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Sample records for quality family planning

  1. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)].

    PubMed

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2010-08-01

    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services.

  2. Determinants of Quality of Family Planning Counseling among Private Health Facilities in Lagos.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Doug; Ugaz, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We use a unique dataset that includes an objective measure of the quality of family planning counseling from 927 private health facilities in Lagos State, Nigeria, to determine which variables at the facility and provider levels are most closely correlated with the quality of family planning counseling. Our data on quality come from mystery client surveys in which the clients posed as women seeking family planning counseling. We find that quality is strongly associated with the cadre of provider, with doctors delivering substantially higher-quality counselling than nurses. Doctors not only outperform nurses overall, but also perform better on each category of quality and spend nearly three minutes longer on average counseling the mystery client. Location, fees charged for the service, and facility type are also strongly correlated with quality. The degree to which a facility specializes in family planning and facility size are only weakly predictive of quality.

  3. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sprockett, Andrea

    2016-10-13

    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as 'quality assessment tool', 'quality assessment method', 'quality measurement', 'LMIC', 'developing country', 'family planning' and 'reproductive health' were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.

  4. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sprockett, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as ‘quality assessment tool’, ‘quality assessment method’, ‘quality measurement’, ‘LMIC’, ‘developing country’, ‘family planning’ and ‘reproductive health’ were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.

  5. Evaluation of service quality in family planning clinics in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Nancy L; Vwalika, Bellington; Sitali, Elizabeth Siyama; Mbwili-Muleya, Clara; Chi, Benjamin H; Stuart, Gretchen S

    2015-10-01

    To determine the quality of contraceptive services in family planning clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, using a standardized approach. We utilized the Quick Investigation of Quality, a cross-sectional survey tool consisting of a facility assessment, client-provider observation and client exit interview, in public-sector family planning clinics. Data were collected on availability of seven contraceptive methods, information given to clients, interpersonal relations between providers and clients, providers' technical competence and mechanisms for continuity and follow-up. Data were collected from five client-provider observations and client exit interviews in each of six public-sector family planning clinics. All clinics had at least two contraceptive methods continuously available for the preceding 6 months. Most providers asked clients about concerns with their contraceptive method (80%) and told clients when to return to the clinic (87%). Most clients reported that the provider advised what to do if a problem develops (93%), described possible side effects (89%), explained how to use the method effectively (85%) and told them when to come for follow-up (83%). Clients were satisfied with services received (93%). This application of the Quick Investigation of Quality showed that the participating family planning clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, were prepared to offer high-quality services with the available commodities and that clients were satisfied with the received services. Despite the subjective client satisfaction, quality improvement efforts are needed to increase contraceptive availability. Although clients perceived the quality of care received to be high, family planning service quality could be improved to continuously offer the full spectrum of contraceptive options. The Quick Investigation of Quality was easily implemented in Lusaka, Zambia, and this simple approach could be utilized in a variety of settings as a modality for quality improvement. Copyright © 2015

  6. Validity of Standard Measures of Family Planning Service Quality: Findings from the Simulated Client Method

    PubMed Central

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Speizer, Ilene S.; Curtis, Sian L.; Pence, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread endorsement within the field of international family planning regarding the importance of quality of care as a reproductive right, the field has yet to develop validated data collection instruments to accurately assess quality in terms of its public health importance. This study, conducted among 19 higher volume public and private facilities in Kisumu, Kenya, used the simulated client method to test the validity of three standard data collection instruments included in large-scale facility surveys: provider interviews, client interviews, and observation of client-provider interactions. Results found low specificity and positive predictive values in each of the three instruments for a number of quality indicators, suggesting that quality of care may be overestimated by traditional methods. Revised approaches to measuring family planning service quality may be needed to ensure accurate assessment of programs and to better inform quality improvement interventions. PMID:25469929

  7. Using COPE To Improve Quality of Care: The Experience of the Family Planning Association of Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Janet

    1998-01-01

    COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…

  8. Quality in Individualized Family Service Plans: Guidelines for Practitioners, Programs, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatmaitan, Michelle; Brown, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The IFSP is both a document and process for developing, implementing, and evaluating the supports and services delivered to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families eligible under Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA; 2004). Recently, researchers have defined IFSP quality based on five…

  9. Quality of family planning services in primary health centers of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Fikru; Woldie, Mirkuzie; Megerssa, Berhane

    2013-11-01

    Good quality of care in family planning (FP) services help individuals and couples to meet their reproductive health needs safely and effectively. Therefore, assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning services utilization. This study was thus conducted to assess the quality of family planning services in primary health centers of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional facility based study was conducted from March 1(st)-25(th), 2011 among family planning clients of government primary health care centers in southwest Ethiopia. Exit interview of 301 family planning clients identified through systematic random sampling technique was carried out using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Availability of resources was checked using provider interview and inventory checklist. Moreover, a total of 150 consultation sessions were observed using checklist. Descriptive statistics and linear regression coefficients were generated to meet the objective of the study. There was a shortage of some medical equipment, trained staffs, and information education and communication materials (IEC) in all of the family planning clinics. The mean waiting time at the service delivery points and consultation duration were 16.4 and 10.5 minutes, respectively. The providers used at least one information education and communication material in 33.3% of the consultation sessions. The overall satisfaction score was 8.64. Clients' perception on adequacy of information during consultation (β=0.24; ( 95%CI=0.02-0.16) ease of getting the clinic site, short waiting time (β=0.17; 95%CI=0.15-029) and educational level (β=0.09; 95%CI =0.09-0.29) were significantly associated with overall satisfaction. The findings of this study showed that there was lack of critical resources for the provision of quality family planning services in all of the primary health care centers included in the study. This has affected important aspects of

  10. The quality of family planning services in the United States: findings from a literature review.

    PubMed

    Becker, Davida; Koenig, Michael A; Kim, Young Mi; Cardona, Kathleen; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2007-12-01

    Family planning services are frequently used and important services for American women, yet little is known about their quality. Service quality has important implications for women's reproductive health. If women do not receive adequate information and tools, and learn appropriate skills, from their providers, they may be hampered in their efforts to control their fertility. A variety of strategies, including database, journal and Internet searches, were used to identify published and unpublished U.S. studies on family planning service quality that came out between 1985 and 2005. Studies were categorized by their focus, and key points of their methodologies and findings were assessed. Twenty-nine studies were identified, most of which were based on client surveys. Most conceptualized quality as a multidimensional construct, but a uniform definition of quality is lacking, and the domains studied have not been consistent. The available studies focus on four areas: assessments of quality, its correlates, its consequences for client behavior and attitudes, and clients' values and preferences regarding services. Relations between clients and service facility staff have typically been rated favorably, but communication, patient-centeredness and efficiency have been rated more poorly. Service quality varies by characteristics of the facility, provider, client and visit. Research on the consequences of service quality for clients' contraceptive behavior or risk of unintended pregnancy has been very limited and yielded mixed results. Studies that assess service quality need stronger designs and greater consistency in measures used so that results are comparable.

  11. Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

    2014-05-01

    To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible.

  12. Clients' perceptions of service quality and satisfaction at their initial Title X family planning visit.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A; Cardona, Kathleen M; Pinder, Evette; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2014-01-01

    Family planning service quality and clients' satisfaction with services are important determinants of clients' contraceptive use and continuation. We examine women's experiences at family planning clinics on a range of dimensions, including patient-centered communication (PCC), and identify experiences associated with higher ratings of service quality and satisfaction. New female clients (n = 748), ages 18-35 years, from clinics in three major metropolitan areas completed computer-administered interviews between 2008 and 2009. Factors associated with primary outcomes of service quality and satisfaction were assessed using multinomial and ordinary logistic regression, respectively. Higher scores on a Clinician-Client Centeredness Scale, measuring whether clinicians were respectful, listened, and provided thoughtful explanations, were associated with perceptions of good quality care and being very satisfied. Higher scores on a Clinic Discomfort Scale, measuring staff and waiting-room experiences, were associated with reduced satisfaction. Clients' interactions with clinicians, especially PCC, influence their perceptions of service quality, whereas their satisfaction with services is also influenced by the facility environment. These measures are adaptable for agencies to identify the factors contributing to their own clients' satisfaction-dissatisfaction with care and perceptions of service quality.

  13. [The perceived quality of service at a family planning clinic: a marketing focus].

    PubMed

    Moliner Tena, M A; Moliner Tena, J

    1996-04-15

    183 women attending the family planning clinic in Burriana, Castellon, were interviewed for this survey of the perceived quality of family planning services. The anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was adapted from two existing questionnaires, SERVQUAL and SERVPERF, developed for commercial marketing. Attitudes were measured using a 7-part Likert type scale. The first 20 items referred to different aspects of quality, the second 4 measured satisfaction, total quality, the importance of the service, and reported use, and the final 6 examined respondent characteristics. 28 incompletely completed questionnaires were eliminated, leaving 155. The results indicate that perceived quality and client satisfaction were both high. Using factorial analysis of principal components, 6 factors were identified that explained 63.3% of the variance. The components were high personal attention of services, limited bureaucracy, modern facilities and equipment, professionalism and competence of the staff, accessibility and easy transportation, and reputation and layout. The Cronbach alpha coefficients, which measure internal consistency, were not acceptable for 3 factors. The overall results suggest that marketing tools can be adapted to the needs of health services.

  14. Delivering High-Quality Family Planning Services in Crisis-Affected Settings I: Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a “pull” system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with

  15. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-02-04

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  16. Situation analysis: assessing family planning and reproductive health services. Quality of care.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This issue of Population Briefs contains articles on researches conducted by the Population Council concerning the delivery of quality of care, contraceptive development, safe abortion, family planning, demography, and medical anthropology. The cover story focuses on a systematic data collection tool called Situation Analysis that helps managers in program evaluation. This tool has a handbook entitled "The Situation Analysis Approach to Assessing Family Planning and Reproductive Health Services" that contains all the information needed to conduct a Situation Analysis study. The second article reports about a new contraceptive method, the two-rod levonorgestrel, which was developed at the Population Council and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The third article reports on a medical abortion procedure that was proven to be safe, effective, and acceptable to women in developing countries. Moreover, the fourth article presents initial findings of the Community Health and Family Planning Project conducted in Northern Ghana. The fifth article discusses the paper written by the Population Council demographer, Mark Montgomery entitled "Learning and lags in mortality perceptions". Finally, the sixth article deals with another paper that reports on women's health perceptions and reproductive health in the Middle East.

  17. Planning for Quality Schools: Meeting the Needs of District Families. Phase One: Understanding Current School Supply and Student Enrollment Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, David; Allen, Marni; Turner, Margery; Comey, Jennifer; Williams, Barika; Guernsey, Elizabeth; Filardo, Mary; Huvendick, Nancy; Sung, Ping

    2008-01-01

    This report is the first phase of a three-part Quality Schools Project to help the District of Columbia create a firm analytical basis for planning for quality schools to meet the needs of the city's families. The Quality School Project is a joint effort of the DC Office of the State Superintendent of Education, the 21st Century School Fund, the…

  18. Women's perspectives on family planning service quality: an exploration of differences by race, ethnicity and language.

    PubMed

    Becker, Davida; Klassen, Ann C; Koenig, Michael A; LaVeist, Thomas A; Sonenstein, Freya L; Tsui, Amy O

    2009-09-01

    Despite calls to make family planning services more responsive to the values, needs and preferences of clients, few studies have asked clients about their experiences or values, and most have used surveys framed by researchers', rather than clients', perspectives. Forty in-depth interviews exploring lifetime experiences with and values regarding services were conducted with 18-36-year-old women who visited family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2007. Women were categorized as black, white, English- or Spanish-speaking Latina, or of mixed ethnicity to allow examination of differences by racial, ethnic and language group. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and coded thematically; matrices were then used to compare the themes that emerged across the subgroups. Eight themes emerged as important to women's views of services: service accessibility, information provision, attention to client comfort, providers' personalization of care, service organization, providers' empathy, technical quality of care and providers' respect for women's autonomy. Women reported that it was important to feel comfortable during visits, to feel that their decision-making autonomy was respected, to have providers show empathy and be nonjudgmental, and to see the same provider across visits. The only notable difference among racial, ethnic and language groups was that Spanish-speaking Latinas wanted to receive language-appropriate care and contraceptive information. Future surveys of family planning service quality should include measures of the factors that women value in such care, and efforts to improve providers' communication and counseling skills should emphasize the personalization of services and respect for clients' autonomy.

  19. Impact of the World Health Organization's Decision-Making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers on the quality of family planning services in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farrokh-Eslamlou, Hamidreza; Aghlmand, Siamak; Eslami, Mohammad; Homer, Caroline S E

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether use of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Decision-Making Tool (DMT) for Family Planning Clients and Providers would improve the process and outcome quality indicators of family planning (FP) services in Iran. The DMT was adapted for the Iranian setting. The study evaluated 24 FP quality key indicators grouped into two main areas, namely process and outcome. The tool was implemented in 52 urban and rural public health facilities in four selected and representative provinces of Iran. A pre-post methodology was undertaken to examine whether use of the tool improved the quality of FP services and client satisfaction with the services. Quantitative data were collected through observations of counselling and exit interviews with clients using structured questionnaires. Different numbers of FP clients were recruited during the baseline and the post-intervention rounds (n=448 vs 547, respectively). The DMT improved many client-provider interaction indicators, including verbal and non-verbal communication (p<0.05). The tool also impacted positively on the client's choice of contraceptive method, providers' technical competence, and quality of information provided to clients (p<0.05). Use of the tool improved the clients' satisfaction with FP services (from 72% to 99%; p<0.05). The adapted WHO's DMT has the potential to improve the quality of FP services.

  20. Quality Assessment of Family Planning Sterilization Services at Health Care Facilities: Case Record Audit.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Medha; Goyal, Ram Chandra; Mathur, Navgeet

    2017-05-01

    Quality of sterilization services is a matter of concern in India because population control is a necessity. Family Planning Sterilization (FPS) services provided at public health care facilities need to be as per Standard Operating Procedures. To assess the quality of FPS services by audit of case records at selected health care facilities. This cross-sectional study was conducted for two and a half year duration at selected public health care facilities of central India by simple random sampling where FPS services were provided. As per the standards of Government of India, case records were audited and compliance was calculated to assess the quality of services. Results of record audit were satisfactory but important criteria like previous contraceptive history and postoperative counselling were found to be deviated from standards. At Primary Health Centres (PHCs) only 89.5% and at Community Health Centres (CHCs) 58.7% of records were having details of previous contraceptive history. Other criteria like mental illness (only 70% at CHCs) assessment were also inadequate. Although informed consent was found to be having 100% compliance in all records. Quality of care in FPS services is the matter of concern in present scenario for better quality of services. This study may enlighten the policy makers regarding improvements needed for providing quality care.

  1. Development and Initial Validation of a Professional Development Intervention to Enhance the Quality of Individualized Family Service Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgley, Robyn; Snyder, Patricia A.; McWilliam, R. A.; Davis, Jacqueline E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a targeted professional development (PD) intervention designed to improve the quality of individualized family service plans (IFSPs) and to support IFSP planning, development, and decision making. The theoretical and empirical foundations for the PD intervention and its key components are reviewed. Building on an established online…

  2. Family Planning & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This publication is an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) annotated bibliography of books and articles concerned with family planning and literacy. The subject is divided into four major listings: (1) Literacy; (2) Education; (3) Literacy and Family Planning; and (4) Functional Literacy/Family Planning Projects and Programs.…

  3. Factors Determining Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Africa: A Systematic Review of Mixed Evidence.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Streak Gomersall, Judith; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Laurence, Caroline O

    2016-01-01

    Improving use of family planning services is key to improving maternal health in Africa, and provision of quality of care in family planning services is critical to support higher levels of contraceptive uptake. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the available evidence on factors determining the quality of care in family planning services in Africa. Quantitative and qualitative studies undertaken in Africa, published in English, in grey and commercial literature, between 1990 and 2015 were considered. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using standardized tools. Findings from the quantitative studies were summarized using narrative and tables. Client satisfaction was used to assess the quality of care in family planning services in the quantitative component of the review. Meta-aggregation was used to synthesize the qualitative study findings. From 4334 records, 11 studies (eight quantitative, three qualitative) met the review eligibility criteria. The review found that quality of care was influenced by client, provider and facility factors, and structural and process aspects of the facilities. Client's waiting time, provider competency, provision/prescription of injectable methods, maintaining privacy and confidentiality were the most commonly identified process factors. The quality of stock inventory was the most commonly identified structural factor. The quality of care was also positively associated with privately-owned facilities. The qualitative synthesis revealed additional factors including access related factors such as 'pre-requisites to be fulfilled by the clients and cost of services, provider workload, and providers' behaviour. There is limited evidence on factors determining quality of care in family planning services in Africa that shows quality of care is influenced by multiple factors. The evidence suggests that lowering access barriers and avoiding unnecessary pre-requisites for taking contraceptive

  4. Factors Determining Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Africa: A Systematic Review of Mixed Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Streak Gomersall, Judith; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Laurence, Caroline O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving use of family planning services is key to improving maternal health in Africa, and provision of quality of care in family planning services is critical to support higher levels of contraceptive uptake. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the available evidence on factors determining the quality of care in family planning services in Africa. Methods Quantitative and qualitative studies undertaken in Africa, published in English, in grey and commercial literature, between 1990 and 2015 were considered. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using standardized tools. Findings from the quantitative studies were summarized using narrative and tables. Client satisfaction was used to assess the quality of care in family planning services in the quantitative component of the review. Meta-aggregation was used to synthesize the qualitative study findings. Results From 4334 records, 11 studies (eight quantitative, three qualitative) met the review eligibility criteria. The review found that quality of care was influenced by client, provider and facility factors, and structural and process aspects of the facilities. Client’s waiting time, provider competency, provision/prescription of injectable methods, maintaining privacy and confidentiality were the most commonly identified process factors. The quality of stock inventory was the most commonly identified structural factor. The quality of care was also positively associated with privately-owned facilities. The qualitative synthesis revealed additional factors including access related factors such as ‘pre-requisites to be fulfilled by the clients and cost of services, provider workload, and providers’ behaviour. Conclusion There is limited evidence on factors determining quality of care in family planning services in Africa that shows quality of care is influenced by multiple factors. The evidence suggests that lowering access barriers and avoiding unnecessary

  5. Delivering High-Quality Family Planning Services in Crisis-Affected Settings II: Results

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    quality family planning services, to do so rapidly, and to see a dramatic increase in the percentage of users choosing long-acting reversible methods. PMID:25745118

  6. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-02-04

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  7. Availability and Quality of Family Planning Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: High Potential for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mpunga, Dieudonné; Lumbayi, JP; Dikamba, Nelly; Mwembo, Albert; Ali Mapatano, Mala; Wembodinga, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the availability and quality of family planning services within health facilities throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods: Data were collected for the cross-sectional study from April 2014 to June 2014 by the Ministry of Public Health. A total of 1,568 health facilities that reported data to the National Health Information System were selected by multistage random sampling in the 11 provinces of the DRC existing at that time. Data were collected through interviews, document review, and direct observation. Two dependent variables were measured: availability of family planning services (consisting of a room for services, staff assigned to family planning, and evidence of client use of family planning) and quality of family planning services (assessed as “high” if the facility had at least 1 trained staff member, family planning service delivery guidelines, at least 3 types of methods, and a sphygmomanometer, or “low” if the facility did not meet any of these 4 criteria). Pearson's chi-square test and odds ratios (ORs) were used to test for significant associations, using the alpha significance level of .05. Results: We successfully surveyed 1,555 facilities (99.2%) of those included in the sample. One in every 3 facilities (33%) offered family planning services as assessed by the index of availability, of which 20% met all 4 criteria for providing high-quality services. Availability was greatest at the highest level of the health system (hospitals) and decreased incrementally with each health system level, with disparities between provinces and urban and rural areas. Facilities in urban areas were more likely than in rural areas to meet the standard for high-quality services (P<.001). Public facilities were less likely than private facilities to have high-quality services (P=.02). Among all 1,555 facilities surveyed, 14% had at least 3 types of methods available at the time of the survey; the most widely

  8. Availability and Quality of Family Planning Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: High Potential for Improvement.

    PubMed

    Mpunga, Dieudonné; Lumbayi, J P; Dikamba, Nelly; Mwembo, Albert; Ali Mapatano, Mala; Wembodinga, Gilbert

    2017-06-27

    To determine the availability and quality of family planning services within health facilities throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were collected for the cross-sectional study from April 2014 to June 2014 by the Ministry of Public Health. A total of 1,568 health facilities that reported data to the National Health Information System were selected by multistage random sampling in the 11 provinces of the DRC existing at that time. Data were collected through interviews, document review, and direct observation. Two dependent variables were measured: availability of family planning services (consisting of a room for services, staff assigned to family planning, and evidence of client use of family planning) and quality of family planning services (assessed as "high" if the facility had at least 1 trained staff member, family planning service delivery guidelines, at least 3 types of methods, and a sphygmomanometer, or "low" if the facility did not meet any of these 4 criteria). Pearson's chi-square test and odds ratios (ORs) were used to test for significant associations, using the alpha significance level of .05. We successfully surveyed 1,555 facilities (99.2%) of those included in the sample. One in every 3 facilities (33%) offered family planning services as assessed by the index of availability, of which 20% met all 4 criteria for providing high-quality services. Availability was greatest at the highest level of the health system (hospitals) and decreased incrementally with each health system level, with disparities between provinces and urban and rural areas. Facilities in urban areas were more likely than in rural areas to meet the standard for high-quality services (P<.001). Public facilities were less likely than private facilities to have high-quality services (P=.02). Among all 1,555 facilities surveyed, 14% had at least 3 types of methods available at the time of the survey; the most widely available methods were male condoms, combined

  9. End-of-Life Planning in a Family Context: Does Relationship Quality Affect Whether (and With Whom) Older Adults Plan?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Medical professionals typically approach advance care planning (ACP) as an individual-level activity, yet family members also may play an integral role in making decisions about older adults’ end-of-life care. We evaluate the effects of marital satisfaction and parent–child relationship quality on older adults’ use of advance directives (i.e., living will and durable power of attorney for health care [DPAHC] appointments) and end-of-life discussions. Methods. Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a sample of 1,883 older adults in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimated the effects of marital satisfaction, emotional support and criticism from children, other social support, demographic characteristics, and health on general ACP (i.e., advance directive only, discussions only, both, or neither) and specific DPAHC appointments. Results. Parents with problematic parent–child relationships were less likely to complete ACP, and marital satisfaction was positively associated with completion of both advance directives and discussions. Happily married persons were more likely to appoint their spouse as DPAHC, whereas persons who received ample emotional support from children were mostly likely to appoint an adult child. Discussion. Family dynamics affect ACP in complex ways and should be considered in patient-provider discussions of end-of-life care. PMID:23689997

  10. End-of-life planning in a family context: does relationship quality affect whether (and with whom) older adults plan?

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Moorman, Sara M; Boerner, Kathrin

    2013-07-01

    Medical professionals typically approach advance care planning (ACP) as an individual-level activity, yet family members also may play an integral role in making decisions about older adults' end-of-life care. We evaluate the effects of marital satisfaction and parent-child relationship quality on older adults' use of advance directives (i.e., living will and durable power of attorney for health care [DPAHC] appointments) and end-of-life discussions. Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a sample of 1,883 older adults in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimated the effects of marital satisfaction, emotional support and criticism from children, other social support, demographic characteristics, and health on general ACP (i.e., advance directive only, discussions only, both, or neither) and specific DPAHC appointments. Parents with problematic parent-child relationships were less likely to complete ACP, and marital satisfaction was positively associated with completion of both advance directives and discussions. Happily married persons were more likely to appoint their spouse as DPAHC, whereas persons who received ample emotional support from children were mostly likely to appoint an adult child. Family dynamics affect ACP in complex ways and should be considered in patient-provider discussions of end-of-life care.

  11. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  12. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  13. Association of the quality of interpersonal care during family planning counseling with contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Henderson, Jillian T; Vittinghoff, Eric; Grumbach, Kevin; Levy, Kira; Schmittdiel, Julie; Lee, Jennifer; Schillinger, Dean; Steinauer, Jody

    2016-07-01

    Health communication and interpersonal skills are increasingly emphasized in the measurement of health care quality, yet there is limited research on the association of interpersonal care with health outcomes. As approximately 50% of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, whether interpersonal communication influences contraceptive use is of public health importance. The aim of this study was to determine whether the quality of interpersonal care during contraceptive counseling is associated with contraceptive use over time. The Patient-Provider Communication about Contraception study is a prospective cohort study of 348 English-speaking women seen for contraceptive care, conducted between 2009 and 2012 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Quality of communication was assessed using a patient-reported interpersonal quality in family planning care measure based on the dimensions of patient-centered care. In addition, the clinical visit was audio recorded and its content coded according to the validated Four Habits Coding Scheme to assess interpersonal communication behaviors of clinicians. The outcome measures were 6-month continuation of the selected contraceptive method and use of a highly or moderately effective method at 6 months. Results were analyzed using mixed effect logistic regression models controlling for patient demographics, the clinic and the provider at which the visit occurred, and the method selected. Patient participants had a mean age of 26.8 years (SD 6.9 years); 46% were white, 26% Latina, and 28% black. Almost two-thirds of participants had an income of <200% of the Federal Poverty Level. Most of the women (73%) were making visits to a provider whom they had not seen before. Of the patient participants, 41% were still using their chosen contraceptive method at 6-month follow-up. Patients who reported high interpersonal quality of family planning care were more likely to maintain use of their chosen contraceptive method (adjusted odds

  14. Quality of family planning counseling among women attending prenatal care at a hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Abel; Birara, Malede; Rominski, Sarah D

    2017-05-01

    To assess the quality of family planning counseling among women attending a prenatal clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between February and April, 2015, at the prenatal care clinic of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pregnant women in their third trimester were interviewed about their experience of family planning counseling. Data were collected via a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of satisfaction with the counseling service. During the study period, 400 women were interviewed. Only 139 women (34.8%) were counseled about family planning. Among those counseled, 126 (90.6%) decided to use a contraceptive method after delivery and 46 (36.7%) decided to use an injectable contraceptive. Women were more likely to report high satisfaction when their provider asked about their partner's attitude toward contraceptive methods (adjusted odds ratio 6.6; P<0.001), and when asked about their concerns and worries regarding family planning methods (adjusted odds ratio 5.1; P<0.001). Very few women were counseled about contraception during prenatal care. Asking about a partner's attitude toward contraceptives and discussing women's fears or worries about contraceptives should be considered during family planning counseling to improve satisfaction and quality of care. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. State of family planning.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Traxler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Family planning and reproductive health services are uniquely impacted by policy and politics in the United States. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented number of abortion restrictions, and research funding has decreased in related areas. Despite this, both the science and the implementation of improved family planning and abortion methods have progressed in the past decade. This article reviews the current state of family planning, as well as technologies and patient care opportunities for the future.

  16. Effects of Ethnic Attributes on the Quality of Family Planning Services in Lima, Peru: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J.; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0·7% (p = 0·23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima. PMID:25671664

  17. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  18. Family planning education.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1983-02-01

    17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology

  19. Family planning Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Singarimbun, M

    1968-06-01

    The growth of family planning activities in Indonesia in the Postwar period is traced; and future prospects for family planning are assessed. Transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and supported by President Sukarno after Indonesian independence as a means of decreasing population pressure on the island of Java, are identified as the only official response to the population problem until 1965. In the face of the government's opposition to the idea of birth control as a population control measure, the activities of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) after its founding in 1957 were limited to advising mothers on spacing of their children for health reasons. Statements made in support of a national family planning program by government officials at a 1967 IPPA Congress and on other occasions are noted. The major components of an approved national family planning program to start in 1969 are described. However, the government's policy as of late 1967 and early 1968 is characterized as one of mainly benevolent encouragement and help to voluntary organizations. The chief impediment to family planning in Indonesia is said to be a lack of motivation and the force of traditional values that favor large families. On the positive side are: 1) Studies showing considerable interest in birth control by the rural population; 2) A long history of traditional birth control practices; 3) The absence of outright opposition by religious groups to the principle of family planning. However, financial costs, the need for the training of personnel, and a general unawareness of the magnitude of the task lying ahead constitute other formidable obstacles.

  20. A social marketing approach to quality improvement in family planning services: a case study from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Jamshaid; Ali, Moazzam; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2008-02-01

    In the 1990s, social marketing approach was introduced in Pakistan to improve the quality and accessibility of family planning methods involving private practitioners. This study measured six quality elements using a Bruce-Jain framework. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 29 randomly selected Green Star clinics. The study's four components were 1) an inventory of each outlet (infrastructure, equipment, and supplies); 2) an observation guide for interaction between family planning clients and service providers; 3) exit interviews with clients attending the outlet; and 4) interviews with providers at the outlet. Of the 29 clients participating in the exit interviews, 72% were new users of family planning. The clients' mean age was 32 years; all clients were married; 93% had received formal education. Housework was the principal activity of 93% of clients. The mean number of children reported was three. Both hormonal and intrauterine contraceptives (IUCDs) were available in all facilities; 86% of the clients reported being able to obtain their contraceptive of choice. Most facilities had the equipment and supplies needed to deliver services; service personnel were trained and regularly supervised; the service outlets emphasized mechanisms to ensure continuity of use. Notable shortcomings included a shortage of information on alternative methods, contraindications, and side-effect management, as well as a dearth of registration records. In conclusion, this is a good example of public-private partnership involving private practitioners using a social marketing approach. The quality components of a Bruce-Jain framework were achieved, resulting in a satisfied clientele. Involvement of private service outlets increased the accessibility and enhanced the use of services. Social marketing may be expanded to improve quality and access by involving further components of health care.

  1. Attitudes toward family planning.

    PubMed

    Gille, H

    1984-06-01

    Many of the 135 countries participating in the 1974 UN World Population Conference were far from accepting the basic human right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education, and means to do so. Considerable progress has been made since then, and the number of developing countries that provide direct government support for family planning has increased to over 60%. Many have liberalized laws and regulations which restricted access to modern contraceptive methods, and a growing number provide family planning services within their health care programs. A few have recognized the practice of family planning as a constitutional right. In late 1983 at the Second African Population Conference, recognition of family as a human right was strongly contested by several governments, particularly those of West Africa. in developed countries most of the women at risk of unwanted pregnancy are using contraceptives. Of the major developing regions the highest use level is in Latin America, wherein most countries 1/3 to 1/2 of married women are users. Levels in Asian countries range from up to 10% in Afghanistan, Nepal, and Pakistan to up to 40% in the southeastern countries. China, a special case, now probably exceeds an overall use level of 2/3 of married women. Contraceptive use is lowest in Africa. There is room for improvement even among many of the successful family planning programs, as access to contraceptives usually is not sufficient to overcome limiting factors. To ensure the individual's free choice and strengthen the acceptability and practice of family planning, all available methods should be provided in service programs and inluded in information and education activities. Family planning programs should engage local community groups, including voluntary organizations, in all aspects of planning, management, and allocation of resources. At the government level a clear political commitment to family

  2. Effective family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A G

    1973-01-01

    Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly.

  3. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training.

  4. Family planning defended [India].

    PubMed

    Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, criticized what she termed excessive propaganda on the part of certain political parties and groups against family planning, indicating that there was a tremendous need for family planning in a country with a population of 660 million. In a television interview Gandhi stressed that her government believed in persuasion and not coercion as the means of controlling population growth. A mass sterilization campaign conducted during Gandhi's previous government 3 years ago was 1 of the main factors influencing her defeat in the 1977 national elections. A national population policy setting the goals and strategy for curbing population growth is now being formulated, but the government has provided sufficient indication that there will be no return to compulsion which had marked the implementation of the family planning program during 1975-1976. Family planning is presently being pursued as a totally voluntary program and as an integral part of a comprehensive policy including education and health. The plan is to organize 50,000 camps in which 2 million persons are expected to participate.

  5. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-06-17

    To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. We analyzed MSI's social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008-2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011-2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI "Impact 2" model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44.0), with 46.1% (95% CI = 40.9, 51.2) of

  6. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background: To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. Methods: We analyzed MSI’s social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008–2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011–2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI “Impact 2” model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Results: Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44

  7. Rethinking postpartum family planning.

    PubMed

    Winikoff, B; Mensch, B

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the rationales for commonly advocated postpartum family planning services and challenges the behavioral and biological assumptions on which they are based. An alternative approach to service delivery is suggested. Services should be designed to incorporate breastfeeding and to increase their acceptability to postpartum women.

  8. Family planning and vocations.

    PubMed

    Burke, C

    1989-01-01

    In many Western countries the number of vocations has fallen to as low as 1/10 what it was a generation ago. The author blames several factors for this occurrence. An identity crisis among the members of the faith that is a result of broken homes is seen as a factor. The growth of materialism and the consumer mentality is seen as another factor leading people away from the life of sacrifices for God. But the author feels that the strongest force behind this fact is the use of family planning without a serious reason. Catholics are only allowed to use family planning if they have a serious health or financial reason for doing so, and then it can only be a natural method. Large families reinforce the ideals and attitudes necessary to create a person that is willing to seek a vocation. People from broken homes are not usually accepted because the matter of perseverance becomes a problem. When a child grows up in a large family it learns to make sacrifices. It also sees its parents making sacrifices for the children. It is the author's opinion what without this atmosphere of sacrifice at home, one is not prepared for the sacrifices that go with a vocation. It is also the author's opinion that families in the 3rd World tend to be larger, poorer yet still happier then Western families. Further, vocations in the 3rd World are abundant.

  9. Does human resource management improve family planning service quality? Analysis from the Kenya Service Provision Assessment 2010.

    PubMed

    Thatte, Nandita; Choi, Yoonjoung

    2015-04-01

    Human resource (HR) management is a priority for health systems strengthening in developing countries, yet few studies have empirically examined associations with service quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HR management and family planning (FP) service quality. Data came from the 2010 Kenya Service Provision Assessment, a nationally representative health facility assessment. In total, 912 FP consultations from 301 facilities were analysed. Four indices were created to measure quality on reproductive history taking, physical examination, sexually transmitted infections prevention and pill/injectable specific counselling. HR management variables included training in the past year, any and supportive (i.e. with feedback, technical updates and discussion) in-person supervision in the past 6 months and having a written job description. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate coefficients of HR management variables on each of the four quality indices, adjusting for background characteristics of clients, provider and facilities. The level of service quality ranged from 16 to 53 out of a maximum score of 100 across the indices. Fifty-two per cent of consultations were done by providers who received supportive in-person supervision in the previous 6 months. In 23% and 38% of consultations, the provider was trained in the past year and had a written job description, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that having a written job description was associated with higher service quality in history taking, physical examination and the pill/injectable specific counselling. Other HR management variables were not significantly associated with service quality. Having a written job description was significantly associated with higher service quality and may be a useful tool for strengthening management practices. The details of such job descriptions and the quality of other management indicators should be

  10. Informed push distribution of contraceptives in Senegal reduces stockouts and improves quality of family planning services.

    PubMed

    Daff, Bocar Mamadou; Seck, Cheikh; Belkhayat, Hassan; Sutton, Perri

    2014-05-01

    Contraceptive use in Senegal is among the lowest in the world and has barely increased over the past 5 years, from 10% of married women in 2005 to 12% in 2011. Contraceptive stockouts in public facilities, where 85% of women access family planning services, are common. In 2011, we conducted a supply chain study of 33 public-sector facilities in Pikine and Guediawaye districts of the Dakar region to understand the magnitude and root causes of stockouts. The study included stock audits, surveys with 156 consumers, and interviews with facility staff, managers, and other stakeholders. At the facility level, stockouts of injectables and implants occurred, on average, 43% and 83% of the year, respectively. At least 60% of stockouts occurred despite stock availability at the national level. Data from interviews revealed that the current "pull-based" distribution system was complex and inefficient. In order to reduce stockout rates to the commercial-sector standard of 2% or less, the Government of Senegal and the Senegal Urban Reproductive Health Initiative developed the informed push distribution model (IPM) and pilot-tested it in Pikine district between February 2012 and July 2012. IPM brings the source of supply (a delivery truck loaded with supplies) closer to the source of demand (clients in health facilities) and streamlines the steps in between. With a professional logistician managing stock and deliveries, the health facilities no longer need to place and pick up orders. Stockouts of contraceptive pills, injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were completely eliminated at the 14 public health facilities in Pikine over the 6-month pilot phase. The government expanded IPM to all 140 public facilities in the Dakar region, and 6 months later stockout rates throughout the region dropped to less than 2%. National coverage of the IPM is expected by July 2015.

