nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins with the main structure of cyanidin triglucosides. The anthocyanins ingested were present in physiological fluids in form of 18 native anthocyanins and 12 metabolites (methylated, glucuronided, sulfated). Among cyanidin metabolites identified, methylated forms were predominant. Bioavailability of anthocyanin from fresh red cabbage was over 10% higher than from fermented red cabbage. Upon fresh cabbage consumption, volunteers plasma showed higher antioxidant capacity than after fermented cabbage intake. The study has shown that fermentation process affects red cabbage anthocyanins bioavailability and human plasma antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemiluminescence analysis of antioxidant capacity for serum albumin isolated from healthy or uremic volunteers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Liou, Show-Yih; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Chang, Yen-Lin; Chen, Tung-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Regular hemodialysis treatment induces an elevation in oxidative stress in patients with end-stage renal failure, resulting in oxidative damage of the most abundant serum protein, albumin. Oxidation of serum albumin causes depletion of albumin reactive thiols, leading to oxidative modification of serum albumin. The aim of this study was to screen the antioxidant capacity of albumins isolated from uremic patients (HD-ALB) or healthy volunteers (N-ALB). From high-performance liquid chromatography spectra, we observed that one uremic solute binds to HD-ALB via the formation of disulfide bonds between HD-ALB and the uremic solute. Furthermore, we found using chemiluminescent analysis that the antioxidant capacities for N-ALB to scavenge reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide were higher than HD-ALB. Our results suggest that protein-bound uremic solute binds to albumin via formation of disulfide bonds, resulting in the depletion of albumin reactive thiols. The depletion of albumin reactive thiols leads to a reduced antioxidant capacity of HD-ALB, implying postmodification of albumin. This situation may reduce the antioxidant capacity of albumin and increase oxidative stress, resulting in increase in complications related to oxidative damage in uremic patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Results Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 ± 0.45, 20 ± 0.35, 20 ± 0.57, and 15 ± 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Conclusion Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. PMID:23870710

  7. Dietary Antioxidant Capacity and Its Association with Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mahdiyeh; Sharifi-Zahabi, Elham; Paknahad, Zamzam

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the major disorders in pregnancy leading to many adverse maternal outcomes. Although the etiology of PE is not fully understood, resent studies suggest that an imbalance between free radicals production and the antioxidant defense system might have key role. Our aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum TAC and risk of PE in women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. This case-control study conducted on 55 women with preeclampsia and 93 with normal pregnancy. Dietary intakes were obtained by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 168 itmes. Dietary TAC was assessed according to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Database for oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), Release 2. Serum TAC was measured by a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). After adjusting for energy, pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) and history of PE, no relationship was found between intake of hydrophilic-ORAC (H-ORAC), lipophilic-ORAC (L-ORAC), total phenolics (TP), total-ORAC (T-ORAC), and PE risk. However, serum TAC had a significant positive relationship with the risk of PE after adjusting for energy (odds ratio [OR], 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.35), BMI and history of PE (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.32). Findings of this study indicate that serum TAC is positively associated with the risk of PE but no association was found between intake of antioxidant indices and PE risk.

  8. Elicitation and treatment with precursors of phenolics synthesis improve low-molecular antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an increase of interest in the modification of food products on each step of production (breeding, production technology, storage condition) is observed. Nutritional properties as well as level and activity of bioactive compounds in plant-origin food may be modified using a range of technological and biotechnological practices and elicitation should be mentioned between them. Elicitation with willow bark infusion supported by feeding with the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors were used for improving the quality of buckwheat sprouts. Special emphasis has been placed on the metabolomic and biochemical changes and the mechanism of overproduction of low-molecular antioxidants. The accumulation of phenolics is caused by stimulation of two main enzymes the phenylpropanoid pathway (tyrosine ammonia-lyase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase). Tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities were effectively induced by feeding with tyrosine (about four times that of the control), whereas phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was the highest in the elicited control sprouts and those fed with shikimic acid (an increase by 60% compared to the control). Shikimic acid feeding (both elicited and non-elicited sprouts) effectively improved the total phenolics (by about 10% and 20%, respectively), condensed tannins (by about 30% and 28%, respectively), and flavonoids (by about 46% and 70%, respectively). Significant increase of vitexin, rutin, chlorogenic acid and isoorientin contents was also observed. The treatments increased the ascorbic acid content, too. Total antioxidant capacity of sprouts was most effectively increased by feeding with shikimic acid and further elicitation. The studies transfer biotechnology commonly used for the induction of overproduction of secondary metabolites in plant cell line systems to low-processed food production. The obtained results could be used for better understanding of the effect of elicitation and precursor feeding on antioxidants production and

  9. Functional beverage of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhuohong; Sintara, Marsha; Chang, Tony; Ou, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the absorption and antioxidant effect of a mangosteen-based functional beverage in humans. The beverage contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with generally healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 60 years of age. Ten men and 10 women participated in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups, treatment and placebo group. Participants received either a daily single dose (245 mL) of the beverage or a placebo. Blood samples were collected from each participant at time points 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. The plasma samples were analyzed by LC/MS for α-mangostin and vitamins B2 and B5. Results indicated that the three analytes were bioavailable, with observed Cmax at around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 60% after 1 h, and the elevated antioxidant level lasted at least 6 h. This study demonstrated the bioavailability of α-mangostin and B vitamins from a xanthone-rich beverage and the mechanisms of the increase in plasma antioxidant may be direct effects from antioxidants, enhancement of endogenous antioxidant activity through activation of Nrf2 pathway, and synergism of the antioxidants. PMID:25649891

  10. Postoperative atrial fibrillation and total dietary antioxidant capacity in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: The Polyphemus Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Simona; De Curtis, Amalia; di Niro, Veronica; Olivieri, Marco; Morena, Mariarosaria; De Filippo, Carlo Maria; Caradonna, Eugenio; Krogh, Vittorio; Serafini, Mauro; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2015-04-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for stroke after cardiac surgery. Both systemic inflammation and oxidative stress play a role in the initiation of postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. The possible association between long-term intake of antioxidant-rich foods and postoperative atrial fibrillation incidence was examined in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 217 consecutive patients (74% were men; median age, 68.4 years) undergoing cardiac surgery, mainly coronary artery bypass grafting and valve replacement or repair, were recruited from January 2010 to September 2012. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in foods by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire was used for dietary total antioxidant capacity assessment. The association among tertiles of dietary total antioxidant capacity and postoperative atrial fibrillation incidence was assessed using multivariable logistic analysis. The overall incidence of total arrhythmias and postoperative atrial fibrillation was 42.4% and 38.2%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, after adjustment for age, gender, use of hypoglycemic drugs, physical activity, education, previous diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, and total energy intake, patients in the highest tertile of dietary total antioxidant capacity had a lower risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation than patients in the 2 lowest tertiles (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.95; P = .048). A restricted cubic spline transformation confirmed the nonlinear relationship between total antioxidant capacity (in continuous scale) and postoperative atrial fibrillation (P = .023). When considering only coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement/repair, and combined surgeries, the protective effect on postoperative atrial fibrillation of a diet rich in antioxidants was

  11. A novel differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method for measuring the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols-reducing cupric neocuproine complex.

    PubMed

    Tufan, Ayşe Nur; Baki, Sefa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Özyürek, Mustafa; Apak, Reşat

    2014-07-23

    A novel differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method is presented, using a chromogenic oxidizing reagent, cupric neocuproine complex (Cu(Nc)2(2+)), for the assessment of antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic compounds (i.e., flavonoids, simple phenolic acids, and hydroxycinnamic acids), ascorbic acid, and real samples for the first time. The electrochemical behavior of the Cu(Nc)2(2+) complex was studied by cyclic voltammetry at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The electroanalytical method was based on the reduction of Cu(Nc)2(2+) to Cu(Nc)2(+) by antioxidants and electrochemical detection of the remaining Cu(II)-Nc (unreacted complex), the difference being correlated to antioxidant capacity of the analytes. The calibration curves of individual compounds comprising polyphenolics and vitamin C were constructed, and their response sensitivities and linear concentration ranges were determined. The reagent on the GC electrode retained its reactivity toward antioxidants, and the measured trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values of various antioxidants suggested that the reactivity of the Cu(II)-Nc reagent is comparable to that of the solution-based spectrophotometric cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay. This electroanalytical method better tolerated sample turbidity and provided higher sensitivity (i.e., lower detection limits) in antioxidant determination than the spectrophotometric assay. The proposed method was successfully applied to the measurement of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in some herbal tea samples such as green tea, sage, marjoram, and alchemilla. Results demonstrated that the proposed voltammetric method has precision and accuracy comparable to those of the spectrophotometric CUPRAC assay.

  12. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacities and Cytotoxic Effects of Ten Parmeliaceae Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    González-Burgos, E.; Divakar, P. K.; Crespo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Parmeliaceae represents the largest and widespread family of lichens and includes species that attract much interest regarding pharmacological activities, due to their production of unique secondary metabolites. The current work aimed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extracts of ten Parmeliaceae species, collected in different continents. Methanol extraction afforded high phenolic content in the extracts. The antioxidant activity displayed by lichens was evaluated through chemical assays, such as the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). A moderately positive correlation was found between the phenolic content and the antioxidant properties for all the species: R: 0.7430 versus ORAC values, R: 0.7457 versus DPPH scavenging capacity, and R: 0.7056 versus FRAP reducing power. The methanol extract of Flavoparmelia euplecta exhibited the highest ORAC value, the extract of Myelochroa irrugans showed the maximum DPPH scavenging capacity, and Hypotrachyna cirrhata methanol extract demonstrated the highest reducing power. Further, the cytotoxic activity of the ten species was investigated on the human cancer cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7; Myelochroa irrugans exhibited the highest anticancer potential. The pharmacological activities shown here could be attributed to their phytochemical constituents. PMID:28074101

  13. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity of different varieties of strawberry and the antioxidant stability in storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyang; Huang, Wu-Yang; Wang, Xing-Na; Liu, Wen-Xu

    2013-01-25

    Total antioxidant capacity of different varieties of strawberry (Ningfeng, Ningyu, Zijin 4, Toyonoka, Benihope, Sweet Charlie) in different developmental stages (including green unripe stages, half red stages, and red ripe stages) was investigated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In addition, effects of the antioxidant properties of strawberry stored at 4 °C or -18 °C for a period of five months were studied. The results showed that antioxidant capacity of strawberry changed based on tested part, developmental stage, variety, and time of collection. Calyces had significantly higher ORAC values compared with fruits. Strawberry fruits had higher ORAC values during the green unripe stages than the half red stages and red ripe stages. Strawberries got higher ORAC values during short-time storage, and then decreased during long-time storage. Samples stored at -18 °C exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than those stored at 4 °C, while vacuum treatment could further increase ORAC values. The results indicated the potential market role of strawberries as a functional food and could provide great value in preventing oxidation reaction in food processing and storage for the dietary industry.

  14. Antioxidant Capacities, Phenolic Profile and Cytotoxic Effects of Saxicolous Lichens from Trans-Himalayan Cold Desert of Ladakh

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jatinder; Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B.; Gupta, Damodar; Chaurasia, Om P.; Upreti, Dalip K.; Arora, Rajesh; Srivastava, Ravi B.

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used

  15. Association between daily walking and antioxidant capacity in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Montgomery, Polly S; Zhao, Yan D; Silva-Palacios, Federico; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Sonntag, William E

    2017-06-01

    The primary aim of the study was to assess whether both the amount and pace of daily walking were associated with circulating antioxidant capacity in symptomatic patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Community-based walking was measured in 244 men and women who were limited by symptomatic PAD during a 1-week period in which they wore an ankle-mounted step activity monitor. Patients were further characterized by circulating antioxidant capacity with the OxiSelect (Cell Biolabs Inc, San Diego, Calif) hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC) activity assay. To assess the amount of walking, patients were grouped into low (≤2440 strides/d), middle (2441-3835 strides/d), and high (>3835 strides/d) stride tertiles. HORAC was higher in the middle (P = .03) and high (P = .01) stride tertiles than in the low tertile, but there was no difference between middle and high tertiles (P = .44). To assess the pace of walking, patients were grouped into slow (<25.0 strides/min), middle (25.0-31.6 strides/min), and fast (>31.6 strides/min) cadence tertiles. HORAC was higher in the high cadence tertile than in the low (P < .01) and middle (P < .01) tertiles, but there was no difference between low and middle tertiles (P = .48). Similar findings were obtained on group differences in HORAC after adjusting for age, sex, race, and ankle-brachial index for both the amount and pace of daily walking. Walking >2440 strides each day and walking at a cadence faster than 31.6 strides/min for 30 minutes each day are both associated with greater circulating antioxidant capacity in symptomatic patients with PAD. The clinical significance is that a home-based walking program may be one approach to increase endogenous antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< .05). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in watermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (P< .05). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in DSS-treated rats when watermelon was consumed (P< .05). Fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was significantly downregulated in the watermelon group without DSS (P< .05). These findings indicate that watermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid

  17. Effect of antioxidant oxidation potential in the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assay.

    PubMed

    Bisby, Roger H; Brooke, Rachel; Navaratnam, Suppiah

    2008-06-01

    The "oxygen radical absorption capacity" (ORAC) assay (Ou, B., Hampsch-Woodill, M., Prior, R.L. (2001). Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, 4619-4626) is widely employed to determine antioxidant content of foods and uses fluorescein as a probe for oxidation by peroxyl radicals. Kinetic modeling of the ORAC assay suggests that the lag phase for loss of fluorescence results from equilibrium between antioxidant and fluorescein radicals and the value of the equilibrium constant determines the shape of the lag phase. For an efficient antioxidant this constitutes a "repair" reaction for fluoresceinyl radicals and produces a well defined lag phase. The lag phase becomes less marked with increasing oxidation potential of the antioxidant. Pulse radiolysis confirms that fluoresceinyl radicals are rapidly (k∼10(9)dm(3)mol(-1)s(-1)) reduced by Trolox C, a water soluble vitamin E analogue. ORAC assays of phenols with varying oxidation potentials suggest that it might be employed to obtain an estimate of the redox potential of antioxidants within food materials. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct measurement of total antioxidant capacity of cereals: QUENCHER-CUPRAC method.

    PubMed

    Tufan, Ayşe Nur; Celik, S Esin; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2013-04-15

    Polyphenols in cereal samples are distributed as free, soluble-esterified, and insoluble-bound forms either esterified or etherified to cell wall constituents. In the evaluation of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of cereals, rather difficult and time-consuming acid, alkaline and enzymatic treatments of residue have been applied to complete the extraction of bound phenolic compounds. Thus, this work is aimed to measure the TAC of cereals (i.e. barley, wheat, rye, oat) by the 'QUENCHER procedure' (involving forced solubilization of bound phenolics by oxidizing TAC reagents) with the direct use of copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) reagent of the CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) assay. In this novel 'QUENCHER-CUPRAC' method, reaction time and solvent composition parameters were optimized, and the method was applied to cereal samples with CUPRAC reagent dissolved in 1:1 (v/v) ethanol-water mixture. The antioxidant capacities of soluble and insoluble fractions were simultaneously measured to give a hierarchic TAC order of cereals as: barley>rye>oat>wheat. The TAC values of cereals measured by QUENCHER-CUPRAC were higher than those of original QUENCHER method using ABTS(•+) and DPPH reagents. Polyphenolic mixtures in a cellulose matrix gave additive TAC values with QUENCHER-CUPRAC. The proposed method correlated linearly with QUENCHER-ABTS(•+) (r=0.956) and QUENCHER-DPPH (r=0.976). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  20. Antioxidant capacity of different fractions of vegetables and correlation with the contents of ascorbic acid, phenolics, and flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Ji, Linlin; Wu, Jianquan; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Yang, Jijun; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of different fractions of 17 vegetables were analyzed using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP assay) after water and acetone extractions. The contents of ascorbic acid, phenolics, and flavonoids were determined and their correlations with FRAP value were investigated. The results showed that the peel or leaf fractions of vegetables were stronger than the pulp or stem fractions in antioxidant capacity based on total FRAP value. Lotus root peel was the highest and cucumber pulp the lowest in total FRAP value among the vegetable fractions analyzed. All water extracts were higher in FRAP value than the acetone extracts. The FRAP value was significantly correlated with the contents of ascorbic acid, phenolics, or flavonoids in water extracts, in which the phenolics contributed most based on multivariate regression analysis. We conclude that different vegetable fractions were remarkably different in antioxidant capacity. The phenolics are responsible mostly for the antioxidant capacity of vegetables in vitro. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The blood antioxidant defence capacity during intermittent hypoxic training in elite swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Poprzęcki, S; Zając, A; Karpiński, J; Wilk, R; Bril, G; Maszczyk, A; Toborek, M

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the chronic effect of simulated intermittent normobaric hypoxia on blood antioxidant defence capacity in swimmers. The study included 14 male and 14 female competitive swimmers performing part of land training under simulated intermittent normobaric hypoxia (O2 = 15.5%) or in normoxia. Land interval training took place twice per week, with a total of 8 training units during the study, performed with individualized intensity. The activities of blood antioxidant enzymes did not change significantly during the first and last training unit in the hypoxic and normoxic group. However, when comparing individual variables a significant effect of exercise was observed on GPx an CAT activities, whereas training units significantly differentiated GPx and GR activities. The oxygen conditions and gender had a significant influence on CAT activity. The total antioxidant capacity was not significantly affected. Only in male swimmers from the hypoxic group did the training significantly increase resting levels of MDA. In conclusion, training in normobaric hypoxia was not an adequate stimulus for the excessive response of the antioxidant defence system, despite increased oxidative stress in these conditions. PMID:28090139

  3. Blooming reduces the antioxidant capacity of dark chocolate in rats without lowering its capacity to improve lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Shadwell, Naomi; Villalobos, Fatima; Kern, Mark; Hong, Mee Young

    2013-05-01

    Dark chocolate contains high levels of antioxidants which are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate blooming occurs after exposure to high temperatures. Although bloomed chocolate is safe for human consumption, it is not known whether or not the biological function of bloomed chocolate is affected. We hypothesized that bloomed chocolate would reduce the antioxidant potential and lipid-lowering properties of chocolate through altered expression of related genes. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and fed either the control (CON), regular dark chocolate (RDC), or bloomed dark chocolate (BDC) diet. After 3 weeks, serum lipid levels and antioxidant capacity were measured. Hepatic expression of key genes was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensory characteristics of bloomed versus regular chocolate were assessed in 28 semi-trained panelists. Rats fed RDC exhibited greater serum antioxidant capacities compared to the CON (P < .05). Antioxidant levels of BDC were not different from RDC or CON. Both RDC and BDC lowered TG compared to CON (P < .05). The rats fed RDC had higher high-density lipoprotein levels compared to the CON (P < .05). In rats given RDC, fatty acid synthase gene expression was down-regulated and low-density lipoprotein receptor transcription was up-regulated (P < .05). Sensory panelists preferred the appearance and surface smoothness of the regular chocolate compared to bloomed chocolate (P < .001). Although blooming blunted the robust antioxidant response produced by regular dark chocolate, these results suggest that bloomed dark chocolate yields similarly beneficial effects on most blood lipid parameters or biomarkers. However, regular dark chocolate may be more beneficial for the improvement of antioxidant status and modulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and promoted greater sensory ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Steam-blanched highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) juice: phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar selection.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Ada; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Bertolo, Gianni; Torreggiani, Danila

    2008-04-23

    High-quality standards in blueberry juice can be obtained only taking into account fruit compositional variability and its preservation along the processing chain. In this work, five highbush blueberry cultivars from the same environmental growing conditions were individually processed into juice after an initial blanching step and the influence was studied of the cultivar on juice phenolic content, distribution and relative antioxidant activity, measured as scavenging capacity on the artificial free-radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). A chromatographic protocol was developed to separate all main phenolic compounds in berries. A total of 15 glycosylated anthocyanins, catechin, galactoside, glucoside, and rhamnoside quercetin 3-derivatives, and main benzoic and cinnamic acids were identified. The total content and relative distribution in anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin of each juice were dependent upon cultivar, and the total content was highly correlated (rxy=0.97) to the antioxidant capacity. A selective protective effect of berry blanching in juice processing can be observed on more labile anthocyanin compounds.

  5. Effect of ascorbic acid postharvest treatment on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Małgorzata; Świeca, Michał

    2018-01-15

    Enzymatic browning limits the postharvest life of minimally processed foods, thus the study selected the optimal inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and evaluated their effect on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts. The sprouts treated with 2mM and 20mM ascorbic acid had a lowered PPO activity; compared to the control by 51% and 60%, respectively. The inhibition was reflected in a significant decrease in enzymatic browning. The sprouts treated with 20mM ascorbic acid had 22% and 23% higher phenolic content after 3 and 7days of storage, respectively. Both storage and ascorbic acid treatment increased potential bioaccessibility of phenolics. Generally, there was no effect of the treatments on the antioxidant capacity; however, a significant increase in the reducing potential was determined for the sprouts washed with 20mM ascorbic acid. In conclusion, ascorbic acid treatments may improve consumer quality of stored sprouts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vegetable and fruit juice enhances antioxidant capacity and regulates antioxidant gene expression in rat liver, brain and colon

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Linhong; Liu, Jinmeng; Zhen, Jie; Xu, Yao; Chen, Shuying; Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas Van; Xiao, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To explore the effect of fruit and vegetable (FV) juice on biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant gene expression in rats, 36 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, low FV juice dosage or high FV juice dosage treatment groups. The rats were given freshly extracted FV juice or the same volume of saline water daily for five weeks. After intervention, serum and tissues specimens were collected for biomarker and gene expression measurement. FV juice intervention increased total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, vitamin C, β-carotene, total polyphenols, flavonoids levels andglutathione peroxidaseenzyme activity in rat serum or tissues (p < 0.05). FV juice intervention caused reduction of malondialdehyde levels in rat liver (p < 0.05) and significantly modulated transcript levels of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase l (NQO1)in rat liver and brain (p < 0.05). The results underline the potential of FV juice to improve the antioxidant capacity and to prevent the oxidative damage in liver, brain and colon. PMID:28323302

  7. Interspecific variation in anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity among genotypes of highbush and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium section cyanococcus spp.).

    PubMed

    Kalt, W; Ryan, D A; Duy, J C; Prior, R L; Ehlenfeldt, M K; Vander Kloet, S P

    2001-10-01

    Recent interest in the possible protective effects of dietary antioxidant compounds against human degenerative disease has prompted investigation of foods such as blueberries (Vaccinium sp.), which have a high antioxidant capacity. Fruit obtained from genotypes of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity, their content of anthocyanins, and total phenolic compounds, to evaluate the intraspecific and interspecific variation in these parameters. The method of extraction influenced the composition of fruit extracts; the highest anthocyanin and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity were found in extracts obtained using a solvent of acidified aqueous methanol. Regardless of the method, lowbush blueberries were consistently higher in anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity, compared with highbush blueberries. There was no relationship between fruit size and anthocyanin content in either species.

  8. Effects of smoking and gingival inflammation on salivary antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Buduneli, Nurcan; Kardeşler, Levent; Işik, Hasan; Willis, C Steadman; Hawkins, Samuel I; Kinane, Denis F; Scott, David A

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluated possible effects of smoking and gingival inflammation on salivary antioxidants in gingivitis patients. Twenty otherwise healthy gingivitis patients (10 self-reported smokers) and 20 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteer subjects were enrolled in the study. Whole saliva samples and full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained at baseline and one month following initial phase of treatment in gingivitis patients. Salivary cotinine, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations, and total antioxidant capacity were determined, and the data generated were tested by non-parametric tests. Salivary cotinine measurements resulted in re-classification of three self-reported non-smokers as smokers. Smoker patients revealed significantly higher probing depths but lower bleeding values than non-smoker patients (p=0.044 and 0.001, respectively). Significant reductions in clinical recordings were obtained in non-smoker (all p<0.05) and smoker (all p<0.01) patients following periodontal treatment. Salivary total glutathione concentrations were reduced following therapy in gingivitis patients who smoke (p<0.01). Otherwise, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups in biochemical parameters at baseline or following treatment (p>0.05). Within the limits of this study, neither smoking nor gingival inflammation compromised the antioxidant capacity of saliva in systemically healthy gingivitis patients.

  9. Simple and fast PO-CL method for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Zargoosh, Kiomars; Ghayeb, Yousef; Azmoon, Behnaz; Qandalee, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    A simple and fast procedure is described for evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds by using the peroxyoxalate-chemiluminescence (PO-CL) reaction of Bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of di(tert-butyl)2-(tert-butylamino)-5-[(E)-2-phenyl-1-ethenyl]3,4-furandicarboxylate as a highly fluorescent fluorophore. The IC50 values of the well-known antioxidants were calculated and the results were expressed as gallic equivalent antioxidant capacity (GEAC). It was found that the proposed method is free of physical quenching and oxidant interference, for this reason, proposed method is able to determine the accurate scavenging activity of the antioxidants to the free radicals. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the evaluation of antioxidant activity of complex real samples such as soybean oil and sunflower oil (as hydrophobic samples) and honey (as hydrophilic sample). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that total antioxidant activity can be determined directly in soybean oil, sunflower oil and honey (not in their extracts) using PO-CL reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of occupational stress on oxidation/antioxidant capacity in nurses].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lili; Tian, Honger; Zhang, Qingdong; Zhu, Xinyun; Zhan, Yongguo; Su, Jingguo; Xu, Tian; Zhu, Huabin; Liu, Ling

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effect of occupational stress on the oxidation/antioxidant capacity in nurses. A total of 131 nurses were included as study subjects. The occupational health information collection system (based on the Internet of things) was used for measurement of occupational stress. Levels of hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidant enzymes were determined. The serum level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was the highest in nurses under the age of 30 and the lowest in those over 45 (P < 0.05). The serum levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxidase (POD) were the highest in nurses of working age less than 5 years, followed by those of 5-15 years, and nurses with more than 25 years' working experience showed the lowest GSH-Px and POD levels (P < 0.05). Furthermore, nurses with a university (college) degree had a higher GSH-Px level and a lower POD level compared with those with junior and senior high school degrees (P < 0.05). Job prospects and job control were positive occupational stress factors for SOD. Job hazards were negative occupational stress factors for POD. Psychological satisfaction was negative occupational stress reaction for hydroxyl free radicals. Calmness was positive occupational stress reaction for SOD, and daily stress was a negative one. The positive occupational stress reactions for GSH-Px were psychological satisfaction and job satisfaction, and daily stress was negative reaction. Nurses with higher occupational stress have stronger oxidation and weaker antioxidant capacity, which intensifies oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and leads to oxidative stress damage.

  11. Potential of UVC germicidal irradiation in suppressing crown rot disease, retaining postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of Musa AAA "Berangan" during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    S Mohamed, Nuratika Tamimi; Ding, Phebe; Kadir, Jugah; M Ghazali, Hasanah

    2017-09-01

    Crown rot caused by fungal pathogen is the most prevalent postharvest disease in banana fruit that results significant economic losses during transportation, storage, and ripening period. Antifungal effects of ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation at doses varied from 0.01 to 0.30 kJ m -2 were investigated in controlling postharvest crown rot disease, maintenance of fruit quality, and the effects on antioxidant capacity of Berangan banana fruit during ripening days at 25 ± 2°C and 85% RH. Fruits irradiated with 0.30 kJ m -2 exhibited the highest (i.e., 62.51%) reduction in disease severity. However, the application of UVC at all doses caused significant browning damages on fruit peel except the dose of 0.01 kJ m -2 . This dose synergistically reduced 46.25% development of postharvest crown and did not give adverse effects on respiration rate, ethylene production, weight loss, firmness, color changes, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, and pH in banana as compared to the other treatments and control. Meanwhile, the dose also enhanced a significant higher level of total phenolic content, FRAP, and DPPH values than in control fruits indicating the beneficial impact of UVC in fruit nutritional quality. The results of scanning electron micrographs confirmed that UVC irradiation retarded the losses of wall compartments, thereby maintained the cell wall integrity in the crown tissue of banana fruit. The results suggest that using 0.01 kJ m -2 UVC irradiation dose as postharvest physical treatment, the crown rot disease has potential to be controlled effectively together with maintaining quality and antioxidant of banana fruit.

  12. Antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds on human cell lines as affected by grape-tyrosinase and Botrytis-laccase oxidation.

    PubMed

    Riebel, Matthias; Sabel, Andrea; Claus, Harald; Xia, Ning; Li, Huige; König, Helmut; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2017-08-15

    Phenolic components (PCs) are well-known for their positive impact on human health. In addition to their action as radical scavengers, they act as activators for the intrinsic cellular antioxidant system. Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) such as tyrosinase and laccase catalyze the enzymatic oxidation of PCs and thus, can alter their scavenging and antioxidative capacity. In this study, oxidation by tryosinase was shown to increase the antioxidant capacity of many PCs, especially those that lack adjacent aromatic hydroxyl groups. In contrast, oxidation by laccase tended to decrease the antioxidant capacity of red wine and distinct PCs. This was clearly demonstrated for p-coumaric acid and resveratrol, which is associated with many health benefits. While oxidation by tyrosinase increased their antioxidant activity laccase treatment resulted in a decreased activity and also of that for red wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exogenously applied abscisic acid to Yan73 (V. vinifera) grapes enhances phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Huo, Shan-Shan; Luan, Li-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2013-06-01

    Yan73 is a 'teinturier' red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

  14. Synthesis of novel octyl sinapate to enhance antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil mixture.

    PubMed

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Rabiej, Dobrochna; Krzemiński, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Lipophilisation allows the formation of new functionalised antioxidants having beneficial properties compared to natural hydrophilic phenolic acids. Therefore, this work focused on the synthesis of lipophilic antioxidants, such as a new octyl sinapate, octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate using the modified Fischer esterification of selected hydroxycinnamic acids with 1-octanol. The lipophilic octyl sinapate was obtained for the first time with satisfactory yield (83%) after purification by column chromatography. The identity of the synthesised phenolipids was confirmed by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Antioxidant capacity of phenolipids was determined by DPPH (IC 50  = 35.87-52.24 μg mL -1 ) and ABTS (IC 50  = 39.45-48.72 μg mL -1 ) methods and compared with IC 50 values (7.37-35.30 μg mL -1 and 7.55-41.67 μg mL -1 , respectively) for well known antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil enriched with the purified esters was about two to 30 times higher in comparison with a non-supplemented oil. The novel octyl sinapate as well as octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate have antioxidant properties and lipophilic character, therefore they may be added to vegetable oils as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Improvement in botanical standardization of commercial freeze-dried herbal extracts by using the combination of antioxidant capacity and constituent marker concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Gennari, Lorenzo; Biagiotti, Enrica; Cangi, Francesca; Mattoli, Luisa; Maidecchi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Botanical extracts are standardized to > or = 1 marker compounds (MCs). This standardization provides a certain level of quality control, but not complete quality assurance. Thus, industries are looking for other satisfactory systems to improve standardization. This study focuses on the standardization of herbal medicines by combining 2 parameters: the concentration of the MC and antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant capacity was determined with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method and the concentrations of the MCs, by high-performance liquid chromatography. Total phenols were also determined by the Folin-Ciocolteau method. The ORAC values, expressed as micromol Trolox equivalents/100 g (ORAC %), of 12 commercial herbal extracts were related to the ORAC values of the respective pure MCs at the concentrations at which the MCs occur in products (ORAC-MC %). The ORAC % values of 11 extracts were higher than those of the respective MCs and the ratios ORAC-MC %/ORAC % ranged from 0.007 to 0.7, whereas in the case of Olea europaea leaves, the same ratio was 1.36. The ORAC parameters and their ratios, as well as the linear relationship between ORAC-MC % and ORAC %, are described and discussed as tools for improving the standardization of herbal products and detecting modifications due to herb processing and storage.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid profile of millet bran wine and the synergistic interaction between major polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Guo, XiaoXuan; Sha, XiaoHong; Rahman, Ebeydulla; Wang, Yong; Ji, BaoPing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Millet bran, the by-product of millet processing industry, contains an abundance of phytochemicals, especially polyphenols. The main objective of this study was brewing antioxidant wine from millet bran, as well as the nutritional evaluation. The total polyphenol content of wine samples was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Results showed that millet bran wine (MBW) contained as much as six times of total polyphenols compared with millet wine (MW), and performed considerably stronger antioxidant activity in DPPH, TEAC and FRAP assays. More than sixfold of total amino acids (AA) were found in MBW than in MW. Moreover, the indispensable AA and functional AA were also abundant in MBW. The major polyphenol compounds in MBW were identified using HPLC, including vanillic acid, syringic acid (SA), p -coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA). They exhibited synergism in the antioxidant assays, especially the combinations of SA and CA, SA and FA. This study not only provides evidence for MBW as a nutraceutical with antioxidant activity, but also opens new avenues in the area of making comprehensive utilization of agricultural by-products.

