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Sample records for quality problems related

  1. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  2. Perceptions of Neighborhood Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Erin M.; Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the association between perceptions of neighborhood problems and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of New Zealand residents (n = 692). A modified version of the Neighborhood Problems Scale (originally developed by Steptoe and Feldman, 2001) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were…

  3. Health-related quality of life in patients with diabetic foot problems in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mazlina, M; Shamsul, A S; Jeffery, F A Saini

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of foot problems on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with diabetes in Malaysia. Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire was used to assess the HRQoL of 140 diabetic patients with foot problems attending outpatient diabetic foot clinic in a tertiary hospital, University Malaya Medical Centre. Their HRQoL were compared with 134 diabetic patients without foot problems attending the same clinic. The median score of all the eight SF-36 domains differed significantly between the two groups, where patients with foot problems having statistically significant lower scores. The two domains that were most severely compromised were components of the physical health: Physical Functioning and Role Physical domains. The SF-36 scale scores in diabetic patients with foot problems were also lower than those of the SF-36 norms for the Malaysian population. In conclusion, the results showed that diabetic foot problems negatively affect the patients' HRQoL in both physical and mental health aspects based on the SF-36.

  4. Trial of a negative ion generator device in remediating problems related to indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, W.; Camp, J.; Horstman, S. )

    1991-06-01

    It has been suggested that supplementation of indoor air with negative ions can improve air quality. This study examined the effects of a negative ion-generator device on air contaminants and symptom reporting in two office buildings. Separate sets of functional and nonfunctional negative ion generators were monitored using a double blind, crossover design involving two 5-week exposure periods. There were no detectable direct or residual effects of negative ion generator use on air ion levels, airborn particulates, carbon dioxide levels, or symptom reporting. Symptom reporting declined at both sites initially and appeared to be consistent with placebo effect. Job dissatisfaction was an apparent contributor to symptom reporting, with a magnitude comparable to presumed effects of air quality. Further testing of such devices is needed before they should be considered for office air quality problems.

  5. [Health-related quality of life after surgical haemorrhoid treatment - results, methods and problems].

    PubMed

    Bussen, D; Herold, A; Bussen, S

    2012-08-01

    In patients suffering from haemorrhoidal disease a hyperplasia of the corpus cavernosum recti is accompanied by various symptoms such as anal bleeding and minor continence disorders as well as itching, soiling and burning. According to the morphological findings, haemorrhoids are staged from grade I up to IV. Therapy strategies are adjusted to this staging. Early stages are treated by conservative measures, such as regulation of defaecation, sclerosis and rubber band ligations. Advanced stages require operative methods, such as segmental excision and stapled haemorrhoidopexy. Since patients demand a greater regard to the subjective experience of their disease and its treatment, quality of life evaluation has become an important issue in medical care. Therefore health-related quality of life is increasingly becoming a relevant primary or secondary end point of clinical studies. Since up to 4 % of the general adult population in industrial nations is annually diagnosed to suffer from haemorrhoidal disease, in Germany per annum 3.5 Mio patients seek medical advice due to this condition and 40 000-50 000 surgical procedures are performed. Nevertheless only very few studies have been carried out to investigate the influence of this widespread disease on the quality of life of those patients. Additionally cost-effectiveness analyses measuring quality-adjusted life years are becoming more and more decisive in health politics. The present article discusses the definitions of health-related as well as disease-related quality of life. Different psychometric tests applied to evaluate the quality of life are summarised, quality criteria are outlined and limitations discussed. Several studies were analysed in regard to the quality of life in patients with haemorrhoidal disease and the specific influence of different operative techniques was reviewed.

  6. Social Behavioral Problems and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Song E; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of specific behavioral problems on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Methods Children and adolescents with epilepsy (n=92; age range=6–17 years) and their mothers completed questionnaires about behavioral problems, HRQOL, socio-demographics, and epilepsy-related variables. To determine significant predictor variables of the HRQOL, the stepwise regression analyses and partial correlations were performed to adjust for other behavioral problems and covariates. Results The analyses revealed that an increase in social behavioral problems and delinquent behavior was associated with a decrease in the HRQOL. Lower levels of maternal education and the number of antiepileptic drugs were also associated with a decline in the HRQOL; the HRQOL and social behavioral problems remained significantly correlated after adjusting for maternal education level, number of antiepileptic drugs, and non-social behavioral problems. Conclusion Parents and practitioners should provide intervention if behavioral problems, particularly social behavioral problems, are observed in children or adolescents with epilepsy. PMID:27757126

  7. Challenges with health-related quality of life assessment in arthroplasty patients: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder; Sloan, Jeff A; Johanson, Norman A

    2010-02-01

    Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using patient-reported outcomes in arthroplasty has become popular because it provides a unique perspective on successful elective procedures. However, challenges exist in the assessment of HRQOL in clinical practice and in clinical research. Patient compliance with multiple and sometimes lengthy HRQOL assessments administered at multiple follow-up visits is problematic. Many well-validated HRQOL instruments are available, and progress has been made in defining the minimal clinically important difference in hip and knee arthroplasty that denotes the minimal change perceived to be important by patients. Challenges in understanding the literature are attributable to the use of various HRQOL scales, with different scoring ranges and scoring algorithms, different interpretations of highest score, and differences in the presentation of raw versus transformed scores.

  8. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  9. Quality of life in relation to future mental health problems and offending: Testing the good lives model among detained girls.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lore; Hoeve, Machteld; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Colins, Olivier F

    2016-06-01

    Detained girls bear high levels of criminal behavior and mental health problems that are likely to persist into young adulthood. Research with these girls began primarily from a risk management perspective, whereas a strength-based empowering perspective may increase knowledge that could improve rehabilitation. This study examines detained girls' quality of life (QoL) in relation to future mental health problems and offending, thereby testing the strength-based good lives model of offender rehabilitation (GLM). At baseline, 95 girls (Mage = 16.25) completed the World Health Organization QoL instrument to assess their QoL prior to detention in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Six months after discharge, mental health problems and offending were assessed by self-report measures. Structural equation models were conducted to test GLM's proposed (in)direct pathways from QoL (via mental health problems) toward offending. Although we could not find support for GLM's direct negative pathway from QoL to offending, our findings did provide support for GLM's indirect negative pathway via mental health problems to future offending. In addition, we found a direct positive pathway from detained girls' satisfaction with their social relationships to offending after discharge. The current findings support the potential relevance of addressing detained girls' QoL, pursuing the development of new skills, and supporting them to build constructive social contacts. Our findings, however, also show that clinicians should not only focus on strengths but that detecting and modifying mental health problems in this vulnerable group is also warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

    1975-01-01

    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  11. Work stressors, sleep quality, and alcohol-related problems across deployment: A parallel process latent growth modeling approach among Navy members.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Adrian J; Kelley, Michelle L; Hollis, Brittany F

    2016-10-10

    This study examined how work stressors were associated with sleep quality and alcohol-related problems among U.S. Navy members over the course of deployment. Participants were 101 U.S. Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer who experienced an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Approximately 6 weeks prior to deployment, 6 weeks after deployment, and 6 months reintegration, participants completed measures that assessed work stressors, sleep quality, and alcohol-related problems. A piecewise latent growth model was conducted in which the structural paths assessed if work stressors influenced sleep quality or its growth over time, and in turn if sleep quality influenced alcohol-related problems intercepts or growth over time. A significant indirect effect was found such that increases in work stressors from pre- to postdeployment predicted decreases in sleep quality, which in turn were associated with increases in alcohol-related problems from pre- to postdeployment. These effects were maintained from postdeployment through the 6-month reintegration. Findings suggest that work stressors may have important implications for sleep quality and alcohol-related problems. Positive methods of addressing stress and techniques to improve sleep quality are needed as both may be associated with alcohol-related problems among current Navy members.

  12. Fear of abandonment as a mediator of the relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and children's adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Doyle, Kathryn W

    2002-08-01

    This study examines whether fear of abandonment mediates the prospective relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and adjustment problems of children of divorce. Participants were 216 children, ages 8-12, and their primary residential mothers. Children reported on divorce stressors and fear of abandonment; mothers and children reported on mother-child relationship quality and internalizing and externalizing problems. Structural equation models indicated that Time 1 fear of abandonment mediated the relation between Time 1 divorce stressors and Time 2 internalizing and externalizing problems. Time 1 fear of abandonment also mediated the relation between Time 1 mother-child relationship quality and Time 2 internalizing and externalizing problems. Implications of these results for understanding variability in children's postdivorce adjustment problems and interventions for divorced families are discussed.

  13. Cancer and quality of life in spousal dyads: Spillover in couples with and without cancer-related health problems

    PubMed Central

    Litzelman, Kristin; Green, Paige A.; Yabroff, K. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Poor health of one spouse can adversely influence the partner’s health outcomes (“spillover”). This study aimed to estimate quality of life spillover among spouses, and to determine how presence of cancer influenced these effects. Methods We examined data on husband-wife dyads with cancer-related health problems, medical events, or disabilities (n=910) and matched comparison dyads from the 2004-2012 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, a population-based survey of the U.S. Mental and physical health-related quality of life and depressed mood were reported at two time points (T1 and T2, 11 months apart on average). Dyadic multilevel models evaluated the cross-lagged impact of HRQoL and depressed mood at T1 on spouses’ HRQoL at T2, controlling for sociodemographics and health conditions. Results Small but statistically significant spillover was observed for mental and physical HRQoL among couples with cancer. Spillover occurred from both the spouse to the survivor, and from survivor to spouse. Depressed mood, in particular, showed stronger spillover effects from the spouse to the survivor than the inverse. Similar effects were not observed in dyads without cancer. Conclusions Screening for and treating poor HRQoL and depressed mood concurrently in both cancer survivors and their spouses may positively influence HRQoL outcomes. Future research is needed to further elucidate these findings and determine whether a concurrent approach to psychosocial care in survivors and their spouses may improve long-term outcomes. PMID:26143040

  14. The impact of urban discharges on the health-related microbiological quality of untreated surface water: can catchment management solve the problem?

    PubMed

    Jagals, P; Griesel, M

    2003-01-01

    Results showed that surface resource water quality in the study catchment was generally of a poor health-related microbiological water quality. This was due to poor quality discharges received from urban developments in the catchment. The quality results implied that several water uses in the catchment would impact negatively on the health of the users. Current developments in setting Resource Quality Objectives to manage the quality of the resources involved do not provide for the various water uses. The particular Catchment Management Agencies would, therefore, not be in a position to judge the health-related status of their surface water resource quality objectively. To alleviate this problem, tentative water-use classifications as well as microbiological criteria are proposed.

  15. [Quality and quality assurance, a European problem].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, H

    1994-01-01

    The problem of quality and quality assurance for the free exchange of blood and blood products in Europe is discussed. The background of all discussion of quality is the categorical theory of Aristoteles. The philosophical basis is described. The fundamental law of the daily work of a blood center has to be a philosophy of quality which depends on the sociodemographic situation in the region. This basic varies from country to country in Europe. The importance of the supranational bodies in Europe is mentioned. The weightness of the Code of Ethics is discussed. Virus safety, purity and validity of blood and blood products are described as parameters of the quality aspects. Finally it is confirmed that a well running blood program is a multicategorical problem.

  16. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  17. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls.

  18. Relations of parenting quality, interparental conflict, and overnights with mental health problems of children in divorcing families with high legal conflict.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin N; Wheeler, Lorey A; Braver, Sanford L

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors: quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study came from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered together in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child-behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high-conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high-quality parenting.

  19. Health-related quality of life in adolescent chronotypes--a model for the effects of sleep problems, sleep-related cognitions, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Roeser, Karolin; Brückner, Daniela; Schwerdtle, Barbara; Schlarb, Angelika A; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    In adolescence, the circadian preference shifts toward eveningness orientation. Eveningness seems to be negatively correlated with quality of life. The present study investigates influencing factors of this association and proposes a model for the mediating effects of sleep, sleep-related cognitions, and self-efficacy according to chronotype. The sample comprised N = 280 adolescents (172 girls) aged 14-16 yrs (mean = 15.19, SD = .76). Circadian preference, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), sleep disturbances, sleep-related dysfunctional cognitions, and general perceived self-efficacy were assessed online. Morning-orientated adolescents reported significantly higher HRQoL and less insomnia symptoms compared with evening-oriented chronotypes. In the total sample, insomnia symptoms mediated the relationship of chronotype and HRQoL. The strongest predictor of HRQoL in evening types was the degree of sleep-related dysfunctional cognitions. HRQoL in morning types was most strongly predicted by general self-efficacy, i.e., the global confidence in coping abilities. The findings support a negative relationship of eveningness and HRQoL in adolescents. Insomnia symptoms were identified to be mediating factors in this relationship. The influence of the mediating factors on HRQoL differed between morning and evening types. The model provides implications of how to enhance HRQoL in adolescents according to their circadian preference.

  20. Sexual problems in male vs. female non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors: prevalence, correlates, and associations with health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kim, Im-Ryung; Kim, Soo Hyun; Ok, Oh Nam; Kim, So Hee; Lee, Suyeon; Choi, Eunju; Kim, Seok Jin; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Moon Hee

    2017-02-09

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sexual problems and their relationship to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in male and female non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) survivors. In this cross-sectional study, 738 NHL survivors (425 men and 313 women; mean time since diagnosis, 6.2 years) in South Korea completed the six-item instrument of adult sexual behavior used by the National Health and Social Life Survey in the United States. HRQOL was measured by two subscales of the EORTC QLQ-C30. Sexual problems were reported by a greater proportion of women (range, 31.9 to 64.4%) than men (range, 23.3 to 49.1%). Among four items common to both sexes, three (lacking interest in sex, unable to achieve orgasm, sex not pleasurable) were significantly more prevalent in women. Significant factors associated with multiple sexual problems in men were older age and being unemployed; in women, they were marital status and comorbidity. Lastly, more significant associations between sexual problems and HRQOL were observed in men than in women. Male and female NHL survivors differ in the prevalence of sexual problems and the factors associated with them as well as their associations with HRQOL. These findings can be used to develop sex-specific interventions to improve sexual function in this population.

  1. Engaging in job-related activities is associated with reductions in employment problems and improvements in quality of life in substance abusing patients.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Andrade, Leonardo F; Rash, Carla J; Cherniack, Martin G

    2014-03-01

    Reinforcement-based interventions are highly efficacious in the treatment of substance use disorders, and their benefits can extend to other areas of functioning as well. In particular, reinforcing participation in job-related activities may be useful for improving employment outcomes, which in turn may enhance quality of life and decrease substance use. These secondary analyses compared substance abusing patients randomized with reinforcement interventions (N = 185) who selected and completed two or more job-related activities during treatment versus those who did not. Patients who completed two or more job-related activities during treatment had significantly greater reductions in employment-related problems and improvements in quality of life than those who completed only one or no job-related activities, even after controlling for baseline differences that may impact employment outcomes. Further, patients who completed employment activities remained in treatment significantly longer and achieved greater durations of abstinence than those who did not. These data suggest that reinforcing job-attainment activities may have broad beneficial effects. Reinforcement interventions should be considered for enhancing employment skills training acquisition more generally.

  2. Psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life in youth affected by violence: the burden of the multiply victimised.

    PubMed

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent victimisation and violence perpetration were contrasted with non-involved comparisons. The results show that even low levels of violence involvement were associated with more problems, fewer protective factors and impaired HRQOL. Multiply victimised youth - not perpetrating victims - stood out with internalising, peer and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Discriminant function analysis separated non-involved from violence-affected youth, and multiply victimised from not multiply victimised youth. Externalising behaviours, family issues, male sex and school functioning predicted group separation on the first function (proportion variance explained 80.0%), while internalising and peer issues were predictive for the second function (PVE 14.2%). Implications for prevention, intervention and research are discussed.

  3. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  4. A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kališová, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines

  5. "They silently live in terror…" why sleep problems and night-time related quality-of-life are missed in children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ipsiroglu, Osman S; McKellin, William H; Carey, Norma; Loock, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Children and adolescents with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are at high-risk for developing sleep problems (SPs) triggering daytime behavioral co-morbidities such as inattention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and emotional impairments. However, symptoms of sleep deprivation are solely associated with typical daytime diagnosis, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with psychotropic medications. To understand how and why SPs are missed, we conducted qualitative interviews (QIs) with six parents and seven health care professionals (HCPs), and performed comprehensive clinical sleep assessments (CCSAs) in 27 patients together with their caregivers referred to our clinic for unresolved SPs. We used narrative schema and therapeutic emplotment in conjunction with analyzes of medical records to appropriately diagnose SPs and develop treatment strategies. The research was conducted at British Columbia Children's Hospital in Vancouver (Canada) between 2008 and 2011. In the QIs, parents and HCPs exhibited awareness of the significance of SPs and the effects of an SP on the daytime behaviors of the child and the associated burdens on the parents. HCPs' systemic inattention to the sequelae of SPs and the affected family's wellbeing appears due to an insufficient understanding of the various factors that contribute to nighttime SPs and their daytime sequelae. In the CCSAs, we found that the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs in children and adolescents was impaired by the exclusive focus on daytime presentations. Daytime behavioral and emotional problems were targets of pharmacological treatment rather than the underlying SP. Consequently, SPs were also targeted with medications, without investigating the underlying problem. Our study highlights deficits in the diagnostic recognition of chronic SPs among children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders/disabilities and proposes a clinical practice strategy, based on therapeutic

  6. Learning dominance relations in combinatorial search problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Chee-Fen; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1988-01-01

    Dominance relations commonly are used to prune unnecessary nodes in search graphs, but they are problem-dependent and cannot be derived by a general procedure. The authors identify machine learning of dominance relations and the applicable learning mechanisms. A study of learning dominance relations using learning by experimentation is described. This system has been able to learn dominance relations for the 0/1-knapsack problem, an inventory problem, the reliability-by-replication problem, the two-machine flow shop problem, a number of single-machine scheduling problems, and a two-machine scheduling problem. It is considered that the same methodology can be extended to learn dominance relations in general.

  7. I Keep my Problems to Myself: Negative Social Network Orientation, Social Resources, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Symes, Yael; Campo, Rebecca A.; Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant rely on their social network for successful recovery. However, some survivors have negative attitudes about using social resources (negative social network orientation) that are critical for their recovery. Purpose We examined the association between survivors’ social network orientation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether it was mediated by social resources (network size, perceived support, and negative and positive support-related social exchanges). Methods In a longitudinal study, 255 survivors completed validated measures of social network orientation, HRQoL, and social resources. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis. Results More negative social network orientation predicted worse HRQoL (p < .001). This association was partially mediated by lower perceived support and more negative social exchanges. Conclusions Survivors with negative social network orientation may have poorer HRQoL in part due to deficits in several key social resources. Findings highlight a subgroup at risk for poor transplant outcomes and can guide intervention development. PMID:26693932

  8. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  9. Self-consciousness, friendship quality, and adolescent internalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on their self-consciousness, internalizing problems, and the quality of their best friendship. Results indicated stronger associations between private self-consciousness and internalizing correlates than between public self-consciousness and internalizing problems, suggesting that private self-consciousness may be a stronger risk factor during adolescence. Contrary to expectations, evidence revealed that positive friendship quality may exacerbate some difficulties associated with self-consciousness. Results pertaining to friendship quality add to the growing literature on the ways in which friendships can contribute to adjustment difficulties. PMID:19998530

  10. The mediating role of perceived peer support in the relation between quality of attachment and internalizing problems in adolescence: a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla; Di Maggio, Rosanna

    2016-10-01

    The study was aimed to verify, from a longitudinal perspective, whether perceived peer support would mediate the relationship between attachment and internalizing problems. Longitudinal participants included 482 adolescents (245 boys) aged 14-15 years in Wave 1 and 17-18 years in Wave 2. Participants in Wave 1 completed the Relationship Questionnaire, and those in Wave 2 completed the Social Support Questionnaire and the Youth Self-Report. Results showed that secure attachment positively predicted high levels of perceived peer support and negatively predicted internalizing problems, whereas fearful and preoccupied attachment negatively predicted perceived peer support and positively predicted internalizing problems. The mediation models showed that perceived peer support partially mediated the relationship between secure attachment and internalizing problems as well as between preoccupied attachment and internalizing problems and between fearful attachment and internalizing problems. Our results confirm the role of subjective perception of peer support in contributing to the prediction of internalizing problems beyond attachment styles.

  11. [Alcohol-related problems in primary care].

    PubMed

    Ban, Nobutaro

    2015-09-01

    The approach to treating alcohol-related problems in primary care settings needs: 1) to recognize the incidence of alcohol-related problems in primary care settings; 2) to know the way of screening; 3) to know how to help patients; and 4) to know enough about treating alcoholism to appropriately refer patients for additional help. This article looks research evidence about the incidence of alcohol-related problems in primary care and recognition of incidence and way of screening of alcohol-related problems by primary care physicians in Japan. Then this article describes evidence-based as well as author's experience-based approach to treat the alcohol-related health problems in primary care settings. In line with the newly introduced law to prevent the alcohol-related health problems and the anticipating introduction of new specialty of general medicine, early intervention to alcohol-related problems in primary care settings will be much appreciated. To do so, enough amounts of education and research are needed.

  12. An Investigation Into HPLC Data Quality Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; VanHeukelem, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the analyses and results produced by a five-member investigative team of Government, university, and industry experts, established by NASA HQ. The team examined data quality problems associated with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of pigment concentrations in seawater samples produced by the San Diego State University (SDSU) Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing (CHORS). This report shows CHORS did not validate the methods used before placing them into service to analyze field samples for NASA principal investigators (PIs), even though the HPLC literature contained easily accessible method validation procedures, and the importance of implementing them, more than a decade ago. In addition, there were so many sources of significant variance in the CHORS methodologies, that the HPLC system rarely operated within performance criteria capable of producing the requisite data quality. It is the recommendation of the investigative team to a) not correct the data, b) make all the data that was temporarily sequestered available for scientific use, and c) label the affected data with an appropriate warning, e.g., "These data are not validated and should not be used as the sole basis for a scientific result, conclusion, or hypothesis--independent corroborating evidence is required."