  11. Informed push distribution of contraceptives in Senegal reduces stockouts and improves quality of family planning services

    PubMed Central

    Daff, Bocar Mamadou; Seck, Cheikh; Belkhayat, Hassan; Sutton, Perri

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive use in Senegal is among the lowest in the world and has barely increased over the past 5 years, from 10% of married women in 2005 to 12% in 2011. Contraceptive stockouts in public facilities, where 85% of women access family planning services, are common. In 2011, we conducted a supply chain study of 33 public-sector facilities in Pikine and Guediawaye districts of the Dakar region to understand the magnitude and root causes of stockouts. The study included stock audits, surveys with 156 consumers, and interviews with facility staff, managers, and other stakeholders. At the facility level, stockouts of injectables and implants occurred, on average, 43% and 83% of the year, respectively. At least 60% of stockouts occurred despite stock availability at the national level. Data from interviews revealed that the current “pull-based” distribution system was complex and inefficient. In order to reduce stockout rates to the commercial-sector standard of 2% or less, the Government of Senegal and the Senegal Urban Reproductive Health Initiative developed the informed push distribution model (IPM) and pilot-tested it in Pikine district between February 2012 and July 2012. IPM brings the source of supply (a delivery truck loaded with supplies) closer to the source of demand (clients in health facilities) and streamlines the steps in between. With a professional logistician managing stock and deliveries, the health facilities no longer need to place and pick up orders. Stockouts of contraceptive pills, injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were completely eliminated at the 14 public health facilities in Pikine over the 6-month pilot phase. The government expanded IPM to all 140 public facilities in the Dakar region, and 6 months later stockout rates throughout the region dropped to less than 2%. National coverage of the IPM is expected by July 2015. PMID:25276582

  12. Family planning: where now?

    PubMed

    Saunders, L

    1977-01-01

    The focus is in terms of family planning as an exercise in induced social change; the objective is to alter the reproductive patterns of societies sufficiently to bring about a significant reduction in fertility. The year 1974 emerges as the year in which family planning as a social movement achieved maturity and was confirmed as a legitimate area for national policy and programming, a year of determined and varied efforts to reduce population growth. In affirming the rights and responsibilities of people and the obligations of governments in population concerns, the Bucharest Conference conferred its seal of approval on a movement that had made considerable progress since it began early in the 19th century. The evolution of birth control as a social movement which began with Francis Place's printing and distributing contraceptive bills in 1820 was encouraged by other writings in England and the U.S. over the next 50 years. Several overlapping phases can be distinguished in the global response to a new sense of urgence regarding population concerns following World War 2. Moving from a global perspective to consideration of family planning as it exists in the programs of individual countries, the achievement is not so great and the prospects are less hopeful. Although it has had success as a social movement and is now accepted as a government responsibility, family planning programs still have a long way to go before they develop the scope, vigor, and versatility that is required for there to be widespread demographic change. 1 change that is needed is for a stronger and more visible political commitment and commitment on the basis of demographic rather than health or welfare reasons.

  13. Natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Davis, M S

    1992-01-01

    Natural family planning includes the calendar (rhythm), basal body temperature, ovulation (mucus), and sympto-thermal methods. Reliability of such methods often is underestimated, but effectiveness of various methods has been reported. Correct understanding and use of proper techniques, primarily abstinence during fertile periods, is imperative for effectiveness. New methods being studied may heighten awareness of fertile times and shorten required periods of abstinence or use of back-up methods.

  14. [Family planning in Bangladesh].

    PubMed

    Saito, S

    1981-03-01

    The author participated in the family planning project in Bangladesh from August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1979. The population of Bangladesh was 81 million in 1977 with annual increase of 3%, and the government was aiming at zero population growth. The government guidelines emphasized family planning as an effort integrated with other community programs. The use of adult education classes, mass media, and agricultural field workers and the training of paramedical personnel were proposed. The project members' activities involved motivating the public to delay marriages, to space births and to limit the family size to two children (average family size 6.5 children) as well as distributing contraceptives, promoting IUD and sterilization. Sterilization campaign for women in DNN district, 30 km south of Dacca, was carried out as follows. The women who had signed up in advance arrived at the elementary school classroom, where 2 medical teams performed operations using the teachers' desks and the equipment rented from a hospital in Dacca. The general procedure involved a physical examination by a female doctor, checking blood pressure, changing into a brand new native gown, premedication by injection, total anesthesia and operation itself. The equipment was sterilized by boiling. The patients were carried on the stretchers to the other classroom where they recuperated, staying overnight on the straw mats on the mud floor. They went home on foot the next day. The shortage of food and resources, high unemployment rate and low standard of living are some of the social problems Bangladesh faces along with overpopulation.

  15. Family planning in Tibet.

    PubMed

    She, W

    1997-08-01

    This article gives an overview of the family planning (FP) situation in Tibet, an autonomous region in China. Since 1951, Tibetan population has increased steadily. Population doubled in four decades. Growth is due primarily to natural increase. Only 16% of growth is due to migration. The urban population has a low birth, death, and growth rate, while rural areas have a high birth and growth rate, and a low death rate. Tibet's population in 1996, was 2.40 million persons. The annual rate of growth during 1900-96 was 1.61%. FP programs were introduced in the late 1970s, and were first introduced to the Han population. FP planning practices spread to urban Tibetan population, and then to rural Tibetan population. A Family Planning Committee was set up in 1996, and programs shifted from the Bureau of Public Health. The Tibet FP policy stipulates one child for an urban Han couple, two children for an urban Tibetan couple, and three children and birth spacing of several years for Tibetan herdsmen and farmers. There are no restrictions for families living in sparsely populated border areas. Rural populations receive no coercion or penalties for violations of the strictly voluntary policy. FP is closely integrated in maternal and child health services and poverty alleviation programs. There is unmet need for FP among rural women. Technical services in rural areas are inadequate, and the population is scattered widely. Herdsmen constantly change locations. Access to transportation is limited. Funding is meager, and Tibetan women prefer implants to IUDs. Strenuous labor in the fields contributes to a high dropout rate of IUD use. Buddhist leaders now realize the association between poverty and large family size, but strongly oppose abortion as being against the principle of not taking a life.

  16. Measuring client satisfaction and the quality of family planning services: a comparative analysis of public and private health facilities in Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Paul L; Do, Mai; Agha, Sohail

    2011-08-24

    Public and private family planning providers face different incentive structures, which may affect overall quality and ultimately the acceptability of family planning for their intended clients. This analysis seeks to quantify differences in the quality of family planning (FP) services at public and private providers in three representative sub-Saharan African countries (Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana), to assess how these quality differentials impact upon FP clients' satisfaction, and to suggest how quality improvements can improve contraceptive continuation rates. Indices of technical, structural and process measures of quality are constructed from Service Provision Assessments (SPAs) conducted in Tanzania (2006), Kenya (2004) and Ghana (2002) using direct observation of facility attributes and client-provider interactions. Marginal effects from multivariate regressions controlling for client characteristics and the multi-stage cluster sample design assess the relative importance of different measures of structural and process quality at public and private facilities on client satisfaction. Private health facilities appear to be of higher (interpersonal) process quality than public facilities but not necessarily higher technical quality in the three countries, though these differentials are considerably larger at lower level facilities (clinics, health centers, dispensaries) than at hospitals. Family planning client satisfaction, however, appears considerably higher at private facilities - both hospitals and clinics - most likely attributable to both process and structural factors such as shorter waiting times and fewer stockouts of methods and supplies. Because the public sector represents the major source of family planning services in developing countries, governments and Ministries of Health should continue to implement and to encourage incentives, perhaps performance-based, to improve quality at public sector health facilities, as well as to strengthen regulatory

  17. Measuring client satisfaction and the quality of family planning services: A comparative analysis of public and private health facilities in Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Public and private family planning providers face different incentive structures, which may affect overall quality and ultimately the acceptability of family planning for their intended clients. This analysis seeks to quantify differences in the quality of family planning (FP) services at public and private providers in three representative sub-Saharan African countries (Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana), to assess how these quality differentials impact upon FP clients' satisfaction, and to suggest how quality improvements can improve contraceptive continuation rates. Methods Indices of technical, structural and process measures of quality are constructed from Service Provision Assessments (SPAs) conducted in Tanzania (2006), Kenya (2004) and Ghana (2002) using direct observation of facility attributes and client-provider interactions. Marginal effects from multivariate regressions controlling for client characteristics and the multi-stage cluster sample design assess the relative importance of different measures of structural and process quality at public and private facilities on client satisfaction. Results Private health facilities appear to be of higher (interpersonal) process quality than public facilities but not necessarily higher technical quality in the three countries, though these differentials are considerably larger at lower level facilities (clinics, health centers, dispensaries) than at hospitals. Family planning client satisfaction, however, appears considerably higher at private facilities - both hospitals and clinics - most likely attributable to both process and structural factors such as shorter waiting times and fewer stockouts of methods and supplies. Conclusions Because the public sector represents the major source of family planning services in developing countries, governments and Ministries of Health should continue to implement and to encourage incentives, perhaps performance-based, to improve quality at public sector health

  18. Family planning: Muslim style.

    PubMed

    Virina, I

    1979-01-01

    Early birth control methods practiced by Muslims included a version of rhythm called takwim. Instead of using a thermometer to determine the safe period, the woman pressed her navel hard. If she felt magnetic sensations she was not in the safe period. Withdrawal, called piil, was also used. Old folks prepared juices extracted from roots like safran, pitawali, and when drunk they contracted the uterus and prevented pregnancy. New methods and programs have not gained popularity because of traditional medicines. Some early methods are still used today. To some Muslims sex is sacred and should not be talked about in polite conversation. If a Muslim discusses sex in front of others he has no delicadeza. Muslims must voluntarily accept family planning. If they are forced they reject the idea entirely. Extensive radio drama series have been broadcast since the establishment of the Provincial Population Office in Jolo in 1977. Muslims still believe in having many children as security in cases of tribal or interfamily feuds. Family planning workers in Stanvac, Zamboanga use the economic approach for motivating people. The financial burden of raising a big family is emphasized.

  19. [Family planning in Europe].

    PubMed

    Wynnyczuk, V

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of demographic problems in 24 European countries are presented. The focus is on reproductive behavior, including the treatment of infertility, family planning, induced abortion, education for marriage and parenthood, and consultative services. The author notes that changes in the age of sexual maturity, age at marriage, the educational status of women, the impact of mass media, the stability of marriages, the acceptance of sexual intercourse prior to marriage, and the general availability of birth control impose changes on the provision of educational and consultative services. English and Russian abstracts of this article are available separately.

  20. Natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Bourdillon, C

    1982-11-01

    Frequently, when one mentions natural family planning methods, the response is doubt, bewilderment, ridicule, or scorn. Much of this is due to the fact that many people know only of the rhythm method, which depends on a calculation based on the menstrual pattern. What many people do not know, including physicians and nurses, is that in Australia Drs. John and Lyn Billings have been scientifically researching natural methods of family planning for 25 years, and they have pioneered this Ovulation Method of family planning. The Billings Ovulation Method depends only on the mucus sign. It is based on a scientific knowledge of the combined fertility of husband and wife, and an understanding of the physiology of the female body through simple observations. Important facts relating to the practice of the method include: ovulation takes place only once in the cycle; mucus is secreted by the cervical mucosa before ovulation; the ovum lives for only 3 days at the most; and the sperms live for 5 days at the most, and only in the presence of this fertile mucus. There a 2 types of mucus. The 1st type to appear is cloudy or white. It is nonslippery, sticky, and breaks when stretched between 2 fingers. The 2nd type is like the part of a hen's egg. It is very slippery, much clearer than the former, and stretches when pulled between 2 fingers. This is fertile mucus, and ovulation occurs on the last day that this is present. Of course, it cannot be recognized as the last day until its absence is observed on the following day. The mucus sign can be both seen and felt. After a few months a woman will readily recognize her fertile time, but daily charting is advocated. Simple signs, representing the various observations, are taught. Once a couple knows and understands their combined fertility through the observation of the mucus sign they can plan their family. Rules of the method are outlined. The self control required by this method can only serve to increase the selfless love and

  1. Air Quality Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States must develop plans to attain and maintain air quality standards. These plans, known as SIPs, are submitted to EPA for approval. This web site contains information about this process and the current status of the submittals.

  2. [Population and family planning].

    PubMed

    Romero, H

    1977-12-01

    This work consists of a speech read before the Adacemy of Medicine of the Institute of Chile and a brief debate by members of the audience. Misinformed opponents of birth control who argue among other things that family planning is a US plot ignore the fact that the desire to avoid pregnancy dates from the remote past, as attested by evidence from early Egyptian papyruses. Recent sharp declines in human mortality have led to unprecedented population growth. Around the beginning of the modern era the world contained about 250 million people, a population which did not double until the mid 1600s. Today world population doubles in 30 to 35 years, and by the end of the century it may reach 7 billion. The impact of such growth on the food supply, housing, the economy, education, and the environment have been the object of many studies, predominant among them those presented at the World Population Conferences in Rome, Belgrade, and Bucharest. The family planning program in Chile was initiated around 1962 although some activities had been carried out earlier. The Chilean Association for the Protection of the Family, a private organization, grew out of these early efforts and enjoyed considerable success from its earliest days. The natality rate declined from 38/1000 in 1962 to 23.5/1000 in 1977, and infant and maternal mortality also declined. The decline has been concentrated in births after age 30 and in high parity births. The young age structure means that the population will continue to increase for the foreseeable future.

  3. Family planning for travellers.

    PubMed

    Rustom, A

    1990-11-01

    A public health nurse from London describes the customs of nomadic people in the British Isles, known as "travellers," as they affect provision of family planning services. Most are of British or Irish stock, some migrate and others live in caravan sites all year. Their traditions dictate that men work and women are housewives. Early, often arranged, marriage, early childbearing and large families are the norm. Sex and contraception are not considered appropriate for discussion between the sexes, or in the presence of children. Large families and financial hardship force many women to space pregnancies. Women often have to hide contraceptives from their husbands, difficult in conditions without privacy. Therefore they prefer IUDs, but some use oral contraceptives, although sometimes erratically because most are illiterate. Traveller women are usually unwilling to do self-examination, as needed with IUDs. They often have difficulty attending regular Pap smear clinics. Cervical cancer rates are high. They experience discrimination in clinics, and need extra care about modesty. It is worth while to take time to develop trust in the clinical relationship, to deal with the traveller woman's uneasy among outsiders.

  4. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R. C.

    1998-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan documents the quality assurance activities for the Wastewater/Stormwater/Groundwater and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This QAPP was prepared in accordance with DOE guidance on compliance with 10CFR830.120.

  5. Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…

  6. Family Planning Handbook for Doctors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Ronald L., Ed.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that all people have the right to family planning information, including premarital and marital counseling, contraception information, and sex education. This physician's handbook is designed to provide all doctors with the necessary instructions on the latest family planning methods…

  7. Law and family planning.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M D

    1984-03-17

    This discussion of law and family planning reviews some recent reports of the Australain Law Reform Commission (ALRC), the law as it affects family planning and the sexuality of young people with reference to the Irish dilemma, the law's approach in Ingland, Canada, and the US. The ALRC works only on references recived by it from the Federal Attorney General. No reference so far received has been specific to the issues of family planning, but some past and present projects are partly relevant. The most recent report of the ALRC, tabled in Federal Parliament in December 1983 related to privacy protection. An issue that arose in this inquiry related to the subject of the rights to privacy of young people. In a discussion paper the ALRC had suggestd that young persons between the ages of 12-16 should have certain defined legal protection of privacy, even against their parents. Specifically, the ALRC was thinking of medical advice and school counseling. Obviously the issue of contraceptive advice was raised in this context, and never has a tenative proposal of the ALRC engendered so much bitter criticism. The Commission modified its proposal on this topic and the details of the revised proposals are disclosed in its report. Clearly, the rights of young people in regard to sexual advice, education, and treatment are matters of great controversy and strongly divided community opinion. In Australia there are some who are totally opposed to family planning for themselves, their children, and even for others. Such opposition exists in the medical profession. Presumably, such people base their views on strongly held moral principles. They generally believe that contraception interferes in the ways of nature. Far from being promoted by open discussion and instruction in the schools, such matters are intimate concerns of a small circle, principally the family. In dealing with those aspects that concern the rights of parents in thes matters, attention turns to England's Gillick

  8. Religion and family planning.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Bojana; Hakim, Marwan; Seidman, Daniel S; Kubba, Ali; Kishen, Meera; Di Carlo, Costantino

    2016-12-01

    Religion is embedded in the culture of all societies. It influences matters of morality, ideology and decision making, which concern every human being at some point in their life. Although the different religions often lack a united view on matters such contraception and abortion, there is sometimes some dogmatic overlap when general religious principles are subject to the influence of local customs. Immigration and population flow add further complexities to societal views on reproductive issues. For example, present day Europe has recently faced a dramatic increase in refugee influx, which raises questions about the health care of immigrants and the effects of cultural and religious differences on reproductive health. Religious beliefs on family planning in, for example, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Hinduism have grown from different backgrounds and perspectives. Understanding these differences may result in more culturally competent delivery of care by health care providers. This paper presents the teachings of the most widespread religions in Europe with regard to contraception and reproduction.

  9. Client and facility level determinants of quality of care in family planning services in Ethiopia: Multilevel modelling

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Assefa, Yibeltal; Zemedu, Theodros Getachew; Kifle, Mengistu; Laurence, Caroline O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the last two decades, while contraceptive use has improved in Ethiopia, the contraceptive prevalence rate remains low. In addition to socio-demographic and cultural factors, the quality of care in Family Planning (FP) services is an important determining factor of FP utilization. However, little research exists on the determinants of quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia. This study aims to identify the client and facility level determinants of quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia. Methods This study was based on the first Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey conducted in 2014. A total of 1247 clients nested in 374 health facilities were included in the analysis. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression modelling was conducted. The outcome variable, client satisfaction, was created using polychoric principal component analysis using eleven facets that reflect client satisfaction. Results The results showed that both client-level and facility-level factors were associated with quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia. At the client-level; provision of information on potential side effects of contraceptive method (AOR = 5.22, 95% CI: 2.13–12.80), and number of history and physical assessments (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03–1.34) were positively associated with client satisfaction, whereas waiting times of 30 minutes to two hours (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.33) was negatively associated with client satisfaction. At the facility-level; urban location (AOR = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.04–20.58), and availability of FP guidelines/protocols for providers (AOR = 4.90, 95% CI: 1.19–20.19) had positive significant effect on client satisfaction. Conclusion Quality improvement programs in FP services in Ethiopia should focus on shortening waiting times and provision of information about the potential side effects of contraceptive methods. It is also important to improve health providers’ skills in thorough client history

  10. How family planning use affects women's lives.

    PubMed

    Williamson, N

    1998-01-01

    Family Health International's Women's Studies Project, launched in 1993, conducted 26 field studies in 10 diverse developing countries on the impact of family planning use on women's lives. Advisory committees in the participating countries established the research agenda, monitored the research process, and planned dissemination of research results. One of the goals of the project was to encourage the use of research findings to improve the quality of women's reproductive health services. The completed studies confirmed that women's family planning experiences are shaped by factors such as age, culture, place of residence, socioeconomic class, religion, and gender norms. However, two general themes emerged: 1) gender roles play a significant role in influencing women's family planning experiences; 2) family planning affects multiple domains of women's lives--domestic, economic, and community. The research confirmed that women perceive many benefits of family planning use. At the same time, they experience negative consequences such as family disapproval, method side effects, and the uncertainty associated with a redefinition of traditional sex roles. Women are generally satisfied with family planning services, but want more female providers, more emotional support, help with side effects, and more information on contraceptive methods.

  11. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  12. Planning for Quality Data

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-05-01

    The assurance of data quality can be a complex process requiring careful planning. The planning process described in this paper uses Data Quality Objectives as the foundation. The described process considers three steps: project requirement identification, definition of the information necessary to answer the questions, and data collection and management. Since sufficient levels of documentation are required at all levels, uncertainty analysis, traceability and custody, data maintenance, and data evaluation and review are also discussed.

  13. Planning For Quality Data

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-05-01

    The assurance of data quality can be a complex process requiring careful planning. The planning process described in this paper uses Data Quality Objectives as the foundation. The described process considers three steps: project requirement identification, definition of the information necessary to answer the questions, and data collection and management. Since sufficient levels of documentation are required at all levels, uncertainty analysis, traceability and custody, data maintenance, and data evaluation and review are also discussed.

  14. National Conference on Urban Family Planning Programme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G

    1997-02-01

    This news insert relays information on the Second National Conference on China's Urban Family Planning Program held in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, during December 1996. Conference participants included Mme. Peng Peiyun as Minister of the State Family Planning Commission and 200 participants from 30 provinces and State Council departments. The conference aimed to discuss the family planning system in relation to the socialist market economy, improvements in delivery of more and better services to reproductive age couples, and more scientific and reasonable family planning management. The conference was sponsored by the State Family Planning Commission. The program offered the opportunity to exchange experiences in implementing urban family planning programs. The first conference was held in Shanghai in 1992. Significant changes have taken place over the past 10 years. There is now a low birth rate, a low rate of natural increase, and changes in attitudes toward fertility. Family planning is a voluntary practice. The urban population has experienced improvements in the quality of life. People demand more and better services and services for maternal and child health and reproductive health. The process of urbanization is accelerating as more people move to cities and towns and new towns are formed. An increasing number of workers are engaged in joint-venture businesses and in the private sector.

  15. Family planning: what women say.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, J

    1992-04-30

    Some interviews with educated women about their thoughts on family planning, birth spacing, and desired family size are provided. There were rumors that Nigerian women wanted birth spacing because the economy was so bad. There was a question about whether women desired family planning for both birth spacing and family limitation without jeopardizing conjugal felicity, or whether the government campaigns for smaller family size were being effective, or whether the economic realities were forcing rethinking. The responses came from a legal assistant in her early 30s; a health consultant, a 27-years old baby wear dealer, a 27-year old nurse, a 54-years old academician, a 44-year old librarian, a 35-year old pharmacist, and a fashion designer. Mrs. Ige, the legal assistant, married at 28 years believed that family planning was essential and the desired family size was around 4, but more importantly family size was based on the parents ability to provide "adequate" care. The health consultant with 4 children considered that a mother had a life after children and living standards were not improving. The baby war dealer with 2 children believed that family planning provided the opportunity to plan for the education of your children; the number of educated children depended on the ability of society to provide adequate jobs. The nurse was not married and planned to seek counseling in family planning after her first child. The academician with 4 children believed individuals had the right to decide the desired number of children, but should be guided by the principle of having no more than they could adequately care for. The librarian with 4 children thought family planning was nice for helping ladies plan their families according to their means; wealthy families could afford 4-5 children, and middle income earners could only afford 2-3 children. The fashion designer with 2 children said that family planning was necessary for spacing the number of children and giving the

  16. Family planning in the balance.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ann C; Stewart, Felicia H

    2004-01-01

    Family planning has long been acknowledged as an effective public health intervention. In recent years, however, family planning has come under increased scrutiny from conservative politicians and constituents. National US policies instituted since 2001 are resulting in cutbacks in family planning programs worldwide. In the long run, these conservative initiatives may set back several decades of progress in reproductive health and reproductive rights. In promoting an ideologically driven approach to sexual and reproductive health, the recent policy developments threaten to subvert ethical standards of medical care and the principle of evidence-based policy.

  17. [The press and family planning].

    PubMed

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R

    1987-01-01

    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services.

  18. Birth control and family planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001946.htm Birth control and family planning To use the sharing ... page, please enable JavaScript. Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, ...

  19. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male Sterilization ... 0.5 % Diaphragm 12 % How to make your method most effective After procedure, little or nothing to ...

  20. More about natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J

    1983-11-01

    When properly taught and practised, natural family planning can be a highly effective form of birth regulation. Recent studies indicate low failure rates of less than three pregnancies per 100 women years for couples with a strong motivation to follow the method. Studies show that pregnancy rates are high when the rules for avoiding pregnancy are not adhered to. Successful natural family planning can lead to heightened self esteem and marital enrichment.

  1. Women and family planning. Introduction.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    Family Health International is implementing the Women's Studies Project, a five-year research effort funded by the US Agency for International Development, to learn about women's needs and perspectives on family planning. The project will use qualitative and quantitative research to determine how women have benefitted or not benefitted from using family planning methods and services, with findings to be widely disseminated, including through future issues of Network. This issue of Network focuses upon the family planning aspect of women's reproductive health needs. Women are not just using contraceptive methods, but helping to design and implement family planning services and policies. Moreover, family planning is no longer viewed as an isolated medical service, but as a component of women's larger reproductive health needs which include pregnancy-related care, STD prevention and treatment, prevention and treatment of reproductive cancers, the treatment of infertility, and postpartum and postabortion care. Improving education, economic opportunities, and public policies, while providing access to safe, affordable contraceptive services can improve women's health and status. The futility of encouraging contraceptive use and smaller families without addressing other legal, social, and economic constraints upon women's rights is stressed.

  2. Family planning costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  3. Family planning among the Maranaos.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A M

    1976-01-01

    An effort has been made to introduce population education concepts and family planning practice to the Maranaos of Lanao del Sur province in the southern Philippines. A survey conducted in 1969 revealed that an overwhelming majority were opposed to family planning, because of the belief that it ran counter to the teachings of the Koran. In 1969, Dansalan College 1st opened a maternity clinic and, subsequently, established a family planning clinic on campus, the only one of its kind in the province. Since the clinic began operations, a total of about 1370 acceptors have been recruited. The oral contraceptive is the most preferred method among the acceptors, accounting for 60%, followed by the injectable. Additionally, the college has integrated family planning and population education into its Community Service Program. Despite several years of effort by Dansalan College, however, Maranaos have failed to respond significantly to practicing family planning. College officials continue to be optimistic, recognizing that the effort will take years of motivating and education.

  4. USA aborts international family planning.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1996-03-02

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning.

  5. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  6. Incentives to promote family planning.

    PubMed

    Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.

    PubMed

    Carder, M

    1974-01-01

    The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters.

  8. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  9. Exploring Provider Perspectives as Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation of Quality Family Planning Recommendations at Title X Clinics: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Megan; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Meyerson, Beth; Adams, Kristin; Sanders, Stephanie

    In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Office of Population Affairs released a document entitled Providing Quality Family Planning Services (QFP), which outlined recommendations for delivery of family planning services using a client-centered approach. These aimed to standardize service provision and address numerous reproductive health challenges. To date, little is known about QFP implementation or the factors influencing its adoption by clinicians. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 family planning providers at Title X-funded clinics in Indiana and Missouri to measure provider attitudes toward the QFP, their influence on adoption of the recommendations, and other barriers to QFP implementation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed in Nvivo. Using the diffusion of innovation theory as a framework, we identify themes related to innovation adoption. Findings suggest that a provider's values related to client-centered counseling and views regarding the relative advantage of the QFP are key factors influencing adoption. Participants identified a number of structural and interpersonal barriers to implementation including misinterpretation of the QFP and billing issues. Although participants expressed that QFP was an improvement over previous guidelines, misalignment of the recommendations with professional values and experiences, lack of clarity of the guidelines, and logistical issues serve as major barriers to adoption and implementation. These findings inform our understanding of policy adoption. Increased training and precise messaging is necessary to improve adoption of QFP at Title X clinics. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Region 7 Quality Management Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To document adherence to EPA Order 5360.1 A2, EPA requires each organizational unitto develop a quality management plan per the specifications in EPA Requirements for QualityManagement Plans, EPA QA R-2.

  11. Comparing private sector family planning services to government and NGO services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: how do social franchises compare across quality, equity and cost?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M

    2011-01-01

    Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific. PMID:21729919

  12. Comparing private sector family planning services to government and NGO services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: how do social franchises compare across quality, equity and cost?

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M

    2011-07-01

    Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific.

  13. Family Planning Programmes in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradervand, Pierre

    The countries discussed in this paper are the francophone countries of West Africa and the Republic of Congo, with comparative references made to North Africa (mainly Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia). Obstacles to the adoption of family planning in the countries of tropical Africa are a very high mortality rate among children; a socioeconomic…

  14. [Medical and social considerations of family planning].

    PubMed

    Slocker De Arce, C

    1983-01-01

    The motivations which led to creation of a family planning specialty within social medicine are discussed and currently available contraceptive methods are reviewed. Among considerations which lead to family planning are the universal worry about uncontrolled population growth and limited resources, especially in the 3rd World: the earth's population is expected to reach 6.5 billion in the year 2000, but already 2.2 billion persons lack adequate resources. Health education and family planning are needed to promote safe conditions for pregnancy and to avoid pregnancy in cases of genetic deficiency. Family planning is a purely medical problem when the woman has a medical problem that would be life threatening to her or her child in case of pregnancy. Illnesses that may be aggravated by pregnancy include cardiopathy, diabetes, nephropathies, thyroid disease, and tuberculosis. Family planning involves provision of information and counseling for patients suffering such disorders as well as for patients who are infertile. Among psychosocial indications for family planning are 2 major problems of modern society: the quality of life and abortion. Family planning has given women the possibility of becoming sexual companions, but the fact that they and not men must submit themselves to contraceptive methods is a negative psychological factor for the stability of the couple. A great change has occurred in Spanish society, in that marriage used to be the only legitimate context for sexual activity and, for Catholics, the only legitimate sexual activity was that oriented toward procreation. Promiscuity, pornography, and sexual liberties and abuses promote undesired pregnancies and abortions. In addition, premarital and extramarital sexual relations have become more frequent. Some 300,000 abortions occur annually in Spain, but abortion can never be a valued family planning method because of its associated morbidity and mortality, and high costs of hospitalization in cases of

  15. WMA resolution on family planning.

    PubMed

    1967-01-01

    One of the important decisions taken at the 21st meeting of the World Medical Association held in Madrid during September was to accept the following resolution: "Whereas, population explosion will cause problems of nutrition, and Whereas, unrestricted population increase may leave large segments of the human race in poverty and without adequate education, and Whereas, careful planning and foresightedness may meet these problems, and Whereas, a doctor must always bear in mind the oblications of preserving human life, Now therefore be it resolved that the Council recommends that the Assembly endorse family planning and that each national organization study this situation. Family planning may be assigned to one or other agency, but the final responsibility is on a voluntary personal basis." This resolution, although not particularly strong, is nevertheless a landmark in the history of the WMA. Composed as it is of representatives of the medical associations of member countries, including many that are Catholic, it has not officially supported family planning in the past. No mention of the contraceptive means to be adopted is made; this is to be left to the individual countries, with the emphasis on the free choice of the couples concerned. But what is important is that the WMA has accepted that unrestricted population increase can be deleterious and may require farsighted planning to keep it in check.

  16. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion.

  17. The "planned" families of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Habchi, M

    1987-07-01

    30 years ago Tunisia achieved independence, and 20 years ago it adopted a family planning policy designed to bring about a balance between demographic and economic growth. Birth control and family planning continue to be a major concern, and services now are provided in over 800 public sector centers -- dispensaries, hospitals, family planning clinics, and mobile teams. 4 out of 10 married women use some form of contraception, and some 30,000 abortions are performed per year by services of the National Office for Family Planning and Population. 2/3 of Tunisians believe that religion has a favorable view of birth control, but there are other sources of resistance to birth control -- sources related to a woman's level of education, her status, and socioeconomic level. The average number of children/woman decreases according to her level of education, from 6.9 among illiterate women to 2.6 among women with a university education. The proportion of illiterate women in Tunisia is close to 50%; the level is as high as 75% among women over age 30. These figures provide the explanation as to why the decline in the birthrate has been so slow. Another major determinant of reproduction rates among Tunisian women is access to employment. Women with jobs have an average of 2 children in contract to women without jobs who normally have more than 4 children. A marked decline occurred in the birthrate between 1966-76, and about 2/3 of Tunisian women now subscribe to the modern family model, i.e., a smaller family oriented toward consumption and comfort. Yet, despite improvements, under the best-case scenario the reproduction rate would be 3.8 children/family at 2000, and a rate of 2.9 would not be achieved until 2020, which is still higher than the rate necessary for simple population replacement -- 2.1. This downward trend would be realized under the combined effects of socioeconomic and cultural changes, i.e., better education, urbanization, declining infant mortality, the

  18. Natural Family Planning: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Derzko, Christine M.

    1986-01-01

    Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of intercourse, when it occurs, is complete.”1 The fertile period may be determined by using Rhythm, a calculation based on previous cycles, basal body temperature (BBT) charting alone, mucus secretion alone (Billings or Ovulation method), or symptothermal charting (Serena method), which includes observation of both mucus and BBT. The effectiveness of each method is discussed, and the social and psychological profile of couples who use NFP is reviewed. Nfp methods can be used not only to avoid pregnancy, but also to achieve pregnancy and thus are particularly useful in investigating and treating infertility. The function of the Family Life Clinic at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto is described. PMID:21267296

  19. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

  20. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

  1. New awareness campaign increases appeal of family planning.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    This article examines the impact of the campaign known as "Bringing New Marital and Reproductive Styles into Tens of Thousands of Households" on family planning in China. The awareness campaign, which started in October 1998, was established to increase the effectiveness of family planning and introduce progressive lifestyles among the population through an interactive and service-oriented approach focusing on the needs of human beings. The program emphasizes the following elements: 1) late marriage; 2) late childbirth; 3) fewer childbirth; 4) gender equality; 5) male participation in family planning; 6) dissemination of family planning and reproductive health knowledge; 7) healthier births and quality of education; 8) enhanced self-care capabilities; 9) higher quality of life; and 10) healthier lifestyles. A face-to-face approach was used to encourage public participation and increase the appeal of family planning programs to ordinary people. Efforts are also being made to expose rural residents to new ideas and lifestyles.

  2. Family planning in Nangong County.

    PubMed

    Sun, X

    1980-04-01

    Family planning has been practiced in Nangong county, China, since 1971; as a result the population growth rate has dropped from 16.7/1000 to 3.6/1000 in 1979; 98% of women of childbearing age use contraception, and most couples have only 1 child. Before 1971 most couples had 4-5 children; per capita grain rations had to be reduced because of the increase in population, and more grain had to be supplied by the state. 1 child families are now rewarded with an annual monetary bonus, extra grain allocations for the child, free tuition in schools, and preference in job placement and medical treatment. Parents who have more than 2 children are penalized by the withdrawal of 10% of their monthly earnings. The idea of "1 couple 1 child" is a radical change from China's traditional culture, which viewed children especially sons, as an insurance against old age insecurity. Marriage at a later age is also encouraged; in Nangong county none of the men of marriageable age married before 25, and none of the women before 23. As a result of promoting family planning Nangong country has ceased to need grain subsidies from the state, and in recent years has had a 10,000 ton surplus to sell.

  3. PLANNING QUALITY IN GEOSPATIAL PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will briefly review some legal drivers and present a structure for the writing of geospatial Quality Assurance Projects Plans. In addition, the Geospatial Quality Council geospatial information life-cycle and sources of error flowchart will be reviewed.

  4. PLANNING QUALITY IN GEOSPATIAL PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will briefly review some legal drivers and present a structure for the writing of geospatial Quality Assurance Projects Plans. In addition, the Geospatial Quality Council geospatial information life-cycle and sources of error flowchart will be reviewed.