  17. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  18. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

  19. Modeling the Antioxidant Capacity of Red Wine from Different Production Years and Sources under Censoring

    PubMed Central

    Jäntschi, Lorentz; Sestraş, Radu E.; Bolboacă, Sorana D.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefit of drinking wine, expressed as capacity to defend the human organism from the free radicals action and thus reducing the oxidative stress, has already been demonstrated, and the results had been published in scientific literature. The aim of our study was to develop and assess a model able to estimate the antioxidant capacity (AC) of several samples of Romanian wines and to evaluate the AC dependency on the vintage (defined as the year in which wine was produced) and grape variety under presence of censored data. A contingency of two grape varieties from two different vineyards in Romania and five production years, with some missing experimental data, was used to conduct the analysis. The analysis showed that the antioxidant capacity of the investigated wines is linearly dependent on the vintage. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm was developed and applied to obtain the coefficients of the model and to estimate the missing experimental value. The contribution of wine source to the antioxidant capacity proved equal to 11%. PMID:24260039

  20. Combined HPLC-CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay of parsley, celery leaves, and nettle.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Leyla; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2008-10-19

    This study aims to identify the essential antioxidant compounds present in parsley (Petroselinum sativum) and celery (Apium graveolens) leaves belonging to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, and in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) belonging to Urticaceae family, to measure the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of these compounds with CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) and ABTS spectrophotometric methods, and to correlate the TAC with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) findings. The CUPRAC spectrophotometric method of TAC assay using copper(II)-neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) as the chromogenic oxidant was developed in our laboratories. The individual antioxidant constituents of plant extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using a modified mobile phase of gradient elution comprised of MeOH-0.2% o-phosphoric acid and UV detection for polyphenols at 280 nm. The TAC values of HPLC-quantified antioxidant constituents were found, and compared for the first time with those found by CUPRAC. The TAC of HPLC-quantified compounds accounted for a relatively high percentage of the observed CUPRAC capacities of plant extracts, namely 81% of nettle, 60-77% of parsley (in different hydrolyzates of extract and solid sample), and 41-57% of celery leaves (in different hydrolyzates). The CUPRAC total capacities of the 70% MeOH extracts of studied plants (in the units of mmol trolox g(-1)plant) were in the order: celery leaves>nettle>parsley. The TAC calculated with the aid of HPLC-spectrophotometry did not compensate for 100% of the CUPRAC total capacities, because all flavonoid glycosides subjected to hydrolysis were either not detectable with HPLC, or not converted to the corresponding aglycons (i.e., easily detectable and quantifiable with HPLC) during the hydrolysis step.

  1. Analysis of antioxidant activities of common vegetables employing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ou, Boxin; Huang, Dejian; Hampsch-Woodill, Maureen; Flanagan, Judith A; Deemer, Elizabeth K

    2002-05-22

    A total of 927 freeze-dried vegetable samples, including 111 white cabbages, 59 carrots, 51 snap beans, 57 cauliflower, 33 white onions, 48 purple onions, 130 broccoli, 169 tomatoes, 25 beets, 88 peas, 88 spinach, 18 red peppers, and 50 green peppers, were analyzed using the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) methods. The data show that the ORAC and FRAP values of vegetable are not only dependent on species, but also highly dependent on geographical origin and harvest time. The two antioxidant assay methods, ORAC and FRAP, also give different antioxidant activity trends. The discrepancy is extensively discussed based on the chemistry principles upon which these methods are built, and it is concluded that the ORAC method is chemically more relevant to chain-breaking antioxidants activity, while the FRAP has some drawbacks such as interference, reaction kinetics, and quantitation methods. On the basis of the ORAC results, green pepper, spinach, purple onion, broccoli, beet, and cauliflower are the leading sources of antioxidant activities against the peroxyl radicals.

  2. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity during Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) Kernel Ripening and Its Phenolics Profiles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaodong; Luo, Huiting; Xu, Mengyang; Zhai, Min; Guo, Zhongren; Qiao, Yushan; Wang, Liangju

    2018-02-16

    Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ) kernels have a high phenolics content and a high antioxidant capacity compared to other nuts-traits that have attracted great interest of late. Changes in the total phenolic content (TPC), condensed tannins (CT), total flavonoid content (TFC), five individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of five pecan cultivars were investigated during the process of kernel ripening. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) was also used to analyze the phenolics profiles in mixed pecan kernels. TPC, CT, TFC, individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity were changed in similar patterns, with values highest at the water or milk stages, lowest at milk or dough stages, and slightly varied at kernel stages. Forty phenolics were tentatively identified in pecan kernels, of which two were first reported in the genus Carya , six were first reported in Carya illinoinensis , and one was first reported in its kernel. The findings on these new phenolic compounds provide proof of the high antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels.

  3. Chemical partitioning and antioxidant capacity of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of different geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Babova, Oxana; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2016-03-01

    Green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora accessions from different geographical origin (Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, Honduras, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, Uganda and Vietnam) were extracted and the extracts analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS for the identification and quantification of chlorogenic acids and caffeine content. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to identify chemical patterns separating the different species and accessions based on their geographical origin. C. canephora showed always a higher caffeine content with respect to C. arabica, whereas the C. arabica accessions from Kenya showed a higher chlorogenic acids and a lower caffeine content. The antioxidant capacity of green coffee extracts was assayed by the reducing power and DPPH assays. The antioxidant capacity correlated with the chlorogenic acids content. The results show that the C. arabica from Kenya possesses the highest chlorogenic acids/caffeine ratio and, among the C. arabica accessions, the highest antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the C. arabica from Kenya is the most suitable green coffee source for nutraceutical applications because of its high antioxidant capacity and low caffeine content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.

    PubMed

    Termentzi, Aikaterini; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    In this study, various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) whereas the antioxidant potential was evaluated by applying two methodologies, the DPPH. radical scavenging activity test and the Co(II)-induced luminol chemiluminescence procedure. According to data obtained from these antioxidant tests, the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions demonstrated the strongest antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the major constituents identified in these fractions correspond to kaempferol, quercetin, naringenin and some flavanone and flavanol derivatives glycosylated and esterified with phenylpropanoic acids. In addition, the presence of some nitrogen-containing substances, as well as other phenolics and phenylpropanoic derivatives was also traced. The identification and structural elucidation of all substances isolated in this study was achieved by both comparing available literature data and by proposed fragmentation mechanisms based on evaluating the LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) experimental data. The quantitative analysis data obtained thus far have shown that Crocus sativus petals are a rich source of flavonoids. Such a fact suggests that the good antioxidant capacity detected in the various fractions of Crocus sativus petals could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, since it is already known that these molecules exert antioxidant capability. The latter, along with the use of Crocus sativus in food and pharmaceutical industry is discussed.

  5. The antioxidative power AP—A new quantitative time dependent (2D) parameter for the determination of the antioxidant capacity and reactivity of different plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Katinka; Richter, J.; Kabrodt, K.; Lücke, I. M.; Schellenberg, I.; Herrling, Th.

    2006-03-01

    In the last decade, naturally occurring antioxidants continue to play an important role in the food-supplement industry. The content of antioxidants in a plant depends on the species, temperature, humidity, period of growth, harvest month, part of the plant used and many other variables. Herein, we present a new method able to determine the all over antioxidative power (AP) of plant extracts or lyophilised plant parts based on the reducing activity against a stable test radical. The method is performed by ESR spectroscopy and is based on the well-known 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) method with the major difference that both the antioxidative capacity and the antioxidative activity are used to characterise an antioxidant. The resulting antioxidative power is expressed in antioxidative units (AU), where 1 AU corresponds to the activity of a 1 ppm solution of Vitamin C as a benchmark. This method allows a rapid, unexpensive and general applicable technique for the measurement of the antioxidative power of very different kinds of substances. The inclusion of the kinetic behaviour of the reducing process of the antioxidant for the determination of the AP allows the identification of the main antioxidant present in a sample. Herein, we present the application example of seeds, sprouts and adult parts of dandelion, amaranth, quinoa, fenugreek, broccoli, red clover and mugwort, where the AP method permits to characterise the plants with the highest antioxidant capacity and reaction velocity. The method permits to select active plant extracts for the food and nutrition industry.

  6. Determination of antioxidant capacity and a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils from citronella grass and lemongrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of and in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from citronella grass and lemongrass. The chemical composition of the extracted essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The antioxidant capacity ...

  7. Chronocoulometry of wine on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode: Antioxidant capacity assay.

    PubMed

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Budnikov, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic antioxidants of wine were electrochemically oxidized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE) in phosphate buffer solution. Three oxidation peaks were observed at 0.39, 0.61 and 0.83V for red dry wine and 0.39, 0.80 and 1.18 V for white dry wine, respectively, using differential pulse voltammetry at pH 4.0. The oxidation potentials for individual phenolic antioxidants confirmed the integral nature of the analytical signals for the wines examined. A one-step chronocoulometric method at 0.83 and 1.18 V for red and white wines, respectively, has been developed for the evaluation of wine antioxidant capacity (AOC). The AOC is expressed in gallic acid equivalents per 1L of wine. The AOC of white wine was significantly less than red wine (386 ± 112 vs. 1224 ± 184, p<0.0001), as might be expected. Positive correlations were observed between gallic acid equivalent AOC of wine and total antioxidant capacity, based on coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine (r=0.8957 at n=5 and r=0.8986 at n=4 for red and white wines, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of clove extract.

    PubMed

    Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-06-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.

  9. An Investigation of the Antioxidant Capacity in Extracts from Moringa oleifera Plants Grown in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Racquel J.; Lee, Ken S.; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Hibbert, Jacqueline M.; Reid, Marvin E.; Wheatley, Andrew O.

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera trees grow well in Jamaica and their parts are popularly used locally for various purposes and ailments. Antioxidant activities in Moringa oleifera samples from different parts of the world have different ranges. This study was initiated to determine the antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera grown in Jamaica. Dried and milled Moringa oleifera leaves were extracted with ethanol/water (4:1) followed by a series of liquid–liquid extractions. The antioxidant capacities of all fractions were tested using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. IC50 values (the amount of antioxidant needed to reduce 50% of DPPH) were then determined and values for the extracts ranged from 177 to 4458 μg/mL. Extracts prepared using polar solvents had significantly higher antioxidant capacities than others and may have clinical applications in any disease characterized by a chronic state of oxidative stress, such as sickle cell anemia. Further work will involve the assessment of these extracts in a sickle cell model of oxidative stress. PMID:29065510

  10. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (P<0.05) by 2.0 and 1.9-fold, when compared to control. Meanwhile, both the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and polyphenol peroxidase (POD) in fresh-cut pineapple was significantly (P<0.05) lower than control upon subjected to ultrasound treatment. In the present study, induction of PAL was found to significantly (P<0.001) correlate with higher total phenolic content and thus higher antioxidant capacity in fresh-cut pineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Aslı; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2015-05-01

    Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like β-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents).

  12. Growth at elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide concentration alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress in soybean (Glycine max)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gillespie, K.M.; Rogers, A.; Ainsworth, E. A.

    2011-01-31

    Soybeans (Glycine max Merr.) were grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) or chronic elevated ozone concentration ([O{sub 3}]; 90 ppb), and then exposed to an acute O{sub 3} stress (200 ppb for 4 h) in order to test the hypothesis that the atmospheric environment alters the total antioxidant capacity of plants, and their capacity to respond to an acute oxidative stress. Total antioxidant metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, and antioxidant transcript abundance were characterized before, immediately after, and during recovery from the acute O{sub 3} treatment. Growth at chronic elevated [O{sub 3}] increased the total antioxidant capacity of plants,more » while growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] decreased the total antioxidant capacity. Changes in total antioxidant capacity were matched by changes in ascorbate content, but not phenolic content. The growth environment significantly altered the pattern of antioxidant transcript and enzyme response to the acute O{sub 3} stress. Following the acute oxidative stress, there was an immediate transcriptional reprogramming that allowed for maintained or increased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants grown at elevated [O{sub 3}]. Growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] appeared to increase the response of antioxidant enzymes to acute oxidative stress, but dampened and delayed the transcriptional response. These results provide evidence that the growth environment alters the antioxidant system, the immediate response to an acute oxidative stress, and the timing over which plants return to initial antioxidant levels. The results also indicate that future elevated [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 3}] will differentially affect the antioxidant system.« less

  13. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH (ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS) VARIES SPATIALLY AND IS NOT RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OF A SAGEBRUSH DIETARY SPECIALIST

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xinzhu; Lam, Lisa; Gehlken, Kristina; Ulappa, Amy C.; Rachlow, Janet L.; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) in North America is an abundant native plant species that is ecologically and evolutionarily adapted to have a diverse array of biologically active chemicals. Several of these chemicals, specifically polyphenols, have antioxidant activity that may act as biomarkers of biotic or abiotic stress. This study investigated the spatial variation of antioxidant capacity, as well as the relationship between a mammalian herbivore and antioxidant capacity in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis). We quantified and compared total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts from sagebrush plants from different spatial scales and at different levels of browsing by a specialist mammalian herbivore, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). We found that antioxidant capacity of sagebrush extracts was positively correlated with total polyphenol content. Antioxidant capacity varied spatially within and among plants. Antioxidant capacity in sagebrush was not related to either browsing intensity or duration of association with rabbits. We propose that the patterns of antioxidant capacity observed in sagebrush may be a result of spatial variation in abiotic stress experienced by sagebrush. Antioxidants could therefore provide a biomarker of environmental stress for sagebrush that could aid in management and conservation of this plant in the threatened sagebrush steppe. PMID:26582971

  14. Amperometric Enzyme Sensor to Check the Total Antioxidant Capacity of Several Mixed Berries. Comparison with Two Other Spectrophotometric and Fluorimetric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Serone, Maruschka; Angeloni, Riccardo; Campanella, Luigi; Mazzone, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to test the correctness of response of a superoxide dismutase amperometric biosensor used for the purpose of measuring and ranking the total antioxidant capacity of several systematically analysed mixed berries. Several methods are described in the literature for determining antioxidant capacity, each culminating in the construction of an antioxidant capacity scale and each using its own unit of measurement. It was therefore endeavoured to correlate and compare the results obtained using the present amperometric biosensor method with those resulting from two other different methods for determining the total antioxidant capacity selected from among those more frequently cited in the literature. The purpose was to establish a methodological approach consisting in the simultaneous application of different methods that it would be possible to use to obtain an accurate estimation of the total antioxidant capacity of different mixed berries and the food products containing them. Testing was therefore extended to also cover jams, yoghurts and juices containing mixed berries. PMID:25654720

  15. [Stability of the antioxidant capacity and pH of human milk refrigerated for 72 hours: longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Miranda, M; Gormaz, M; Romero, F J; Silvestre, D

    2011-01-01

    Maternal milk is the optimal feeding way for the infant at least for the first six months of life. Its properties include nutrients intake and, particularly, to provide the infant with several beneficial compounds improving his growth and protecting him from the diseases typical of this time period. These properties justify the manipulating processes before its intake in order to promote and warrant the adherence to it, both at the hospital and at home, being more important in premature infants and/or with low birth weight given their increased vulnerability, is spite of the fact that during these processes some of its properties may be partially lost. There exist, therefore, an interest in knowing the impact of the procedures applied to human milk on its qualitative properties, such as the antioxidant capacity. This work assesses the stability of the antioxidant capacity of human milk during its storage at 4º C, longitudinally from its extraction until 48 h of refrigeration, as well as the pH changes. the milk from 30 healthy women was analyzed. The milk's antioxidant capacity was assessed by the following parameters: total antioxidant capacity and level of malondialdehyde. The results obtained showed that pH decreases gradually from the storage beginning, whereas the antioxidant capacity remains constant for the first 24 hours, with a different result depending on the parameter used, and thereafter significant changes were observed. In case of needing extraction and storage of maternal milk before its consumption, the storage time should be minimized, preferably less than 24 hours in order to preserve the oxidative stress.

  16. Assessment of salivary total antioxidant capacity in patients with primary untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with ORAC.

    PubMed

    Wesołowski, Piotr; Zawada, Katarzyna; Wojtowicz, Andrzej; Strużycka, Izabela; Kamiński, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative DNA damage leads to abnormalities in endogenous cellular processes and constitutes a direct link between free radicals, antioxidants and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method is used to measure antioxidant capacity versus oxygen free radicals. There is no report on the application of ORAC to evaluate salivary antioxidant capacity in patients with head and neck SCC. This study investigated the relation between total antioxidant capacity of saliva, measured with ORAC method, and the incidence, location, size and histopathological grading of SCC. Salivary antioxidant capacity was assessed in 30 male and female patients with histopathologically confirmed oral and laryngeal SCC. Histopathological grading of SCC was based on WHO classification. Mean ORAC in patients with SCC was higher than the mean value in the control group. Statistically significant difference was observed in the study group versus the control group. No significant differences were observed for ORAC values in relation to histopathological grading, tumour size and spread to lymph nodes. The obtained results can advocate local compensatory mechanism in saliva in response to increased oxidative stress associated with primary tumour. ORAC can become an additional factor in head and neck SCC prognosis, but further investigation is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Procyanidin and catechin contents and antioxidant capacity of cocoa and chocolate products.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liwei; House, Suzanne E; Wu, Xianli; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2006-05-31

    Cocoa and chocolate products from major brands were analyzed blind for total antioxidant capacity (AOC) (lipophilic and hydrophilic ORAC(FL)), catechins, and procyanidins (monomer through polymers). Accuracy of analyses was ascertained by comparing analyses on a NIST standard reference chocolate with NIST certified values. Procyanidin (PC) content was related to the nonfat cocoa solid (NFCS) content. The natural cocoa powders (average 87% of NFCS) contained the highest levels of AOC (826 +/- 103 micromol of TE/g) and PCs (40.8 +/- 8.3 mg/g). Alkalized cocoa (Dutched powders, average 80% NFCS) contained lower AOC (402 +/- 6 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (8.9 +/- 2.7 mg/g). Unsweetened chocolates or chocolate liquor (50% NFCS) contained 496 +/- 40 micromol of TE /g of AOC and 22.3 +/- 2.9 mg/g of PCs. Milk chocolates, which contain the least amount of NFCS (7.1%), had the lowest concentrations of AOC (80 +/- 10 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (2.7 +/- 0.5 mg/g). One serving of cocoa (5 g) or chocolate (15 or 40 g, depending upon the type of chocolate) provides 2000-9100 micromol of TE of AOC and 45-517 mg of PCs, amounts that exceed the amount in a serving of the majority of foods consumed in America. The monomers through trimers, which are thought to be directly bioavailable, contributed 30% of the total PCs in chocolates. Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity contributed >90% of AOC in all products. The correlation coefficient between AOC and PCs in chocolates was 0.92, suggesting that PCs are the dominant antioxidants in cocoa and chocolates. These results indicate that NFCS is correlated with AOC and PC in cocoa and chocolate products. Alkalizing dramatically decreased both the procyanidin content and antioxidant capacity, although not to the same extent.

  18. Effect of heat treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guihua; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong

    2007-01-24

    This paper reports the effects of heat treatment on huyou (Citrus paradisi Changshanhuyou) peel in terms of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used in this study for the analysis of phenolic acids (divided into four fractions: free, ester, glycoside, and ester-bound) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) in huyou peel (HP) before and after heat treatment. The results showed that after heat treatment, the free fraction of phenolic acids increased, whereas ester, glycoside, and ester-bound fractions decreased and the content of total FGs declined (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract of HP increased (P < 0.05), which was evaluated by total phenolics contents (TPC) assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS*+) method, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The correlation coefficients among TPC, ABTS, FRAP assay, and total cinnamics and benzoics (TCB) in the free fraction were significantly high (P < 0.05), which meant that the increase of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of HP extract was due at least in part to the increase of TCB in free fraction. In addition, FGs may be destroyed when heated at higher temperature for a long time (for example, 120 degrees C for 90 min or 150 degrees C for 30 min). Therefore, it is suggested that a proper and reasonable heat treatment could be used to enhance the antioxidant capacity of citrus peel.

  19. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-02-23

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  20. Flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity of spinach genotypes determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavonoids in different spinach genotypes were separated, identified, and quantified by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. The antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were also measured using two antioxidant assays - oxygen radica...

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of green tea, yerba mate, and chamomile tea as evaluated by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.

    2017-01-01

    Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activities against cariogenic streptococci and their antioxidant capacities: A comparative study of green tea versus different herbs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzung-Hsun; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chien, You-Chia; Lee, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2008-10-15

    The antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria, total antioxidant capacity and phenolic constituents of methanolic extracts from 11 herbs were investigated and compared with those of green tea (Camellia sinensis). Among the 12 tested herbs, eight herbal extracts could inhibit the growth of Streptococcus sanguinis. Jasmine, jiaogulan, and lemongrass were the most potent, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 1mg/ml, while green tea was less effective, with a MIC of 4mg/ml. Among them, only rosemary could inhibit the growth of S. mutans at a MIC of 4mg/ml. Total antioxidant capacities of herbal extracts were analyzed by three different assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Regardless of the assays used, green tea exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by osmanthus. Wide variations in total phenolics and total flavonoids of herbal tea extracts were observed. Chlorogenic acid was detected in high amount in honeysuckle and duzhong. These data suggest that rosemary is a potent inhibitor of oral streptococci, and green tea and osmanthus may be effective potential sources of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Anil; Wu, Kao; Li, Dongqin; Bentota, Amitha; Corke, Harold; Cai, Yi-Zhong

    2013-06-01

    Proanthocyanidin-containing rice varieties have been rarely reported. Antioxidant capacity, major antioxidant components, and nutritional parameters of eight traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins grown in Sri Lanka were investigated. The tested traditional red varieties, on the average, had over sevenfold higher both total antioxidant capacity and phenolic content than three light brown-grained new-improved rice varieties. Major antioxidant phenolic compounds identified in this study included proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids and γ-oryzanols (ferulic acid derivatives). Proanthocyanidins were detected only in the traditional red varieties, but not found in new-improved ones. Most traditional red varieties also contained significantly higher levels of protein with well balanced amino acids and higher contents of fat, fibre and vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) than the new-improved ones. Great variations in antioxidant capacity, major phenolics, and nutritional parameters were observed among different rice varieties. These Sri Lankan traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins may be used as important genetic sources for rice breeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Capacity in Edible Flowers: Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-González, Inmaculada; González-Barrio, Rocío; García-Valverde, Verónica; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Periago, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Edible flowers are commonly used in human nutrition and their consumption has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to ascertain the nutritional composition and the content and profile of phenolic compounds of three edible flowers, monks cress (Tropaeolum majus), marigold (Tagetes erecta) and paracress (Spilanthes oleracea), and to determine the relationship between the presence of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity. Proximate composition, total dietary fibre (TDF) and minerals were analysed according to official methods: total phenolic compounds (TPC) were determined with Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent, whereas antioxidant capacity was evaluated using Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays. In addition, phenolic compounds were characterised by HPLC-DAD-MSn. In relation to the nutritional value, the edible flowers had a composition similar to that of other plant foods, with a high water and TDF content, low protein content and very low proportion of total fat—showing significant differences among samples. The levels of TPC compounds and the antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in T. erecta, followed by S. oleracea and T. majus. Thirty-nine different phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, with flavonols being the major compounds detected in all samples, followed by anthocyanins and hydroxycynnamic acid derivatives. In T. erecta small proportions of gallotannin and ellagic acid were also identified. PMID:25561232

  5. Antioxidant capacity of synovial fluid in the temporomandibular joint correlated with radiological morphology of temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Kyoko; Ohba, Seigo; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Shinpei; Ishimaru, Jun-Ichi; Sano, Kazuo

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the correlation between the antioxidant capacity of synovial fluid and radiological findings of intra-articular structures in patients with disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We recruited 21 patients (9 men and 12 women, aged 18-84 years of age) with such disorders, excluding myofascial pain and dysfunction syndrome, or other muscular disorders. The clinical variables recorded included age, sex, interincisal distance, and visual analogue pain scores (VAS). Radiological findings were obtained from diagnostic arthrogram and cone-beam computed tomography (CT). The antioxidant capacity of the synovial fluid was measured by chemiluminescence. Eleven patients were radiologically diagnosed with closed lock, and the remaining 10 with no closed lock. An anchored intra-articular disc was most often seen on cone-beam CT (n=19) followed by perforated disc (n=7), osteoarthrosis (n=7), and anterior disc displacement without reduction (n=5). Although there were no significant differences between antioxidant capacity and age, sex, VAS, or any findings on cone-beam CT, antioxidant capacity was significantly decreased in the patients with closed lock compared with those who did not have closed lock (p=0.02). The results suggest an association between the oxidative stress of the synovial fluid and closed-lock in disorders of the TMJ. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Systematic chemical analysis approach reveals superior antioxidant capacity via the synergistic effect of flavonoid compounds in red vegetative tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Yanfen; Peng, Zhen; Fan, Shuangxi; Yao, Yuncong

    2018-02-01

    The flavonoid system comprises an abundance of compounds with multiple functions; however, their potential synergism in antioxidant function remains unclear. We established an approach using ever-red (RL) and ever-green leaves (GL) of crabapple cultivars during their development to determine interrelationships among flavonoid compounds. RL scored significantly better than GL in terms of the type, composition, and diversity of flavonoids than GL. Principal component analysis predicted flavonoids in RL to have positive interaction effects, and the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher than the sum of antioxidant capacities of the individual compounds. This synergy was verified by the high antioxidant capacity in rat serum after feeding on red leaves. Our findings suggest that the synergistic effect is a result of the high transcription levels regulated by McMYBs in RL. In summary, individual flavonoids cooperate in a flavonoid system, thus producing a synergistic antioxidant effect, and the approach used herein can provide insights into the roles of flavonoids and other compounds in future studies.

  7. Systematic Chemical Analysis Approach Reveals Superior Antioxidant Capacity via the Synergistic Effect of Flavonoid Compounds in Red Vegetative Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Yanfen; Peng, Zhen; Fan, Shuangxi; Yao, Yuncong

    2018-01-01

    The flavonoid system comprises an abundance of compounds with multiple functions; however, their potential synergism in antioxidant function remains unclear. We established an approach using ever-red (RL) and ever-green leaves (GL) of crabapple cultivars during their development to determine interrelationships among flavonoid compounds. RL scored significantly better than GL in terms of the type, composition, and diversity of flavonoids than GL. Principal component analysis predicted flavonoids in RL to have positive interaction effects, and the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher than the sum of antioxidant capacities of the individual compounds. This synergy was verified by the high antioxidant capacity in rat serum after feeding on red leaves. Our findings suggest that the synergistic effect is a result of the high transcription levels regulated by McMYBs in RL. In summary, individual flavonoids cooperate in a flavonoid system, thus producing a synergistic antioxidant effect, and the approach used herein can provide insights into the roles of flavonoids and other compounds in future studies. PMID:29468147

  8. Antioxidative activity of lactobacilli measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity.

    PubMed

    Saide, J A O; Gilliland, S E

    2005-04-01

    The reducing ability and antioxidative activity of some species of Lactobacillus were compared under in vitro conditions. Cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei were grown at 37 degrees C in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth supplemented with 0.5% 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate reducing activity. Reduced TTC was extracted from the cultures with acetone, and the intensity of the red color measured colorimetrically at 485 nm was an indication of reducing activity. The lactobacilli varied significantly in relative ability to reduce TTC when grown in MRS broth for 15 h. The relative amounts of growth as indicated by pH values at 18 h appeared to influence the amount of reduction. Antioxidative activity was evaluated by the ability of the whole cells or the cell-free extracts from cultures to protect a protein from being attacked by free radicals. These analyses were performed using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. All cultures tested exhibited some degree of antioxidative activity. Among the treatments, the cell-free extracts from cells grown in MRS broth exhibited significantly higher values than did whole cells. There was no apparent relationship between the reducing and antioxidative activities of the cultures evaluated. The results from this study show that these cultures can provide a source of dietary antioxidants. Furthermore, selection of cultures that produce antioxidants as starters could provide yet another health or nutritional benefit from cultured or culture-containing dairy products.

  9. Increased monocyte adhesion-promoting capacity of plasma in end-stage renal disease - response to antioxidant therapy.

    PubMed

    Moradi, H; Ganji, S; Kamanna, V; Pahl, M V; Vaziri, N D

    2010-10-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) causes accelerated atherosclerosis which is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. Activation and infiltration of monocytes represent the critical steps in atherogenesis which is advanced by oxidized LDL and inhibited by HDL. Via its main apolipoprotein (apoA-I) and constituent enzymes (paraoxonase; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), LCAT) HDL exerts potent antioxidant/anti-inflammatory functions. We have found marked reduction of HDL antioxidant/anti-inflammatory and heightened LDL pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory activities in ESRD patients. Given the inseparable link between oxidative stress and inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that antioxidant therapy may improve anti-inflammatory (monocyte adhesion-promoting capacity) properties of plasma in ESRD patients. We studied 20 hemodialysis patients who after a 4-week wash-out period were treated with a potent antioxidant cocktail (vitamin (v) E, 800 IU; vC, 250 mg; vB6, 100 mg; vB12, 250 µg and folic acid 10 mg daily) for 8 weeks. Twelve healthy volunteers served as control. Pre-dialysis plasma samples were obtained at the onset and conclusion of the study. Markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, apoA-I, HDL-associated enzymes and monocyte adhesion assay were measured using cultured aortic endothelial cells. ESRD patients exhibited reduced plasma level of apoA-1 and antioxidant enzymes, elevated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and heightened monocyte adhesion-promoting capacity. Antioxidant therapy failed to improve these abnormalities. High doses of antioxidant vitamins fail to improve oxidative stress, inflammation or plasma monocyte adhesion-promoting capacity in ESRD patients. Thus, high doses of vitamins beyond the routinely-prescribed supplements do not appear to be beneficial in this patient population.

  10. Food ingredient extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush): variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Dalene; Schulze, Alexandra E; Joubert, Elizabeth; de Villiers, André; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Stander, Maria A

    2012-12-07

    Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent) are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP) content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin), flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin), a flavone (scolymoside), a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside) and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside). Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  11. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  12. Flavonoid and Antioxidant Capacity of Propolis Prediction Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Betances-Salcedo, Eddy; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M; González-Martín, M Inmaculada

    2017-07-18

    The use of propolis as a dietary supplement or as an ingredient in different food products is increasing, due to its antioxidant and bactericidal properties. These nutritional properties directly depend on its phenolic composition. For this reason, this study analysed the total contents of flavones and flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols, and the antioxidant capacity by using the methods of ABTS and linoleic acid/ β -carotene in 99 samples of propolis from Spain and Chile. A rapid method was developed for quantifying these parameters in raw propolis using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe applied directly to the ground-up sample. The models developed allow for the determination of the total flavones and flavonols (0-183 mg quercetin/g propolis and 0-72 mg rutin/g propolis), of the total flavanones and dihydroflavonols (9-109 mg pinocembrin/g propolis extract), and of its antioxidant capacity by the ABTS method based on the reduction of the 2.2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation(0-3212.6 nmol Trolox/mg of propolis) and of linoleic acid/ β -carotene (22-86% inhibition). The NIR spectroscopy models were applied in external validation to different samples of the calibration group, which led to the conclusion that the methods developed provide significantly identical data to the initial chemical data of reference.

  13. Polyphenolic Compounds Analysis of Old and New Apple Cultivars and Contribution of Polyphenolic Profile to the In Vitro Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Kschonsek, Josephine; Wolfram, Theresa; Stöckl, Annette; Böhm, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Polyphenols are antioxidant ingredients in apples and are related to human health because of their free radical scavenging activities. The polyphenolic profiles of old and new apple cultivars (n = 15) were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). The in vitro antioxidant capacity was determined by total phenolic content (TPC) assay, hydrophilic trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (H-TEAC) assay and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance (H-ORAC) assay. Twenty polyphenolic compounds were identified in all investigated apples by HPLC analysis. Quercetin glycosides (203 ± 108 mg/100 g) were the main polyphenols in the peel and phenolic acids (10 ± 5 mg/100 g) in the flesh. The calculated relative contribution of single compounds indicated flavonols (peel) and vitamin C (flesh) as the major contributors to the antioxidant capacity, in all cultivars investigated. The polyphenolic content (HPLC data) of the flesh differed significantly between old (29 ± 7 mg/100 g) and new (13 ± 4 mg/100 g) cultivars, and the antioxidant capacity of old apple cultivars was up to 30% stronger compared to new ones. PMID:29364189

  14. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianli; Beecher, Gary R; Holden, Joanne M; Haytowitz, David B; Gebhardt, Susan E; Prior, Ronald L

    2004-06-16

    Both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as a peroxyl radical generator on over 100 different kinds of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, dried fruits, spices, cereals, infant, and other foods. Most of the foods were collected from four different regions and during two different seasons in U.S. markets. Total phenolics of each sample were also measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Hydrophilic ORAC(FL) values (H-ORAC(FL)) ranged from 0.87 to 2641 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g among all of the foods, whereas lipophilic ORAC(FL) values (L-ORAC(FL)) ranged from 0.07 to 1611 micromol of TE/g. Generally, L-ORAC(FL) values were <10% of the H-ORAC(FL) values except for a very few samples. Total antioxidant capacity was calculated by combining L-ORAC(FL) and H-ORAC(FL). Differences of ORAC(FL) values in fruits and vegetables from different seasons and regions were relatively large for some foods but could not be analyzed in detail because of the sampling scheme. Two different processing methods, cooking and peeling, were used on selected foods to evaluate the impact of processing on ORAC(FL). The data demonstrated that processing can have significant effects on ORAC(FL). Considering all of the foods analyzed, the relationship between TP and H-ORAC(FL) showed a very weak correlation. Total hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity intakes were calculated to be 5558 and 166 micromol of TE/day, respectively, on the basis of data from the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-1996).

  15. New Electrochemical Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity of Beverages with Polyoxometalates as Redox Probes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tadaharu; Okumura, Takashi; Tanaka, Yukino; Akase, Saki; Shimamura, Tomoko; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A new method was developed to evaluate antioxidant activity based on the redox properties of polyoxometalates, which are partially reduced by antioxidants to generate a limiting potential. The polyoxometalates [PMo12O40](3-), [PVW11O40](4-) and [SV2W10O40]4- formed in situ were used as electrochemical probes for the new evaluation method, and their formation conditions were optimized to evaluate the antioxidant activities of gallic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, quercetin, morin, trans-ferulic acid, sesamol, α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid. The observed difference between initial potential and limiting potential (ΔE) were compared with spectrophotometrically evaluated antioxidant activities. In addition, the antioxidant capacities of five beverages (Japanese green tea, concentrated catechin-containing green tea, grapefruit juice, red wine and Japanese sake) were evaluated.