  13. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  14. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  15. Scientific Symposium “Small Solution for Big Water-Related Problems: Innovative Microarrays and Small Sensors to Cope with Water Quality and Food Security”

    PubMed Central

    Marcheggiani, Stefania; Spurio, Roberto; Cimarelli, Lucia; Tito, Duarte; Mancini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This issue presents the conclusive results of two European Commission funded Projects, namely Universal Microarrays for the Evaluation of Fresh-water Quality Based on Detection of Pathogens and their Toxins (MicroAQUA) and Rationally Designed Aquatic Receptors (RADAR). These projects focused their activities on the quality of drinking water as an extremely important factor for public health of humans and animals. The MicroAQUA Project aimed at developing a universal microarray chip for the detection of various pathogens (cyanobacteria, bacteria, viruses and parasitic protozoa) and their toxins in waters. In addition, the project included the detection of select species of diatoms, which represent reliable bio-indicators to assess overall water quality. Large numbers of compounds are released into the environment; some of these are toxins such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and can affect the endocrine, immune and nervous systems of a wide range of animals causing alterations such as reproductive disorders and cancer. Detection of these contaminants in water systems is important to protect sensitive environmental sites and reduce the risk of toxins entering the food chain. A modular platform for monitoring toxins in water and food production facilities, using biosensors derived from aquatic organisms, was the main goal of RADAR Project.

  16. Decreasing sperm quality: a global problem?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carlsen and coworkers (1992) reviewed 61 heterogeneous observational studies on semen quality published between 1938 and 1990. This review indicates that mean sperm density decreased significantly between 1940 and 1990. An extended meta-analysis with 101 studies confirmed a decline in sperm density for the period from 1934 to 1996 (2000). The key message of the meta-analyses is that sperm counts have decreased globally by about 50% over the past decades. This assessment has been questioned. Discussion A major methodological problem of the meta-analysis is the use of data collected in different countries, at different times, on different populations and with different methods of semen analysis. Furthermore, the results of studies concerning semen analysis are frequently biased e.g. by selection criteria of volunteers. In most studies on human semen characteristics the populations under study are insufficiently defined and the study participants are not a representative population sample. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased in Caucasian men worldwide. The investigation of common risk factors for male reproductive disorders requires well designed epidemiological studies and the collection of individual data. Summary Former meta-analyses of sperm count data show a global downward trend. This conclusion should be interpreted with caution. The included studies are of great heterogeneity due to geographical and/or ethnical variation, different study designs and different methodological standards. Population-based prospective studies are needed to investigate secular trends in male reproductive disorders. PMID:20085639

  17. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review

    PubMed Central

    Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Design Review. Data sources and review methods Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Results Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Conclusions Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. PMID:25515525

  18. Indoor Air Quality Problem Solving Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.

  19. The Traveling Salesman and Related Stochastic Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percus, A. G.

    1998-03-01

    In the traveling salesman problem, one must find the length of the shortest closed tour visiting given ``cities''. We study the stochastic version of the problem, taking the locations of cities and the distances separating them to be random variables drawn from an ensemble. We consider first the ensemble where cities are placed in Euclidean space. We investigate how the optimum tour length scales with number of cities and with number of spatial dimensions. We then examine the analytical theory behind the random link ensemble, where distances between cities are independent random variables. Finally, we look at the related geometric issue of nearest neighbor distances, and find some remarkable universalities.

  20. Special relativity as a simple geometry problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-03-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the 'rest system' are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental effects of standard relativistic kinematics, namely time dilation, length contraction and relativity of simultaneity. Moreover, it also provides an immediate image of other important and more subtle aspects, often passed by in relativity courses, such as the conventionality of simultaneity thesis, possible non-invariance of the one-way speed of light and compatibility between the Lorentz-Poincaré and Einstein-Minkowski philosophies. The geometric scheme so constructed constitutes a powerful tool to clearly illustrate both traditional and not-so-traditional aspects of special relativity teaching.

  1. Data Quality Problems in Army Logistics, Classification, Examples, and Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Eden , and Folkeson (1995). 5The other services also have logistics data-quality problems to deal with. See Abell and Finnegan (1993). 6See Energy...component of the Army’s Velocity Management Initiative (Dumond, Eden , and Folkeson, 1995). 50 Data Quality Problems in Army Logistics Some of our...Data Tracking Tech- nique, Holmdel, NJ: AT&T Bell Labs. Berger, Robert D., Edwin Gotwals, and Bobby Chin (1992), “Usage- Based Requirements

  2. Instructional Qualities of a Successful Mathematical Problem-Solving Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    Describes activities that have been successfully implemented by an expert during a mathematical problem-solving course. Focuses on the identification of the qualities of these problems used to promote the development of student strategies and values that reflect mathematical practice in the classroom. Contains 17 references. (ASK)

  3. Learning Related Visual Problems. ERIC Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This fact sheet defines vision, outlines the visual skills needed for school achievement (ocular motility, binocularity, eye-hand coordination skills, and visual form perception), and describes how visual problems are evaluated and treated. The fact sheet also lists clues to look for when a visual problem is suspected, including the appearance of…

  4. Problem Solving Teams in a Total Quality Management Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Constance F.

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the problem-solving team training process used at Harvard University (Massachusetts), including the size and formation of teams, roles, and time commitment. Components of the process are explained, including introduction to Total Quality Management (TQM), customer satisfaction, meeting management, Parker Team Player Survey, interactive…

  5. The initial value problem as it relates to numerical relativity.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Spacetime is foliated by spatial hypersurfaces in the 3+1 split of general relativity. The initial value problem then consists of specifying initial data for all fields on one such a spatial hypersurface, such that the subsequent evolution forward in time is fully determined. On each hypersurface the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature describe the geometry. Together with matter fields such as fluid velocity, energy density and rest mass density, the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature then constitute the initial data. There is a lot of freedom in choosing such initial data. This freedom corresponds to the physical state of the system at the initial time. At the same time the initial data have to satisfy the Hamiltonian and momentum constraint equations of general relativity and can thus not be chosen completely freely. We discuss the conformal transverse traceless and conformal thin sandwich decompositions that are commonly used in the construction of constraint satisfying initial data. These decompositions allow us to specify certain free data that describe the physical nature of the system. The remaining metric fields are then determined by solving elliptic equations derived from the constraint equations. We describe initial data for single black holes and single neutron stars, and how we can use conformal decompositions to construct initial data for binaries made up of black holes or neutron stars. Orbiting binaries will emit gravitational radiation and thus lose energy. Since the emitted radiation tends to circularize the orbits over time, one can thus expect that the objects in a typical binary move on almost circular orbits with slowly shrinking radii. This leads us to the concept of quasi-equilibrium, which essentially assumes that time derivatives are negligible in corotating coordinates for binaries on almost circular orbits. We review how quasi-equilibrium assumptions can be used to make physically well motivated approximations that simplify the elliptic

  6. The initial value problem as it relates to numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Spacetime is foliated by spatial hypersurfaces in the 3+1 split of general relativity. The initial value problem then consists of specifying initial data for all fields on one such a spatial hypersurface, such that the subsequent evolution forward in time is fully determined. On each hypersurface the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature describe the geometry. Together with matter fields such as fluid velocity, energy density and rest mass density, the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature then constitute the initial data. There is a lot of freedom in choosing such initial data. This freedom corresponds to the physical state of the system at the initial time. At the same time the initial data have to satisfy the Hamiltonian and momentum constraint equations of general relativity and can thus not be chosen completely freely. We discuss the conformal transverse traceless and conformal thin sandwich decompositions that are commonly used in the construction of constraint satisfying initial data. These decompositions allow us to specify certain free data that describe the physical nature of the system. The remaining metric fields are then determined by solving elliptic equations derived from the constraint equations. We describe initial data for single black holes and single neutron stars, and how we can use conformal decompositions to construct initial data for binaries made up of black holes or neutron stars. Orbiting binaries will emit gravitational radiation and thus lose energy. Since the emitted radiation tends to circularize the orbits over time, one can thus expect that the objects in a typical binary move on almost circular orbits with slowly shrinking radii. This leads us to the concept of quasi-equilibrium, which essentially assumes that time derivatives are negligible in corotating coordinates for binaries on almost circular orbits. We review how quasi-equilibrium assumptions can be used to make physically well motivated approximations that simplify the elliptic

  7. Relative elliptic theory and the Sobolev problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternin, B. Yu; Shatalov, V. E.

    1996-12-01

    An operator algebra associated with a smooth embedding i \\colon X\\hookrightarrow M is constructed. For elliptic elements of this algebra a finiteness theorem (the Fredholm property) is established, and the index is computed. A connection with Sobolev problems is shown.

  8. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  9. Metal cladding envelope problems, retrofit solutions, and quality control investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    1992-04-01

    This paper deals with a case study of a building envelope retrofit of an insulated sheet steel and corrugated metal clad building. The building in discussion is a satellite testing facility which requires specific clean room conditions with controlled interior temperature (22 degree(s)C +/- 1 degree(s)C) and high relative humidity conditions (45% +/- 3%) to facilitate satellite testing programs. Preliminary mechanical system inspections indicated substantial increase in air intake to make up for air leakage losses. An infrared inspection along with an approximate air leakage test of the building envelope was requested by the client to determine the magnitude of the building envelope problem. This investigation concluded that significant air leakage was present throughout the building envelope and that existing mechanical systems did not have sufficient capacity to pressurize the building and negate wind and stack effect. Exfiltration particularly through openings on the top sections of the building were causing interior moisture to saturate wall insulation and render it ineffective. Concern for rusting of metal components was indicated. The subsequent envelope analysis discovered a number of typical metal building details that led to poor air tightness and wall insulation ineffectiveness. These were correlated to infrared investigation data. The retrofit solutions produced for this building not only apply to this building but to other similar building types. Further investigations indicated that air leakage and mechanical system performance were significant problems with buildings using metal cladding systems comparable to this building. Quality control before, during and after construction was identified as an important function of the architectural commissioning of the retrofit work and infrared investigations were used to verify locations of air leakage and insulation effectiveness.

  10. Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Occupational Health How to Protect Yourself From Job-related Skin Problems How to Protect Yourself From Job-related Skin Problems Occupational HealthPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy ...

  11. [Doping-related problems in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Villiger, B; Monnat, A

    2001-04-01

    The complexity of the new antidoping regulations of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Federations (IF) and the National Olympic Committees (NOC) rises a lot of problems in handling the prescriptions of medication in athletes in the daily practice. In addition, several countries have passed antidoping laws which makes the prescription and the delivery of doping agens illegal. This may have severe consequences for the prescribing doctors. It is therefore the goal of the article to inform the practitioning doctors about the new antidoping regulations and their impact on prescribing or delivering potential doping agens to athletes. It will focus on the new dopinglists, the different doping control systems, the problems with the pharmacological treatment of certain diseases as asthma and the necessary reports which have to be sent to the NOC's or the IF's after prescribing certain medications or methods.

  12. The Gum nebula and related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, S. P.; Brandt, J. C.; Stecher, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Papers were presented in conference sessions on the Gum nebula, the Vela X remnant, the hot stars gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis, the B associations in the Vela-Puppis complex, and pulsars. Ground-based optical and radio astronomy; rocket and satellite observations in the radio, visible, ultraviolet, and X-ray regions; and theoretical problems in the physical state of the interstellar medium, stellar evolution, and runaway star dynamics were considered.

  13. Stepfamily Relationship Quality and Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Lippold, Melissa A; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Fosco, Gregory M

    2017-03-07

    The stepfamily literature is replete with between-group analyses by which youth residing in stepfamilies are compared to youth in other family structures across indicators of adjustment and well-being. Few longitudinal studies examine variation in stepfamily functioning to identify factors that promote the positive adjustment of stepchildren over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 191 stepchildren (56% female, mean age = 11.3 years), the current study examines the association between the relationship quality of three central stepfamily dyads (stepparent-child, parent-child, and stepcouple) and children's internalizing and externalizing problems concurrently and over time. Results from path analyses indicate that higher levels of parent-child affective quality are associated with lower levels of children's concurrent internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 1. Higher levels of stepparent-child affective quality are associated with decreases in children's internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 2 (6 months beyond baseline), even after controlling for children's internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 1 and other covariates. The stepcouple relationship was not directly linked to youth outcomes. Our findings provide implications for future research and practice.

  14. [Heat-related problems in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Karg, T; Rendenbach, U

    2005-06-30

    In particular in the elderly patient, exposure to heat can lead to disturbances of the circulatory system and of the water and electrolyte balance. Provided that certain prophylactic measures are taken, serious problems are unlikely to occur. Food and drink should be matched to the ambient temperature, and permanent medication should be checked. In the case of confused persons, nursing personnel should substitute for any failure to make the necessary acclimatization changes (appropriate clothing). In the case of incontinent patients, it must be remembered that the diapered area is not available for radiating off heat.

  15. Relations between Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuijpers, Rowella C. W. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems are closely related and often co-occur. Directional models have been employed to test how these problems are related, while few studies have tested a third variables model. Objective: This study investigates whether internalizing and externalizing problems are reciprocally or…

  16. The relationship of sleep problems to life quality and depression

    PubMed Central

    Sarıarslan, Hacı A.; Gulhan, Yıldırım B.; Unalan, Demet; Basturk, Mustafa; Delibas, Senol

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the level of depression, the level of life quality, and the relationship between these, in patients applying to sleep centers for various sleep problems. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 229 patients who applied for polysomnography at sleeping centers under supervision of the Neurology and Chest Diseases Clinics of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between June and August 2013. The data collection tools were a socio-demographical data form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF). For statistical analyses, the Student t-test, Kruskal-Wallis-variant analysis, and chi-square tests were used. Significance level was considered as p<0.05. Results: In our study, patients who were older aged, married, not working, and who had a chronic disease, and a severe depressive symptom were observed to have significantly poorer sleep quality. While patients with any chronic disease had significantly higher scores for total PSQI and depression, their physical, mental, and social WHOQOL-BREF scores were significantly lower. The PSQI total scores, and depression scores of the smoking patients were significantly higher for physical, mental, and social WHOQOL-BREF fields. There was a positive correlation between PSQI scores and BDI scores while there was a negative correlation among BDI, PSQI, and WHOQOL-BREF life quality sub-scale scores. Conclusions: Sleep quality was significantly poorer in patients who were older aged, married, not working, and who had a chronic disease, and a severe depressive symptom. There was a significantly negative correlation among depression, sleep quality, and life quality, while there was a significantly positive correlation between life quality and depression. PMID:26166591

  17. The problems related to confidentiality and effectiveness of health care.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, J R

    1983-08-01

    The problem of the impact of confidentiality on health effectiveness is discussed along five points: (1) Communication facilities between health departments are main features of health information systems. (2) Efforts, costs, limits of data protection. The privacy violation risks have to be related to the data protection costs. (3) Paradox of the fundamental rights to confidentiality regarding privacy of the individual and the preponderant interest of the State. (4) Facing the increasing health costs, the need for medical and hospital control systems is assessed. (5) New benefits in medicine and in the quality of care are partly the results of more or less extensive studies in epidemiology at national levels. The general conclusion is concerned with the risks that the computer could become an instrumental substitute for human reason with the progressive drop out of responsibility of health officers.

  18. Some basic research problems related to energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The prediction and evaluation of thermophysical data of fluids and fluid mixtures are discussed. Models which calculate the transport properties of fluid mixtures according to their dependence on size and mass of the constituent particles are discussed. The application of nonlinear evolution equations to energy related processes is discussed. It is expected that the remarkable progress in this field will have significant practical uses.

  19. Problems and Suggestions Related to Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2013-01-01

    Drastic change is required in the Teacher Education in view of the ongoing changes in the social, cultural, economical and political environment so that teacher could come in terms with the changing needs of contemporary Indian society. Society and education stands in a relation of reciprocal cause and effect. The character of a given society…

  20. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.

  1. Quality of sleep and health-related quality of life in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xia; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiao-Hong; Wallace, Linda; Teng, Sha; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Hao, Yu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients after renal transplantation and to explore the relationship between the quality of sleep and the HRQOL. Background: Sleep disorders are still an important clinical problem after renal transplantation. Previous studies mainly focused on patients’ sleep quality before kidney transplant. More studies are needed to document sleep quality after renal transplantation. Design: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Methods: A convenience sample of renal transplant recipients was recruited at an outpatient transplant clinic of a general hospital in Beijing, China. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure quality of sleep. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (MOS SF-36) was used to measure health-related quality of life. Results: The average PSQI score of the 204 renal transplant recipients was 5.81±3.52, significantly lower than the norm. Fifty (24.5%) recipients were classified as having poor sleep quality (global PSQI > 7). The mean scores of renal transplant recipients for SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) were 47.57±6.71 and 48.26±9.66 respectively. Compared with residents in Sichuan province, recipients’ scores for SF-36 dimensions were statistically lower except the dimension of mental health. SF-36 scores of poor sleepers (PSQI > 7) were significantly lower than the good sleepers (PSQI ≤ 7) in both the MCS and PCS. Significant differences exist between the groups in physical function, bodily pain, vitality, and mental health dimensions. Conclusions: Sleep quality and HRQOL of patients after renal transplantation were lower than the norm. Poor sleep is associated with lower HRQOL. Relevance to clinical practice: Health professionals need to pay attention to sleep quality and HRQOL in renal transplant recipients and take appropriate measures to

  2. [On suggestion and its related problems].

    PubMed

    Oka, Kazutaro

    2013-01-01

    Recently, intensive discussions about dissociative disorders have led to the rediscovery of the psychology of P. Janet, that has been under the shadow of Freud's psychoanalysis. Nevertheless, psychiatry, "Schulpsychiatrie" in German, has still paid little attention to the suggestion with which Janet has occupied himself throughout his long career. In this paper, the author examined suggestion from another point of view other than psychodynamic. It is presented that Freud reduced suggestion to a specific relation between an active subject and a passive object, as his precursors, F.A. Mesmer and R. de Puységur did the same. In contrast, Janet's early studies influenced by the philosophy of M. de Biran seem to focus on another aspect of suggestion. From this aspect, suggestion is based on a spontaneous intersubjective process that should be expressed by the middle voice. Referring to H. Bergson, with whom Janet corresponded, the author pointed out that one is not always one's own self that reflects one's whole life history, regardless of the presence/absence of mental abnormality, as is the case with a person under suggestion. Taking into account these factors of suggestion, i. e., the middle voice and fragile selfhood that is not firmly rooted in one's own life history, the author investigated hysteria as a distinct phenomenon that has a particularly close relation with suggestion. Furthermore, depersonalization and schizophrenia were discussed concerning their relation with hysteria. In this approach, the author suggested that the unconscious could be topographically localized not only in a deep portion of the mental apparatus, but also in its most superficial portion, unlike in the case of Freud's psychoanalysis.

  3. The Gum Nebula and Related Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Proceedings of a symposium concerning the Gum Nebula (GN) and related topics are reported. Papers presented include: Colin Gum and the discovery of the GN; identification of the GN as the fossil Stromgren sphere of Vela X Supernova; size and shape of GN; formation of giant H-2 regions following supernova explosions; radio astronomy Explorer 1 observations of GN; cosmic ray effects in the GN; low intensity H beta emission from the interstellar medium; and how to recognize and analyze GN. Astronomical charts and diagrams are included.

  4. Forecasting and Related Problems in China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-12-01

    teäperature and dots? point ip degrees centigrade., and pressure tendency in whole millimeters* Relates ,Ku- miait^es are »sl-so entered, and clouds...iäosili^s «ro not* »ffJäfe tA fe- struä-ant error . • • \\:J *whil« the raobs do sot indicate TSJ- sißiiificÄai criätsrA?’ i~i .t^^jra-teira or...8217 gratory) has strengthened in Sikang and äzechwäji., Hera ähaia., what •evs&snas. there "is scows to point to thu fact that $ iäassive »ouafcaia

  5. Exploring the relationship between quality of life and mental health problems in children: implications for measurement and practice.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Helen; Patalay, Praveetha; Fink, Elian; Vostanis, Panos; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Quality of life is typically reduced in children with mental health problems. Understanding the relationship between quality of life and mental health problems and the factors that moderate this association is a pressing priority. This was a cross-sectional study involving 45,398 children aged 8-13 years from 880 schools in England. Self-reported quality of life was assessed using nine items from the KIDSCREEN-10 and mental health was assessed using the Me and My School Questionnaire. Demographic information (gender, age, ethnicity, socio-economic status) was also recorded. Quality of life was highest in children with no problems and lowest in children with both internalising and externalising problems. There was indication that quality of life may be reduced in children with internalising problems compared with externalising problems. Approximately 12 % children with mental health problems reported high quality of life. The link between mental health and quality of life was moderated by gender and age but not by socio-economic status or ethnicity. This study supports previous work showing mental health and quality of life are related but not synonymous. The findings have implications for measuring quality of life in child mental health settings and the need for approaches to support children with mental health problems that are at particular risk of poor quality of life.

  6. Analysis of Human Relations Problem Situations: The Group Process Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, Paul G.

    Human relations problem situations for Army senior non-commissioned officers (NCOs) were identified and analyzed using group problem solving methods. Then, using an analysis summary prepared for each case study problem situation as the basis, candidate performance exercises were developed. (These exercises specify terminal performance objectives…

  7. Problems Relating Mathematics and Science in the High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Richard; Beard, Earl

    This document contains various science problems which require a mathematical solution. The problems are arranged under two general areas. The first (algebra I) contains biology, chemistry, and physics problems which require solutions related to linear equations, exponentials, and nonlinear equations. The second (algebra II) contains physics…

  8. [Nutrition-related problems in pet birds].