  5. Market research and family planning.

    PubMed

    Smith, W

    1979-04-01

    Market research into contraceptive distribution (especially condoms) has been carried out in Britain by private manufacturers, but the results of this research are generally unavailable. Academics have not used the techniques of market research, preferring their own forms of sociological research and being hampered by limited resources. Attempts to design programs to introduce the provision of free family planning services proved unsuccessful, even though the programs offered supplies, sympathetic personnel, and publicity. Part of this failure is attributed to the lack of any baseline research on the demand for and acceptability of these services in the project areas. These failures are contrasted to a very successful commercial marketing campaign for a brand of condom, and with a commercially designed Dutch program aimed at teenagers. The author urges that those who have a message of social importance to deliver look into the techniques of market research used by industry to alter people's attitudes and buying habits. This will require the provision by local and central government of adequate funds for research into attitudes and needs, which ought to be essential before any family planning campaigns are launched.

  6. Family planning and voluntary workers.

    PubMed

    Bhende, A

    1968-01-01

    The Family Planning Communication Action Research Projects at the Demographic Training and Research Centre, DTRC, Bombay, and the Planning Research and Action Institute (PRAI) Lucknow, provide guidelines for implementation of a program in which voluntary workers play an important role. DTRC has concentrated on urban areas and PRAI on rural areas. In selecting the volunteers, emphasis is on involving those who are already active in community affairs, or those who wield some degree of influence. In rural areas, the literacy level of the leaders is an important factor, as well as those who have a wide circle of acquaintances. The training programs conducted by the DTRC are for 3-5 days, covering 6-10 hours, and the involvement of some local association is always sought. It is found that an informal, permissive atmosphere, the use of visual aids, the distribution of reference material, and the lecture and group discussion methods are effective in orienting the participants to family planning educational activities. The PRAI trains the workers 1st through individual visits, and then when a good number have participated for 3 or 4 months, a training camp is organized. When high officials attend and address these camps, and when certificates and badges are distributed, it serves to keep up the enthusiasm. The main problem in both urban and rural area are sustaining the interest of the volunteer and involving men as volunteers. Where cash incentives are not feasible, newspaper and radio publicity is effective, and words of recognition and appreciation also help. Where male volunteers are involved, it is found that they can work well in their places of employment rather than in residential communities. In highly cosmopolitan areas, various linquestic groups live side by side, and it is necessary to enroll voluntary workers from the individual groups.

  7. [Zimbabwe: family planning via bicycle].

    PubMed

    Bankole, J

    1992-11-16

    More than 70% of Zimbabwe's population of about 11 million live in villages. The state-controlled Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (ZNFPC) selects family planning (FP) workers, of whom more than 1000 work in the entire country. Their responsibility is to visit families within a 15 km radius of their hometown. The most important qualification for this work is to gain the respect of the hometown and to have the support of leaders there. FP workers are equipped with a bicycle, a case full of condoms, contraceptive supplies, and a device for measuring blood pressure. A minimum of 7 years of education is required, but many have more education. FP workers undergo a 3-month intensive training course during which motivation of couples to use contraception is stressed. The first FP workers started working in the 1970s before the country's independence but they were not accepted by the black population who regarded them as the agents of the white minority government of Ian Smith. Only after independence in 1980 did they become accepted. At the present time, in 1992, ZNFPC manages over 700 FP workers. The sectors of agricultural chemicals and mining have also deployed about 300 such workers. ZNFPC had a role in reducing the national population growth rate from 3.2% in 1987 to about 2.8% in 1992. Critics of ZNFPC include Catholics who make up 12% of the population and regard the FP program as immoral and a Western invention. Other opponents of FP claim that it reduces sexual pleasure. In 1992 along ZNFPC distributed 10 million condoms in the whole country. In the course of an ambitious 5-year program ZNFPC hopes to reduce population growth so much that it will lead to economic growth.

  8. Family planning, AIDS, and FHI.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1991-09-01

    Family Health International's (FHI) research and development activities in improving and developing contraceptives and making them available to the public are presented. While FHI, along with other agencies, has been actively promoting and contributing to ongoing international family planning efforts since its creation in 1971, the period 1971-91 has, nonetheless, witness more births, maternal deaths, induced abortions, and infant deaths than over any 20-year span in history. While family sizes have decreased over the period due to greater contraceptive awareness and use, politicians, civil servants, and theologians are indicted as partly responsible for retarding further positive change. The number of women of reproductive ages in developing countries will increase by almost 30% in the 1990s, and the world's population will at least double over the next century. 95% of new births will stem from developing countries. Concerted efforts and global commitments of policymakers must be forthcoming in the battle against both high fertility and AIDS prevention. Specifically, at least 130 million new contraceptive users must be recruited in the 1990s. Surveys and field experiences indicate a large degree of unmet need for contraceptive services, with 50-80% of married women in developing countries expressing their desire to limit or space future births. Demand for contraception only increases once a program is in place; rapid reductions of total fertility are exemplified in the cases of Thailand, Colombia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Given the resources and commitment, the number of users could be doubled within 10 years.

  9. Family planning providers' perspectives on family planning service delivery in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Schwandt, Hilary Megan; Boulay, Marc; Skinner, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    In Nigeria, fertility continues to be high and contraceptive prevalence remains low. This study was conducted in order to understand the perceptions of, experiences with and challenges of delivering family planning services in two urban areas of Nigeria from the perspectives of family planning service providers. A qualitative study using 59 in-depth interviews was conducted among family planning providers working in hospitals, primary health centres, clinics, pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. Providers support a mix of individuals and organisations involved in family planning provision, including the government of Nigeria. The Nigerian government's role can take a variety of forms, including providing promotional materials for family planning facilities as well as facilitating training and educational opportunities for providers, since many providers lack basic training in family planning provision. Providers often describe their motivation to provide in terms of the health benefits offered by family planning methods. Few providers engage in any marketing of their services and many providers exclude youth and unmarried individuals from their services. The family planning provider community supports a diverse network of providers, but needs further training and support in order to improve the quality of care and market their services. Adolescents, unmarried individuals and women seeking post-abortion care are vulnerable populations that providers need to be better educated about and trained in how to serve. The perspectives of providers should be considered when designing family planning interventions in urban areas of Nigeria.

  10. Missed opportunities: postpartum family planning in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J

    1993-10-01

    Interviews conducted in 1992 by the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception with 1000 Kenyan women revealed a strong unmet need for postpartum family planning services. 800 of the women were interviewed at prenatal and child welfare clinics; the remaining 200 subjects had just given birth in hospital maternity wards. 90% expressed a desire to use contraception in the postpartum period, despite the fact that the majority had never used a family planning method. 94% of the postpartum patients indicated a definite interest in receiving information on family planning, preferably before hospital discharge. However, only 20% were exposed to a family planning talk during their hospital stay and just 2% were discharged with a method. Study subjects expressed a reluctance to initiate discussions about family planning with a nurse or other health care worker, generally because of embarrassment or a lack of privacy, and instead waited for hospital staff to raise the topic. Maternity ward nurses indicated an awareness of the large demand for family planning information and methods, but expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge base. Clinic nurse identified lack of time and privacy as the major barriers to such counseling. The following recommendations were suggested by investigators to remedy this situation: 1) availability of family planning services throughout hospitals, not just in maternal-child health and family planning clinics; 2) training of maternity ward staff in family planning by hospital family planning staff; 3) greater initiative in raising the issue of family planning on the part of staff in hospitals and clinics; 4) availability of private space for family planning discussions; and 5) access to family planning literature for all women who attend clinics, regardless of the reason for the visit.

  11. Practical Suggestions for Family Planning Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Community Health Services.

    This manual is designed to address some of the basic problems of those who work in family planning education, and is based on the recurring questions and concerns of participants in a nationwide series of DHEW-sponsored family planning education and communication workshops. The manual proceeds chronologically, dealing first with the planning of a…

  12. Thailand Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document gives details on a current Thai project whose object is to introduce family planning concepts into adult education programs. Complementary objectives are: (1) Educate 200,000 adults through literacy/family planning programs by 1976; (2) Develop appropriate instructional materials; (3) Add and emphasize family life education in the…

  13. Guns or butter, family planning or widgets?

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, N

    1992-02-01

    In January 1992 Congress returned from its Christmas recess to begin wrestling with the upcoming year's federal budget. The Budget Enforcement Act places absolute limits on the amounts Congress can appropriate for domestic programs, international assistance, and defense spending. Unless the president declares an emergency, Congress has no flexibility to adjust the $293 billion defense allocation in favor of domestic or international assistance. For the next few years, spending for the military would account for about 55% of all discretionary spending. The Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations subcommittee has a predetermined slice of the $222 billion domestic allocation. The subcommittee must then decide how to subdivide its slice among employment programs, education assistance, and health care, which includes domestic family planning programs. Similarly, the foreign operations subcommittee slices up a small $20 billion for international assistance. Some will go for economic aid, some for development assistance, including international family planning programs. And, about 30% of the international aid budget will go to military assistance to foreign governments. The massive shifts on the international scene and an uncertain domestic economy are forcing a reconsideration of this iron-clad budget agreement. Consequently, efforts to nullify the budget agreement are underway. Over 100 organizations and church groups have formed a coalition calling on Congress and the administration to reorder fiscal priorities so that resources can be redirected toward worthwhile domestic and international programs. Worldwide, the demand for contraceptive services is increasing, yet the US spends only about $300 million for population assistance per year, about the same as it was 20 years ago. But policy makers are finally beginning to understand that the costs of Title X, international family planning, and providing quality family planning services are far less

  14. China intensifies IEC programme for family planning.

    PubMed

    She, W

    1997-10-01

    This article describes the aims of family planning (FP) departments to strengthen IEC for the control of population growth and effective improvement in the quality of human resources in China. The IEC directive was promoted by Madam Peng Peiyun of the State Family Planning Commission in May 1997. In 1996, the birth rate was 16.98/1000. The total fertility rate was below replacement level in 1996. These achievements were accomplished with effective IEC over the past 30 years. The Ninth Five Year Plan for 1996-2000 offers many challenges for the national FP program. The aim is to continue to strictly control population growth in order to keep population below 1.3 billion by the year 2000, and below 1.4 billion by the year 2010. The aim is to improve the quality of life, to improve population structure, to meet the needs of reproductive-age women for services, and to promote socioeconomic and sustainable development. IEC needs to be intensified and to use improved techniques. IEC funding should be increased. Information should be promoted about the importance of educating people about the basic national conditions and the state's basic policies. People need to be informed about the need for a balanced population and socioeconomic development at all cadre levels. FP workers need to be encouraged to serve the people's needs "wholeheartedly." The aim is to provide quality services. People need to be informed that the advantages of fewer births are greater prosperity and comfortable living. FP is an integral part of poverty alleviation. The State Commission plans to conduct a new round of training for cadres.

  15. Socioeconomic factors in family planning.

    PubMed

    Eger, G

    1976-03-01

    In a developing country with an average life expectancy of 50 years or higher (an age already reached by several less developed nations) unl imited procreation is no longer necessary to insure the survival of 1 or 2 sons. Data from Pakistan computed from the Population Growth Estimation Experiment of 1962-1965 shows that the male mortality ratio for infants under 1 year was 232/1000 but for 1-4 years it was 25/1000 and for 5-14 years, 3/1000. Further study showed that women had an average of about 5 living children and some of these children already had children of their own as a result of early marriage. If a 27-year-old father has a 2-year-old son there is a 77.2% chance the child will survive him. If replacement is permitted in case of death, a campaign of "at least 2 sons" would result in Pakistan of an average family size of 3.6 children, far fewer than is now the case. This strategy should be more acceptable to parents than the present recommendation to restrict the number of children to 2 or 3. There also needs to be economic incentives for small families. Under present conditions the cost per child is small to the average rural family and the reward in prestige is great. The People's Republic of China has used negative incentives effectively. Positive incentives should be just as effective but they must be high enough to offset the current rewards of childbearing. There is also need to find out why so many couples do not practice family planning even though they approve of it and how administrative structure influences the success of a program. It has already been shown in Pakistan that repeat visits bring in far more acceptors than just 1 visit and repeated personal contacts should be maintained with the target population.

  16. Who attends family planning clinics?

    PubMed

    Chick, P; Nixon, J

    1984-08-01

    Data were obtained from 1,810 consecutive women who attended a central metropolitan (Brisbane) Family Planning Clinic during a 5 week period in 1982. Young women in particular formed the major client group with 32% being under 20 years of age. The client population was skewed towards women of upper socioeconomic status (SES). There was no SES disproportion in the use of oral contraceptives or IUD's. However, diaphragm use occurred disproportionately in women of upper SES groups; postcoital contraception was sought by and limited to, women of SES classes A and B only. The clinic satisfied a need for women with a history of failed or absent contraception and 15% had already had a termination of pregnancy by the time they first presented at the clinic.

  17. Drawing attention to family planning.

    PubMed

    1990-03-01

    In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however.

  18. The natural way. Family planning.

    PubMed

    Castel, A

    1998-01-01

    The Philippine Federation for Natural Family Planning (PFNFP) teaches men and women about their fertility, emphasizing the notion that women can control their own fertility. Women should know the normal physiological processes of their reproductive system such as the appearance of cervical mucus or other fertility indicators, the menstrual cycle, and others. To that end, PFNFP provides NFP services through its 50 "people's organizations" throughout the Philippines. PFNFP's approach is pragmatic, family-centered, and community-based, allowing local culture and tradition to integrate themselves into the organizational system. PFNFP is also networking with interested nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and has recently received a partnership contract with the Department of Health (DOH) to train the local service providers and barangay health workers of 18 local government units in the delivery of NFP services. The contract also covers the installation and testing of the DOH NFP training design and self-instruction manuals. The author describes the contents of the PFNFP's Fertility Orientation Session, an initial fertility awareness approach. Most NFP acceptors are using the ovulation or sympto-thermal methods, methods which can also help women screen themselves for reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. PFNFP's future goals are described.

  19. [Family planning in New York].

    PubMed

    Bolin, H

    1991-09-01

    The nurse Margaret Sanger started the 1st American contraception consultation in 1916 in Bronxville, N.Y. Today the Planned Parenthood Federation of America has 800 clinics in all states. A clinic in White Plains, N.Y., had 31,297 visits a year mostly from low-income people. Services consist of contraceptive and abortion counseling, abortion and infertility procedures, cancer tests with colposcopy and breast examination, and tests concerning sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection. An adolescent pregnancy impact program helps future mothers ages 13-21 with the Lamaze method, health and diet, delivery, child development, family planning (FP), and life style. Abortion figures in New York State in 1989 showed that among white women ages 15-19 there were 49 abortions and 29 births/89 pregnancies, while among nonwhites with identical parameters there were 120 abortions and 77 births/225 pregnancies. Overall 11% of this age group give birth every year and about 5% get an abortion. The Supreme Court decision in the case of Roe v. Wade in 1973 gave women the right to abortion during the 1st trimester. That same year the National Right to Life Committee was formed with the goal of reimposing the ban on abortions. In 1977 the Supreme Court ruled that states did not have to pay for voluntary abortions. Each state determines whether a minor has to inform her parents. From 1985 there have been 22 bomb and arson attempts, 42 cases of vandalism, 2 break-ins, 1 bomb attack against a car, 15 death threats, and 7 instances of maltreatment of FP and abortion clinic staff. In 1989 states were allowed to restrict the right to abortion. In 1991 Utah banned abortion except for incest, rape, and risk to the mother's health. Other states also plan to change their abortion laws.

  20. Natural family planning: a review.

    PubMed

    Klaus, H

    1982-02-01

    This review of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: components of the fertile phase; sympto-thermal methods; the history and methodology of NFP (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, cervical mucus--the Billings Ovulation method); special circumstances--periods of erratic ovulation (puberty, lactation, premenopause, discontinuation of ovulation suppression, cervicitis and vaginitis, ovulation suppression by stress and pharmaceuticals); effectiveness of natural family planning; achieving pregnancy; achieving couple autonomy (confidence in the method, periodic abstinence, dynamics of the learning process, and support systems); problem areas; and delivery systems. The number of users of NFP methods increased from 2.8% of currently married couples in 1973 to 3.4% in 1976. In 1979, 75,000 new clients received training in contemporary NFP, while the number increased to over 100,000 in 1980. NFP is planning for achieving or preventing a pregnancy by the timing of intercourse. A couple can, by observing and recording certain natural symptoms and bodily changes that occur in a woman's menstrual cycle and using the information as a guide, learn to identify fertile and infertile phases in the menstrual cycle. Precise prediction of ovulation forms one of the components of delineation of the fertile phase. Billings pioneered the use of cervical mucus as a single parameter for the prediction of ovulation and its application to NFP. Women are instructed to observe their mucus patterns at the vulva, relying primarily on the sensation of wetness and lubrication, the use of the Kegel exercise, palpation with the finger, a "wipe-through" with toilet paper, or a combination of these observations. In the absence of ovulation, the usual changing mucus pattern is also absent. NFP can be used either to achieve or to avoid pregnancy. When NFP is used to avoid pregnancy, one will encounter method-related pregnancies, teaching-related pregnancies due either to poor

  1. Improving the urban family planning programme.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    This report presents the directives on improving urban family planning (FP) programs issued by various Chinese departments in March 1997. The departments included the State Family Planning Commission, State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Personnel, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Public Health, and the National Industrial and Commercial Administration. The directives related to time frame, objectives, management, local level operations, IEC, the floating population's needs, the responsibility system, and a well-trained staff. It was stated that urban FP improvements will take some time, due to expansion of urban population, the increase in floating population, and the demand for quality services. The guiding principles support Deng Xiaoping's theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and balancing population with socioeconomic and sustainable development. The aim is to improve IEC and services and achieve low fertility as a way of creating favorable demographics for modernization. Leaders must be held responsible for the practice of FP in their unit. Subdistrict offices are a key link for managing FP in all units and neighborhood committees in their territory. Efforts need to be increased to spread IEC on population and FP and to reduce abortion. Every department registry should make an effort to provide comprehensive FP to floating populations. Urban centers should concentrate on improving the quality of FP services. Staff should be carefully chosen.

  2. Quality-Planning-Requirements Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, P. A.; Flores, A.

    1983-01-01

    Report outlines planning procedures used in establishing inspection and quality assurance activities required of contractors constructing and testing Space Shuttle and ground-support equipment. Report useful to contractors establishing inspection points in commercial manufacturing operations.

  3. Maintaining technical quality of care in the introduction of Cyclofem in a national family planning program: findings from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lubis, F; Fajans, P; Simmons, R

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the technical dimensions of "quality of care" in contraceptive service delivery in both the Cyclofem Introductory Trial, as well as in routine service delivery of other injectables in Indonesia. Although the quality of care in the Cyclofem trial was generally acceptable, substantial weaknesses in screening, clinical technique, the management of side-effects, and knowledge concerning re-injection time frames were identified in the provision of injectable contraceptives in routine service delivery. The findings suggest that in order for Cyclofem and other injectables to be delivered in the routine program with an adequate standard of care, considerable managerial adaptation and strengthening of providers' technical capabilities would be necessary prior to actual introduction. This would include providing training and updated technical guidelines concerning both Cyclofem and other contraceptives to providers, with an emphasis on technical issues including contraceptive indications and contraindications, re-injection time frames, maintenance of asepsis and the management of side-effects. Strengthening the existing management information system and logistics systems to facilitate differentiation between injectable contraceptives provided by the program so as to ensure sufficient supplies of both contraceptives and associated materials such as needles and syringes will also be necessary.

  4. Illinois water quality management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the purpose of the plan to consolidate and streamline portions of approved state and areawide water quality management (WQM) plans in order to facilitate their usage in the operations of all designated WQM agencies. The report identifies both point and nonpoint pollution sources, reviews policies and regulations already in place and makes recommendations for pollution prevention and control. Information on the plan's management structure is also included.

  5. Combined Edition of Family Planning Library Manual and Family Planning Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    This edition combines two previous publications of the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library into one volume: the Family Planning Library Manual, a guide for starting a family planning and population library or information center, and the Family Planning Classification, a coding system for organizing book and non-book materials so that they can be…

  6. Combined Edition of Family Planning Library Manual and Family Planning Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    This edition combines two previous publications of the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library into one volume: the Family Planning Library Manual, a guide for starting a family planning and population library or information center, and the Family Planning Classification, a coding system for organizing book and non-book materials so that they can be…

  7. Training x Trainee Interactions in a Family Planning Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Federico, R.; Rios, Alex; Zumaran, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of introducing a family planning counseling model at clinics of Peru's Ministry of Health. Providers trained in the model presented greater quality of care and longer counseling sessions than did controls. The main effects, however, were misleading. Nearly all of the quality improvements were contributed by 37%…

  8. A Guidebook for Family Planning Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Population Center, Columbia, MD. Health Systems Div.

    The purpose of this manual is to provide practical help in designing and improving educational components of family planning programs. It discusses methods and techniques which may be used to assist couples in developing positive attitudes and behavior with regard to family planning--activities which influence how they act, how they feel, and what…

  9. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  10. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  11. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  12. Radio and family planning in Kiribati.

    PubMed

    Tarau, T

    1982-09-01

    Radio is the 1 significant medium of communication available in Kiribati and, consequently, is the most appropriate means of transmitting family planning education. The dismal state of broadcasting early in the 1970s provided an opportunity for family planning. Tutors, nurses, dressers, and radio announcers all were pressed into forming the radio repertory company. Additionally, the women's sections provided plays and items devoted to family planning. A half-hour series of weekly feature programs on family planning would be supported by daily radio spots, news items, and contributions to current affairs programs. The series of feature programs included an educational message, but it was the few second radio spots inserted between local items which created the most interest, knowledge, and controversy about family planning. The campaign was focused primarily on the use of the IUD, and many spots aimed specifically at promoting this method. Another idea was the composition of a family planning song. Clearly, radio plays an important part in coordinating all family planning activities, ranging from staff movements to song competitions. It has been the most effective means of family planning communication.

  13. Circular on family planning, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside."

  14. Bound and gagged: America's family planning network.

    PubMed

    Dryfoos, J G

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of family planning clinics receiving support from the federal government has fallen from 5,000 to 4,000 despite a growing demand for their services among poor women and teenagers. At the same time, family planning providers have been under regulatory attack, forced to fend off a "squeal rule" aimed at teenagers and to stop a "gag rule" preventing abortion referral. With the climate in Washington unlikely to change, family planners should consider integrating other services into their network or press to include family planning in other care networks. A new national commission could help break the logjam on federal legislation.

  15. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  16. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-11-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  17. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme

    PubMed Central

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) States which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these States. A rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users’ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  18. Who uses natural family planning?

    PubMed

    Daly, K J; Herold, E S

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics and attitudes of 132 married couples who had received training in use of the symptothermal method of natural family planning (NFP). 61% of respondents were 20-30 years of age and over 2/3 had completed college; 59% were Catholic. The largest group of subjects (35%) became aware of NFP through friends, neighbors, and relatives. 71% said they were drawn to NFP because it represented a safe and healthy alternative to other methods of birth control; only 17% gave moral or religious reasons for learning about NFP. 42% of the sample were using NFP at the time of the survey, 32% had discontinued use, and 25% were using fertility awareness in conjunction with barrier methods (combination-continuers). There was a significant difference between these 3 groups in church attendance: 48% of combination-continuers and 67% of continuers compared with 41% of discontinuers attended church once a week or more. The combination-continuer group had more Catholics (50%) than the discontinuer group (37%) but less than the continuers (76%). No significant differences were found between the 3 groups in terms of age, education, or regularity of menstrual cycle length. Over 3/4 of continuers had been married for less than 5 years compared with about 1/2 of those in the 2 other groups. 69% of continuers believed that NFP is extremely effective compared to 13% of discontinuers and 40% of combination-continuers. Spouses encouraged each other in the use of NFP in 88% of combination-continuer couples and 86% of continuer couples, but only about half of discontinuers received such encouragement. Although most NFP advocates emphasize a nonsexual form of abstinence during the fertile period, the vast majority of respondents in this study defined abstinence to include the possibility of orgasm. Combination-continuers, positioned between continuers and discontinuers or both dissatisfaction with other methods and with abstinence, warrant more attention in future

  19. Village family planning volunteers in Indonesia: their role in the family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Arsyad, Syahmida S; Hasmi, Eddy Nurul

    2006-05-01

    Family planning was once a sensitive issue in Indonesia, but today it is considered essential. This paper reports on a study in 1997-98 of the role of village family planning volunteers and the cadres who worked under them in West Java, Central Java and DI Yogyakarta, in implementing the national family planning programme in Indonesia. A total of 108 village family planning volunteers, 108 family planning cadres, 108 local leaders and 324 couples eligible for family planning from 36 villages in the three provinces were interviewed. The volunteers and cadres have made a significant contribution to the implementation of the family planning programme. They promote family planning, organise meetings, provide information, organise income-generation activities, give savings and credit assistance, collect and report data and deliver other family welfare services. Teachers, wives of government officials and others recognised by the community as better off in terms of education and living conditions were most often identified to become family planning volunteers. Because they are women and because they are the most distant arm of the programme, their work is taken for granted. As their activities are directed towards women, especially in women's traditional roles, the programme tends to entrench the existing gender gap in responsibility for family planning and family welfare.

  20. Men and family planning in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vicente, A

    1993-10-01

    Although family planning services in Portugal are open to everybody, male and female, and they are free of charge, it is mostly women who are using the services, since family planning services have integrated maternal health care. Between 1978 and 1981, the Commission for the Portuguese Commission for Equality and Women's Rights implemented a family planning information, education, and communication project under technical and financial aid by the United Nations Population Fund. During a training course for a group of 12 women, which took place in the small town Vialonga near Lisbon in 1992, all women said that their husbands did not play any role in family planning. The choice of the method was their sole responsibility. In 1988, data were gathered by the General Direction of Primary Health Care from the local health services. 17.6% of women used the pill, and 28% practiced coitus interruptus. Condom use amounted to 5.7%. Other methods were the IUD (7.3%), natural methods (3.6%), spermicides (2.6%), the diaphragm (0.3%), and sterilization (female 3.6%; male 0.3%). In 1992, the Commission published a study on family planning, involving 638 men and 882 women, which concluded that the responsibility for family planning was no longer exclusively with women and that young, single people were in favor of family planning information sessions. The Portuguese Constitution states that the state shall promote a wider knowledge of family planning methods and responsible parenthood. The Health Secretary of State ordered the integration of family planning into the National Health Service in 1976. A 1984 law, Sex Education and Family Planning, and a 1985 Government Order constitute the legal framework for the practice of family planning. The Commission for Equality and Women's Rights has been implementing information, education, and communication activities since 1976. One of the members of the Consultative Council is the Association for Family Planning, which has also been

  1. Brainstorming: an application for programme planning in family welfare planning.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, T V

    1985-01-01

    There have been many participatory devices developed and applied for programme planning in a variety of fields by the social scientists in the recent past, of which brainstorming is one. This device has been widely used in interpretive structural modelling to higher education programme planning, programme planning for housing in urban development, etc. Following these studies, application of brainstorming to develop a preliminary operational value system as a structural model for programme planning in Family planning was attempted. The products of a sequence of three sessions of approximately 5 hours each generated 39 needs, 28 alterables, and 22 constraints, all of which were used to set Family Planning objectives /34/. The objectives thus derived were used in building an intent structure to understand their priorities in plan formulation and eventual implementation.

  2. Charging fees for family planning services.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    As the demand for family planning services expands, governments and international donor agencies are finding it increasingly difficult to subsidize the costs of these services and are examining the feasibility of client fees. This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" evaluates the pros and cons of charging for services and outlines steps for instituting such a program. This process should be preceded by an assessment of the objective in introducing user fees, the ability and willingness of clients to pay for services, client perceptions of the quality of services, possible regulatory and political restrictions to charging fees, and the actual cost of each service provided. Registration, membership, service, and contraception fees are among the approaches to revenue generation. Fee determination can be based on ability to pay, fees charged for comparable services at benchmark clinics, in relation to the price of common household commodities (e.g., annual membership equivalent to the cost of 12 soft drinks), or specific cost recovery objectives (e.g., 25% of operating costs). The introduction of client fees requires a system for collecting and checking fees at service sites, exemption policies or waivers for those not able to afford the cost of services, internal financial controls, and regular financial reporting procedures. The community has a right to be informed about the fees that will be charged for each service, how the fees are being used, and whether the organization is making a profit. It is important to emphasize that revenue from fees will be used to enhance the quality of clinic services.

  3. Family planning, managed care, and rural America.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M; Jacquart, K; Quam, L

    1995-09-01

    Within the United States, rural residents encounter a greater number of barriers in accessing health care services than their urban counterparts. In general, rural Americans have less access to both family planning services and managed care delivery systems. Given the rapid changes in health care, we reviewed the implications for the provision and integration of family planning and managed care services in rural areas, where there is limited experience in establishing working relationships between those services. In many instances, family planning services are well established in rural areas where managed care has not yet penetrated. Our case study in Minnesota suggests that, although managed care and family planning services are developing in rural areas, there is little evidence of collaboration. Several innovative and successful family planning projects do exist in rural areas, however, and serve as models of successful population-based programs that could work well with health plans. Although this study concentrated on the provision and utilization of subsidized family planning services, there is a compelling need for further work to determine accurately where rural residents are accessing such services and how the expansion of managed care will affect the delivery of reproductive health care.

  4. Family planning not against any religion.

    PubMed

    1976-10-01

    The 3-day siminar "Hum Do, Hamare Do," sponsored by Amrita Bazar Patrika and Jugantar, was addressed by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed and other top-ranking national and state leaders. The purpose of the seminar was to spread the message of family planning and counteract propaganda against it. The President congratulated the Indian press for sponsoring the seminar and proclaimed the duty of the mass media to involve the people in the struggle against poverty. He noted that although agricultural production has doubled and life expectancy has increased 50%, the rising population has negated any national progress. The common people must be convinced that family planning is vital to eradicate poverty and unemployment. It is false propaganda that family planning is not permitted by Islam and that Muslims have not adapted family planning. Nowhere in the Koran, the Hadis, or Jima is there prohibition of family planning. The family planning program, as part of an integrated health service, must be accepted by the people through the creation of an atmosphere where the norm of small families is acceptable to a very large section of the population.

  5. Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-30

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Environment Department addresses its responsibilities through activities in a variety of areas. The need for a comprehensive management control system for these activities has been identified by the Department of Energy (DOE). The WM QA (Waste Management Quality Assurance) Plan is an integral part of a management system that provides controls necessary to ensure that the department`s activities are planned, performed, documented, and verified. This WM QA Plan defines the requirements of the WM QA program. These requirements are derived from DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, the LBL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (OAP, LBL PUB-3111), and other environmental compliance documents applicable to WM activities. The requirements presented herein, as well as the procedures and methodologies that direct the implementation of these requirements, will undergo review and revisions as necessary. The provisions of this QA Plan and its implementing documents apply to quality-affecting activities performed by and for WM. It is also applicable to WM contractors, vendors, and other LBL organizations associated with WM activities, except where such contractors, vendors, or organizations are governed by their own WM-approved QA programs. References used in the preparation of this document are (1) ASME NQA-1-1989, (2) ANSI/ASQC E4 (Draft), (3) Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (LBL PUB-5352, Rev. 1), (4) LBL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (OAP), LBL PUB-3111, 2/3/93. A list of terms and definitions used throughout this document is included as Appendix A.

  6. Total Quality Management Implementation Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    E 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES TOM ( Total Quality Management ), Continuous Process Improvement,_________ Depot Operations, Supply Support 16... Quality Management Implementation Plan 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Defense General...Reduction PrOtect (O704.Ot8SL Wasilngton, OC 20503j. .EPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED June 19891 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Total

  7. How much do family planning programs cost?

    PubMed

    Sparer, G; Okada, L M; Tillinghast, S

    1973-01-01

    The results of 2 cost studies on family planning programs are compared. National Analysts, Inc. studied 45 family planning programs for the program years 1968-1969. Westinghouse Population Center studied 27 family planning projects of 25 agencies for the program year 1970-1971. The Westinghouse projects were considerably larger in terms of operating costs than the National Analysts programs. Comparisons are made by way of multiple graphs and statistical tables. Per patient costs and the distribution of costs between direct medical services and indirect costs are consistent between the 2 studies. The results emphasize economies of scale and diseconomies of very large scale. From a cost basis, the ideal family planning project characteristics are: 1) a patient volume of approximately 3000; 2) a budget size of about $175,000; and 3) an institutional base. Programs with 1-site services were less costly than those with multiple sites or those using private physicians to provide the primary medical services.

  8. Cambodian refugees' family planning knowledge and use.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J C

    1995-07-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted within a Cambodian refugee community to discover information about Cambodian women's and men's knowledge and use of family planning methods. This 18-month study included participant observation at community and calendrical events, and within families' homes. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 53 informants from a variety of educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Both women and men were interviewed through a female bilingual interpreter when the informant lacked proficiency in speaking English. Major findings include a lack of knowledge among the sample about how the family planning methods work in the woman's body, and concerns about side-effects. Implications include the need to include Cambodian women and men in the planning and implementation of family planning programmes.

  9. Discharge planning quality from the carer perspective.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, K A; Moss, J R; Gill, T K

    2000-01-01

    Discharge planning endeavours to assist the transition of patients from the acute hospital setting into the community. We examined the quality of discharge planning from the perspective of the carer. Spouses were the most common carers for the elderly patients in our study. Many carers were also elderly, with their own health problems. Using a new instrument (entitled PREPARED) (K. Grimmer and J. Moss, Int J Qual Health Care (in press)), carers rated the quality of planning for discharge much lower than did the patient, indicating that their needs were often not met when discharge was being planned. In free text responses, carers expressed their dissatisfaction over communication about how the family would cope once the patient went home. Carers generally had lower summary mental quality of life scores than the Australian norms (as measured by the SF-36 health survey (J. Ware and R. Sherbourne, Med Care 1992; 30: 473-483)), suggesting that the caring role may have impacted upon their emotional wellbeing. The rate of use of community services in the first week post-discharge was low, suggesting that carers and patients carried the majority of the burden immediately after discharge. We suggest that planning for hospital discharge requires more consideration of the carer.

  10. Family Planning Among Southeast Asian Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Minkler, Donald H.; Korenbrot, Carol; Brindis, Claire

    1988-01-01

    Five different Southeast Asian groups were studied to document family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and to identify current barriers to care. Significant differences exist among ethnic groups in their knowledge and use of effective methods of contraception, as well as variations in the timing of when to adopt family planning practices and in the preferred number of children. Nearly 70% of the sample had experienced barriers to services, including language, transportation, and a lack of awareness of available services. PMID:3363968

  11. A dynamic family planning and health campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach.

  12. Family planning as preventive health measure.

    PubMed

    Dumindin, J B

    1986-01-01

    The link between health and family planning efforts in the Philippines goes back to the beginnings of the National Population Program. In this interview, Dr. Dumindin of the Ministry of Health (MOh) discusses the impact of family planning on health. The family planning program of the MOH, since its inception in 1970, has undergone expansion and taken new initiatives and directions to meet the changing needs of the target clientele. Family planning information, education, and motivation is provided and maintained during routine prenatal, natal, and postnatal clinic and field activities. As of January 1986, the MOH had a total of 2100 clinics--rural health units, medical centers, hospitals, mobile clinics, and special clinics--all over the country. It is estimated that the Ministry's family planning activities have averted around a million births. It is hoped to extend the coverage of the programs to areas that have not been reached before, through further community involvement, by enlisting the participation of more workers in the community, training them on integrated health and family planning services, setting up more service facilities and clinic extensions, and by improving contraceptive use-effectiveness. Hopefully, the Philippine people will become less program-dependent and more self-motivated, and they will recognize the need for birth spacing, birth limiting, and total health care--not as suggested from the outside, but coming from within themselves.

  13. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment.

  14. Confidentiality in Family Planning Services for Young People

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, Anna W.; Williams, Jessica R.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Moskosky, Susan B.; Weik, Tasmeen S.