  16. The association among lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 levels, total antioxidant capacity and arousal in male patients with OSA.

    PubMed

    Bekci, Taha T; Kayrak, Mehmet; Kiyici, Aysel; Maden, Emin; Ari, Hatem; Kaya, Zeynettin; Teke, Turgut; Akilli, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of the increased cardiac and vascular events in patients with OSA are not well understood. Arousal which is an important component of OSA was associated with increased sympathetic activation and electrocardiographic changes which prone to arrhythmias. We planned to examine the association among arousal, circulating Lp-PLA2 and total antioxidant capacity in male patients with OSA. Fifty male patients with newly diagnosed OSA were enrolled the study. A full-night polysomnography was performed and arousal index was obtained. Lp-PLA2 concentrations were measured in serum samples with the PLAC Test. Total antioxidant capacity in patients was determined with Antioxidant Assay Kit. Arousal was positively correlated with LP-PLA2 levels (r=0.43, p=0.002) and was negatively correlated with total antioxidant capacity (r= -0.29, p=0.04). Elevated LP-PLA2 levels and decreased total antioxidant activities were found in the highest arousal quartile compared with the lowest and 2nd quartiles (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively). LP-PLA2 was an independently predictor of arousal index in regression model (β=0.357, p=0.002) This study demonstrated a moderate linear relationship between arousal and LP-PLA2 levels. Also, total antioxidant capacities were decreased in the higher arousal index. Based on the study result, the patients with higher arousal index may be prone to vascular events.

  17. Comparative study of the antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content of Douro wines by chemical and electrochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, M J; Rego, R; Ferreira, M; Oliveira, M C

    2013-11-01

    A comparative study of the antioxidant capacity and polyphenols content of Douro wines by chemical (ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteau) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry) was performed. A non-linear correlation between cyclic voltammetric results and ABTS or Folin-Ciocalteau data was obtained if all types of wines (white, muscatel, ruby, tawny and red wines) are grouped together in the same correlation plot. In contrast, a very good linear correlation was observed between the electrochemical antioxidant capacity determined by differential pulse voltammetry and the radical scavenging activity of ABTS. It was also found that the antioxidant capacity of wines evaluated by the electrochemical methods (expressed as gallic acid equivalents) depend on background electrolyte of the gallic acid standards, type of electrochemical signal (current or charge) and electrochemical technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tannins and extracts of fruit byproducts: antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Widsten, Petri; Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C; Pajak, Marta A; McGhie, Tony K

    2014-11-19

    The shelf life of fresh fish and meat transported over long distances could be extended by using plant-based extracts to control spoilage bacteria. The goals of the present study were to identify plant-based extracts that effectively suppress the main spoilage bacteria of chilled fish and lamb and to assess their antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds in wood-based tannins and extracts isolated from byproducts of the fruit processing industry were identified and/or quantified. The total phenol content, but not the flavonoid to total phenol ratio, was strongly associated with higher antibacterial activity against several fish and lamb spoilage bacteria in zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration assays as well as greater antioxidant capacity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. The most promising compounds in both cases, and thus good candidates for antibacterial packaging or antioxidant dietary supplements, were mango seed extract and tannic acid containing mostly polygalloyl glucose type phenols.

  19. Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids, Antioxidant Capacities, and Volatile Compounds Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Profiling of Moringa oleifera Ripe Seed Polar Fractions.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Ismail Abiola; Arsad, Hasni; Samian, Mohd Razip

    2018-01-01

    Academic reports have confirmed Moringa oleifera leaves to possess significant antioxidant capacities; however, such studies are unavailable for its ripe seeds even though they are more desirous for consumption due to their sweet taste. In this study, we investigated antioxidant capacities of four polar extracts (crude water, ethanol, butanol, and aqueous residue) from the plant's ripe seeds. Phytochemicals were extracted from the ripe seeds of M. oleifera using ethanol and water solvents at initial stage. Butanol and aqueous residue were then subsequently fractioned out from the ethanol extract. Phenolic and flavonoid contents of the polar extracts were determined. Then, their antioxidant capacities were quantified by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. Finally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of the extracts were performed. DPPH and ABTS tests showed that the polar extracts possess significant antioxidant capacities that ranged from 29 to 35.408 μM Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/mg sample and 7 to 29 μM TEAC/mg sample, respectively. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts corresponded to their phenolic and flavonoid contents that varied from 13.61 to 20.42 mg gallic acid equivalence/g sample and 0.58 to 9.81 mg quercetin equivalence/g sample, respectively. Finally, GC-MS analyses revealed antimicrobial phenolic compounds, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in crude water extract and 4-hydroxybenzene acetonitrile in the ethanol and butanol extracts, and aqueous residue. Our results established that M. oleifera ripe seeds have significant antioxidant activity which may be due to its phenolic and nonphenolic compounds content. In this study, polar phytochemicals from ripe seeds of Moringa oleifera were extracted by water and ethanol solvents, and butanol extract and aqueous residue were subsequently fractioned out of the ethanol extract. The

  20. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is related to glucose tolerance in older people: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, H; Syddall, H E; Phillips, D I W; Sayer, A A; Dennison, E M; Cooper, C; Robinson, S M

    2014-03-01

    Dietary antioxidants may play a protective role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes. However, observational studies that examine the relationship between the antioxidant capacity of the diet and glucose metabolism are limited, particularly in older people. We aimed to examine the relationships between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and markers of glucose metabolism among 1441 men and 1253 women aged 59-73 years who participated in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, UK. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Dietary TAC was estimated using published databases of TAC measured by four different assays: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Fasting and 120-min plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured during a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. In men, dietary TAC estimated by all four assays was inversely associated with fasting insulin concentration and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); with the exception of ORAC, dietary TAC was also inversely related to 120-min glucose concentration. There were no associations with fasting glucose or 120-min insulin concentrations. In women, with the exception of the association between ORAC and 120-min insulin concentration, dietary TAC estimated by all assays showed consistent inverse associations with fasting and 120-min glucose and insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR. These associations were more marked among women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). These findings suggest dietary TAC may have important protective effects on glucose tolerance, especially in older obese women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioaccessibility of hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant capacity from sorghum bran thermally processed during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Salazar-López, Norma Julieta; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Rouzaud-Sández, Ofelia; Robles-Sánchez, Maribel

    2018-06-01

    Sorghum is a source of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), which have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative capacities. However, a high proportion of them have low bioaccessibility due the complex structural disposition of the plant's cell wall. The effects of boiling and extrusion processes on sorghum bran and their effects on the antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of HCA during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion were investigated. The bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds was significantly higher in extruded sorghum bran (38.4%) than that obtained by boiling (29.5%). This is consistent with the increase of the antioxidant capacity after in vitro digestion. In contrast, a low bioaccessibility of pure monomeric HCA was observed when they were exposed to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. There were significant bioaccessibility reductions of 36.8, 19.5, 13.5, 62.1% for caffeic, ρ-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids, respectively, when unproccessed sorghum bran was added. Although the bioaccessibility of monomeric HCA was low, the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity increased during the digestion simulation due to the thermal processes of extrusion and boiling. Extrusion and boiling could be utilized to produce food based on sorghum bran with biological potential.

  2. Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanhong; Lin, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O{2/-}). The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H. pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O{2/-}. Astaxanthin reacted with ROS much faster than did the protective enzymes, and had the strongest antioxidative capacity to protect against lipid peroxidation. The defensive mechanisms varied significantly between the three cell types and were related to the level of astaxanthin that had accumulated in those cells. Astaxanthin-enriched red cells had the strongest antioxidative capacity, followed by brown cells, and astaxanthin-deficient green cells. Although there was no significant increase in expression of protective enzymes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in red cells was sustained at a low level because of the antioxidative effect of astaxanthin, which quenched O{2/-} before the protective enzymes could act. In green cells, astaxanthin is very low or absent; therefore, scavenging of ROS is inevitably reliant on antioxidative enzymes. Accordingly, in green cells, these enzymes play the leading role in scavenging ROS, and the expression of these enzymes is rapidly increased to reduce excessive ROS. However, because ROS were constantly increased in this study, the enhance enzyme activity in the green cells was not able to repair the ROS damage, leading to elevated MDA content. Of the four defensive enzymes measured in astaxanthin-deficient green cells, SOD eliminates O{2/-}, POD eliminates H2O2, which is a by-product of SOD activity, and APX and CAT are then initiated to scavenge excessive ROS.

  3. Influence of selenium and fluoride on blood antioxidant capacity of rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pei; Wei, Jun-ren; Zhang, Zi-gui

    2012-09-01

    This study is to explore the effect of selenium and fluoride on blood antioxidant capacity of rats, and try to find out the optimal level of selenium in drinking water against fluorosis. Animals were divided into control group, sodium fluoride treated group (NaF, 50 mg/L) and selenium+NaF treated group (sodium selenite 0.375, 0.75, 1.5 mg/L) in water were respectively administered to male rats, which were decapitated after 6 months. Their blood was collected for GSH-Px activity, plasma SOD activity, T-AOC assay, uric acid assay, sialic acid (SA) content and MDA content, and the fluidity of erythrocyte membrane by electron spin resonance (ESR) was analyzed. The results showed that, compared with the control group, the blood antioxidant capacity of the rats exposed to fluoride was down-regulated significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01), MDA content increased significantly (P<0.05), the fluidity of erythrocyte membrane decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Meanwhile, the treatments of selenium along with NaF compared with fluorosis group, SOD activity, GSH-Px activity and T-AOC assay increased respectively, MDA content decreased significantly (P<0.05) in NaF+Se (Se 0.75, 1.5 mg/L) treated groups, uric acid level was up-regulated, but had no statistical significant difference (P>0.05). The fluidity of erythrocyte membrane showed significant increase (P<0.05), the content of SA was lower. Fluorosis could induce the decline of blood antioxidant capacity and the fluidity of erythrocyte membrane, as evident in this study, and Se at different levels possess some antagonistic effects on blood induced by fluoride. However, high dose of selenium (1.5 mg/L) is the optimum concentration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  5. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  6. Development and validation of an algorithm to establish a total antioxidant capacity database of the US diet.

    PubMed

    Floegel, Anna; Kim, Dae-Ok; Chung, Sang-Jin; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Bruno, Richard S; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2010-09-01

    Estimation of total antioxidant intake is the first step to investigate the protective effects of antioxidants on oxidative stress-mediated disease. The present study was designed to develop an algorithm to estimate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the US diet. TAC of individual antioxidants and 50 popular antioxidant-rich food items in the US diet were determined by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Theoretical TAC of foods was calculated as the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of compounds. The top 10 TAC food items in the US diet according to standard serving size were blueberry > plum > green tea > strawberry > green tea (decaffeinated) > red wine > grape juice > black tea > cherry > grape. Major contributors to TAC were the total phenolic content (r = 0.952, P < 0.001) and flavonoid content (r = 0.827, P < 0.001) of 50 foods. Theoretical TAC was positively correlated to experimental TAC of 50 foods determined by the ABTS assay (r = 0.833, P < 0.001) and the DPPH assay (r = 0.696, P < 0.001), and to TAC from the USDA database for the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (r = 0.484, P = 0.001, n = 44). The TAC database of the US diet has been established and validated. In future studies, TAC of the US diet can be linked to biomarkers of chronic disease.

  7. Determination of total antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) using fluorescein as the fluorescence probe: First Action 2012.23.

    PubMed

    Ou, Boxin; Chang, Tony; Huang, Dejian; Prior, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was developed and validated using fluorescein (3',6'-dihydroxyspiro[isobenzofuran-1[3H], 9'[9H]-xanthen]-3-one) as a new fluorescence probe (ORAC(FL)). Randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin (RMCD) was introduced as the water-solubility enhancer for lipophilic antioxidants. 7% RMCD (w/v) in 50% acetone-H2O mixture sufficiently solubilized vitamin E compounds and other lipophilic phenolic antioxidants in 75 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Results indicated that fluorescein shows excellent photostability under the plate reader conditions. This ORAC(FL) was validated through linearity, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness. The validation results demonstrated that the ORACFL assay is reliable and robust. The mean of intraday and interday CVs were <15%; for hydrophilic ORAC, LOD and LOQ are 5 and 6.25 microM, respectively; for lipophilic ORAC, LOD and LOQ are 6.25 and 12.5 microM, respectively. It is concluded that unlike other popular methods, the ORAC(FL) assay provides a direct measure of total antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radicals.

  8. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  9. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic contents, and GC/MS analysis of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. root extracts from Trans-Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Tayade, A B; Dhar, P; Sharma, M; Chauhan, R S; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to assess the antioxidant capacities and phenolic constituents of methanol and aqueous extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. root from Trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity of the root extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner (up to 0.1 mg/mL) and root extract concentrations required for 50% inhibition of radical scavenging effect (IC50 ) were recorded as 0.013 and 0.014 mg/mL (for DPPH) and 0.016 and 0.017 mg/mL (for ABTS) for methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total polyphenol and phenolic acid content of methanol and aqueous extracts were 112.24, 59.06, 39.02, and 16.95 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract, respectively. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 30.2, 17.67, 20.68, and 7.38 mg quercetin equivalent/g of extract, respectively. In all antioxidant capacity assays, the methanol extract exhibited significantly higher antioxidant capacity than that of aqueous extract due to the presence of significantly higher amount of vital phytoconstitiuents, viz. polyphenol, phenolic acid, and flavonol. GC/MS analysis showed that phytosterols, alkyl halide, phenols, and fatty acid esters were major phytochemical clusters. On the other hand, monoterpenes, fatty acids, tocopherols, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and ethers were found to be present in comparatively less amount in the methanol extract. Hence, our study signifies that this high-altitude medicinal herb could be used as the natural source of antioxidants and supports its use in traditional system of medicine to ameliorate oxidative stress and high-altitude maladies. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. An oxygen radical absorbance capacity-like assay that directly quantifies the antioxidant's scavenging capacity against AAPH-derived free radicals.

    PubMed

    Kohri, Shunji; Fujii, Hirotada; Oowada, Shigeru; Endoh, Nobuyuki; Sueishi, Yoshimi; Kusakabe, Miku; Shimmei, Masashi; Kotake, Yashige

    2009-03-15

    A new method is proposed for the evaluation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The current fluorescence-based ORAC assay (ORAC-FL) is an indirect method that monitors the antioxidant's ability to protect the fluorescent probe from free radical-mediated damage, and an azo-radical initiator, AAPH (2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride), has been used as a thermal free radical source. The new ORAC assay employs a short in situ photolysis of AAPH to generate free radicals. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping method was employed to identify and quantify AAPH radicals. In the presence of antioxidant, the level of AAPH radicals was decreased, and ORAC-EPR values were calculated following a simple kinetic formulation. Alkyl-oxy radical was identified as the sole decomposition product from AAPH; therefore, we concluded that ORAC-FL is the assay equivalent to alkyl-oxy radical scavenging capacity measurement. ORAC-EPR results for several antioxidants and human serum indicated that the overall tendency is in agreement with ORAC-FL, but absolute values showed significant discrepancies. ORAC-EPR is a rapid and simple method that is especially suitable for thermally labile biological specimens because the sample heating is not required for free radical production.

  11. Determination of oligomeric proanthocyanidins and their antioxidant capacity from different chocolate manufacturing stages using the NP-HPLC-online-DPPH methodology.

    PubMed

    Pedan, Vasilisa; Fischer, Norbert; Bernath, Konrad; Hühn, Tilo; Rohn, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa beans are a well-known source of antioxidant polyphenols. Especially individual oligomeric proanthocyanidins demonstrated a significant contribution to the total antioxidant activity of cocoa compared to monomeric compounds. An NP-HPLC-online-DPPH assay was developed for separating the homologous series of oligomeric proanthocyanidins and the simultaneous assessment of their antioxidant capacity in relation to the degree of polymerization (DP). The present study describes the influence of the different stages of a lab-scale chocolate manufacturing process on the content of oligomeric proanthocyanidins and their antioxidant capacity. The sum of the total proanthocyanidin content (∑ DP1-DP13) decreased from 30mg epicatechin equivalents per gram non-fat dry matter in raw fresh cocoa beans to 6mg epicatechin equivalents per gram in the final chocolate. The antioxidant capacity decreased accordingly from 25mg epicatechin equivalents per gram non-fat dry matter in raw fresh cocoa beans to 4mg/g in the final chocolate product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of selected Irish Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Rajauria, Gaurav; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

    2011-09-01

    Vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates, and their hydrolysis products, which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. In the present study, phenolic composition, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of selected Brassica vegetables, including York cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and white cabbage were evaluated after extraction with aqueous methanol. Results obtained showed that York cabbage extract had the highest total phenolic content, which was 33.5, followed by 23.6, 20.4 and 18.4 mg GAE/g of dried weight (dw) of the extracts for broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. All the vegetable extracts had high flavonoid contents in the order of 21.7, 17.5, 15.4 and 8.75 mg QE/g of extract (dw) for York cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that different vegetables contain a mixture of distinct groups of phenolic compounds. All the extracts studied showed a rapid and concentration dependent antioxidant capacity in diverse antioxidant systems. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. York cabbage extract exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (100%) and Salmonella abony (94.3%), being the most susceptible at a concentration of 2.8%, whereas broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage had moderate to weak activity against all the test organisms. Good correlation (r2 0.97) was found between total phenolic content obtained by spectrophotometric analysis and the sum of the individual polyphenols monitored by HPLC-DAD.

  13. Fluctuations in Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Green Vegetable Juices during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Yeong

    2015-09-01

    Shinseoncho and kale were made into green vegetable juices by building block [shinsenocho branch (SB), shinsenocho leaf (SL), kale branch (KB), and kale leaf (KL)]. Fluctuations in their phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities were analyzed during refrigerated storage at 4°C for 28 days. Total polyphenolic contents of leaf parts showed a decreasing tendency after 4 days (SL) or 7 days (KL), whereas branch parts showed fluctuating values during the entire storage period. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity was rapidly decreased in SB and in SL at 28 days (P<0.001), whereas KL showed a slightly increasing tendency after 14 days. For the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, SL showed a sharp fall at 28 days (P<0.001), and KL showed a decreasing tendency after 14 days (P<0.001). SB showed a steady decrease during the entire storage period and KB indicated a nearly zero (0.97%) at 28 days. Pearson's coefficients for the correlation between antioxidant capacities measured by the ABTS and DPPH assays, and the total polyphenolic contents were determined. The results showed that the ABTS assay (r=0.934, P<0.001) was more strongly positively correlated with the total phenolic contents than the DPPH assay (r=0.630, P<0.001). In conclusion, when considering all building blocks, green vegetable juices, including kale and shinseoncho may have kept antioxidant capacities for up to 14 days under refrigeration, and the ABTS assay better reflects a positive correlation with the total phenolic contents when compared to the DPPH assay.

  14. Quality index, consumer acceptability, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut "ataulfo" mangoes (mangifera indica L.) as affected by low-temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Robles-Sánchez, R M; Islas-Osuna, M A; Astiazarán-García, H; Vázquez-Ortiz, F A; Martín-Belloso, O; Gorinstein, S; González-Aguilar, G A

    2009-04-01

    To measure bioactive compound losses due to minimal processing, mature green fresh-cut mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) cv. "Ataulfo" were subjected to an antioxidant treatment and stored at 5 degrees C during 15 d. Quality index, total phenols, flavonoids, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and antioxidant activity were measured during the storage period of fruits. Antioxidant capacity was estimated using ORAC(FL), TEAC, and DPPH assays. The dipping treatments with ascorbic acid (AA) + citric acid (CA) + CaCl2 affected positively quality delaying deterioration of fresh-cut mango as compared with whole fruit. However, dipping treatment affected the consumer preferences of fresh-cut mangoes. The highest vitamin C, beta-carotene, and vitamin E losses were observed after 10 d, being similar in whole and fresh-cut mangoes. The antioxidant activity was not significantly affected by storage time. We conclude that fresh-cut mangoes retained their bioactive compound content during storage and their antioxidant and nutritional properties make them a good source of these compounds.

  15. Effect of antioxidant inclusion and oil quality on broiler performance, meat quality, and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Bess, K N; Zhao, J; Yan, F; Dilger, A C; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of antioxidant inclusion and oil quality on broiler performance, meat quality, shelf life, and tissue oxidative status. Ross 308 male broilers were allotted to a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Factors consisted of antioxidant (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) inclusion at 2 levels (0 or 135 mg/kg) and oil quality (fresh soybean oil, control diet peroxide value <1 mEq/kg, or oxidized soybean oil, diet peroxide value 7 mEq/kg). Each treatment included 12 pen replicates comprising 24 birds for a total of 1,152 birds on trial allotted to 48 pens. On the final day of the study, 1 bird from each pen was killed by cervical dislocation and used for determination of tissue oxidative status. Another 5 broilers from each pen were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Immediately after processing, carcasses were transported to the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory (Urbana) for further analysis. With the exception of 2 responses (liver vitamin A and serum vitamin A), no interactions were found between antioxidant inclusion and oil quality. Body weight and weight gain were increased by dietary antioxidant inclusion (P < 0.001) and fresh oil (P < 0.001). Feed intake was increased in broilers fed the antioxidant (P = 0.047) and fresh oil (P = 0.062). Antioxidant inclusion had no effect on G:F (P = 0.18). Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on carcass weight (P = 0.202), dressing percentage (P = 0.906), breast yield (P = 0.708), or breast ultimate pH (P = 0.625) and had minimal effect on breast color. Antioxidant supplementation (P = 0.057) reduced breast thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 7 d of display. Fresh oil decreased liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, whereas antioxidant inclusion increased serum and liver vitamin A and E concentration. The presence of an antioxidant in the feed protects lipids from further oxidizing

  16. Characterization of polyphenols and evaluation of antioxidant capacity in grape pomace of the cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel R; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2015-07-01

    Low molecular weight polyphenols (LMW-PPs) and anthocyanins, along with the antioxidant capacity, were assessed in grape pomace extract (GPE) of red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec. Twenty-six phenolics (13 LMW-PPs and 13 anthocyanins) were characterized and quantified by HPLC-MWD and UPLC-ESI-MS. The maximum concentrations of LMW-PPs corresponded to the flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas malvidin-3-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin. Piceatannol, a stilbene analogue to resveratrol with higher antioxidant activity, was firstly identified and quantified in GPE of the cv. Malbec. The antioxidant activity for Malbec GPE determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was 2,756 μmol TEg(-1) GPE. Therefore, the data reported sustain the use of winemaking by-products as a cheap source of phenolic compounds suitable for biotechnological applications, as a strategy for sustainable oenology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flavonoids, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Capacity in the Flower of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunhua; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong; Li, Xian

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids and phenolics are abundant in loquat flowers. Methanol had the highest extraction efficiency among five solvents, followed by ethanol. Considering the safety and residue, ethanol is better as extraction solvent. The average content of flavonoids and phenolics of loquat flower of five cultivars were 1.59 ± 0.24 and 7.86 ± 0.87 mg/g DW, respectively, when using ethanol as extraction solvent. The contents of both bioactive components in flowers at different developmental stages and in the various flower tissues clearly differed, with the highest flavonoids and phenolics content in flowers of stage 3 (flower fully open) and petal, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS methods. The values of ABTS method was highest, followed by DPPH, the lowest was FRAP, when using vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) as unit. Correlation analysis showed that the ABTS method showed the highest correlation coefficients with flavonoids and phenolics, i.e., 0.886 and 0.973, respectively. PMID:21686159

  18. Antioxidant capacity of several Iranian, wild and cultivated strains of the button mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Tajalli, Faezeh; Malekzadeh, Khalil; Soltanian, Hadi; Janpoor, Javad; Rezaeian, Sharareh; Pourianfar, Hamid R.

    2015-01-01

    The white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, is the most commonly grown mushroom in Iran; however, there is a significant shortage of research on its antioxidant activity and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts from four cultivated strains and four Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-identified, Iranian wild isolates of A. bisporus. Evaluations were made for total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. Overall, results showed that all the wild isolates exhibited significantly lower DPPH-derived EC50, compared to the cultivated strains (p < 0.05). A relatively high relationship was observed between total phenols and flavonoids or anthocyanins (r2 > 0.60). However, these constituents could not statistically differentiate the group of wild samples from the cultivated ones, and there was low correlation with the DPPH-derived EC50s (r2 < 0.40). In conclusion, comparisons showed that wild isolate 4 and cultivated strains A15 and H1 had higher antioxidant capacity than the others (p < 0.05). This result identifies these mushrooms as good candidates for further investigation. PMID:26413059

  19. Decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in passive smoker infants and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    Smoking has many adverse health effects in infants and adults. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in passive smoker infants and their mothers and to compare with those of non-smokers. Subjects were randomly chosen from infants aged 8-26 weeks and their mothers aged 20-34 years. Passive smoker infants (n = 29) and their mothers (n = 29) were defined as having other family members who smoked six or more cigarettes per day continually for at least 8 weeks. Non-smokers were defined as infants (n = 30) and their mothers (n = 24) who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma were perused by measuring the total antioxidant capacity. Oxidative status was evaluated by predicating total peroxide level, oxidative stress index, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in passive smoker infants and their mothers than non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. However, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress index were remarkably higher in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. There were significant correlations between the oxidative and antioxidative parameters of the passive smoker infants and their mothers. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-smokers. Passive smoker infants and their mothers are exposed to potent oxidative stress.

  20. Stevia rebaudiana Leaves: Effect of Drying Process Temperature on Bioactive Components, Antioxidant Capacity and Natural Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Ah-Hen, Kong; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Honores, Carolina; Moraga, Nelson O

    2016-03-01

    Stevia leaves are usually used in dried state and undergo the inevitable effect of drying process that changes the quality characteristics of the final product. The aim of this study was to assess temperature effect on Stevia leaves through analysis of relevant bioactive components, antioxidant capacity and content of natural sweeteners and minerals. The drying process was performed in a convective dryer at constant temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Vitamin C was determined in the leaves and as expected showed a decrease during drying proportional to temperature. Phenolics and flavonoids were also determined and were found to increase during drying below 50 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, and the latter showed the highest value at 40 °C, with a better correlation with the phenolics and flavonoids content. The content of eight natural sweeteners found in Stevia leaves was also determined and an increase in the content of seven of the sweeteners, excluding steviol bioside, was found at drying temperature up to 50 °C. At temperatures between 60 and 80 °C the increase in sweeteners content was not significant. Stevia leaves proved to be an excellent source of antioxidants and natural sweeteners.

  1. Determination of antioxidants by a novel on-line HPLC-cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay with post-column detection.

    PubMed

    Celik, Saliha Esin; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2010-07-26

    A novel on-line HPLC-cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method was developed for the selective determination of polyphenols (flavonoids, simple phenolic and hydroxycinnamic acids) in complex plant matrices. The method combines chromatographic separation, constituent analysis, and post-column identification of antioxidants in plant extracts. The separation of polyphenols was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution with two different mobile phase solutions, i.e., MeOH and 0.2% o-phosphoric acid. The HPLC-separated antioxidant polyphenols in the extracts react with copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) reagent in a post-column reaction coil to form a derivative. The reagent is reduced by antioxidants to the copper(I)-neocuproine (Cu(I)-Nc) chelate having maximum absorption at 450 nm. The negative peaks of antioxidant constituents were monitored by measuring the increase in absorbance due to Cu(I)-Nc. The detection limits of polyphenols at 450 nm (in the range of 0.17-3.46 microM) after post-column derivatization were comparable to those at 280 nm UV detection without derivatization. The developed method was successfully applied to the identification of antioxidant compounds in crude extracts of Camellia sinensis, Origanum marjorana and Mentha. The method is rapid, inexpensive, versatile, non-laborious, uses stable reagents, and enables the on-line qualitative and quantitative estimation of antioxidant constituents of complex plant samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Nutritional Quality and Global Antioxidant Response of Banana (Musa sp. CV. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Pseudostem and Flower.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Ramith; Shirahatti, Prithvi S; Anilakumar, K R; Nayakavadi, Shivasharanappa; Zameer, Farhan; Dhananjaya, B L; Nagendra Prasad, M N

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits. The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile, and global antioxidant response (GAR) of PB and FB. Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the nutritional quality and GAR of PB and FB. The chemical analysis illustrated that functional profile (water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, swelling power, and solubility), and proximate (ash, moisture, protein, fat, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) contents were substantially high in FB than PB. With a well-proportionate amino acid profile, PB (0.56) and FB (0.54) comprised of a high ratio of essential to nonessential amino acids than those of FAO/WHO requirement (0.38). The mineral analysis revealed that PB and FB were rich in macro and micro minerals in the order K > Ca > Mg > P > Na and K > Mg > Na > Ca > P, respectively. Linoleic acid was found to be the major component in PB and FB. Besides, total antioxidant activity conducted for PB and FB by GAR method, measuring both bio-accessible and insoluble fractions, revealed that the soluble fraction fared better than the chemical extracts. The results revealed high nutritional qualities of the byproducts of banana and the low cost of its production promotes their use as a prospective nonconventional food resource with high nutraceutical value. AOAC: Association of Analytical CommunitiesFAO/WHO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World health organization Abbreviations Used: Banana flower was more potent than banana pseudostem in terms of its nutritional quality and total antioxidant capacity affirming their usefulness (of both the secondary products) in the pharmaceutical sector as a nutritional supplement due to the health-related properties of dietary fibre

  3. Decrease of total antioxidant capacity during coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Kunt, Alper Sami; Selek, Sahbettin; Celik, Hakim; Demir, Deniz; Erel, Ozcan; Andac, Mehmet Halit

    2006-09-01

    Cardiac surgery induces an oxidative stress, which may lead to impairment of cardiac function. In this study, we aimed to measure the changes of oxidative and antioxidative status of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). We studied 79 patients who underwent CABG with and without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Of the 79 patients, 39 had CPB and 40 did not. Blood samples were drawn before, during, and after the surgery. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative status was evaluated by measuring total peroxide (TP) levels and oxidative stress index (OSI). TP and OSI levels increased, while TAC decreased progressively after the beginning of surgery, for all patients. There were negative correlations between TAC levels and aortic cross-clamping period and anastomosis time ( r = -0.553, p < 0.001 and r = -0.500, p < 0.001, respectively). In addition, there was a positive correlation between TAC and ejection fraction (r = 0.647, p < 0.001). During CABG, oxidant and OSI levels significantly increase and TAC significantly decreases. This situation is influenced by long CPB and anastomosis time, and also by low ventricular ejection fraction. We concluded that the patients who undergo CABG are exposed to potent oxidative stress that impairs their TAC. We speculate that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E may be beneficial for patients undergoing CABG.

  4. Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to drought and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, Elisabeth; Kaufman, Peter B; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Chang, Soo Chul

    2003-07-02

    Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) were subjected to drought and cold stress treatments, and polyphenolic extracts from control and stress-treated plants were assayed for antioxidant capacities using a modified version of the Total Antioxidant Status Assay (Randox, San Francisco, CA). In addition, these plants were analyzed for levels of flavanol-type substance [(-)-epicatechin] and flavonoid (vitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, acetylvitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, and hyperoside) constituents that are important metabolites in hawthorn herbal preparations used to treat patients with heart disease. Drought and cold stress treatments caused increases in levels of (-)-epicatechin and hyperoside in both Crataegus species. Such treatments also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The results from this study thus indicate that these kinds of stress treatments can enhance the levels of important secondary metabolites and their total antioxidant capacities in leaves of Crataegus.

  5. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    PubMed

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin B-6 Supplementation Could Mediate Antioxidant Capacity by Reducing Plasma Homocysteine Concentration in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shao-Bin; Lin, Ping-Ting; Liu, Hsiao-Tien; Peng, Yi-Shan; Huang, Shih-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 has a strong antioxidative effect. It would be useful to determine whether vitamin B-6 supplementation had effects on antioxidant capacities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had recently undergone tumor resection. Thirty-three HCC patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo (n = 16) group or the vitamin B-6 50 mg/d (n = 17) group for 12 weeks. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, homocysteine, indicators of oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities were measured. Plasma homocysteine in the vitamin B-6 group was significantly decreased at week 12, while the level of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was significantly increased at the end of the intervention period. Vitamin B-6 supplementation had a significant reducing effect on the change of plasma homocysteine (β = −2.4, p = 0.02) but not on the change of TEAC level after adjusting for potential confounders. The change of plasma homocysteine was significantly associated with the change of TEAC after adjusting for potential confounders (β = −162.0, p = 0.03). Vitamin B-6 supplementation seemed to mediate antioxidant capacity via reducing plasma homocysteine rather than having a direct antioxidative effect in HCC patients who had recently undergone tumor resection. The clinical trial number is NCT01964001, ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:27051670

  7. Antioxidant capacity of hesperidin from citrus peel using electron spin resonance and cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashaal, Hanan A; El-Sheltawy, Shakinaz T

    2011-03-01

    Hesperidin is a flavonoid that has various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. The aim of the study is the isolation of hesperidin from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. (Rutaceae), and the evaluation of its antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity against different human carcinoma cell lines. In the present work, hesperidin is identified and confirmed using chromatographic and spectral analysis. To correlate between hesperidin concentration and antioxidant capacity of peel extracts, extraction was carried out using 1% HCl-MeOH, MeOH, alkaline solution, the concentration of hesperidin determined qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, in vitro antioxidant capacity of hesperidin and the extracts against free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) performed using an electron spin resonance spectrophotometer (ESR). Cytotoxic assay against larynx, cervix, breast and liver carcinoma cell lines was performed. Hesperidin was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent; its capacity reached 36%. In addition, the results revealed that hesperidin exhibited pronounced anticancer activity against the selected cell lines. IC₅₀ were 1.67, 3.33, 4.17, 4.58 µg/mL, respectively. Orange peels are considered to be a cheap source for hesperidin which may be used in the pharmaceutical industry as a natural chemopreventive agent. Hesperidin and orange peel extract could possess antioxidant properties with a wide range of therapeutic applications.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  9. Three-year comparison of the polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in organically and conventionally produced apples ( Malus domestica Bork. Cultivar 'Golden Delicious').