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, N J; Lumeij, J T; Dorrestein, G M; Beynen, A C

    1999-01-15

    The detection and correction of dietary errors plays an important role in avian medicine. Examples of diseases caused in part by a deficiency or abundance of a nutrient include hypovitaminosis A in birds of the parrot (Psittacidae) family, hypocalcemia in the African grey parrot, goitre in budgerigars, and iron storage diseases in the minah and toucan. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to metaplasia of mucous membranes, which in turn can lead to chronic rhinitis and respiratory fungal infections. Vitamin A deficiency is caused by feeding a seed based diet. Seed mixtures are often deficient in calcium, and nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism can develop if an additional source of calcium, in the form of ground shells, is not provided. Tetanic symptoms as a result of hypocalcemia are only seen in the African grey parrot and the timneh parrot. Over supplementation of vitamin D gives rise to poisoning with polyuria and polydipsia as common initial symptoms. The exact cause of iron storage diseases in toucans and minahs is not known. A diet low in iron and vitamin C is advised as therapy. Goitre can develop in budgerigars as a result of iodine-deficient drinking water and provision of a seed mixture based on millet. An unbalanced or multideficient diet can give rise to reproductive disorders, abnormal feathers, or infections as a result of diminished resistance. It is usually not possible to relate the cause of these diseases in a simple way to the composition of the diet. Obesity, which occurs in the galah, Amazon parrot, and budgerigars, can lead to fatty liver and lipoma. A gradual reduction in weight, by means of calorie restriction, is recommended. Commercially available nutritionally balanced bird food is often effective.

  9. Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…

  10. Misdiagnosing the Teacher Quality Problem. CPRE Policy Briefs. RB-49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of CPRE Policy Briefs summarizes the findings on issues related to teacher quality in the chapter by the author in the book, "The State of Education Policy Research" (Cohen, Fuhrman, Mosher, Eds., 2007). This report also draws on discussions that took place during a summer, 2006, policy briefing on teacher labor-market issues…

  11. ICTs and Employment: The Problem of Job Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubery, Jill; Grimshaw, Damian

    2001-01-01

    The impact of information and communications technologies on jobs is not yet known and no outcome is inevitable. Technology-driven changes in organizational structures, employment relations, worker autonomy, and work organization will not automatically result in higher job quality. (Contains 92 references.) (SK)

  12. Calculus students' ability to solve geometric related-rates problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Tami

    2000-09-01

    This study assessed the ability of university students enrolled in an introductory calculus course to solve related-rates problems set in geometric contexts. Students completed a problem-solving test and a test of performance on the individual steps involved in solving such problems. Each step was characterised as primarily relying on procedural knowledge or conceptual understanding. Results indicated that overall performance on the geometric related-rates problems was poor. The poorest performance was on steps linked to conceptual understanding, specifically steps involving the translation of prose to geometric and symbolic representations. Overall performance was most strongly related to performance on the procedural steps.

  13. Problem-oriented stereo vision quality evaluation complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorchuk, D.; Gusamutdinova, N.; Konovalenko, I.; Ershov, E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an original low cost hardware setting for efficient testing of stereo vision algorithms. The method uses a combination of a special hardware setup and mathematical model and is easy to construct, precise in applications of our interest. For a known scene we derive its analytical representation, called virtual scene. Using a four point correspondence between the scene and virtual one we compute extrinsic camera parameters, and project virtual scene on the image plane, which is the ground truth for depth map. Another result, presented in this paper, is a new depth map quality metric. Its main purpose is to tune stereo algorithms for particular problem, e.g. obstacle avoidance.

  14. Quality Training and Learning in Aviation: Problems of Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Phillip J.; Lehrer, Henry R.; Telfer, Ross A.

    2001-01-01

    The challenge of producing training programs that lead to quality learning outcomes is ever present in aviation, especially when economic and regulatory pressures are brought into the equation. Previous research by Telfer & Moore (1997) indicates the importance of appropriate alignment of beliefs about learning across all levels of an organization from the managerial level, through the instructor/check and training level, to the pilots and other crew. This paper argues for a central focus on approaches to learning and training that encourage understanding, problem solving and application. Recent research in the area is emphasized as are methods and techniques for enhancing deeper learning.

  15. Longitudinal relations between marital aggression and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Keller, Peggy S; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Liao, Pei-Ju

    2009-03-01

    Relations between couples' (N = 158) marital aggression and alcohol problems were examined across a two-year period. Alcohol problems and aggression were assessed via self-report and partner-reports. Results support bidirectional relations between marital aggression and problem drinking. T1 wife problem drinking was associated with decreased T2 verbal aggression; T1 husband problem drinking was associated with increased T2 physical aggression. T1 physical aggression predicted increased T2 wife problem drinking; it predicted increased T2 husband problem drinking only when wife problem drinking was low. T1 verbal marital aggression predicted increased T2 husband problem drinking only when husbands engaged in greater problem drinking at T1. Results suggest that problem drinking may prevent couples from adequately handling marital disagreements, and that marital problems may lead to drinking as a form of coping with stress; couples in which the husband engages in greater problem drinking than the wife may be at increased risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The Double Counting Problem in Neighborhood Scale Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Hughes, V.; Woodhouse, L.; Servin, A.

    2004-12-01

    Air quality varies considerably within megacities. In certain neighborhoods concentrations of toxic air contaminants (TACs) can be appreciably higher than that in other neighborhoods of the same city. These pockets of high concentrations are associated with both transport of TACs from other areas and local emissions. In order to assess the health risks imposed by TACs at neighborhood scale and to develop strategies of abatement, neighborhood scale air quality modeling is needed. In 1999, the California Air Resources Board (ARB) established the Neighborhood Assessment Program (NAP) - a program designed to develop assessment tools for evaluating and understanding air quality in California communities. As part of the Neighborhood Assessment Program, ARB is conducting research on neighborhood-scale modeling methodologies. Two criteria are suggested to select a neighborhood scale air quality modeling system that can be used to assess concentrations of TACs: scientific soundness and balancing computational requirements. The latter criterion ensures that as many interested parties as possible can participate the process of air quality modeling so that they have a better understanding of air quality issues and make best use of air quality modeling results in their neighborhoods. Based on these two selection criteria a hybrid approach is recommended. This hybrid approach is a combination of using both a regional scale air quality model to assess the contributions from sources that are not located within the neighborhood of interest and a microscale model to assess the impact from the local sources that are within the neighborhood. However, one of the modeling system selection criteria, balancing computational requirements, dictates that all sources (both within and outside the neighborhood of interest) must be included in the regional scale modeling. A potential problem, referred to as double counting, arises because some local sources are included in both regional and

  17. Indoor moisture and mold-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2004-05-01

    Moisture, microbial and in particular mold related indoor exposure and health problems in homes, offices, and public buildings (Kindergartens, schools, library, and hospitals) have been gaining recognition as one of the most common indoor environmental health issues. Proper recognition of microbial related health problems and the differential diagnosis of sick building syndrome (SBS) or building related illness (BRI) are important for early and effective exposure intervention, treatment, referral and prevention of more serious illness.

  18. Toxicity screening of materials from buildings with fungal indoor air quality problems (Stachybotrys chartarum).

    PubMed

    E, J; M, G; S, Y C; E-L, H; M, N; B, J; R, D

    1998-06-01

    Samples of building materials visibly contaminated with moisture-related fungi (drywall, fiberglass, wallpaper, wood) were tested with indirect (FFL) and direct (MTT) cytotoxicity screening tests that are particularly sensitive toStachybotrys chartarum toxins. In addition, microscopic, chemical, immunochemical (Roridin A enzyme immunoassay) and mycological culture analyses were performed. In all cases in which building occupants had reported verifiable skin, mucous membrane, respiratory, central nervous system or neuropsychological abnormalities, cytotoxicity was identified. Results of a cytotoxicity screening test of field samples, such as the direct MTT test method, will give investigators of health problems related to indoor air quality problems important toxicity information.

  19. Coping and social problem solving correlates of asthma control and quality of life.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Sean P; Nezu, Christine M; Nezu, Arthur M; Sherman, Michael; Davey, Adam; Collins, Bradley N

    2014-02-01

    In a sample of adults with asthma receiving care and medication in an outpatient pulmonary clinic, this study tested for statistical associations between social problem-solving styles, asthma control, and asthma-related quality of life. These variables were measured cross sectionally as a first step toward more systematic application of social problem-solving frameworks in asthma self-management training. Recruitment occurred during pulmonology clinic service hours. Forty-four adults with physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma provided data including age, gender, height, weight, race, income, and comorbid conditions. The Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Short Form), and peak expiratory force measures offered multiple views of asthma health at the time of the study. Maladaptive coping (impulsive and careless problem-solving styles) based on transactional stress models of health were assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form. Controlling for variance associated with gender, age, and income, individuals reporting higher impulsive-careless scores exhibited significantly lower scores on asthma control (β = 0.70, p = 0.001, confidence interval (CI) [0.37-1.04]) and lower asthma-related quality of life (β = 0.79, p = 0.017, CI [0.15-1.42]). These findings suggest that specific maladaptive problem-solving styles may uniquely contribute to asthma health burdens. Because problem-solving coping strategies are both measureable and teachable, behavioral interventions aimed at facilitating adaptive coping and problem solving could positively affect patient's asthma management and quality of life.

  20. Differentiation of attention-related problems in childhood absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vega, Clemente; Vestal, Matthew; DeSalvo, Matthew; Berman, Rachel; Chung, Mihae; Blumenfeld, Hal; Spann, Marisa N

    2010-09-01

    The current study examined the specific types of attention-related problems children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) experience and the role of disease factors in the development of attention-related problems. Thirty-eight subjects with CAE and 46 healthy controls, aged 6 to 16, participated in the study. The Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) was completed by parents, and the Attention Problems and Hyperactivity subscales were used to characterize the problems of children with CAE. Item analysis within the subscales revealed that children with CAE demonstrate higher rates of hyperactive (overactivity and fidgetiness) and inattentive (forgetfulness and distractibility) problems, and require more supervision. Within-CAE-group analyses revealed that those who were actively having seizures were more impatient and those with a longer duration of illness were less proficient in completing homework. Children with CAE are at risk for certain inattentive and hyperactive problems, which can differ depending on duration of illness and active seizure status.

  1. Early Intervention of Eating- and Weight-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Anna; White, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and other eating-related problems are widespread and are associated with harmful physical, psychological, and social problems. The dramatic increases in rates of pediatric obesity has created a mounting need for psychologists and other mental health care providers to play a significant role in the assessment and treatment of youth with eating- and weight-related problems. Therefore, it is imperative for providers to be aware of the causes and consequences of eating- and weight-related problems and to be familiar with evidence-based assessment and intervention approaches. Currently, the most well-established intervention approaches are family-based behavioral treatments, and weight loss maintenance treatments with a socio-ecological focus are promising. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these topics and highlights the important roles that mental health care providers can have. Medical settings are often the patient’s first point of contact within the healthcare system, making mental health care providers in such settings uniquely suited to assess for a broad range of eating- and weight-related problems and associated comorbidities, to deliver relevant evidence-based interventions, and to make appropriate referrals. Moving forward, providers and researchers must work together to address key questions related to the nature of eating- and weight-related problems in youth and to achieve breakthroughs in the prevention and treatment of such problems in this vulnerable population. PMID:20960039

  2. Variables Related to Sleep Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Our study of 477 children with autism (1-15 years, IQs 9-146) showed that parent reported sleep problems are found in most children with autism and are not significantly related to age, IQ, gender, race, parent occupation, neuropsychological functioning, and learning ability. However, sleep problems increased with severity of autistic symptoms and…

  3. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  4. Computation of Transonic Nozzle Sound Transmission and Rotor Problems by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aganin, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    The transonic nozzle transmission problem and the open rotor noise radiation problem are solved computationally. Both are multiple length scales problems. For efficient and accurate numerical simulation, the multiple-size-mesh multiple-time-step Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme is used to calculate the time periodic solution. To ensure an accurate solution, high quality numerical boundary conditions are also needed. For the nozzle problem, a set of nonhomogeneous, outflow boundary conditions are required. The nonhomogeneous boundary conditions not only generate the incoming sound waves but also, at the same time, allow the reflected acoustic waves and entropy waves, if present, to exit the computation domain without reflection. For the open rotor problem, there is an apparent singularity at the axis of rotation. An analytic extension approach is developed to provide a high quality axis boundary treatment.

  5. Causality patterns and machine learning for the extraction of problem-action relations in discharge summaries.

    PubMed

    Seol, Jae-Wook; Yi, Wangjin; Choi, Jinwook; Lee, Kyung Soon

    2017-02-01

    Clinical narrative text includes information related to a patient's medical history such as chronological progression of medical problems and clinical treatments. A chronological view of a patient's history makes clinical audits easier and improves quality of care. In this paper, we propose a clinical Problem-Action relation extraction method, based on clinical semantic units and event causality patterns, to present a chronological view of a patient's problem and a doctor's action. Based on our observation that a clinical text describes a patient's medical problems and a doctor's treatments in chronological order, a clinical semantic unit is defined as a problem and/or an action relation. Since a clinical event is a basic unit of the problem and action relation, events are extracted from narrative texts, based on the external knowledge resources context features of the conditional random fields. A clinical semantic unit is extracted from each sentence based on time expressions and context structures of events. Then, a clinical semantic unit is classified into a problem and/or action relation based on the event causality patterns of the support vector machines. Experimental results on Korean discharge summaries show 78.8% performance in the F1-measure. This result shows that the proposed method is effectively classifies clinical Problem-Action relations.

  6. Measuring Avoidance and Inflexibility in Weight Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility plays a role in a variety of clinical presentations, including health problems. The present study presents preliminary data on a new measure of these processes in relation to difficult weight-related thoughts, feelings, and actions: The Acceptance and Action…

  7. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Through Health Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-related health policy research is responsible for guiding the implementation of laws and public health policies that have reduced alcohol-related highway injuries and deaths, as well as other alcohol-related problems over the last 40 years. This research, which tests theories about potential policy changes and responds to specific problems, has examined a vast array of prevention programs. This article briefly identifies 10 program categories and highlights four programs to illustrate the scope and complexity of the individual health policy areas within the categories. PMID:23579933

  8. Advance Notice for Transition-Related Problem Behavior: Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Adam T; Strickland-Cohen, Kathleen; Dotson, Wesley; Williams, D Courtney

    2014-10-01

    Transitions between daily activities can occasion or elicit problem behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Providing advance notice to signal an upcoming transition is a common practice in early and special education settings (e.g., Riffel 2010; Sandall et al. 2005). While the literature contains many demonstrations of the efficacy of various advance notice procedures, other studies have shown negative results. Practitioners are faced with the challenge of deciding whether advance notice is a viable treatment option for transition-related problem behavior in light of these contradictory findings. To assist the practitioner in this decision-making process, we provide a brief review of the advance notice literature, concentrating on the studies reporting that advance notice is ineffective at reducing transition-related problems. The goal is to provide practitioners with a better understanding of the environmental conditions under which advance notice is likely to be ineffective at decreasing problem behavior as well as the conditions under which it can be effective at reducing transition-related problem behavior. Discriminating these conditions may yield a useful set of practice guidelines for deciding when advance notice is a viable treatment option for decreasing transition-related problem behavior.

  9. Personal strivings, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Christopher, Michael S; McLaury, Ann E

    2004-06-01

    This study examined relations between personal strivings and alcohol use among college students. Personal strivings are ongoing goals that individuals are characteristically trying to achieve through their behavior. Participants generated lists of personal strivings following standard instructions and then completed an assessment of alcohol use and related problems. Participants returned to complete a follow-up assessment of drinking behavior after 30 days. Personal strivings were coded into content categories by trained raters using a coding manual. Four content categories were examined for this study: achievement, affiliation, health, and self-presentation. A series of t tests revealed that participants endorsing achievement strivings reported less alcohol-related problems and marginally fewer instances of binge drinking during the 30-day follow-up period. In contrast, participants endorsing self-presentation strivings reported more alcohol-related problems during the follow-up period.

  10. Extraction of a group-pair relation: problem-solving relation from web-board documents.

    PubMed

    Pechsiri, Chaveevan; Piriyakul, Rapepun

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to extract a group-pair relation as a Problem-Solving relation, for example a DiseaseSymptom-Treatment relation and a CarProblem-Repair relation, between two event-explanation groups, a problem-concept group as a symptom/CarProblem-concept group and a solving-concept group as a treatment-concept/repair concept group from hospital-web-board and car-repair-guru-web-board documents. The Problem-Solving relation (particularly Symptom-Treatment relation) including the graphical representation benefits non-professional persons by supporting knowledge of primarily solving problems. The research contains three problems: how to identify an EDU (an Elementary Discourse Unit, which is a simple sentence) with the event concept of either a problem or a solution; how to determine a problem-concept EDU boundary and a solving-concept EDU boundary as two event-explanation groups, and how to determine the Problem-Solving relation between these two event-explanation groups. Therefore, we apply word co-occurrence to identify a problem-concept EDU and a solving-concept EDU, and machine-learning techniques to solve a problem-concept EDU boundary and a solving-concept EDU boundary. We propose using k-mean and Naïve Bayes to determine the Problem-Solving relation between the two event-explanation groups involved with clustering features. In contrast to previous works, the proposed approach enables group-pair relation extraction with high accuracy.

  11. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  12. Anxiety sensitivity and sleep-related problems in anxious youth.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Courtney L; Meredith Elkins, R; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6-17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency.

  13. Anxiety Sensitivity and Sleep-Related Problems in Anxious Youth

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826

  14. Quality Circles: Involvement, Problem-Solving, and Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretz, H. Lynn

    1983-01-01

    The media production department of Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) began quality circle meetings in January 1981 after studying the process of quality circles and obtaining the understanding and support of the college administration. A quality circle is a small group of people doing similar work who voluntarily meet on a regular basis to…

  15. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  16. Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Sritharan, Kaji; Mehes, Mira; Abdullah, Fizan; Rasheed, Shahnawaz

    2015-06-01

    Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure to cater for emergency surgical needs. This article highlights the need for education, training and research to mitigate the problems related to terrorism and surgical public health.

  17. College Students' Alcohol-Related Problems: An Autophotographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick F.; Dollinger, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This study related standard self-report measures to an innovative approach (the autophotographic essay) as a way to provide insight into patterns of alcohol consumption and associated problem behaviors. College students (N = 135) completed self-report measures of alcohol consumption and created autophotographic essays of identity coded for alcohol…

  18. Contributions to Statistical Problems Related to Microarray Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Microarray is a high throughput technology to measure the gene expression. Analysis of microarray data brings many interesting and challenging problems. This thesis consists three studies related to microarray data. First, we propose a Bayesian model for microarray data and use Bayes Factors to identify differentially expressed genes. Second, we…

  19. Using creative problem solving (TRIZ) in improving the quality of hospital services.

    PubMed

    LariSemnani, Behrouz; Mohebbi Far, Rafat; Shalipoor, Elham; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2014-08-14

    TRIZ is an initiative and SERVQUAL is a structured methodology for quality improvement. Using these tools, inventive problem solving can be applied for quality improvement, and the highest quality can be reached using creative quality improvement methodology. The present study seeks to determine the priority of quality aspects of services provided for patients in the hospital as well as how TRIZ can help in improving the quality of those services. This Study is an applied research which used a dynamic qualitative descriptive survey method during year 2011. Statistical population includes every patient who visited in one of the University Hospitals from March 2011. There existed a big gap between patients' expectations from what seemingly is seen (the design of the hospital) and timely provision of services with their perceptions. Also, quality aspects of services were prioritized as follows: keeping the appearance of hospital (the design), accountability, assurance, credibility and having empathy. Thus, the only thing which mattered most for all staff and managers of studied hospital was the appearance of hospital as well as its staff look. This can grasp a high percentage of patients' satisfaction. By referring to contradiction matrix, the most important principles of TRIZ model were related to tangible factors including principles No. 13 (discarding and recovering), 25 (self-service), 35 (parameter changes), and 2 (taking out). Furthermore, in addition to these four principles, principle No. 24 (intermediary) was repeated most among the others. By utilizing TRIZ, hospital problems can be examined with a more open view, Go beyond The conceptual framework of the organization and responded more quickly to patients ' needs.

  20. Using Creative Problem Solving (TRIZ) in Improving the Quality of Hospital Services

    PubMed Central

    LariSemnani, Behrouz; Far, Rafat Mohebbi; Shalipoor, Elham; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    TRIZ is an initiative and SERVQUAL is a structured methodology for quality improvement. Using these tools, inventive problem solving can be applied for quality improvement, and the highest quality can be reached using creative quality improvement methodology. The present study seeks to determine the priority of quality aspects of services provided for patients in the hospital as well as how TRIZ can help in improving the quality of those services. This Study is an applied research which used a dynamic qualitative descriptive survey method during year 2011. Statistical population includes every patient who visited in one of the University Hospitals from March 2011. There existed a big gap between patients’ expectations from what seemingly is seen (the design of the hospital) and timely provision of services with their perceptions. Also, quality aspects of services were prioritized as follows: keeping the appearance of hospital (the design), accountability, assurance, credibility and having empathy. Thus, the only thing which mattered most for all staff and managers of studied hospital was the appearance of hospital as well as its staff look. This can grasp a high percentage of patients’ satisfaction. By referring to contradiction matrix, the most important principles of TRIZ model were related to tangible factors including principles No. 13 (discarding and recovering), 25 (self-service), 35 (parameter changes), and 2 (taking out). Furthermore, in addition to these four principles, principle No. 24 (intermediary) was repeated most among the others. By utilizing TRIZ, hospital problems can be examined with a more open view, Go beyond The conceptual framework of the organization and responded more quickly to patients ’ needs. PMID:25560360

  1. Relative displacement measurements for two-body problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, D.; Czarnek, R.; Wood, J.; Joh, D.