    2015-01-01

    Context Family planning services are essential for reducing high rates of unintended pregnancies among young people, yet a perception that providers will not preserve confidentiality may deter youth from accessing these services. This systematic review, conducted in 2011, summarizes the evidence on the effect of assuring confidentiality in family planning services to young people on reproductive health outcomes. The review was used to inform national recommendations on providing quality family planning services. Evidence acquisition Multiple databases were searched to identify articles addressing confidentiality in family planning services to youth aged 10–24 years. Included studies were published from January 1985 through February 2011. Studies conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand, and those that focused exclusively on HIV or sexually transmitted diseases, were excluded. Evidence synthesis The search strategy identified 19,332 articles, nine of which met the inclusion criteria. Four studies examined outcomes. Examined outcomes included use of clinical services and intention to use services. Of the four outcome studies, three found a positive association between assurance of confidentiality and at least one outcome of interest. Five studies provided information on youth perspectives and underscored the idea that young people greatly value confidentiality when receiving family planning services. Conclusions This review demonstrates that there is limited research examining whether confidentiality in family planning services to young people affects reproductive health outcomes. A robust research agenda is needed, given the importance young people place on confidentiality. PMID:26190851

  15. A Small Library in Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This annotated listing of books is intended as a reference for anyone seeking an authoritative introduction to population and family planning information, as a world, family, or individual concern. For each entry, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is provided if available. The number preceding each reference represents the…

  16. Waste Management Quality Assurance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Waste Management Group

    2006-08-14

    The WMG QAP is an integral part of a management system designed to ensure that WMG activities are planned, performed, documented, and verified in a manner that assures a quality product. A quality product is one that meets all waste acceptance criteria, conforms to all permit and regulatory requirements, and is accepted at the offsite treatment, storage, and disposal facility. In addition to internal processes, this QA Plan identifies WMG processes providing oversight and assurance to line management that waste is managed according to all federal, state, and local requirements for waste generator areas. A variety of quality assurance activities are integral to managing waste. These QA functions have been identified in the relevant procedures and in subsequent sections of this plan. The WMG QAP defines the requirements of the WMG quality assurance program. These requirements are derived from Department of Energy (DOE) Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, Contractor Requirements Document, the LBNL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (OAP), and other applicable environmental compliance documents. The QAP and all associated WMG policies and procedures are periodically reviewed and revised, as necessary, to implement corrective actions, and to reflect changes that have occurred in regulations, requirements, or practices as a result of feedback on work performed or lessons learned from other organizations. The provisions of this QAP and its implementing documents apply to quality-affecting activities performed by the WMG; WMG personnel, contractors, and vendors; and personnel from other associated LBNL organizations, except where such contractors, vendors, or organizations are governed by their own WMG-approved QA programs.

  17. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…

  18. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  19. Family planning in Maghreb: redefining responsibility.

    PubMed

    Armitage, A

    1993-10-01

    In Maghreb, men often influence women's family planning decisions including the methods they choose. Traditional religious and cultural customs, as well as legal dicta, emphasize the responsibility of men over wives and family. A survey conducted in Algeria showed that out of 47% of married women in reproductive age who had never used contraception, 12% cited the opposition of their husbands/partners and 4% had quit contraceptive use because of partner pressure. Acceptors also prefer oral contraceptives because of the fear that IUDs can be discovered. The husband is required to sign a written consent form for tubal ligation; de jure in Morocco and de facto in Tunisia and Algeria. Tunisia is the only country which allows abortion on request up to the 3rd month of pregnancy without consent of the partner. In Algeria an Morocco, abortion is illegal except for maternal health or legal reasons with partner approval. In Algerian society, however, women have traditionally used their fertility for negotiating better status in the extended family comprising mother-in-law, father-in-law, son, and daughter-in-law. The only source of power of the daughter-in-law is producing offspring, preferably sons. Family programs in Maghreb must center on the increasing acceptability of family planning programs while sensitizing males to grant more freedom to wives. Such a program is underway through the Moroccan Association for Family Planning. Similarly, in Tunis a new program targeting males has been developed. Partner communication is an essential component of this, particularly in rural areas where family planning is still taboo. The redefinition of male responsibility and equality in decision-making increases the acceptability of family planning and promotes the status of women within the family and society.

  20. [Effect of development of rural commodity economy on family planning].

    PubMed

    Chen, X

    1986-05-01

    The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.

  1. Africa: support for family planning grows.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    African countries, generally regarded as among the world's most cautious on family planning matters, may be the most dramatic growth area for family planning projects over the next few years, according to the Kenya-based Regional Director for Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), PPFA's own worldwide aid program. In a recent status report to FPIA's New York headquarters, L. Robinson, a U.S. citizen and former Peace Corps volunteer who recently left FPIA to join the staff of the new House Committee on Population, forecasts a near-tripling of FPIA-funded projects in 1978 - from 7 to 19. Most of the potential new projects - in Nigeria, Togo, Liberia, Tanzania, and Sierra Leone - will involve the addition of family planning services to existing maternal and child health delivery systems, with emphasis upon the training of physicians and other medical, counseling, and educational personnel. Other prospective projects include family life education for adolescents in Cameroun and Ghana, and a full-scale rural, mobile services delivery program in Tunisia. Behind these promising prospects is what Mr. Robinson sees as a quiet but deliberate move by several governments - including Sierra Leone, Togo, and Cameroun - towards accepting family planning as an integral component of maternal and child health services. The moves in Cameroun and Togo are especially significant since both are French-speaking, and traditionally "pro-natalist and somewhat hostile to family planning." The pattern of change in these and other countries tends to be somewhat slow and low-keyed, he notes; most governments "prefer not to have explicit official policies and programs, but rather to allow the gradual evolution of private services becoming an integral part of government-administered health and medical facilities." And even in some countries where government policies remain highly restrictive - Ivory Coast, e.g., where laws prohibit family planning except when necessary on medical and

  2. Family planning programs and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Cuca, R

    1980-01-01

    A recently completed World Bank statistical study of family planning in 63 developing countries indicated that countries which experienced a large decline in birth rates between 1960-1977 were more likely to have a family planning program, an official population policy aimed at decreasing the birth rate, and a relatively high level of development than countries which experienced smaller or no decline in birth rates. The 65 countries represented 95% of the population of the developing world. Birth rate declines of 10% or more between 1960-1977 were experienced by: 1) 10 of the 26 countries which had a family planning program and a policy aimed at reducing the birth rate; 2) 6 of the 19 countries which had a family planning program but lacked clearly defined population objectives; and 3) 2 of the 18 countries without any population policy or program. Furthermore, the implementation of a family planning program and the adoption of a population policy were directly related to the development level of the country. This finding suggested that countries need to reach a certain level of development before they have the capacity to develop population programs and policies. When a country is sufficiently advanced to collect population data, awareness of population problems increases and they are more likely to adopt a population policy. In addition, government efficiency increases as development proceeds and governments must have a certain level of efficiency before they can implement effective programs.

  3. Family planning funding cuts and teen childbearing.

    PubMed

    Packham, Analisa

    2017-09-01

    Publicly funded family planning clinics provide low-cost and free contraception to nearly 1.5 million teens each year. In recent years, several states have considered legislation to defund family planning services, although little is known about how these cuts affect teen pregnancy. This paper fills this knowledge gap by exploiting a policy change in Texas that reduced funding for family planning services by 67% and resulted in over 80 clinic closures. I estimate the effects of the funding cuts on teen health outcomes using a difference-in-differences approach that compares the changes in teen birth rates in Texas counties that lost family planning funding to changes in counties outside of Texas with publicly funded clinics. I find that reducing funding for family planning services in Texas increased teen birth rates by approximately 3.4% over four years with effects concentrated 2-3 years after the initial cuts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  5. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used. ...

  6. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used. ...

  7. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used. ...

  8. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For beneficiaries eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used. ...

  9. Observations concerning family planning education in China.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, M V

    1981-11-01

    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears

  10. Social marketing: the family planning experience.

    PubMed

    El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J

    1973-07-01

    The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs.

  11. Menstrual regulation in family planning services.

    PubMed

    Kessel, E; Brenner, W E; Stathes, G H

    1975-07-01

    Menstrual regulation is a safe, effective, and economical method of fertility control. Its increased safety compared to first trimester abortion establishes menstrual regulation by vacuum aspiration for treatment of up to 14 days missed menstrual period as probably better medical practice than waiting to confirm the presence of a pregnancy. Because it is a postcontraceptive method, menstrual regulation has potential in family planning services both as a recruitment service and for the treatment of contraceptive failures. Its use as an only method of fertility control is being studied. The acceptance of this new family planning service will primarily depend on its availability, dissemination of information about the service, and the ability of women freely to avail themselves of the service without delay. Although long term effects of single and repeated use of menstrual regulation are not known, its immediate complications are few and it can be recommended as a useful addition to present fertility control methods in family planning programs.

  12. Vanguard family planning acceptors in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nichols, D; Ndiaye, S; Burton, N; Janowitz, B; Gueye, L; Gueye, M

    1985-01-01

    This study examines contraceptive use among clients at the three clinics providing family planning services in Dakar, Senegal in early 1983. Most clients first became interested in family planning following the birth of a child, and most are interested in spacing future pregnancies, although one-third state that they want no more children. The clinic itself was found to be an important determinant of the type of contraceptive used, with only the government-operated clinic providing a balance between IUDs, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. Nearly half of the clients interviewed said that a lack of knowledge about contraception is the reason for the low contraceptive prevalence rates among Senegalese women; another frequently cited reason was the opposition of the husband. Most clients reported the broadcast media to be the best means of providing family planning information to potential acceptors.

  13. Family planning uses traditional theater in Mali.

    PubMed

    Schubert, J

    1988-01-01

    Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication.

  14. Men and family planning: a special initiative.

    PubMed

    Harper, P B; Jezowski, T W

    1991-10-01

    Research reports have consistently shown that the male partner is one of the most important influences on a woman's decisions about childbearing and contraception. In countries around the world, AVSC has found that men play a critical role in the choice for female sterilization. Yet, historically, family planning programs have focused their efforts on women. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) has launched a special male initiative both to expand male sterilization services and to involve men more in contraceptive decision-making. Research studies have demonstrated that most men are in favor of family planning. In most developing countries an overwhelming majority of men have heard of at least one method involving male participation. Around the world, vasectomy accounts for 12% of contraceptive use; female sterilization, for 27%. Over the next 3 years, funded by private contributors and the US Agency for International Development, AVSC will be conducting its special male initiative. Activities include the following: integrating male-involvement components into AVSC projects in the field; expanding counseling activities to focus more attention on men; establishing training centers for male involvement in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and North Africa/Middle East; reviewing the materials and revising them to include more information about men; placing more emphasis on involving men in decisions about contraceptive use in the postpartum period; conducting national meetings in various countries about male involvement; sponsoring an international conference on the role of men in family planning; encouraging other international family planning agencies to expand their work with men; completing a major literature review about how men are involved in family planning and contraceptive decision-making; conducting research about men and family planning decision-making; studying the effectiveness of various occlusion methods used in vasectomy

  15. Is it safe? Talking to teens with HIV/AIDS about death and dying: a 3-month evaluation of Family Centered Advance Care (FACE) planning – anxiety, depression, quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Maureen E; Garvie, Patricia A; Briggs, Linda; He, Jianping; Malow, Robert; D’Angelo, Lawrence J; McCarter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the safety of engaging HIV-positive (HIV+) adolescents in a Family Centered Advance Care (FACE) planning intervention. Patients and methods We conducted a 2-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial in 2 hospital-based outpatient clinics from 2006–2008 with HIV+ adolescents and their surrogates (n = 76). Three 60–90 minutes sessions were conducted weekly. FACE intervention groups received: Lyon FCACP Survey©, the Respecting Choices® interview, and completion of The Five Wishes©. The Healthy Living Control (HLC) received: Developmental History, Healthy Tips, Future Planning (vocational, school or vocational rehabilitation). Three-month post-intervention outcomes were: completion of advance directive (Five Wishes©); psychological adjustment (Beck Depression, Anxiety Inventories); quality of life (PedsQL™); and HIV symptoms (General Health Self-Assessment). Results Adolescents had a mean age, 16 years; 40% male; 92% African-American; 68% with perinatally acquired HIV, 29% had AIDS diagnosis. FACE participants completed advance directives more than controls, using time matched comparison (P < 0.001). Neither anxiety, nor depression, increased at clinically or statistically significant levels post-intervention. FACE adolescents maintained quality of life. FACE families perceived their adolescents as worsening in their school (P = 0.018) and emotional (P = 0.029) quality of life at 3 months, compared with controls. Conclusions Participating in advance care planning did not unduly distress HIV+ adolescents. PMID:22096382

  16. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Systems effects on family planning innovativeness.

    PubMed

    Lee, S B

    1983-12-01

    Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by

  18. Family planning--male responsibility campaign.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    At a press conference on March 29, 1982, the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong launched a 1-year campaign to encourage men to assume more responsibility in family planning. The campaign will publicize the message that "real men" share family planning responsibilities with their wives. The campaign was developed in response to the Association's recognition that its male clinics were underutilized. Although the Association established its 1st male clinic in 1960, only 1.3% of the Association's clients in 1981 were men. Futhermore, the number of vasectomies performed in recent years had not increased. The campaign will seek to overcome the prevailing attitude that family planning is a women's issue, the reluctance of men to discuss fertility with their physicians, and various misconceptions about male methods. Activities initiated during the 1st few months of the campaign included 1) broadcasting a 30-second television spot to promote the male responsibility message; 2) setting up a mobile exhibit in railway stations and commercial complexes to inform the public about male birth control methods and about the services offered at the Association's male clinics; 3) giving away items which publicize the male clinics such as stickers, match boxes, condom samples, and literature; and 4) selling T-shirts which promote 2 as the ideal family size. In addition, a contest aimed at publicizing male birth control was undertaken jointly by a television magazine, Durex Products, and the Association. The contest engendered considerable interest and 2600 entries were received from men.

  19. Family planning policy and administration; an overview.

    PubMed

    Rao, K N

    1972-01-01

    With 2.4% of the worlds area and 2% of the world income, India supports 14% of the total world population. The family planning program which stated in 1952 is organized at the centra, state, district, and block level. The central government family planning department handles communication, financing, and supplies for the national program. Innovative projects can be tried at the state level. Some of the program's weaknesses are: 1)population education at any level is not included; 2)professional consultation for the program is needed; 3)population services in rural areas are lacking; 4)family planning should be integrated with maternal and child health programs; 5)the IUD program failed because follow-up care was lacking; and 6)more family planning training is needed. More attention needs to be paid to the program at the local level. Voluntary organizations could be useful in the following ways: 1)mass communication and education; 2)research; and 3)creation of favorable public opinion on the local level. Incentives and disincentives to establish the small family norm are recommended. Any new population policy must include more attention to general socioeconomic development of the country.

  20. Family planning in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Osborn, M

    1986-11-01

    The general situation of family planning in Papua New Guinea, several of the relevant traditional beliefs, and a pilot project of community based distribution and family planning education in a rural market town. There is no government policy on population, although community based distribution programs have been active in some areas for 10 years. Papua New Guinea has a crude birth rate of 44/1000, an average of 6 children per family, but has only begun to introduce primary health care. Consequently, the population is expected to double by 2015. The pilot program, in a market town called Maprik in East Sepik Province, targets 44,378 women from surrounding villages, of whom about 800 may be using contraception. A family planning nurse is training 20 members of a Women's Council. In a 4-day course, held in the Council House, community distribution workers discussed family planning, responsible parenthood, sex education, nutrition, environmental and population issues. Ancient taboos and social controls that used to space births are breaking down under the pressure of missionization and westernization. Intercourse is still prohibited during menstruation and breastfeeding. There are specific magic spells and rituals used to insure fertility or abortion: these examples were used to help women understand the concepts of modern family planning methods. The nurse encouraged feedback from the women, and only held one formal teaching session, on record-keeping. For the success of the program, field workers should work from within, and supervise adequately. This will be done with quarterly refresher courses and monthly follow-up in each village.

  1. Current Literature in Family Planning, Number 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…

  2. A call for a family planning surge

    PubMed Central

    Temmerman, M.; Van Braeckel, D.; Degomme, O.

    2012-01-01

    In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, laid out in its Programme of Action an impressive and ambitious set of goals for improving sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) all over the world, by the target date of 2015 (International Conference on Population and Development 1994). One of these goals was the provision of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family-planning methods. However, notwithstanding increases in budgets for family planning during the years following the ICPD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), there has been an alarming neglect from the international community for the topic since the year 2000. As a result, the progress made during the second half of the nineties slowed down considerably between 2000 and 2010; in a sense, one could say that ten years were almost wasted! This is astonishing, the more since meeting the need for family planning would have beneficial impacts on public health, environmental sustainability and social and economic development. In this paper, we explore these impacts and urge for a strong renewed commitment of the global community in the form of a global family planning decade. PMID:24753885

  3. "Guji, Guji, Angela]" Family planning programme.

    PubMed

    She, W

    1997-08-01

    Demand for contraception and sterilization among women in Tibet is high. In 1966, when a family planning service team was sent to Namling County by the Maternal and Child Health Hospital (MCHH) of the Region, more than 500 women from six local townships arrived at the county MCHH seeking surgical sterilization. Since only one doctor was available to do ligation, most of the women were turned away; however, they would not leave until they were given a written appointment for a future date. In 1996, a 27-year-old Tibetan mother from Baxoi County, who had 5 children, traveled for 2 days, with 2 of her children, to a county town to be sterilized. A woman from Tingri County, who had 4 children, reached a county hospital only to be asked to return home; again, there were only one or two doctors available. She gave birth to a 5th child and returned to the hospital; again, the doctor was unavailable. Since then, she has delivered a 6th child. According to Bai Lang (secretary of the County Party committee), who spoke before the Regional Family Planning Committee, Namling County's nationally recognized poverty could have been alleviated if family planning had been implemented earlier. Family planning policy has been accepted well there.

  4. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  5. Career and Family Plans of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Susan B.

    Factors which mediate the life decisions of college men and women were examined. Undergraduates (N=107) completed questionnaires about career and family plans, notions of success and failure, integration of two potentially conflicting roles, and the relationship between personal values, life goals, and choices. Results indicated that: (1) women…

  6. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  7. [Toward a predictive model of family planning].

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S

    1980-01-01

    A study of 1200 women aged 15-45 in Mexico City was conducted with the object of discovering the factors that have the greatest predictive value for attitudes, beliefs, intentions, and behavior in reference to family planning. Information was solicited by questionnaire with respect to 6 groups of variables: 1) independent variables (age, education, occupation and education of spouse, and whether the woman worked before marriage); 2) perceived value of children and family planning; 3) peer group norms; 4) marital relationship; 5) modernization; and 6) motivation. Factor analysis was applied to each of the groups ofvariables to determine which factors had the greatest impact within the group; then multiple regression analysis was applied to determine which factors had the greatest predictive value. A predictive model of family planning according to the results is illustrated and the various aspects discussed. It was found that the intention to use contraceptives and a good marital relationship (one with open communication and shared decision making) were the best predictors of effective family planning behavior.

  8. [Family planning in Chile (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Romero, H

    1977-10-01

    Like many other countries, Chile began programs for family planning in 1962, with the organization of the Chilean Association for Family Protection (APROFA). The need for family planning in order to reduce large families and avoid unwanted pregnancies was felt by the community. Later on, a number of institutions, both state and private, joined in these efforts, with special participation of the National Health Service which is currently directing the programs and facilitates the outpatient clinics. APROFA is affiliated with FIPF and thereby obtains financial, scientific, and technical aid. The birth rate has decreased in Chile from 36/1000 in 1964 to 26.6/1000 in 1974. In the same period, the population growth has decreased to 1.6% and maternal mortality has diminished 40%. Mortality from abortions has decreased 65% and hospitalizations derived from this source by 15%. It must be emphasized that not all of these changes can be attributed to action of family planning. Since there has been a concomitant improvement in living standards as well as other factors difficult to evaluate. (author's modified)

  9. Process chemistry {ampersand} statistics quality assurance plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meznarich, H.K.

    1996-08-01

    This document provides quality assurance guidelines and quality control requirements for Process Chemistry and Statistics. This document is designed on the basis of Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) technical guidelines and is used for governing process chemistry activities.

  10. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  11. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early intervention...

  13. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early intervention...

  14. 34 CFR 303.20 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 303.20 Section 303... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.20 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP means a written plan for providing early intervention...

  15. Family planning in the 21st century: perspective of the International Planned Parenthood Federation.

    PubMed

    Brueggemann, I

    1997-07-01

    Many women still die as a result of pregnancy or childbirth and yet there are an increasing number of women who wish to regulate their fertility and space or limit their child-bearing. This paper, outlining some success stories, elucidates the family planning challenges and identifies key messages to indicate the role that IPPF can play in the 21st century. Issues such as advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights, increased male participation, serving the interests of marginalized groups, appropriate technology, quality of care and cooperation between various partners, all need to be addressed to improve sexual and reproductive health including family planning in the 21st century.

  16. [Implementation and expansion of family planning services: questions and controversies].

    PubMed

    Canesqui, A M

    1985-01-01

    Even though the Brazilian government's position on birth control in the last few years has been ambiguous, it is moving away from the pro-life attitude that was prevalent in the 1960s and through the mid-1970s. The economic conditions during this period created a sense of urgency in establishing family planning programs to divert possible economic and social repercussions. The creation and expansion of family planning services in the last 2 decades have improved the distribution of contraceptives, related health care, and research. The problems of birth control and family planning are the same in Brazil as in the rest of the world. There is and always will be a moral, ethical, religious, or political question from the groups that traditionally oppose these concepts. The theme of responsible birth control is 1 of the tools used in the attempt to get the message across. Some results of irresponsible birth control are abortions, poverty, and misery. Proposals for integrating the various family planning services have not been implemented due to a lack of priorities in spending the available funds. Most of these health groups place responsibility for providing these methods of family planning upon the State. The groups say the State needs to consider women's freedom, sexuality and personal preferences in providing the family planning programs. A few groups prefer private sector sponsorship in order to preserve the woman's options concerning health care. The need for health care and the question of democracy both need to be taken into consideration when dealing with human reproduction. Attention should also be paid to the quality of health service, in order to guarantee less distortion of the issue and provide better medical care for all.

  17. Successful family planning: Profamilia in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, F

    1973-01-01

    Profamilia, the Association for the Welfare of the Colombian Family, was begun in 1965. It includes the largest Planned Parenthood clinic in the world. Profamilia's acceptors have increased from 83 in 1965 to 73,000 in 1972. In addition to the Profamilia service center, Pilot Center, there were 43 clinics in 29 Colombian cities in 1972. In that same year, Profamilia's Education Department carried out 15,265 talks for 208,159 prospective family planning users and gave 6116 film presentations to 163,709 people in urban areas. In rural areas some 6893 conferences and 2542 film presentations were given to over a quarter million people. In 1971 Profamilia began a nonclinical contraceptive distribution project in Risaralda. There is also a voluntary sterilization program. 2000 vasectomies have been performed and they are now averaging 100 per month. 398 family planning information centers were attended by 20,000 individuals in 1972. Profamilia has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation since 1968.

  18. Family emergency preparedness plans in severe tornadoes.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan; Luo, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes, with warnings usually issued just minutes before their touchdowns, pose great threats to properties and people's physical and mental health. Few studies have empirically investigated the association of family emergency preparedness planning and observed protective behaviors in the context of tornadoes. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for the action of taking shelter at the time of tornadoes. Specifically, this study investigated whether having a family emergency preparedness plan was associated with higher likelihood of taking shelter upon receiving tornado warnings. This study also examined the effects of socioeconomic status and functional limitations on taking such actions. A telephone survey based on random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO. Each city experienced considerable damages, injuries, and casualties after severe tornadoes (EF-4 and EF-5) in 2011. The working sample included 892 respondents. Analysis was conducted in early 2013. Logistic regression identified emergency preparedness planning as the only shared factor that increased the likelihood of taking shelter in both cities and the only significant factor in Joplin. In Tuscaloosa, being female and white also increased the likelihood of taking shelter. Disability was not found to have an effect. This study provided empirical evidence on the importance of having a family emergency preparedness plan in mitigating the risk of tornadoes. The findings could be applied to other rapid-onset disasters. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  19. Spousal veto over family planning services.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Maine, D

    1987-01-01

    In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842

  20. Integrating family planning with other social services.

    PubMed

    Bernales, E H

    1982-01-01

    Family planning outreach workers in the 43 municipalities of Iloilo Province, Western Visayas, the Philippines, have provided their communities with health, nutrition, educational, and agricultural services since 1973, when the Provincial Development Staff (PDS) began attempting to integrate services. The early work of the PDS was aided by the launching of the National Population and Family Planning Outreach Project in rural areas in 1976 and the creation of the Provincial Population Office (PPO) in 1977. 43% of the Outreach Project cost is borne by the local government, with the Commission on Population covering the rest. It is anticipated that the local goverment will eventually absorb the full cost. The Outreach officers have become an integral part of the planning body of the provincial government, largely due to the creation of the Provincial Consultative Committee on Population (PCCP) in 1979. The PCCP, composed of 22 governmental and private agencies involved in population-related activities, is charged with implementing the national population program in order to utilize all possible resources for provincial development. Its Integrated Provincial Population Plan has become part of the total provincial development plan. The Municipal Population Planning Actions Teams, whose functions are patterned on those of the PCCPs, further strengthen local planning at the municipal level. Full-Time Outreach Workers participate as well in planning at the barangay level. The various community-based projects initiated by the Outreach staff in Iloilo demonstrate a concern with making the population program responsive to the immediate needs of the provincial population. Organizations which teach better farming methods and undertake community projects emphasize local initiative and solutions to problems, and demonstrate the committment of population workers to broader development efforts. Outreach workers are involved in primary health care, social service delivery, income

  1. Family planning and protection of human rights.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the

  2. China's first family planning publicity month.

    PubMed

    Shen, G

    1983-05-01

    China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760

  3. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.

  4. Ethical foundations of client-centered care in family planning.

    PubMed

    Kols, A J; Sherman, J E; Piotrow, P T

    1999-04-01

    Biomedical ethics provides the foundation for a model of client-centered care that can assure the good quality of family planning and other reproductive health services in developed and developing countries. Client concerns mirror the four ethical principles of autonomy, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence. Autonomy reflects clients' desire for full information and respect from providers so that they can exercise their right to make their own informed decisions. Justice, for clients, means fair treatment and ready access to services, regardless of one's socioeconomic status, education, ethnic group, or residence. Beneficence means that providers possess the technical competence and understanding needed to act in the best interest of their clients, as clients expect. Nonmaleficence translates into client concerns about safety--that no harm will come to them as a result of seeking services. Putting these ethical principles into practice requires changing providers' attitudes from paternalistic to client centered. Assessments of client satisfaction can help family planning programs identify and respond to client values and even raise client expectations about the care they should receive. Managers also can contribute to good quality care by meeting providers' professional needs for training, supervision, supplies, record keeping, and so on. Family planning programs around the world are focusing on these ethical concerns to emphasize respect for client values, appropriate decision making, broader access to services, and basic safety issues. Although they use a variety of techniques, all these quality assurance and improvement initiatives share an ethically based, client-centered philosophy.

  5. Indonesia family planning aims for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    Placing great emphasis on self-reliance, Indonesia's family planning program has been extremely successful in reducing the country's birth rate. since 1970, the once-threatening fertility rate has declined by more than 35%. And from 1980-90, the fertility rate declined from 4.6 to 3.0. The reason behind the dramatic change in fertility has been the increase in contraceptive use. Over 1/2 of all women of reproductive age use contraceptives, and nearly 95% of currently married women recognize at least one modern contraceptive method. A 1987 survey revealed that 62% of married women of reproductive age had used contraceptives, a figure that is expected to increase. The rise in contraceptive use is the direct result of carefully orchestrated initiatives under the leadership of Indonesia's National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), which has enjoyed the consistent support of President Suarto, who has headed the country for over a 1/4 century. BKKBN has implemented a highly successful self-reliance ("KB Mandiri") program called the Blue Circle campaign. Made possible by the participation of the private sector, the program has marketed government-subsidized contraceptives under the Blue Circle name. A pay-as-you-can program, the Blue Circle campaign charges middle and upper class couples full price, and only a partial fee or no fee at all for less wealthy clients. Observers also attribute the family planning program's success to the country's culture and to the strong support from the nation's Muslim population. In the coming years, the number of privately supplied contraceptives are expected to soar, and Indonesia's family planning program may soon become fully self-supported.

  6. Total quality management program planning

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  7. Taking family planning to the people.

    PubMed

    Fincancioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    A diversified pattern of family planning service delivery currently exists, one that is considerably extended through the development of a wide range of supply and distribution channels. In most areas, nongovernmental organizations have played a crucial role in the development of innovative approaches to making contraceptives widely available. In many nations the provision of contraceptives through the national health system continues to be the backbone of the family planning program. Changes in the approach to health care have helped increase the acccessibility and acceptability of family planning services. 2 factors necessitate a close link between contraceptive and health services: the need for medical skills and facilities in the provision of surgical contraceptive methods, and the importance of medical supervision in the continuing use of other methods. A widely used approach integrates contraceptive delivery with other development programs, community-based distribution (CBD) of contraceptives, and commercial retail sales. The cornerstone of CBD is extensive use of community networks and of trained community residents. An effective project requires efficient resupply and distribution mechanisms, carefully designed supervision systems, and medical back-up facilities. CBD has spread to over 40 countries, most of them in Asia and Latin America. Wider use of existing commercial retail outlets is being followed in more than 30 countries. Self-sufficiency of these projects has not been realized, and considerable subsidization continues to be required to maintain their efficiency. Efforts to increase the availability of contraceptives have been facilitated by the widening range of service providers. Nurses, midwives, traditional birth attendants, and members of the community are being trained to perform many family planning tasks in clinical and nonclinical settings. Many of these advances have been made possible by the liberalization of laws and regulations

  8. Quality Assurance Planning for Region 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ultimate success of an environmental program or project depends on the quality of the environmental data collected and used in decision-making. EPA has developed guidances to help state and tribal governments develop Quality Assurance Program Plans.

  9. Quality Assurance Planning for Region 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ultimate success of an environmental program or project depends on the quality of the environmental data collected and used in decision-making. EPA has developed guidances to help state and tribal governments develop Quality Assurance Program Plans.

  10. Checklist for Reviewing EPA Quality Management Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This checklist will be used to review the Quality Management Plans (QMPs) that are submitted to the Quality Staff of the Office of Environmental Information (OEI) for Agency review under EPA Order 5360.1 A2.

  11. [Family planning services under the Family Health Program in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2007-04-01

    This evaluative study was performed in eight counties in Ceará State, Brazil, from July to September 2003. Data were collected through interviews with 29 nurses and 50 users of the Family Health Program (FHP), besides observations at health units. The aim was to identify the nature of family planning services and verify the existence of barriers to services and provision of contraceptives with a view towards ensuring an appropriate services network. Five styles of services were identified, although none followed a formal protocol, which raises a legal and ethical dilemma regarding prescription of contraceptives by nurses; delivery of contraceptive methods requires a monthly return visit by users due to excessive and unnecessary technical requirements that create barriers to access by users; and there is a lack of appropriate services, with nurse- and doctor-centered treatment and lack of partnership with other reproductive health services or community groups. Future studies should be designed to identify distinct dynamics in the FHP that innovate in family planning, as well as to define the legal and ethical framework for nurses to prescribe the methods.

  12. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  13. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of...

  14. Using a Systems Framework for Organizing Family Financial Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kay P.

    1988-01-01

    Systems concepts are applied to family financial planning using a functional interpretation of systems analyses. The framework can help professionals researching family financial behavior and its outcomes, planning programs, and offering financial services. It can also be used by families in their own financial planning. (Author/JOW)

  15. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of the...

  16. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.24 Individualized family service plan. Individualized family service plan or IFSP has the meaning given the term in section 636 of the...

  17. Planning the global family. Ten years on.

    PubMed

    Singh, J S

    1984-06-01

    Estimates from the UN indicate that world population should finally stabilize at 10.2 billion people, growth stopping around 2100 when the number dying will finally match the number being born. The debate at the August 1984 UN sponsored gathering in Mexico City, the International Conference on Population, promises to be more practical than rhetorical than at the 1974 conference. In 1974 there were 2 opposed views of population growth: population soaring and the world's resources buckling under the strain with family planning viewed as the most effective remedy; and large families were a result of poverty rather than a cause of it and by eliminating poverty one would eliminate the need for large families. Experience gained over the last decade has moved the 2 sides together. Supporters of family planning as the only solution to world poverty found it to be of limited use unless it was related to activities on other issues such as delivery of basic health services, literacy, reductions in child and maternal mortality, and the status of women. Those who argued that development was the best contraceptive found that giving parents financial security helped to pave the way to smaller families but was not sufficient on its own. Vigorous family planning campaigns were still needed to make information and services acceptable and available to those who did decide to limit their families. The comprehensive World Fertility Survey (WFS) provides evidence from 43 developing countries to support this conclusion. The WFS interviewed thousands of women who said that they did not want any more children and found that less than half of these were actually using any form of contraception. Developing countries are now taking an active stance on population. 2/3 of the developing countries, containing 80% of the total population, expressed concerns about high fertility. The Asian governments have worked out their population policies in greatest detail, and most have set precise targets

  18. The importance of family planning in reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Fortney, J A

    1987-01-01

    Maternal mortality in many developing countries remains at distressingly high levels despite improvements in hospital obstetrics. WHO estimates that 1/2 million maternal deaths occur each year, 99% of which are in developing countries. While many people expect that widespread acceptance of family planning will bring down levels of maternal mortality, some analyses have claimed disappointing reductions, though others were more encouraging. The primary reason for this discrepancy lies in the choice of measure of maternal mortality, compounded somewhat by a confusion in terminology. Maternal mortality can be measured by: 1) the number of maternal deaths; 2) the maternal mortality ratio; 3) the maternal mortality rate; or 4) the lifetime risk of death in childbirth. Family planning use influences the maternal mortality ratio only to the extent that it reduces the proportion of pregnancies to high-risk women. The maternal mortality rate can be substantially influenced by the prevalence of contraception, but it is primarily the reduction in the number of births, per se, that exerts the influence. The choice of measure should be determined by the issue being addressed, and which of the 2 determinants of maternal mortality (obstetric risk or prevalence of pregnancy) is the focus. Current levels of maternal mortality in the developed countries have been achieved only with both good obstetric care and with low fertility. In developing countries today, modern obstetric care is often available only in a few teaching hospitals, but family planning programs are feasible even in remote areas. While implementing family planning programs is not easy, it is more feasible than the implementation of significant improvements in the quality and availability of obstetric care. The contribution of family planning to lower maternal mortality and morbidity should not be underestimated.

  19. Family Perceptions of Student Centered Planning and IEP Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.

    2005-01-01

    Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the…

  20. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  1. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  2. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a entral Environmental Restoration Division'' to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization's objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  3. Family Quality of Life Empowered by Family-Oriented Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schippers, Alice; van Boheemen, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Professional services for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) have begun to attach more importance to their environment. The concept of (family-related) quality of life proved to link very well with this idea and lent itself to constructing and evaluating services. One outcome was the emergence of equal partnerships between families,…

  4. Why some family planning program fail.

    PubMed

    1976-04-01

    40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting.

  5. Family planning services and Population Research Act.

    PubMed

    1973-11-01

    The Senate Human Resources Subcommittee under the chairmanship of Senator Alan Cranston has completed its work on the Family Planning Services and Population Research Amendments of 1973 (S. 1708) and has referred the bill to the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee. Right-to-Life activists are zeroing in on committee members in hopes of amending the bill to prohibit federal funds for sterilization and continued research on abortifacient drugs. If such provisions were to be approved, it would prohibit men from obtaining vasectomies with federal assistance and eliminate what has become a most popular birth control method for couples who have reached their desired family size. Such a prohibition would be especially discriminatory of low income males who cannot afford to finance a vasectomy through the private health care system. Banning use of IUDs by federal family planning agencies could also interfere with valuable cancer research and the treatment of such ailments as asthma and duodenal ulcers. The Senate Labor Committee needs to be fully advised as to the dangerous implications of these provisions and of the public opposition to their enactment. Vocalize your opposition today by urging the committee to exclude such amendments from the legislation they send to the Senate. The committee members are: Chairman: Williams, New Jersy; Randolph, West Virginia; Pell, Rhode Island; Kennedy, Massachusetts; Nelson, Vermont; Mondale, Minnesota; Eagleton, Missouri; Cranston, California; Hughes, Iowa; Hathaway, Maine; Javits, New York; Dominick, Colorado; Schweiker, Pennsylvania; Taft, Ohio; Beall, Maryland; and Stafford, Vermont.