    PubMed

    Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Weibel, Franco P; Bub, Achim; Watzl, Bernhard

    2009-06-10

    The present study was performed to evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of apples (cv. ;Golden Delicious') grown under defined organic and conventional conditions. Apples were harvested at five comparable commercial farms over the course of three years (2004-2006). In 2005 and 2006 the antioxidant capacity was 15% higher (p < 0.05) in organically produced apples than in conventionally produced fruits. In 2005 significantly higher polyphenol concentrations were found in the organically grown apples. In 2004 and 2006 no significant differences were observed (2004, 304 +/- 68 microg/g organic vs 284 +/- 69 microg/g conventional, p = 0.18; 2005, 302 +/- 58 micro/g organic vs 253 +/- 41 microg/g conventional, p = 0.002; 2006, 402 +/- 100 microg/g organic vs 365 +/- 58 microg/g conventional, p = 0.17). Year-to-year variations in the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol content of up to 20% were more significant than the production method found within one year. Finally, flavanols and flavonols were major determinants of the antioxidant capacities in these apples. Overall, the production method had a smaller impact on the variation in the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of apples than the yearly climate.

  10. A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation.

    PubMed

    Erel, Ozcan

    2004-04-01

    To develop a novel colorimetric and automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A new generation, more stable, colored 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS(*+)) was employed. The ABTS(*+) is decolorized by antioxidants according to their concentrations and antioxidant capacities. This change in color is measured as a change in absorbance at 660 nm. This process is applied to an automated analyzer and the assay is calibrated with Trolox. The novel assay is linear up to 6 mmol Trolox equivalent/l, its precision values are lower than 3%, and there is no interference from hemoglobin, bilirubin, EDTA, or citrate. The method developed is significantly correlated with the Randox- total antioxidant status (TAS) assay (r = 0.897, P < 0.0001; n = 91) and with the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay (r = 0.863, P < 0.0001; n = 110). Serum TAC level was lower in patients with major depression (1.69 +/- 0.11 mmol Trolox equivalent/l) than in healthy subjects (1.75 +/- 0.08 mmol Trolox equivalent/l, P = 0.041). This easy, stable, reliable, sensitive, inexpensive, and fully automated method described can be used to measure total antioxidant capacity.

  11. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Grega, Tadeusz; Tabaszewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different flavours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper) were added to the cow's milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w). The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no significant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter significantly decreased after storage. The red sweet pepper additive was the most beneficial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  12. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases.

  13. [THE POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF COLORIMETRY TECHNIQUE OF DETECTION OF LEVELS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF SERUM].

    PubMed

    Sapojnikova, M A; Strakhova, L A; Blinova, T V; Makarov, I A; Rakhmanov, R S; Umniagina, I A

    2015-11-01

    The analysis was implemented concerning indicators of oxidative status and antioxidant capacity of serum. The indicators were received by colorimetry technique based on detection of peroxides in blood serum in examined patients of different categories: healthy persons aged from 17 to 20 years and from 30 to 60 years and patients with bronchopulmonary pathology. The low level of oxidative stress and high antioxidant capacity of serum were established in individuals ofyounger age. With increasing of age, degree of expression of oxidative stress augmented and level of antioxidant defense lowered. Almost all patients with bronchopulmonary pathology had high level of oxidative stress and low level of antioxidant defense. The analysis of quantitative data of examined indicators their conformity with health condition was established

  14. Plasma phospholipase, γ-CEHC and antioxidant capacity in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Fais, Antonella; Cacace, Enrico; Atzori, Luigi; Era, Benedetta; Ruggiero, Valeria

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested a possible role of high levels of plasma lysophosphocholines (lysoPCs) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of plasma phospholipases (e.g., Platelet Activating Factor Acetyl Hydrolase [PAF-AH], secretory Phospholipase A 2 [sPLA 2 ], Total Antioxidant Capacity [TAOC] and 2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(2-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxy chroman [γ-CEHC]) in FMS patients and their association with clinical status and quality of life. Thirty-six females meeting the 2011 American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification of FMS and thirty-four healthy females were enrolled for the study. Plasma enzyme levels were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA). In order to assess the disease severity and the functional status of patients, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnarie (FIQ) was used. Higher levels of sPLA 2 and lower PAF-AH and γ-CEHC were observed in the plasma of FMS patients compared to the controls. A decrease in PAF-AH and TAOC levels were found in severe FMS (S-FMS) compared to mild/slight (MS-FMS) forms. The results of the study indicate a possible involvement of phospholipases and γ-CEHC in fibromyalgia syndrome. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. The oxidation status of ALDH3A1 in human saliva and its correlation with antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method.

    PubMed

    Bogucka, Małgorzata; Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Zawada, Katarzyna; Wroczyński, Piotr; Wierzchowski, Jacek; Pietrzak, Monika; Piekarczyk, Piotr; Romanowska, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Oxidation status of the salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was measured in healthy human population using two-assay fluorimetric method and compared with antioxidant capacity (ORAC) in non-smoking and heavy smokers group. Influence of high or low antioxidant diet was also examined. Except for the group of smokers, the salivary ALDH oxidation degree in human saliva was not correlated with antioxidant capacity. Simultaneously direct administration of the antioxidant-containing drug, Fluimucil, resulted in short-term, but statistically significant increase of the reduced (active) form of the enzyme, presumably due to a radical-scavenging activity of the drug.

  16. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention. PMID:21584229

  17. Effects of tai chi training on antioxidant capacity in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-04-11

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity-an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme-and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  18. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  19. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  20. Estimation of the antioxidant activity of the commercially available fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Sady, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are connected with the increased risk of certain diseases, especially cancers. There is some scientific evidence that antioxidant-rich diet may inhibit the negative impact of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to analyse the antioxidant capacity of the selected commercial natural and flavoured fermented milks offered in Poland, derived from different producers. The following commercially available natural fermented milks: 12 yoghurts, 12 kefirs, 2 butter milks, 2 cultured milks, Turkish yoghurt drink (ayran) and the following flavoured fermented milks: 22 yoghurts, 2 acidophillus milks, 2 kefirs, butter milk and vegetable flavoured fermented milk were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The antioxidant capacity was assessed, in two replicates and twice for each product, by means of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH radical scavenging ability (expressed as ARP - anti radical power) methods. Among all analysed plain products, yoghurts and kefirs were characterised by the highest antioxidant activity. The presence of probiotic Lactobacillus casei strains in the product positively affected both FRAP and ARP values. Antioxidant capacity of the flavoured fermented milks was primarily affected by the type and quality (e.g. fruit concentration) of the added flavouring preparation. The most valuable regarding the estimated parameters were chocolate, coffee, grapefruit with green tea extract as well as bilberry, forest fruits, strawberry and cherry with blackcurrant fillings. Protein content, inclusion of probiotic microflora as well as type and quality of flavouring preparations are the main factors affecting antioxidant properties of fermented milks.

  1. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  2. Plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity in healthy controls compared with aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Baser, Ulku; Gamsiz-Isik, Hikmet; Cifcibasi, Emine; Ademoglu, Evin; Yalcin, Funda

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP), generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and periodontally healthy controls. This cross-sectional study includes of 88 individuals seeking dental treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between January 2011 and March 2012. Fifteen AgP patients were compared with 21 healthy controls (C1), while 36 CP patients were compared with 16 healthy controls (C2). Clinical periodontal measurements were recorded, and plasma and saliva samples were collected. The TAOC of the plasma and saliva samples were determined using a commercially available colorimetric kit. The plasma TAOC of both AgP and CP patients was significantly lower for C1 and C2. The salivary TAOC of CP patients was significantly lower for C2, but there was no significant difference between AgP patients and C1. Our results demonstrate that severe periodontitis may be associated with a lower plasma antioxidant capacity. The reduced antioxidant capacity in patients with severe periodontitis, especially with aggressive forms may be an important contributing factor to severe tissue destruction.

  3. A comparison of antioxidative capacities of fruit juices, drinks and nectars, as determined by EPR and UV-vis spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    The differences in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) values at the same incubation time obtained by two different techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, which use the same antioxidant-free radical reaction mechanism, were determined for fruit juices, nectars and drinks. For this study, the stable free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•) was used. The antioxidant capacity was presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g., μM trolox per 100 ml of sample. All of the studied fruit juices, drinks and nectars showed antioxidative properties. Dependencies between TEAC values and the percent fruit content and sample color were observed for the studied beverages. It was found that EPR spectroscopy is the more adequate method for determining TEAC values for these kinds of samples.

  4. Food-Frequency Questionnaire Based Estimates of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Holtan, Shernan G.; O’Connor, Helen M.; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A.; Macon, William R.; Micallef, Ivana N.; Wang, Alice H.; Slager, Susan L.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Call, Timothy G.; Cerhan, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants, primarily from fruits and vegetables, have been hypothesized to protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay, which measures total antioxidant capacity of individual foods and accounts for synergism, can be estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We tested the hypothesis that higher intake of antioxidant nutrients from foods, supplements, and FFQ-based ORAC values are associated with a lower risk of NHL in a clinic-based study of 603 incident cases and 1007 frequency-matched controls. Diet was assessed with a 128-item FFQ. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age, sex, residence and total energy. Dietary intake of α-tocopherol (OR=0.50; p-trend=0.0002), β-carotene (OR=0.58; p-trend=0.0005), lutein/zeaxanthin (OR=0.62; p-trend=0.005), zinc (OR=0.54; p-trend=0.003) and chromium (OR=0.68; p-trend=0.032) were inversely associated with NHL risk. Inclusion of supplement use had little impact on these associations. Total vegetables (OR=0.52; p-trend<0.0001), particularly green leafy (OR=0.52; p-trend<0.0001) and cruciferous (OR=0.68; p-trend=0.045) vegetables, were inversely associated with NHL risk. NHL risk was inversely associated with both hydrophilic ORAC (OR=0.61, p-trend=0.003) and lipophilic ORAC (OR=0.48, p-trend=0.0002), although after simultaneous adjustment for other antioxidants or total vegetables only the association for lipophilic ORAC remained significant. There was no striking heterogeneity in results across the common NHL subtypes. Higher antioxidant intake as estimated by the FFQ-ORAC, particularly the lipophilic component, was associated with a lower NHL risk after accounting for other antioxidant nutrients and vegetable intake, supporting this as potentially useful summary measure of total antioxidant intake. PMID:22038870

  5. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  6. Role of catechins in the antioxidant capacity of an active film containing green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Colon, M; Nerin, C

    2012-10-03

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of natural extracts of green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit. These natural extracts were incorporated into a plastic film layer, which was subsequently subjected to a free radical gas stream in order to determine the antioxidant capacity directly in the active film. The green tea extract (GTE) afforded the strongest antioxidant activity. To identify the active compounds in the extract, concentration of the diverse catechins in samples were determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The results showed that the content of catechins in the GTE is around 77% (w/w), the major components being (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. A variation in the concentration profile of catechins was detected during the oxidation process. The chromatographic study demonstrated that (-)-gallocatechin, (-)- epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-catechin gallate exhibited the most radical scavenging.

  7. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber ethanolic extract: antioxidant capacity and electrochemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Monika Bezerra dos Santos; Valentim, Iara Barros; de Vasconcelos, Camila Calado; Omena, Cristhiane Maria Bazílio; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; da Costa, João Gomes; Freitas, Mikael de Lima; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-02-01

    The present study aims to determine the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of husk fiber of four coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties (yellow dwarf, green dwarf, giant and hybrid) and to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of these extracts on a glassy carbon electrode and on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The highest values of total phenolic content were obtained for the hybrid (531 ± 24 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) and yellow dwarf (501 ± 29 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) varieties and the lowest was for the green dwarf variety with 58 ± 9 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract. The ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH˙ radicals was in the order of giant > yellow dwarf > hybrid > green dwarf and the IC50 values varied from 8.6 to 55.9 μg mL(-1). All varieties showed reducing potential by the use of FRAP and CUPRAC methods, with the lowest performance obtained for the green dwarf variety. Additionally, through the use of mimetic biomembranes, ethanolic extracts of coconut husk were shown to protect lipids against oxidative damage independent of the variety. The main antioxidants identified in the extract of yellow dwarf variety by UPLC-MS were quercetin and catechin. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the ethanolic extracts on glassy carbon electrode confirmed the presence of easily oxidized compounds, and the high antioxidant capacity of the varieties. This capacity was expressed as mg quercetin equivalents g(-1) dry extract and ranged from 25.9 up to 53.5 mg QE g(-1). A poly-xanthurenic acid (poly-Xa)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) / glassy carbon modified electrode (poly-Xa/MWCNT/GCE) was used for this purpose. Our findings suggest that these extracts are potentially important antioxidant supplements for the everyday human diet, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, thereby aggregating value to the enormous amount of waste from the coconut industry, mostly used for burning purposes.

  8. Assay dilution factors confound measures of total antioxidant capacity in polyphenol-rich juices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The extent to which sample dilution factor (DF) affects Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) values is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the impact of DF on the ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, and Total Phenols (TP) assays using pomegranate juice (PJ), grape juice (GJ), selected flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and ella...

  9. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.).

    PubMed

    Van De Velde, Franco; Tarola, Anna M; Güemes, Daniel; Pirovani, María E

    2013-03-25

    Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer's health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR), covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e. , Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars ( Camarosa and Selva ) from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina's strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  10. Effect of dehydration on raspberries: polyphenol and anthocyanin retention, antioxidant capacity, and antiadipogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Meza, E I; Yáñez, J A; Remsberg, C M; Takemoto, J K; Davies, N M; Rasco, B; Clary, C

    2010-01-01

    Fresh and dried raspberries prepared by freeze drying (FD), microwave-vacuum (MIVAC), hot-air drying (HAD), and a combination of hot-air drying and microwave-vacuum (HAD/MIVAC) drying methods were evaluated for polyphenol retention, total polyphenol and anthocyanin contents, total antioxidant capacity, and antiadipogenic activity (the inhibition of fat cell development). Ellagic acid and quercetin were present in the largest concentrations in fresh and dehydrated raspberries. Dehydration led to a loss of polyphenols and anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols (aglycone form) were retained in the greatest amount: 20% (freeze dried) to 30% (HAD/MIVAC) (fresh = 100%). A total of 30% of polyphenols (glycoside form) were retained in raspberries dried by the HAD/MIVAC methods with 5% of retention observed for raspberries dried by FD, HAD, or MIVAC. FD and MIVAC resulted in higher retention of anthocyanins (aglycone form) than other drying methods. It was also observed that antioxidant activity was reduced by dehydration. Adipogenesis was inhibited by polyphenolic glycosides (30%) and aglycones (30% to 40%) in fresh and HAD/MIVAC raspberries. Extracts from dried raspberries by HAD/MIVAC methods were relatively more effective at inhibiting adipogenesis compared to HAD and FD dried raspberries.

  11. Berry ripening, pre-processing and thermal treatments affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice.

    PubMed

    Genova, Giuseppe; Tosetti, Roberta; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-30

    Grape juice is an important dietary source of health-promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre-processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated, considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red-skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 min) juices were produced using a water bath. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre-processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol content in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Influence of rye flour enzymatic biotransformation on the antioxidant capacity and transepithelial transport of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Fabíola Aliaga; Martins, Isabela Mateus; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Joana; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic acids have been reported to play a role on the antioxidant activity and other important biological activities. However, as most polyphenolics in food products are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, the way they are absorbed has not been totally clear until now. Hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase functionalities in polyphenolic-rich foods, enhancing the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and minerals from whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase) on the total phenols, phenolic acid profile, antioxidant capacity and in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids found in whole rye flour (RF). Besides increasing total phenols and the antioxidant capacity, tannase treatment increased the amounts of ferulic, sinapic and vanillic acids identified in RF, evidencing a new type of feruloyl esterase catalytic action of tannase. Vanillic and sinapic acids in tannase-treated whole rye flour (RFT) were higher than RF after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and higher amounts of transported vanillic acid through the Caco-2 monolayer were detected in RFT. However, the bioaccessibility and the transport efficiency of RF phenolic acids were higher than RFT. Underutilized crops like rye and rye-derived products may be an important source of phenolic acids. The tannase biotransformation, even influencing the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of RF, did not increase the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids under the experimental conditions of this study.

  13. Determination of total antioxidant capacity by a new spectrofluorometric method based on Ce(IV) reduction: Ce(III) fluorescence probe for CERAC assay.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2011-11-01

    A Ce(IV)-based reducing capacity (CERAC) assay was developed to measure the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of foods, in which Ce(IV) would selectively oxidize antioxidant compounds but not citric acid and reducing sugars which are not classified as antioxidants. The method is based on the electron-transfer (ET) reaction between Ce(IV) ion and antioxidants in optimized acidic sulphate medium (i.e., 0.3 M H(2)SO(4) and 0.7 M Na(2)SO(4)) and subsequent determination of the produced Ce(III) ions by a fluorometric method. The fluorescent product, Ce(III), exhibited strong fluorescence at 360 nm with an excitation wavelength of 256 nm, the fluorescence intensity being correlated to antioxidant power of the original sample. The linear concentration range for most antioxidants was quite wide, e.g., 5.0 × 10(-7)-1.0 × 10(-5) M for quercetin. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the TAC assay of antioxidant compounds such as trolox, quercetin, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin, naringin, naringenin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, glutathione, and cysteine. The proposed method was reproducible, additive in terms of TAC values of constituents of complex mixtures, and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC coefficients) of the tested antioxidant compounds gave good correlations with those found by reference methods such as ABTS and CUPRAC.

  14. Bioinspired near-infrared-excited sensing platform for in vitro antioxidant capacity assay based on upconversion nanoparticles and a dopamine-melanin hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Chuan; Ke, Xuebin; Kang, Ning; Shen, Yuqing; Liu, Yongliang; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Hongjun; Chen, Changqing; Ren, Lei

    2015-02-11

    A novel core-shell structure based on upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) and dopamine-melanin has been developed for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of biological fluids. In this approach, dopamine-melanin nanoshells facilely formed on the surface of UCNPs act as ultraefficient quenchers for upconversion fluorescence, contributing to a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism. This spontaneous oxidative polymerization of the dopamine-induced quenching effect could be effectively prevented by the presence of various antioxidants (typically biothiols, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), and Trolox). The chemical response of the UCNPs@dopamine-melanin hybrid system exhibited great selectivity and sensitivity toward antioxidants relative to other compounds at 100-fold higher concentration. A satisfactory correlation was established between the ratio of the "anti-quenching" fluorescence intensity and the concentration of antioxidants. Besides the response of the upconversion fluorescence signal, a specific evaluation process for antioxidants could be visualized by the color change from colorless to dark gray accompanied by the spontaneous oxidation of dopamine. The near-infrared (NIR)-excited UCNP-based antioxidant capacity assay platform was further used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of cell extracts and human plasma, and satisfactory sensitivity, repeatability, and recovery rate were obtained. This approach features easy preparation, fluorescence/visual dual mode detection, high specificity to antioxidants, and enhanced sensitivity with NIR excitation, showing great potential for screening and quantitative evaluation of antioxidants in biological systems.

  15. Mediterranean diet and non enzymatic antioxidant capacity in the PREDIMED study: evidence for a mechanism of antioxidant tuning.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, R; Serafini, M; Estruch, R; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Martínez-González, M A; Salas-Salvadó, J; Fiol, M; Lapetra, J; Arós, F; Covas, M I; Andres-Lacueva, C

    2013-12-01

    The intake of antioxidant-rich foods may increase the blood levels of non enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). NEAC takes into account all antioxidants from food and synergistic effects between them. We examined the effect of a 1-year intervention with Mediterranean diet on plasma NEAC and assessed whether it was related to baseline NEAC levels. Five hundred sixty-four participants at high cardiovascular risk were randomly selected from the PREDIMED (Prevención con DIeta MEDiterránea) Study, a large 3-arm randomized clinical trial. Blood NEAC levels were measured at baseline and after 1-year of dietary intervention with 1) a Mediterranean diet supplemented with virgin olive oil (MED + VOO); 2) a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (MED + nuts), or 3) a control low-fat diet. Plasma NEAC was analyzed using FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) and TRAP (total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter) assays. Plasma FRAP levels increased after 1-year of intervention with MED + VOO [72.0 μmol/L (95% CI, 34.2-109.9)] and MED + nuts [48.9 μmol/L (24.3-73.5)], but not after the control low-fat diet [13.9 μmol/L (-11.9 to 39.8)]. Participants in the lowest quartile of plasma FRAP at baseline significantly increased their levels after any intervention, while those in the highest quartile decreased. Similar results occurred with TRAP levels. This study shows that a 1-year of MED diet intervention increases plasma TAC level in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with antioxidants may be related to baseline levels of plasma NEAC. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute effect of Clitoria ternatea flower beverage on glycemic response and antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Chusak, Charoonsri; Thilavech, Thavaree; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2018-01-08

    Clitoria ternatea L., a natural food-colorant containing anthocyanin, demonstrated antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Clitoria ternatea flower extract (CTE) on postprandial plasma glycemia response and antioxidant status in healthy men. In a randomized, crossover study, 15 healthy men (ages 22.53 ± 0.30 years; with body mass index of 21.57 ± 0.54 kg/m 2 ) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (3) 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (4) 50 g sucrose and 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; and (5) 50 g sucrose and 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water. Incremental postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, uric acid, antioxidant capacities and lipid peroxidation were measured during 3 h of administration. After 30 min ingestion, the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels were suppressed when consuming sucrose plus 1 g and 2 g CTE. In addition, consumption of CTE alone did not alter plasma glucose and insulin concentration in the fasting state. The significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and protein thiol) and the decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level were observed in the subjects who received 1 g and 2 g CTE. Furthermore, consumption of CTE protected sucrose-induced reduction in ORAC and TEAC and increase in plasma MDA. These findings suggest that an acute ingestion of CTE increases plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in the fasting state. It also improves postprandial glucose, insulin and antioxidant status when consumed with sucrose. Thai Clinical Trials Registry: TCTR20170609003 . Registered 09 September 2017. 'retrospectively registered'.

  17. Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Serafini, Mauro; Salvatore, Sara; Del Rio, Daniele; Bianchi, Marta; Brighenti, Furio

    2006-11-01

    With the aim to expand the Italian total antioxidant capacity (TAC) database, the TAC values of 11 spices, 5 dried fruits, 7 sweets, 18 cereal products, 5 pulses, and 6 nuts were determined using three different assays and considering the contribution of bound antioxidant compounds in fiber-rich foods (i. e. cereals, legumes, and nuts). Among spices, saffron displayed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas among dried fruits, prune exhibited the highest value. The TAC values of all the chocolates analyzed were far higher than the other sweet extracts measured. Among cereal products, whole meal buckwheat and wheat bran had the greatest TAC. Among pulses and nuts, broad bean, lentil and walnuts had the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas chickpeas, pine nuts and peanuts were less effective. The contribution of bound phytochemicals to the overall TAC was relevant in cereals as well as in nuts and pulses. The complete TAC database could be utilized to properly investigate the role of dietary antioxidants in disease prevention.

  18. New isotonic drinks with antioxidant and biological capacities from berries (maqui, açaí and blackthorn) and lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Villaño, Débora; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to design new isotonic drinks with lemon juice and berries: maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz], açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), following on from previous research. Quality parameters - including colour (CIELab parameters), minerals, phytochemical identification and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH• and [Formula: see text] assays) and biological activities (in vitro alpha-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory effects) - were tested in the samples and compared to commercially available isotonic drinks. The new isotonic blends with lemon and anthocyanins-rich berries showed an attractive colour, especially in maqui samples, which is essential for consumer acceptance. Significantly higher antioxidant and biological effects were determined in the new blends, in comparison with the commercial isotonic beverages.

  19. [Tissue antioxidant capacity and bacterial translocation in parenteral nutrition. Experimental study].

    PubMed

    Eizaguirre, I; Aldámiz, L; Aldazábal, P; García, N; Asensio, A B; Bachiller, P; García Arenzana, J M; Sanjurjo, P; Pérez Nanclares, G

    2002-01-01

    Alterations in the antioxidant system (AS) has been observed during total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Light exposure or changes in the composition of TPN may affect this deleterious effect. On the other hand, bacterial translocation (BT) is frequent under TPN and may be related to AS. The aim of the study was to determine the adverse effect of standard and glutamine-enriched (GE) TPN, with or without light exposure, on the AS, and its relationship to BT. Forty-nine adult Wistar rats underwent central venous cannulation and were randomly assigned to one of five groups: Sham (n = 16): chow and water ad libitum and saline i.v. TPN (n = 10): had standard TPN. TPN(-) (n = 8): standard TPN without light-exposure. GTPN (n = 8): GE TPN. GTPN(-) (n = 7): GE TPN without light exposure. After 10 days, glutation reduced (GSH) was determined in liver and kidney. Mesenteric lymph nodes, peripheral and portal blood samples were cultured for BT. Comparing to Sham rats, TPN groups had statistically significant lower GSH levels, but there were no differences between standard or GE groups nor with or without light exposure groups. Sham animals had 12% BT. Significantly higher BT (p < 0.05) was found in TPN rats: 70% in TPN group, 88% in TPN(-) group, 86% in GTPN(-) animals and only 50% in GTPN group (p = 0.06 vs TPN group). To conclude: 1. TPN reduces antioxidant capacity and induces BT. 2. Glutamine supplementation or light protection do not improve tissue antioxidant capacity under TPN. 3. Glutamine supplementation tends to reduce BT only in the presence of light. 4. Absence of light exposure does not improve BT TPN-related.

  20. Influence of type of amphora on physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacity of 'Falanghina' white wines.

    PubMed

    Baiano, Antonietta; Varva, Gabriella; De Gianni, Antonio; Viggiani, Ilaria; Terracone, Carmela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    The present research was aimed to evaluate the effects of ageing and type of container on physico-chemical indices and on antioxidant compounds of 'Falanghina' wines. Wines were stored for 12months in raw, glazed, and engobe amphorae, and in stainless steel tanks. Lactic, acetic, citric, succinic, and hydroxycinnamoyl tartaric acids, and the antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) were not affected by the type of container for the duration of the ageing. Flavonoids decreased by about 85% in all the containers. The concentrations of flavans reactive with vanilline were reduced by 100% in raw and glazed amphorae, 23% in engobe amphorae, and 59% in stainless steel tanks. The hydroxycinnamoyl tartaric acids decreased by about 11% in raw and engobe amphorae and by ∼22% in glazed amphorae and in stainless steel tanks. During the whole ageing time, the decrease of the antioxidant capacity ranged from 28% (raw amphorae) to 43% (stainless steel tanks). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vitro Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Fruits Extracts from Aceh, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ernawita; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Hesse, Jana; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter; Böhm, Volker

    2017-01-01

    This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. The extracts also contained flavanone glycosides (hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin), flavonol (quercetin) and polymethoxylated flavones (sinensetin, tangeretin). L-TEAC (lipophilic trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) test determined for peel extracts higher antioxidant capacity compared to pulp extracts. All extracts presented α-amylase inhibitory activity, pulp extracts showing stronger inhibitory activity compared to peel extracts. All extracts inhibited the growth of both gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria, with peel and pulp extracts of makin showing the strongest inhibitory activity. Therefore, local citrus species from Aceh are potential sources of beneficial compounds with possible health preventive effects. PMID:28165379

  2. In Vitro Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Fruits Extracts from Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ernawita; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Hesse, Jana; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter; Böhm, Volker

    2017-02-03

    This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. The extracts also contained flavanone glycosides (hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin), flavonol (quercetin) and polymethoxylated flavones (sinensetin, tangeretin). L-TEAC (lipophilic trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) test determined for peel extracts higher antioxidant capacity compared to pulp extracts. All extracts presented α-amylase inhibitory activity, pulp extracts showing stronger inhibitory activity compared to peel extracts. All extracts inhibited the growth of both gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria, with peel and pulp extracts of makin showing the strongest inhibitory activity. Therefore, local citrus species from Aceh are potential sources of beneficial compounds with possible health preventive effects.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and phenolics content of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel as a function of genotype.

    PubMed

    Korekar, Girish; Stobdan, Tsering; Arora, Richa; Yadav, Ashish; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2011-11-01

    Fourteen apricot genotypes grown under similar cultural practices in Trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were studied to find out the influence of genotype on antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) of apricot kernel. The kernels were found to be rich in TPC ranging from 92.2 to 162.1 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g. The free radical-scavenging activity in terms of inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) ranged from 43.8 to 123.4 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) from 154.1 to 243.6 FeSO(4).7H(2)O μg/ml. A variation of 1-1.7 fold in total phenolic content, 1-2.8 fold in IC(50) by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and 1-1.6 fold in ferric reducing antioxidant potential among the examined kernels underlines the important role played by genetic background for determining the phenolic content and antioxidant potential of apricot kernel. A positive significant correlation between TPC and FRAP (r=0.671) was found. No significant correlation was found between TPC and IC(50); FRAP and IC(50); TPC and physical properties of kernel. Principal component analysis demonstrated that genotypic effect is more pronounced towards TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) content in apricot kernel while the contribution of seed and kernel physical properties are not highly significant.

  4. A comparison of antioxidative capacities of fruit juices, drinks and nectars, as determined by EPR and UV-vis spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna

    2016-01-15

    The differences in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) values at the same incubation time obtained by two different techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, which use the same antioxidant-free radical reaction mechanism, were determined for fruit juices, nectars and drinks. For this study, the stable free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH(•)) was used. The antioxidant capacity was presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g., μM trolox per 100 ml of sample. All of the studied fruit juices, drinks and nectars showed antioxidative properties. Dependencies between TEAC values and the percent fruit content and sample color were observed for the studied beverages. It was found that EPR spectroscopy is the more adequate method for determining TEAC values for these kinds of samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microcystin accumulation and potential effects on antioxidant capacity of leaves and fruits of Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Kiprovski, Biljana; Malenčić, Djordje; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Svirčev, Zorica

    2017-01-01

    Surface water, often used for irrigation purposes, may sometimes be contaminated with blooming cyanobacteria and thereby may contain their potent and harmful toxins. Cyanotoxins adversely affect many terrestrial plants, and accumulate in plant tissues that are subsequently ingested by humans. Studies were undertaken to (1) examine the bioaccumulation of microcystins (MCs) in leaves and fruits of pepper Capsicum annuum and (2) examine the potential effects of MCs on antioxidant capacity of these organs. Plants were irrigated with water containing MCs for a period of 3 mo. Data showed that MCs did not accumulate in leaves; however, in fruits the presence of the MC-LR (0.118 ng/mg dry weight) and dmMC-LR (0.077 ng/mg dry weight) was detected. The concentrations of MC-LR in fruit approached the acceptable guideline values and tolerable daily intake for this toxin. Lipid peroxidation levels and flavonoids content were significantly enhanced in both organs of treated plants, while total phenolic concentrations were not markedly variable between control and treated plants. Significant decrease in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was noted for both organs. The levels of superoxide anion in fruits and hydroxyl radical in leaves were markedly reduced. Data suggest that exposure to MCs significantly reduced antioxidant capacity of experimental plants, indicating that MCs affected antioxidant systems in C. annuum.

  6. Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity of Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga) Samples Collected in Different Uruguayan Locations

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2018-01-01

    The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is an example of a native fruit from Uruguay, consumed as a jelly or an alcoholic beverage. Pitanga has a red-violet pigmentation, which is a common trait for foods that are a good source of antioxidants. Hence, fruits from different Uruguayan regions were analyzed via miniaturized sample preparation method, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn and RP-HPLC-DAD techniques to identify and quantify phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated via DPPH and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assays. A multivariate linear regression was applied to correlate the observed antioxidant capacity with the phenolic content. Furthermore, Principal Components Analysis was performed to highlight characteristics between the various samples studied. The main results indicated differences between northern and southern Uruguayan samples. Delphinidin-3-hexoside was present in southern samples (mean of 293.16 µmol/100 g dry weight (DW)) and absent in the sample collected in the north (sample 3). All the samples contain high levels of cyanidin-3-hexoside, but a noticeable difference was found between the northern sample (150.45 µmol/100 g DW) and the southern sample (1121.98 µmol/100 g DW). The antioxidant capacity (mean ORAC of 56370 µmol Trolox®/100 g DW) were high in all the samples compared to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of similar berry-fruits. The results of this study highlight the nutraceutical value of a native fruit that has not been exploited until now. PMID:29695116

  7. Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity of Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga) Samples Collected in Different Uruguayan Locations.

    PubMed

    Migues, Ignacio; Baenas, Nieves; Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Moreno, Diego A

    2018-04-24

    The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is an example of a native fruit from Uruguay, consumed as a jelly or an alcoholic beverage. Pitanga has a red-violet pigmentation, which is a common trait for foods that are a good source of antioxidants. Hence, fruits from different Uruguayan regions were analyzed via miniaturized sample preparation method, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n and RP-HPLC-DAD techniques to identify and quantify phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated via DPPH and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assays. A multivariate linear regression was applied to correlate the observed antioxidant capacity with the phenolic content. Furthermore, Principal Components Analysis was performed to highlight characteristics between the various samples studied. The main results indicated differences between northern and southern Uruguayan samples. Delphinidin-3-hexoside was present in southern samples (mean of 293.16 µmol/100 g dry weight (DW)) and absent in the sample collected in the north (sample 3). All the samples contain high levels of cyanidin-3-hexoside, but a noticeable difference was found between the northern sample (150.45 µmol/100 g DW) and the southern sample (1121.98 µmol/100 g DW). The antioxidant capacity (mean ORAC of 56370 µmol Trolox ® /100 g DW) were high in all the samples compared to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of similar berry-fruits. The results of this study highlight the nutraceutical value of a native fruit that has not been exploited until now.