    1985-01-01

    While high-sensitivity moire interferometry is very effective for displacement measurements in continuous bodies, special difficulties arise with two-body problems. Fringes may become discontinuous at the boundary between the bodies and as a result the relative displacements cannot be extracted from the fringe patterns. In this work, flexible bridges are used between the bodies to provide a continuous path for fringe counting. The bridges are made of relatively low modulus material and have a low stiffness geometry, such that they deform under minimal load. The experimental methods used for obtaining relative displacement measurements in two-body problems are described for the two cases; dovetail joint in turbo-machinery, and thick adherend lap joint.

  2. Relational aggression and marital quality: A five-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Carroll, Jason S; Smith, Nathan J; Yang, Chongming; Holmgren, Hailey G; Johnson, Chad

    2017-04-01

    Relational aggression occurs in many different contexts, including in romantic relationships. The current study examined associations between two subtypes of relational aggression (love withdrawal and social sabotage) and marital quality over a 5-year time period. Participants consisted of 311 married couples who completed a number of questionnaires on relational aggression and relationship quality once a year over a 5-year period. Results revealed that relational aggression was highly stable over time and that women used more relational aggression than men. Men's use of social sabotage and love withdrawal were bidirectionally related to both partners' perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Conversely, only women's use of love withdrawal was related to her own perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Collectively, these results suggest that relational aggression by men may be less common, though particularly toxic in a marital relationship. Couples are encouraged to find healthier ways of coping with problems in relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. A Framework for Problem-Based Learning: Teaching Mathematics with a Relational Problem-Based Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schettino, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    One recommendation for encouraging young women and other underrepresented students in their mathematical studies is to find instructional methods, such as problem-based learning (PBL), that allow them to feel included in the learning process. Using a more relationally centered pedagogy along with more inclusive instructional methods may be a way…

  4. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament.

    PubMed

    Molfese, Victoria J; Rudasill, Kathleen M; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis L; Bates, John E

    2015-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent-reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep, and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph-based records. The findings that parent-reported and actigraph-recorded sleep characteristics varied as a function of parent report of toddler sleep problems and temperament add needed information on toddler sleep. Such information may contribute to improving parents' awareness of their child's sleep characteristics and correlates of problem sleep.

  5. GEE-WIS Anchored Problem Solving Using Real-Time Authentic Water Quality Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M.; Wlodarczyk, M. S.; Branco, B.; Torgersen, T.

    2002-05-01

    GEE-WIS scientific problem solving consists of observing, hypothesizing, synthesis, argument building and reasoning, in the context of analysis, representation, modeling and sense-making of real-time authentic water quality data. Geoscience Environmental Education - Web-accessible Instrumented Systems, or GEE-WIS, an NSF Geoscience Education grant, has established a set of companion websites that stream real-time data from two campus retention ponds for research and use in secondary and undergraduate water quality lessons. We have targeted scientific problem solving skills because of the nature of the GEE-WIS environment, but further because they are central to state and federal efforts to establish science education curriculum standards and are at the core of performance-based testing. We have used a design experiment process to create and test two Anchored Instruction scenario problems. Customization such as that done through a design process, is acknowledged to be a fundamental component of educational research from an ecological psychology perspective. Our efforts have shared core design elements with other NSF water quality projects. Our method involves the analysis of student written scenario responses for level of scientific problem solving using a qualitative scoring rubric designed from participation in a related NSF project, SCALE (Synergy Communities: Aggregating Learning about Education). Student solutions of GEE-WIS anchor problems from Fall 2001 and Spring 2002 will be summarized. Implications are drawn for those interested in making secondary and high education geoscience more realistic and more motivating for students through the use of real-time authentic data via Internet.

  6. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  7. Risk Analysis Related to Quality Management Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykydal, David; Halfarová, Petra; Nenadál, Jaroslav; Plura, Jiří; Hekelová, Edita

    2012-12-01

    Efficient and effective implementation of quality management principles asks for a responsible approach from top managers' perspectives. A study of the current state of affairs in Czech organizations discovers a lot of shortcomings in this field that can be changed to vary managerial risks. The article identifies and analyses some of them and gives short guidance for appropriate treatment. Text of the article reflects the authors' experience as well as knowledge obtained from the systematic analysis of industrial companies' environments.

  8. Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

  9. Identifying Features of Fitness Landscapes and Relating Them to Problem Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Moser, I; Gheorghita, M; Aleti, A

    2016-02-29

    Complex combinatorial problems are most often optimised with heuristic solvers, which usually deliver acceptable results without any indication of the quality obtained. Recently, predictive diagnostic optimisation was proposed as a means of characterising the fitness landscape while optimising a combinatorial problem. The scalars produced by predictive diagnostic optimisation appear to describe the difficulty of the problem with relative reliability. In this study, we record more scalars that may be helpful in determining problem difficulty during the optimisation process and analyse these in combination with other well-known landscape descriptors by using exploratory factor analysis on four landscapes that arise from different search operators, applied to a varied set of quadratic assignment problem instances. Factors are designed to capture properties by combining the collinear variances of several variables. The extracted factors can be interpreted as the features of landscapes detected by the variables, but disappoint in their weak correlations with the result quality achieved by the optimiser, which we regard as the most reliable indicator of difficulty available. It appears that only the prediction error of predictive diagnostic optimisation has a strong correlation with the quality of the results produced, followed by a medium correlation of the fitness distance correlation of the local optima.

  10. Reform of Teacher Education and the Problem of Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    Educational reform developments focusing on academic issues are contrasted with those emphasizing teacher performance. The concept of quality assurance in teacher education is considered, as is using student achievement as an indicator of teacher effectiveness. (Author/MT)

  11. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry.

  12. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  13. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p < 0.01, OR: 0.01, CI: 0.00 to 0.05), malocclusion (p < 0.01, OR: 0.06, CI: 0.01 to 0.35), and dental caries (p = 0.02, OR: 0.22, CI: 0.04 to 1.04) were observed. The OHRQoL overall mean score and subscales were relatively low independent of the evaluated group (p > 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL.

  14. Alcohol use, related problems and psychological health in college students.

    PubMed

    Perera, Bilesha; Torabi, Mohammad; Kay, Noy S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, psychological distress, anxiety and depression mood and the relationship between these variables in a sample of 534 college students in the USA. In college men, 91% were current alcohol users (those who use alcohol at least once a month) and in college women 80% were current alcohol users (p < 0.01). Current users were further divided into two groups, moderate and heavy, considering the amount and frequency of alcohol use. Beer was more popular among moderate users than heavy users in both sexes. Over 90% of both moderate and heavy users in both men and women had used hard liquor in the 30-day period preceding the survey. College men had more alcohol-related problems than did college women. Blackouts, getting into fights and not being able to meet school responsibilities were the common alcohol-related adverse outcomes reported by the participants. No associations were found between alcohol use and distress and between alcohol use and depressive mood. Mean values of the anxiety scores, however, were higher in moderate users in the male sample compared to that of the female sample. The findings have implications for theories of alcohol-related psychological health in college students.

  15. Tethered body problems and relative motion orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eades, J. B., Jr.; Wolf, H.

    1972-01-01

    Selected problems dealing with orbiting tethered body systems have been studied. In addition, a relative motion orbit determination program was developed. Results from these tasks are described and discussed. The expected tethered body motions were examined, analytically, to ascertain what influence would be played by the physical parameters of the tether, the gravity gradient and orbit eccentricity. After separating the motion modes these influences were determined; and, subsequently, the effects of oscillations and/or rotations, on tether force, were described. A study was undertaken, by examining tether motions, to see what type of control actions would be needed to accurately place a mass particle at a prescribed position relative to a main vehicle. Other applications for tethers were studied. Principally these were concerned with the producing of low-level gee forces by means of stabilized tether configurations; and, the initiation of free transfer trajectories from tether supported vehicle relative positions.

  16. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  17. On the Problems of Asking for a Definition of Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittek, Line; Kvernbekk, Tone

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the problems of asking for a definition of quality in education from a philosophy of language perspective. We take the concept of quality as it appears in higher education discourse as our example. More specifically we discuss the possibility of obtaining a precise, unified definition of quality by addressing the problem…

  18. Optimum profit model considering production, quality and sale problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Lu, Chih-Lun

    2011-12-01

    Chen and Liu ['Procurement Strategies in the Presence of the Spot Market-an Analytical Framework', Production Planning and Control, 18, 297-309] presented the optimum profit model between the producers and the purchasers for the supply chain system with a pure procurement policy. However, their model with a simple manufacturing cost did not consider the used cost of the customer. In this study, the modified Chen and Liu's model will be addressed for determining the optimum product and process parameters. The authors propose a modified Chen and Liu's model under the two-stage screening procedure. The surrogate variable having a high correlation with the measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the first stage. The measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the second stage when the product decision cannot be determined in the first stage. The used cost of the customer will be measured by adopting Taguchi's quadratic quality loss function. The optimum purchaser's order quantity, the producer's product price and the process quality level will be jointly determined by maximising the expected profit between them.

  19. Improving Multi-Objective Management of Water Quality Tipping Points: Revisiting the Classical Shallow Lake Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. D.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2015-12-01

    Recent multi-objective extensions of the classical shallow lake problem are useful for exploring the conceptual and computational challenges that emerge when managing irreversible water quality tipping points. Building on this work, we explore a four objective version of the lake problem where a hypothetical town derives economic benefits from polluting a nearby lake, but at the risk of irreversibly tipping the lake into a permanently polluted state. The trophic state of the lake exhibits non-linear threshold dynamics; below some critical phosphorus (P) threshold it is healthy and oligotrophic, but above this threshold it is irreversibly eutrophic. The town must decide how much P to discharge each year, a decision complicated by uncertainty in the natural P inflow to the lake. The shallow lake problem provides a conceptually rich set of dynamics, low computational demands, and a high level of mathematical difficulty. These properties maximize its value for benchmarking the relative merits and limitations of emerging decision support frameworks, such as Direct Policy Search (DPS). Here, we explore the use of DPS as a formal means of developing robust environmental pollution control rules that effectively account for deeply uncertain system states and conflicting objectives. The DPS reformulation of the shallow lake problem shows promise in formalizing pollution control triggers and signposts, while dramatically reducing the computational complexity of the multi-objective pollution control problem. More broadly, the insights from the DPS variant of the shallow lake problem formulated in this study bridge emerging work related to socio-ecological systems management, tipping points, robust decision making, and robust control.

  20. Theoretical and observational problems related to solar eclipses. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Z.; Stavinschi, M.

    The contributions to this book are based on the current knowledge of solar corona physics and on the prospects for future total eclipse observations, focusing on the eclipse of August 11, 1999, which forecasters believe will occur at precisely the maximum of solar activity. The results of past eclipse observations are reviewed, including coronal hot and cold structures, coronal heating, public education and instrumental problems. The relation of the corona to the Sun is discussed, viz., the energy and mass transfer between the chromosphere and the corona, including the formation of prominences by coronal condensation in coronal cavities and the supply of mass to the corona by spicules.

  1. Simple Solutions to Complex Problems: Moral Panic and the Fluid Shift from "Equity" to "Quality" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Education is increasingly conceptualised by governments and policymakers in western democracies in terms of productivity and human capital, emphasising elements of individualism and competition over concerns around democracy and equity. More and more, solutions to intransigent educational problems related to equity are seen in terms of quality and…

  2. Chronic pain related to quality of sleep

    PubMed Central

    Tonial, Leandro Freitas; Stechman, José; Hummig, Wagner

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the relation between the degrees of chronic pain and drowsiness levels. Methods: The study was conducted with 115 patients, who answered the questionnaire as diagnostic criteria in the survey. After evaluation based on the protocol of chronic pain registry RDC/TMD- Axis II, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was applied to assess drowsiness levels. Results: Among the participating patients, there were more females (80%), and the type of pain more prevalent was chronic (70.4%). Concerning the grades of chronic pain, grade II predominated (38.3%), corresponding to high pain intensity and low disability. The ratio observed for levels of sleepiness was more prevalent for sleep debt average (38.3%). Conclusion: The grades of chronic pain and the levels of sleepiness did not correlate with each other or with the gender of patients. PMID:25003919

  3. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed.

  4. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are also closely

  5. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability.

  6. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I; Schmidt, Henk G

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity, (3) the extent to which the problem stimulated group discussion, (4) self-study, and (5) identification of learning goals. The results showed that problem clarity led to more group discussion, identification of learning goals, and self-study than problem familiarity. On the other hand, problem familiarity had a stronger and direct impact on academic achievement.

  7. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR OZONE AND RELATED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires periodic (5-year) update revision of criteria and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone. The previous revision of the criteria contained in the Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants was co...

  8. Relationships between Undergraduates' Argumentation Skills, Conceptual Quality of Problem Solutions, and Problem Solving Strategies in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebello, Carina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well…

  9. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Reis, Dorota; Schröder, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1-28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations of quality of life among psychotherapists. A total of 774 psychotherapists (74.7% women; mean age 46 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, well-being, life satisfaction and workload, as well as specific job demands, were assessed via a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that more than 4.2% of the surveyed psychotherapists have difficulties falling asleep, 12.7% often wake up in the night, and 26.6% feel tired, and 3.4% think that their interrupted sleep affects work performance. About 44.1% of them suffer from symptoms of insomnia. Path models showed that insomnia is significantly related to well-being and life satisfaction.

  10. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Schlarb, Angelika A.; Reis, Dorota; Schröder, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1–28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations of quality of life among psychotherapists. A total of 774 psychotherapists (74.7% women; mean age 46 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, well-being, life satisfaction and workload, as well as specific job demands, were assessed via a questionnaire. Analyses revealed that more than 4.2% of the surveyed psychotherapists have difficulties falling asleep, 12.7% often wake up in the night, and 26.6% feel tired, and 3.4% think that their interrupted sleep affects work performance. About 44.1% of them suffer from symptoms of insomnia. Path models showed that insomnia is significantly related to well-being and life satisfaction. PMID:23471477

  11. Global symmetry relations in linear and viscoplastic mobility problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamrin, Ken; Goddard, Joe

    2014-11-01

    The mobility tensor of a textured surface is a homogenized effective boundary condition that describes the effective slip of a fluid adjacent to the surface in terms of an applied shear traction far above the surface. In the Newtonian fluid case, perturbation analysis yields a mobility tensor formula, which suggests that regardless of the surface texture (i.e. nonuniform hydrophobicity distribution and/or height fluctuations) the mobility tensor is always symmetric. This conjecture is verified using a Lorentz reciprocity argument. It motivates the question of whether such symmetries would arise for nonlinear constitutive relations and boundary conditions, where the mobility tensor is not a constant but a function of the applied stress. We show that in the case of a strongly dissipative nonlinear constitutive relation--one whose strain-rate relates to the stress solely through a scalar Edelen potential--and strongly dissipative surface boundary conditions--one whose hydrophobic character is described by a potential relating slip to traction--the mobility function of the surface also maintains tensorial symmetry. By extension, the same variational arguments can be applied in problems such as the permeability tensor for viscoplastic flow through porous media, and we find that similar symmetries arise. These findings could be used to simplify the characterization of viscoplastic drag in various anisotropic media. (Joe Goddard is a former graduate student of Acrivos).

  12. In Defense of Educators: The Problem of Idea Quality, Not "Teacher Quality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, E. D., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    People who emphasize teaching quality and the central importance of teachers are right to do so. Where some go wrong is in thinking that teacher quality is an innate characteristic. The effectiveness of a teacher is not some inherent competence, as the phrase "teacher quality" suggests. Teacher effectiveness is contextual. Why has the…

  13. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the "Health on the Net" label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products.

  14. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the “Health on the Net” label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products. PMID:26236242

  15. A Solution to the Cosmological Problem of Relativity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Daryl

    After nearly a century of scientific investigation, the standard cosmological theory continues to have many unexplained problems, which invariably amount to one troubling statement: we know of no good reason for the Universe to appear just as it does, which is described extremely well by the flat ΛCDM cosmological model. Therefore, the problem is not that the physical model is at all incompatible with observation, but that, as our empirical results have been increasingly constrained, it has also become increasingly obvious that the Universe does not meet our prior expectations; e.g., the evidence suggests that the Universe began from a singularity of the theory that is used to describe it, and with space expanding thereafter in cosmic time, even though relativity theory is thought to imply that no such objective foliation of the spacetime continuum should reasonably exist. Furthermore, the expanding Universe is well-described as being flat, isotropic, and homogeneous, even though its shape and expansion rate are everywhere supposed to be the products of local energy-content---and the necessary prior uniform distribution, of just the right amount of matter for all three of these conditions to be met, could not have been causally determined to begin with. And finally, the empirically constrained density parameters now indicate that all of the matter that we directly observe should make up only four percent of the total, so that the dominant forms of energy in the Universe should be dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant, Λ, and cold dark matter (CDM). The most common ways of attacking these problems have been: to apply modifications to the basic physical model, e.g. as in the inflation and quintessence theories which strive to resolve the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems; to use particle physics techniques in order to formulate the description of dark matter candidates that might fit with observations; and, in the case of the Big

  16. Relationships between undergraduates' argumentation skills, conceptual quality of problem solutions, and problem solving strategies in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, Carina M.

    This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well as approaches and strategies for solving argumentative physics problems across multiple physics topics. Participants were assigned via stratified sampling to one of three conditions (control, guided construct, or guided evaluate) based on gender and pre-test scores on a conceptual instrument. The guided construct and guided evaluate groups received tasks and prompts drawn from literature to facilitate argument construction or evaluation. Using a multiple case study design, with each condition serving as a case, interviews were conducted consisting of a think-aloud problem solving session paired with a semi-structured interview. The analysis of problem solving strategies was guided by the theoretical framework on epistemic games adapted by Tuminaro and Redish (2007). This study provides empirical evidence that integration of written argumentation into physics problems can potentially improve the conceptual quality of solutions, expand their repertoire of problem solving strategies and show promise for addressing the gender gap in physics. The study suggests further avenues for research in this area and implications for designing and implementing argumentation tasks in introductory college physics.

  17. The practical problem of improving quality in multicenter dialysis facilities.

    PubMed

    Balter, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Multifacility dialysis groups are frequently interested in improving overall quality and find that there are major differences between individual units. Upper management must consider what strategy is needed for the whole company and what strategy must be formulated by individual facilities. To make substantive changes, management must decide to adopt a new culture of true teamwork, drive out fear, and emphasize leadership and education both at the management level and in the individual unit. Both at the corporate and unit levels, leaders must be chosen who are able to recognize people who have the ability, the educational background, the enthusiasm, and the time to direct change. Empowering the individual units and individual employees to make changes and be enthusiastic about improvement is the key to success.

  18. Bidirectional Associations Between Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Chinese American Immigrant Children's Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Ly, Jennifer; Zhou, Qing

    2016-07-15

    The goal of the study was to test the bidirectional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and behavior problems in an elementary school age sample of Chinese American immigrant children. A socioeconomically diverse sample (N = 258) of first- and second-generation Chinese American children (M ages = 7.4 and 9.2 years at Wave 1 and Wave 2, respectively; 48% girls) was recruited from schools and communities and followed for 1 to 2 years. Two waves of data on dimensions of teacher-child relationship quality (i.e., warmth, closeness, and conflict) and children's externalizing and internalizing problems were collected through parents', teachers', and children's report. Path analyses were conducted to test the bidirectional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and behavior problems, controlling for prior levels, child demographic characteristics, and teacher ethnicity. Transactional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior problems were found for externalizing problems. That is, teacher-rated externalizing problems negatively predicted child-rated closeness, and teacher-rated conflict positively predicted parent-rated externalizing problems. On the other hand, teacher-child relationship quality did not predict subsequent internalizing problems. However, parent-rated internalizing problems negatively predicted teacher-rated warmth, and teacher-rated internalizing problems negatively predicted teacher-rated conflict. Using a multiple informant approach and a diverse sample of Chinese American immigrant children, this study extends our knowledge of the reciprocal associations between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior problems. Based on the results of this study, the authors provide recommendations for educators and future research with this understudied population.

  19. Magnitude and Prevention of College Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, Ralph W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a report entitled A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Data on the magnitude of college drinking problems in 1998 to 1999 were reported. From 1999 to 2005, the proportion of college students aged 18–24 who drank five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month increased from 41.7 percent to 45.2 percent. The proportion who drove under the influence of alcohol increased from 26.1 percent to 29.2 percent. Higher percentages of 21- to 24-year-olds engaged in those behaviors than 18- to 20-year-olds, and between 1999 and 2005 the percentage increased among 21- to 24-year-olds but not among those aged 18–20. From 1998 to 2005, unintentional alcohol-related injury deaths increased 3 percent (from 1,442 to 1,825) per 100,000 college students aged 18–24. Alcohol misuse by college students often harms other people through traffic crashes and sexual/other assaults. Research regarding ways to reduce college drinking problems has shown that individual-oriented interventions, particularly screening and brief motivational counseling interventions, social norms interventions, environmental policy changes such as the minimum legal drinking age of 21 and drinking-and-driving laws, and comprehensive college–community programs, can reduce college drinking and related morbidity and mortality. There is a growing need for colleges and surrounding communities to implement interventions shown through research to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged people. PMID:23579935

  20. Classroom Quality at Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten and Children's Social Skills and Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Mokrova, Irina L; Burchinal, Margaret R; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and first grade. Participants included 1175 ethnically-diverse children (43% African American) living in low-wealth rural communities of the US. Results indicated that children who experienced higher levels of emotional and organizational classroom quality in both pre-kindergarten and kindergarten demonstrated better social skills and fewer behavior problems in both kindergarten and first grade comparing to children who did not experience higher classroom quality. The examination of the first grade results indicated that the emotional and organizational quality of pre-kindergarten classrooms was the strongest predictor of children's first grade social skills and behavior problems. The study results are discussed from theoretical, practical, and policy perspectives.