  6. A fresh look at family planning communication.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R C

    1978-12-01

    As a step toward development of a national information, education, and communication (IEC) plan, a reassessment of such efforts practiced by the agencies involved was undertaken. A paper published in 1978 by the Research Utilization Unit of the Population Information Division, Population Center Foundation, reviewed materials used and accounts of experience in conceptualizing and communicating family planning messages by 12 private and public sector agencies. The most common concepts employed by the agencies were small family size, responsible parenthood, family welfare, community and national development, birth spacing, delayed marriage, contraceptive use-effectiveness, "manliness," delayed 1st pregnancy, value and rights of children, human behavior and social environment, and population dynamics. Most of the messages were conceptualized and developed through formal and informal consultation with field staff. The need to consider the specific needs of target audiences was considered crucial, and thus decentralization of IEC production was recommended. Such decentralization has been a goal of the Philippine program since 1976, but the effort has been hampered by lack of local training and resources, and of studies to support successful implementation. Mass and mixed media approaches were found to be used by most of the agencies, although a reliance on interpersonal approaches was found to be most prevalent in rural areas. Among recommendations for policy makers were development of a systematized data base for IEC materials, regional capabilities in research and development, and studies of funding and existing resources.

  7. Thai royalty honours four for family planning.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    A committee of health specialists selected four physicians and scientists out of 66 candidates to receive the distinguished Prince Mahidol Award. The Thai Royal Family awarded each of them medals, certificates, and US$50,000 for their exceptional contributions to family planning. Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn presented the awards to each recipient on January 31, 1996. UNFPA's Executive Director, Dr. Nafis Sadik, was recognized for her leadership at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. IPPF President, Dr. Frederick Sai, who also serves as a public health professor at the University of Ghana, received honors for promoting family planning in Africa. Dr. Carl Djerassi, an organic chemistry professor at Stanford University in California, was selected for his research in developing oral contraceptives. Dr. Egon Diczfalusy, a retired professor of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, was honored for his reproductive endocrinology research, especially his work on the reproductive system's steroid hormones. The Prince Mahidol Foundation serves to celebrate the birth of Prince Mahidol of Songkhla, the father of the King of Thailand and the Father of Thai Medicine.

  8. Data and information quality strategic plan.

    PubMed

    Bethell, C

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan was developed in response to internal and external concerns about the integrity, consistency, and accuracy of EPA's environmental data. This document explains why a Strategic Plan is needed and the methodology used in its development, cites Agency models of excellence, and presents the six recommendations of EPA's Data and Information Quality Strategic Plan.

  9. Study findings on evaluation of integrated family planning programme performance.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 the United Nations's Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific launched a comparative study on integrated family planning programs in a number of countries in the region. In November 1979 the study directors from the participating countries meet in Bangkok to discuss the current status of the studies in their countries. The Korean and Malaysian studies were completed, the Bangladesh study was in the data collecting phase, and the Pakistani research design phase was completed. The meeting participants focused their attention on the findings and policy implications of the 2 completed studies and also discussed a number of theorectical and methodological issues which grew out of their research experience. The Malaysian study indicated that group structure, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of worker-client contact were the most significant variables determining program effectiveness. In the Korean Study, leadership, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of contact between agencies were the key variables in determining program effectiveness. In the Malaysian study there was a positive correlation between maternal and child health service performance measures and family planning service performance measures. This finding supported the contention that these 2 types of service provision are not in conflict with each other but instead serve to reinforce each other. Policy implications of the Korean study were 1) family planning should be an integral part of all community activities; 2) family planning workers should be adequately supported by financial and supply allocations; and 3) adequate record keeping and information exchange procedures should be incorporated in the programs.

  10. Family Planning and the religious issue.

    PubMed

    Kats, G

    1983-01-01

    The question of whether family planning is compatible with Islam is not a new issue. An eminent 11th century teacher declared that the earliest followers of the prophet practiced contraception with the knowledge of the prophet, who did not forbid it. The issue has always been controversial, but the usual attitude has been 1 of tolerance. The question has become more pressing in the past few decades with the increased urgency of controlling population growth. The success or failure of the birth control program will depend partly on the active support of the Islamic leadership. A 1982 survey showed that 19.5% of Egyptian men and women believed that family planning was somewhat or completely against their religious beliefs, and another 10.1% said they did not know. 38% of these people answered affirmatively to a question on whether anything in the religious books forbids birth control. In the mid-1930s, Egypt's Grand Mufti, the country's most authoritative interpretor of Islamic law, issued a religious decree permitting contraception, thus allowing establishment of birth control clinics in Egyptian citites. In 1964, Sheikh Hasan Ma'mun encouraged the use of contraception based on the changing needs of the Muslim people. Since 1980, religious leaders have played a major role in public education efforts of the State Information Service (SIS) by speaking out on the acceptability of birth control in the eyes of Islam. However, about 45,000 of Egypt's approximately 50,000 mosques are private and almost entirely immune from government control, and they have traditionally been a haven for critics of the Egyptian government. As the government has become more committed to family planning, their opposition has increased. The argument of some Sheikhs that birth control is a Western effort designed to weaken Egypt is countered by the SIS which points to the use of contraception in other countries: 87% in Belgium, 78% in England, 70% in the US, 6% in Bangladesh, and 2% in Nepal.

  11. Islam, polygamy and family planning in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Balogun, I A

    1972-01-01

    This refutes the belief common in Nigeria that Islam enjoins its adherents to be polygamous and thereby, indirectly, to procreate many children. This notion occurs not only among non-Muslims but also among Nigerian Muslims, who feel that to be sincere about their faith they must practice polygamy and have so many children they can barely support them. In fact, at the advent of Islam the number of wives was set at a maximum of 4 to counteract the then prevalent practice of having large numbers of wives. In pre-Islamic Arabian society a man could and often did have 10-20 wives. The Qur'an 4:3 is cited to point out that the true intent of the Prophet was to limit the number of wives to at most 4 and to insist that each wife be treated equally. This means that each wife and her children must have separate quarters, not, as is common in Nigeria, be jammed into 1 room with the other wives. The scriptural references regarding birth control can be taken 2 ways. Those who cite them as prohibiting birth control point out that children are a blessing from Allah. Those who read whole passages find many references to the Prophet's approval of coitus interruptus, which was the only family planning method known at the time. It is felt he would also have approved of something more sure and less messy. In many Muslim countries polygamy is dying out because of economic circumstances. In Pakistan the permission of the 1st wife must be obtained before a 2nd can be married. Many Muslim countries also have active family planning programs. The overburdened women would appreciate a chance to practice family planning. It is the alfas and mallams who must be reeducated to the true Islamic precepts on these subjects.

  12. Involving young men in family planning services.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, B

    1986-01-01

    Every Monday evening the Young Men's Clinic (YMC) at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City attempts to encourage young men to reflect more thoroughly on a variety of issues related to their own reproductive and sexual health, as well as to the health of the young women in the community surrounding the medical center. The center's staff conducted pilot tests involving aggressive outreach to those community sites where young men congregated. The response of such ventures into the life space of young people has been extraordinary. In the clinic, by creating broad menus (including recreational videos, condom distribution, social service, group education), multiple points of entry into family planning service are generated. To forge stronger linkages among programs, YMC staff and volunteer medical students are outposted to key service groups in the community. YMC staff seek out adult influentials in the lives of the young men in the nearby community. Involving young men successfully in family planning requires that more expansive definitions of the male's role be considered. Sensitizing youths to the seriousness of early, unplanned pregnancy, bolstering support for decisions not to have sexual relations, and creating situations for open, nonjudgmental discussion of the effects of peer pressure (and how to combat it) are steps in the right direction. To create such opportinities, clinic staff need to go out to where youths are. They need to become useful on youths' terms. They need to make connections with the adults and youths who have the power and time to influence those beliefs and attitudes that ultimately contribute to responsible and caring family planning behavior.

  13. Family planning for women with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Packer, S

    1992-05-01

    Women with bipolar disorder often ask their treating clinician for information about family planning, as they are concerned about the impact of their illness on offspring. Three areas that should be included in discussions with patients and their partners are heritability of the disorder, risks during pregnancy, and risks during the postpartum period. The author summarizes information about genetic transmission of bipolar disorder, effects on bipolar patients of stress associated with pregnancy and childrearing, and effects of medication on the fetus and newborn. Discussion of these issues is most relevant for a women patient who is planning a pregnancy, but may also be useful for couples before marriage, for a women patient who finds that she is pregnant, and for men with bipolar disorder who want to become fathers.

  14. Introducing the World Health Organization Postpartum Family Planning Compendium.

    PubMed

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Gaffield, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    The postpartum period offers multiple opportunities for healthcare providers to assist with family planning decision making. However, there are also many changing factors during the first year after delivery that can affect family planning choices. Given that several different documents have addressed WHO guidance on postpartum family planning, the electronic WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium (http://srhr.org/postpartumfp) has been introduced. This resource integrates essential guidance on postpartum family planning for clinicians, program managers, and policy makers. The development of the Compendium included consultations with family planning experts, key international stakeholders, and web developers. Once the website had been created, user testing by family planning experts allowed for improvements to be made before the official launch. Future directions are adaptation of the website into a mobile application that can be more easily integrated to low-resource settings, and translation of the content into French and Spanish.

  15. Quality assurance program plan for Building 327

    SciTech Connect

    Tanke, J.M.

    1997-05-22

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides an overview of the quality assurance program for Building 327. The program applies to the facility safety structures, systems, and components and to activities that could affect safety structures, systems, and components. Adherence to the quality assurance program ensures the following: US Department of Energy missions and objectives are effectively accomplished; Products and services are safe, reliable, and meet or exceed the requirements and expectations of the user; Hazards to the public, to Hanford Site and facility workers, and to the environment are minimized. The format of this Quality Assurance Program Plan is structured to parallel that of 10 CFR 83 0.120, Quality Assurance Requirements. This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Quality Assurance Program is implemented for the 324 Building B-Cell Safety Cleanout Project (BCCP). This QAPP is responsive to the Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance Program and Implementation Plan, WHC-SP 113 1, for 10 CFR 830.120, Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements; and DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance. This QAPP supersedes PNNL PNL-MA-70 QAP Quality Assurance Plan No. WTC-050 Rev. 2, issue date May 3, 1996.

  16. [Understanding and implementing the Party's policies on family planning accurately in an all-around way].

    PubMed

    Liang, J; Peng, Z

    1984-05-29

    Recently, the Party's Central Committee held numerous meetings to study the problem of family planning. The main goal of these meetings was to find a correct family planning policy, which should be based on common sense, support from the people, and reasonable work from the cadres. Family planning policies and regulations should be realistic and creative. In the implementation of policies, different methods should be adopted for varied situations, and there should also be appropriate guiding principles for different categories. To cope with a new situation, creative methods and approaches should be chosen in order to implement the family planning policy. The correct method will ensure complete implementation of the policy. In family planning work, the first step is the improvement of ideological education, so that the people may have a correct understanding of the need for family planning. In the technical management work of family planning, a constant improvement in the quality of service should be the goal. Through practical working experience in family planning, some rules and regulations will be found, and they should be used to promote the management level and the level of family planning work in general.

  17. The Role of Federally Qualified Health Centers in Delivering Family Planning Services to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mead, Katherine H; Beeson, Tishra; Wood, Susan F; Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Shin, Peter; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the role of community health centers (CHCs) in providing comprehensive family planning services to adolescents, looking at the range of services offered and factors associated with provision of these services. This study employed a mixed methods approach comprising a national survey of CHCs and six in-depth case studies of health centers to examine the organization and delivery of family planning services. We developed an adolescent family planning index comprising nine family planning services specifically tailored to adolescents. We analyzed the influence of state-level family planning policies, funding for adolescents, and organizational characteristics on the provision of these services in CHCs. The case studies identified barriers to the provision of family planning to adolescent patients. The survey found substantial variation in the provision of family planning services at CHCs, with a mean of 6.33 out of a maximum score of 13 on the family planning adolescent services index. Title X funding and location within a favorable state policy environment were significantly associated with higher scores on the family planning adolescent services index (p value < .001 and .002, respectively). Case studies revealed barriers to adolescent family planning, including lack of funding, lack of knowledge, and limitations on school-based clinical services. CHCs have the opportunity to play a significant role in providing high-quality family planning to low-income, medically underserved adolescents. Additional funding, resources, and a favorable policy climate would further improve CHCs' ability to serve the family planning needs of this special patient population. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An ounce of prevention. Is family planning disappearing from the healthcare picture?

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, N

    1992-04-01

    Despite family planning's enormous health and social benefits, US support for family planning is dwindling. Not only does family planning improve the health quality of life of children and their parents, it is also a cost-effective measure, saving an average of $4.40 in health and social services costs for each public dollar invested in the program. But over the past few years, political and financial neglect have brought the public family planning infrastructure near collapse. Combined federal and state spending on family planning amounts to less than 1% of public health care funds. In 1990, Medicaid represented the largest source of funds for family planning. But since Medicaid is tied to welfare eligibility, a woman must already have a child in order to qualify for Medicaid and its family planning benefits. Direct state funding for family planning services was the 2nd largest source. Several states, however, provided no funding whatsoever for family planning. The 3rd largest source was the Title X program, a federal program devoted exclusively to family planning. It provides services to some 4 million teens and low-income women nationwide. Over the past decade, Title X has received no significant increase in funding, and inflation has reduced its purchasing power by 2/3. As a result, Title X serves less women. Meanwhile, the number of unintended pregnancies continues to increase. The US already has the highest rate of unintended pregnancies in the developed world. This is partly a result of society's ambivalence towards sex, which makes it difficult to discuss -- much less promote -- family planning. Lack of support for family planning can also be traced to the vigorous efforts of the anti-birth control lobby, which has successfully defeated attempts to increase funding.

  19. A matter of planning the family.

    PubMed

    Bryant, E

    1996-06-04

    Turkey's population is expected to grow to 91 million by 2025, an increase of 50% over the current size, while Istanbul's population of 10 million is growing by 4.5% annually. Of the 2 million pregnancies annually in Turkey, 560,000 end in miscarriage and maternal mortality rates are among the highest in the world. Condoms, oral contraceptive pills, and abortions in Turkey are, however, provided to clients free of charge. The story is briefly told of a 36-year-old Turkish woman who, after having 9 children, 3 abortions, and 1 miscarriage, decided to undergo tubal ligation because neither she nor her husband want more children. The woman is one of 300,000 residents of Umraniye, a squatter settlement on the outskirts of Istanbul which is being targeted for a community-based family planning intervention launched by the Family Planning Association of Turkey, the first of its kind in the country. Many women in the target population are extremely ignorant about their reproductive systems. The program hopes to increase the level of contraception use by 25% over 2 years. Program activities consist of local female volunteers who travel door-to-door offering home-held sex education and encouraging women to use local health clinics. The level of contraception use in Umraniye has increased by 18% in less than 1 year.

  20. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-30

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes.

  1. UK Health Secretary launches family planning initiatives.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    British Health Secretary Virginia Bottomley and Family Planning Association (FPA) President Anna Ford recently announced some new initiatives to promote wider use of family planning (FP) and contraception which will be carried out by the FPA with a special grant from the Department of Health. The grant will finance 3 FPA projects: 1) the Growing Up project, 3 booklets providing information for parents, young people, and children; 2) an information project at the work place on FP and sexual health for women and men; and 3) a primary health care project to aid general practitioners (G)s) and nurses engaged in the improvement of FP services. 1 in 3 pregnancies is unplanned, and teenage pregnancy rates are rising, thus sex education and public information are vital. The FPA chose St. Valentines Day to introduce How Your Body Changes, its new pamphlet for teenagers. In the UK over 85% of FP services are provided by family doctors and 15% or less by special community FP clinics. those who oppose further closures that health authorities contemplate stress that the special clinics provide: an anonymous service for younger women, especially those aged 16 or under, a wider choice of methods (some GPs do not offer the IUD, the diaphragm, or free condoms), a better service (most GPs are too busy and have had no training in FP, and postgraduate training for nurses and doctors (more clinic closures will impair FP education). Better FP education is crucial, especially for the age group 12-16 in view of over 180,000 legal abortions occurring each year in the UK.

  2. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

    1987-01-01

    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service.

  3. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L

    1987-01-01

    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

  4. Women-Family in Quality Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatimah, Rika P. L.; Aziz, J. Abdul; Ibrahim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Bringing together women and family in quality perspective brings about interesting discussions in this paper. By integrating previous studies and considering expert opinions, we determine the variables and dimensions with respect to women's existence regarding their roles both in the family and at work. Many activities carried out by women…

  5. Women-Family in Quality Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatimah, Rika P. L.; Aziz, J. Abdul; Ibrahim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Bringing together women and family in quality perspective brings about interesting discussions in this paper. By integrating previous studies and considering expert opinions, we determine the variables and dimensions with respect to women's existence regarding their roles both in the family and at work. Many activities carried out by women…

  6. Barriers and Facilitators to Family Planning Access in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Sheila; Guilbert, Edith; Soon, Judith; Norman, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptives are underutilized in Canada, and nearly one in three Canadian women will have an abortion in her lifetime. To help delineate a national family planning research agenda, the authors interviewed healthcare providers and organizational stakeholders to explore their perspective on barriers to contraception across regions of Canada. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted based on validated frameworks for assessing family planning access and quality. The authors purposefully selected 14 key stakeholders from government agencies, professional organizations and non-governmental organizations for in-person interviews. Fifty-eight healthcare providers and representatives of stakeholder organizations in reproductive health who self-selected through an online survey were also interviewed. Transcripts were analyzed for repeated and saturated themes. Results: Cost was the most important barrier to contraception. Sexual health education was reported as inconsistent, even within provinces. Regional differences were highlighted, including limited access to family physicians in rural Canada and throughout Quebec. Physician bias and outdated practices were cited as significant barriers to quality. New immigrants, youth, young adults and women in small rural, Northern and Aboriginal communities were all identified as particularly vulnerable. Informants identified multiple opportunities for health policy and system restructuring, including subsidized contraception, and enhancing public and healthcare provider education. Sexual health clinics were viewed as a highly successful model. Task-sharing and expanded scope of practice of nurses, nurse practitioners and pharmacists, alongside telephone and virtual healthcare consultations, were suggested to create multiple points of entry into the system. Conclusion: Results underscore the need for a national strategic approach to family planning health policy and health services delivery in Canada. PMID

  7. Is family planning an economic decision?

    PubMed

    Wunderink, S R

    1995-09-01

    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference

  8. Workshop on promotion of reproductive health and family planning held.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Two reproductive health advocacy networks have been established in two districts in eastern Africa to help promote family planning and reproductive health among the people in this area. The districts are the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and the New Juaben Municipality. To enhance the performance of the network, a 4-day workshop was held at Koforidua for the members to prepare an action plan for their advocacy and map out areas of collaboration between the public and the private sector group. The workshop, organized by the Futures Group International based in the US with support from the USAID, was attended by 30 participants from nongovernmental organizations and public offices. In an address, Ms. Patience Adow, the Regional Minister observed that through the idea of family planning has been promoted in the country over the past two decades, the country continues to experience a population growth rate of about 2.8%. She expressed the hope that the workshop will equip the participants with the relevant skills to develop and implement their advocacy strategy effectively. Dr. J. E. Taylor, Medical Administrator of the Koforidua Central Hospital, who chaired the function in a bid to improve the health of women and the quality of life of the people. The Ministry of Health as part of its medium term strategic plan has developed the national reproductive health and service policy.

  9. Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

    Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

  10. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…

  11. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State, that...

  12. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section 303... Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's family; (b...

  13. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State, that...

  14. 34 CFR 303.114 - Individualized family service plan (IFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan (IFSP). 303.114... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.114 Individualized family service plan (IFSP). Each system must ensure, for each infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family in the State, that...

  15. Bibliography of Family Planning and Population, Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linzell, Dinah, Comp.

    Compiled from the world's research literature, this bi-monthly classified list of references on population and family planning emphasizes recently published material, primarily journal literature. Topics covered include: population and fertility; reproductive behaviour; the family; education in population, family planning, and sex; family…

  16. Main points for 1991 family planning work.

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    The main points for 1991 Family Planning (FP) Work in China are discussed as follows: 1) strengthen leadership, 2) strengthen grass roots buildup, 3 intensify population plan management and improve the responsibility system, 4) strengthen publicity and promote population and FP education in rural areas, 5) strengthen and establish the legal system for FP management, 6) provide excellent contraceptive and birth control services, 7 perform inservice training conscientiously and technical secondary education earnestly, and 8) coordinate efforts among related departments. Leadership changes involve the 2 top leaders of the Communist Party Committees and governments at each level taking personal responsibility for the implementation of their local population plans and FP work. FP work must have a prominent place on all agendas. The FP service network needs to be accelerated in countries, townships, and villages and grass roots units strengthened in urban areas. Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities must work out their local population plans for 1991-95 and 1991-99 according to the national population target. Rational apportionment needs to be considered for prefectures and counties. The emphasis should be on timely and accurate feedback and statistical supervision. The 1990 national population census data should be used to inform everyone about the current population situation. Legal needs entail standardizing documentation and developing local laws and regulations within a comprehensive system. Improvements are needed in such areas as rules and regulations pertaining to the administration of charges for unplanned births, identification of disabled children and approval of the birth quota. Abortion and unplanned births are to be averted through prepregnancy management. The emphasis is on voluntary use of contraception by couples of childbearing age. Inservice training should improve the political, ideological, professional proficiency, and ability to

  17. Sources of population and family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in

  18. Family Relationships and Advance Care Planning: Do Supportive and Critical Relations Encourage or Hinder Planning?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The effectiveness of advance care planning (ACP) may depend on family members’ understanding of patient preferences. However, we know of no studies that explore the association between family relationship dynamics and ACP. ACP includes a living will, durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) appointment, and discussions. We evaluated the effects of three aspects of family relations—general family functioning, support and criticism from spouse, and support and criticism from children—on both overall ACP and specific DPAHC designations. Method. Using multinomial logistic regression models and data from a sample of 293 older adults, we estimated the effects of family relationship quality on the likelihood of completing ACP and appointing a spouse or adult child as DPAHC. Analyses controlled for demographic and health characteristics. Results. Better overall family functioning increased the odds of ACP. Higher levels of spousal support increased the odds of holding informal discussions, whereas spousal criticism reduced the odds of naming one’s spouse as DPAHC. Both criticism and emotional support from children increased the odds that a child was named as DPAHC. Discussion. Family dynamics affect ACP in complex ways and should be considered when patients and their families discuss end-of-life care and make DPAHC designations. PMID:23286929

  19. Family planning rarely available for refugees.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1995-03-01

    Worldwide, there are an estimated 18 million refugees, people who have crossed international borders to escape political conflict, famine, destruction of their natural environment, or other disasters. There are an additional 24 million displaced individuals, people who left their homes but remain in their own countries. Women and children comprise more than 80% of both groups. Following some major event or series of events, these individuals have typically relocated in large number over a short period of time to an area devoid of the necessary basic facilities to support their rapid influx. International agencies, foreign governments, and nongovernmental organizations usually come forward to provide emergency relief as best they are able. With regard to the delivery of health care, health services for refugees are typically designed to meet emergency needs, such as the provision of clean water, the delivery of adequate food supplies, and the treatment of disease. Family planning is generally not provided, especially to refugees in the early stages of relocation. Reproductive health services during this initial phase are instead usually limited to care for pregnant women. Refugees, however, do have sex. In fact, birth rates in refugee camps are typically higher than they are for the host-country population. Refugees and displaced persons have often undergone some degree of psychological trauma and emotional loss. Families are displaced and separated, and loved ones have died. Those fortunate enough to make it to refugee camps and be restored to a reasonable state of health typically find themselves in limbo, away from their cherished homes, and often mourning the loss of friends, spouses, and/or children. These individuals are going to have sexual intercourse for a number of reasons. Sex relieves the boredom of camp life, especially for young people, some people want to replace children who have died or been separated from the family, women with few or no relatives

  20. Family planning needed for all women.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    Dr. Angele Petros-Barvazian, Director of the WHO's Family Health Division in Geneva, outlined a strategy for the survival of mothers during the FIGO congress, at a plenary session on Maternal Mortality and Safe Motherhood. Of the estimated 500,000 women who die each year from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth, 99% are from developing countries, she said. The main causes of maternal mortality are postpartum hemorrhage and unsafe abortions, which go untreated because of a lack of obstetric services. But the underlying reasons for poor reproductive health are rooted in social and economic factors which affect women from childhood on, she explained. Teenage pregnancy, which carries a higher risk of mortality for both mother and child, is far more common in developing countries than in the industrialized nations. The rate in Japan is just 2%, compared with 56% in Malawi. If the age of pregnancy and marriage were delayed through family planning, this would not only save lives, but would also allow girls more time for education. Since family size falls in line with the rise in mothers' standards of education, improved education would contribute to population goals and enable women to play a more productive role in society. We see no contradiction between reproduction and a productive social role. Other important factors affecting women's reproductive health are nutrition and maternal care, she told the meeting. The populations where women's nutritional requirements are not met during pregnancy and lactation, this is frequently reflected in a high proportion of low birth weight babies. Maternal care also has a major effect on maternal mortality. Dr. Petros-Barvazian quoted the example of a small US community in which healthy women refuse all maternity care on religious grounds, and which consequently has maternal mortality rates almost as high as among unhealthy women in developing countries. Summing up, she said that the WHO strategy for the survival of mothers

  1. Defense Depot Tracy Total Quality Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    PAGES TQM ( Total Quality Management ), Depot Operations, Continuous Process Improvement 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY...make up our pcrceptions of Total Quality Management . Our goal is to improve those proven management processes that have brought us success while being...MANIAGEMENT F. QUALITY AUDITS OF PRODUCTS AND OPERATIONS ASSETS MANAGEMENT 00 i .......... / ~899 29 03 1 EFENSE DEPOT TACY TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

  2. Quality assurance program plan fuel supply shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, I.L.

    1998-09-21

    This Quality Assurance Program plan (QAPP) describes how the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) project organization implements the quality assurance requirements of HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the B and W Hanford Company Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP), FSP-MP-004. The QAPP applies to facility structures, systems, and components and to activities (e.g., design, procurement, testing, operations, maintenance, etc.) that could affect structures, systems, and components. This QAPP also provides a roadmap of applicable Project Hanford Policies and Procedures (PHPP) which may be utilized by the FSS project organization to implement the requirements of this QAPP.

  3. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  4. Quality Assurance Project Plan Development Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This tool contains information designed to assist in developing a Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plan that meets EPA requirements for projects that involve surface or groundwater monitoring and/or the collection and analysis of water samples.

  5. KCBX Quality Assurance Project Plan - October 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This revised plan's standards for data quality, sampling and testing methods, and task management guide the implementation of Ambient Air Monitoring by URS Corporation at the KCBX Terminals Company North and South Terminals in Chicago, Ill.

  6. KCBX Quality Assurance Project Plan - February 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This plan's standards for data quality, sampling and testing methods, and task management guide the implementation of Ambient Air Monitoring, by URS Corporation, at the KCBX Terminals Company North and South Terminals in Chicago, IL.

  7. Action now in family planning: the role of nurse.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, A K; Kapur, S

    1984-02-01

    In India, nurses at all organizational levels can play a vital role in the national family planning program. Family planning is an integral component of family welfare, and the control of population growth is crucial for the economic and social development of the country. The goals of the family planning program are to promote the small family ideal, to disseminate family planning information, and to ensure that contraceptive supplies and services are available to all couples. Administrative nurses at the national level can further these goals by 1) advocating appropriate policies and influencing budget allocations, 2) preparing family planning guidelines for state directors of nursing, and 3) ensuring that all senior nurses are provided with in-service family planning education. Administrators in training facilities can ensure that an effective and up-to-date family planning component is a part of all nurses' training programs and that students receive clinical experience in family planning. In hospitals, nursing superintendents can develop family planning seminars and discussion sessions for the nursing staff and provide incentives for nurses to motivate couples toward family planning. Nurses working in pediatric and gynecology wards are in an ideal position to alert mothers to the health problems associated with repeated and closely spaced pregnancies. They can arrange to show family planning films to the mothers, display posters on the ward halls, and organize family planning discussion groups among the patients. Nurses working in prenatal and postpartum clinics can inform the mothers, as well as the factors who frequently accompany their wives to the clinics, about the advantages of family planning. School nurses can familiarize students with the advantages of small family size. Children can sometimes motivate their parents to limit family size. Community health nurses generally play a major role in disseminating contraceptive information and in providing

  8. Family planning and AIDS on Yokohama agenda.

    PubMed

    1994-10-01

    The 10th International Conference on AIDS/International Conference on STD in Yokohama August 7-12, 1994, attracted 12,000 people from 130 countries to consider the expanding AIDS pandemic. A satellite symposium was held the day before the opening of the conference, August 6, also in Yokohama, to bring participants together to focus upon the importance of providing access to oral contraceptives and the necessity of condoms. This symposium was organized by the Japan Family Planning Association. Speakers called for the authorization of the low-dose oral contraceptive pill for Japanese women; greater condom use against HIV and other STDs; expanding the concept of reproductive health to include maternal and child health, the prevention of STDs, and infertility; clinical approaches and care for HIV-infected individuals during pregnancy and labor; and counseling to pregnant HIV-infected women.

  9. Family planning information sources and media exposure among Zimbabwean men.

    PubMed

    Adamchak, D J; Mbizvo, M T

    1991-01-01

    This report describes, for a sample of Zimbabwean men, sources of family planning information, media exposure, media preferences, and whether they would like to learn more about family planning methods. The data are from the 1988 Zimbabwe Male Fertility Survey, a representative sample of 711 currently married men aged 20 and over. The analysis is restricted to the 512 men whose wives were aged 49 and under at the time of the survey. The radio and personal communications, followed by posters and newspapers, are the most frequently reported sources of family planning information. The radio is considered to be the best medium for learning about family planning, followed by community-based distributors. Nearly 85 percent of respondents indicated that they would like to learn more about family planning. Information from men should be included in information, education, and communication programs in order to enhance male involvement in the family planning process.

  10. Building Air Quality. Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…

  11. The future of family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, John C; Phillips, James F; Barkat-e-Khuda

    2002-03-01

    National family planning programs have been an important instrument in accelerating global fertility decline and in restricting ultimate world population to a level probably below ten billion. They began to come into being after 1950 and will probably go out of existence in most of the world's regions by 2050. The archetypal programs were instituted in Asia and North Africa. The end of the twentieth century is an appropriate half-way mark at which to evaluate the twentieth-century programs and to assess what changes in them will be needed for the twenty-first century. Some changes are necessary because dramatic events have occurred: (1) long-term replacement-level fertility has been attained in most of East Asia and some of Southeast Asia, and accordingly, some programs there are being phased out; (2) mainland South Asian fertility has been slower to decline; (3) international donor funding is diminishing and may not be significant during much of the twenty-first century; (4) the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo called for a radical change in programs away from demographic aims and toward reproductive health and the improvement of the situation of women; and (5) the future family planning frontier will be sub-Saharan Africa, for which radically new types of programs may have to be developed. These issues were discussed in January 2000 at a conference held in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A selection of contributions to the conference is published here. This article provides an overview of the issues based partly on this selection and partly on the discussions that took place at the conference.

  12. Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's "State Reproductive Health Monitor: Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on legislation including the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) family planning services and programs, e.g., requiring the Department of Human Services to provide written information concerning the availability of the Norplant contraceptive implant through the Medicaid program adding chlamydia screening to the existing law, or requesting a study assessing the social and financial impact of mandatory health insurance for contraceptive devices; 2) parental consent and notice for contraception legislation; 3) school-based clinics and school health services, e.g., establishing health screening programs in public schools, allowing school-based health centers to dispense drug prescriptions; 4) sex and health education, e.g., urging all school boards to require all public elementary, middle, and high schools that teach sex education to emphasize abstinence from sexual intercourse as the only effective protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases and to require that information about sexual assault by an acquaintance and related issues be included in sex education courses in public schools; 5) teenage pregnancy prevention and care programs, e.g., requesting the public health, welfare, and labor committee to conduct a study of efforts to reduce infant mortality, teen pregnancy, and related problems as well as establishing and maintaining pregnancy and parenting education programs in secondary schools; and 6) infertility legislation on assisted reproductive technologies, including issues such as clarifying the status of children and adults born from donated eggs or preembryos, relinquishment of

  13. Family planning studies the teachers' survey. Part 2: fertility differentials and practice of family planning.

    PubMed

    Kamel, W H; Hanna, A T; Kamel, N A; Wahdan, M H

    1970-06-01

    This study deals with biologic and socioeconomic fertility differentials of married female teachers in the Alexandria Governorate who were surveyed via questionnaire from October 1966 to February 1967. It also shows fertility patterns of educated working women, their opinions about family planning, their use of contraceptives, and their knowledge and use of family planning services. Of the 3893 teachers who responded, 65%, or 2626, were married and 92.5% were of childbearing age. The average age was 32.70 years; the average duration of marriage was 7.18 years. Half had just 1 or 2 children, with an inverse relationship between educational attainment and number of children. The number of children increased with the age of the teacher, but there was an inverse relationship between age at marriage and number of children. Just over 25% of the pregnancies ended in abortion, with an average of .64 abortions per teacher. There was a direct relationship between age of teacher and frequency of abortion. Teachers who married when they were under 20 were the most likely to abort. 13% of the teachers were pregnant at the time of the study. An inverse relationship existed between the desire to be pregnant and the number of surviving children. Statistics for married teachers over 45 who had completed their fertility indicate that the average teacher is likely to have 1.02 abortions, 3.1 deliveries, and 2.6 living children. All teachers favored family planning. 77.3% were currently practicing it, most in the 30-44 age group. 42% had consulted private doctors; 44.3% were prac ticing without medical advice; and only 14.8% went to a family planning center. The pill and the IUD were the most popular method, being used by 59.7%. Among those with children, those with no boys were the least likely to use contraceptives. Teachers, with their frequent contact with young people and parents, are seen as a good conduit for information about family planning. However, most teachers themselves

  14. The demand for family planning: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Easterlin, R A; Wongboonsin, K; Ahmed, M A

    1988-01-01

    A new "supply-demand" measure of family planning demand is compared with others commonly used to target prospective family planning clients. In analyses of data from six cross-sectional surveys the new measure consistently explains past contraceptive use better than the others. Time series analysis for two countries yields similar results. Family planning program officials may wish to consider exploring the use of this measure to target prospective clients.

  15. Family planning and maternal and child health services.

    PubMed

    Singh, A

    1975-12-01

    Considerable effort has been made in the area of family planning in the State of Punjab. Family planning personnel has been recruited and trained at the State Family Planning Training and Research Center in Kharar; supplies of Nirodh, IUDs, oral contraceptives, and hospital equipment along with transportation facilities have been made available; and there has been some building construction. The State Health Education Bureau has worked to produce publicity material and has also used the mass media to create awareness of family planning among the people. As many as 120 rural and 49 urban Family Welfare Planning Centers are providing family planning services along with 856 subcenters in rural areas. 1123 other institutions are also doing family planning work in addition to the efforts of 34 mobile sterilization and IUD units attached to the District Family Planning Bureau and the contributions of some voluntary organizations. Although the state has adopted the cafeteria approach to family planning and the focus is on provision of family planning services on routine days in the various institutions to well-motivated couples, mass family planning camps for vasectomy, tubal ligations, and IUD insertions have been held with considerable success. Additionally, the State has integrated family planning programs with maternal and child health care in order to provide a totality of service. This precedes the total integration of this national program w ith general health services. Punjab has done well in achieving its targets for 1974-1975. Sterilization targets were set at 38,300 and 36,460 sterilizations, 95.2% of the target, were performed. IUD targets were 27,000, and the number achieved was 39,637 or 109.4%. The conventional contraceptive user target was 99,800, and 151,976 or 152.3% of the target figure became conventional contraceptive users.