  8. Dose-dependent decrease in anti-oxidant capacity of whole blood after irradiation: A novel potential marker for biodosimetry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lue; Inaba, Yohei; Sato, Keizo; Hirayama, Aki; Tsuboi, Koji; Okazaki, Ryuji; Chida, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi

    2018-05-09

    Many reports have demonstrated that radiation stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mitochondria for a few hours to a few days after irradiation. However, these studies were performed using cell lines, and there is a lack of information about redox homeostasis in irradiated animals and humans. Blood redox homeostasis reflects the body condition well and can be used as a diagnostic marker. However, most redox homeostasis studies have focused on plasma or serum, and the anti-oxidant capacity of whole blood has scarcely been investigated. Here, we report changes in the anti-oxidant capacity of whole blood after X-ray irradiation using C57BL/6 J mice. Whole-blood anti-oxidant capacity was measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping using a novel spin-trapping agent, 2-diphenylphosphinoyl-2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole N-oxide (DPhPMPO). We found that whole-blood anti-oxidant capacity decreased in a dose-dependent manner (correlation factor, r > 0.9; P < 0.05) from 2 to 24 days after irradiation with 0.5-3 Gy. We further found that the red blood cell (RBC) glutathione level decreased and lipid peroxidation level increased in a dose-dependent manner from 2 to 6 days after irradiation. These findings suggest that blood redox state may be a useful biomarker for estimating exposure doses during nuclear and/or radiation accidents.

  9. Content of insoluble bound phenolics in millets and their contribution to antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2010-06-09

    Soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts of several varieties of millet (kodo, finger, foxtail, proso, pearl, and little millets) whole grains were evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidative efficacy using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), reducing power (RP), and beta-carotene-linoleate model system as well as ferrous chelating activity. In addition, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were present in soluble and bound phenolic fractions of millets, and their contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). Kodo millet had the highest total phenolic content, whereas proso millet possessed the least. All millet varieties showed high antioxidant activities, although the order of their efficacy was assay dependent. HPLC analysis of millet phenolic extracts demonstrated that the bound fractions contained more ferulic and p-coumaric acids compared to their soluble counterparts. The results of this study showed that soluble as well as bound fractions of millet grains are rich sources of phenolic compounds with antioxidant, metal chelating, and reducing power. The potential of whole millets as natural sources of antioxidants depends on the variety used. The importance of the insoluble bound fraction of millet as a source of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid was established, and their contribution to the total phenolic content must be taken into account in the assessment of the antioxidant activity of millets.

  10. Serum antioxidant capacity and peroxide level of seven healthy subjects after consumption of different foods.

    PubMed

    Laus, Maura N; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pasqualone, Antonella; Lenucci, Marcello S; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Pastore, Donato

    2016-12-01

    This article reports experimental data related to the research article entitled "Different effectiveness of two pastas supplemented with either lipophilic or hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants in affecting serum as evaluated by the novel Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance approach" (M.N. Laus, M. Soccio, M. Alfarano, A. Pasqualone, M.S. Lenucci, G. Di Miceli, D. Pastore, 2016) [1]. Antioxidant status of blood serum of seven healthy subjects was evaluated during four hours after consumption of two functional pastas, supplemented with either bran oleoresin or bran water extract obtained from durum wheat. For comparison, the effect of a non-supplemented reference pasta was also evaluated, as well as the effects of glucose, of the wheat grain dietary supplement Lisosan G, and of the reference pasta consumed together with Lisosan G. Serum antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring both the serum antioxidant capacity, using LOX-FL, ORAC and TEAC methods, and the serum oxidant status, assessed as peroxide level.

  11. Influence of Laccase and Tyrosinase on the Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Phenolic Compounds on Human Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Riebel, Matthias; Sabel, Andrea; Claus, Harald; Fronk, Petra; Xia, Ning; Li, Huige; König, Helmut; Decker, Heinz

    2015-09-18

    Polyphenolic compounds affect the color, odor and taste of numerous food products of plant origin. In addition to the visual and gustatory properties, they serve as radical scavengers and have antioxidant effects. Polyphenols, especially resveratrol in red wine, have gained increasing scientific and public interest due to their presumptive beneficial impact on human health. Enzymatic oxidation of phenolic compounds takes place under the influence of polyphenol oxidases (PPO), including tyrosinase and laccase. Several studies have demonstrated the radical scavenger effect of plants, food products and individual polyphenols in vitro, but, apart from resveratrol, such impact has not been proved in physiological test systems. Furthermore, only a few data exist on the antioxidant capacities of the enzymatic oxidation products of phenolic compounds generated by PPO. We report here first results about the antioxidant effects of phenolic substances, before and after oxidation by fungal model tyrosinase and laccase. In general, the common chemical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the biological tests using two different types of cell cultures (monocytes and endothelial cells) delivered similar results. The phenols tested showed significant differences with respect to their antioxidant activity in all test systems. Their antioxidant capacities after enzymatic conversion decreased or increased depending on the individual PPO used.

  12. Glucosinolates profile and antioxidant capacity of Romanian Brassica vegetables obtained by organic and conventional agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Vicas, Simona I; Teusdea, Alin C; Carbunar, Mihai; Socaci, Sonia A; Socaciu, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The profile of glucosinolates in relation to the antioxidant capacity of five Brassica vegetables (Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, White and Red Cabbage) grown by organic and conventional agricultural practices in Transylvania region-Romania, were determined and compared. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of glucosinolates were determined by HPLC-PDA technique. The antioxidant capacity was comparatively determined by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. The highest glucosinolates levels were found in the Broccoli samples grown under conventional practices (14.24 μmol/g dry weight), glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin and neo-glucobrassicin being the major components. The total glucosinolates content was similar in Kohlrabi and Cauliflower (4.89 and 4.84 μmol/g dry weight, respectively), the indolyl glucosinolates were predominant in Kohlrabi, while the aliphatic derivatives (sinigrin and glucoiberin) were major in Cauliflower. In Cabbage samples, the aliphatic glucosinolates were predominat against indolyl derivatives, glucoraphanin and glucoiberin being the main ones in Red Cabbage. The principal component analysis was applied to discriminate among conventional and organic samples and demonstrated non-overlaps between these two agricultural practices. Meanwhile it was shown that glucosinolates may represent appropriate molecular markers of Brassica vegetables, their antioxidant capacity being higher in organic crops, without significant differences among different Brassica varieties.

  13. Assessment of Nutritional Quality and Global Antioxidant Response of Banana (Musa sp. CV. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Pseudostem and Flower

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Ramith; Shirahatti, Prithvi S.; Anilakumar, K. R.; Nayakavadi, Shivasharanappa; Zameer, Farhan; Dhananjaya, B. L.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits. Objectives: The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile, and global antioxidant response (GAR) of PB and FB. Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the nutritional quality and GAR of PB and FB. Results: The chemical analysis illustrated that functional profile (water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, swelling power, and solubility), and proximate (ash, moisture, protein, fat, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) contents were substantially high in FB than PB. With a well-proportionate amino acid profile, PB (0.56) and FB (0.54) comprised of a high ratio of essential to nonessential amino acids than those of FAO/WHO requirement (0.38). The mineral analysis revealed that PB and FB were rich in macro and micro minerals in the order K > Ca > Mg > P > Na and K > Mg > Na > Ca > P, respectively. Linoleic acid was found to be the major component in PB and FB. Besides, total antioxidant activity conducted for PB and FB by GAR method, measuring both bio-accessible and insoluble fractions, revealed that the soluble fraction fared better than the chemical extracts. Conclusion: The results revealed high nutritional qualities of the byproducts of banana and the low cost of its production promotes their use as a prospective nonconventional food resource with high nutraceutical value. SUMMARY AOAC: Association of Analytical CommunitiesFAO/WHO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World health organization Abbreviations Used: Banana flower was more potent than banana pseudostem in terms of its nutritional quality and total antioxidant capacity affirming their usefulness (of both the secondary products) in the pharmaceutical sector as a nutritional

  14. Characterization of dietary constituents and antioxidant capacity of Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam.

    PubMed

    De Bona, Gicele S; Boschetti, Wiliam; Bortolin, Rafael C; Vale, Maria G R; Moreira, José C F; de Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional content and antioxidant capacity of the tubers, leaves and, flowers of the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. The three parts of the plant were analyzed by physicochemical methods, atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques. The tubers, leaves, and flowers exhibited significant differences in all parameters evaluated. The leaves showed significantly higher values of protein (16.28 ± 0.02 g/100 g), total dietary fiber (27.78 ± 0.15 g/100 g) and quercetin (3798.61 ± 37.57 µg/g) when compared to the tubers and flowers. The study revealed a potential content of the protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum , when compared with the sweet potatoes leaves ( Ipomoea batatas L.). In addition, the antioxidant activities of leaves and flowers were also higher measured by ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and TRAP (total radical-trapping antioxidant potential) methods. Tropaeolum pentaphyllum have high nutritional potential that can be exploited to improve nutritional value of various food products.

  15. Change in the antioxidative capacity of extraocular muscles in patients with exotropia.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Kyung; Choi, Jun Sob; Shin, Sun Young

    2015-04-01

    We compared the oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities of the medial rectus muscles (MRMs) between the patients with constant exotropia and control subjects. A total of 40 MRMs from patients with constant exotropia and 40 MRMs from normal donor eyes (controls) were assessed. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase levels were compared between the two groups using western blot analysis. In addition, the lipofuscin accumulation level was compared between the exotropic and control groups. According to western blot analysis, the nNOS level was significantly higher in the exotropic group than in the control group (P < 0.05). On the other hand, a catalase expression level was higher in the control group than in the exotropic group (P < 0.05). The SOD1 level did not show a significant difference between the two groups. The relative lipofuscin fluorescence intensity was higher in the exotropic group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Based on these findings, the MRMs of patients with exotropia had a redox imbalance status. Further study is needed to investigate whether this imbalance in antioxidant capacity is present in the extraocular muscles of patients with other strabismus.

  16. Flavonol content in the water extract of the mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf and their antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2011-08-01

    The biological activities of the mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf have been attributed to its flavonoid content. The water extract of the mulberry leaf (WEML) was prepared by autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 min, and the flavonol content of the WEML was determined by HPLC The WEML contained 4 flavonols in the following order: quercetin-3-β-D-glucose (QT-G) > quercetin-3-O-glucose-6″-acetate (QT-GA) > rutin (RT) > quercetin (QT). In the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, QT had the highest peroxyl radical-scavenging capacity and a similar hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity as its glycosides (QT-G, QT-GA, and RT). QT exhibited a stronger cellular antioxidant capacity (CAC) against 2,2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)- and Cu²⁺-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells compared to its glycosides, indicating that the intracellular antioxidant capacity of QT and its glycosides may depend upon both the permeability across the cell membrane and the peroxyl or hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity. The information presented might be used for developing mulberry leaf-based functional foods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Noriaki; Ohta, Shoichiro; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Yukari; Inoue, Yutaka; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-04-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia.

  18. Regulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry using exogenous 24-epibrassinolide for enhanced phenolics content and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhu-mei; Zhang, Zhen-wen; Huo, Shan-shan; Luan, Li-ying; Gao, Xiang; Ma, Li-na; Fang, Yu-lin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins and phenolics content of Vitis vinifera grape berry (cvs. Yan 73 and Cabernet Sauvignon). The grapevine clusters were sprayed with 0 (control), 0.10, 0.40, or 0.80 mg/l of 24-epibrassinolide during veraison, respectively. The EBR application increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), the content of total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins, individual anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity of matured grape skins in both varieties. The application also increased the content of flavonoids and anthocyanins in Yan73 pulp. Compared to the other treatments, the treatment of EBR at 0.40 mg/l had significantly higher level than the control in all above assays. Our results indicated that the exogenous EBR treatment can significantly promote grape ripening and enhance anthocyanins and other phenolics contents and antioxidant capacity in the grape skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemical sensing of total antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content in wine samples using amperometry online-coupled with microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Jakubec, Petr; Bancirova, Martina; Halouzka, Vladimir; Lojek, Antonin; Ciz, Milan; Denev, Petko; Cibicek, Norbert; Vacek, Jan; Vostalova, Jitka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Hrbac, Jan

    2012-08-15

    This work describes the method for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and/or total content of phenolics (TCP) analysis in wines using microdialysis online-coupled with amperometric detection using a carbon microfiber working electrode. The system was tested on 10 selected wine samples, and the results were compared with total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and chemiluminescent determination of total antioxidant capacity (CL-TAC) methods using Trolox and catechin as standards. Microdialysis online-coupled with amperometric detection gives similar results to the widely used cyclic voltammetry methodology and closely correlates with ORAC and TRAP. The problem of electrode fouling is overcome by the introduction of an electrochemical cleaning step (1-2 min at the potential of 0 V vs Ag/AgCl). Such a procedure is sufficient to fully regenerate the electrode response for both red and white wine samples as well as catechin/Trolox standards. The appropriate size of microdialysis probes enables easy automation of the electrochemical TAC/TCP measurement using 96-well microtitration plates.

  20. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae) Root Bark Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kasangana, Pierre Betu; Haddad, Pierre Selim; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc) and hexane (Hex). The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g) and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g) were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG) assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6) was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62). Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:26783713

  1. Antioxidant capacities of seven flavonoid compounds isolated from pulp of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pulp of açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), ...

  2. Antioxidant activities of tocopherols/tocotrienols and lipophilic antioxidant capacity of wheat, vegetable oils, milk and milk cream by using photochemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Karmowski, Jasmin; Hintze, Victoria; Kschonsek, Josephine; Killenberg, Margrit; Böhm, Volker

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure the antioxidant activity (AOA) of tocopherols and tocotrienols by using photochemiluminescence (PCL). This method enables to detect total lipophilic antioxidants. The AOA of all vitamin E isomers depended on number and position of methyl groups in the chroman ring. Correlation between the AOA and the redox potential and the biological activity of the tocochromanols was observed. The second aim was to analyse different kinds of wheat, vegetable oils, milk and milk cream on their antioxidant capacity (AOC) by using PCL and α-TEAC. The contents of vitamin E and carotenoids were analysed by HPLC. Correlations between the sum of carotenoids and vitamin E and the AOC were detected. Based on high vitamin E contents, the oils had the highest and in contrast, the product macaroni showed the lowest AOC. A concentration-dependent effect was observed in both assays, PCL and α-TEAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Programmable electrochemical flow system for high throughput determination of total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Veenuttranon, Kornautchaya; Nguyen, Loc Thai

    2018-08-15

    The aim of this work was to develop a programmable flow system for rapid assessment of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Novel features of the prototype include a single pressure-driven source, versatile manipulation of fluid flows, ability to adapt to different TAC assays, and compatibility with microfluidic design. Antioxidant activity was determined by electrochemical measurement of residual 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrayl hydrate (DPPH•) free radicals in the solution. The overall performance of the device was validated by the spectrophotometric method. The results indicated that dosing of reagents and samples could be controlled by pressure (R 2 = 0.992) and time (R 2 = 0.999) with high accuracy, and the mixing uniformity of the device was equivalent to that of the batch mixing (R 2 = 0.994). TAC assays of a standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid, as well as selected samples such as orange and pomegranate juices, white wine, and green tea by the device were comparable to traditional measurement techniques. Due to the short incubation time, the approach may be more suitable for fast, rather than slow reacting antioxidant compounds. The developed system could be used for rapid TAC screening of food and biological samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment. PMID:24145870

  5. Antioxidant and anticlastogenic capacity of prickly pear juice.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-10-18

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment.

  6. Foam mat drying of Tommy Atkins mango: Effects of air temperature and concentrations of soy lecithin and carboxymethylcellulose on phenolic composition, mangiferin, and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Francine Albernaz; Nascimento, Manuela Abreu; Domingues, Josiane Roberto; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Hernanz, Dolores; Heredia, Francisco J; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gomes

    2017-04-15

    In this study, foam mat drying was applied to Tommy Atkins mango. Using a multifactorial design, the effect of soy lecithin (L) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) used as foam stabilizers (0-1.50g/100g), as well as temperature (T) (53-87°C), on phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of mango were evaluated. Mango pulp contains antioxidant, such as mangiferin, that can be utilized in foods to enhance their functional properties. Our results indicated that L and T had negative effects (p<0.05) on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, whereas CMC had a positive effect (p<0.05). Increasing the total amount of phenolic compounds present in dried mango contributed to the higher antioxidant capacity after the drying process. This study concluded that a drying T of 80°C, and a concentration of 0.30g/100g of CMC and L are optimal for increased retention of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawler, John M.; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R.; Bloomfield, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  8. Food-frequency questionnaire-based estimates of total antioxidant capacity and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Holtan, Shernan G; O'Connor, Helen M; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A; Macon, William R; Micallef, Ivana N; Wang, Alice H; Slager, Susan L; Habermann, Thomas M; Call, Timothy G; Cerhan, James R

    2012-09-01

    Antioxidants, primarily from fruits and vegetables, have been hypothesized to protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, which measures total antioxidant capacity of individual foods and accounts for synergism, can be estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We tested the hypothesis that higher intake of antioxidant nutrients from foods, supplements and FFQ-based ORAC values are associated with a lower risk of NHL in a clinic-based study of 603 incident cases and 1,007 frequency-matched controls. Diet was assessed with a 128-item FFQ. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age, sex, residence and total energy. Dietary intake of α-tocopherol (OR=0.50; p-trend=0.0002), β-carotene (OR=0.58; p-trend=0.0005), lutein/zeaxanthin (OR=0.62; p-trend=0.005), zinc (OR=0.54; p-trend=0.003) and chromium (OR=0.68; p-trend=0.032) was inversely associated with NHL risk. Inclusion of supplement use had little impact on these associations. Total vegetables (OR=0.52; p-trend<0.0001), particularly green leafy (OR=0.52; p-trend<0.0001) and cruciferous (OR=0.68; p-trend=0.045) vegetables, were inversely associated with NHL risk. NHL risk was inversely associated with both hydrophilic ORAC (OR=0.61, p-trend=0.003) and lipophilic ORAC (OR=0.48, p-trend=0.0002), although after simultaneous adjustment for other antioxidants or total vegetables, only the association for lipophilic ORAC remained significant. There was no striking heterogeneity in results across the common NHL subtypes. Higher antioxidant intake as estimated by the FFQ-ORAC, particularly the lipophilic component, was associated with a lower NHL risk after accounting for other antioxidant nutrients and vegetable intake, supporting this as potentially useful summary measure of total antioxidant intake. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  9. Betaine: a promising antioxidant agent for enhancement of broiler meat quality.

    PubMed

    Alirezaei, M; Reza Gheisari, H; Reza Ranjbar, V; Hajibemani, A

    2012-01-01

    1. Antioxidant and methyl donor effects of betaine in experimental animal models have recently been demonstrated. The present study was therefore designed to examine the antioxidant effects of betaine on the antioxidant status and meat quality of breast muscles in broilers. 2. Cobb broilers were randomly divided into Control, Methionine low, Methionine low plus betaine, and Betaine groups. 3. The activity of the main antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) in the Betaine and the Methionine low plus betaine groups significantly increased compared to the Methionine low and Control groups. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher in the Betaine group compared to the Methionine low group, and lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in the Control and the Methionine low groups. 4. The present study indicates that adding betaine (1 g/kg) to a diet deficient in methionine can significantly improve antioxidant defences and meat quality, decreasing lipid peroxidation in the breast muscles of broiler chickens.

  10. Phenolic acids and flavonoids of peanut by-products: Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial effects.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Rasera, Gabriela Boscariol; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; do Prado-Silva, Leonardo; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-12-15

    Peanut skin (PS) and meal from dry-blanched peanuts (MDBP) were evaluated as sources of phenolic compounds. PS rendered the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity towards ABTS radical cation, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as reducing power. Phenolic acids were present in PS and MDBP whereas proanthocyanidins and monomeric flavonoids were found only in PS as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Procyanidin-rich extracts prevented oxidation in non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated fish model system. Both extracts inhibited the growth of gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Geobacillus stearothermophilus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli). Regardless of the strain, phenolic acid-rich extracts showed the lowest minimum inhibitory capacity (MIC); therefore presenting higher antibacterial effect. The MIC of phenolic acid-rich extracts (24-49μgphenolics/mL) was higher but comparable to Ampicillin (10μg/mL). Thus, phenolics in PS and MDBP may serve as antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Comparative carotenoid compositions during maturation and their antioxidative capacities of three citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung-Mi; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated total carotenoid content, comparative carotenoid composition, vitamin C content, and total antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties which are Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tabaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck). Seven carotenoids were identified, with β-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and zeaxanthin being predominant in citrus varieties. Ripening increased the total carotenoid in three citrus varieties. Individual carotenoid of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and α-carotene in citrus varieties decreased with maturation, whereas the others increased with ripening. Yuza exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity in 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, with VCEAC values of 582.9 mg/100 g and 451.5 mg/100g, respectively. The relative VCEAC values were vitamin C (1.00)>lycopene (0.375), α-carotene (0.304), β-carotene (0.289), β-cryptoxanthin (0.242), and zeaxanthin (0.099). These results indicate that Yuza contains higher amounts of total carotenoids, individual carotenoids, and vitamin C than other Korean citrus varieties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela-Leonor; Maldonado-Vega, María; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Hernández, Gerardo; Arévalo-Rivas, Bertha-Isabel; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The molecular response of the antioxidant system and the effects of antioxidant supplementation against oxidative insult in lead-exposed workers has not been sufficiently studied. In this work, antioxidants (vitamin E 400 IU+vitamin C 1g/daily) were supplemented for one year to 15 workers exposed to lead (73 μg of lead/dl of blood) and the results were compared with those on 19 non-lead exposed workers (6.7 μg of lead/dl). Lead intoxication was accompanied by a high oxidative damage and an increment in the erythrocyte antioxidant response due to increased activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant supplementations decreased significantly the oxidative damage as well as the total antioxidant capacity induced by lead intoxication with reduction of the antioxidant enzyme activities. We conclude that antioxidant supplementation is effective in reducing oxidative damage and induces modifications in the physiopathological status of the antioxidant response in lead-exposed workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans, and their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Katiki, Luciana M; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Gonzalez, Javier M; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S; Chagas, Ana Carolina S; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2013-02-18

    Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional benefits, and antioxidant capacity of alternative forages containing hydrolyzable tannins (HT). We evaluated the anthelmintic activity and the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts containing either mostly CT, mostly HT, or both CT and HT. Extracts were prepared with 70% acetone, lyophilized, redissolved to doses ranging from 1.0mg/mL to 25mg/mL, and tested against adult Caenorhabditis elegans as a test model. The extract concentrations that killed 50% (LC(50)) or 90% (LC(90)) of the nematodes in 24h were determined and compared to the veterinary anthelmintic levamisole (8 mg/mL). Extracts were quantified for CT by the acid butanol assay, for HT (based on gallic acid and ellagic acid) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total phenolics, and for their antioxidant activity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Extracts with mostly CT were Lespedeza cuneata, Salix X sepulcralis, and Robinia pseudoacacia. Extracts rich in HT were Acer rubrum, Rosa multiflora, and Quercus alba, while Rhus typhina had both HT and CT. The extracts with the lowest LC(50) and LC(90) concentrations, respectively, in the C. elegans assay were Q. alba (0.75 and 1.06 mg/mL), R. typhina collected in 2007 (0.65 and 2.74 mg/mL), A. rubrum (1.03 and 5.54 mg/mL), and R. multiflora (2.14 and 8.70 mg/mL). At the doses of 20 and 25mg/mL, HT-rich, or both CT- and HT-rich, extracts were significantly more lethal to adult C. elegans than extracts containing only CT. All extracts were high in antioxidant capacity, with ORAC values ranging from 1800 μmoles to 4651 μmoles of trolox equivalents/g, but ORAC did not correlate with anthelmintic activity. The total phenolics test had a

  14. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  15. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    PubMed

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  16. Kinetics and Antioxidant Capacity of Proanthocyanidins Encapsulated in Zein Electrospun Fibers by Cyclic Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualin; Hao, Lilan; Niu, Baicheng; Jiang, Suwei; Cheng, Junfeng; Jiang, Shaotong

    2016-04-20

    The proanthocyanidins encapsulated in zein (zein-PA) fibers was via electrospinning technique. The kinetics and antioxidant capacity of PA from zein fibers was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Circular dichroism was used to investigate the secondary structure change of zein and its influence on the shape of fibers. The addition of PA caused a significant increase in viscosity and made fibers wider. These hydrogen bonds between zein and PA molecules would favor the α-helix change and decrease the β-folds of zein in electrospinning solutions, leading to a round-shaped tendency of fibers and enhancing the thermal properties slightly. Zein-PA fibers showed high encapsulation efficiency close to 100%, and the encapsulated PA retained its antioxidant capacity in fibers. Zein-PA fibers showed a good controlled release toward PA, and the predominant release of PA from fibers was Fickian diffusion, which could be well described by first-order model and Hixson-Crowell model.

  17. Development of a new free radical absorption capacity assay method for antioxidants: aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC).

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Nagai, Kanae; Fujii, Yuko; Ouchi, Aya; Mukai, Kazuo

    2013-10-23

    A new free radical absorption capacity assay method is proposed with use of an aroxyl radical (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)phenoxyl radical) and stopped-flow spectroscopy and is named the aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC) assay method. The free radical absorption capacity (ARAC value) of each tocopherol was determined through measurement of the radical-scavenging rate constant in ethanol. The ARAC value could also be evaluated through measurement of the half-life of the aroxyl radical during the scavenging reaction. For the estimation of the free radical absorption capacity, the aroxyl radical was more suitable than the DPPH radical, galvinoxyl, and p-nitrophenyl nitronyl nitroxide. The ARAC value in tocopherols showed the same tendency as the free radical absorption capacities reported previously, and the tendency was independent of an oxygen radical participating in the scavenging reaction and of a medium surrounding the tocopherol and oxygen radical. The ARAC value can be directly connected to the free radical-scavenging rate constant, and the ARAC method has the advantage of treating a stable and isolable radical (aroxyl radical) in a user-friendly organic solvent (ethanol). The ARAC method was also successfully applied to a palm oil extract. Accordingly, the ARAC method would be useful in free radical absorption capacity assay of antioxidative reagents and foods.

  18. A computational investigation on the structure, global parameters and antioxidant capacity of a polyphenol, Gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Vijisha K; Muraleedharan, K

    2017-04-01

    A computational DFT-B3LYP structural analysis of a poly phenol, Gallic acid (GA) has been performed by using 6-311++ G (df, p) basis set. The GA is a relatively stable molecule with considerable radical scavenging capacity. It is a well known antioxidant. The NBO analysis shows that the aromatic system is delocalized. The results reveal that the most stable radical is formed at O 3 -atom upon scavenging the free radicals. Global descriptive parameters show that GA acts as an acceptor center in charge transfer complex formation which is supported by ESP and contour diagrams and also by Q max value. The GA is a good antioxidant and it can be better understood by HAT and TMC mechanisms as it has low BDE, ΔH acidity and ΔG acidity values. The ΔBDE and ΔAIP values also confirm that the antioxidant capacity of GA can be explained through HAT rather than the SET-PT mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Khavanin, Ali; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2013-04-01

    There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cell phone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effects of these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves on sperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the duration of exposure and the frequency of these waves. This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g). The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7): i. control; ii. two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulated waves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups, sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the mean sperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test using SPSS version 16 software. The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacity in all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05). Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significant decrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05). Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility in rats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result in oxidative stress.

  20. Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieliński, H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition.

  1. Comparative Study of Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Color-composition Relation of Roselle Cultivars with Contrasting Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Jara-Palacios, M José; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Gordillo, Belén; Hernanz, Dolores; Paredes-López, Octavio; Vanegas-Espinoza, Pablo E; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-03-01

    Roselle is a plant that accumulates anthocyanins significantly, hence its importance as food coloring and as a source of antioxidant compounds for human health. This study was aimed to determine phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts, and beverages obtained from native roselle cultivars in Mexico (Negra, Sudan, Rosa and Blanca) with different degrees of pigmentation, and to establish the color-composition relationship. Chromatographic methods were used to determine phenolic compounds: flavanols, flavonols, benzoic, hibiscus and phenolic acids as well as two main anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by ABTS and FRAP assays. Tristimulus colorimetry showed to be a useful technique to determine the color-composition relationship, leading to equations that allowed to predict anthocyanin content of roselle (R > 0.84). Also, a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was developed in order to classify roselle cultivars. The obtained mathematical model could be an important tool to be used in colorimetric characterization of functional compounds used in food processing.

  2. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Characterization of Nitraria tangutorum Fruit Extract by Rapid Bioassay-Directed Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jat; Missler, Stephen R; Persons, Kathryn; Han, Johnson; Li, Teric

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the role of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) in human disease has been the subject of considerable study. This has led to research on the potential benefit of natural products as dietary antioxidants to mitigate oxidative stress caused by increased RNOS associated with tissue damage. Five physiologically relevant reactive species include peroxyl radical, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite anion, superoxide radical anion, and singlet oxygen. Excessive amounts of these species can lead to the degradation of important biomolecules in vivo, and dietary antioxidants have been shown to inhibit damage both in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we have discovered that an extract of the fruit from Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. (Tangut white thorn) demonstrates significant antioxidant capacity against all five reactive species. Rapid bioassay-directed fractionation was used to identify antioxidant phytochemicals by collecting fractions from HPLC effluent into 96 well microplates and testing for antioxidant activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. Two different classes of phytochemicals, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were associated with antioxidant activity. Active components were further characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and high-resolution MS.

  3. Prolonged jaundice in newborns is associated with low antioxidant capacity in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Uras, Nurdan; Tonbul, Alpaslan; Karadag, Ahmet; Dogan, Derya G; Erel, Ozcan; Tatli, Mustafa M

    2010-10-01

    In breastfeeding newborns who are otherwise healthy, the mechanism of prolonged jaundice remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between prolonged jaundice and oxidative parameters in breast milk. Full-term, otherwise healthy newborns with jaundice lasting more than 2 weeks were enrolled prospectively in the study. As a control group, newborns in the same age group but without prolonged jaundice were selected. All newborns in the study were exclusively breastfed. In the newborns with prolonged jaundice, investigations of the etiology of the jaundice included complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood typing, direct Coombs test, measurement of serum levels of total and direct bilirubin, tests for liver and thyroid function (TSH, free T4, total T4), urine culture and measurement of urine reducing substances, and determination of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme levels. Breast milk was collected from the mothers of the newborns in both groups. The antioxidant status of the breast milk was assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Oxidative stress was also assessed in breast milk by measurement of total oxidation status (TOS) and calculation of the oxidative stress index (OSI). The prolonged jaundice group differed significantly from the control group in terms of mean TAC and OSI (p < 0.001), but not in terms of TOS. In conclusion, in the breast milk of mothers of newborns with prolonged jaundice, oxidative stress was found to be increased, and protective antioxidant capacity was found to be decreased.

  4. Effect of pectin methyl esterase and Ca²⁺ ions treatment on antioxidant capacity, shelf-life and quality of minimally processed pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Ramesh; Nambi, V E

    2016-03-01

    Pomegranate fruits are difficult to peel and once peeled, extracted arils have very short shelf-life. Therefore, present investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of minimally processed pomegranate arils using pectin methyl esterase (PME) and CaCl2 treatment during refrigerated storage. The arils of freshly harvested pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum L.) were treated with different concentrations of food-grade PME (50-300 units) and calcium ions (0.5-2.0% CaCl₂) for a period of 5-30 min using response surface methodology. Treated and untreated arils were then packed in low density polyethylene bags (25 μ) and maintained under low temperature (5°C; 90% RH) for evaluating the physical, biochemical and microbial quality of pomegranate arils at four day interval. Physiological loss in weight increased during storage but no food-borne pathogens were found during 28 day of cold storage in treated arils. Color and firmness of both treated and untreated arils decreased during storage but it was better maintained in treated arils. The firmness was found to be 0.630 N in treated samples compared to untreated one (0.511 N) after 20 d of storage. Total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, polyphenol oxidase and lipoxygenase activities increased during storage. Treatment with 249.33 units of PME and 1.70% CaCl₂for an immersion time of 24.93 min was found to be most effective treatment for maintaining the quality of minimally processed arils for longer period. Sensory score was also higher in treated pomegranate arils that were quite acceptable even after 20 day of referigerated storage as against 12 day for untreated ones.

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity and content of phenolic compounds in meals collected in hospitals in Bolivia and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tejeda, L; Dębiec, M; Nilsson, L; Peñarrieta, J M; Alvarado, J A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the proximal composition, as well as Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Phenols (TPH) in meals that represent a complex food matrix, from different hospitals in Bolivia and Sweden. Protein, fat, ash, dietary fiber and carbohydrate contents were measured in 29 samples: 20 from two Bolivian hospitals and 9 from the university hospital in Lund, Sweden. The antioxidant capacity was measured by three spectrophotometric methods: the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method, the 2, 2'- azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) method and Total Phenolic Compounds (TPH) using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The results show that fat, protein, carbohydrate and dietary fiber in Bolivian and Swedish hospital meals are following internationally established recommendations. Regarding the main courses, TPH contents in both countries were in the same range. However, TAC and dietary fiber content were higher in Swedish meals than in Bolivian meals and the TAC was far lower, in both cases, in comparison with the value obtained from individual food items reported from literature. The results show that antioxidant levels can be easily overestimated by considering only individual uncooked ingredients. An interesting consideration is, the fiber content in the meals, which can be an important source of antioxidants and non-extractable phenolic compounds.