  1. [Problems in quality standard research of new traditional Chinese medicine compound].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; He, Yan-Ping

    2014-09-01

    The new traditional Chinese medicine compound is the main part of the research of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the new Chinese herbal compound reflects the characteristics of TCM theory. The new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research is one of the main content of pharmaceutical research, and is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. Although in recent years the research level of new traditional Chinese medicine compound has been greatly improved, but the author during the review found still some common problems existing in new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research data, this paper analyzed the current quality standards for new traditional Chinese medicine compound and the problems existing in the research data, respectively from measurement of the content of index selection, determine the scope of the content, and the quality standard design concept, the paper expounds developers need to concern. The quality of new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard is not only itself can be solved, but quality standards is to ensure the key and important content of product quality, improving the quality of products cannot do without quality standards. With the development of science and technology, on the basis of quality by design under the guidance of the concept, new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard system will be more scientific, systematic and perfect.

  2. Resolving the Southern African Large Telescope's image quality problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh E.; Crause, Lisa A.; O'Connor, James; Strümpfer, Francois; Strydom, Ockert J.; Sass, Craig; Brink, Janus D.; Plessis, Charl du; Wiid, Eben; Love, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Images obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its commissioning phase in 2006 showed degradation due to a large focus gradient, astigmatism, and higher order optical aberrations. An extensive forensic investigation exonerated the primary mirror and the science instruments before pointing to the mechanical interface between the telescope and the spherical aberration corrector, the complex optical subassembly which corrects the spherical aberration introduced by the 11-m primary mirror. Having diagnosed the problem, a detailed repair plan was formulated and implemented when the corrector was removed from the telescope in April 2009. The problematic interface was replaced, and the four aspheric mirrors were optically tested and re-aligned. Individual mirror surface figures were confirmed to meet specification, and a full system test after the re-alignment yielded a root mean square wavefront error of 0.15 waves. The corrector was reinstalled in August 2010 and aligned with respect to the payload and primary mirror. Subsequent on-sky tests revealed spurious signals being sent to the tracker by the auto-collimator, the instrument that maintains the alignment of the corrector with respect to the primary mirror. After rectifying this minor issue, the telescope yielded uniform 1.1 arcsec star images over the full 10-arcmin field of view.

  3. Quality comparison of websites related to developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Brian; Shefcyk, Allison; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2013-10-01

    The Internet is commonly used to seek health-related information, but little is known about the quality of websites on developmental disabilities. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the characteristics and quality of websites located by searching ten common terms related to developmental disabilities and explore relations between website characteristics and website quality in order to make recommendations on ways to ensure locating good online information. We located 208 unique websites in our November 2012 US searches of Google and Bing. Two independent coders evaluated 10 characteristics of the websites and two different coders assessed the quality of the websites. From the 208 websites, 104 (50%) provided relevant information about the disability being searched. Of these 104 websites, those found to be of highest quality were least likely to be a sponsored result, contain advertisements, be from a for-profit company, and did contain references to peer-reviewed publications or had a top-level domain of .gov or .org. Individuals with developmental disabilities and their family members who choose to obtain disability-related information online should remain vigilant to ensure that they locate high-quality and accurate information and should not replace information obtained from health-care professionals and educational specialists with information found online.

  4. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    PubMed

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  5. Problems of Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Engineering Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Surek

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between funding, management, and quality assurance in engineering education in developing countries. Presents a few case studies on problems of accreditation and quality assessment in larger developing countries such as India and the Philippines, and also in very small developing countries such as Papua New Guinea, Fiji,…

  6. Internalizing Problems among Cyberbullying Victims and Moderator Effects of Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Ikuko; Saxon, Terrill F.; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and internalizing problems among the youth. Moderator effects of a friendship quality were also investigated to examine if higher friendship quality moderated the negative effects of cyberbullying on psychological states of students.…

  7. Relational Benefits of Relational Aggression: Adaptive and Maladaptive Associations with Adolescent Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banny, Adrienne M.; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using…

  8. Medication-related factors associated with health-related quality of life in patients older than 65 years with polypharmacy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the current public health framework, the importance of medication as a determinant of citizens’ health has emerged as a factor warranting special attention. Most studies investigating the relationship between medication and quality of life do so from the perspective of adherence. However, other medication-related factors identified at home visits may be associated with health-related quality of life. Methods and design Objective: To describe the relationship between medication-related factors and the health-related quality of life in patients older than 65 years who use multiple medications (polypharmacy). Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Primary care. Participants: Patients older than 65 years who use multiple medications (n = 375). Measurements: The main outcome measure was health-related quality of life according to the EuroQol-5D instrument. Sociodemographic, clinical and medication-related variables were recorded during home interviews. Results Mean age was 74.72 ± 5.59 years, and 65.5% of our participants were women. The global level of health-related quality of life according to the EQ-5D visual analog scale was 59.25 ± 20.92. Of the five EuroQol dimensions, anxiety/depression and pain were the most frequently reported, while mobility and self-care were the dimensions with the greatest impact on self-reported quality of life. Multivariate analysis indicated that functional independence was the factor most strongly associated (β = 14.27 p < 0.001) with better health-related quality of life, while illiteracy (β = −13.58 p < 0.001), depression (β = −10.13 p < 0.001), social risk (β = −7.23 p = 0.004) and using more than 10 medicines (β = −4.85 p = 0.009) were strongly associated with a poorer health-related quality of life. Conclusions Factors inherent within the patient such as functional incapacity, cognitive impairment and social and emotional problems were the main constraints to quality of life in our study population

  9. Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

  10. Quality of Rapport as a Setting Event for Problem Behavior: Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Carr, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    Relationship quality (rapport) between people with developmental disabilities and their caregivers has long been suggested as an important variable influencing the likelihood of problem behavior. However, to date, the association between rapport and problem behavior has not been systematically investigated. The authors evaluated a multimethod…

  11. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  12. Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

    This document is the student workbook for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. This version contains complete problems, answers and references. Problems are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs, and drawings represent data forms an operator might see in a plant containing information necessary for…

  13. Citrus Quality Control: An NMR/MRI Problem-Based Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Sarah E.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment seated in an industrial context can provide an engaging framework and unique learning opportunity for an upper-division physical chemistry laboratory. An experiment that teaches NMR/MRI through a problem-based quality control of citrus products was developed. In this experiment, using a problem-based learning (PBL) approach, students…

  14. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  15. Bounds and Asymptotic Expansions for Solutions of the Free Boundary Problems Related to Sequential Decision Versions of a Bioequivalence Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-23

    the Free Boundary Problems Related to Sequential Decision Versions of a Bioequivalence Problem 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) John Bather and Herman Chernoff...sequential version of a form of the bioequivalence problem was presented in a report by Hwang (1991). In that report he referred to our unpublished results...phrases. Bioequivalence , sequential anlaysis, Bayes risk, Brownian motion, free boundary problems, optimal stopping, asymptotic expansions. HARVARD

  16. Free boundary problems in shock reflection/diffraction and related transonic flow problems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Feldman, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Shock waves are steep wavefronts that are fundamental in nature, especially in high-speed fluid flows. When a shock hits an obstacle, or a flying body meets a shock, shock reflection/diffraction phenomena occur. In this paper, we show how several long-standing shock reflection/diffraction problems can be formulated as free boundary problems, discuss some recent progress in developing mathematical ideas, approaches and techniques for solving these problems, and present some further open problems in this direction. In particular, these shock problems include von Neumann's problem for shock reflection–diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with concave corner, Lighthill's problem for shock diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with convex corner, and Prandtl-Meyer's problem for supersonic flow impinging onto solid wedges, which are also fundamental in the mathematical theory of multidimensional conservation laws. PMID:26261363

  17. The Relation between Problem Categorization and Problem Solving among Novices and Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardiman, Pamela Thibodeau; And Others

    This investigation examined the relationship between problem solving ability and the criteria used to decide whether two classical mechanics problems could be solved similarly. The investigators began by comparing experts and novices on a similarity judgment task and found that experts predominantly relied on the problems' deep structure in…

  18. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089

  19. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple

  20. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems.

  1. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  2. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  3. Water quality objectives for mixtures of toxic chemicals: problems and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vighi, M; Altenburger, R; Arrhenius, A; Backhaus, T; Bödeker, W; Blanck, H; Consolaro, F; Faust, M; Finizio, A; Froehner, K; Gramatica, P; Grimme, L H; Grönvall, F; Hamer, V; Scholze, M; Walter, H

    2003-02-01

    The need to develop water quality objectives not only for single substances but also for mixtures of chemicals seems evident. For that purpose, the conceptual basis could be the use of the two existing biometric models: concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), which is also called response addition. Both may allow calculation of the toxicity of mixtures of chemicals with similar modes of action (CA) or dissimilar modes of action (IA), respectively. The joint research project Prediction and Assessment of the Aquatic Toxicity of Mixtures of Chemicals (PREDICT) within the framework of the IVth Environment and Climate Programme of the European Commission, provided the opportunity to address (a) chemometric and QSAR criteria to classify substances as supposedly similarly or dissimilarly acting; (b) the predictive values of both models for the toxicity of mixtures at low, statistically nonsignificant effect concentrations of the individual components; and (c) the predictability of mixture toxicity at higher levels of biological complexity. In this article, the general outline, methodological approach, and some preliminary findings of PREDICT are presented. A procedure for classifying chemicals in relation to their structural and toxicological similarities has been developed. The predictive capabilities of CA and IA models have been demonstrated for single species and, to some extent, for multispecies testing. The role of very low effect concentrations in multiple mixtures has been evaluated. Problems and perspectives concerning the development of water quality objectives for mixtures are discussed.

  4. Understanding eldercare users' views on quality of care and strategies for dealing with problems in Swedish home help services.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, Kristina; Hjelte, Jan; Josefsson, Sara

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of eldercare users' strategies for dealing with problems in the quality of care and care satisfaction in relation to home help services. Based on earlier research and evaluations, it was assumed that users would express satisfaction and gratitude, and also be unwilling to complain. The specific research questions were: (i) What, if any, quality of care problems do the users mention? (ii) How do the users explain the reasons for these problems? and (iii) What strategies do the users employ to deal with these problems? A total of 35 interviews were conducted in November 2013 with 15 men and 20 women (66-92 years). The data were analysed using thematic and qualitative content analysis. The results showed that almost all users expressed overall satisfaction with their care. However, all but one also mentioned problems. The users stated very clearly and explicitly the reasons for these problems, and in most cases, they referred to the work conditions, work organisation and lack of other resources in the eldercare organisation. Two strategies were commonly used to deal with these problems: trivialisation and adaptation. A third strategy was expressed dissatisfaction, where the problem led to actions or plans to take action. One interpretation of the findings is that what is actually measured in official quality assessments and follow-ups may be care users' understanding of the work conditions and work organisation of eldercare. The understanding attitude may prevent care users from complaining because it lowers their expectations.

  5. The Health-Related Quality of Life of Custodial Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Washington, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was explored in a sample of 119 custodial grandparents. A latent profile analysis identified three groups of grandparents along a continuum of good to poor HRQOL, with most custodial grandparents reporting Short Form-12 Health Survey (version 2) scores significantly below U.S. population means. Grandparent…

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews several current approaches to the assessment of health outcomes in cardiovascular disease, including health-related quality of life. Offers a general health policy model as a method for comparing program options in cardiovascular disease that may have very different objectives. Uses examples from hypertension screening and treatment, heart…

  7. Low health-related quality of life among abused women.

    PubMed

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E; Nortvedt, Monica W; Baste, Valborg

    2006-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we sent a self-administered questionnaire to all the women's shelters in Norway to describe health-related quality of life among women who had experienced violence from an intimate partner. Every woman who could understand Norwegian and was staying at a women's shelter in Norway for more than 1 week from October 2002 to May 2003 was asked to participate. We described violence by intimate partners by using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Index. We used the SF-36 Health Survey to measure health-related quality of life. These women experienced a multitude of threats and actual physical and psychological violence during their partnership. Their health-related quality of life was low and significantly (p<0.001) below the norm for the female population of Norway in all dimensions. The SF-36 mental health dimension was 2.5 standard deviations below the norm. Women at women's shelters in Norway who had experienced domestic violence had very low and clinically significantly reduced health-related quality of life scores. Health care workers must give priority to developing intervention plans for victims of violence from intimate partners.

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The structure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied in 205 symptomatic adults. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of HRQOL, with physical and mental health dimensions. Correlations of HRQOL with other aspects of health and support are discussed. (SLD)

  9. Benchmarking strategies for measuring the quality of healthcare: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Lovaglio, Pietro Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, increasing attention has been directed toward the problems inherent to measuring the quality of healthcare and implementing benchmarking strategies. Besides offering accreditation and certification processes, recent approaches measure the performance of healthcare institutions in order to evaluate their effectiveness, defined as the capacity to provide treatment that modifies and improves the patient's state of health. This paper, dealing with hospital effectiveness, focuses on research methods for effectiveness analyses within a strategy comparing different healthcare institutions. The paper, after having introduced readers to the principle debates on benchmarking strategies, which depend on the perspective and type of indicators used, focuses on the methodological problems related to performing consistent benchmarking analyses. Particularly, statistical methods suitable for controlling case-mix, analyzing aggregate data, rare events, and continuous outcomes measured with error are examined. Specific challenges of benchmarking strategies, such as the risk of risk adjustment (case-mix fallacy, underreporting, risk of comparing noncomparable hospitals), selection bias, and possible strategies for the development of consistent benchmarking analyses, are discussed. Finally, to demonstrate the feasibility of the illustrated benchmarking strategies, an application focused on determining regional benchmarks for patient satisfaction (using 2009 Lombardy Region Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire) is proposed.

  10. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health. PMID:22082372

  11. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Noordhuizen, Jptm; Cannas da Silva, J

    2009-04-01

    Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health.

  12. Foreign Currency Exchange Problems Relating to the Book Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael

    1973-01-01

    In the purchase of books from foreign countries, the basic problem with regard to currency is to decide which currency will be used in these transactions, and how to reach agreement with vendors on this point. (11 references) (Author)

  13. On some problems related to the Hilbert-Smith conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dranishnikov, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    The Hilbert-Smith conjecture claims that if a compact group G acts freely on a manifold, then it is a Lie group. For a finite-dimensional orbit space a reduction of the Hilbert-Smith conjecture to certain other problems in geometric topology is presented; in these the key problem is the existence of an essential sequence of lens spaces of increasing dimension. Bibliography: 52 titles.

  14. Asymmetry in Keratoconus and Vision-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Walline, Jeffrey J.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Kymes, Steven M.; Zadnik, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relation of increased ocular asymmetry over time on vision-related quality of life in keratoconus. Methods Subjects were in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study and had complete data on a least one scale of the NEI VFQ and examination data at baseline and at least one follow-up visit. Three measures of disease asymmetry (visual acuity, corneal curvature, and refractive error) and better eye status were assessed. Multilevel models were fit to the data. Results Analyses were completed using 961 subjects. Six scales on the NEI VFQ had adequate variability to model (distance activity, driving, mental health, near activity, ocular pain, and role difficulties). Refractive error changes were not associated with statistically significant quality of life differences. Except for ocular pain, statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful, differences were found for visual acuity changes and corneal curvature changes. For a 0.1-unit logMAR visual acuity change, the quality of life scales decreased between 0.20 and 0.99 units. For a 1.00-D steepening of corneal curvature these decreases were on the order of 0.20 to 0.59 units. Changes related to asymmetry were small as well: decreases on the order of 0.20 to 0.38 units. Conclusions Increasing ocular asymmetry and decreases in visual acuity and corneal steepening in the better eye were associated with decreasing vision-related quality of life, though the magnitudes of the changes were not clinically meaningful. Of these two disease status indicators, the vision in the better eye had greater effect on vision-related quality of life. PMID:22825402

  15. Problems Related to Computer Ethics: Origins of the Problems and Suggested Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzu, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) help individuals to solve several everyday problems, which used to be harder, more complicated and time consuming. Even though ICTs provide individuals with many advantages, they might also serve as grounds for several societal and ethical problems which vary in accordance with…

  16. Quality of Life and Health-Related Quality of Life of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Livingston, Michael H.; Palisano, Robert J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 203 adolescents with cerebral palsy (111 males, 92 females; mean age 16y [SD 1y 9mo]). Participants were classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), as Level I (n=60), Level II (n=33), Level III (n=28), Level IV (n=50), or Level V…

  17. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Groenvold, Mogens

    2010-09-01

    The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life. This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group's DBCG 89 Program. The patients were sub-divided into low-risk and high-risk patients. High-risk patients were offered randomisation in one of three randomised adjuvant therapy trials involving chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed for this study. A total of 1,898 eligible patients were invited by post to participate in the study involving six assessments over a 2-year period, and 1,713 patients (90%) completed the first questionnaire. Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to 872 women selected at random from the general population; 608 (70%) responded. The multi-item scales of the two standard questionnaires were analysed for so-called differential item functioning (DIF) in order to investigate whether the

  18. A New Model for Solving Time-Cost-Quality Trade-Off Problems in Construction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A poor quality affects project makespan and its total costs negatively, but it can be recovered by repair works during construction. We construct a new non-linear programming model based on the classic multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem considering repair works. In order to obtain satisfactory quality without a high increase of project cost, the objective is to minimize total quality cost which consists of the prevention cost and failure cost according to Quality-Cost Analysis. A binary dependent normal distribution function is adopted to describe the activity quality; Cumulative quality is defined to determine whether to initiate repair works, according to the different relationships among activity qualities, namely, the coordinative and precedence relationship. Furthermore, a shuffled frog-leaping algorithm is developed to solve this discrete trade-off problem based on an adaptive serial schedule generation scheme and adjusted activity list. In the program of the algorithm, the frog-leaping progress combines the crossover operator of genetic algorithm and a permutation-based local search. Finally, an example of a construction project for a framed railway overpass is provided to examine the algorithm performance, and it assist in decision making to search for the appropriate makespan and quality threshold with minimal cost.

  19. A New Model for Solving Time-Cost-Quality Trade-Off Problems in Construction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A poor quality affects project makespan and its total costs negatively, but it can be recovered by repair works during construction. We construct a new non-linear programming model based on the classic multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem considering repair works. In order to obtain satisfactory quality without a high increase of project cost, the objective is to minimize total quality cost which consists of the prevention cost and failure cost according to Quality-Cost Analysis. A binary dependent normal distribution function is adopted to describe the activity quality; Cumulative quality is defined to determine whether to initiate repair works, according to the different relationships among activity qualities, namely, the coordinative and precedence relationship. Furthermore, a shuffled frog-leaping algorithm is developed to solve this discrete trade-off problem based on an adaptive serial schedule generation scheme and adjusted activity list. In the program of the algorithm, the frog-leaping progress combines the crossover operator of genetic algorithm and a permutation-based local search. Finally, an example of a construction project for a framed railway overpass is provided to examine the algorithm performance, and it assist in decision making to search for the appropriate makespan and quality threshold with minimal cost. PMID:27911939

  20. Singular perturbation analysis of AOTV-related trajectory optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Bae, Gyoung H.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of real time guidance and optimal control of Aeroassisted Orbit Transfer Vehicles (AOTV's) was addressed using singular perturbation theory as an underlying method of analysis. Trajectories were optimized with the objective of minimum energy expenditure in the atmospheric phase of the maneuver. Two major problem areas were addressed: optimal reentry, and synergetic plane change with aeroglide. For the reentry problem, several reduced order models were analyzed with the objective of optimal changes in heading with minimum energy loss. It was demonstrated that a further model order reduction to a single state model is possible through the application of singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for the reduced problem defines an optimal altitude profile dependent on the current energy level of the vehicle. A separate boundary layer analysis is used to account for altitude and flight path angle dynamics, and to obtain lift and bank angle control solutions. By considering alternative approximations to solve the boundary layer problem, three guidance laws were derived, each having an analytic feedback form. The guidance laws were evaluated using a Maneuvering Reentry Research Vehicle model and all three laws were found to be near optimal. For the problem of synergetic plane change with aeroglide, a difficult terminal boundary layer control problem arises which to date is found to be analytically intractable. Thus a predictive/corrective solution was developed to satisfy the terminal constraints on altitude and flight path angle. A composite guidance solution was obtained by combining the optimal reentry solution with the predictive/corrective guidance method. Numerical comparisons with the corresponding optimal trajectory solutions show that the resulting performance is very close to optimal. An attempt was made to obtain numerically optimized trajectories for the case where heating rate is constrained. A first order state variable inequality

  1. Health-related quality of life in patients undergoing cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Li-Na; Shi, Hon-Yi; Wang, Tsai-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Ying; Lee, King-Teh

    2011-07-01

    This large-scale prospective cohort study of a Taiwan population applied generalized estimating equations to evaluate predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after open cholecystectomy (OC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) procedures performed between February 2007 and November 2008. The Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index and Short Form-36 were used in a preoperative assessment and in 3(rd) month and 6(th) month postoperative assessments of 38 OC and 259 LC patients. The HRQOL of the cholecystectomy patients were significantly improved at 3 months and 6 months postsurgery (p<0.05). At 3 months postsurgery, HRQOL improvement was significantly larger in LC patients than in OC patients. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, and health care quality were also significantly related to HRQOL improvement (p<0.05). Additionally, after controlling for related variables, preoperative health status was significantly and positively associated with each subscale of the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index and Short Form-36 throughout the 6 months (p<0.05). Patients should be advised that their postoperative HRQOL may depend not only on their postoperative health care but also on their preoperative functional status.