  16. Costs can influence family planning decisions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses research in Cebu, Philippines, that examines the relationship between costs and income and family planning (FP) decisions. Clients weigh the costs and benefits of obtaining FP services. Costs may include the time to purchase supplies, travel to clinics, child care, and lost work time. Women should consider the costs of having more children. Family Health International's Women's Studies Project explored couple's FP decision-making. In Cebu, women play a decisive role in household expenditure decisions. 64% of women made sole decisions about children's shoes and clothing. 43% made decisions about taking children to the doctor. Women consulted husbands for larger expenditures, such as land purchases, hiring household help, and travel outside Cebu. If conflicts arose, 82% reported a mutual final decision, while 12% accepted the husband's judgment. Only 12% of women made sole decisions about FP. About 20% of the sample of women discussed FP with adult females. 25% of the women who consulted their husbands about FP made the final decision when there was conflict. Only 7% reported that the husband's decision was final. A recent follow-up study to a 1983 study finds that price is only one among many factors that affect contraceptive decision-making. Rural women in Cebu reported that the time needed to obtain contraceptives was an important factor in determining their use. A study of 64 women in rural southern India finds that contraceptive prevalence was influenced by women's autonomy rather than income. Women's and children's ages, family size, and birth order affected women's autonomy and access to money. In another related study, Pakistani women had lower fertility rates when wives' unearned income was high. An increase by 25% in unearned income among rural women decreased fertility by one child.

  17. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning.

    PubMed

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C

    1990-03-01

    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed.

  18. A family planning study in Kuala Pilah, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vimala Thambypillai

    1982-12-01

    Realizing that family planning is not making a sufficient impact on the rural people as it is on the urban population, it was decided that the authors would study the attitude and knowledge of a rural community towards family planning. The study sample consisted of 200 Malay married women--100 acceptors and 100 nonacceptors from the Kuala Pilah District. The study went from December 4-22, 1978. A healthy climate of knowledge and attitude exist among rural Malay women. Only 2% of the nonacceptors had not heard of any family planning method; 99% of acceptors and 85% of nonacceptors had discussed family planning with their husbands. There was also evidence to show that the birthrate does decrease as literacy increases. On the other hand, however, only 19% of the respondents approved of family planning practices prior to the birth of the 1st child. Also, there is a dearth of information on family planning in the rural areas and not much has been done in utilizing the 2 popular forms of mass media--radio and television as a means of disseminating information on family planning. The study concludes with a recommendation that there is a need for a sustained effort at improving knowledge and disseminating information as well as for developing the proper attitude towards family planning. It is suggested that community leaders, women's clubs, and private organizations be mobilized to participate more fully in the promotion of family planning.

  19. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  20. Approved Air Quality Implementation Plans in Region 10

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Landing page for information about EPA-approved air quality State Implementation Plans (SIPs), Tribal Implementation Plans (TIPs), and Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington.

  1. Family planning is the first and most important step for rural development.

    PubMed

    Mokarapong, T

    1983-12-01

    Mahasarakham province in Thailand has adopted family planning as its primary development policy. Although not a new issue, family planning until now has been largely ignored by most government sectors. Most consider family planning to be the sole responsibility of the Ministry of Public Ealth (MOPH), and this is why family planning has not been as successful as it should be. Discussion covers the general problem (rapid population increase, limited arable land, productivity, social and economic development, and deforestation), problems of family planning in the past (trained personnel and accessibility and government sectors ignoring or hindering family planning programs), integrated rural development (motivation, mobilizing teamwork, the integrated approach, mobile medical team, family planning for both the rich and the poor, and emphasis on vasectomy and IUD), objectives of the family planning program, and implementation. Mahasarakham uses an integrated rural development approach that emphasizes 9 development components: family planning, fisheries development, vegetable growing, water purification, rice banks, soy beans, using anchovies for natural fish sauce, insect extermination by electricity, and fuel from rice banks. All of these components contribute to the development of a better quality of rural life. The major problem is population growth, which at 1.8% remains high. Mahasarakham will promote the family planning program as the top priority, and this service will be brought to the people. The objectives of the family planning program are: to reduce the population growth rate Mahasarakham to zero growth within 2-3 years: to provide access to family planning services to all people in Mahasarakham; to educate people about family planning to increase its acceptance: to initiate a proper rural development program in Mahasarakham; and to promote intergovernmental cooperation by means of the integrated approach, which will have good results in later rural

  2. The HERITAGE Family Study: quality assurance and quality control.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, J; Province, M A; Bouchard, C; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C

    1996-11-01

    The HERITAGE (HEalth, RIsk factors, exercise Training And GEnetics) Family Study is the first multicenter family clinical trial of its kind. Conducted by a consortium of five universities in the United States and Canada, the study has as its primary goal to document the role of the genotype in the cardiovascular, metabolic, and hormonal responses to aerobic exercise training. A comprehensive protocol was implemented at four Clinical Centers (CC) for the generation of data on sedentary subjects. This group included 450 caucasians from 90 nuclear families (father, mother, three children) and 200 black subjects from 40 to 100 family units over a 5-year period. The entire family was tested before and after a 20-week exercise training program. The fifth participating center, the Data Coordinating Center (DCC), is responsible for data management and data analysis. A Consortium Coordinating Center (CCC) responsible for the overall coordination and direction of the study was established at the Quebec CC. Quality assurance and quality control are jointly coordinated by the CCC and the DCC. A multicenter study of this magnitude requires careful standardization of all procedures and constant monitoring of quality control at all levels of operation. This report describes the quality assurance and quality control measures implemented in the HERITAGE Family Study, including some examples with real data.

  3. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  4. Meeting the family planning needs of women living with HIV in US government global health programs

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Beverly; Ligiero, Daniela; DeSilva, Shyami; Medley, Amy; Nightingale, Vienna; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Bachanas, Pamela; Abutu, Andrew; Brewinski-Isaacs, Margaret; Bathily, Fatoumata; Grillo, Michael; Bertz, Lilly; Mani, Nithya

    2015-01-01

    The integration of health programs, including HIV and voluntary family planning, is a priority for US government foreign assistance. One critical component of family planning and HIV integration that has significant positive health outcomes is ensuring that all women living with HIV have access to both a full range of contraceptives and safe pregnancy counseling. This article outlines the US government global health strategy to meet the family planning needs of women living with HIV based on three key principles: a focus on reproductive rights through voluntarism and informed choice, quality service provision through evidence-based programming, and development of partnerships. PMID:24088678

  5. Centre shares its success in family planning work with the NGOs in the SAARC region.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    In March 1995, the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) and the government of Japan sponsored a 2-week international workshop on Family Planning Programmes of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) in the SAARC Region (South Asia). The purpose of the workshop was to share experiences with family planning and reproductive health of the Matlab and the MCH-FP (maternal and child health-family planning) Extension Projects in urban and rural areas with family planning program managers from NGOs and policy and operations researchers. It also intended to examine those family planning and reproductive health projects of the NGOs in Bangladesh that fostered significant improvement of the national family planning and MCH program in Bangladesh. Participants were presented with effective family planning and MCH program design and strategies to strengthen improved management. The workshop emphasized the emerging norms of quality of care in family planning and reproductive health. NGOs initiated the concept of family planning in Bangladesh in 1953, so they are considered innovators. Accordingly, they are expected to develop designs and models for effective service delivery systems, training, management information system, IEC (information, education, and communication), community participation as well as to set social norms and values for small families. At the workshop, Bangladesh was offered as an example of how innovative NGO activities, sustained partnership between the NGOs and the government, and technical support from ICDDR,B lead to progress in family planning and MCH programs, despite the great poverty and economic stagnation. Contraceptive prevalence has increased from around 7% to almost 45% between 1977 and 1994.

  6. Islam and family planning: changing perceptions of health care providers and medical faculty in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Gul Rashida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A USAID-sponsored family planning project called “FALAH” (Family Advancement for Life and Health), implemented in 20 districts of Pakistan, aimed to lower unmet need for family planning by improving access to services. To enhance the quality of care offered by the public health system, the FALAH project trained 10,534 facility-based health care providers, managers, and medical college faculty members to offer client-centered family planning services, which included a module to explain the Islamic viewpoint on family planning developed through an iterative process involving religious scholars and public health experts. At the end of the FALAH project, we conducted a situation analysis of health facilities including interviews with providers to measure family planning knowledge of trained and untrained providers; interviewed faculty to obtain their feedback about the training module; and measured changes in women's contraceptive use through baseline and endline surveys. Trained providers had a better understanding of family planning concepts than untrained providers. In addition, discussions with trained providers indicated that the training module on Islam and family planning helped them to become advocates for family planning. Faculty indicated that the module enhanced their confidence about the topic of family planning and Islam, making it easier to introduce and discuss the issue with their students. Over the 3.5-year project period, which included several components in addition to the training activity, we found an overall increase of 9 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence in the project implementation districts—from 29% to 38%. The Islam and family planning module has now been included in the teaching program of major public-sector medical universities and the Regional Training Institutes of the Population Welfare Department. Other countries with sizeable Muslim populations and low contraceptive prevalence could benefit from this module

  7. A brief introduction to China's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Shen, G

    1984-08-01

    bring free contraceptives directly to the people, and family planning motivators are found in almost all villages, neighborhood committees, factories, and military units. As a result of these efforts, China made great strides in controlling population growth and improving MCH during the last decade. The birth rate declined from 27.93 to 18.62, and the total fertility rate declined from 4.01 to 2.48. 124 million couples were practicing contraception by the end of 1983. 41% used IUDs, 37.4% relied on tubal ligation, 12.9% relied on vasectomy, 5.1% on oral contraceptives, and 1% on other methods. The quality of maternal and child care also improved. 92.7% of all deliveries are now performed by trained midwifes. Infant and maternal mortality rates declined considerablely in recent years. Currently the respective rates are 35.68/1000 live births and 0.5/1000 live births. In 1983 alone, the gross national agricultural and industrial output increased by 46.1%. Since 1979 per capita income increased annually by 18.3% among rural residents and by 10.7% among urban workers. China controls and operates its own population program, but in recent years, it increased its cooperation with UN Fund for Population Activities, other UN agencies, and nongovernment agencies. China recently completed its 3rd national census, and demographic research institutes have been established in 10 universities.

  8. Improving productivity levels: family planning services for factory workers.

    PubMed

    Darmokusumo, H V

    1989-10-01

    In May 1984, the Minister of Manpower in Indonesia, the Chairman of the BKKBN, and representatives of the employers' and workers' organizations of Indonesia issued a joint decree pledging that they would work together to enhance the implementation of the family planning program among workers in the organized sector. 1 objective of the decree is to improve workers' productivity and the standard of living of workers and their families by implementing a family planning program. 1 baseline survey and a clinic-based survey in 5 provinces revealed that 90% of women workers are between 21-40, or are of reproductive age, and are sexually active. Only about 50% are practicing family planning; the other 50% are afraid to practice family planning due to potential side effects of various methods. This fear was most often caused by negative rumors spread by unsatisfied family planning clients. Placing materials for family planning promotion such as instructional posters and video programs advertising contraceptive services in the work setting may increase knowledge and help alleviate some of this fear. Other studies of family planning services show that employees prefer female medical doctors or midwives as service providers, employees are willing to pay for services (but can only afford a small fee), and family planning service points should be near employees' work sites.

  9. Video: useful tool for delivering family planning messages.

    PubMed

    Sumarsono, S K

    1985-10-01

    In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is

  10. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems.

  11. Seminars offer key to better family planning.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1993-03-01

    Current scientific information on health and contraception is in demand in Francophone countries of Africa. Contraceptive technology updates (CTU) have been held in Senegal, Niger, and Togo in order to provide family planning (FP) experts, program managers, providers, and government officials with the opportunity to exchange information and gather new materials. Family Health International's CTUs in Senegal in 1990 were useful in changing policy. Routine blood testing, as a requirement for oral contraceptives, was eliminated. In Niger, there was resistance to changing the policy requiring pelvic examinations and laboratory tests before oral pill distribution. After CTU seminars were held, the attending physicians were gradually convinced by the medical experts that these procedures interfered with and were not necessary for oral pill dispensing. Other changes that came about due to the workshops were the use of licensed practical nurses as FP providers, and the use of village health workers as oral contraceptive providers after an initial prescription. Age and parity requirements for injectables were also changed to a lower age due to the efforts of CTUs. In Togo, a CTU seminar was held with leaders from Togo and nine other African countries. In the final declaration, policies were recommended for authorizing adolescent FP services and promoting non-clinic service delivery approaches. Prior to the seminars, information on local country conditions was gathered; this information was useful in showing how changes in local barriers to contraception use and continuation could be affected. The use of international information was helpful in Togo for understanding the importance of using injectables and providing pill access through rural outlets. The participation of a delivery of professions and people involved in FP has been important for policy and service providers. Follow-up training at the service delivery level is needed, where changing habits and attitudes is

  12. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services.

  13. Family Planning and Family Vision in Mothers after Diagnosis of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with…

  14. Family Planning and Family Vision in Mothers after Diagnosis of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with…

  15. The organization and delivery of family planning services in community health centers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Wood, Susan F; Johnson, Kay; Mead, Katherine Holly; Beeson, Tishra; Lewis, Julie; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Family planning and related reproductive health services are essential primary care services for women. Access is limited for women with low incomes and those living in medically underserved areas. Little information is available on how federally funded health centers organize and provide family planning services. This was a mixed methods study of the organization and delivery of family planning services in federally funded health centers across the United States. A national survey was developed and administered (n = 423) and in-depth case studies were conducted of nine health centers to obtain detailed information on their approach to family planning. Study findings indicate that health centers utilize a variety of organizational models and staffing arrangements to deliver family planning services. Health centers' family planning offerings are organized in one of two ways, either a separate service with specific providers and clinic times or fully integrated with primary care. Health centers experience difficulties in providing a full range of family planning services. Major challenges include funding limitations; hiring obstetricians/gynecologists, counselors, and advanced practice clinicians; and connecting patients to specialized services not offered by the health center. Health centers play an integral role in delivering primary care and family planning services to women in medically underserved communities. Improving the accessibility and comprehensiveness of family planning services will require a combination of additional direct funding, technical assistance, and policies that emphasize how health centers can incorporate quality family planning as a fundamental element of primary care. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary to generate

  17. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. Study design A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. Results From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Conclusion Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved

  18. Research and development quality assurance planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, P.B.

    1990-05-14

    Planning for quality assurance (QA) in research and development (R D) is like stealing eggs without waking up the chickens. The QA program should be as unobtrusive as possible. Researchers require a QA program that affords them an environment capable of supporting repeatable experiments with accurate data without unduly stifling their creative abilities. Careful advance planning ensures that the intensity of control provided by quality-related systems is commensurate with the importance and scope of the activities being performed. Good scientific practices applied to small bench-scale projects may require minimal additional controls. As projects increase in size and complexity the controls imposed through planning must, by necessity, be increased. Research and development QA planning, just like any other planning, involves all affected individuals. The application of control systems is determined by factors such as customer or sponsor requirements, the importance of an item or activity to the experiment's success, and the organizational complexity of the project. Many larger experiments are highly dependent on quality-related support activities such as calibration, engineering design, and inspection provided by organizations outside the R D group. Since, in most cases, the expense of support activities is taken directly from funds available for research, it is important for the researchers to be involved in the planning efforts to help determine and agree with the level of QA effort required. A single plan will often suffice for organizations engaged in large numbers of similar experiments. Complex experiments may require unique QA plans or additions to existing plans. Once implemented, the R D QA plans, like any others, require audits or surveillances and may require revisions if the scope of the experiment changes. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  19. 34 CFR 303.167 - Individualized family service plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized family service plans. 303.167 Section...-Application Requirements § 303.167 Individualized family service plans. Each application must include— (a) An assurance that a current IFSP is in effect and implemented for each eligible child and the child's...

  20. Military Couples’ Experiences with Natural Family Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    nearly exclusive breastfeeding to remain amenorrheic and thus avoid pregnancy. The lactational amenorrhea method was reported to be up to 98...effective when exclusive breastfeeding and amenorrhea were present (Kennedy et al., 1991). The basal body temperature method requires the woman to measure...natural family planning-lactational amenorrhea method interface: Observations from a prospective study of breastfeeding users of natural family planning

  1. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A new design for government family planning programs is proposed in "Family Planning Programs: An Economic Approach," the principal article in this monthly publication of The Population Council. The design is intended primarily for low-income countries that seek large and rapid reductions in fertility. Thirteen elements of the proposed system of…

  2. Reports on Population/Family Planning, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This report presents a comprehensive review of empirical findings from postpartum research undertaken to date, particularly in respect to the International Postpartum Family Planning Program established by the Population Council in 1966. It is related to a forthcoming report summarizing findings in the field of family planning evaluation. The…

  3. Studies in Family Planning. Volume 2, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, George; And Others

    This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births,…

  4. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…

  5. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This paper summarizes family planning activities and accomplishments during 1969 and 1970 in Morocco and Tunisia, and then sets forth 12 criteria that are utilized to evaluate the overall progress of the family planning programs in the two countries. These criteria serve to measure the readiness and prospects for the development of viable family…

  6. Studies in Family Planning. Volume 2, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, George; And Others

    This year's annual review of family planning in Korea and Taiwan is represented in three articles. The first, "Korea/Taiwan 1970: Report on the National Family Planning Programs," separately views the program administration, budget, personnel, and evaluation, as well as the various methods employed in controlling the number of births,…

  7. Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

    2000-01-01

    Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…

  8. The politics of family planning in the Maghrib.

    PubMed

    Grosse, S D

    1982-01-01

    This article uses a comparative case study approach to relate policy outcomes in terms of family planning to the patterns of political forces observed in the 3 Maghrib states of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. It is suggested that official support for a strong family planning program may be linked to recognition of the problem of low labor absorption and to concrete steps taken to counter the problem. The article discusses different vantage points for approaching the political context of family planning and distinguishes between the use of family planning as an instrument of social policy and as an instrument of economic policy. Ideological reasons for opposition to or support of family planning are then outlined. The colonial experience of the 3 states is differentiated and a chronological account of their family planning programs is provided. The political systems and leadership of the 3 countries are separately discussed in greater detail, after which the influence of elite groups on family planning programs and activities in each country is assessed. Developments in the 3 countries since 1978 are then sketched. The author concludes that the relative importance of policies toward employment and women's status in connection with support for family planning has probably varied over time, with economics playing a greater role in the 1970s. The activities of non-regime political actors were found to be very significant in formulation of population policies in Algeria and Morocco but less so in Tunisia.

  9. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A typology of incentives and the general effects of incentives for family planning are discussed in "Incentives in the Diffusion of Family Planning Innovations," the first of three studies in this monthly publication of The Population Council. A brief review of the history of incentives and their present status in the fields is given, together…

  10. Family planning at heart of political debate.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, L

    1998-09-01

    In the US, the efforts of Chris Smith, a Republican member of the House of Representatives from New Jersey, have led to Congressional approval of two restrictions on US aid to foreign family planning (FP) programs. The first restriction prohibits the US from funding any organization that performs abortion with its own funds, even in countries where abortion is legal (except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest). The bill specifies that President Clinton can waive this prohibition only at a cost of $44 million to the already reduced FP funding. The second restriction prohibits US funding of any group that engages in abortion-related lobbying and is, in effect, a "gag rule" that would punish organizations for engaging in activities that would be protected in the US by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Clinton has threatened to veto the legislation even though this means that he will risk losing his ability to pay dues owed to the UN or to provide backing to the International Monetary Fund. Smith's actions reflect efforts to eliminate federal funding of domestic and international FP programs despite the fact that polls continually demonstrate the widespread approval of the US public for such programs.

  11. Family planning in the workplace in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program.

  12. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan or require the offerors to submit a proposed quality assurance surveillance plan for the Government's...

  13. Quality time with the fractious Fourier family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Harrison H.

    2001-07-01

    The Fourier family comprises a wide variety of mathematical transforms, some of them well established in the image-science community, some lesser known but deserving of more recognition. The goal of this paper is to survey the genealogy of this family and to show some possibly non-obvious applications of each member. Three central premises run through the discussion: (1) There can be no science of imaging without a scientific approach to the evaluation of image quality; (2) Image quality must be defined in terms of the information that is desired from the image and the method of extracting that information; (3) Digital images are discrete data obtained from a continuous object. These considerations will lead us to rely on rather different members of the Fourier family than the ones most often encountered in polite imaging society.

  14. The strategies, experiences and future challenges of the information component in the Indonesian Family Planning Programme.

    PubMed

    Suyono, H

    1988-12-01

    participants, who will in turn, help to draw nonacceptors into the program. Social marketing is being used to 1) reach those as yet uninformed about family planning, 2) promote the quality of various information and motivation activities so that they will become behaviorally oriented, and 3) provide an opportunity for the private sector to participate in the program professionally.

  15. Quality Management Plan for the Environmental Assessment and Innovation Division

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Quality management plan (QMP) which identifies the mission, roles, responsibilities of personnel with regard to quality assurance and quality management for the environmental assessment and innovation division.

  16. Africa's population and family planning dynamics.

    PubMed

    Segal, A

    1993-01-01

    The historical and current demography of Africa in this discussion focuses on the context of population policy, contraceptive use, reproductive behavior, polygamy, and economic impacts. Sub-Saharan Africa countries have the highest rate of population growth in the world. 50% are aged under 20 years, and 20% are aged under five years. Urban areas are growing at the fastest rates in the world (5-6% annually). Population density remains low, except for areas where there is high soil fertility. Many African countries recognize the need for population policies. The most important donor to Africa, the World Bank, has pressured African governments to adopt family planning (FP) programs. A major World Bank study has shown that more FP services are desired by African women. Family expenditures for the 1980s for FP were estimated at $100 million annually, of which $53 million was provided by donors. Further expansion in the program is needed. The World Bank targeted contraceptive use at 25% of African married couples. Except for Egypt and North African countries, contraceptive use is around 3-4%. Another perspective on population reduction is to expand programs for child spacing and postnatal nutrition of mothers and infants. There has been a failure to turn health systems around to low-cost preventive health, particularly in rural areas. Infant mortality must be reduced before fertility will decline. Population growth can be slowed by changing the status of African women (high social status and recognition are associated with high fertility), age of marriage, child spacing, agricultural productivity, and nutrition. Demographic data on Africa have only become available during the past 25 years. African demographers are in short supply and require training abroad. Demographic data gaps and reliability problems are offset by the recent availability and quantity of survey data. Historical demography has produced conflicting results. Although some investigators, such as Ester

  17. Assessing family planning service-delivery skills in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Valadez, J J; Transgrud, R; Mbugua, M; Smith, T

    1997-06-01

    This report demonstrates the use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to evaluate the technical competence of two cohorts of family planning service providers in Kenya trained with a new curriculum. One cohort had just finished training within two months of the study. The other cohort was the first group trained with the new curriculum about one year before the study. LQAS was adapted from industrial and other public health applications to assess both the individual competence of 30 service providers and the competence of each cohort. Results show that Cohorts One and Two did not differ markedly in the number of tasks needing improvement. However, both cohorts exhibited more tasks needing improvement in counseling skills as compared with physical examination skills or with all other skills. Care-givers who were not currently providing services accounted for most service-delivery problems. This result suggests that providers' use of their skills explains their ability to retain service-delivery skills learned in training to a greater degree than does the amount of time elapsed since they were trained. LQAS proved to be a rapid, easy-to-use empirical method for management decisionmaking for improvement of a family planning training curriculum and services.

  18. Development of a Mobile App for Family Planning Providers.

    PubMed

    Halsall, Viannella; Rogers, Jennifer; Witt, Jacki; Song, Sejun; Nguyen, Hoang Duc Huy; Kelly, Patricia

    To provide an overview of lessons learned during the development process of an app for iOS and Android based on national recommendations for providing quality family planning services. After a review of existing apps was conducted to determine whether an app of clinical recommendations for family planning existed, a team of clinicians, training specialists, and app developers created a resource app by first drafting a comprehensive content map. A prototype of the app was then pilot tested using smart tablets by a volunteer convenience sample of women's healthcare professionals. Outcomes measured included usability, acceptability, download analytics, and satisfaction by clinicians as reported through an investigator-developed tool. Sixty-nine professionals tested a prototype of the app, and completed a user satisfaction tool. Overall, user feedback was positive, and a zoom function was added to the final version as a result of the pilot test. Within 3 months of being publicly available, the app was downloaded 677 times, with 97% of downloads occurring on smart phones, 76% downloads occurring on iOS devices, and 24% on Android devices. This trend persisted throughout the following 3 months. Clinicians with an interest in developing an app should consider a team approach to development, pilot test the app prior to wider distribution, and develop a web-based version of the app to be used by clinicians who are unable to access smart devices in their practice setting.

  19. [World population, family planning and development].

    PubMed

    Van Roosmalen, J

    1992-03-21

    The 1991 world population report of the UNFPA projects a world population of 8.504 billion by 2025. The prevalence of the use of modern contraceptives increased from 9% in previous years to an average of 51% at the present time: to 70% in East Asia, to 60% in Latin America, but only to 17% in Africa. 20% of pregnancies are unwanted, the prevention of which would reduce the expected population by 2.2 billion people in 2100. Without birth control programs today there would be 412 million more people in Asia, Latin America, and Africa; and in 2100 1.48 billion would live on Earth instead of 10 billion forecast by the World Bank. The aim of UNFPA is to increase contraceptive prevalence form 51% to 59% by 2000: from 381 million users in 1991 to 567 million acceptors. Only 15% of men use contraceptives, although the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases especially AIDS makes the use of condoms highly advisable. In the report scant mention is made of breast feeding as a family planning method, although the Bellagio Consensus of 1988 states that if a woman almost exclusively breast feeds during lactation amenorrhea a more than 98% protection against pregnancy is offered during the 1st 6 months postpartum. During this period no additional contraception is necessary until the 1st menstruation occurs. Women in Bangladesh taking an oral contraceptive after delivery had shorter birth intervals than women exclusively relying on breast feeding. The Working Group of Medical Development Association issued guidelines concerning contraceptive methods including subdermal implant of levonorgestrel, although excessively strict standards can foil the contraceptive needs of the Third World. Their reproductive mortality is mainly determined by an extremely high maternal mortality rather than by complications from contraceptive use.

  20. Understanding Personal and Family Financial Planning Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.

    This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…

  1. Plan for Research on Army Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    large standing Army, increased numbers of married personnel, a volunteer force, and general societal changes in family patterns and gender roles . -a...Army life, the service member is more likely to return to civilian life. Societal Changes in Family Patterns and Gender Roles There are a variety of...These societal trends in family patterns and gender roles have had, and are continuing to have, strong impacts on the nature of work and family

  2. Total quality management -- Remedial actions planning program

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, J.L.; Horne, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the management approach being taken within the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Support Contractor Office (SCO) to ensure quality of services in a highly competitive waste management environment. An overview is presented of the contractor support role assigned to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) national program for managing hazardous waste. The HAZWRAP SCO mission, organizational structure, and major programs are outlined, with emphasis on waste management planning for the DOE Work for Others (WFO) Program. The HAZWRAP SCO provides waste management technical support, via interagency agreements between DOE and various Department of Defense (DOD) agencies for DOD sponsors planning remedial response actions. The remainder of the paper focuses on how the concept of Total Quality Management is applied to the HAZWRAP Remedial Actions Planning (RAP) Program. The management challenge is to achieve quality on a ''system'' basis where all functional elements of program management synergistically contribute to the total quality of the effort. The quality assurance (QA) program requirements applied to the RAP Program and its subcontractors are discussed. The application of management principles in the areas of program management, procurement, and QA to achieve total quality is presented. 3 refs.

  3. Creative Permanency Planning: Residential Services for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; Noble, Dorinda N.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Residential Services for Parents program, which provides residential service for single mothers and their families. The program provides a variety of services including help with income, housing, abuse and other family dysfunctions, and prevention of separation. The program is effective in keeping families together. (GH)

  4. Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, D T

    1995-01-01

    This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support

  5. Process quality planning of quality function deployment for carrot syrup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekawati, Yurida; Noya, Sunday; Widjaja, Filemon

    2017-06-01

    Carrot products are rarely available in the market. Based on previous research that had been done using QFD to generate product design of carrots products, the research to produce the process quality planning had been carried out. The carrot product studied was carrot syrup. The research resulted in a process planning matrix for carrot syrup. The matrix gives information about critical process plan and the priority of the critical process plan. The critical process plan on the production process of carrot syrup consists of carrots sorting, carrots peeling, carrots washing, blanching process, carrots cutting, the making of pureed carrots, filtering carrot juice, the addition of sugar in carrot juice, the addition of food additives in carrot juice, syrup boiling, syrup filtering, syrup filling into the bottle, the bottle closure and cooling. The information will help the design of the production process of carrot syrup.

  6. Revision 2 of the Enbridge Quality Assurance Project Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) presents Revision 2 of the organization, objectives, planned activities, and specific quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures associated with the Enbridge Marshall Pipeline Release Project.

  7. Emerging challenges in family planning programme in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D R; Shrestha, A; Ghimire, J

    2012-05-01

    Family planning is a priority program of the Government of Nepal. Despite political instability in the last two decades, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in the overall status of reproductive health, including family planning. Married women of reproductive age have been increasingly using contraceptive from 1980s to 2006. However, Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011 has shown unexpected results on contraceptive prevalence rate. There had been a notable decline in the prevalence rate between 2006 and 2011, creating concerns among various stakeholders working in family planning programs. This paper analyzes this situation and identifies possible reasons for the stagnated contraceptive prevalence rate in Nepal. High proportion of spousal separation, an increased use of traditional methods, abortion, emergency contraception, and a lack of innovative approaches to cater services to difficult-to-reach or special sub-groups are possible reasons. To improve the contraceptive prevalence, the family planning program should be implemented more strategically. Further data analysis, initiation of best practices to fulfill family planning needs of special groups, functional integration of family planning services into general health services, effective counseling and behavior change communication to prevent unwanted pregnancies, and increased access to modern family planning methods could be the stepping stones to improve contraceptive prevalence rate and the overall FP program in Nepal.

  8. Ulamas play very important role in NTB family planning programme.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    In the initial stages, the West Nusa Tenggara chapter of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association had difficulty promoting family planning because people thought it was against religion. But once it was sanctioned by the alim-ulama, it was accepted, and ulamas and other religious leaders have been very supportive of family planning. Family planning has reduced the population growth rate from 4% a year in the late 1960s to 1.91% during 1980-85. 3 family planning projects are currently implemented: RBS, WKBT, and PKPM. The RBS project in Mataram involves 1000 senior and secondary school students and teachers. The WKBT clinic in Soetjipto Wirosardjono, inaugurated in 1985, provides family planning and contraceptive (including Norplant) services, maternal and child health services, simple laboratory testing, family and youth counseling, and information, education, and communication. The PKPM project, in the subdistrict of Gerung, provides family planning information and distributes pills and condoms. Of the 9768 eligible couples in the Gerung subdistrict, 5891 have become acceptors.

  9. History of the Chinese Family Planning program: 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuntong

    2012-06-01

    China launched a nationwide family planning program offering birth control methods and family planning services in the 1970s. Promotion of the widespread use of long-term contraceptive methods has been one of the program's core strategies. This paper reviews the history of China's Family Planning Program at the national level from 1970 to 2010. Special attention is paid to the history of contraception policy. This study provides an overview of the last four decades of the Chinese Family Planning Program. Programmatic goals are highlighted during different time periods, with special attention being paid to the role of contraceptive use and the history of contraceptive policy. The Chinese Family Planning Program has experienced several transitions. It has evolved from the 1970s period of moderate policy, represented by wan, xi, shao (late marriage and childbearing, birth spacing and limited fertility), through the strict one-child policy of 1979 to the early 1990s. From the mid-1990s to the present, a relatively lenient policy has been in force, characterized by client-centered informed choice. The success of the Chinese Family Planning Program has long been heavily dependent on policies advocated by the central government, including programs promoting contraception to reduce fertility rates. The Program also depended on a logistical support system, including organizational safeguards and free provision of contraception and family planning services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning.

    PubMed

    Vitug, W

    1986-01-01

    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values.

  11. Individual Planning: An Exploration of the Link between Quality of Plan and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Lynn; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Mansell, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Individual plans for people with intellectual disabilities were evaluated for quality and effectiveness in improving quality of life. Quality was assessed by rating whether goals were relevant, observable, age appropriate, necessary, timetabled, developmental, measurable, realistic, assigned to staff and improving at least one of O'Brien's five…

  12. Writing Plan Quality: Relevance to Writing Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Constance

    2006-01-01

    If writing matters, how can we improve it? This study investigated the nature of writing plan quality and its relationship to the ensuing writing scores. Data were drawn from the 1998 Provincial Learning Assessment Programme (PLAP) in Writing, which was administered to pupils in Grades 4, 7, and 10 across British Columbia, Canada. Common features…

  13. Software quality assurance plan for GCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Stephen E.; Bailey, Elizabeth K.

    1990-01-01

    The software quality assurance (SQA) function for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project which is part of a software error studies research program is described. The SQA plan outlines all of the procedures, controls, and audits to be carried out by the SQA organization to ensure adherence to the policies, procedures, and standards for the GCS project.

  14. Using CCSSE in Planning for Quality Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balog, Scott E.; Search, Sally P.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes how Tallahassee Community College used CCSSE data as part of its overall student-retention program, consisting of faculty workshops, analysis of state accountability data, and conscious incorporation of best practices. The resulting Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) meets accreditation requirements and strengthens the college's…

  15. Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (e) Community family planning services.

    PubMed

    Macqueen, I A

    1974-06-01

    Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money.