  6. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and in vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of Fruit Wines

    PubMed Central

    Ljevar, Ana; Tomašević, Marina; Radošević, Kristina; Srček, Višnja Gaurina; Ganić, Karin Kovačević

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fruit wines contain a wide range of phenolic compounds with biological effects, but their composition and potential benefits to human health have been studied to the much lesser extent compared to grape wines. The aim of this research is to study the phenolic profile of different types of fruit wines and to evaluate their antioxidant and biological potential. Commercially available fruit wines from blackberry, cherry, raspberry, blackcurrant, strawberry and apple produced in Croatia were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive screening of Croatian fruit wines. The phenolic characterization was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-PDA/MS analysis. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ABTS and FRAP assays, while in vitro biological activity was analyzed by the cytotoxicity assay on human breast (MCF-7), colon (CaCo-2) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Among the studied fruit wines, blackberry, cherry and blackcurrant wines contained the highest amount of total phenolics, while the last two also contained the highest amount of total anthocyanins. The analysis of individual phenolic compounds showed distinctive phenolic composition of each type of fruit wine, notably as regards anthocyanins. Blackberry, followed by cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines also had a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than strawberry and apple wines. Fruit wines inhibited the growth of human cancer cells in vitro in a dose--dependent manner with differing susceptibility among tested cancer cells. Blackberry, cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines in the volume ratio of 10 and 20% showed to be the most effective anti-proliferative agents, with higher susceptibility in HeLa and MCF-7 cells than CaCo-2 cells. PMID:27904404

  7. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  8. Effects of oolong tea on plasma antioxidative capacity in mice loaded with restraint stress assessed using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hiroshi; Fukami, Harukazu; Asami, Sumio; Toyoda, Yoshiko; Nakai, Masaaki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative effect of oolong tea in vitro and in vivo using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. An oolong tea extract, catechin and related compounds suppressed the oxidation of fluorescence induced by AAPH in a dose-dependent manner, that is, they prolonged the antioxidant time in vitro. Oral administration of the oolong tea extract to mice treated with restraint stress increased ORAC activity in plasma as compared with a stress control group. The extract also increased plasma vitamin C levels, and there was a good relationship between ORAC activity and the vitamin C level in plasma. The elevation of plasma ORAC and vitamin C level may have been related to the stress-relieving effect of oolong tea. These effects are probably due to the antioxidative properties of the tea. Thus, these findings suggested that oolong tea has beneficial effects on health related to its antioxidative action.

  9. Acute effect of sorghum flour-containing pasta on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in healthy subjects: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2015-06-01

    It has been previously reported that pasta containing wholegrain sorghum flour exhibits high content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity and hence might enhance antioxidant status and reduce markers of oxidative stress in vivo; however no clinical studies have yet been reported. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of pasta containing red or white wholegrain sorghum flour on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in humans. The study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN: 12612000324819). In a randomised crossover design, healthy subjects (n = 20) consumed three test meals of control pasta (CP), 30% red sorghum pasta (RSP) or 30% white sorghum pasta (WSP), 1-2 wk apart. The test meals were consumed as breakfast after an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained at fasting and 2 h after consumption and analysed for total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, protein carbonyl and 8-isoprostanes. Compared to baseline, the 2 h post-prandial levels following the RSP meal of plasma polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were significantly (P < 0.001) higher while the protein carbonyl level was significantly lower (P = 0.035). Furthermore, net changes in polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were significantly (P < 0.001) higher while protein carbonyl were significantly (P = 0.035) lower following consumption of the RSP meal than the CP meal. The results demonstrated that pasta containing red wholegrain sorghum flour enhanced antioxidant status and improved markers of oxidative stress in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay.

    PubMed

    Polat, A Aytekin; Calişkan, Oğuzhan; Serçe, Sedat; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Kaya, Cemal; Ozgen, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Several fruit characteristics of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cultivars/selections grown in Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey were investigated in 2008. The cultivars/selections included 'Baduna 5', Güzelyurt 1, 'Hafif Cukurgöbek', 'Ottaviani,' and Type 1. The characteristics evaluated included fruit weight, width, length, seed number and weight, flesh/seed ratio, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total phenolic (TP) content, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analyses were conducted by three replicates, with 30 fruits in each replicate. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars, for all the traits tested. For example, 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' and 'Ottaviani' had smaller fruits than others, although 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' had heavier seeds. The flesh/seed ratio was the highest in Type 1, while 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' had the highest pH and high soluble solids. 'Baduna 5' and 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' had the highest acidity. The TP ranged from 129 ('Baduna 5') to 578 ('Hafif Cukurgöbek') mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). 'Hafif Cukurgöbek' also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw). The results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and a relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health.

  11. Evaluation of oxidative stress status and antioxidant capacity in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Mustafa; Karaguzel, Ersagun; Okulu, Emrah; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Ener, Kemal; Ozayar, Asim; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the serum oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the control group. The prospective study consisted of 97 patients with RCC (Group 1) and 80 age and sex matched healthy volunteers (Group 2). Group 1 and 2 were compared concerning serum mean total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), arylesterase, total thiol, catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ceruloplasmin. Patients' mean age was 58.5 ±12.3 and 56.9 ±15.8 years, respectively, in Group 1 and 2. No statistically significant differences were detected between the groups in terms of oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant capacity measured in the serum of patients including, TOS, TAC, PON1, arylesterase, total thiol, CAT, MPO, and ceruloplasmin levels (p >0.05 for all parameters). The PON-1 value was significantly higher in patients with pT1 stage than pT3 stage (p = 0.007). The arylesterase value was significantly higher in patients with Fuhrman's nuclear grade 3 than grade 2 (p = 0.035). There was no correlation between these parameters level and Fuhrman's nuclear grade, stage, or histopathological tumor type. Our results demonstrated that evaluation of these parameters in the serum of patients with localized RCC may not be used as a marker to discriminate between patients with RCC and healthy people.

  12. Impact of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on total antioxidant capacity in chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Narender Dev; Bey, Afshan; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Gupta, Namita; Trivedi, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the utility of plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as marker of periodontal disease by estimating TAC of periodontally healthy and chronic periodontitis patients and the impact of scaling and root planning on total antioxidant status of periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Blood plasma samples were collected from randomly selected eighty individuals (40 periodontally healthy controls and 40 chronic periodontitis patients), with an age range of 20–45 years and were analyzed for TAC by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Scaling and root planing was performed in periodontitis patients, and TAC level was measured again after 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with t-test, using SPSS software (PSAW, Windows version 18.0). Results: The mean plasma TAC was significantly lower (792.33 ± 124.33 μmol/L, P < 0.001) in chronic periodontitis patients compared to healthy control (1076.08 ± 193.82 μmol/L). Plasma TAC level increased significantly (989.75 ± 96.80, P < 0.001) after scaling and root planing. Conclusions: An inverse relationship exists between plasma TAC and severity of chronic periodontitis suggesting disturbed oxidant-antioxidant balance in chronic periodontitis. Scaling and root planing resulted in the restoration of TAC to normal levels. These results are important from the perspective of including antioxidants in periodontal therapy regime to boost up body's antioxidant defense system and to reduce oxidative stress-mediated periodontal tissue damage. We concluded that TAC can be used as a biomarker to evaluate the health of periodontium. PMID:29456303

  13. Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Vincent P; de Souza Junior, Tacito P; Behrens, Christian; Barros, Marcelo P; Bueno, Carlos Alves; Utter, Alan C; McAnulty, Lisa S; McAnulty, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    Dehydration is a common event associated with exercise. However, few studies have examined the effects of dehydration on plasma redox status in humans. Eighty-two athletes were recruited and baseline anthropometrics and blood samples were obtained. Athletes then engaged in a dehydration protocol, training until 3% of preweight body mass was lost. Athletes returned to the lab and had postdehydration blood collected. Athletes then consumed an isotonic drink until pre-exercise body weight was reestablished. Blood was then recollected (1 h post full rehydration (PFR)). Samples were centrifuged and the plasma snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Lipid and protein oxidative stress was determined by measuring F 2 -isoprostanes and protein carbonyls (PC), respectively. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Plasma osmolality was determined using an osmometer. Statistical analysis utilized a 1-way ANOVA with posthoc testing. Values are reported as mean ± SD. Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) but decreased to baseline at PFR. Plasma TEAC increased immediately postdehydration and at PFR (p ≤ 0.001). FRAP increased immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) and decreased to below baseline at PFR (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, F 2 -isoprostanes declined significantly from baseline to immediately postdehydration and then significantly rose at PFR (p ≤ 0.001), whereas PC declined at PFR (p ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that dehydration and exercise cause a significant increase in plasma osmolality and antioxidant potential immediately postexercise. We propose dehydration significantly elevates antioxidant concentration which suppresses F 2 -isoprostanes and PC.

  14. Red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their influence on plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in rats fed with cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-free diets.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Tapia, María S; Katrich, Elena; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2005-09-23

    Bioactive compounds of peels and peeled red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits were analyzed and their antioxidant potential was assessed. The dietary fibers were determined according to Prosky et al., the total polyphenol content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and measured at 765 nm, minerals and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrometer, phenolic and ascorbic acids by HPLC and the antioxidant potential by two different antioxidant assays (DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate model system). It was found that the contents of most studied bioactive compounds in both qualities are comparable. Only the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in red grapefruits, but not significant. The antioxidant potentials of red peeled grapefruits and their peels were significantly higher than of blond peeled grapefruits and their peels (P<0.05 in both cases). Diets supplemented with peeled red and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their peels have increased the plasma antioxidant capacity and improved plasma lipid levels, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diet. In conclusion, both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits contain high quantities of bioactive compounds, but the antioxidant potential of red grapefruits is significantly higher. Diets supplemented with both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits improve the plasma lipid levels and increase the plasma antioxidant activity, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diets. Jaffa grapefruits, especially their red Star Ruby quality, could be a valuable supplementation for diseases-preventing diets.

  15. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  16. [Antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables cultivated in Chile].

    PubMed

    Araya, Héctor; Clavijo, Carolina; Herrera, Claudia

    2006-12-01

    The high prevalence of non transmissible chronic diseases (NCD) related to food consumption had increased the studies conducted to investigate the relationship between diet and health. A smaller incidence of NCD, with food patterns with high consumption of fruits and vegetables has been observed and chemical compounds of these foods have been one of the main subjects of the actual research in the reaqltion between food consumption and health. The effect of vegetable foods has been attributed to various nutrients and bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of vegetable foods cultivated in Chile, natural fruits and vegetables were analyzed according to the FRAP (ferric reducing activity power) method, reading to the 4 minutes. In vegetables, the values were between 0.002 and 1.91 milimoles of Fe/l00 g for cooked carrot and red pepper respectively. The values of the fruits ranged between 0.02 milimoles of Fe/100 g for the cucumber and 12.32 for maqui, the berries studies showed values between 3.10 for strawberry and 3.55 for wild blackberry. Lemmon and quince with 0.25 and 0.23 respectively are located in the intermediate level and the lowest values within the fruits corresponded to apple (fuji variety) and peaches.

  17. A novel procedure to assess the non-enzymatic hydrogen-peroxide antioxidant capacity of metabolites with high UV absorption.

    PubMed

    Csepregi, Kristóf; Hideg, Éva

    2016-12-01

    Assays assessing non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide antioxidant capacities are often hampered by the high UV absorption of the sample itself. This is a typical problem in studies using plant extracts with high polyphenol content. Our assay is based on comparing the 405 nm absorption of the product of potassium iodine and hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of a putative hydrogen peroxide reactive antioxidant. This method is free of interference with either hydrogen peroxide or antioxidant self-absorption and it is also suitable for high-throughput plate reader applications.

  18. Quantitative analysis of Curcuminoid collected from different location in Indonesia by TLC-Densitometry and its antioxidant capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Artanti, A. N.; Rinanto, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Curcuminoid, consisting of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis demethoxycurcumin, is the active compound in Curcuma longa L. rhizome. It yielded vary depend on the environment and varieties. Curcumin has been known to have a potent antioxidants activity. The present work was conducted to assess the curcuminoid content and antioxidant capacity in the crude extracts of C. longa L. collected from eight different locations in Indonesia. Samples were collected from eight locations including Java island, Sumatera island and Nusa Tenggara island. All samples were extracted using 96% ethanol and analyzed quantitatively using TLC-Densitometry. Antioxidant activity was assessed using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and analyzed at 517 nm using a spectrophotometer. Curcuminoid content in C. longa varied among eight different locations (0.53±0.05 - 5.33±0.12 % w/w). The highest curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin yield were found in the samples from Magetan (5.33±0.12%, 1.54±0.05%, 0.46±0.02% w/w, respectively). In contrast, the lowest curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin yield were found in the sample from Demak (0.53±0.05%, 0.17±0.05%, 0.17±0.05% w/w, respectively). Antioxidant capacity showed similar for all places unless sample from Magetan which exhibited two times lower than other locations. It is apparently curcuminoid content and antioxidant activity varied among places. These results are useful information for curcuminoid standardization method in pharmaceutical products.

  19. Distribution of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in apples tissues during ripening.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Aline; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Couto, Marcelo; Judacewski, Priscila; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The effect of variety and ripening stage on the distribution of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Gala, Fuji Suprema and Eva apples were evaluated. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavanols, flavonols, dihydrochalcones and antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) were assessed in the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp of three varieties at three ripening stages (unripe, ripe and senescent). The Fuji Suprema variety distinguished by its content of flavonols at senescent stage, while Eva variety distinguished by its content of dihydrochalcones (unripe stage) and anthocyanins (ripe stage). In general, phenolic acids and flavonoids decreased with ripening in the epicarp and endocarp. However, in the mesocarp, the effect of ripening was related with the apple variety. Hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the influence of ripening in the apple tissue. The evolution of these compounds during ripening occurred irregularly and it was influenced by the variety.

  20. Oxidative damage, skin aging, antioxidants and a novel antioxidant rating system.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Debbie M; Kitchin, Jennifer Silverman

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological system's ability to neutralize the reactive intermediates. Oxidative damage occurs because of both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Together, intrinsic and extrinsic damage are the primary causes of skin aging. The skin uses a series of intrinsic antioxidants to protect itself from free radical damage. Naturally occurring extrinsic antioxidants have also been widely shown to offset and alleviate these changes. Unlike sunscreens, which have an SPF rating system to guide consumers in their purchases, there is no widely accepted method to choose antioxidant anti-aging products. ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and ABEL-RAC (Analysis By Emitted Light-Relative Antioxidant Capacity), are both accepted worldwide as a standard measure of the antioxidant capacity of foods, and are rating systems that could be applied to all antioxidant skincare products. The standardization of antioxidant creams could revolutionize the cosmeceutical market and give physicians and consumers the ability to compare and choose effectively.

  1. Identification and anti-oxidant capacity determination of phenolics and their glycosides in elderflower by on-line HPLC-CUPRAC method.

    PubMed

    Çelik, S Esin; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Çapanoğlu, Esra; Apak, Reşat

    2014-01-01

    Development and application of an on-line cupric reducing anti-oxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay coupled with HPLC for separation and on-line determination of phenolic anti-oxidants in elderflower (Sambucus nigra L.) extracts for their anti-oxidant capacity are significant for evaluating health-beneficial effects. Moreover, this work aimed to assay certain flavonoid glycosides of elderflower that could not be identified/quantified by other similar on-line HPLC methods (i.e. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl and 2, 2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid). To identify anti-oxidant constituents in elderflower by HPLC and to evaluate their individual anti-oxidant capacities by on-line HPLC-CUPRAC assay with a post-column derivatisation system. The separation and UV detection of polyphenols were performed on a C18 -column using gradient elution with two different mobile phase solutions, that is acetonitrile and 1% glacial acetic acid, with detection at 340 nm. The HPLC-separated anti-oxidant polyphenols in column effluent react with copper(II)-neocuproine in a reaction-coil to reduce the latter to copper(I)-neocuproine (Cu(I)-Nc) chelate having maximum absorption at 450 nm. The detection limits of tested compounds at 450 nm after post-column derivatisation were compared with those of at 340 nm UV-detection without derivatisation. LOD values (µg/mL) of quercetin and its glycosides at 450 nm were lower than those of UV detection at 340 nm. This method was applied successfully to elderflower extract. The flavonol glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol bound to several sugar components (glucose, rhamnose, galactose and rutinose) were identified in the sample. The on-line HPLC-CUPRAC method was advantageous over on-line ABTS and DPPH methods for measuring the flavonoid glycosides of elderflower. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Nocturnal periodic limb movements decrease antioxidant capacity in post-stroke women.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y; Yu, C-C; Chen, C-L

    2016-04-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) are associated with cardiovascular risk and poor stroke outcome. However, the pathogenesis for this association in stroke patients remains largely unknown. This cross-sectional study enrolled 112 consecutive patients who were admitted to rehabilitation ward due to ischemic stroke. Polysomnography and laboratory tests for oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were conducted. Patients were stratified into three categories according to their PLMS index. Patients in the PLMS index ≥15 group were significantly older (P = 0.011), presented a significantly higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale at stroke onset (P = 0.032), and lower Barthel index (P = 0.035) than patients in the PLMS index <5 group. The level of TAC differed significantly (P = 0.018) among the three groups. Multivariate linear regression analyses show that the PLMS index was negatively and independently correlated with TAC (P = 0.024) in women. Besides, multivariate logistic regression analyses also reveal that patients with a PLMS index ≥15 compared with the referent PLMS index <5 had a 7.58-fold increased relative hazard for stroke recurrence (odds ratio 7.58, [1.31-43.88], P = 0.024). This study suggests that PLMS was independently associated with decreased antioxidant capacity in women with ischemic stroke. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and chemical profiles of Satureja montana L. Honey: hotrienol and syringyl derivatives as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kranjac, Marina; Malenica-Staver, M

    2015-07-01

    The present study is focused on the antioxidant capacity and chemical profiling of eight Croatian Satureja montana L. honey samples. Among the 20 compounds obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, hotrienol was predominant (75.9-81.7%). The honey matrix volatile/semivolatile profile was investigated by ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The major compounds identified by this latter method were the sinapic-acid derivatives methyl syringate (36.2-72.8%) and syringaldehyde (2.2-43.1%). Direct, targeted HPLC-DAD analyses of the native honey samples revealed the presence of methyl syringate (7.10-39.60 mg/kg) and syringic acid (0.10-1.70 mg/kg). In addition, the total phenolic content of the samples was determined by the FolinCiocalteu assay (311.0-465.9 mg GAE/kg), and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the DPPH radical-scavenging activity (0.5-1.0 mmol TEAC/kg) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (2.5-5.1 mmol Fe(2+) /kg). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Chrzczanowicz, Jacek; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8-77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC(85%HRmax)). CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L(-1); P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC(85%HRmax/kg). Those associations were not found in healthy men. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations.

  5. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax). Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations. PMID:26451234

  6. Short communication: Effect of casein haplotype on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (αS1, β, and κ) on antioxidative and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes. The antioxidant capacity was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, whereas ACE inhibition was determined by ACE-inhibitory assay. The ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein increased during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Casein haplotype significantly influenced the antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory capacities of digested casein. In particular, BB-A(2)A(1)-AA casein and BB-A(1)A(1)-AA casein showed the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity, BB-A(2)A(2)-AA casein showed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB casein showed the lowest biological capacity. To date, few studies have been done on the effect of casein haplotype on biological capacity of milk casein, thus the present study sets the basis for a new knowledge that could lead to the production of milk with better nutraceutical properties. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea) genotypes and commercial pulps.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Vânia; Ferreira Ferreira da Silveira, Tayse; Mattietto, Rafaella de Andrade; Padilha de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2017-03-01

    Açaí has been reported to contain many bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins. This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of pulps of three different açaí genotypes from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Eastern Amazon and three commercial açaí pulps from Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. Anthocyanin 3-rutinoside was the major anthocyanin present in freeze-dried açaí pulp samples. The commercial sample C showed the greatest amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside (18 942 and 34 397 µg g -1 respectively). The content of phenolic compounds varied significantly among the commercial and genotype samples, and vanillic acid was found in the highest concentration in the samples studied. All açaí samples showed high DPPH, ORAC and TEAC values, confirming the exceptionally high radical-scavenging capacity of açaí pulp previously reported by other researchers. The commercial samples showed higher antioxidant capacity and higher levels of anthocyanins and non-anthocyanic compounds than those of the genotype samples. Among the genotypes studied, L4P16 stood out for its higher contents of fibre and bioactive compounds and higher antioxidant capacity, indicating that this genotype has great potential for use in plant breeding programs that should be further explored. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Quality Evaluation of the Traditional Medicine Majun Mupakhi ELA via Chromatographic Fingerprinting Coupled with UHPLC-DAD-Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS and the Antioxidant Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reheman, Ayinuer; Ma, Qing Ling; Nijat, Dilaram; Abdulla, Rahima

    2018-01-01

    By merging a high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method with high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), an assay was developed for chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of traditional medicine Majun Mupakhi ELA (MME), and constituent compounds were identified using HPLC coupled with UHPLC-DAD-Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS method. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of MME was assessed based on the ability of components to scavenge radicals using in vitro method. Using a HPLC-DAD method with HPTLC easily validated the chemical fingerprinting results and quantified three characteristic components, namely, gallic acid (1), daidzein (2), and icariin (3), in commercial MMEs. The three compounds presented excellent regression values (R2 = 0.9999) in the ranges of the test and the method recovery was in the range from 100.49% to 100.68%. The fingerprints had 27 common characteristic peaks, of which 13 were verified by rapid UHPLC-DAD-Q-Orbitrap-MS analysis. In vitro antioxidant assays rapidly assessed and contrasted antioxidant activity or the free radical scavenging activity of the main polyphenolic classes in MMEs, and the antioxidant capacity was mostly affected by the presence of gallic acid. Thus, this study establishes a powerful and meaningful approach for MME quality control and for assessing in vitro antioxidant activity. PMID:29692853

  9. Quality Evaluation of the Traditional Medicine Majun Mupakhi ELA via Chromatographic Fingerprinting Coupled with UHPLC-DAD-Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS and the Antioxidant Activity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Reheman, Ayinuer; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ma, Qing Ling; Nijat, Dilaram; Abdulla, Rahima

    2018-01-01

    By merging a high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method with high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), an assay was developed for chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of traditional medicine Majun Mupakhi ELA (MME), and constituent compounds were identified using HPLC coupled with UHPLC-DAD-Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS method. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of MME was assessed based on the ability of components to scavenge radicals using in vitro method. Using a HPLC-DAD method with HPTLC easily validated the chemical fingerprinting results and quantified three characteristic components, namely, gallic acid (1), daidzein (2), and icariin (3), in commercial MMEs. The three compounds presented excellent regression values ( R 2 = 0.9999) in the ranges of the test and the method recovery was in the range from 100.49% to 100.68%. The fingerprints had 27 common characteristic peaks, of which 13 were verified by rapid UHPLC-DAD-Q-Orbitrap-MS analysis. In vitro antioxidant assays rapidly assessed and contrasted antioxidant activity or the free radical scavenging activity of the main polyphenolic classes in MMEs, and the antioxidant capacity was mostly affected by the presence of gallic acid. Thus, this study establishes a powerful and meaningful approach for MME quality control and for assessing in vitro antioxidant activity.

  10. Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolic Constituents and Toxicity of Hot Water Extract from Red Maple Buds.

    PubMed

    Meda, Naamwin R; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2017-06-01

    The present study reports, for the first time, the results of the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic composition of a hot water extract from red maple buds (RMB), as well as its safety. In this regard and comparatively to antioxidant standards, this extract exhibits a significant antiradical capacity when tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH · ) and anion superoxide trapping assays. High-resolution mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses permitted to determine for the first time, in red maple species, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside, and quercetin. Also, the quantification of individual phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography method revealed that ginnalin A at 117.0 mg/g is the major compound of RMB hot water extract. Finally, using flow cytometry evaluation, the extract of RMB was determined to have no toxicity neither to cause significant modification of apoptosis process, up to concentration of 100 μg/ml, on human peripheral blood neutrophils. These results allow anticipating various fields of application of RMB water extract. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Dietary quebracho tannins are not absorbed, but increase the antioxidant capacity of liver and plasma in sheep.

    PubMed

    López-Andrés, Patricia; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Gibson, Trevor M; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-08-01

    A total of sixteen lambs were divided into two groups and fed two different diets. Of these, eight lambs were fed a control diet (C) and eight lambs were fed the C diet supplemented with quebracho tannins (C+T). The objective of the present study was to assess whether dietary quebracho tannins can improve the antioxidant capacity of lamb liver and plasma and if such improvement is due to a direct transfer of phenolic compounds or their metabolites, to the animal tissues. Feed, liver and plasma samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography-MS for phenolic compounds. Profisitinidin compounds were identified in the C+T diet. However, no phenolic compounds were found in lamb tissues. The liver and the plasma from lambs fed the C+T diet displayed a greater antioxidant capacity than tissues from lambs fed the C diet, but only when samples were not purified with SPE. Profisetinidin tannins from quebracho seem not to be degraded or absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, they induced antioxidant effects in animal tissues.

  12. Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing.

    PubMed

    Mondaca-Navarro, Blanca A; Ávila-Villa, Luz A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ion chelating capacity. In the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL -1 (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL -1 (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min). The model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Determination of mineral constituents, phytochemicals and antioxidant qualities of Cleome gynandra, compared to Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyo, Mack; Amoo, Stephen O.; Aremu, Adeyemi O.; Gruz, Jiri; Šubrtová, Michaela; Jarošová, Monika; Tarkowski, Petr; Doležal, Karel

    2017-12-01

    The study compared mineral, chemical and antioxidant qualities of Cleome gynandra, a wild leafy vegetable, with two widely consumed commercial vegetables; Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris. Mineral nutrients were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), phenolic compounds using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS) and β-carotene and vitamin C using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 2,2–diphenyl–1–picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cleome gynandra had highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and flavonoids; whereas sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper and β-carotene were higher in Beta vulgaris. The significantly higher antioxidant activity (P ≤ 0.05) exhibited by Cleome gynandra in comparison to the two commercial vegetables may be due to its significantly high levels of vitamin C and phenolic acids. These findings on the mineral, chemical and antioxidant properties of Cleome gynandra provide compelling scientific evidence of its potential in adding diversity to our diet and contributing towards the daily nutritional requirements of millions of people for food and nutritional security.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2017-01-17

    Among popular crops, plum ( Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar "Valor") juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  15. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gouveia, Carla A; Carvalho, Maria J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Nording, Malin L; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-10-31

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS(•+), FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL(-1). Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis-PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

  16. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.; Gouveia, Carla A.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Nording, Malin L.; Castilho, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples. PMID:26785236

  17. In vitro capacity and in vivo antioxidant potency of sedimental extract of Tinospora cordifolia in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kannadhasan, Ramachandran; Venkataraman, Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The role of herbs against the free radicals have been put forth recently in combating many diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vitro capacity and in vivo antioxidant properties of sedimental extract of Tinospora cordifolia (SETc). Materials and Methods: SETc was subjected to in vitro chemical analysis such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anion radicals scavenging respectively and finally drugs reductive ability in order to elucidate the antioxidant capacity of the test drug before introducing it into the biological membrane. The resulting capacity was evaluated in vivo by analyzing enzymic (SOD, CAT) and non-enzymic (vitamin C & E) antioxidant levels in the homogenized samples of major organs isolated from streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats after 30th day of SETc (1000 mg/kg/p.o.) treatment. Finally, the histopathological evaluation was done using cut portion of the respective organs prone to free radical mediated cell destruction with STZ in order to study their micro anatomical changes. Results: Chemical analysis with SETc in vitro for its IC50 proves a key evident for its total antioxidant capacity of around 2046 times, in 1000 mg/kg of fixed dose per oral for in vivo analysis. In contrast to the above, the lipid peroxide levels and in vivo enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant levels were found to possess most significant difference (p<0.001) and moderate difference (p<0.01) with diabetic non-treated animals which was an supporting contribution for those in vitro parameters studied and have proved that SETc (1000 mg/kg/p.o.) was a potent drug to elevate the antioxidants levels and further healing of damaged organs as compared with that of diabetic and standard drug treated groups. Conclusions: Finally, it was concluded that, the presence of antioxidant potentials in SETc was about 2046 time as an effective scavenger of free radicals in vitro and as a potent healer in

  18. Interspecific differences in the antioxidant capacity of two Laridae species exposed to metals.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Jiménez, Pedro; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2016-05-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the concentration of metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn) in blood, and elucidate their potential effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in red blood cells of Audouin's gull (Ichthyaetus audouinii) and Slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei) chicks in Southeastern Spain. For this purpose, total glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant enzymes activities (glutathione peroxidase, GPx; superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT and glutathione-S-transferase, GST), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were analyzed. In general, metal exposure in both species can be considered low, except for Hg in Audouin's gull. Our findings show higher antioxidant levels in Audouin's gull than in Slender-billed gull; probably due to a combination of different basal antioxidant capacity between species, and to an up-regulation of the antioxidant system in Audouin's gull as a response to the higher Hg, Cu and Zn concentrations. This could reduce the production of TBARS keeping them at lower levels than those found in Slender-billed gull. In spite of this, the significantly higher Hg levels found in Audouin's gull (13.6µg/dl wet weight) in comparison to Slender-billed gull (2.7µg/dl), likely related to their different diet and the former consuming discarded fish, were able to produce lipid peroxidation in this species. The positive effect of Hg on SOD activity in Slender-billed gull, and of Pb on GSH levels in Audouin's gull, could reflect the necessity of the organism to upregulate these antioxidants to balance the increased oxidative stress caused by metals. The degree of metal exposure seems to be essential in the response of the antioxidant system, which may suffer up or down-regulations depending on metal concentrations. This study supports the interactive effects of metals on oxidative stress biomarkers, the complexity of the antioxidant system and the close cooperation between antioxidants, which requires the study of several metals and

  19. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Both Free Radical Scavenging Capacity and Antioxidative Damage Effect of Polydatin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ju; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiuli; Chen, Tongsheng; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Zhiping

    Cellular damage such as oxidation and lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species, has been implicated in several diseases. Radicals generated by 2,2-azobis (2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) are similar to physiologically active ones. In this study we found that polydatin, a resveratrol natural precursor derived from many sources, has the capacity of free radical scavenging and antioxidative damage. Using free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 values of polydatin were 19.25 and 5.29 μg/ml with the DPPH and the ABTS assay, respectively, and 0.125 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg polydatin with the FRAP assay. With the AAPH-induced oxidative injury cell model assay, polydatin showed a strong protective effect against the human liver tumor HepG2 cell oxidative stress damage. These results indicate that the antioxidant properties of polydatin have great potential for use as an alternative to more toxic synthetic antioxidants as an additive in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of oxidative diseases.

  1. Silymarin Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Enhances Antioxidant Defense System Capacity in Cadmium-Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Farjad, Elham; Momeni, Hamid Reza

    2018-10-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant which induces oxidative stress while silymarin as an antioxidant is able to scavenge free radicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of silymarin on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense system capacity in mice treated with cadmium chloride. In this experimental study, adult mice were divided into four groups as follow: i. Control, ii. Cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg b.w., s.c.), iii. Silymarin+cadmium chloride, and iv. Silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.). Mice were treated with cadmium chloride for 24 hours and silymarin was administered 24 hours before the cadmium. Blood samples were then collected from the experimental groups and their sera were prepared. To investigate oxidative stress markers in the serum, the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiol groups (-SH) were evaluated. To measure the total antioxidant power in the serum, Ferric Reducing/ Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method was used. In addition, the activity of enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was assessed to evaluate serum antioxidant defense power. In the cadmium-treated group, the amount of MDA significantly increased as compared to the control group. In silymarin+cadmium group, silymarin significantly ameliorated the level of MDA compared to the cadmium group. In addition, cadmium significantly reduced serum FRAP, the activity of antioxidant defense system enzymes and thiol groups compared to the control. In silymarin+cadmium group, silymarin could significantly reverse the reduction of these markers compared to the cadmium group. Administration of silymarin alone caused a significant increase in serum FRAP, the activity of antioxidant defense system enzymes and thiol groups compared to the control group. Silymarin as a powerful antioxidant reverses the toxic effect of cadmium on the serum levels of lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant power, antioxidant defense system

  2. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4)...

  3. Biodiversity of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, and Juice Quality in Apple Cider Taxa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples are known to contain antioxidants that may play an important role in human health by providing protection against reactive free radicals affecting a wide range of biological molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While fresh apple juice is a main product of processed apples,...