  2. Evaluation of quality of life related to nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Castelló-Botia, Isabel; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, Rocio

    2009-04-01

    The way in which the quality of life related to health (HRQoL) is affected by the nutritional status of the patient is a subject of constant interest and permanent debate. The purpose of the present paper is to review those studies that relate HRQoL to nutritional status and examine the tools (questionnaires) that they use to investigate this relationship. A critical review of published studies was carried out via an investigation of the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed); EMBASE; The Cochrane Library; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science; Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS); Spanish Health Sciences Bibliographic Index (IBECS). The search was carried out from the earliest date possible until July 2007.The medical subject heading terms used were 'quality of life', 'nutritional status' and 'questionnaires'. The articles had to contain at least one questionnaire that evaluated quality of life. Twenty-eight documents fulfilling the inclusion criteria were accepted, although none of them used a specific questionnaire to evaluate HRQoL related to nutritional status. However, some of them used a combination of generic questionnaires with the intention of evaluating the same. Only three studies selectively addressed the relationship between nutritional status and quality of life, this evaluation being performed not by means of specific questionnaires but by statistical analysis of data obtained via validated questionnaires.

  3. Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

  4. The Quality of High School Students' Problem Solving from an Expertise Development Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elvira, Quincy; Imants, Jeroen; deMaeyer, Sven; Segers, Mien

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve problems is a key skill and is essential to our day-to-day lives, at home, at school and at work. The present study explores the quality of managerial problem-solving of participants who are in secondary education. We studied 10th, 11th, and 12th graders following a business track in the Netherlands. Participants were asked to…

  5. Solution of magnetometry problems related to monitoring remote pipeline systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Andrey V.; Denisov, Alexey Y.; Narkhov, Eugene D.; Sapunov, Vladimir A.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve two fundamental tasks, i.e., to design the pipeline model with sufficient adequacy and reproducibility, and to solve the inverse problem for the transition from the experimental data on the magnetic field in the measurement area directly to the pipeline characteristics, which are necessary for mapping pipes location and finding coordinates of welds. The paper presents a mathematical ideal pipeline model in the geomagnetic field without considering the pipe material. The solution of the direct and inverse problems are described, and the directions of the model development and methods of data interpretation are presented.

  6. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  7. Implementation methods for vision related quality of life questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Wolffsohn, J; Cochrane, A; Watt, N

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To determine the most reliable and consistent method and time interval over which to implement a vision impairment quality of life assessment tool.
METHODS—117 patients with low vision aged 9-101 years were assigned into three age, sex, and visual function matched groups (n = 39 in each) to answer the Low Vision Quality of Life (LVQOL) questionnaire by post, telephone, or in person. The LVQOL questionnaire was completed on four occasions, each separated by four weeks.
RESULTS—Postal implementation was the most cost effective method, showed the highest internal consistency of LVQOL items, but resulted in a lower apparent quality of life score than either telephone or in-person interviews (p<0.001). There was no difference in test-retest reliability between the three methods of implementation (p = 0.12). The profile of LVQOL scores showed a trend towards reduced quality of life scores 3 months after the baseline measures, although this was not significant.
CONCLUSION—Posting may be the method of choice for clinical measurement of vision related quality of life. Patients with greater visual impairment were no less likely to complete a questionnaire when implemented by post and there was no apparent bias from other people assisting them. The quality of life measure can occur at any time up to 2 months after low vision rehabilitation for the progressive nature of conditions causing low vision not to cause a decreased baseline score. The LVQOL was shown to be a highly internally consistent and reliable method for measuring quality of life in the visually impaired.

 PMID:10966961

  8. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Joel; Finn, Peter

    This bulletin provides suggestions for the components of a comprehensive approach to reducing student vandalism on college and university campuses. Numerous facets of the problem are addressed, including: the association of binge drinking with vandalism and school policies that tolerate or even facilitate binge drinking; a school's drinking…

  9. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  10. Consequences of non-vascular trans-femoral amputation: a survey of quality of life, prosthetic use and problems.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, K; Brånemark, R

    2001-12-01

    Individuals with unilateral trans-femoral amputations due to non-vascular causes were studied in a mailed survey designed to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQL), prosthetic use and problems. The Swedish SF-36 Health Survey and a structured questionnaire designed for trans-femoral amputees were used. The series consisted of 97 subjects (60 men, 37 women), aged 20 to 69 years with a mean of 22 years since the amputation. Trauma was the cause of amputation in 55%, tumour in 35% and other causes in 10%. Ninety-two (92) subjects (95%) had a prosthesis and 80 (82%) used it daily. General HRQL was significantly lower than Swedish age- and gender-matched norms in all dimensions as measured by SF-36. Most frequently reported problems that had led to reduction in quality of life were heat/sweating in the prosthetic socket (72%), sores/skin irritation from the socket (62%), inability to walk in woods and fields (61%) and inability to walk quickly (59%). Close to half were troubled by stump pain (51%), phantom limb pain (48%), back pain (47%) and pain in the other leg (46%). One fourth considered themselves to have a poor or extremely poor overall situation. Transfemoral amputation, due to non-vascular causes, has an evident impact on quality of life and there are considerable problems related to the amputation and the prosthesis. Efforts to improve the physical and the psychological well-being for this group, with a long life expectancy, are needed.

  11. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling.

  12. [Some problems in assessing the quality of rendering medical assistance to people with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, Ia V; Toreeva, E K

    2009-01-01

    To solve the problem of medical and social assistance to people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is possible in employing a system/ comprehensive approach which involves appropriate material basis and appropriate structures, systems, sub-systems with a definite area of their activities and functional interrelations between them. The quality of medical services is a complicated category that is defined by many characteristics. One needs certain equipment to manage in order to obtain the quality while based on the system approach. Experts in the area of quality management inform that, currently, the Russian healthcare is mostly characterized by primary level of quality, which is represented by unsystematic management of the quality and unsystematic (unstable) quality. The methodology of improving the quality is a multistage one. In accordance with the management cycle of Deming-Schuchart or the cycle of PDCA ('P' is for 'plan', 'D' is for 'deed', 'C' is for 'control' and checking the conformity of the result planned to that in the end, and, 'A' is for 'adjustment' of actions depending on the results achieved), the methodology comprises certain problems, an analysis of the system, an action plan development, testing proposed changes in pilot institutions, and practical application in the healthcare system. The article attempts to analyze basic problems and difficulties in setting up medical assistance for a resource-consuming group of patients, by the example of 382 patients with MS, taking into account the experience acquired in a test of application of management systems for medical assistance quality, which is based on international standards (ISO 9000), in order to find possible ways to overcome the existing negative processes and facts.

  13. Results in Relating Quality Attributes to Acquisition Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Results in Relating Quality Attributes to Acquisition Strategies Lisa Brownsword Cecilia Albert David Carney Patrick Place February...indicated through its users’ experience and testimony. A case study approach [Yin 2009, Stake 1995, Baxter 2008] that captures direct experience both with...Software Architecture in Practice, 3rd Edition. Ad- dison-Wesley, 2012. [ Baxter 2008] Baxter , Pamela & Jack, Susan. “Qualitative Case Study Methodology

  14. Progress on PRONGHORN Application to NGNP Related Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dana A. Knoll

    2009-08-01

    We are developing a multiphysics simulation tool for Very High-Temperature gascooled Reactors (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly in parallel. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated by the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to improve the convergence. The initial development of PRONGHORN has been focused on the pebble bed corec concept. However, extensions required to simulate prismatic cores are underway. In this progress report we highlight progress on application of PRONGHORN to PBMR400 benchmark problems, extension and application of PRONGHORN to prismatic core reactors, and progress on simulations of 3-D transients.

  15. [Microorganisms surviving in drinking water systems and related problems].

    PubMed

    Aulicino, F A; Pastoni, F

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water in distribution systems may show abnormal values of some parameters, such as turbidity, and may support particular phenomena, such as bacterial regrowth or presence of Viable Not Culturable (VNC) bacteria. Turbidity can provide shelter for opportunistic microorganisms and pathogens. The Milwaukee outbreak (400,000 people) is one example of waterborne disease caused by the presence of pathogens (Cryptosporidium) in drinking water characterized by high and intermittent levels of turbidity. Bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution systems may cause high increments of microorganisms such as heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and pathogens. Microorganisms isolated from biofilm including Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Legionella may have a significant health hazard especially in hospital areas. The presence of VNC bacteria in drinking water may represent a problem for their discussed role in infectious diseases, but also for the possibility of a considerable underestimation of true microbial concentrations in drinking waters. To study this kind of problems is necessary to apply suitable methods for drinking water analyses.

  16. Specific Remedy for Specific Problem: Measuring Service Quality in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2010-01-01

    This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…

  17. Summary of the setting, air quality problems, and meteorological activities in the oil shale region

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This document discusses air quality problems that may arise in the valleys of the Uinta mountains and the Roan Ridge in the oil shale area in western Colorado and eastern Utah. A meteorological field expedition that was undertaken in August 1980 by LASL and PNL is described. (DLC)

  18. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Research show that one in five U.S. schools has indoor air quality (IAQ) problems; 36 percent have inadequate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; and there appears to be a correlation between IAQs and the proportion of a school's students coming from low-income households. This report examines the IAQ issue in U.S. public…

  19. The Relationship of Day Care Quality to Children's Free Play Behavior and Social Problem Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Susan D.; Reichhart-Erickson, Marina

    A total of 55 children attending 15 day care centers and nursery schools participated in an investigation of the relationship of day care quality to 4-year-old children's activities during free play and to their knowledge of social problem solving. The study also considered the extent to which social class mediated relationships between variables.…

  20. Fact Sheet on Avoiding Indoor Air Quality Problems During Flood Cleanup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet discusses problems caused by microbial growth, and other effects of flooding, on indoor air quality and the steps you can take to lessen these effects. This focuses on residential flood cleanup, but it applies to other building types.

  1. Gifted Middle School Students' Achievement and Perceptions of Science Classroom Quality during Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Anne K.; Galluzzo, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on student achievement and students' perceptions of classroom quality. A group of students taught using PBL and a comparison group of students taught using traditional instruction were studied. A total of 457 students participated in the study. Pre- and…

  2. Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions, Relationship Quality and Socio-Emotional Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karos, Leigh Karavasilis; Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin

    2007-01-01

    Associations between reciprocal and complementary sibling interactions, sibling relationship quality, and children's socio-emotional problem solving were examined in 40 grade 5-6 children (M age = 11.5 years) from middle class, Caucasian, Canadian families using a multi-method approach (i.e. interviews, self-report questionnaires, daily diary…

  3. Math Problems for Water Quality Control Personnel, Instructor's Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvecchio, Fred; Brutsch, Gloria

    This document is the instructor's manual for a course in mathematics for water quality control personnel. It is designed so a program may be designed for a specific facility. The problem structures are arranged alphabetically by treatment process. Charts, graphs and/or drawings representing familiar data forms contain the necessary information to…

  4. The Association between Preschool Classroom Quality and Children's Social-Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Marzouk, Samah Abd Al Fatah Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between early childhood classroom quality and preschool children's social skills and emotional problems. Teachers completed the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment-Clinical Form (DECA-C). Participants included 141 preschool children from 10…

  5. Longitudinal Associations between Externalizing Problems and Student-Teacher Relationship Quality for Young Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey S.; Blacher, Jan; Bush Hurst, Hillary

    2015-01-01

    The associations between student-teacher relationship (STR) quality and externalizing behavior problems in school were examined among 166 children with ASD (82% boys, ages 4-7 years) across three assessments over a 1.5-year period; IQs in the sample range from 50 to 139 (M = 88.7). Unlike other non-ASD populations, the association between STR…

  6. Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems in Educational Facilities: Guidelines for Hot, Humid Climates. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, J. David; DuBose, George

    This manual addresses the errors that occur during new construction that subsequently contribute to indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in newly constructed buildings in hot and humid climates, and offers guidelines for preventing them during the design and construction phases. It defines the roles and responsibilities of the design team, the…

  7. Health Related Quality of Life among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics: Disease-Related and Psychosocial Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Uutela, Antti; Aro, Arja R.

    1997-01-01

    The associations of health and psychosocial factors with the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire were examined in adult type 1 diabetic patients (N=385). The most important factors from multivariate analysis were self-efficacy and diabetes-related social support, especially among those in good physical condition. Diabetes-specific factors…

  8. Impact of age related macular degeneration on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Hassell, J B; Lamoureux, E L; Keeffe, J E

    2006-01-01

    Aims To describe the impact of age related macular degeneration (AMD) on quality of life and explore the association with vision, health, and demographic variables. Methods Adult participants diagnosed with AMD and with impaired vision (visual acuity <6/12) were assessed with the Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) questionnaire. Participants rated the extent that vision restricted participation in activities affecting quality of life and completed the Short Form General Health Survey (SF‐12) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results The mean age of the 106 participants (66% female) was 83.6 years (range 64–98). One quarter had mild vision impairment, (VA<6/12–6/18) and 75% had moderate or severely impaired vision. Participants reported from at least “a little” concern on 23 of the 32 IVI items including reading, emotional health, mobility, and participation in relevant activities. Those with mild and moderate vision impairment were similarly affected but significantly different from those with severe vision loss (p<0.05). Distance vision was associated with IVI scores but not age, sex, or duration of vision loss. Conclusion AMD affects many quality of life related activities and not just those related to reading. Referral to low vision care services should be considered for people with mild vision loss and worse. PMID:16622089

  9. Oral health-related quality of life and associated factors in Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kari Elisabeth; Wang, Nina J; Skau, Irene; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate associations between oral health-related quality of life assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 and demographic factors, number of teeth present, dental visits, dental health behaviour and self-rated oral health in a representative sample of 20-80-year-old Norwegians. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was conducted in a stratified random sample of 3538 individuals. Questionnaires including questions on demographic factors, number of remaining teeth, dental visits, dental health behaviour, self-rated oral health and OHIP-14 were mailed to the sample. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS. The response rate was 69%. The mean OHIP-14 score was 4.1 (standard deviation = 6.2). No problem was reported by 35% of the respondents. The most frequently reported problems were: physical pain (56%), psychological discomfort (39%) and psychological disability (30%). When the effect of all independent variables was analysed in multivariate analysis, self-rated oral health, frequency of dental visits, number of teeth, age and sex were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the prevalence of having problems and frequent problems. Self-rated oral health had the strongest association with having problems [odds ratio (OR) 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-6.0] and with having frequent problems (OR 4.0; 95% CI 2.7-5.8). Dental health behaviour, use of floss and toothpicks and oral rinsing were not associated with having problems related to oral quality of life in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION. In this Norwegian adult sample, self-rated oral health, frequency of dental visits, number of teeth, age and sex were associated with having problems as estimated using the OHIP-14.

  10. Measuring health-related quality of life in tuberculosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Na; Marra, Fawziah; Marra, Carlo A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem worldwide. In recent years, increasing efforts have been dedicated to assessing the health-related quality of life experienced by people infected with tuberculosis. The objectives of this study were to better understand the impact of tuberculosis and its treatment on people's quality of life, and to review quality of life instruments used in current tuberculosis research. Methods A systematic literature search from 1981 to 2008 was performed through a number of electronic databases as well as a manual search. Eligible studies assessed multi-dimensional quality of life in people with tuberculosis disease or infection using standardized instruments. Results of the included studies were summarized qualitatively. Results Twelve original studies met our criteria for inclusion. A wide range of quality of life instruments were involved, and the Short-Form 36 was most commonly used. A validated tuberculosis-specific quality of life instrument was not located. The findings showed that tuberculosis had a substantial and encompassing impact on patients' quality of life. Overall, the anti-tuberculosis treatment had a positive effect of improving patients' quality of life; their physical health tended to recover more quickly than the mental well-being. However, after the patients successfully completed treatment and were microbiologically 'cured', their quality of life remained significantly worse than the general population. Conclusion Tuberculosis has substantially adverse impacts on patients' quality of life, which persist after microbiological 'cure'. A variety of instruments were used to assess quality of life in tuberculosis and there has been no well-established tuberculosis-specific instrument, making it difficult to fully understand the impact of the illness. PMID:19224645

  11. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Le, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems. This is partially due to a lack of observations. In many systems, satellite remote sensing of water quality variables may be used to supplement limited field observations and improve understanding of linkages to nutrients. Here, we present the results from a field and satellite ocean color study that quantitatively links nutrients to variations in estuarine water quality endpoints. The study was conducted in Pensacola Bay, Florida, an estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by watershed nutrients. We developed new empirical band ratio algorithms to retrieve phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll a (chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). MERIS had suitable spatial resolution (300-m) for the scale of Pensacola Bay (area = 370 km2, mean depth = 3.4 m) and a spectral band centered at wavelength 709 nm that was used to minimize the effect of organic matter on chla retrieval. The algorithms were applied to daily MERIS remote sensing reflectance (level 2) data acquired from 2003 to 2011 to calculate nine-year time-series of mean monthly chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations. The MERIS derived time-series were then analyzed for statistical relations with time-series of mean monthly river discharge and river loads of nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and SPM. Regression analyses revealed significant relationships between river loads and MERIS water quality variables. The simple regression models provide quantitative predictions about how much chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations in Pensacola Bay will increase with increased river loading, which is necessary information

  12. Alcoholism and Related Forensic Medical Problems in Czechosolovakia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-06-27

    offenses and criminal acts. · It is gene rally known that under alcoholic into~cation there is a rise of self-con sciousness, ’With some people ...proved caUf~ed by intoxication. Therefore, the cases of various inju ries con- nected with drunken people (mainly in falls from a height, d ro~1ing...34impossible" problems in a ra,tio’nal manner. So, very- ’often one finds an alcohol ’oottle . by .the body of- the sucide or a high amount 9f, alcohol

  13. Exactly Solvable Hierarchical Optimization Problem Related to Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Thomas M.; Ball, Robin C.

    1996-04-01

    We consider a sequence of elementary decisions which must be made in light of successive information learned. A key feature is that the decisions must balance the reduction of immediate cost against learning information and hence securing a wider range of future options-a conflict which motivates us to attach a value to information. We analytically derive an optimal decision policy; while each individual decision is elementary, the solution to the collective problem, which may be interpreted as a novel percolation model, exhibits a phase transition and finite size scaling.

  14. Environmental problems and technology needs related to oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, L.W.

    1985-06-01

    More stringent regulations based on potential health and environmental impacts have added responsibility on the oil producer and the states. The author describes the potential for soil and water contamination from several sources, including well drilling and well completion chemicals, corrosion, and disposal of brine and other fluid waste. He cites pit lining and solidification techniques now under study and the possibility of land farming. He also cites the information about ground water, soil characterization, plant growth, etc. that is needed. The Geologic and Engineering Environmental Information Data Base should be a valuable tool in solving some of the problems.

  15. Multiphase problems related to safety studies in the process industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, R. Grollier

    Safety risk and analysis, particularly in the petrochemical industry, are discussed. Multiphase flow problems resulting from loss of confinement are described: rupture of long pipes used for transporting liquefied gas; rupture of short pipes and branch connections in an installation; rupture of a container holding liquefied gas or another liquid at a temperature higher than its normal boiling temperature; and rupture of a container holding gas in the supercritical state. Operation of valves and rupture disks during reaction runaway; and artificial dispersion of gas layers are considered.

  16. Bacteriological Monitoring and Sustainable Management of Beach Water Quality in Malaysia: Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  17. Bacteriological monitoring and sustainable management of beach water quality in Malaysia: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-04-28

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia.

  18. Inverse Spin Glass and Related Maximum Entropy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellana, Michele; Bialek, William

    2014-09-01

    If we have a system of binary variables and we measure the pairwise correlations among these variables, then the least structured or maximum entropy model for their joint distribution is an Ising model with pairwise interactions among the spins. Here we consider inhomogeneous systems in which we constrain, for example, not the full matrix of correlations, but only the distribution from which these correlations are drawn. In this sense, what we have constructed is an inverse spin glass: rather than choosing coupling constants at random from a distribution and calculating correlations, we choose the correlations from a distribution and infer the coupling constants. We argue that such models generate a block structure in the space of couplings, which provides an explicit solution of the inverse problem. This allows us to generate a phase diagram in the space of (measurable) moments of the distribution of correlations. We expect that these ideas will be most useful in building models for systems that are nonequilibrium statistical mechanics problems, such as networks of real neurons.