  16. New directions in family planning communication: 12 predictions for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G

    1988-12-01

    Good communication about family planning is needed for many reasons: 1) what many people think they know about family planning is wrong, 2) about 25% of the Asian population (600 million people) are between the ages of 10 and 19 and they need to be informed, 3) individuals must want to use family planning so they will use it regularly and effectively, and 4) people hear competing messages from those opposed to family planning. The authors make the following predictions for the field of family planning IEC in the 1990s: 1) family planning communication will have many different audiences, so messages and media will have to be developed for very specific groups; 2) more time will be spent on research, learning about specific audiences, the media, and background before developing messages, and messages and products will be carefully tested before being widely distributed; 3) peer groups will be used more to reach peer groups; 4) entertainment will reach and teach wider audiences about family planning, AIDS, and sexual responsibility (promoting "enter-education," a combination of entertainment and education); 5) audiences will participate more actively in different kinds of family planning communication, including community mobilization and individual involvement; 6) family planning messages will be much more personal, using human interest stories to capture and persuade the audience; 7) multiple media will be used more and more to get the message across; 8) the best quality family planning entertainment materials will be able to compete with commercial products and produce revenue; 9) campaigns and other communications will be oriented towards large regional markets; 10) more creative and more sympathetic communication in clinics and by health care providers will increase acceptance and continuation rates for many methods; 11) communication among family planning professionals will increasingly depend on effective national population information centers that can use

  17. A study of IMRT planning parameters on planning efficiency, delivery efficiency, and plan quality

    SciTech Connect

    Mittauer, Kathryn; Lu Bo; Yan Guanghua; Kahler, Darren; Amdur, Robert; Liu Chihray; Gopal, Arun

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To improve planning and delivery efficiency of head and neck IMRT without compromising planning quality through the evaluation of inverse planning parameters.Methods: Eleven head and neck patients with pre-existing IMRT treatment plans were selected for this retrospective study. The Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) was used to compute new treatment plans for each patient by varying the individual or the combined parameters of dose/fluence grid resolution, minimum MU per segment, and minimum segment area. Forty-five plans per patient were generated with the following variations: 4 dose/fluence grid resolution plans, 12 minimum segment area plans, 9 minimum MU plans, and 20 combined minimum segment area/minimum MU plans. Each plan was evaluated and compared to others based on dose volume histograms (DVHs) (i.e., plan quality), planning time, and delivery time. To evaluate delivery efficiency, a model was developed that estimated the delivery time of a treatment plan, and validated through measurements on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Results: The uncertainty (i.e., variation) of the dose-volume index due to dose calculation grid variation was as high as 8.2% (5.5 Gy in absolute dose) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and 13.3% (2.1 Gy in absolute dose) for planning at risk volumes (PRVs). Comparison results of dose distributions indicated that smaller volumes were more susceptible to uncertainties. The grid resolution of a 4 mm dose grid with a 2 mm fluence grid was recommended, since it can reduce the final dose calculation time by 63% compared to the accepted standard (2 mm dose grid with a 2 mm fluence grid resolution) while maintaining a similar level of dose-volume index variation. Threshold values that maintained adequate plan quality (DVH results of the PTVs and PRVs remained satisfied for their dose objectives) were 5 cm{sup 2} for minimum segment area and 5 MU for minimum MU. As the minimum MU parameter was increased, the number of

  18. A study of IMRT planning parameters on planning efficiency, delivery efficiency, and plan quality.

    PubMed

    Mittauer, Kathryn; Lu, Bo; Yan, Guanghua; Kahler, Darren; Gopal, Arun; Amdur, Robert; Liu, Chihray

    2013-06-01

    To improve planning and delivery efficiency of head and neck IMRT without compromising planning quality through the evaluation of inverse planning parameters. Eleven head and neck patients with pre-existing IMRT treatment plans were selected for this retrospective study. The Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) was used to compute new treatment plans for each patient by varying the individual or the combined parameters of dose∕fluence grid resolution, minimum MU per segment, and minimum segment area. Forty-five plans per patient were generated with the following variations: 4 dose∕fluence grid resolution plans, 12 minimum segment area plans, 9 minimum MU plans, and 20 combined minimum segment area∕minimum MU plans. Each plan was evaluated and compared to others based on dose volume histograms (DVHs) (i.e., plan quality), planning time, and delivery time. To evaluate delivery efficiency, a model was developed that estimated the delivery time of a treatment plan, and validated through measurements on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. The uncertainty (i.e., variation) of the dose-volume index due to dose calculation grid variation was as high as 8.2% (5.5 Gy in absolute dose) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and 13.3% (2.1 Gy in absolute dose) for planning at risk volumes (PRVs). Comparison results of dose distributions indicated that smaller volumes were more susceptible to uncertainties. The grid resolution of a 4 mm dose grid with a 2 mm fluence grid was recommended, since it can reduce the final dose calculation time by 63% compared to the accepted standard (2 mm dose grid with a 2 mm fluence grid resolution) while maintaining a similar level of dose-volume index variation. Threshold values that maintained adequate plan quality (DVH results of the PTVs and PRVs remained satisfied for their dose objectives) were 5 cm(2) for minimum segment area and 5 MU for minimum MU. As the minimum MU parameter was increased, the number of segments and delivery

  19. 42 CFR 441.474 - Quality assurance and improvement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality assurance and improvement plan. 441.474... improvement plan. (a) The State must provide a quality assurance and improvement plan that describes the State... pursue opportunities for system improvement. (b) The quality assurance and improvement plan shall also...

  20. 45 CFR 1304.60 - Deficiencies and quality improvement plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deficiencies and quality improvement plans. 1304... must correct the deficiency either immediately or pursuant to a Quality Improvement Plan. (c) An Early... Improvement Plan must submit to the responsible HHS official a Quality Improvement Plan specifying, for each...

  1. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surveillance plans. 37.604 Section 37.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan or...

  2. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... surveillance plans. 37.604 Section 37.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan or...

  3. [Family planning needs help to reduce the number of abortions].

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    M. Peter McPherson, the administrator of the US Agency for International Development, believes that international assistance for family planning programs is necessary to reduce the number of abortions in the world. When couples desire fewer children and family planning services are unavailable, they frequently have recourse to abortion even when the practice is illegal. Data from some countries of Asia and Latin America indicate that 1 of every 3 women have had abortions, many of which would have been avoided if family planning services had been available. An estimated 360,000 abortions have been avoided in Mexico since the governmental family planning program began in 1972. The number of Chilean women seeking treatment for complications of illegal abortion has declined substantially since modern family planning methods became available in 1965. The health and survival of mothers and children is another important reason for supporting family planning. Studies in 26 countries confirm that children born within 2 years of the previous birth have a risk of death twice that of children born 2 or 3 years after the last birth. Mortality among children under 4 would be reduced by 21% if all births were spaced at least 2 years apart. At least 200,000 maternal deaths each year are attributable to too many pregnancies or to pregnancy at too young or old an age. The desire of many Third World families to have fewer children is not merely a product of western speculation, but is confirmed in surveys which demonstrate that couples are unable to limit or space their children because of lack of family planning services. Even though careful study has not yet clarified the exact relationship between population and economic growth, the impact of population growth on the economy is unquestionable. It is rarely argued that rapid population growth contributes to economic development. Family planning would contribute to economic growth by reducing population pressure.

  4. Income-generating activities for family planning acceptors.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The Income Generating Activities program for Family Planning Acceptors was introduced in Indonesia in 1979. Capital input by the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordination Board and the UN Fund for Population Activities was used to set up small businesses by family planning acceptors. In 2 years, when the businesses become self-sufficient, the loans are repaid, and the money is used to set up new family planning acceptors in business. The program strengthens family planning acceptance, improves the status of women, and enhances community self-reliance. The increase in household income generated by the program raises the standards of child nutrition, encourages reliance on the survival of children, and decreases the value of large families. Approximately 18,000 Family Planning-Income Generating Activities groups are now functioning all over Indonesia, with financial assistance from the central and local governments, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the UN Population Fund, the Government of the Netherlands, and the Government of Australia through the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  5. Objective necessity of socialist family planning: a trial discussion.

    PubMed

    Li, R

    1985-07-01

    On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence.

  6. Feasibility and effectiveness of integrating provider-initiated testing and counselling within family planning services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Liambila, Wilson; Askew, Ian; Mwangi, Juma; Ayisi, Robert; Kibaru, Josephine; Mullick, Saiqa

    2009-11-01

    To assess an intervention for increasing access to and use of HIV testing among family planning clients through provider-initiated testing and counselling for HIV. Two versions of the intervention were prospectively compared using a prepost intervention only design. Health facilities were purposively selected and family planning consultations randomly selected. Twenty-three public-sector hospitals, health centres and dispensaries in two districts of Central Province, Kenya. One group of 28 family planning providers were trained in the integrated family planning-HIV counselling intervention and in providing HIV testing and counselling to family planning clients requesting a test during the consultation and another group of 47 family planning providers were trained in the intervention and in referring clients interested in an HIV test. Samples of family planning clients willing to be observed and interviewed were randomly selected (538 preintervention, 520 postintervention) and their informed consent obtained to observe their consultation. All family planning providers were trained in an algorithm that integrates HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention counselling, including offering HIV testing and counselling, with family planning counselling. Clients choosing to be tested were either referred or tested during the consultation by a trained family planning provider. The proportion of family planning clients with whom HIV testing was discussed; the proportion offered HIV testing; and the proportion choosing to have a test. The proportion of consultations in which HIV prevention counselling was provided and HIV testing offered increased significantly. The proportion of clients requesting an HIV test increased from 1 to 26%; approximately one third of these had never been tested previously. Provider-initiated testing and counselling is feasible and acceptable in family planning services, does not adversely affect the quality of the family planning consultation

  7. Core competency model for the family planning public health nurse.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2014-01-01

    A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 30 CFR 28.30 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 28... PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES Quality Control § 28.30 Quality control plans; filing... part, each applicant shall file with MSHA a proposed quality control plan which shall be designed...

  9. 42 CFR 84.40 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 84.40... Control § 84.40 Quality control plans; filing requirements. As a part of each application for approval or... proposed quality control plan which shall be designed to assure the quality of respiratory...

  10. 42 CFR 84.40 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 84.40... Control § 84.40 Quality control plans; filing requirements. As a part of each application for approval or... proposed quality control plan which shall be designed to assure the quality of respiratory...

  11. 30 CFR 28.30 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 28... PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES Quality Control § 28.30 Quality control plans; filing... part, each applicant shall file with MSHA a proposed quality control plan which shall be designed...

  12. 42 CFR 84.40 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 84.40... Control § 84.40 Quality control plans; filing requirements. As a part of each application for approval or... proposed quality control plan which shall be designed to assure the quality of respiratory...

  13. 42 CFR 84.41 - Quality control plans; contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality control plans; contents. 84.41 Section 84... AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.41 Quality control plans; contents. (a) Each quality control plan shall contain provisions for...

  14. 42 CFR 84.41 - Quality control plans; contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quality control plans; contents. 84.41 Section 84... AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.41 Quality control plans; contents. (a) Each quality control plan shall contain provisions for...

  15. 42 CFR 84.41 - Quality control plans; contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quality control plans; contents. 84.41 Section 84... AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.41 Quality control plans; contents. (a) Each quality control plan shall contain provisions for...

  16. 42 CFR 84.41 - Quality control plans; contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quality control plans; contents. 84.41 Section 84... AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.41 Quality control plans; contents. (a) Each quality control plan shall contain provisions for...

  17. 42 CFR 84.41 - Quality control plans; contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quality control plans; contents. 84.41 Section 84... AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.41 Quality control plans; contents. (a) Each quality control plan shall contain provisions for...

  18. 30 CFR 28.30 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 28... PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES Quality Control § 28.30 Quality control plans; filing... part, each applicant shall file with MSHA a proposed quality control plan which shall be designed...

  19. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  20. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  1. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM...

  2. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  3. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  4. 30 CFR 28.30 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 28... PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES Quality Control § 28.30 Quality control plans; filing... part, each applicant shall file with MSHA a proposed quality control plan which shall be designed to...

  5. 42 CFR 84.40 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 84.40... Control § 84.40 Quality control plans; filing requirements. As a part of each application for approval or... proposed quality control plan which shall be designed to assure the quality of respiratory protection...

  6. Hong Kong: The Family Planning Association continues its pioneering role.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Vital population statistics for Hong Kong are mentioned. The 1st efforts at providing birth control services in Hong Kong began in 1936 with the Eugenics League. The League was reorganized and formed into the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong (FPAHK) in 1950. The government began providing family planning services in 1974. Although there is no governmental incentive/disincentive policy, certain laws and practices do have the effect of encouraging population growth limitation. These are described. The FPAHK directs its efforts toward motivational activities. The Association is encouraging the concept of male responsibility for family planning. Personal visits to fisherfolk families have been instituted to combat their tendencies toward large families. Various separate activities of the government program and the FPAHK are discussed.

  7. Family planning clinic services in the United States, 1983.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Forrest, J D

    1985-01-01

    Almost five million women were enrolled in family planning clinics in the United States in 1983, eight percent more than in 1981. The number of family planning provider agencies declined slightly, from 2,504 to 2,462, but the number of clinic sites that could be identified increased slightly, from 5,124 to 5,174. Family planning clinics operate in three-quarters of U.S. counties; in 1975, the last time county coverage was checked, four-fifths of the counties had clinics. About one in 20 women who are exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy and live in unserved counties are teenagers or low-income women. Nonmetropolitan counties are more likely to be without clinics than are metropolitan counties. Overall, there are 417,000 low-income women and 249,000 teenagers at risk of unintended pregnancy living in counties where there are no family planning clinics. In 1983, health departments constituted six in 10 of all family planning agencies and served two-fifths of all family planning clinic patients; Planned Parenthood affiliates accounted for fewer than one in 10 agencies and served more than one-quarter of all patients. Hospitals and all other agencies served about one-third of the total 1983 caseload. These patterns were similar to those reported for 1981. Family planning clinics continue to serve primarily low-income women: Four-fifths of the nearly five million clinic patients in 1983 had family incomes below 150 percent of the federally defined poverty level. About 1.6 million women aged 19 and younger were served, representing one-third of all clinic patients in 1983.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. What nurses should know about natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Trent, A J; Clark, K

    1997-01-01

    Two common natural family planning (NFP) methods are the ovulation method based on characteristics of cervical mucus and the symptothermal method based on changes in cervical mucus, basal body temperature, and the cervix. Both methods are effective when used correctly. Nurses should understand the principles of NFP and introduce these methods in discussions of family planning options. Interested clients should be referred to a certified NFP instructor for education and supervision.

  9. Hanford Tanks Initiative quality assurance implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Huston, J.J.

    1998-06-23

    Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan for Nuclear Facilities defines the controls for the products and activities developed by HTI. Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD)(HNF-PRO599) is the document that defines the quality requirements for Nuclear Facilities. The QAPD provides direction for compliance to 10 CFR 830.120 Nuclear Safety Management, Quality Assurance Requirements. Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year activity resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30), and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). HTI will develop and demonstrate technologies and processes for characterization and retrieval of single shell tank waste. Activities and products associated with HTI consist of engineering, construction, procurement, closure, retrieval, characterization, and safety and licensing.

  10. Astronomical Instrumentation Systems Quality Management Planning: AISQMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Jesse

    2017-06-01

    The capability of small aperture astronomical instrumentation systems (AIS) to make meaningful scientific contributions has never been better. The purpose of AIS quality management planning (AISQMP) is to ensure the quality of these contributions such that they are both valid and reliable. The first step involved with AISQMP is to specify objective quality measures not just for the AIS final product, but also for the instrumentation used in its production. The next step is to set up a process to track these measures and control for any unwanted variation. The final step is continual effort applied to reducing variation and obtaining measured values near optimal theoretical performance. This paper provides an overview of AISQMP while focusing on objective quality measures applied to astronomical imaging systems.

  11. 222-S laboratory quality assurance plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meznarich, H.K.

    1995-04-01

    This document provides quality assurance guidelines and quality control requirements for analytical services. This document is designed on the basis of Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) technical guidelines and is used for governing 222-S and 222-SA analytical and quality control activities. The 222-S Laboratory provides analytical services to various clients including, but not limited to, waste characterization for the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), waste characterization for regulatory waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD), regulatory compliance samples, radiation screening, process samples, and TPA samples. A graded approach is applied on the level of sample custody, QC, data verification, and data reporting to meet the specific needs of the client.

  12. Population and family planning in developing countries: the employer's role.

    PubMed

    Tata, N H

    1974-01-01

    The overall population problem of the world is discussed briefly. The author asserts that rapid population growth has serious social and political implications and imposes serious restraints on economic progress. It is also linked to problems of urbanization. Family planning is a way out. The state alone is not enough to make family planning successful, it must be supported by the different segments of society. Employers have a major social responsibility in this respect. After this general introduction, and the assertion of the basic role of the employer in family planning programs, the author deals with the specific situation in India in terms of 1) its population problem, 2) progress and impact of the Indian family planning program, and 3) the role of employers in the promotion of family planning in India; a detailed section is devoted to the family planning centers of the Tata group of companies (Tata textile units, chemicals, iron and steel, engineering and locomotive, etc.). The author enumerates the measures to promote effective participation by employers, which include 1) an organized framework, 2) assistance to employers, and 3) removal of disincentives. The author concludes by saying that the efforts of employers to limit population growth need to be supplemented by international cooperation and action.

  13. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences.

  14. The economics of family planning and underage conceptions.

    PubMed

    Paton, David

    2002-03-01

    This paper examines whether improved access to family planning services for under 16 is likely to help in achieving the aim of reducing underage conceptions. A simple model of rational choice is introduced which suggests that family planning increases rates of underage sexual activity and has an ambiguous impact on underage conception and abortion rates. The model is tested on panel data on regions within the UK using two approaches. The first test is whether the 1984 Gillick ruling had a differential impact on two groups: under 16 for whom access to family planning was restricted by the ruling and older teenagers who were not affected. Secondly, attendance by under sixteens at family planning clinics, suitably instrumented, is used as a proxy for access to family planning. With both approaches, no evidence is found that the provision of family planning reduces either underage conception or abortion rates. Socio-economic variables such as children in care rates and participation rates in post-compulsory education are found to be significant predictors of underage pregnancies.

  15. A second look at natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Lolarga, E

    1983-01-01

    There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the

  16. Confidentiality in Family Planning Services for Young People: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Anna W; Williams, Jessica R; Zapata, Lauren B; Moskosky, Susan B; Weik, Tasmeen S

    2015-08-01

    Family planning services are essential for reducing high rates of unintended pregnancies among young people, yet a perception that providers will not preserve confidentiality may deter youth from accessing these services. This systematic review, conducted in 2011, summarizes the evidence on the effect of assuring confidentiality in family planning services to young people on reproductive health outcomes. The review was used to inform national recommendations on providing quality family planning services. Multiple databases were searched to identify articles addressing confidentiality in family planning services to youth aged 10-24 years. Included studies were published from January 1985 through February 2011. Studies conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand, and those that focused exclusively on HIV or sexually transmitted diseases, were excluded. The search strategy identified 19,332 articles, nine of which met the inclusion criteria. Four studies examined outcomes. Examined outcomes included use of clinical services and intention to use services. Of the four outcome studies, three found a positive association between assurance of confidentiality and at least one outcome of interest. Five studies provided information on youth perspectives and underscored the idea that young people greatly value confidentiality when receiving family planning services. This review demonstrates that there is limited research examining whether confidentiality in family planning services to young people affects reproductive health outcomes. A robust research agenda is needed, given the importance young people place on confidentiality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. An approach to family planning for Indochinese refugee women.

    PubMed

    Presswell, N J

    1982-08-01

    Family planning services were introduced in Vietnam by the Americans about 20 years ago, but on a limited basis. Many of the Vietnamese refugee women have had no contact with such services. Abortion was illegal until 1975 in South Vietnam, but since the takeover, abortion clinics have been available as part of the public hospital system. Family planning was available in some of the refugee camps. Most of the Vietnam refugees fled their country by boat. Before their acceptance by Australia, the Vietnamese refugees have health checks by the Australian Commonwealth Health Department in the country of transit. Shortly after their arrival in Australia, health screening is done by the State Health Department. The majority of refugees are accommodated in migrant hostels for the 1st 3-12 months. Family planning is incorporated into Eastbridge Hostel's orientation program. During participation in some family planning discussion groups with the Indochinese refugees, it was observed that the women were particularly shy and hesitant to talk about sexual concerns in a large group or in mixed company. As personal matters are dealt with in the family, it is preferable to have a female as a discussion leader and interpreter. Visual aids such as a display of contraceptive devices, a model showing female anatomy and a family planning film for non-English speaking migrants are particularly useful. As a female doctor using a female interpreter the aim was to provide an accessible service for Indochinese women with family planning inquiries or gynecological problems. It is important that the interpreter is present in the consulting room. Nonverbal cues are most important and particular attention should be paid to establishing eye contact with the patient. Simple miming techniques or the use of diagrams may be helpful in reinforcing the work of the interpreter. When listening to the patient, it is useful to look and listen for nonverbal cues from them. Between February 1980 and May 1981

  18. [Cost-benefit model of the Rwanda family planning program].

    PubMed

    1991-08-01

    Significant conclusions are presented of the application of a cost-benefit model of family planning in Rwanda. The model and computer programs used were developed by the Research Triangle Institute and financed by the US Agency for International Development. The UN Population Fund participated in the project, which represented the 1st application of the model in Africa. Rwanda's population growth is among the most rapid in the world. The population has increased from about 2 million in 1950 to over 7 million in 1989. The model is composed of 2 parts, the 1st of which discloses the scope of the family planning program and its impact on population growth. The resulting projections are the basis for the 2nd module, the actual cost-benefit analysis which measures the impact of family planning on sectorial expenditures and analyzes the costs and benefits of the program in different sectors. The sectors of health, education, and agriculture are included in this presentation. 2 hypotheses about population growth are included; the 1st assumes the current family planning program and the 2nd assumes no family planning program. The model commences with population and family planning data for 1981. Data through 1989 represent observed rates and those for 1990-2011 are target rates. Only modern family planning methods are included in the model. The prevalence rate for modern methods increased from nearly null in 1981 to 5.3% in 1989 and following current trends is projected at 34.8% in 2000 and 46.8% in 2011. The total fertility rate was 8.6 in 1981 and is projected at 5.5 in 2000 and 4.7 in 2011. The total population is projected at 13.2 million in 2011 with a family planning program or 17.7 million without one. Health expenditures in the final year of the projection would be 41% greater without a family planning program. The family planning program would permit a reduction in the number of children to be educated of over 1 million students, a 54% decrease, assuming that the

  19. Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

  20. Utilization and Effectiveness of Florida's Multidisciplinary Family Service Planning Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazear, Katherine; Everett, Judith; Eggers, Terri

    This conference paper discusses the results of a study on the effectiveness of Florida's multidisciplinary Family Service Planning Teams (FSPT). The FSPTs were developed to create holistic service plans to enable children with emotional disabilities to live in the community and be successful in school. The FSPTs have become the focus of service…

  1. A Selection of Films for Family Planning Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This catalog gives an annotated listing of selected films available for use in family planning programs. Films are listed alphabetically, geographically by particular country, and by subject. In most cases information is given concerning length, producer, distributor, cost, and rental conditions from the International Planned Parenthood…

  2. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  3. Population and Family Planning in Latin America. Report Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrow, Phyllis T., Ed.

    Analysis of Latin America's demographic situation has led many to believe that the present rapid rates of population growth, the highest anywhere in the world, must be reduced in order to prevent catastrophe. Family planning associations, affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), have been organized in 29 Latin…

  4. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  5. Personal and Family Financial Planning: The Need and the Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfenbein, Iris M.; And Others

    The first of a series on personal and family financial planning (PFFP) education, this publication presents five papers examining the need for educational programs that emphasize the use of financial resources in ways that contribute to family stability. C. Raymond Anderson discusses the inability of many individuals to realistically manage…

  6. Facilitating State-Wide Collaboration around Family Planning Care in the Context of Zika.

    PubMed

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Gavin, Loretta; Witt, Jacki; Moskosky, Susan

    Family planning providers have an important role to play in the response to the public health challenge posed by Zika. In the United States, there are high rates of unintended pregnancy, especially in states most at risk for mosquito-borne transmission of the Zika virus. This paper describes efforts by eight of these states (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) to build capacity for quality family planning care in the context of Zika. Drawing on resources developed by the Office of Population Affairs, including a toolkit for family planning care in the context of Zika, agencies and stakeholders involved in the family planning delivery system in Southern states at risk for mosquito-borne transmission met over several months in the summer of 2016 to coordinate efforts to respond to the risk of Zika in their jurisdictions. Through proactive communication and collaboration, states took steps to integrate Zika-related family planning care, including screening for Zika risk and providing appropriate, client-centered counseling. Challenges faced by the states included not having family planning included as a component of their state's Zika response effort, limited funding for family planning activities, and the need for robust communication networks between multiple state and federal agencies. The efforts described in this paper can help other states to integrate family planning into their Zika response. This is relevant to all states; even when mosquito-borne transmission is not occurring or expected, all states experience travel-related and sexually transmitted Zika infections. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-income women's perceptions of family planning service alternatives.

    PubMed

    Severy, L J; McKillop, K

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 665 low-income women from a predominantly rural area of north central Florida rated the value of 25 features of family planning providers and reported their perceptions of how characteristic each feature was of different types of providers. A well-trained, trustworthy and friendly staff, the presence of a doctor if you need one and a staff that is gentle with the examination were the most desirable features of family planning services. The respondents' perceptions of public health clinics suggest that the strongest qualities of such facilities are that they treat people from different backgrounds, accept Medicaid, are easy to find and teach you how to avoid pregnancy and how to take care of yourself and stay healthy. Features thought most characteristic of private physician services were a well-trained staff, privacy and the presence of a doctor if you need one. Voluntary organizations were seen as providing services for people of different backgrounds, having a friendly staff, serving as a referral agency and teaching about staying healthy and avoiding pregnancy. However, voluntary organizations were rated lower than public health clinics or private physicians on nearly all features. The total scores for public health clinics and private physicians were not significantly different from each other, but both were noticeably higher than the score for voluntary organizations. Ethnicity affected ratings dramatically, with black respondents clearly more favorable toward public health clinics and private physicians than white respondents; conversely, whites were more positive toward voluntary organizations than were blacks. For many of these low-income respondents, the high ratings of private physicians may have represented their expectations rather than their actual experience.

  8. Basic Reference Sources in Population/Family Planning: An Annotated Bibliography, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Richard L.

    This "Bibliography Series" is a project of the Carolina Population Center Library/Technical Information Service, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It is intended as a vehicle for the dissemination of quality bibliographies on topics of current interest to librarians, researchers and students in the population/family planning field.…

  9. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

    2014-01-01

    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning

  10. The feminist position on family planning in Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M V

    1984-04-01

    The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.

  11. [Family planning at the turn of the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1994-06-01

    This work constitutes a plea for the widest possible acceptance and encouragement of family planning throughout the world in order to avoid the irreversible environmental damage that will inevitably come with excessive numbers. Limitation of reproduction, preferably voluntarily, is possible by means of the effective and generally safe contraceptive methods now available. Preservation of the environment will require effective antipollution policies and an unwelcome control of the rampant consumerism of contemporary culture. Alarm among demographers in developed countries concerning exponential population increase developed about a half-century ago, only shortly after the feminist-led struggle for reproductive freedom provided a moral and juridical foundation for family planning. The demographic focus was not used to promote family planning among Third World countries, as that would have been viewed as heavy handed intrusion into the most intimate realm of domestic life. Instead, the nondemographic benefits such as improved maternal and child health and family well-being were stressed. It may be time to modify the focus. Ecologists must strive for a radical transformation of consumerist culture but must not ignore the pressure of numbers. Satisfying the needs of the world's most impoverished will greatly increase pressure on resources. Family planning has been accepted by the majority of the world's couples, but the unsatisfied demand has been estimated to amount to 100 million couples throughout the world. Providing information and services for such couples is the greatest challenge facing family planning programs. Many enemies of family planning have lost influence, but some critics from within family planning programs have deflected attention from the tasks of service delivery and may have postponed progress in some areas. Feminists who object to the concentration on female methods, developmentalists who believe that contraception will be accepted eventually as

  12. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  13. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  14. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its...

  15. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  16. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  17. Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Varley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualify contraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam.

  18. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Stoep, Ann Vander; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child’s diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. PMID:26395237

  19. [Influence of Caesarean section on familial planning].

    PubMed

    Rosales Aujang, Enrique; Felguérez Flores, Jesús Alberto

    2009-12-01

    The Caesarean section is commonly related to the effects it produces in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality; however, little has been studied about the influence that C-Section exerts in familiar planning. This cross-sectional study analyzes the relationship between the rate of Caesarean section during 19 years and the rates of natality, of maternal mortality, and perinatal mortality, as well as the accepted contraceptive methods during such surgical procedure.

  20. [The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].

    PubMed

    Portes, M

    1983-01-01

    Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization.

  1. Family planning since ICPD--how far have we progressed?

    PubMed

    Cates, Willard; Maggwa, Baker

    2014-12-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was a pivotal global event. It established voluntary family planning as a fundamental human right. We describe the progress made and challenges faced by the family planning field in the 20 years since ICPD. We present case studies from three African countries to highlight factors affecting the evolution of family planning during the past 2 decades. Measurable progress has been made in the key family planning indicators over this interval. However, improvement has slowed in recent years, and demographic forecasts predict a greater unmet need for effective contraception in the future. With a rights-based lens, we need to better understand the nuances of fertility intentions as we offer women and couples contraceptive choices pertinent to their stage of life. With a public-health lens, we need better metrics to reflect the realities of contraceptive effectiveness. Now is the time to build on two decades of family planning progress after ICPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contraceptive security, information flow, and local adaptations: family planning Morocco.

    PubMed

    Chandani, Y; Breton, G

    2001-12-01

    Many developing countries increasingly recognize and acknowledge family planning as a critical part of socio-economic development. However, with few health dollars to go around, countries tend to provide essential drugs for curative care, rather than for family planning products. Donors have historically provided free contraceptives for family planning services. Whether products are donated or purchased by the country, a successful family planning program depends on an uninterrupted supply of products, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the customer. Any break in the supply chain may cause a family planning program to fail. A well-functioning logistics system can manage the supply chain and ensure that the customers have the products they need, when they need them. Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field. The case study showed that even in a challenging environment an LMIS can be successfully deployed and fully supported by the users. It is critical to customize the system to a country-specific situation to ensure buy-in for the implementation. Significant external support funding and technical expertise are critical components to ensure the initial success of the system. Nonetheless, evidence from the case study shows that, after a system has been implemented, the benefits may not ensure its institutionalization. Other support, including local funding and technical expertise, is required.

  3. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  4. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  5. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda's Southern Kayonza District.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; St Fleur, Jacklin; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L

    2015-05-13

    While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda's southern Kayonza district, which has the country's highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers' catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district's Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman's matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. As Rwanda continues to refine its family planning policies and

  6. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda’s Southern Kayonza District

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southern Kayonza district, which has the country’s highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers’ catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district’s Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Results: Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman’s matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. Conclusions: As Rwanda

  7. [Circular on census and family planning of 1990].

    PubMed

    1990-04-17

    In 1990 the Census Leading Group under the State Council, the State Family Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Public Security issued a circular on census and family planning calling for various localities to do a good job in registering children who were born beyond the state target. The circular provides the following: "1. To strictly enforce the policy for family planning and allow no children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for residence, it is necessary to clarify issues to the local cadres. While acknowledging their enthusiasm in implementing the state policy for family planning, we must ask them to allow some children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for the census and residence on the basis of the relevant regulations of the State Council. 2. It is necessary to carry out ideological work well among those cadres who did not report the number of children who were born beyond the state plan because of political reasons or material benefits, so that they will report childbirths and have those children registered. In general, no further investigation will be made as long as the children born beyond the state target have truthfully registered themselves during this census. However, those who continuously refuse to tell the truth will be severely dealt with when they are caught. 3. It is necessary to strengthen propaganda and education work among the masses who dare not report the births of children beyond the state target for fear of possible punishment, and make them understand that the census is aimed at managing state affairs and providing scientific data for working out various policies for social and economic developments. Therefore, it is necessary to report things as they are." The circular also provides that "Family planning is China's basic state policy. It is wrong to give birth to any child beyond the state target. It is impermissable to do so. From now on, we still need to enforce the

  8. The Best Laid Plans: An Examination of School Plan Quality and Implementation in a School Improvement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; Marsh, Julie A.; Bush-Mecenas, Susan C.; Duque, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A common strategy used in school improvement efforts is a mandated process of formal planning, yet little is known about the quality of plans or the relationship between plan quality and implementation. This mixed-methods article investigates plan quality, factors associated with plan quality, and the relationship between plan quality and…

  9. The Best Laid Plans: An Examination of School Plan Quality and Implementation in a School Improvement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; Marsh, Julie A.; Bush-Mecenas, Susan C.; Duque, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A common strategy used in school improvement efforts is a mandated process of formal planning, yet little is known about the quality of plans or the relationship between plan quality and implementation. This mixed-methods article investigates plan quality, factors associated with plan quality, and the relationship between plan quality and…

  10. Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on family planning (FP), health, and family well-being was held in India on October 26-30, 1992. The group focused on the following issues: 1) society and FP, a review of existing FP programs, and the implementation of FP programs (including quality of services and human resources development, unreached populations, adolescent fertility, diffusion of innovative activities, community-based distribution systems and social marketing, and future contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs); 2) FP and health (including safe motherhood and child survival, the interdependence of services, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and AIDS); 3) FP and family well-being (including family size, family structure, child development, fertility decline, and family support systems); and 4) the involvement of people in FP programs (community participation, cost of supplies and service, contraceptive research and development, and a reexamination of the roles of various agencies). Both developed and developing countries were considered, with an emphasis on the latter. After reviewing the progress made in implementing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, the expert group drafted 35 recommendations to governments, donors, and other agencies. Governments are asked to support FP programs as a cost-effective component of a development strategy, to provide opportunities for women to participate in public policy processes, to support the family through public policies and programs, to increase investments in FP and reproductive and maternal and child health, to increase support to the health and education sectors to achieve basic human rights, to provide safe access to counseling and abortion services, and to include STD/HIV education and prevention in the work of FP programs. FP programs should receive support and funding and

  11. Attitudes toward family and family planning in the pre-Saharan Maghreb.

    PubMed

    Bowen, D L

    1983-01-01

    Attitudes toward family size and family planning in villages in pre-Saharan Maghreb were assessed through a questionnaire administered to 75 women 13-44 years of age and 40 men. The ksars in which the interviews were conducted were located in Arab Sebbah Ziz, a rural population area. Children are important in this region, both as a source of agricultural help and to care for their parents in old age. The total fertility rate in Morocco is 7.4. Among male respondents in this study, 36.5% wanted 10 or more children. Although female respondents expressed the belief that they had no control over family size, the largest proportion (37.5%) wanted 5-6 children and only 7.5% wanted 9-10 children. All the men in the ksar of Mengara had some awareness of the concept of family planning, but the women indicated a lack of knowledge. When family planning was explained to female respondents, the characteristic response was a reluctance to interfere with God's will. Even respondents who did not want more children expressed a reluctance to do anything active to prevent pregnancy. Women in the ksar of Okba displayed a more active interest in family planning, especially to prevent the adverse health effects caused by continuous childbearing. The main reason for not using family planning was fear of side effects. There was also awareness of the beneficial effects of birth spacing on child health. The Moroccan family planning program emphasizes the use of oral contraception; there appears to be marked resistance to the IUD. These findings indicate that mass media efforts and increased availability of family planning supplies are not sufficient measures to expand family planning acceptance. Women must learn what family planning involves, how it applies to their lives, the benefits and disadvantages of available methods before they can reach decisions about contraceptive usage. The causal relationship between numerous and frequent pregnancies and poor health must also be stressed. An

  12. Uphold "three stresses" to improve family planning implementation.

    PubMed

    1994-02-01

    Shandong Peninsula, China, includes 24 towns, 4 townships, and 1006 villages with a total 1992 population of 754,000. Due to the family planning program (instituted in the mid 1950s), and its emphasis on the "three stresses" since 1983, the rate of natural increase was maintained for the past decade at 6.59/1000. Marriage and childbirth has been deferred and the annual rate of planned births is 99%. Neonatal mortality is below 10/1000 and life expectancy is 76 years. There have been 260,000 births averted. In 1966, national commendation was given for the achievements in family planning. The city now ranks 12th among the top 100 counties that are the most economically developed. Success was linked with an effective IEC programs. Changing public opinion was accomplished by placing family planning slogans and cards in windows of public places and commercial centers. Contests were held, and performances publicized family planning. There are 1162 population schools in the county which have trained 10,000 family planning publicity workers and about 400,000 others since 1987. Radio and television stations have broadcast regular programs on family planning and population twice a week since 1987. Everyone has radio sets and 90% have televisions. IEC promotion has also been concerned with social security and alleviating poverty. Contraceptive prevalence among reproductive age women is now 91%. After 25 years of family planning operation, the "three stresses" were introduced and popularized in 1983. The goal was no early marriages, no early births, no induced abortions, and no unwanted births. The program strengthened family planning agencies, promoted women's services, oversaw birth quotas, and distributed contraceptives at the grassroots level. By 1991, the city began promoting control of population growth and improvement in human resources. The "four priorities" were formulated by the city for acceptors; housing sites, business licenses, recruitment of only-child parents

  13. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall...

  14. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity in...

  15. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service plan...

  16. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service plan...

  17. 34 CFR 303.340 - Individualized family service plan-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan-general. 303.340... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Individualized Family Service Plan (ifsp) § 303.340 Individualized family service plan...

  18. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning...

  19. 42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.5 What requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported under this part must: (1... project as long as the entire project offers a broad range of family planning services. (2)...