  4. Antioxidant defense parameters as predictive biomarkers for fermentative capacity of active dried wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    The production of active dried yeast (ADY) is a common practice in industry for the maintenance of yeast starters and as a means of long term storage. The process, however, causes multiple cell injuries, with oxidative damage being one of the most important stresses. Consequentially, dehydration tolerance is a highly appreciated property in yeast for ADY production. In this study we analyzed the cellular redox environment in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, which show markedly different fermentative capacities after dehydration. To measure/quantify the effect of dehydration on the S. cerevisiae strains, we used: (i) fluorescent probes; (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities; (ii) intracellular damage; (iii) antioxidant metabolites; and (iv) gene expression, to select a minimal set of biochemical parameters capable of predicting desiccation tolerance in wine yeasts. Our results show that naturally enhanced antioxidant defenses prevent oxidative damage after wine yeast biomass dehydration and improve fermentative capacity. Based on these results we chose four easily assayable parameters/biomarkers for the selection of industrial yeast strains of interest for ADY production: trehalose and glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase and catalase enzymatic activities. Yeast strains selected in accordance with this process display high levels of trehalose, low levels of oxidized glutathione, a high induction of glutathione reductase activity, as well as a high basal level and sufficient induction of catalase activity, which are properties inherent in superior ADY strains. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Evaluation of oxidative stress status and antioxidant capacity in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karaguzel, Ersagun; Okulu, Emrah; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Ener, Kemal; Ozayar, Asim; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated and compared the serum oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the control group. Material and methods The prospective study consisted of 97 patients with RCC (Group 1) and 80 age and sex matched healthy volunteers (Group 2). Group 1 and 2 were compared concerning serum mean total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), arylesterase, total thiol, catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ceruloplasmin. Results Patients’ mean age was 58.5 ±12.3 and 56.9 ±15.8 years, respectively, in Group 1 and 2. No statistically significant differences were detected between the groups in terms of oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant capacity measured in the serum of patients including, TOS, TAC, PON1, arylesterase, total thiol, CAT, MPO, and ceruloplasmin levels (p >0.05 for all parameters). The PON-1 value was significantly higher in patients with pT1 stage than pT3 stage (p = 0.007). The arylesterase value was significantly higher in patients with Fuhrman's nuclear grade 3 than grade 2 (p = 0.035). There was no correlation between these parameters level and Fuhrman's nuclear grade, stage, or histopathological tumor type. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that evaluation of these parameters in the serum of patients with localized RCC may not be used as a marker to discriminate between patients with RCC and healthy people. PMID:26855793

  6. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; Takahachi, Gisele; Irie, Mary Mayumi T; Miyamoto, Sônia; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinsk, Terezinha I Estivalet

    2016-01-01

    We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI). Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26%) women: 23 (32.4%) with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL), 22 (31%) in an acute episode (VVC), and 26 (36.6%) with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture) comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC) than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels) and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC.

  7. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; Takahachi, Gisele; Irie, Mary Mayumi T.; Miyamoto, Sônia; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinsk, Terezinha I. Estivalet

    2016-01-01

    We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI). Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26%) women: 23 (32.4%) with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL), 22 (31%) in an acute episode (VVC), and 26 (36.6%) with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture) comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC) than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels) and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC. PMID:27415762

  8. Processing black mulberry into jam: effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-08-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialised scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurisation. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, % polymeric colour, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples. Jam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88-93%) (P < 0.05). Individual anthocyanin contents, determined using HPLC analysis, also showed a significant decrease (∼99% loss). In contrast, % recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS assay) increased after jam processing (16%, 12%, and 37%, respectively). Fruit processing resulted in losses of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of black mulberry jam. Optimisation of food processing could help to protect the phenolic compounds in fruits which might be helpful for the food industry to minimise the antioxidant loss and improve the final product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Chemical composition, oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity of oil extracted from roasted seeds of Sacha-inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Paredes, Daniel; Arana, Adrian; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2014-06-04

    The effect of roasting of Sacha-inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds on the oxidative stability and composition of its oil was investigated. The seeds were subjected to light, medium and high roasting intensities. Oil samples were subjected to high-temperature storage at 60 °C for 30 days and evaluated for oxidation (peroxide value and p-anisidine), antioxidant activity (total phenols and DPPH assay), and composition (tocopherol content and fatty acid profile). Results showed that roasting partially increased oil oxidation and its antioxidant capacity, slightly decreased tocopherol content, and did not affect the fatty acid profile. During storage, oxidation increased for all oil samples, but at a slower rate for oils from roasted seeds, likely due to its higher antioxidant capacity. Also, tocopherol content decreased significantly, and a slight modification of the fatty acid profile suggested that α-linolenic acid oxidized more readily than other fatty acids present.

  10. Characterization of Physico-Chemical Properties and Antioxidant Capacities of Bioactive Honey Produced from Australian Grown Agastache rugosa and its Correlation with Colour and Poly-Phenol Content.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sushil; Pang, Edwin; Livanos, George; Mantri, Nitin

    2018-01-05

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial components of honey vary based on sourced of nectar. Medicinal plants with the therapeutic value have potential to produce honey with greater bioactivity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical and antioxidant capacities of Agastache honey produced from Agastache rugosa and compare them with other popular commercial honeys sold in Australia. The total phenolics, total flavonoids, moisture content, colour, pH, protein content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated for Agastache , Manuka, Jelly bush, Tea tree, Super manuka and Jarrah honeys. The results reveal that the moisture content ranged from 17-21%, pH ranged from 3.8-4.3 and estimated protein content ranged from 900-2200 µg/g. The DPPH•, ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP methods were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the honey samples. The DPPH• % inhibition, ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP values for Agastache honey were 9.85 (±1.98 µmol TE/g), 26.88 (±0.32 µmol TE/g), 19.78 (±1.1 µmol TE/g) and 3.61 (±0.02 µmol TE/g) whereas the highest antioxidant capacity values obtained were 18.69 (±0.9 µmol TE/g), 30.72 (±0.27 µmol TE/g), 26.95 (±0.9 µmol TE/g) and 3.68 (±0.04 µmol TE/g), respectively. There was a positive correlation between colour, total phenolic content and DPPH• scavenging activity for most of the honeys except Tea tree honey. However, there was no clear correlation with ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP values. The measured antioxidant capacity of samples varied with the assays used. The DPPH• assay clearly indicated that the phenolic compounds contribute to the scavenging activity of the honeys. Nevertheless, all assays confirm that Agastache honey has significant antioxidant capacity. Therefore, Agastache honey can be important to human nutrition and health.

  11. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of Sudanese date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Rania M A; Fageer, Aisha S M; Eltayeb, Mohamed M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical composition, mineral extractability, and antioxidant capacity of six date palm varieties grown in Sudan. The results showed that Sudanese date varieties contained significantly different (P < 0.05) amounts of moisture, ash, fiber, oil, and carbohydrates, but have almost similar amounts of protein. Moreover, results revealed that date varieties contained significantly varied (P < 0.05) amounts of total polyphenols and total flavonoids, which ranged between 35.82 and 99.34 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and 1.74–3.39 mg catechin equivalent/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the studied date varieties were as follows: ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was within the range of 2.82–27.5 mmol/100 g, chelation of Fe2+ ion ranged from 54.31% to 94.98%, and scavenging of H2O2 ranged from 38.48% to 49.13%. There were many correlations (positive, negative, and weak) between antioxidant and mineral extractability of Sudanese date fruits. PMID:25473506

  12. Antioxidant capacity index based on gold nanoparticles formation. Application to extra virgin olive oil samples.

    PubMed

    Della Pelle, Flavio; Vilela, Diana; González, María Cristina; Lo Sterzo, Claudio; Compagnone, Darío; Del Carlo, Michele; Escarpa, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    A simple gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based colorimetric assay for the antioxidant activity determination has been developed. The AuNP formation is mediated by extra virgin olive oil (EVOO's) endogenous polyphenols; the reaction is described by a sigmoidal curve. The ratio KAuNPs/Xc(50) (slope of the linear part of the sigmoid/concentration at half value of the absorbance) was found to be the optimal parameter to report the antioxidant capacity with respect to the single KAuNPs or Xc(50) values. The obtained data demonstrated that the compounds with ortho-diphenols functionality are most active in reducing gold (III) to gold (0). Thus, intermediate activity was found for gallic acid, while tyrosol (mono-phenols) had a significant lower activity than the others antioxidant compounds (at least one order of magnitude). In the analysis of olive oil samples, a significant correlation among classical methods used to determine antioxidant activity and the proposed parameter was found with R values in the 0.96-0.97 range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  14. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total saponin content (TSC) and phytic acid content (PAC) values in all bean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New antioxidant treatment with yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis) infusion for fresh-cut apples: Modeling, optimization, and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arzuaga, Mariana; Piagentini, Andrea M

    2018-04-01

    Enzymatic browning affects the sensory and nutritional quality of fresh-cut apples and limits their shelf-life. Yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis), a plant widely consumed in South America as an infusion, could potentially be used in minimally processed fruits and vegetables as a natural additive to prevent browning, due to its high content of phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity. The effects of the concentrations of ascorbic acid, citric acid, and yerba mate in an aqueous dipping solution on the instrumental color parameters, antioxidant capacity, and sensory quality of "Granny Smith" fresh-cut apples were modeled and the solution was optimized to obtain treated apples with maximum antioxidant capacity and minimum browning, without affecting the natural flavor of the fruits. The optimal composition obtained (1.2% yerba mate  + 0.9% citric acid + 1.0% ascorbic acid) increased the antioxidant capacity of the apples by 36%. The sensory acceptability test carried out on the "Granny Smith" fresh-cut apples treated with the optimal dipping solution showed that more than 78% of the surveyed consumers liked the color, flavor, and texture of the apples.

  16. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena

    2013-03-01

    In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were previously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  17. Insights into the HyPer biosensor as molecular tool for monitoring cellular antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Helen; Parra, Alejandra; Tobar, Nicolas; Molina, Jessica; Kallens, Violeta; Hidalgo, Miltha; Varela, Diego; Martínez, Jorge; Porras, Omar

    2018-06-01

    Aerobic metabolism brings inexorably the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are counterbalanced by intrinsic antioxidant defenses avoiding deleterious intracellular effects. Redox balance is the resultant of metabolic functioning under environmental inputs (i.e. diet, pollution) and the activity of intrinsic antioxidant machinery. Monitoring of intracellular hydrogen peroxide has been successfully achieved by redox biosensor advent; however, to track the intrinsic disulfide bond reduction capacity represents a fundamental piece to understand better how redox homeostasis is maintained in living cells. In the present work, we compared the informative value of steady-state measurements and the kinetics of HyPer, a H 2 O 2 -sensitive fluorescent biosensor, targeted at the cytosol, mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum. From this set of data, biosensor signal recovery from an oxidized state raised as a suitable parameter to discriminate reducing capacity of a close environment. Biosensor recovery was pH-independent, condition demonstrated by experiments on pH-clamped cells, and sensitive to pharmacological perturbations of enzymatic disulfide reduction. Also, ten human cell lines were characterized according their H 2 O 2 -pulse responses, including their capacity to reduce disulfide bonds evaluated in terms of their migratory capacity. Finally, cellular migration experiments were conducted to study whether migratory efficiency was associated with the disulfide reduction activity. The migration efficiency of each cell type correlates with the rate of signal recovery measured from the oxidized biosensor. In addition, HyPer-expressing cells treated with N-acetyl-cysteine had accelerated recovery rates and major migratory capacities, both reversible effects upon treatment removal. Our data demonstrate that the HyPer signal recovery offers a novel methodological tool to track the cellular impact of redox active biomolecules. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  18. A novel and simple cell-based electrochemical biosensor for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Chinese dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingfeng; Ge, Panwei; Jiang, Donglei; Du, Nan; Chen, Jiahui; Yuan, Limin; Yu, Hai; Xu, Xin; Wu, Mangang; Zhang, Wangang; Zhou, Guanghong

    2018-01-15

    The analysis of antioxidants in foodstuffs has become an active area of research, leading to the recent development of numerous methods for assessing antioxidant capacity. Here we described the fabrication and validation of a novel and simple cell-based electrochemical biosensor for this purpose. The biosensor is used to assess the antioxidant capacity of cell-free extracts from Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Chinese dry-cured ham. The biosensor relies on the determination of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (the flux of H 2 O 2 released from RAW 264.7 macrophage cells) to indirectly assess changes in intracellular oxidative stress level as influenced by L. plantarum strains. A one-step acidified manganese dioxide (a-MnO 2 ) modified gold electrode (GE) was used to immobilize RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, which were then encapsulated in a 3D cell culture system consisting of alginate/ graphene oxide (NaAlg/GO). The biosensor exhibited a rapid and sensitive response for the detection of H 2 O 2 released from RAW264.7 cells. The detection limit was 0.02μM with a linear response from 0.05μM to 0.85μM and the biosensor was shown to have good stability and outstanding repeatability. This technique was then used for evaluating the antioxidant ability of extracts from L. plantarum NJAU-01. According to the electrochemical investigations and assays of SEM, TEM, and ROS, these cell-free extracts effectively reduced the oxidative stress levels in RAW264.7 cells under external stimulation. Extracts from L. plantarum strains at a dose of 10 10 CFU/mL showed the highest antioxidant activities with a relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) rate of 88.94%. Hence, this work provides a simple and efficient electrochemical biosensing platform based on RAW264.7 cells for fast, sensitive and quantitative assessment of antioxidant capacity of L. plantarum strains. The method demonstrates its potential for rapid screening for evaluating antioxidant properties of

  19. Carotenoids, polyphenols and micronutrient profiles of Brassica oleraceae and plum varieties and their contribution to measures of total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kaulmann, Anouk; Jonville, Marie-Caroline; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2014-07-15

    The consumption of phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols within whole fruits and vegetables has been associated with decreased incidence of various inflammation and oxidative stress related chronic diseases, which may be due to direct antioxidant effects, or indirect mechanisms such as affecting signal transduction/gene expression. Within the present study, we investigated the antioxidant composition of two major groups of vegetables and fruits, Brassica oleraceae and prunus spp., and estimated their contribution to antioxidant capacity. For this purpose, 17 plum and 27 Brassica varieties were collected in Luxembourg, and analysed for their individual polyphenol and carotenoid profile, vitamin C, dietary fibre, and minerals/trace elements, and their correlation with markers of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu). Total carotenoid and polyphenol content varied considerably between the different Brassica and plum varieties, with highest concentrations in the variety Kale (13.3 ± 0.58 mg/100g wet weight) and Cherry plum (1.96 ± 0.28 mg/100g) for carotenoids; and Kale (27.0 ± 0.91 mg/100g) and Kirks plum (185 ± 14 mg/100g) for polyphenols. In developed multiple linear-regression-models for Brassica, flavonoids, anthocyanins, lutein and vitamin C were found to be the best predictors of antioxidant capacity as assessed by FRAP (R(2)=0.832) and flavonoids, neochlorogenic acid and vitamin C as assessed by ABTS (R(2)=0.831); while for plums these were selenium, total sugars, chlorogenic acid and vitamin C (R(2)=0.853), and selenium, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids for FRAP (R(2)=0.711). When considering Brassica and plum consumption in Luxembourg, it is estimated that both contribute to an antioxidant intake equivalent to 26 and 6 mg per day of ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The validity and reproducibility of food-frequency questionnaire-based total antioxidant capacity estimates in Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Serafini, Mauro; Morgenstern, Ralf; Prior, Ronald L; Wolk, Alicja

    2008-05-01

    Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) provides an assessment of antioxidant activity and synergistic interactions of redox molecules in foods and plasma. We investigated the validity and reproducibility of food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-based TAC estimates assessed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameters (TRAP), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) food values. Validity and reproducibility were evaluated in 2 random samples from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Validity was studied by comparing FFQ-based TAC estimates with one measurement of plasma TAC in 108 women (54-73-y-old dietary supplement nonusers). Reproducibility was studied in 300 women (56-75 y old, 50.7% dietary supplement nonusers) who completed 2 FFQs 1 y apart. Fruit and vegetables (mainly apples, pears, oranges, and berries) were the major contributors to FFQ-based ORAC (56.5%), TRAP (41.7%), and FRAP (38.0%) estimates. In the validity study, whole plasma ORAC was correlated (Pearson) with FFQ-based ORAC (r = 0.35), TRAP (r = 0.31), and FRAP (r = 0.28) estimates from fruit and vegetables. Correlations between lipophilic plasma ORAC and FFQ-based ORAC, TRAP, and FRAP estimates from fruit and vegetables were 0.41, 0.31, and 0.28, and correlations with plasma TRAP estimates were 0.31, 0.30, and 0.28, respectively. Hydrophilic plasma ORAC and plasma FRAP values did not correlate with FFQ-based TAC estimates. Reproducibility, assessed by intraclass correlations, was 0.60, 0.61, and 0.61 for FFQ-based ORAC, TRAP, and FRAP estimates, respectively, from fruit and vegetables. FFQ-based TAC values represent valid and reproducible estimates that may be used in nutritional epidemiology to assess antioxidant intake from foods. Further studies in other populations to confirm these results are needed.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity of “Mexican Arnica” Heterotheca inuloides Cass Natural Products and Some Derivatives: Their Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation and Effect on C. elegans Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Delgado-Lamas, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the accumulation of biomolecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to aging. The antioxidant activity is related to the ability of certain compounds to protect against the potentially harmful effect of processes or reactions involving ROS. This ability is associated with the termination of free radical propagation in biological systems. From Heterotheca inuloides various compounds which have shown to possess antioxidant capacity and scavenging ROS. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of additional natural components isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives, their anti-inflammatory activity and the effect on Caenorhabditis elegans nematode life span. Compounds showed ability to inhibit various biological processes such as lipid peroxidation, scavenge nonbiological important oxidants such as 1O2, OH∙, H2O2, and HOCl and scavenge non biological stable free radicals (DPPH). Some cadinane type compounds showed possess antioxidant, ROS scavenging capacity, anti-inflammatory activity, and effect on the C. elegans life span. Flavonoid type compounds increased the life of the nematode and quercetin was identified as the compound with the greatest activity. The modification of chemical structure led to a change in the antioxidant capacity, the anti-inflammatory activity, and the survival of the worm. PMID:25821555

  3. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of humic acids using CUPRAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, noble metal nanoparticle- and solid-liquid extraction-based methods.

    PubMed

    Karadirek, Şeyda; Kanmaz, Nergis; Balta, Zeynep; Demirçivi, Pelin; Üzer, Ayşem; Hızal, Jülide; Apak, Reşat

    2016-06-01

    Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of humic acid (HA) samples was determined using CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity), FC (Folin-Ciocalteu), QUENCHER-CUPRAC, QUENCHER-FC, Ag-NP (Silver nanoparticle)‒ and Au-NP (Gold nanoparticle)‒based methods. Conventional FC and modified FC (MFC) methods were applied to solid samples. Because of decreased solubility of Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent in organic solvents, solvent effect on TAC measurement was investigated using QUENCHER-CUPRAC assay by using ethanol:distilled water and dimethyl sulfoxide:distilled water with varying ratios. To see the combined effect of solubilization (leaching) and TAC measurement of humic acids simultaneously, QUENCHER experiments were performed at 25°C and 50°C; QUENCHER-CUPRAC and QUENCHER-FC methods agreed well and had similar precision in F-statistics. Although the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°) of the oxidation of HA dihydroxy phenols with the test reagents were negative, the ΔG° was positive only for the reaction of CUPRAC reagent with isolated monohydric phenols, showing CUPRAC selectivity toward polyphenolic antioxidants. This is the first work on the antioxidant capacity measurement of HA having a sparingly soluble matrix where enhanced solubilization of bound phenolics is achieved with coupled oxidation by TAC reagents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Lacerda Soares, Marcia Valéria; Rocha Bastos, Maria do Socorro; Elesbão Alves, Ricardo; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was investigate the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices, and optimize its formulation by the response surface methodology based on the responses: total polyphenols (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content and sensorial acceptance. Camu-camu, acerola and acai were the major factors that influenced the antioxidant potential of the juice; and the yellow mombin showed a positive effect on the acceptance of the tropical juice. It was observed an/antagonistic effect between acerola and camu-camu for the TAC response. The optimum formulation obtained was 20% acerola, 10% camu-camu, 10% yellow mombin, 10% cashew apple and 10% acai, which was responsible for a response of 155.46 mg.100 g(-1) of ascorbic acid, 103.01 mg of GAE.100 g-1 of TP, 10.27 µM Trolox g(-1) of TAC and approximately 6.1 of acceptance.

  6. Grape pomace improves performance, antioxidant status, fecal microbiota and meat quality of piglets.

    PubMed

    Kafantaris, I; Stagos, D; Kotsampasi, B; Hatzis, A; Kypriotakis, A; Gerasopoulos, K; Makri, S; Goutzourelas, N; Mitsagga, C; Giavasis, I; Petrotos, K; Kokkas, S; Goulas, P; Christodoulou, V; Kouretas, D

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, grape pomace (GP) was used as feed additive in the diet of weaned piglets in order to develop innovative feedstuffs and to investigate their potential beneficial effects on welfare, productivity and meat quality. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the experimental feeds, 24 piglets of 20 days old were assigned to two experimental groups receiving standard or experimental diet for 30 days. Blood and tissues collections were performed at four different time-points, 2, 20, 35 and 50 days post birth. The collected tissues were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The following oxidative stress markers were assessed: reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (CARB) and H2O2 decomposition activity. The effect on bacterial growth was assessed by examining microbial populations in piglets' fecal microbiota. Furthermore, the average daily gain (ADG) was calculated and the fatty acid profile of quadriceps muscle was assessed. The results showed that piglets fed with the diet supplemented with GP, had significantly increased antioxidants mechanisms in almost all the tissues as shown by increases in GSH, H2O2 decomposition activity and TAC compared with control group. Piglets fed with the experimental diet exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB in GP group compared with control. In addition, the experimental diet increased significantly ADG (by 23.65%) (P<0.05) and enhanced the growth of facultative probiotic bacteria (by up to 1.2 log colony forming units (CFU)/g) (P<0.05) and lactic acid bacteria (by up to 2.0 log CFU/g) (P<0.05) in GP group compared with the control group. GP supplementation inhibited the growth of pathogen populations such as Enterobacteriacae (by up to 1.8 log CFU/g) (P<0.05) and Campylobacter jejuni

  7. Dietary antioxidant capacity and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the E3N/EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bastide, Nadia; Dartois, Laureen; Dyevre, Valérie; Dossus, Laure; Fagherazzi, Guy; Serafini, Mauro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2017-04-01

    The cellular oxidative stress (balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant) may be a major risk factor for chronic diseases. Antioxidant capacity of human diet can be globally assessed through the dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). Our aim was to investigate the relationship between the NEAC and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and to test potential interactions with smoking status, a well-known pro-oxidant factor. Among the French women of the E3N prospective cohort study initiated in 1990, including 4619 deaths among 1,199,011 persons-years of follow-up. A validated dietary history questionnaire assessed usual food intake; NEAC intake was estimated using a food composition table from two different methods: ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Hazard ratio (HR) estimates and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models. In multivariate analyses, FRAP dietary equivalent intake was inversely associated with mortality from all-causes (HR for the fourth vs. the first quartile: HR 4  = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.67, 0.83, p trend  < 0.0001), cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Similar results were obtained with TRAP. There was an interaction between NEAC dietary equivalent intake and smoking status for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, but not cancer mortality (respectively, for FRAP, p inter  = 0.002; 0.013; 0.113, results were similar with TRAP), and the association was the strongest among current smokers. This prospective cohort study highlights the importance of antioxidant consumption for mortality prevention, especially among current smokers.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells increase antioxidant capacity in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion damage.

    PubMed

    Inan, M; Bakar, E; Cerkezkayabekir, A; Sanal, F; Ulucam, E; Subaşı, C; Karaöz, E

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may have beneficial effects in reversing intestinal damage resulting from circulatory disorders. The hypothesis of this study is that MSCs increase antioxidant capacity of small bowel tissue following intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage. A total of 100 rats were used for the control group and three experimental groups, as follows: the sham control, local MSC, and systemic MSC groups. Each group consisted of 10 animals on days 1, 4, and 7 of the experiment. Ischemia was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 45min; following this, reperfusion was carried out for 1, 4, and 7days in all groups. In the local and systemic groups, MSCs were administered intravenously and locally just after the ischemia, and they were investigated after 1, 4, and 7days. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and total protein levels, were measured. Histopathological analysis was performed using light and electron microscopy. The indicators of proliferation from the effects of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. MDA was increased (P<0.05) in the sham control group and decreased (P<0.05) in the MSC groups. SOD, CAT, and Gpx were decreased in the local MSC group (P<0.05). The highest level of amelioration was observed on day 7 in the local MSC group via light and electron microscopy. It was found that the MSCs arrived at the damaged intestinal wall in the MSC groups immediately after injection. Pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL1β), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), IL6, MIP2, and MPO decreased (P<0.05), while anti-inflammatory cytokines EP3 and IL1ra increased (p<0.05) in the local and systemic MSC groups. In addition, proliferation indicators, such as PCNA and KI67, increased (P<0.05) in the local and systemic MSC groups. Parallel to our

  9. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, β-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P.; Figiel, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar “Valor”) juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders. PMID:28106740

  11. Feruloyl Dioleoyglycerol Antioxidant Capacity in Phospholipid Vesicles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ferulic acid and its esters are known to be effective antioxidants. Feruloyl dioleoylglycerol was assessed for its ability to serve as an antioxidant in model membrane phospholipid vesicles. The molecule was incorporated into single-lamellar vesicles of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at ...

  12. Stability of total phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity of extracts from pomegranate co-products subjected to in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Fawole, Olaniyi Amos; Opara, Umezuruike Linus

    2016-09-13

    Co-products obtained from pomegranate juice processing contain high levels of polyphenols with potential high added values. From value-addition viewpoint, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of polyphenolic concentrations in pomegranate fruit co-products in different solvent extracts and assess the effect on the total antioxidant capacity using the FRAP, DPPH˙ and ABTS(+) assays during simulated in vitro digestion. Pomegranate juice, marc and peel were extracted in water, 50 % ethanol (50%EtOH) and absolute ethanol (100%EtOH) and analysed for total phenolic concentration (TPC), total flavonoids concentration (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity in DPPH˙, ABTS(+) and FRAP assays before and after in vitro digestion. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and total flavonoid concentration (TFC) were in the order of peel > marc > juice throughout the in vitro digestion irrespective of the extraction solvents used. However, 50 % ethanol extracted 1.1 to 12-fold more polyphenols than water and ethanol solvents depending on co-products. TPC and TFC increased significantly in gastric digests. In contrast, after the duodenal phase of in vitro digestion, polyphenolic concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those obtained in gastric digests. Undigested samples and gastric digests showed strong and positive relationships between polyphenols and the antioxidant activities measured in DPPH, ABTS(+) and FRAP assays, with correlation coefficients (r (2)) ranging between 0.930-0.990. In addition, the relationships between polyphenols (TPC and TFC) and radical cation scavenging activity in ABTS(+) were moderately positive in duodenal digests. Findings from this study showed that concentration of pomegranate polyphenols and the antioxidant capacity during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion may not reflect the pre-digested phenolic concentration. Thus, this study highlights the need to provide biologically relevant information on

  13. Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay

    PubMed Central

    Polat, A. Aytekin; Çalişkan, Oğuzhan; Serçe, Sedat; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Kaya, Cemal; Özgen, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Several fruit characteristics of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cultivars/selections grown in Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey were investigated in 2008. The cultivars/selections included ‘Baduna 5’, Güzelyurt 1, ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’, ‘Ottaviani,’ and Type 1. The characteristics evaluated included fruit weight, width, length, seed number and weight, flesh/seed ratio, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total phenolic (TP) content, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analyses were conducted by three replicates, with 30 fruits in each replicate. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars, for all the traits tested. For example, ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ and ‘Ottaviani’ had smaller fruits than others, although ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had heavier seeds. The flesh/seed ratio was the highest in Type 1, while ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had the highest pH and high soluble solids. ‘Baduna 5’ and ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had the highest acidity. The TP ranged from 129 (‘Baduna 5’) to 578 (‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’) mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw). The results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and a relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health. PMID:20548929

  14. A thick-film sensor as a novel device for determination of polyphenols and their antioxidant capacity in white wine.

    PubMed

    Photinon, Kanokorn; Chalermchart, Yongyuth; Khanongnuch, Chartchai; Wang, Shih-Han; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2010-01-01

    A thick-film electrochemical sensor with an iridium-carbon working electrode was used for determining polyphenols and their antioxidant capacity in white wine. Caffeic acid was used as a model species because it has the ability to produce the highest oxidation current. The correlation coefficient of 0.9975 was obtained between sensor response and caffeic acid content. The total phenolic content (TPC) and scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical were also found to be strongly correlated with the concentration of caffeic acid, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9823 and 0.9958, respectively. The sensor prototype was proven to be a simple, efficient and cost effective device to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of substances.

  15. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) By-Product Protein Films Containing Thyme Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Tural, Serpil; Turhan, Sadettin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, some properties and antioxidant capacity of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicholus ) by-product protein films with added 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of thyme essential oil were investigated. The films with thyme essential oil had higher elongation at break, water vapour permeability and oxygen permeability, lower solubility and tensile strength than control film (p<0.05). The incorporation of thyme essential oil affected transparency values of the films, but only the addition of 1.5% of thyme essential oil significantly reduced the transparency (p<0.05). In the film matrix, molecular organisation and intermolecular interaction were changed by thyme essential oil addition. The films with thyme essential oil had a heterogeneous surface and a relatively smooth cross-section structure. Slightly higher phase transition and lower glass transition temperatures were observed in films with thyme essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the films was improved by incorporating thyme essential oil depending on its volume fraction.

  17. Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) By-Product Protein Films Containing Thyme Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Tural, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    Summary In this study, some properties and antioxidant capacity of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) by-product protein films with added 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of thyme essential oil were investigated. The films with thyme essential oil had higher elongation at break, water vapour permeability and oxygen permeability, lower solubility and tensile strength than control film (p<0.05). The incorporation of thyme essential oil affected transparency values of the films, but only the addition of 1.5% of thyme essential oil significantly reduced the transparency (p<0.05). In the film matrix, molecular organisation and intermolecular interaction were changed by thyme essential oil addition. The films with thyme essential oil had a heterogeneous surface and a relatively smooth cross-section structure. Slightly higher phase transition and lower glass transition temperatures were observed in films with thyme essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the films was improved by incorporating thyme essential oil depending on its volume fraction. PMID:28559736

  18. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity of Rice Cake (Sulgitteok) Supplemented with Lyophilized Sedum sarmentosum (Dolnamul) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Mi; Lee, Myung Ho; Yang, Sun A; Choi, Young Sim; Jegal, Sung A; Sung, Chang Keun; Mo, Eun Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to increase the availability of Sedum sarmentosum (Dolnamul) and to improve the nutraceutical value of rice cakes (sulgitteok). The contents of crude protein, mineral, dietary fiber, water holding capacity, and hardness significantly and directly increased with lyophilized sedum powder (SP). Pore ratio and expansion rate decreased in samples containing more than 10% SP compared to the control. In a sensory evaluation, a positive correlation was detected between overall acceptability and taste (R2=0.99, p<0.01), and color (R2=0.72, p<0.05). Total polyphenol contents of the SP-treated groups were significantly elevated, accompanied by an increase in radical scavenging ability estimated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Replacing 10% of the rice powder with SP efficiently improved the antioxidant and nutritional values of sulgitteok as well as its the sensory quality. PMID:24471077

  19. Determination of Mineral Constituents, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Qualities of Cleome gynandra, Compared to Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Mack; Amoo, Stephen O.; Aremu, Adeyemi O.; Gruz, Jiri; Šubrtová, Michaela; Jarošová, Monika; Tarkowski, Petr; Doležal, Karel

    2018-01-01

    The study compared mineral, chemical and antioxidant qualities of Cleome gynandra, a wild leafy vegetable, with two widely consumed commercial vegetables, Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris. Mineral nutrients were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), phenolic compounds using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS) and β-carotene and vitamin C using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 2,2–diphenyl−1–picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Cleome gynandra had highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids; whereas sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper and β-carotene were higher for B. vulgaris. The significantly higher antioxidant activity (P ≤ 0.05) exhibited by C. gynandra in comparison to the two commercial vegetables may be due to its significantly high levels of vitamin C and phenolic acids. These findings on the mineral, chemical and antioxidant properties of C. gynandra provide compelling scientific evidence of its potential in adding diversity to the diet and contributing toward the daily nutritional requirements of millions of people for food and nutritional security. PMID:29354633

  20. Effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, minerals, and antioxidant capacity of Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys.

    PubMed

    Seraglio, Siluana Katia Tischer; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Daguer, Heitor; Bergamo, Greici; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Nehring, Priscila; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Fett, Roseane; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Honey is a product traditionally consumed due to its possible health benefits promoted by natural antioxidants. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on these compounds in honeys. To improve the knowledge of this subject, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of simulated digestion on the stability of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays), phenolic compounds (LC-ESI-MS/MS), and minerals (CE-DAD) in Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys. The results show that the digestive system, mainly after duodenal digestion, significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity assessed by FRAP (410.3±18.3 to 564.7±8.4μmolFe +2 100g -1 ), DPPH (30.1±0.8 to 33.9±1.4mgAAE100g -1 ), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays (58.3±2.6 to 142.0±1.6mgGAE100g -1 ) of this honey. However, phenolic compounds and minerals showed high stability and in some cases, significantly increased after the simulated digestion, presenting a bioaccessible fraction that ranged from 78.2±6.4 to 174.38±6.82% and 94.0±4.3 to 220.5±3.4%, respectively. Therefore, these honey constituents may be considered highly bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Additionally, the correlation between the investigated parameters suggests that other honey constituents could also possibly affect antioxidant capacity of this honey. In conclusion, the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) honeydew honey can be highlighted as an important natural source of bioaccessible polyphenols, besides presenting highly bioaccessible minerals in its composition, maintaining a satisfactory antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of increased total antioxidant capacity and anovulation in nonobese infertile patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verit, Fatma Ferda; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2007-08-01

    To investigate whether total antioxidant capacity (TAC) could predict the response to ovulation induction to clomiphene citrate (CC) in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Academic hospital. Fifty-five nonobese, oligomenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal indices of insulin sensitivity. None. Standard clinical examinations and ultrasonographic and endocrine screening, including FSH, LH, E(2), P, total T, sex hormone-binding globulin, DHEAS, and TAC were performed before initiation of CC medication. Within the total group, 27 (49%) of the patients did not ovulate at the end of follow-up. TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume were all significantly different in CC nonresponders from those in responders. Total antioxidant capacity was found to be the best predictor in univariate analysis (odds ratio, 171.55; 95% confidence interval, 10.61-2,772.93), and it had the highest area in the receiver operating characteristics analysis (0.91). In a multivariate prediction model, TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume showed good predictive power, with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test of 0.80. Total antioxidant capacity was the strongest predictor of ovarian response during CC induction of ovulation in these patients. It can be concluded that TAC can be used as a routine screening test.