  19. Problems of Terminology in the Teaching of Plant Water Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbeer, Philip A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Recommends use by teachers of new terminology regarding plant water relations. Includes definitions and Greek symbols for the following terms: water potential, water potential of cell, osmotic potential, matric potential, and pressure potential. (CS)

  20. Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants’ knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

  1. Gender Differences in the Relation between Mothering Behaviors and Child-Behavior Problems among Hispanic Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of an examination of gender differences in behavior problems and a prediction of their changes from 2.5 to 3.5 years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3.5 were…

  2. Randomized shortest-path problems: two related models.

    PubMed

    Saerens, Marco; Achbany, Youssef; Fouss, François; Yen, Luh

    2009-08-01

    This letter addresses the problem of designing the transition probabilities of a finite Markov chain (the policy) in order to minimize the expected cost for reaching a destination node from a source node while maintaining a fixed level of entropy spread throughout the network (the exploration). It is motivated by the following scenario. Suppose you have to route agents through a network in some optimal way, for instance, by minimizing the total travel cost-nothing particular up to now-you could use a standard shortest-path algorithm. Suppose, however, that you want to avoid pure deterministic routing policies in order, for instance, to allow some continual exploration of the network, avoid congestion, or avoid complete predictability of your routing strategy. In other words, you want to introduce some randomness or unpredictability in the routing policy (i.e., the routing policy is randomized). This problem, which will be called the randomized shortest-path problem (RSP), is investigated in this work. The global level of randomness of the routing policy is quantified by the expected Shannon entropy spread throughout the network and is provided a priori by the designer. Then, necessary conditions to compute the optimal randomized policy-minimizing the expected routing cost-are derived. Iterating these necessary conditions, reminiscent of Bellman's value iteration equations, allows computing an optimal policy, that is, a set of transition probabilities in each node. Interestingly and surprisingly enough, this first model, while formulated in a totally different framework, is equivalent to Akamatsu's model ( 1996 ), appearing in transportation science, for a special choice of the entropy constraint. We therefore revisit Akamatsu's model by recasting it into a sum-over-paths statistical physics formalism allowing easy derivation of all the quantities of interest in an elegant, unified way. For instance, it is shown that the unique optimal policy can be obtained by

  3. Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life of Adults With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Graves, Rebecca Jermyn; Graff, J Carolyn; Esbensen, Anna J; Hathaway, Donna K; Wan, Jim Y; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2016-07-01

    This study examined self- and caregiver-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 60 adults with Down syndrome (DS) using the QualityMetric Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2). All HRQOL scores exceeded means and fell within one standard deviation of the SF-12v2 normative sample. Similarities between eight self- and caregiver-reported HRQOL scales were found with the exception of role physical scores (impact of health problems on typical accomplishments), which were lower when obtained by caregiver-report. A positive association was found between self- and caregiver-reported physical functioning scores (impact of health problems on physical activity). The SF-12v2 had high construct validity in this study. These findings support the feasibility of measuring HRQOL of adults with DS using self-report rather than reliance on caregiver-report.

  4. Symplectic structures related with higher order variational problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijowski, Jerzy; Moreno, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we derive the symplectic framework for field theories defined by higher order Lagrangians. The construction is based on the symplectic reduction of suitable spaces of iterated jets. The possibility of reducing a higher order system of partial differential equations to a constrained first-order one, the symplectic structures naturally arising in the dynamics of a first-order Lagrangian theory, and the importance of the Poincaré-Cartan form for variational problems, are all well-established facts. However, their adequate combination corresponding to higher order theories is missing in the literature. Here we obtain a consistent and truly finite-dimensional canonical formalism, as well as a higher order version of the Poincaré-Cartan form. In our exposition, the rigorous global proofs of the main results are always accompanied by their local coordinate descriptions, indispensable to work out practical examples.

  5. A note on static spaces and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Jie; Yuan, Wei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we study static spaces introduced in Hawking and Ellis (1975) [1], Fischer and Marsden (1975) [3] and Riemannian manifolds possessing solutions to the critical point equation introduced in Besse (1987) [11], Hwang (2000) [12]. In both cases, on the manifolds there is a function satisfying a particular Ricci-Hessian type equation (1.6). With an idea similar to that used in Cao et al. (2012) [15,16], we have made progress in solving the problem raised in Fischer and Marsden (1975) [3] of classifying vacuum static spaces and in proving the conjecture proposed in Besse (1987) [11] concerning manifolds admitting solutions to the critical point equation in general dimensions. We obtain even stronger results in dimension 3.

  6. Perceived Parent-Child Relations, Conduct Problems, and Clinical Improvement Following the Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    PubMed

    Booker, Jordan A; Ollendick, Thomas H; Dunsmore, Julie C; Greene, Ross W

    2016-05-01

    Our objective in this study was to examine the moderating influence of parent-child relationship quality (as viewed by the child) on associations between conduct problems and treatment responses for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). To date, few studies have considered children's perceptions of relationship quality with parents in clinical contexts even though extant studies show the importance of this factor in children's behavioral adjustment in non-clinical settings. In this study, 123 children (ages 7 - 14 years, 61.8% male, 83.7% white) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for ODD received one of two psychosocial treatments: Parent Management Training or Collaborative & Proactive Solutions. In an earlier study, both treatments were found to be effective and equivalent in treatment outcomes (Ollendick et al., in press). In the current study, pre-treatment maternal reports of conduct problems and pre-treatment child reports of relations with parents were used to predict outcomes in ODD symptoms and their severity following treatment. Elevated reports of children's conduct problems were associated with attenuated reductions in both ODD symptoms and their severity. Perceived relationship quality with parents moderated the ties between conduct problems and outcomes in ODD severity but not the number of symptoms. Mother reports of elevated conduct problems predicted attenuated treatment response only when children viewed relationship quality with their parents as poorer. When children viewed the relationship as higher quality, they did not show an attenuated treatment response, regardless of reported conduct problems. The current findings underscore the importance of children's perspectives in treatment response and reductions in externalizing child behaviors.

  7. Optical Quality and Related Factors in Ocular Hypertension: Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jing; Yang, Yan-Ning; Huang, Lin-Ying; Wang, Bo; Han, Yu-Can; Yan, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the optical quality and related factors in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods. This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 12 eyes with OHT and 20 control eyes underwent testing with Optical Quality Analysis System II (OQAS II) to evaluate the modulation transfer function cut off frequency (MTF cutoff), the Strehl 2D ratio (SR), objective scatter index (OSI), tear-film mean OSI (TFOSI), and the OQAS values (OV100%,OV20%, and OV9%). Results. The optical quality of patients with OHT declined, with lower MTF cutoff (OHT 36.86 ± 7.11 cpd , controls 48.50 ± 4.04 cpd, t = -4.60, P < 0.05), lower SR (OHT 0.22 ± 0.04, controls 0.27 ± 0.05, t = -2.72, P < 0.05), lower OV100% (OHT 1.26 ± 0.25, controls 1.61 ± 0.14, t = -4.03, P < 0.05), lower OV20% (OHT 1.27 ± 0.27, controls 1.72 ± 0.20, t = -4.00, P < 0.05), and lower OV9% (OHT 1.30 ± 0.25, controls 1.69 ± 0.32, t = -2.28, P < 0.05). There were not any statistically significant differences in OSI and TFOSI. The MTF cutoff in patients with OHT was correlated significantly with age (r = -0.59, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Optical quality of patients with OHT is reduced, with lower MTF cutoff, SR, OV100%, OV20%, and OV9%. MTF cutoff is negatively related to age.

  8. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  9. Associations between Psychological Problems and Quality of Life in Pediatric Short Stature from Patients’ and Parents’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bullinger, Monika; Sommer, Rachel; Rohenkohl, Anja Christine; Bernardino Da Silva, Neuza Maria

    2016-01-01

    Short stature has been associated with psychosocial impairments, but whether treatments and achieved height impact on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and psychological functioning of children/adolescents is still controversial. This study aimed to examine the effects of height deviation and treatment status on psychosocial adaptation outcomes and to identify clinical and psychosocial determinants of internalizing/externalizing problems in a large cohort of short statured children/adolescents from seven European countries. Participants were 345 children aged 8–18 years with a clinical diagnosis of short stature and 421 parents of 4–18 year-old patients. Children and parents reported on psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), generic (KIDSCREEN) and condition-specific HrQoL (QoLISSY). According to analyses of covariance, children/adolescents with current short stature presented more parent-reported internalizing problems and lower self- and parent-reported condition-specific HrQoL, compared to patients with an achieved height above -2SD. Treated children self-reported better HrQoL than the untreated group. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, rather than height–related clinical variables, children’s sex, younger age and poorer HrQoL were the best predictors of psychological problems, explaining 39% of the variance in patient- and 42% in parent-reported internalizing problems, and 22% of the variance in patient- and 24% in parent-reported externalizing problems. Treatment status also moderated the negative links between patient-reported HrQoL and internalizing problems, explaining 2% of additional variance. These results suggest that children with current short stature are at greater risk for internalizing problems. Routine assessment of HrQoL in pediatric healthcare may help identify children for referral to specialized psychological assessment and intervention. PMID:27097033

  10. Mitigation of Power Quality Problems in Grid-Interactive Distributed Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhende, C. N.; Kalam, A.; Malla, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    Having an inter-tie between low/medium voltage grid and distributed generation (DG), both exposes to power quality (PQ) problems created by each other. This paper addresses various PQ problems arise due to integration of DG with grid. The major PQ problems are due to unbalanced and non-linear load connected at DG, unbalanced voltage variations on transmission line and unbalanced grid voltages which severely affect the performance of the system. To mitigate the above mentioned PQ problems, a novel integrated control of distribution static shunt compensator (DSTATCOM) is presented in this paper. DSTATCOM control helps in reducing the unbalance factor of PCC voltage. It also eliminates harmonics from line currents and makes them balanced. Moreover, DSTATCOM supplies the reactive power required by the load locally and hence, grid need not to supply the reactive power. To show the efficacy of the proposed controller, several operating conditions are considered and verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  11. Vision Related Quality of Life in Patients with Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Aydin Kurna, Sevda; Altun, Ahmet; Gencaga, Tugba; Akkaya, Sezen; Sengor, Tomris

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group) and 30 healthy patients (control group) were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision (P < 0.05). Overall composite score was 75.2 ± 17.2 in the keratoconus group and 93.2 ± 5.6 in the control group (P = 0.00). Contact lens wearers had higher best corrected visual acuity in comparison with noncontact lens wearers (P = 0.028). Patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4) in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4) in the worse eye had lower general health scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life. PMID:24868455

  12. Sino-U.S. Economic Relations: Problems and Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-20

    the Chinese saw considerable advancement with the SEZ’s and there incentives because the CPC Central Committee and State Council adopted a plan in...implementing mandatory or guidance plans are also influenced by changes in prices, taxation and credits, these economic levers are all applied by the...University Press of America, 1987), p6 . 39 technologies. 5 4 As one can see, bilateral economic relations have made a tremendous start. Needless to say

  13. Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

  14. Methodological problems in cross-cultural studies of linguistic relativity.

    PubMed

    Takano, Y

    1989-03-01

    Bloom (1981) tested a weak version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis (i.e., "Language affects thinking though it does not determine thinking") in a series of cross-cultural experiments. According to Bloom, Chinese lacks two linguistic devices that are present in English and supposed to be critical in performing theoretical thinking. It was found that the Chinese subjects were outperformed by American counterparts in all the tests designed to assess the ability of theoretical thinking. The results were taken as evidence for the weak version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis. A methodological consideration has revealed, however, that all of his experiments except one are uninterpretable because of the lack of necessary control conditions. In addition, three experiments in the present study have demonstrated that the findings in Bloom's sole interpretable experiment were artifacts due to a methodological flaw. Further theoretical considerations reveal the inadequacy of Bloom's basic methodology and the limitation in the effects of linguistic relativity that may be possible at least theoretically.

  15. Problem solving skills predict quality of life and psychological morbidity in ALS caregivers.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Virginia; Felgoise, Stephanie H; Walsh, Susan M; Simmons, Zachary

    2009-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often is associated with a particularly intensive caregiving experience, and the well-being of caregivers impacts that of patients. Thus, identification of factors leading to distress in caregivers may provide avenues for intervention that will help both the caregiver and the patient. We prospectively examined caregivers' social problem solving skills, the quality of the patient-caregiver relationship, caregivers' spirituality and religiousness, and the ways in which these impact caregivers' quality of life (QoL) and psychological morbidity in 75 caregivers of ALS patients. Data were analyzed through correlational and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Social problem solving and spirituality were the best predictors of caregivers' QoL, accounting for 15.6% and 7.8% of the variance in QoL, respectively (F (2, 69) = 11.83, p<.001). Social problem solving also predicted and accounted for 25.4% of the variance in psychological morbidity (F (1, 71) = 25.571, p<.001). Level of care provided did not predict either QoL or psychological morbidity in caregivers. In conclusion, the problem-solving skills of ALS caregivers are an important determinant of caregiver well-being. Developing interventions to teach ALS caregivers effective methods of problem solving would probably be beneficial to this population.

  16. Mental Health, Sleep Quality, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol-Related Consequences: A Path-Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer,, Justin F.; Pham, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Method: Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. Results: A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality. PMID:24172110

  17. [Health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Cano-de la Cuerda, Roberto; Vela-Desojo, Lydia; Miangolarra-Page, Juan C; Macías-Macías, Yolanda; Muñoz-Hellin, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a disabling and progressive neurological condition characterized by multiple motor and non motor symptoms that contribute to deterioration in quality of life. The diversity of symptoms associated with the disease and its management affect the patients on their physical, social and mental quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify key dimensions of health related quality of life (HRQOL) in a population affected with Parkinson's disease with a degree of mild-moderate impairment. Thirty six patients with Parkinson were recruited. The Hoehn and Yarh scale, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rate Scale, the scale of activities of daily life and Schwab & England Get Up & Go Test were applied. HRQOL was assessed with the EuroQol-5D and the specific questionnaire Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 items. The dimensions of the PDQ-39, except the PDQ-39 Pain domain and the EuroQol-5D correlated significantly with the severity of the disease. HRQOL was correlated with the functional status of patients. Only the PDQ-39 pain domain correlated with the risk of falls. Our results suggest that the HRQOL of patients with PD, in a state of mild-moderate impairment, is strongly influenced by disease severity and functional status.

  18. [Population problems in the areas where the relatives of overseas Chinese reside].

    PubMed

    Lan, Y

    1983-11-29

    In the areas where relatives of overseas Chinese (huaqiao) reside, the population density is normally high. For example, in Jinjiang county of Fujian Province, where there is such population, the population density is six times that of Fujian Province in general. The main reason for this situation is that the local economy has improved greatly since 1949 and the living standard in the local area has been elevated as a result of improved medical care and a sharply reduced death rate. Financial resources sent back by the overseas Chinese to their relatives at home have also contributed to the local economic development. The traditional belief favoring more children to carry on the family line is still popular among the general public. All these factors have contributed to a rapid population growth, and the problem of over-population is becoming increasingly serious. At the present time, an understanding has to be reached that population control is in the best interest of both the local people and their relatives overseas. In addition to a control of the population growth, the quality of the population should also be improved. Some advantageous conditions in the areas inhabited by the relatives of overseas Chinese are helpful to reach the goal of family planning: (1) More advanced development in business and industry, (2) more schools established with financial support sent in from overseas, and (3) a general higher cultural and educational level of the local people. Because of these conditions, population control should be achieved more easily than in other places.

  19. Is Quality Assurance in Higher Education Contextually Relative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntshoe, I.; Higgs, P.; Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, L. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines notions of quality and quality assurance in higher education. It does this by raising questions such as whether quality in higher education is the same as, for example, quality of clothing or the quality of meat in local butcheries. The article questions the assumption that if certain things, such as criteria or…

  20. Matrix general relativity: a new look at old problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidi, Ivan G.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a novel approach to gravity that we call 'matrix general relativity' (MGR) or 'gravitational chromodynamics' (GCD or GQCD for the quantum version). Gravity is described in this approach not by one Riemannian metric (i.e. a symmetric two-tensor field) but by a multiplet of such fields, or by a matrix-valued symmetric two-tensor field that satisfies certain conditions. We define the matrix extensions of standard constructions of differential geometry including connections and curvatures, and finally, an invariant functional of the new field that reduces to the standard Einstein action functional in the commutative (diagonal) case. Our main idea is the analogy with Yang Mills theory (QCD and the standard model). We call the new degrees of freedom of gravity associated with the matrix structure 'gravitational colour' or simply 'gravicolour' and introduce a new gauge symmetry associated with this degree of freedom. As in the standard model there are two possibilities. First of all, it is possible that at high energies (say at the Planckian scale) this symmetry is exact (symmetric phase), but at low energies it is badly broken, so that one tensor field remains massless (and gives general relativity) and the other ones become massive with masses of Planckian scale. The second possibility is that the additional degrees of freedom of the gravitational field are confined to the Planckian scale. What one sees at large distances are singlets (invariants) of the new gauge symmetry.

  1. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN TURKEY

    PubMed Central

    Oztasan, Nuray; Ozyrek, Pakize; Kilic, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Purpose of this descriptive study is to determine the mental health problems and quality of life levels of college students and examine the relationship between them. Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 429 students continuing their education in Health School at Afyon Kocatepe University. Data were collected by using information form, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), SF 36 Quality of Life Scale questionnaires. In the analysis of obtained data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analyses were used. Findings: Mental symptoms which the students got the highest scores from the subscales of BSI were respectively, depression (1.31±0.75), hostility (1.22±0.67) and anxiety (1.00±0.65). Discomfort severity index which is the overall score of the scale was found 1.07±0.61. Relation between state of mind and quality of life was found statistically significant (F: 70.894; p<0.000). When quality of life summary scores examined, it was found out that physical health summary score (48.92±7.93) and mental health summary score (43.44±9.52) points were low. Conclusions: Consequently, according to averages of scores, it can be said that frequency of the mental symptoms of students are high but their quality of life is low. It was found that when students’ quality of life decreased, their mental symptoms increased. PMID:27482164

  2. Fatigue, Sleep Quality, and Disability in Relation to Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Radfar, Moloud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QOL) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS) in part due to physical disability. MS-associated fatigue and poor sleep are common and treatable features of MS that affect QOL. We assessed the association between fatigue, sleep quality, and QOL in people with MS. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 217 patients with MS. Health-related QOL (MS Quality of Life-54), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]), and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory [PSQI]) were assessed. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were also provided by a qualified neurologist. Results: The mean ± SD age of the 217 patients was 32.6 ± 8.6 years, and 79% were female. One hundred fifty-two patients (70.0%) were classified as poor sleepers based on PSQI scores; 122 (56.2%) had significant fatigue based on FSS results. The mean ± SE physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health composite scores of the MSQOL-54 were 40.12 ± 1.27 and 43.81 ± 1.61, respectively. There was a strong statistically significant positive correlation between PCS scores and MCS (r = 0.58), FSS (r = 0.49), and PSQI (r = 0.52) scores. MCS scores were strongly correlated with FSS (r = 0.53) and PSQI (r = 0.35) scores. Age exhibited statistically significant negative correlations with PCS (r = −0.21) and MCS (r = −0.58) scores, and was statistically significantly correlated with FSS (r = 0.23) and PSQI (r = 0.21) scores. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were strongly correlated with FSS scores. Conclusions: These findings support screening of fatigue severity and sleep quality and their effects on QOL. PMID:26664332

  3. How to evaluate the quality of health related websites.

    PubMed

    Gattoni, Filippo; Sicola, Chiara

    2005-03-01

    To establish reliable quality criteria for medical websites is of foremost importance in relation to the increasing number of Internet users, both health professionals and lay people, searching for medical information in the mass of these sites. Quality in general refers to a set of features that distinguish one person or thing from others of the same type. The quality of a website is usually related to its content and usability. The first criteria we considered are contents and readability, which must be targeted to the intended type of user. Other important criteria include: transparency, consistency, honesty, references to sources, accountability, respect of privacy, currency of content material, responsibility, and accessibility. Technical criteria are the use of consolidated and standard technologies, soft colours, short page download time. Good medical websites should also follow the suggestions of organizations such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Drug Administration, the European Communities. Another organization, Health On Net Foundation, has issued some guidelines for medical websites, summarized in eight points, fundamental to assign real scientific value to a site. We believe, in agreement with the literature, that it is unnecessary to apply strict rules to medical website developers. We want to stress the importance of guidelines and recommendations to be modified with the development of web technology and the cultural evolution of patient and physicians. In the near future the presence on the Internet of websites certified by national or international medical web authorities will lead users to trust and give their preference to such sites, leading to the self-regulation of website developers and users.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life and Appropriateness of Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, José Ma; Cabriada, Jose; Aróstegui, Inmaculada; Oribe, Victor; Perdigo, Luis; Varona, Mercedes; Bilbao, Amaia

    2005-01-01

    Ojbective: To evaluate the relationship among appropriateness of the use of cholecystectomy and outcomes. Summary Background Data: The use of cholecystectomy varies widely across regions and countries. Explicit appropriateness criteria may help identify suitable candidates for this commonly performed procedure. This study evaluates the relationship among appropriateness of the use of cholecystectomy and outcomes. Methods: Prospective observational study in 6 public hospitals in Spain of all consecutive patients on waiting lists to undergo cholecystectomy for nonmalignant disease. Explicit appropriateness criteria for the use of cholecystectomy were developed by a panel of experts using the RAND appropriateness methodology and applied to recruited patients. Patients were asked to complete 2 questionnaires that measure health-related quality of life—the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI)—before the intervention and 3 months after it. Results: Patients judged as being appropriate candidates for cholecystectomy, using the panel's explicit appropriateness criteria, had greater improvements in the bodily pain, vitality, and social function domains of the SF-36 than those judged to be inappropriate candidates. They also demonstrated improvements in the GIQLI's physical impairment domain. Interventions judged as inappropriate were performed primarily among patients without symptoms of cholelithiasis. Those asymptomatic had a lower improvement in the bodily pain, social functioning, and physical summary scale of the SF-36 and in the symptomatology, physical impairment, and total score domains of the GIQLI. Conclusions: These results suggest a direct relationship between the application of explicit appropriateness criteria and better outcomes, as measured by health-related quality of life. They also indicate that patients without symptoms are not good candidates for cholecystectomy. PMID:15621998

  5. Assessment of computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shaheen Akhtar; Sharma, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students and to develop a Self Instructional Module for prevention of computer-related health problems in a selected university situated in Delhi. A descriptive survey with co-relational design was adopted. A total of 97 samples were selected from different faculties of Jamia Hamdard by multi stage sampling with systematic random sampling technique. Among post-graduate students, majority of sample subjects had average compliance with computer-related ergonomics principles. As regards computer related health problems, majority of post graduate students had moderate computer-related health problems, Self Instructional Module developed for prevention of computer-related health problems was found to be acceptable by the post-graduate students.