  20. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quality assurance... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Performance-Based Acquisition 37.604 Quality assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans...

  1. Family planning: cultural and religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

    1993-06-01

    The world population explosion has caused political leaders to look upon national and regional birth control projects as vital. Support for regulation of individual fertility has been evident in all cultures, and at all times, even in those societies in which social and religious rules have favoured the abundant production of children. As the secularization of Western society and scientific enquiry gained momentum during the modern period, knowledge of reproduction increased and was applied to control human population growth. The various methods of contraception and their development through the years from the ancient ideas to the modern era are presented. Each approach to fertility control has its advantages and disadvantages. No one method is perfect for everyone, for every clinical setting, and in every culture. Higher levels of fertility have been associated with 'traditional', religious prohibitions on some forms of birth control, 'traditional' values about the importance of children and the priority of family, and 'traditional' family and gender roles reinforced by religion. The attitude of the main religious groups to contraceptive practice is discussed.

  2. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program requirements for implementation of DOE Order 5700.6C are identified in the Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan, (QPP). Management systems necessary to implement the ER QPP consist of the necessary standards and procedures required to be developed to adequately control ER processes. To the extent possible, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., standards and procedures will be utilized at the ER Program level, and requirements will not be repeated. The quality management systems identified for enhancement or development are identified in the section on Procedure Development Strategy and directly relate to unique ER Program activities. Procedures and standards that currently exist in the ER Program will be validated for compliance with ER QPP requirements.

  3. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  4. A family planning program that pays for itself.

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    In Japan, the condom is the method of choice of 82% of all contraceptive users. The Japan Family Planning Association covers about 3% of the total condom market through a well-organized social marketing scheme. Mobile guidance teams, equipped with a vehicle, supply contraceptives to health centers, independent midwives, and maternity hospitals in 17 prefectures and collect payment for condoms distributed after their previous visit. As an incentive, organizations and health institutions receive a commission for the condoms they supply. Japan's largest condom manufacturer provides supplies to the Family Planning Association at a very low price. The contraceptive social marketing program pays for its own promotion, and the Family Planning Association is able to support its other activities from the income it earns. The program was designed to complement rather than compete with commercial marketing channels such as pharmacies, which supply 60% of the 660 million condoms purchased in Japan each year.

  5. Experimentation in family planning delivery systems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Cuca, R; Pierce, C S

    1977-12-01

    Experiments in the delivery of family planning services are an important means of testing new approaches on a relatively small scale. Over the past 20 years, extensive experimental efforts have explored such key aspects of service delivery as personnel, the use of mass media, integration of family planning with other services, intensive efforts and camps, incentive payments to acceptors, and inudation or community-based distribution. Approaches that proved successful have often been incorporated into regular programs. An examination of the methodology and findings of family planning experiments, based on a survey of 96 projects testing various approaches, highlights successes, failures, and continuing problems. The discussion of past experience halps point to criteria that might be followed in formulating future experimental projects.

  6. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita

    2005-09-01

    A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.

  7. Child adjustment and parenting in planned lesbian-parent families.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2007-01-01

    One hundred planned lesbian-parent families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) were compared with 100 heterosexual-parent families on child adjustment, parental characteristics, and child rearing. Questionnaires, observations, and a diary of activities were used to collect the data. The results show that especially lesbian social mothers (i.e., nonbiological mothers) differ from heterosexual fathers on parental characteristics (e.g., more parental justification and more satisfaction with the partner as coparent) and child rearing (e.g., more parental concern and less power assertion). Child adjustment is not associated with family type (lesbian-parent families vs. heterosexual-parent families), but is predicted by power assertion, parental concern, and satisfaction with the partner as coparent.

  8. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  9. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  10. Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level Ozone | New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Looking for answers about a specific air quality issue? Here's a list of topics and programs related to air quality and Air Quality Planning (AQP) staff who can answer questions and provide information about them.

  11. Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level Ozone | New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-09-05

    Looking for answers about a specific air quality issue? Here's a list of topics and programs related to air quality and Air Quality Planning (AQP) staff who can answer questions and provide information about them.

  12. Exporting abortion politics: the battle over international family planning assistance.

    PubMed

    Lasher, C

    1991-01-01

    Congressional legislation seeking to overturn US government restrictions on international family planning assistance face a possible presidential veto. Dating back to the Reagan years, the 1984 Mexico City Policy prohibits foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGO) receiving US money from performing or actively promoting abortion as a family planning method. Even if abortion is legal in that particular country, the agency involved may not even discuss abortion as one of the medical options of a pregnant woman. In line with the Mexico City Policy, the US has withdrawn funding from both the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the largest NGO in the population field, and the Family Planning International Assistance, the international division of the Planned Parenthood federation of America. One of the effects of the Mexico City Policy has been to make family planning more controversial, and to increase opposition to birth control. In addition to the Mexico City Policy, the Reagan years also saw the implementation of a policy that denies funding to the UNFPA, charged by the US of "co-managing" China's population program that engages in coercive abortion and involuntary sterilization. The UNFPA has denied such charges. So far, President George Bush -- previously a supporter of family planning programs -- has sided with opponents of abortion, and has threatened a veto threat may soon be tested, since Congress has drafted a foreign aid appropriations bill that has includes a measure saying that NGOs should be treated in the same manner as their governments, which are exempt from the Mexico City Policy so long as US funds are not used to support abortions.

  13. [Family intervention according to Roy. Planning, execution and evaluation].

    PubMed

    de Montigny, F

    1992-10-01

    Last month, the author presented the first two steps necessary in the development of a nursing care plan. This care plan utilized Sister Callista Roy's conceptual model and was designed to evaluate the family system. The readers became familiar with the Joly family, whose family system was evaluated (this included Diane and Jessie). Analysis of the collected data identified two nursing diagnoses and the author explained the way that nursing diagnosis is derived. The first identified nursing diagnosis revealed a threat to the beneficiary, the second diagnosis revealed a threat to the family system. This second article is devoted to the three other steps involved in the development of a nursing care plan that will assist the nurse in developing a systematic strategy in caring for this type of family. The planning step consists of the identification of objectives for care. These objectives must be specific, measurable and realistic as well as able to answer the question: "What changes are intended for this family?" Suggestions are offered for objective development. Once the objectives are finalized, the nurse chooses pertinent and realistic interventions that permit her/him, as well as Diane, to attain the identified objectives. The nurse's interventions are centred around stimuli that are increased, decreased or maintained by the goal of modifying or reinforcing observed behaviors. In the care plan example developed for the Joly family, the identified interventions are not all inclusive and serve as suggestions. During the course of the interventions the nurse must constantly readjust and adapt the interventions to fit with changing needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Level of male involvement and associated factors in family planning services utilization among married men in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Mihretie; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Gedefaw, Molla

    2014-12-02

    Men's participation is crucial to the success of family planning programs and women's empowerment and associated with better outcomes in reproductive health such as contraceptive acceptance and continuation, and safer sexual behaviors. Limited choice and access to methods, attitudes of men towards family planning, perceived fear of side-effects, poor quality of available services, cultural or religious oppositions and gender-based barriers are some of the reasons for low utilization of family planning. Hence, this study assessed the level of male involvement in family planning services utilization and its associated factors in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2013. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 524 eligible samples. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Epi Info and SPSS were used to enter and analyze the data; univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to display the outputs. Only 44 (8.4%) respondents were using or directly participating in the use of family planning services mainly male condoms. The reasons mentioned for the low participation were the desire to have more children, wife or partner refusal, fear of side effects, religious prohibition, lack of awareness about contraceptives and the thinking that it is the only issue for women. Opinion about family planning services, men approval and current use of family planning methods were associated with male involvement in the services utilization. In this study, the level of male involvement was low. Lack of information, inaccessibility to the services and the desire to have more children were found to be the reasons for low male involvement in family planning services utilization. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations, donors and relevant stakeholders should ensure availability, accessibility and sustained advocacy for use of family planning

  15. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-24

    birth control . This policy, however, has generated contentious debate for over two decades, resulting in frequent clarification and modification of U.S. international family planning programs. In 1984, controversy arose over U.S. population aid policy when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions, which became known as the "Mexico City policy." The Mexico City policy denies U.S. funds to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning -- even if the activities are undertaken with non-U.S. funds.

  16. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning

  17. Rubella susceptibility among prenatal and family planning clinic populations.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, S F; Bowers, C H

    1985-04-01

    Rubella infections during pregnancy can have devastating results. To assess rubella susceptibility among women who are pregnant or at risk of becoming pregnant, 764 women attending The Mount Sinai Medical Center Family Planning and Prenatal Clinics from December 1982-April 1983 were studied. An overall seronegativity rate of 14% was found. Women who had not been effectively immunized against rubella or had not acquired natural immunity were a significant proportion of this clinic population. These data prompted the expansion of rebella screening and immunization to Family Planning Clinic and In Vitro Fertilization Program patients and hospital personnel dealing with these women.

  18. Integrating postabortion care, menstrual regulation and family planning services in Bangladesh: a pre-post evaluation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kamal K; Pearson, Erin; Shahidullah, S M; Sultana, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Rezwana; Andersen, Kathryn L

    2017-03-11

    In Bangladesh, abortion is restricted except to save the life of a woman, but menstrual regulation is allowed to induce menstruation and return to non-pregnancy after a missed period. MR services are typically provided through the Directorate General of Family Planning, while postabortion care services for incomplete abortion are provided by facilities under the Directorate General of Health Services. The bifurcated health system results in reduced quality of care, particularly for postabortion care patients whose procedures are often performed using sub-optimal uterine evacuation technology and typically do not receive postabortion contraceptive services. This study evaluated the success of a pilot project that aimed to integrate menstrual regulation, postabortion care and family planning services across six Directorate General of Health Services and Directorate General of Family Planning facilities by training providers on woman-centered abortion care and adding family planning services at sites offering postabortion care. A pre-post evaluation was conducted in the six large intervention facilities. Structured client exit interviews were administered to all uterine evacuation clients presenting in the 2-week data collection period for each facility at baseline (n = 105; December 2011-January 2012) and endline (n = 107; February-March 2013). Primary outcomes included service integration indicators such as provision of menstrual regulation, postabortion care and family planning services in both facility types, and quality of care indicators such as provision of pain management, provider communication and women's satisfaction with the services received. Outcomes were compared between baseline and endline for Directorate General of Family Planning and Directorate General of Health Services facilities, and chi-square tests and t-tests were used to test for differences between baseline and endline. At the end of the project there was an increase in menstrual

  19. Family planning practices in families with children affected by β-thalassemia major in Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Johari, Sheyda; Parand, Shirin; Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Preventing the birth of children with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) is an important health issue. We investigated family planning practices and related factors among families with affected children. We selected a total of 569 parents from the parents of patients with β-TM who were registered at thalassemia referral clinics in southern Iran. Information was recorded regarding demographic variables, socioeconomic status and family planning practices. The correlations between family planning practice and related factors were evaluated. Approximately 96.0% of the parents (546) were practicing contraception at the time of the study. Only 12.8% of the families whose first child had β-TM decided to have no more children. The most frequent contraceptive method was tubal ligation (TL) (37.5%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (31.5%). Higher education level of the mothers and higher economic status of the families were found to be related with the lower numbers of children with β-TM (p = 0.001). We found a high percentage of safe contraception being used by at-risk couples. It seems that educational programs have been effective in influencing family planning practices. Further attention should be devoted to increasing the knowledge of at-risk couples with a greater focus on parents of low socioeconomic status. Because of cultural factors in Iran, many of these at-risk couples opted to achieve the desired family size, so implementation of a well-organized prenatal diagnostic system seems necessary.

  20. [Combining vertical service with horizontal service to promote family planning].

    PubMed

    An, Y; Yu, Q

    1986-03-01

    How Bazhong County of Sechuan Province, China, carries out family planning through a combination of what are termed vertical and horizontal services is described. Vertical service refers to assistance such as premarital education, prenatal hygiene, child health care, and family planning, while horizontal service refers to household assistance for married women. Premarital education is designed to help young people acquire sufficent knowledge about family planning, hygiene, and eugenics, and stresses the disadvantages involved in marriages between close relatives. Prenatal hygiene provides safe and convenient medical accommodations for delivery of the child as well as maternal care. Child health services assure that the best facilities are to be made available for physical examinations, vaccinations, and medical treatment. The family planning program involves comprehensive measures such as distribution of contraceptives and safe sterilization. In addition, the county provides medical assistance for couples unable to have children. Horizontal service providing household assistance for married women promotes scientific farming (e.g., how to use fertilizer), helps people increase their income by teaching them skills, and provides social services to improve life style and education. These vertical and horizontal services have brought about substantial improvements in the standard of living, family harmony, and population control.

  1. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    energy system planning. Some example applications of this work are: (1) to discover conflicts and synergies between air quality regulations and future developments in the energy system and land use change; (2) to show the drivers of air quality in a given spatial context; (3) to explore effective ways to visualize impacts of different energy, land use and emissions control policies on air quality. An initial test case for the Bay Area in California will be presented, extending the scope of the existing California ForeseerTM tool to identify impacts of different policies within the water-energy-land nexus on local air quality.

  2. [Chen Muhua gives radio talk on family planning].

    PubMed

    1981-02-02

    Planned parenthood is a major event concerning the vital interests of each family and individual and the prosperity and development of China. An excessive population growth rate has limited an improvement of the people's living standards and has adversely affected economic growth. Planned parenthood should be encouraged in accordance with China's Constitution and the provisions of the new marriage law. Late marriage and childbirth is a way of showing one's responsiblity toward the next generation. Eugenics is an important aspect of planned parenthood. Giving birth to physically unhealthy or mentally retarded children will place additional burdens on the family and society. In promoting planned parenthood it is necessary to do ideological and educational work in a patient and meticulous way. Planned parenthood must be widely propagated. Late marriage, late birth, and eugenics must be encouraged, and the advantages and significance of the 1 child family must be publicized. It is necessary to make early and realistic efforts to ensure the success of ideological work in planned parenthood, contraceptive measures, and birth programs. This will prevent unwanted conceptions and help achieve the goal of bringing the population under control. It is also necessary to strengthen work regarding maternity and child care and to popularize scientific knowledge concerning nursing babies.

  3. A new plan quality index for nasopharyngeal cancer SIB IMRT.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Zhou, Y; Yan, H; Han, C; Xie, C

    2014-02-01

    A new plan quality index integrating dosimetric and radiobiological indices was proposed to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. Ten NPC patients treated by SIB-IMRT were enrolled in the study. Custom software was developed to read dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves from the treatment planning system (TPS). A plan filtering matrix was introduced to filter plans that fail to satisfy treatment protocol. Target plan quality indices and organ at risk (OAR) plan quality indices were calculated for qualified plans. A unique composite plan quality index (CPQI) was proposed based on the relative weight of these indices to evaluate and compare competing plans. Plan ranking results were compared with detailed statistical analysis, radiation oncology quality system (ROQS) scoring results and physician's evaluation results to verify the accuracy of this new plan quality index. The average CPQI values for plans with OAR priority of low, normal, high, and PTV only were 0.22 ± 0.08, 0.49 ± 0.077, 0.71 ± 0.062, and -0.21 ± 0.16, respectively. There were significant differences among these plan quality indices (One-way ANOVA test, p < 0.01). This was consistent with statistical analysis, ROQS results and physician's ranking results in which 90% OAR high plans were selected. Plan filtering matrix was able to speed up the plan evaluation process. The new matrix plan quality index CPQI showed good consistence with physician ranking results. It is a promising index for NPC SIB-IMRT plan evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 54031 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; PM-10; Redesignation of the Coso Junction Planning Area to Attainment; Approval of PM-10 Maintenance Plan for the Coso Junction Planning... State of California's request to redesignate the Coso Junction planning area (CJPA) to attainment...

  5. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs.

  6. 34 CFR 200.57 - Plans to increase teacher quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plans to increase teacher quality. 200.57 Section 200... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Qualifications of Teachers and Paraprofessionals § 200.57 Plans to increase teacher quality. (a) State plan. (1) A State that receives funds...

  7. [Family planning. Regional differences in contraceptive practice].

    PubMed

    Palma Cabrera, Y; Suarez Morales, J

    1994-01-01

    Great efforts have been made to measure contraceptive prevalence in Mexico and to assess various aspects of differential usage. At present, 63.1% of fertile aged women in union are estimated to use a method. State prevalence rates ranged from 77.2% of couples in Baja California Sub to 46.3% in Oaxaca. In general, northern states and Mexico City had the highest prevalence rates and states in the center and south had the lowest. Results of the 1988 Survey of Determinants of Contraceptive Prevalence permit identification of sociocultural variables related to contraceptive usage. The data show that residents of the northwestern states have a considerably higher educational level and proportion urban than do those of the center or southeast. The southeast lagged the center in indicators of household characteristics and services, income, and infant mortality, and also had a higher rate of female labor force participation. The states of the center had a lower rate of contraceptive usage at 54.8% than did those of the southeast at 56.4%. The rate for the northwest states was 71.8%. Knowledge of contraceptive methods in the northwest and center was nearly universal, but almost one-fourth of rural women in the southeast reported not knowing a method. Reasons for not using a method varied in the three regions. Problems of access, lack of knowledge, and fear of side effects were the principal factors in the southeast. Opposition of the woman or spouse or religious beliefs were the main factors in the center. No significant barriers of culture or access were identified in the northwest. The average ideal family size was around 3.5 children in all three regions. The survey results demonstrate that having children was highly valued in all three regions. Children were more highly valued in the southeast for companionship, aid, and economic contribution; in the center as sources of affective relations; and in the northwest for satisfaction or personal fulfillment of the woman.

  8. An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors.

  9. Hanford Sampling Quality Management Plan (HSQMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, J.E.

    1995-04-28

    This document provides a management tool for evaluating and designing the appropriate elements of a field sampling program. This document provides discussion of the elements of a program and is to be used as a guidance document during the preparation of project and/or function specific documentation. This document does not specify how a sampling program shall be organized. The HSQMP is to be used as a companion document to the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) DOE/RL-94-55. The generation of this document was enhanced by conducting baseline evaluations of current sampling organizations. Valuable input was received from members of field and Quality Assurance organizations. The HSQMP is expected to be a living document. Revisions will be made as regulations and or Hanford Site conditions warrant changes in the best management practices. Appendices included are: summary of the sampling and analysis work flow process, a user`s guide to the Data Quality Objective process, and a self-assessment checklist.

  10. Quality Assurance Project Plan: Connecticut wetlands study

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, A.; Gwin, S.

    1991-04-01

    EPA's Wetland Research Program has supported a major effort to study wetlands mitigation projects in the field. The field studies were designed to: (1) evaluate the project plans; (2) compare the projects with natural wetlands in the same land use setting; and (3) describe the development of the projects over time. The information from the studies will be used as technical guidance for setting performance criteria and developing design guidelines for mitigation projects. Pilot studies have been conducted in Oregon, Washington, Florida, and Connecticut. The report presents the methods and associated quality assurance procedures used during the Connecticut study. A major objective of the pilot study was to evaluate the field procedures and the data quality assessment protocols used. The authors are in the process of performing that evaluation. They anticipate that in some cases they will adopt the procedure, while others will be refined or discarded. Therefore, the authors caution the user of the document that, at this point, the EPA makes no claims or endorsement of the use of the field, laboratory, or data quality assessment procedures associated with the study.

  11. SU-E-T-572: A Plan Quality Metric for Evaluating Knowledge-Based Treatment Plans.

    PubMed

    Chanyavanich, V; Lo, J; Das, S

    2012-06-01

    In prostate IMRT treatment planning, the variation in patient anatomy makes it difficult to estimate a priori the potentially achievable extent of dose reduction possible to the rectum and bladder. We developed a mutual information-based framework to estimate the achievable plan quality for a new patient, prior to any treatment planning or optimization. The knowledge-base consists of 250 retrospective prostate IMRT plans. Using these prior plans, twenty query cases were each matched with five cases from the database. We propose a simple DVH plan quality metric (PQ) based on the weighted-sum of the areas under the curve (AUC) of the PTV, rectum and bladder. We evaluate the plan quality of knowledge-based generated plans, and established a correlation between the plan quality and case similarity. The introduced plan quality metric correlates well (r2 = 0.8) with the mutual similarity between cases. A matched case with high anatomical similarity can be used to produce a new high quality plan. Not surprisingly, a poorly matched case with low degree of anatomical similarity tends to produce a low quality plan, since the adapted fluences from a dissimilar case cannot be modified sufficiently to yield acceptable PTV coverage. The plan quality metric is well-correlated to the degree of anatomical similarity between a new query case and matched cases. Further work will investigate how to apply this metric to further stratify and select cases for knowledge-based planning. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. [Analysis of the demand for family planning].

    PubMed

    Mostajo, P; Foreit, K

    1993-01-01

    Fertility intentions and reproductive risk were used to segment Peru's potential market for contraceptives using data from the 1991-92 Demographic and Health Survey. The four programmatic groups of fertile-aged women in union included 41.4% not wanting more children and at high risk, 30.5% not wanting more children and at moderate or low risk, 12.8% wanting to space, and 15.4% wanting a child in the near future. 84.6% of fertile-aged married women thus needed a contraceptive method to avoid unwanted pregnancy or high risk pregnancy. A range of appropriate methods was identified for each of the four programmatic groups based on method efficacy, clinical contraindications, and legal restrictions. Projections of the prevalence, method mix, and sources of service took into account the range of appropriate methods, local preferences for particular methods, local availability of health posts and infrastructure, and the rational use of limited resources. The four programmatic groups were disaggregated by age to take into account recommendations for use of oral contraceptives, surgical sterilization, and IUDs. The segmentation by source of supply was done separately for type of method and rural or urban residence. Marital status, proportion of fertile-aged women, socioeconomic status and other factors were heterogeneously distributed within and between the 13 planning regions. An estimated 7% of women were infertile, 23.9% were at low reproductive risk, 25.6% at medium risk, and 50.5% at high risk because of age, parity, or a history of abortion, neonatal death, prematurity, or cesarean delivery. Among women not wanting more children at high and medium or at low risk, respectively, 66.6% and 65.1% were using a method, but only 30.0% and 32.0% were using an appropriate method. The projected method mix and sources of supply are presented for Lima as an illustration of application of the methodology. The projected method mix for Lima eliminates use of natural methods

  13. Current Publications in Population/Family Planning. Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This generously annotated bibliography of books, reports, and journal articles is divided into the following subject areas: 1) Demography and Social Science; 2) Human Reproduction and Fertility Control; 3) Family Planning Programs; 4) Population Policy; and, 5) General. Throughout these areas are works on demography and population control in…

  14. Family Planning and the Burden of Unintended Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Amy O.; McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Family planning is hailed as one of the great public health achievements of the last century, and worldwide acceptance has risen to three-fifths of exposed couples. In many countries, however, uptake of modern contraception is constrained by limited access and weak service delivery, and the burden of unintended pregnancy is still large. This review focuses on family planning's efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies and their health burden. The authors first describe an epidemiologic framework for reproductive behavior and pregnancy intendedness and use it to guide the review of 21 recent, individual-level studies of pregnancy intentions, health outcomes, and contraception. They then review population-level studies of family planning's relation to reproductive, maternal, and newborn health benefits. Family planning is documented to prevent mother-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, contribute to birth spacing, lower infant mortality risk, and reduce the number of abortions, especially unsafe ones. It is also shown to significantly lower maternal mortality and maternal morbidity associated with unintended pregnancy. Still, a new generation of research is needed to investigate the modest correlation between unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use rates to derive the full health benefits of a proven and cost-effective reproductive technology. PMID:20570955

  15. Black Family Planning: Attitudes of Leaders and a General Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William G.; And Others

    Attitudes of black leaders and a general black population sample toward birth control and family planning issues were "Pro Birth Control" and "Genocide Fears." The leaders questioned held positions in twenty national black organizations, while the general population samples were taken from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Charlotte, North Carolina.…

  16. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

  17. Family Planning Research in a Developing Area: A Different Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fathi, Asghar; Watson, Walter B.

    The authors discuss the difficulties in adapting American methods of field work to the cultural conditions in pre-industrial societies, in this case a pilot study on family planning in a Middle Eastern Moslem country. It is demonstrated that if the researcher is native and has kinship ties in a traditional community, he can use these assets: (1)…

  18. Motivations for Adolescents' First Visit to a Family Planning Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Dana Belmonte; Darabi, Katherine F.

    1986-01-01

    New adolescent patients (N=150) at a large urban clinic were interviewed to determine what events or advice led to their decision to approach a family planning clinic for the first time. The roles of pregnancy scares, advice from significant others, and situational factors in motivating service use are presented. Program implications of these…

  19. The Role of Communications in Population and Family Planning Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, William O.

    In this paper, the author outlines the historical development of information and education programs for population control and family planning, arguing that communications activities should receive as much emphasis as the health services program. The public information aspect includes use of mass media, advertising and promotion, public relations…

  20. Military Couples’ Experiences with Natural Family Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    This method advocated the use of exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding to remain amenorrheic and thus avoid pregnancy. The lactational amenorrhea ...method was reported to be up to 98% effective when exclusive breastfeeding and amenorrhea were present (Kennedy et al., 1991). The basal...C. (1991). The natural family planning-lactational amenorrhea method interface: Observations from a prospective study of breastfeeding users of

  1. Family Planning and the Young Minority Male: A Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leanor Boulin; Staples, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Young Inner-City Males Project, a pilot project to provide culturally relevant family life planning services to young minority males in Los Angeles. The project offered goal-directed support to promote sexual responsibility and reduce unwanted pregnancies. (FMW)

  2. Family Planning and the Young Minority Male: A Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leanor Boulin; Staples, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a program aimed at young Black, Spanish-speaking, Asian, and American Indian males in relation to family life education, planning, and parental concerns. The project develops an approach to the promotion of sexual responsibility and reduction of unwanted pregnancy through support and assistance to potential unwed fathers. (Author)

  3. A Holistic Approach to Family Planning Counseling and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaves, Lushanhya Coutinho; And Others

    A family planning clinic which was part of a large public maternity hospital in Salvador Bahia, Brazil received a grant to expand its services and to evaluate a service model focusing on client counseling and education. The counseling, education, and service provision process included individual pre-consultation with a nurse, group education and…

  4. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  5. 34 CFR 300.24 - Individualized family service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individualized family service plan. 300.24 Section 300.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  6. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This paper presents the findings of a study of K. C. Chan, Research Officer of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, whose purpose was to determine whether IUD retention rates could be increased by home visits to acceptors. Concern with this problem has mounted in many countries where the IUD is the main contraceptive method offered and…

  7. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 3, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    Presented in the principal article, "Planning, Starting, and Operating an Educational Incentives Project," is a summary of activities to date in an educational savings project in Taiwan. The incentive project is designed to reward those couples who limit their family size, by providing funds for their children's secondary and higher education. To…

  8. Family Planning Attitudes of Traditional and Acculturated Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alan; And Others

    To determine whether various indices of "acculturation" would predict attitudes towards family planning was the major purpose of a survey conducted among a highly educated group of Navajo people at Navajo Community College (NCC). Owned and operated by the Navajo Tribe, NCC served as a target survey model due to its 90% population of…

  9. A Crucial New Direction for International Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosken, Fran P.

    1984-01-01

    Repressive attitudes toward female sexuality by Third World men and ignorance of the basic biology of the female reproductive system by Third World women have led to the failure of family planning efforts. Use of the "Universal Childbirth Picture Book," which illustrates the female reproductive system, is recommended. (IS)

  10. Personal and Family Financial Planning: Perspectives on Community College Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Robert J.; And Others

    After a brief summary of the findings of a 1979 study of Personal and Family Financial Planning (PFFP) programs at member institutions of the League for Innovation in the Community College (LICC), this two-part monograph provides information on selected PFFP programs. Part I presents in-depth descriptions of the implementation, subject coverage,…

  11. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  12. Family Planning Attitudes of Traditional and Acculturated Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alan; And Others

    To determine whether various indices of "acculturation" would predict attitudes towards family planning was the major purpose of a survey conducted among a highly educated group of Navajo people at Navajo Community College (NCC). Owned and operated by the Navajo Tribe, NCC served as a target survey model due to its 90% population of…

  13. Community Engagement in Family Planning in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Marion W.; Tregear, Michelle L.; Lachance, Christina R.

    2015-01-01

    Context Community engagement may include activities that involve community members in the design, implementation, and evaluation of services. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence on this kind of community engagement in U.S. family planning programs, including its effects on various health outcomes, its perceived value, and the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Evidence acquisition Using an analytic approach drawn from U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, multiple databases were searched for articles published from 1985 through February 2011 that described studies about community engagement related to family planning. In 2011, relevant articles were reviewed, summarized, and assessed for potential bias using a standardized abstraction process. An updated, targeted review for the 2011–2014 period was conducted in early 2015. Evidence synthesis Eleven papers related to family planning were included. All were qualitative, descriptive, and at high risk for bias. Engagement strategies involved various methods for developing educational materials, program development, or program evaluation. All studies reported benefits to community engagement, such as more-appropriate educational materials or more community support for programs. Barriers to engagement included the substantial time and resources required. Four more articles were identified in the targeted, additional search. Conclusions Community engagement is described as beneficial across the included studies, but the body of evidence for community engagement in family planning is relatively small. Given the high value ascribed to community engagement, more research and documentation of the various approaches taken and their relative strengths and weaknesses are needed. PMID:26190842

  14. Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yard Plan of the Brundage, Parish, Simmons Families et al. Circa 1940s - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  15. Parent and Family Attitudes toward Long-Term Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, J. Larry; And Others

    Some of the problems facing parents of handicapped children are considered, and the importance of families planning for the future of their children with chronic disabilities is stressed. In addition to the problems encountered by parents who raise non-handicapped children, parents of a handicapped child must cope with community rejection,…

  16. A Crucial New Direction for International Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosken, Fran P.

    1984-01-01

    Repressive attitudes toward female sexuality by Third World men and ignorance of the basic biology of the female reproductive system by Third World women have led to the failure of family planning efforts. Use of the "Universal Childbirth Picture Book," which illustrates the female reproductive system, is recommended. (IS)

  17. Birth of a nation: family planning in Albania.

    PubMed

    Geary, J

    1994-01-01

    Albania's entrance into the world community has exposed some of the consequences of a pronatalist policy of 40 years; high infant and maternal mortality, illegal clandestine abortions leading to morbidity and death, and high fertility at 3.3 children per woman in 1990. The crude birth rate was 25.2 per 1000. The communist dictator Enver Hohxa used extreme measures with his secret police to enforce repressive policies. Birth control was forbidden to be even discussed, and sex was absent from medical literature. The current population of Albania is 3.3 million, with 66% living in remote mountain villages. A national family planning program is currently underway. The goals are to reduce mortality, reduce premature births by 20%, and achieve contraceptive usage among 10% of the reproductive age populations. Medical personnel will be trained in family planning, and family planning will be introduced in the entire health education program. Reliance will be placed on the existing extensive system of primary health care (PHC) facilities. The outreach effort to the 700,000 women of reproductive age will involve all health care professionals. Information, education, and communication will be the main thrust of the program. A model family planning clinic will be established at the Maternity Hospital at Tirana, which already has a teaching capacity for training of medical students, midwives, and nurses. Although a PHC system is in place, buildings and equipment are out of data. The health personnel of the program are excited by the challenge of providing reproductive health care for an woman's entire reproductive life. A new family planning clinic has already been established in Elbasan, a remote village south of Tirana, but public response has been mixed. Another clinic north of tirana has a population that is enthusiastic about family planning, even with a clinic not as well equipped as in Elbasan. The educational outreach must include doctors as well, who have only read

  18. A Family Quality of Life Study of Families with Children with Disabilities in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranges, Phaedra E.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that families of children with disabilities are at risk for a lower quality of life than families of typically developing children, as the impact that a child with a disability has on a family's quality of life (FQOL) is both substantial and complex (Zuna, Selig, Summers, & Turnbull, 2009b; Zuna, Summers, Turnbull, Hu &…

  19. Family Quality of Life: Adaptation to Spanish Population of Several Family Support Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcells-Balcells, A.; Gine, C.; Guardia-Olmos, J.; Summers, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The concept of family quality of life has emerged as a decisive construct in the last decades to improve the capabilities of families and to assess the outcomes of the services and supports they get. The goal of this research is to adapt three instruments to the Spanish population: the "Beach Center Family Quality of Life…

  20. Family Quality of Life: Adaptation to Spanish Population of Several Family Support Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcells-Balcells, A.; Gine, C.; Guardia-Olmos, J.; Summers, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The concept of family quality of life has emerged as a decisive construct in the last decades to improve the capabilities of families and to assess the outcomes of the services and supports they get. The goal of this research is to adapt three instruments to the Spanish population: the "Beach Center Family Quality of Life…

  1. A Family Quality of Life Study of Families with Children with Disabilities in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranges, Phaedra E.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that families of children with disabilities are at risk for a lower quality of life than families of typically developing children, as the impact that a child with a disability has on a family's quality of life (FQOL) is both substantial and complex (Zuna, Selig, Summers, & Turnbull, 2009b; Zuna, Summers, Turnbull, Hu &…

  2. 42 CFR 84.40 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.40 Quality control plans; filing requirements. As a part of each application for approval or... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 84.40...

  3. 30 CFR 28.30 - Quality control plans; filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality control plans; filing requirements. 28.30 Section 28.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES Quality Control § 28.30 Quality control plans; filing...

  4. Strategic Planning and Quality Assurance in the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha; Kantola, Mauri

    2007-01-01

    Strategic planning and quality management have been developed independently of each other, but they meet in practice in many kinds of organisations. Strategic planning and quality assurance integrate different aspects of higher education institutions (HEIs) to ensure high-quality educational outcomes. This paper investigates the role of these two…

  5. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1...

  7. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

  8. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  15. Quality assurance program plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Boom, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies quality assurance program requirements and addresses the various Westinghouse Hanford Company organizations and their particular responsibilities in regards to sample and data handling of radiological airborne emissions. This Quality Assurance Program Plan is prepared in accordance with and to written requirements.

  16. Strategic Planning and Quality Assurance in the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha; Kantola, Mauri

    2007-01-01

    Strategic planning and quality management have been developed independently of each other, but they meet in practice in many kinds of organisations. Strategic planning and quality assurance integrate different aspects of higher education institutions (HEIs) to ensure high-quality educational outcomes. This paper investigates the role of these two…

  17. SAPHIRE 8 Software Quality Assurance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2010-02-01

    This Quality Assurance (QA) Plan documents the QA activities that will be managed by the INL related to JCN N6423. The NRC developed the SAPHIRE computer code for performing probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) using a personal computer (PC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under Job Code Number (JCN) L1429. SAPHIRE started out as a feasibility study for a PRA code to be run on a desktop personal PC and evolved through several phases into a state-of-the-art PRA code. The developmental activity of SAPHIRE was the result of two concurrent important events: The tremendous expansion of PC software and hardware capability of the 90s and the onset of a risk-informed regulation era.

  18. Male attitudes to family planning education in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Hall, M F

    1977-01-01

    Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.

  19. International family-planning training for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vansintejan, G A; Purdy, P J

    1986-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the Margaret Sanger Center of Planned Parenthood of New York City has prepared nurses and nurse midwives from less developed countries to be family-planning nurse practitioners. These nurse practitioners then provide services to patients, train other staff, and manage integrated family-planning clinics. More than 120 nurses and nurse midwives have arrived in groups of 10 at the Sanger Center, with 72 attending since 1981. Each course lasts 10 weeks. The core curriculum provides trainees with skills in women's health care including contraception, in training and advocacy, and in management of clinics. Whether, in the current period of scarce resources, cross-cultural training programs of this type remain a worthwhile investment, and if so, which of their components are most important to this success, is assessed.

  20. Family Needs and Family Quality of Life for Taiwanese Families of Children with Intellectual Disability and Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chun-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four related chapters including an introductory overview of all four chapters, a report on family needs, a report on family quality of life, and a summary of implications for the conceptual framework. Chapter 1, the introductory overview, presents background information of Taiwan and describes the family quality of…