  2. Antioxidant capacity of BO-653, 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dipentylbenzofuran, and uric acid as evaluated by ORAC method and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Niki, Etsuo; Fukuhara, Akiko; Omata, Yo; Saito, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2008-04-01

    The role of radical-scavenging antioxidant against oxidative stress has received much attention. The antioxidant capacity has been assessed by various methods. Above all, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) has been frequently employed [Prior et.al., J. Agric. Food Chem.2005, 53, 4290]. In the present study, the antioxidant capacity of 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dipentylbenzofuran (BO-653) and uric acid was assessed by ORAC method using pyranine as a reference probe and compared with that against lipid peroxidation of human plasma. It was found that BO-653 was assessed to be much less potent than uric acid by ORAC method, whereas BO-653 exerted much higher antioxidant activity than uric acid against plasma lipid peroxidation. The reason for such discrepancy is discussed. The results suggest that ORAC method is suitable for the assessment of free radical scavenging capacity, but not for the assessment of antioxidant capacity against lipid peroxidation in plasma.

  3. Improving the quality of matured coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water by low alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: antioxidant and volatile profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanfei; Chen, Wenxue; Chen, Weijun; Chen, Haiming

    2018-03-01

    Matured coconut water (MCW) is a by-product in the coconut milk industry that is usually discarded due to its unpleasant flavor. In this study, low-alcohol coconut water (LACW) was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the quality of MCW. Volatile components and nonvolatile flavor-related elements were estimated to compare the qualities of the MCW and LACW. Besides measuring the kinetic changes, the levels of fructose, glucose, sucrose and ethanol contents were also determined. The results of the organic acid assays showed that tartaric, pyruvic and succinic acids were the primary organic acids present in LACW and increased significantly with fermentation. The resulting volatile composition assay indicated that esters, alcohols and fatty acids were significantly influenced by fermentation and yeast strains. Moreover, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values increased significantly throughout the process, correlating with the enhancement of total phenolic content.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and light-aging study of HPMC films functionalized with natural plant extract.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Javeed; Jacquot, Muriel; Jasniewski, Jordane; Jacquot, Charlotte; Imran, Muhammad; Jamshidian, Majid; Paris, Cédric; Desobry, Stéphane

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this work were to functionalize edible hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films with natural coloring biomolecules having antioxidant capacity and to study their photo-aging stability in the films. HPMC films containing a natural red color compound (NRC) at the level of 1, 2, 3 or 4% (v/v) were prepared by a casting method. A slight degradation of films color was observed after 20 days of continuous light exposure. The antioxidant activity of NRC incorporated films was stable during different steps of film formation and 20 days of dark storage. On the other hand, antioxidant activity of samples stored under light was significantly affected after 20 days. FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infrared) spectroscopy was used to characterize the new phenolic polymeric structures and to study the photo-degradation of films. The results showed a good polymerization phenomenon between NRC and HPMC in polymer matrix giving a natural color to the films. NRC showed an ability to protect pure HPMC films against photo-degradation. This phenomenon was directly proportional to the concentration of NRC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of roasting degree on the antioxidant activity of different Arabica coffee quality classes.

    PubMed

    Odžaković, Božana; Džinić, Natalija; Kukrić, Zoran; Grujić, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, because of its unique sensory properties and physiological properties. Coffee beverages represent a significant source of antioxidants in the consumers' diet and contribute significantly to their daily intake. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of different roasting degrees on the content of biologically active compounds and antioxidant activity in different quality classes of Arabica coffee. Samples of green Arabica coffee (Rio Minas) of two quality classes from two production batches were used for the research. Roasting was carried out at temperatures of 167, 175 and 171°C. The total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), flavonol content (FC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) in the coffee extracts was determined. This research shows that TPC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in green coffee compared to TPC in roasted coffee, and TPC decreases as the roasting temperature increases. TFC and FC were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in green coffee than in roasted coffee. Differences in TPC between the 1st and 2nd classes of Arabica coffee were not significant (P > 0.05), while differences in TFC were significant (P < 0.05) only for green coffee from the second production batch and differences in FC were significant (P < 0.05) for green coffee and for coffee roasted at 175°C. Roasting temperatures have different influences the antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) of coffee and the highest antioxidant activity was determined in coffee roasted at 171°C. An exception was 1st class Arabica coffee roasted at 167°C (ABTS). All samples of 1st class Arabica coffee had higher antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) compared to 2nd class Arabica. This research shows that the bioactive compounds content and antioxidant activity of different quality classes of Arabica coffee are dependent on the degree of roasting. TPC decreases when the roasting temperature increases, while TFC

  6. Enhancing the quality and lipid stability of chicken nuggets using natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Imran, Ali; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir; Sohaib, Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Hussain, Shahzad

    2017-06-08

    Current day consumers prefer natural antioxidants to synthetic antioxidants because they are more active. However, the activity generally depends on the specific condition and composition of food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid on the quality characteristics, antioxidant status, fatty acid profile, and sensory attributes of chicken nuggets. Six types of diets were prepared for feeding the chickens to evaluate the quality of nuggets made from the leg meat of these experimental animals. These included control, diet enriched with wheat germ oil (WGO), which is a rich natural source of α-tocopherol (AT), diet with added AT or α-lipoic acid (ALA), diet with a combination of either ALA and WGO (ALA + WGO) or ALA and synthetic AT (ALA + AT). ALA has great synergism with synthetic as well as natural AT (WGO). The diet with WGO and ALA showed the best potential with respect to both antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. HPLC results revealed that the chicken nuggets made from WGO + ALA group showed maximum deposition of AT and ALA. The stability of the nuggets from control group was found to be significantly lower than that of nuggets from the WGO + ALA group. Total fatty acid content too was higher in the nuggets from this group. The poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be higher in the nuggets from the groups fed with a combination of natural and synthetic antioxidants. It is concluded that the combination of natural and synthetic antioxidants in the animal feed exerts a synergistic effect in enhancing the stability and quality of chicken nuggets.

  7. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products.

    PubMed

    Machu, Ludmila; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Orsavova, Jana; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2015-01-12

    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis). HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g-1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g-1, respectively). A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99). Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  8. Enhancement of Antioxidant Quality of Green Leafy Vegetables upon Different Cooking Method

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Afzal; Khatun, Mst. Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Huque, Roksana

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant rich green leafy vegetables including garden spinach leaf, water spinach leaf, Indian spinach leaf, and green leaved amaranth were selected to evaluate the effects of water boiling and oil frying on their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), reducing power (RP), and antioxidant capacity. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in TPC, TFC, and RP in all the selected vegetables indicating the effectiveness of the cooking process on the antioxidant potential of leafy vegetables. Both cooking processes enhanced significantly (P<0.05) the radical scavenging ability, especially the oil fried samples showed the highest values. There is a significant reduction in the vitamin C content in all the vegetables due to boiling and frying except in the Indian spinach leaf. However, the present findings suggest that boiling and frying can be used to enhance the antioxidant ability, by increasing the bioaccessibility of health-promoting constituents from the four vegetables investigated in this study. PMID:29043220

  9. Effect of three cooking methods on nutrient components and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoot (Phyllostachys praecox C.D. Chu et C.S. Chao).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-jie; Ji, Rong; Hu, Ya-qin; Chen, Jian-chu; Ye, Xing-qian

    2011-09-01

    Three cooking methods, namely boiling, steaming, and stir-frying for 5 to 10 min, were used to evaluate the effect on nutrient components, free amino acids, L-ascorbic acid, total phenolic contents, and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox). Results showed that boiling and stir-frying had a great effect on the nutrient components and they decreased the contents of protein, soluble sugar, and ash, and caused a great loss in the total free amino acids (decreased by 38.35% and 34.86%, respectively). Significant differences (P<0.05) in free amino acids were observed in the samples cooked by different methods. Stir-fried bamboo shoots had a high fat content which increased by 528.57% because of the addition of edible oil. After boiling, the L-ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents were significantly reduced, while steaming increased total phenolic content by 3.98% and stir-frying well-preserved L-ascorbic acid (78.87% of its previous content). Results of the antioxidative property study showed that stir-frying could increase antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots. It is concluded that stir-frying is more suitable for bamboo shoots because it could obtain the maximum retention of antioxidant capacities.

  10. Examination of secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity of Anthyllis vulneraria, Fuchsia sp., Galium mollugo and Veronica beccabunga.

    PubMed

    Csepregi, Rita; Bencsik, Tímea; Papp, Nóra

    2016-12-01

    Anthyllis vulneraria L., Fuchsia sp., Galium mollugo L., and Veronica beccabunga L. were selected to analyse the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The highest polyphenol, tannin, and flavonoid contents were measured in Fuchsia species (7.40 ± 0.8, 5.62 ± 0.7 and 0.72 ± 0.1 g/100 g dry weight), while the lowest values were detected in Anthyllis vulneraria (0.68 ± 0.02, 0.17 ± 0.03 and 0.45 ± 0.01 g/100 g dry weight) and Galium mollugo (1.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.04 and 0.16 ± 0.06 g/100 g dry weight). The leaf extract of Fuchsia sp. had the highest, while the herb of A. vulneraria had the lowest antioxidant effect measured by both methods, which is probably related to total polyphenol, tannin, and flavonoid contents.

  11. Measurement of total antioxidant capacity in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in dogs with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Nemec, Alenka; Erzen, Damjan; Skaleric, Uros

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. 41 Toy and Miniature Poodles. After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit. Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age. TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs.

  12. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-04-30

    Pomegranate peel powder (PP), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry rich in polyphenols, was explored for use in bread production, due to its potential health effects. Wheat bread was prepared using different levels for replacement of flour with PP (0 to 10 g per 100 g flour) resulting in antioxidant levels expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (TEAC) ranging from 1.8 to 6.8 μmol TEAC per g bread for fresh bread. TEAC remained constant during 5 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature. The oxidative stability was evaluated by detection of radicals by direct electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and peroxide value, and the highest capacity of scavenging of radicals (Fremy's salt) and the lowest content of peroxide values were found in bread with the highest percentage of PP. Safety evaluation was performed by the Artemia salina assay. An increased death rate of the brine shrimp larvae was found as a function of the replacement of wheat flour with PP in fortified bread providing a general screening method for the toxicological test of polyphenol fortified bread to be recommended for use in product development in addition to subjective evaluation. Based on both toxicological and subjective evaluations an addition of 2.5% PP is recommended for the actual product.

  13. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O2,active packaging compared with low O2 packaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, initial O2/CO2: 5/5; 30/5; 80/0) and passive packaging (initial O2/CO2: 20.8/0 (air)) on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut ‘Yaoshan’ pear stored at 4C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O2 (30% and 80%) ...

  14. A Thick-film Sensor as a Novel Device for Determination of Polyphenols and Their Antioxidant Capacity in White Wine

    PubMed Central

    Photinon, Kanokorn; Chalermchart, Yongyuth; Khanongnuch, Chartchai; Wang, Shih-Han; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2010-01-01

    A thick-film electrochemical sensor with an iridium-carbon working electrode was used for determining polyphenols and their antioxidant capacity in white wine. Caffeic acid was used as a model species because it has the ability to produce the highest oxidation current. The correlation coefficient of 0.9975 was obtained between sensor response and caffeic acid content. The total phenolic content (TPC) and scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical were also found to be strongly correlated with the concentration of caffeic acid, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9823 and 0.9958, respectively. The sensor prototype was proven to be a simple, efficient and cost effective device to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of substances. PMID:22294893

  15. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL.) hull and shell from different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Moosavi Dolatabadi, Khadijeh Sadat; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Siavash; Jahanban Esfahlan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Almond (Prunus amygdalus) hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years) on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC) and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power) of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.

  16. Effects of antioxidants on the quality and genomic stability of induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan; Kawakatsu, Miho; Guo, Chao-Wan; Urata, Yoshishige; Huang, Wen-Jing; Ali, Haytham; Doi, Hanako; Kitajima, Yuriko; Tanaka, Takayuki; Goto, Shinji; Ono, Yusuke; Xin, Hong-Bo; Hamano, Kimikazu; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Effects of antioxidants on the quality and genomic stability of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were investigated with two human iPS cell lines (201B7 and 253G1). Cells used in this study were expanded from a single colony of each cell line with the addition of proprietary antioxidant supplement or homemade antioxidant cocktail in medium, and maintained in parallel for 2 months. The cells grew well in all culture conditions and kept “stemness”. Although antioxidants modestly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, there were no differences in the expression of 53BP1 and pATM, two critical molecules related with DNA damage and repair, under various culture conditions. CGH analysis showed that the events of genetic aberrations were decreased only in the 253G1 iPS cells with the addition of homemade antioxidant cocktail. Long-term culture will be necessary to confirm whether low dose antioxidants improve the quality and genomic stability of iPS cells. PMID:24445363

  17. Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method.

    PubMed

    Apak, Resat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Karademir, Saliha Esin

    2004-12-29

    The chemical diversity of antioxidants makes it difficult to separate and quantify antioxidants from the vegetable matrix. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a method that can measure the total antioxidant activity level directly from vegetable extracts. The current literature clearly states that there is no "total antioxidant" as a nutritional index available for food labeling because of the lack of standard quantitation methods. Thus, this work reports the development of a simple, widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine [Cu(II)-Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. Because the copper(II) (or cupric) ion reducing ability of polyphenols is measured, the method is named by our research group "cupric reducing antioxidant capacity" abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. This method should be advantageous over the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method because the redox chemistry of copper(II)-as opposed to that of ferric ion-involves faster kinetics. The method comprises mixing of the antioxidant solution (directly or after acid hydrolysis) with a copper(II) chloride solution, a neocuproine alcoholic solution, and an ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7 and subsequent measurement of the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Because the color development is fast for compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds were assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min [after Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition] so as to force the oxidation reaction to reach completion. The flavonoid glycosides were hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycons by refluxing in 1.2 M HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power toward Cu(II)-Nc. Certain compounds also needed incubation after acid hydrolysis to fully exhibit their reducing capability. The CUPRAC antioxidant

  18. Antioxidant Activity and Quality Characteristics of Yogurt Added Green Olive Powder during Storage.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Young; Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant and quality characteristics of yogurt added green olive powder stored at 4°С for 15 d. The following four groups were used in this study: Control group (GY0), Yogurt added with 1% green olive (GY1), with 3% green olive (GY3), and with 5% green olive (GY5). The more time of titratable acidity went by, the more it increased. Except GY0, viscosity tended to decrease in other groups ( p >0.05), and the more time of syneresis went by, the more it increased, but GY3 of them showed the lowest syneresis. Lactic acid bacteria showed no significant with GY0 until 5 d, but after that, GY1, GY3 and GY5 showed lower than GY0. Yogurt added green olive showed darker color than GY0 (low L* and high a*). The antioxidant activity of GY5 was found to be the highest among the four groups at day 1 of storage. Total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power of GY5 was found to be the highest among the four groups at day 1 of storage which were 6.96 mg GAE/kg, 47.53%, and 0.57, respectively. In the sensory evaluation sweet and overall of GY3 indicated the highest score among the four groups. Results of this study demonstrated that green olive powder might be used to improve the antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of yogurt.

  19. Antioxidant Activity and Quality Characteristics of Yogurt Added Green Olive Powder during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant and quality characteristics of yogurt added green olive powder stored at 4°С for 15 d. The following four groups were used in this study: Control group (GY0), Yogurt added with 1% green olive (GY1), with 3% green olive (GY3), and with 5% green olive (GY5). The more time of titratable acidity went by, the more it increased. Except GY0, viscosity tended to decrease in other groups (p>0.05), and the more time of syneresis went by, the more it increased, but GY3 of them showed the lowest syneresis. Lactic acid bacteria showed no significant with GY0 until 5 d, but after that, GY1, GY3 and GY5 showed lower than GY0. Yogurt added green olive showed darker color than GY0 (low L* and high a*). The antioxidant activity of GY5 was found to be the highest among the four groups at day 1 of storage. Total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power of GY5 was found to be the highest among the four groups at day 1 of storage which were 6.96 mg GAE/kg, 47.53%, and 0.57, respectively. In the sensory evaluation sweet and overall of GY3 indicated the highest score among the four groups. Results of this study demonstrated that green olive powder might be used to improve the antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of yogurt. PMID:29725208

  20. Evaluation of free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative capacity of polydatin-nanostructured lipid carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Shi, Fan; Li, Hai-Jie; Yin, Li-De; Wang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2016-10-01

    Cellular damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases. 2, 2-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride(AAPH) generates two potent ROS capable of inducing lipid peroxidation: alkoxy radical(RO-) and peroxy radical (ROO-). These radicals are similar to those that are physiologically active and thus might initiate a cascade of intracellular toxic events leading to oxidation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and subsequent cell death. Hence naturally anti-oxidant play a vital role in combating these conditions. In this study, polydatin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Pol-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The effects of Pol-NLC on free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative capacity is investigated. The particle size and zeta potential of Pol-NLC were 113.9 +/- 1.1 nm and -16.3 1 +/- 0.27 mV, respectively. By free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 value of Pol-NLC were 28.71, 9.83 μg/mL with DPPH, ABTS assay respectively, and 0.143 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg Pol-NLC with FRAP assay. These results indicated that the antioxidant properties of Pol-NLC hold great potential used as an alternative to more toxic synthetic anti-oxidants as an additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for the oxidative diseases treatment.

  1. In vitro antioxidant capacities of eight different kinds of apples and their effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuang; Wang, Yuehua; Chou, Shurui; Cui, Huijun; Li, Dongnan; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging activity of eight types of apples decreased (P < 0.05) during the 70-day storage at 4°C. The Fushi (F2) apples from Xin Jiang showed the highest radical scavenging activity. For in vivo study, 40 male Kunming mice (body weight 20-25 g) were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (10 mice per group). The F2 groups (F2S, F2 + sterile saline and F2L, F2 + lipopolysaccharide) were administered with 0.3 mL F2 filtrate via gastric intubation daily for 28 days. The control groups (CS, CON + sterile saline and CL, CON + lipopolysaccharide) were treated with sterile saline at the same volume. At day 29, mice of F2L and CL groups were injected with 100 μg/kg body weight of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally, while those of F2S and CS groups were injected equal volume of sterile saline. In comparison to the CS group, the CL group showed a decrease (P < 0.05) in serum, liver, and hepatic mitochondrial antioxidant capacity, reduction (P < 0.05) in the expression of hepatic antioxidant-related genes, and an increase (P < 0.05) in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In comparison to the CL group, the F2L group showed lower (P < 0.05) levels of serum ALT, AST, and ROS, higher (P < 0.05) level of serum, liver, and hepatic mitochondrial antioxidant capacity, increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and enhanced (P < 0.05) expression of hepatic antioxidant-related genes. These results suggest that F2 may exert protective effect against LPS-induced oxidative damage by improving the antioxidant capacity.

  2. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shanely, R. Andrew; Nieman, David C.; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Henson, Dru A.; Meaney, Mary P.; Knab, Amy M.; Cialdell-Kam, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125). Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05), however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05). WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05), but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine), antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function. PMID:27556488

  3. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Henson, Dru A; Meaney, Mary P; Knab, Amy M; Cialdell-Kam, Lynn

    2016-08-22

    Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125). Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05), however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05). WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05), but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine), antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  4. Non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) estimated by two different dietary assessment methods and its relationship with NEAC plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Carrión-García, Cayetano Javier; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo J; García-Villanova, Belén; Molina-Montes, Esther

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to quantify and compare dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC), estimated using two dietary assessment methods, and to explore its relationship with plasma NEAC. Fifty healthy subjects volunteer to participate in this study. Two dietary assessment methods [a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24-hour recall (24-HR)] were used to collect dietary information. Dietary NEAC, including oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total polyphenols, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, was estimated using several data sources of NEAC content in food. NEAC status was measured in fasting blood samples using the same assays. We performed nonparametric Spearman's correlation analysis between pairs of dietary NEAC (FFQ and 24-HR) and diet-plasma NEAC, with and without the contribution of coffee's NEAC. Partial correlation analysis was used to estimate correlations regardless of variables potentially influencing these relationships. FFQ-based NEAC and 24-HR-based NEAC were moderately correlated, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.54 to 0.71, after controlling for energy intake, age and sex. Statistically significant positive correlations were found for dietary FRAP, either derived from the FFQ or the 24-HR, with plasma FRAP (r ~ 0.30). This weak, albeit statistically significant, correlation for FRAP was mostly present in the fruits and vegetables food groups. Plasma ORAC without proteins and 24-HR-based total ORAC were also positively correlated (r = 0.35). The relationship between dietary NEAC and plasma FRAP and ORAC suggests the dietary NEAC may reflect antioxidant status despite its weak in vivo potential, supporting further its use in oxidative stress-related disease epidemiology.

  5. LC-MS identification and preparative HPLC isolation of Frankenia pulverulenta phenolics with antioxidant and neuroprotective capacities in PC12 cell line.

    PubMed

    Ben Mansour, Rim; Wided, Megdiche Ksouri; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Krisa, Stéphanie; Richard, Tristan; Ksouri, Riadh

    2017-12-01

    Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae) is a medicinal species with carminative, analgesic and antiviral properties. However, phytochemical investigations, antioxidant and neuroprotective capacities of this plant remain unclear. This work assesses the phenolic composition of F. pulverulenta shoot and root and evaluates their antioxidant and neuroprotective capacities. Successive fractionation of F. pulverulenta shoot and root using 6 solvents were used. Antioxidant capacity of these fractions was assessed through four in vitro tests (DPPH, ABTS, Fe-chelating activity and ORAC). Phenolic identification, purification as well as neuroprotective activity of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction and purified molecules were assessed. Among the tested fractions, EtOAc shoot and root fractions possessed considerable phenolic contents (383 and 374 mg GAE/g E, respectively) because of their important ORAC (821 and 1054 mg of TE/g E), DPPH (586 and 750 mg of TE/g) and ABTS (1453 and 1319 mg of TE/g) results. Moreover, gallic acid, quercetin, quercetin galloyl glucoside, trigalloyl hexoside, procyanidin dimers and sulfated flavonoids were identified by LC-DAD-ESI-MS for the first time in this species. The relevant cytoprotective capacity (at 300 μg/mL) against β-amyloid peptide induced toxicity in PC12 cells of EtOAc fractions were corroborated with the chemical composition. In addition, purified molecules were tested for their ORAC and neuroprotective activity. Quercetin showed the best ORAC value (33.55 mmol TE/g polyphenols); nevertheless, procyanidin dimer exhibited an exceptionally efficient neuroprotective activity (100% of viability at 50 μg/mL). These findings suggest that this halophyte is a promising source of antioxidant and neuroprotective molecules for pharmaceutical purposes.

  6. Characterization of phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of different fruit part from lemon (Citrus limon Burm.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Xi, Wanpeng; Lu, Juanfang; Qun, Junping; Jiao, Bining

    2017-04-01

    Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of different fruit part including peel, pulp, juice, whole fruit and seed from five lemon cultivars (Feiminailao, Cuningmeng Limeng, Pangdelusaningmeng, Beijingningmeng) were investigated. Caffeic acid (9.31-741.4 μg/g FW) and chlorogenic acid (2.7-527.5 μg/g FW) were the dominant phenolic acid in fruit tested, Pangdelusaningmeng (PD) and Limeng peels with the highest contents, respectively. Hesperidin was the predominant flavanone (10.27-3315 μg/g FW), Cuningmeng (CN) peels with the highest level. PD peels had rich rutin, CN seeds had rich eriocitrin. Nobiletin was the main polymethoxylated flavonoids identified, PD with the highest level. CN peels contained rich tangeretin. Overall, peels and whole fruit had significantly higher level of phenolics than other fruit parts, and seeds were good source of flavonoids. PD and CN not only contained higher level of phenolic, but also presented higher antioxidant capacity than other cultivars tested, and are of great value for human nutrition.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity in coffees marketed in Colombia: Relationship with the extent of non-enzymatic browning.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Calderón, José; Mejía-Díaz, Diana; Martínez-Castaño, Marcela; Bedoya-Ramírez, Daniel; López-Rojas, Natalia; Gómez-Narváez, Faver; Medina-Pineda, Yaqueline; Vega-Castro, Oscar

    2016-10-15

    Fifty-eight samples of commercial Colombian coffee with different characteristics (soluble, ground, decaffeinated, etc) were evaluated for antioxidant capacity (AC) (ABTS and FRAP), total soluble phenolics (TP), browning index (BI), color parameters (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), c(∗) and h(∗)), HMF and furfural. The AC in Colombian coffees was very varied (164-1000, 100.8-885.9μmol of Trolox equiv/g and 12.5-127mg gallic acid equiv/g, respectively for ABTS, FRAP and TP). AC, TP, BI, color, HMF and furfural values were higher (p<0.05) in soluble coffees than in ground ones, showing the lyophilized samples which showed the highest average values. Significant lineal correlations (p<0.05) were found between AC and color parameters, BI, HMF. No significant (p<0.05) differences in the AC between the different types of coffee were found. This work confirms the direct relationship between the rate of non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of diet quality with dietary inflammatory potential in youth

    PubMed Central

    Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Schröder, Helmut; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Diet plays a crucial role in the regulation of chronic inflammation. The sparse evidence available in adult populations indicates that diet quality is linked to the dietary inflammatory potential; however, this association has not been established in youth. Design: Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 2889 children and young people in Spain, aged 6–24 years. The dietary inflammatory potential was measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), and diet quality by three conceptually different measures: the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents (KIDMED), energy density, and total dietary antioxidants capacity. Results: The mean DII was 1.96 ± 0.76 units Scoring for the KIDMED index and the total dietary antioxidant capacity significantly decreased (p < 0.001 and p = 0.030, respectively) across quintiles of the DII, whereas the opposite was true for energy density (p < 0.001). The effect size of these associations was strongest for energy density, followed by the KIDMED index and total dietary antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: A healthy diet characterized by high adherence to the Mediterranean diet, high total dietary antioxidant capacity, or low energy density was linked to greater anti-inflammatory potential of the diet, as measured by the DII. PMID:28659737

  9. Phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity of insoluble dietary fiber powders from citrus (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) pomace as affected by ultrafine grinding.

    PubMed

    Tao, Bingbing; Ye, Fayin; Li, Hang; Hu, Qiang; Xue, Shan; Zhao, Guohua

    2014-07-23

    The effects of mechanical and jet grindings on the proximate composition, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of insoluble antioxidant dietary fiber powder from citrus pomace (IADFP-CP) were investigated in comparison with ordinary grinding. IADFP-CP from jet grinding showed higher levels of crude fat, total sugar, and free phenolics and lower levels of crude protein and bound phenolics than that from ordinary grinding. Totally, 14 phenolics (9 free, 1 bound, and 4 free/bound) in IADFP-CP were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Hesperidin accounted for >57% of total phenolics in IADFP-CP. Among IADFP-CPs, the jet-ground presented the highest free phenolics but the lowest bound phenolics. The IADFP-CP from jet grinding presented the highest antioxidant capacity of free phenolics (by DPPH and FRAP assays), followed by the ones from mechanical and then ordinary grinding. The present study suggests that jet grinding could improve the extraction of phenolic compounds from IADFP-CP and increase the antioxidant capacities of free phenolics and the resultant powder.

  10. LDL oxidation, antioxidant capacity and growth of cultured grey mullet ( Mugil cephalus ) fed dietary sorghum distillery residue pretreated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin Mei; Cheng, Hui Ling; Pan, Bonnie Sun

    2009-09-09

    Dietary sorghum distillery residue (SDR) showed antioxidant and blood thinning effects on grey mullet during winter, but inhibited their growth. The objective of this study was to establish a preliminary treatment of the dietary SDR with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a tannin-binding agent, to enhance growth and blood antioxidant capacity of grey mullet ( Mugil cephalus ) feed. The feeding trial was carried out from June to November. The water temperature was between 25 and 30 degrees C; the specific growth rate of mullet was reduced significantly by feeding diet containing 20% SDR in comparison to fish fed the control diet or diet containing 20% SDR and PEG. In the period of October-November, the water temperature decreased to 19-25 degrees C; the specific growth rates of the 20% SDR-PEG group and the 20% SDR group were 0.13 and 0.19% day(-1), respectively, significantly higher than those fed the control diet (0.07% day(-1)). Feeding with 20% SDR or 20% SDR-PEG diets resulted in prolonged lag phase of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation compared to fish fed the control diet. The total antioxidant capacity of the plasma of the grey mullet fed 20% SDR-PEG was 1.24 mmol/L, significantly higher than those in the fish fed 20% SDR diet (0.84 mmol/L) or the control (0.72 mmol/L). In vivo observations found that preliminary treatment of SDR with PEG eliminated the endogenous undesirable growth inhibitory factors but maintained its protective effects against LDL oxidation in blood and improved the total antioxidant capacity and cold adaptation of grey mullet. The ethanol extract of SDR contained 31.9 +/- 7.8 mg/g gallic acids equivalent. The concentration needed to scavenge 50% of the DPPH radicals (IC(50)) was 0.86 mg/mL. Increased gallic acid equivalent and decreased IC(50) of DPPH scavenging activity of SDR fed to fish increased the total antioxidant capacity in blood plasma of grey mullet significantly.

  11. Changes in phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacities in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Miller) during three edible maturity stages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), individual phenolic compound content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of four phenolic fractions (free, esterified, glycosided and insoluble-bound) fro...

  12. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Ugni molinae Turcz. leaves of different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Peña-Cerda, Marcelo; Arancibia-Radich, Jorge; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Paula; Pérez-Arancibia, Rodrigo; Barriga, Andrés; Seguel, Ivette; García, Lorena; Delporte, Carla

    2017-01-15

    Ugni molinae Turcz. is a native shrub of Chile, known for its edible berries and its leaves, which have been the focus of recent attention, as a good source of phenolic compounds to be used in cosmetics and food products. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts from the leaves of 10 genotypes of U. molinae, that were cultivated under the same soil, climate and agronomical management. Antioxidant activity was assessed by complementary methods (ORAC-Fl, FRAP and DPPH assay), phenolic composition of each extract was analyzed by LC-MS. Phenolic and flavonoid total contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods. Significative differences were found by these methods, and ellagitannins, gallic acid derivatives and flavonols were identified as responsible for these differences, showing the influence of the genotype on the phenolic composition of U. molinae leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity in four Italian traditional maize (Zea mays L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Capocchi, Antonella; Bottega, Stefania; Spanò, Carmelina; Fontanini, Debora

    2017-08-01

    Flours of four pigmented (from orange to red and dark red) local Italian corns, studied for their soluble, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenols and flavonoids, showed a prevalence of the insoluble-bound fraction (70-80%). Correlations were found between the flours antioxidant capacity, measured with CUPRAC, FRAP, and DPPH methods, and soluble phenols and flavonoids content. A correlation was also found between ascorbic acid content and flours antioxidant power. Anthocyanins were present in small amounts in the red/dark red seeds; however, acid-alcohol assays and spectral analyses of pericarp extracts indicated the presence of red-brick phlobaphenes in these varieties. Spectrophotometrically quantified total carotenoids were significantly higher in one of the local varieties (Nano); RP-HPLC analyses indicated that the local varieties contained significantly higher amounts of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, and lower amounts of lutein, than a commercial line. Among local varieties, Nano expressed the highest levels of zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin.

  14. Follicular fluid total antioxidant capacity levels in PCOS.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Nafiye; Inal, Hasan Ali; Gorkem, Umit; Sargin Oruc, Ayla; Yilmaz, Saynur; Turkkani, Ayten

    2016-07-01

    In this study, our aim was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in follicular fluid (FF) and their relationship to clinical pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing assisted reproduction (ART). Twenty-two women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (Group 1) and 41 women without PCOS (Group 2) were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory parameters and FF TAC levels were investigated. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups with regard to age and baseline parameters. Although we could not demonstrate a significant difference in FF TAC levels between the two groups (p=0.469), there was a significant positive correlation between FF TAC and clinical pregnancy rates, BMI, and the duration of infertility for the entire group (r=0.254, p=0.048; r=0.312, p=0.013; r=0.259, p=0.040; respectively). Owing to the correlation between FF TAC and the clinical pregnancy rates, further studies evaluating the impact of FF TAC levels on ART outcomes in patients with PCOS and other etiologies of infertility are needed.

  15. Day/Night and Summer/Winter Changes in Serum Total Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Henry-Benitez, Manuel; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Diaz-Mesa, Estefania; Del Rosario Cejas-Mendez, Maria; Guillen-Pino, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal and circadian changes are two factors described to affect blood levels of some biological molecules. The Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is one global measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. There is no agreement about the existence of day/night changes in TAC levels as well as there is no information about seasonal changes in TAC levels. The aims of this research are studying if there are summer/winter changes in TAC concentrations or if TAC concentrations have day/night changes. Ninety-eight healthy subjects took part in the summer study of whom 64 participated in the winter one. Blood was sampled at 09:00, 12:00 and 00:00 h. TAC was measured by the ABTS radical cation technique. Results are expressed in mmol/L of trolox equivalents. The subjects had significantly higher TAC levels in summer than winter at the three-time point studied. Summer 09:00 TAC concentration was significantly higher than the 12:00 and 00:00 h concentrations (1.34±0.26 vs 0.83±0.19, 0.75±0.18). Summer TAC 12:00 h concentrations were significantly higher than the 00:00 h concentrations (0.83±0.19 vs. 0.75±0.18). Winter 09:00 TAC concentrations were significantly higher than the 12:00 and 00:00 h concentrations (1.24±0.16 vs. 0.73±0.10, 0.67±0.13). There were no significant differences between th