  6. Temperament in context: Infant temperament moderates the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; Lengua, Liliana J; Fite, Paula J; Mott, Joshua A; Bush, Nicole R

    2006-09-01

    Hypotheses that positive affect and fear in infancy moderate later relationships between neighborhood quality and behavior problems were examined in a sample of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results suggested that poor neighborhood quality was associated with antisocial behavior at age 6 for children who in infancy were characterized by either high positive affect and low fear or by low positive affect and high fear. Depression/anxiety increased from age 6 to age 12 for children in poor quality neighborhoods who were characterized in infancy by low positive affect. A combination of low fear and high positive affect in infancy appeared to be protective, as it was associated with decreases in depression/anxiety during childhood. These findings suggest the utility of examining multiple dimensions of temperament and of integrating multiple levels of influence into moderational models to understand and prevent the development of childhood symptomatology.

  7. Postadmission sepsis as a screen for quality problems: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John S; Eisenhandler, Jon; Goldfield, Norbert; Weinberg, Patti G; Averill, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The present on admission (POA) indicator used with diagnosis codes listed in hospital discharge abstracts makes it possible to screen for possible in-hospital complications, which may in turn point to quality of care problems. A case-control study was performed among 382 patients from 30 New York State hospitals to see if lapses in quality were associated with the development of postadmission sepsis. Cases with hospital-acquired sepsis (labeled not POA) were compared with matched controls without sepsis. The authors found that central venous catheters and emergently inserted peripheral intravenous catheters were associated with subsequent development of sepsis. Urethral catheters were associated with sepsis for medical patients but not for surgical patients. Adherence to several process of care guidelines was incomplete but none occurred statistically significantly more frequently among sepsis cases than controls. Using discharge abstract diagnosis codes to determine the presence of postadmission complications shows promise for identifying areas for quality improvement.

  8. Relationships between Feeding Problems, Behavioral Characteristics and Nutritional Quality in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A.; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L.; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiquitous in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime…

  9. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Relation to Autonomic Function: A Population-Based Study in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; van Roon, Arie M.; Ormel, Johan; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether externalizing and internalizing problems are related to lower and higher heart rate (HR), respectively, and to explore the relationship of these problems with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Moreover, to study whether problems present at both preschool and preadolescent age…

  10. Human Performance on the Traveling Salesman and Related Problems: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, James N.; Chu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on human performance on the traveling salesman problem (TSP) and related combinatorial optimization problems. We discuss what combinatorial optimization problems are, why they are important, and why they may be of interest to cognitive scientists. We next describe the main characteristics of human…

  11. Moisture and Home Energy Conservation: How to Detect, Solve and Avoid Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    Moisture problems are identified as an important element in home energy conservation programs. A systematic approach to understanding, recognizing, solving, and preventing moisture-related problems is offered in this four-section report. Section I examines the root of moisture problems. Section II discusses symptoms and causes of excess moisture…

  12. Gender-Related Differences in Problem Solving at the 6th and 8th Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Ron; Follman, John

    Potential gender-related differences in the process of mathematical word problem solving were investigated. Sixth and eighth graders (n=302) solved 2-step mathematical word problems using a 9-step problem solving plan. The nine steps were: (1) identify the facts; (2) identify the question; (3) draw a diagram; (4) choose the operations; (5) write…

  13. Uses of ionizing radiation and medical-care-related problems

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, J.B.

    1988-08-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation in medicine are currently undergoing changes due to at least four major influences: (1) the constantly changing public perception of the hazards of radiation, (2) continuing technical innovation and development in equipment, (3) the imposition of diagnosis-related group funding by government health-care funding agencies, and (4) an increase in the average age of the U.S. population. The combined effect of these influences will probably result in a major increase in biplanar fluoroscopic examinations to support nonsurgical approaches such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal neuroembolism, and lithotripsy (the fracturing of kidney stones). As some of these examinations can result in 1.5 h of fluoroscopy, major doses to the patient and to the clinical staff can be expected. In addition, improved diagnostic techniques, such as using positron emission tomography (a combination of biochemistry and positron-emitting isotopes), can be expected to increase the number of small cyclotrons installed in medical centers. Counteracting these increases in radiation exposure is the development of digital radiography, which generally results in a lowering of the dose per diagnostic procedure. In the realm of therapeutic uses, one can expect higher-energy treatment accelerators, more patients being released from the hospital on therapeutic doses of isotopes, and a potential acceptance of neutron therapy as a cancer treatment modality. The latter treatment may take the form of boron capture therapy, 252Cf implant therapy, or external beam therapy using high-energy cyclotrons and the p,Be or the d,Be reaction to create the neutrons.

  14. Health-related quality of life in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    This month's question addressed something that many of us perhaps still have not formally incorporated into clinical practice, although we all are interested in our patients' health-related quality of life and want our inventions to result in improvements within this area. This view is exemplified by the response from Australia, which is one of several similar, unpublished, replies from the International Panel on this month's question (others came from Germany and Sweden). As mentioned in the introduction, health-related quality of life is becoming increasingly important as an outcome measure in clinical trials of new therapeutic interventions and several new measures have been and are developed. It is interesting and encouraging to hear about the new developments within this area that are being made by neuroscience nurses in different countries and within different subspecialties around the globe. As reported from the International Panel in here, new HRQL measures are currently developed in Canada and the UK focusing on patients with brains injuries and Huntington's disease (HD), respectively. In contrast to most established measures, the Canadian study has primarily been aimed at the positive aspects of life and not merely absence of the negative ones. Steve Smith in the UK has recently started developing a scale for use in clinical management of patients with HD. As far as I have been able to determine, this is the first measure of this kind to be developed for HD. Anyone who would like to know more about Steve's work or take part thereof is encouraged to contact him at this address above. Despite the fact that there already are several HRQL measures available, there is still a need for new instruments reflecting new aspects of health and disease. In addition, tools need to be designed for challenging conditions not readily addressed by existing measures. The replies from Canada and the UK represent these needs. It will be very interesting to eventually take

  15. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  16. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Comiford, Ashley L.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Chesnut, Lorie; Brown, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. Methods: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues) of intimate partner problem-related suicides. Results: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. Conclusions: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems. PMID:27092956

  17. Intensive Hemodialysis and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael A; Fluck, Richard J; Weinhandl, Eric D; Kansal, Sheru; Copland, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Finkelstein, Fredric O

    2016-11-01

    Diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is common in dialysis patients and associated with increased risks for morbidity and mortality. Patients may present limitations in both physical and mental HRQoL. Poor physical HRQoL may be defined by limited physical function, role limitations due to physical health, dissatisfaction with physical ability, and impaired mobility. Sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs, and fatigue are typical manifestations of poor physical HRQoL in dialysis patients. Poor mental HRQoL may be defined by depressive thinking, lack of positive affect, anxiety, and feelings of social isolation. The prevalence of depression is high in dialysis patients. Intensive hemodialysis (HD) can positively address HRQoL. In 3 randomized clinical trials, relative to conventional HD, intensive HD increased physical and mental component summary scores from the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), although individual treatment effects of daily nocturnal HD were not statistically significant. In another large prospective study, initiation of short daily HD therapy was followed after 12 months by improvements in all SF-36 domains, sleep quality, and restless legs symptoms. In a small study of nocturnal HD, apnea and hypopnea episodes per hour decreased by almost 70% after conversion from conventional HD. Intensive HD is also associated with a large reduction in postdialysis recovery time. In contrast, 2 randomized clinical trials failed to demonstrate statistically significant effects of intensive HD on the Beck Depression Inventory score despite a significant decrease in Beck Depression Inventory score in the prospective study of short daily HD. Furthermore, intensive HD may not improve objective physical performance and can increase burden on caregivers in the home setting. In conclusion, intensive HD potentially can address both physical and mental aspects of poor HRQoL relative to conventional HD. However, more studies

  18. Chilean patients’ perception of oral health-related quality of life after third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Pedro Christian; Delgado, Felipe; Olave, Hugo; Ulloa-Marin, Carolina; Perez-Rojas, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the perception of the quality of life in oral health based on the Health-Related Quality of Life instrument in its Spanish version (HRQOL-sp) in Chilean patients with third molar extraction surgery. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study. The HRQOL-sp was administered to dental patients at the Public Hospital in Rio Bueno in southern Chile treated for unilateral third molar extraction between March and June 2014. The instrument was applied by phone survey on the first, third, fifth, and seventh days after surgery. For the ordinal scale, the response was considered interference in the quality of life when patients selected the options “quite a bit of trouble” or “lots of trouble” for oral function and general activity; and selected complications-related signs and symptoms, a pain level score with a Verbal Rating Scale (range 0 to 7), and worst pain perceived. The patient’s sociodemographic data, type of surgery, and the quality of life level were analyzed according to the domains of the HRQOL-sp instrument. Results A total of 106 patients were selected (age: 20.4±7.39 years; 71.7% women) and a total of 127 extracted third molars. On the first day of follow-up, most patients reported interference in their quality of life. The main problems were difficulty opening the mouth (50.94%) and swelling (83.02%). The worst symptom perceived was “bad breath” (>31%) and the worst pain felt was a mean of 4.31±1.62 on the Verbal Rating Scale. All items gradually reduced until the seventh day. Conclusion The HRQOL-sp revealed substantial interference in the quality of life on the first postoperative day. It is suggested that the risk factors associated with quality of life be analyzed and the instrument in Spanish be validated. PMID:27660421

  19. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  20. Relation Between Health-Related Quality of Life and Sleep Quality With Adjustment for Comorbidity Among the Korean Elderly: Mixed-Effects Model With a 6-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Amy M; Shin, Chol

    2016-04-01

    It is an important public health problem to identify risk factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among the elderly. We recruited subjects from Ansan, Korea, as a subset of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), which is an ongoing population study, and followed up their sleep quality for 6 years. Mixed effect models were used to estimate the association between sleep quality and HRQoL, and we found that overall HRQoL was significantly lower to the elderly having poor sleep quality with adjustment for significant covariates although sleep quality showed a significant interaction effect with time for the mental component summary of SF-12. In particular, the elderly having lack of quality sleep appeared to have good general health, but their functional performances were significantly poor.

  1. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  2. Problems and Perspectives on the Evaluation of Regional and National Computer-Related Educational Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    Although the importance of systematic evaluation of educational policy and practice is well established, various problems confound the intention of evaluating regional or national activity with regard to computer-related activities in education. At least two of these problems relate to a general conception of the appropriate entry points for…

  3. Parenting and Children's Adjustment Problems: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem and Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, Nicos A.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parental and personal characteristics on children's internalizing/externalizing problems. Further, this study aimed to examine personal characteristics (self-esteem, peer relations) as mediators in the relation between parenting and internalizing/externalizing problems. In order to address…

  4. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  5. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that

  6. Stressors, Quality of the Child-Caregiver Relationship, and Children's Mental Health Problems After Parental Death: The Mediating Role of Self-System Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2006-01-01

    Investigated whether three self-system beliefs, fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem, mediated the relations of stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality with concurrent and prospective internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of children who had experienced parental death in the previous 2.5 years. The…

  7. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of the research areas

  8. Numbers of Relative Equilibria in the Planar Four-Vortex Problem: Some Special Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ya-Lun

    2016-11-01

    Three planar four-vortex problems are considered in this paper. In the (3+1) -vortex problem, we study the relative equilibria of the four point vortices when one vortex has zero vorticity and the other three with nonzero vorticities form an equilateral triangle. In the (1+3) -vortex problem, we study the limiting cases of the relative equilibria when one of the four point vortices has fixed nonzero vorticity and other vorticities approach zero. The third problem is the case of vanishing total vorticity. All problems involve two real vorticity parameters. We consider all meaningful pairs of parameters and find there can only be 4, 8, 9 or 10 relative equilibria in the (3+1) -vortex problem, and 8, 10, 12 or 14 relative equilibria in the (1+3) -vortex problem. For the case of zero total vorticity, there are 0, 1 or 2 collinear relative equilibria and 2, 3 or 4 strictly planar relative equilibria. We completely classify parameters according to the different numbers of relative equilibria. For all cases, we reduce them to the problems of counting common zeros in an open region of {{{R}}}2 for polynomial systems with two equations, two variables, and two parameters. We propose a method to count zeros for such type of systems for all parameters in an open region of R2 through symbolic computations. Therefore, all of our results are proved rigorously.

  9. EPA Guidance for Geospatially Related Quality Assurance Project Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This March 2003 document discusses EPA's Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plan as a tool for project managers and planners to document the type and quality of data and information needed for making environmental decisions

  10. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  11. Overt and subtle discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in an obese sample.

    PubMed

    Magallares, Alejandro; Benito de Valle, Pilar; Irles, Jose Antonio; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-10-27

    Obesity represents a serious health issue affecting millions of people in Western industrialized countries. The severity of the medical problems it causes is paralleled by the fact that obesity has become a social stigma that affects the psychological health-related quality of life of individuals with weight problems. Our study, with 111 obese patients of a Spanish hospital, focused specifically on how overt and subtle discrimination is related to subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) and physical health-related quality of life. It was shown that overt (r = -.28, p < .01 with affect balance; r = -.26, p < .01 with life satisfaction) and subtle discrimination (r = -.28, p < .01 with affect balance; r = -.27, p < .01 with life satisfaction) were negatively linked with subjective well-being, and that there was a negative correlation between overt discrimination and physical health-related quality of life (r = -.26, p < .01). Additionally, it was found that overt discrimination was a mediator variable in the relationship between physical health-related quality of life and subjective well-being using the Baron and Kenny procedure. Finally, it is discussed the relationship between discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in obese people.

  12. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers' representations, commitment, and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population.

  13. Problem of data quality and the limitations of the infrastructure approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behlen, Fred M.; Sayre, Richard E.; Rackus, Edward; Ye, Dingzhong

    1998-07-01

    The 'Infrastructure Approach' is a PACS implementation methodology wherein the archive, network and information systems interfaces are acquired first, and workstations are installed later. The approach allows building a history of archived image data, so that most prior examinations are available in digital form when workstations are deployed. A limitation of the Infrastructure Approach is that the deferred use of digital image data defeats many data quality management functions that are provided automatically by human mechanisms when data is immediately used for the completion of clinical tasks. If the digital data is used solely for archiving while reports are interpreted from film, the radiologist serves only as a check against lost films, and another person must be designated as responsible for the quality of the digital data. Data from the Radiology Information System and the PACS were analyzed to assess the nature and frequency of system and data quality errors. The error level was found to be acceptable if supported by auditing and error resolution procedures requiring additional staff time, and in any case was better than the loss rate of a hardcopy film archive. It is concluded that the problem of data quality compromises but does not negate the value of the Infrastructure Approach. The Infrastructure Approach should best be employed only to a limited extent, and that any phased PACS implementation should have a substantial complement of workstations dedicated to softcopy interpretation for at least some applications, and with full deployment following not long thereafter.

  14. Does health-related quality of life predict injury event?

    PubMed Central

    Soori, Hamid; Abachizadeh, Kambiz

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Unintentional injury is a leading threat to children's health. Some human factors have been determined as predictor of unintentional injury. Association between Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) as a human factor and unintentional injuries is unclear. The objective of study is to examine the association between HRQOL and unintentional injuries among primary school children. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional conducted in Ahwaz, a city in Iran. Overall, 3375 children aged 6-10 years were randomly selected from primary school. HRQOL was measured by 56 items taken from seven domains of Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research Academic Medical Center (TNO AZL) child quality of life (TACQOL) parent form. Parents were interviewed to collect information about incidence, cause and a brief description of injury within the past 12 months prior to the study. Results: The response rate was 3375 of 3792 (89%). There was a significant trend for increasing occurrence of injury with decreasing of HRQOL score (p was less than 0.001). Adjusted OR for injury was significantly higher in very low (2.38, 95% CI: 1.45-3.86), low (2.18, 95% CI: 1.34-3.56), and medium (1.73, 95%CI: 1.06-2.83) HRQOL groups compared to reference group (very high HRQOL). The median of total HRQOL (P less than 0.001) and all its domains (P=0.017) (except autonomous functioning) was lower in injured group compared to uninjured one. Conclusions: This study found an association between HRQOL and unintentional injury among primary school children. This is a preliminary finding and further investigations with a well-defined analytical design are needed. PMID:21483187

  15. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  16. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  17. Personality-related problems and the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the empirical associations of a relatively broad and inclusive list of personality-related problems with both the high and low poles of the five-factor model of personality (FFM). Several studies have documented links between impaired functioning and the FFM, but these associations have largely been confined to the socially undesirable poles. In this study, a list of 310 personality-related problems was developed and administered to a large college student sample along with the International Personality Item Pool Representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (IPIP-NEO) and an experimental manipulation of the NEO PI-R items (EXP-NEO). Numerous problems were associated with both poles of each trait domain and facet of the FFM, but both the IPIP-NEO and EXP-NEO were required to capture problems at both ends. Potential implications of emphasizing problems at one or both poles of trait continua are discussed. Future research should evaluate the structure and inclusiveness of the current list of personality-related problems against other representations of problem behavior, examine base rates of problems in other populations, and seek to understand the psychological mechanisms that might explain associations of problems across the full range of trait continua. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. 75 FR 66125 - Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... National Park Service Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) AGENCY: National...' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) was formed (1) to develop a more consistent and objective... their air quality related values (AQRVs); and (2) to provide State permitting authorities and...

  19. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  20. Does understanding relational terminology mediate effects of intervention on compare word problems?

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Robin F; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N=31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared with the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology, and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for one subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for the other two subtypes.

  1. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related…

  2. The role of medical schools in the prevention of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, J C

    1990-01-01

    There is agreement that physicians can play a major role in the prevention of alcohol problems among their patients and that medical schools should prepare physicians for this role by teaching three major subject areas: knowledge, attitudes and clinical skills. Despite this agreement and the acknowledged high prevalence of alcohol problems in clinical populations, medical school coverage of these problems is not proportional to their importance. Barriers to adequate coverage of alcohol problems are traditional attitudes, confusion as to whether such problems are "medical" and lack of adequate faculty role models. These problems could be remedied by encouragement and training of interested faculty members, establishment of substance abuse centres in university medical schools, integration of alcohol-related material with relevant topics in all departments and inclusion of alcohol-related questions on medical qualifying exams. PMID:2224672

  3. On relations for general two-dimensional ideal plasticity problems under the full plasticity condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorskii, A. V.; Gorskii, P. V.

    2008-10-01

    Relations for two-dimensional ideal plasticity problems under the full plasticity condition are determined with material anisotropy, inhomogeneity, and compressibility properties taken into account. These properties are determined by the direction cosines of the principal stress, the coordinates of points in space, and the mean stress. For the yield strength we take a function of the form k = k( σ, n 1, n 2, n 3, x, y, z). The desired relations are determined for the general plane ideal plasticity problem. The relations thus obtained are generalized to the cases of axisymmetric and spherical plasticity problems.

  4. Mechanisms in the relation between GABRA2 and adolescent externalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Frances L.; Chassin, Laurie; Geiser, Christian; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Conduct problems, alcohol problems and hyperactive–inattentive symptoms co-occur at a high rate and are heritable in adolescence. The γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor, α2 gene (GABRA2) is associated with a broad spectrum of externalizing problems and disinhibitory-related traits. The current study tested whether two important forms of disinhibition in adolescence, impulsivity and sensation seeking, mediated the effects of GABRA2 on hyperactive–inattentive symptoms, conduct problems, and alcohol problems. Participants were assessed at two waves (11–17 and 12–18 years old; N = 292). Analyses used the GABRA2 SNP, rs279858, which tags the two complementary (yin–yang) GABRA2 haplotypes. Multiple informants reported on adolescents’ impulsivity and sensation seeking and adolescents self-reported their hyperactive–inattentive symptoms, conduct problems and lifetime alcohol problems. Impulsivity mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems, hyperactive–inattentive symptoms, and conduct problems, whereas sensation seeking mediated the effect of GABRA2 on alcohol problems (AA/AG geno-types conferred risk). GABRA2 directly predicted adolescent alcohol problems, but the GG genotype conferred risk. Results suggest that there may be multiple pathways of risk from GABRA2 to adolescent externalizing problems, and suggest important avenues for future research. PMID:25804982

  5. Lifestyle and health-related quality of life in Asian patients with total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kimie; Xia, Zhenlan; Liu, Xueqin; Mawatari, Masaaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko

    2014-09-01

    Total hip arthroplasty reduces pain and restores physical function in patients with hip joint problems. This study examined lifestyle and health-related quality of life before and after total hip arthroplasty in Japanese and Chinese patients. Two hospitals in China recruited 120 patients and 120 Japanese patients matched by age and operative status were drawn from a prospective cohort database. Oxford Hip Score, EuroQol, and characteristics of Asian lifestyle and attitudes toward the operation were assessed. There were no differences between patients from the two countries in quality-of-life-scale scores: postoperative patients had significantly better quality-of-life scores than preoperative patients in both countries. In China, patients who reported that living at home was inconvenient had significantly worse Oxford Hip Scores than those who did not. Mean scores for anxiety items concerning possible dislocation and durability of the implant were significantly higher in Japanese than in Chinese subjects. Our findings suggest that providing information about housing conditions and lifestyles would result in improved quality of life and reduced anxiety in patients with implanted joints.

  6. Health-related quality of life in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert M; Ries, Andrew L

    2008-05-01

    Patients with emphysema may experience reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). HRQOL measures have evolved from two different measurement traditions: psychometric theory and decision theory. Psychometric methods typically create a profile of outcomes, whereas decision theory methods offer a summary score on a continuum ranging from 0.0 (for death or worst possible health) to 1.0 (for best possible health). Decision theory methods are better suited for cost-effectiveness studies. Generic HRQOL measures can be applied to any disease population, whereas disease-targeted measures are tailored to a specific clinical condition. Disease-targeted measures are typically more sensitive to clinical change, but cannot offer a comparison basis for different clinical conditions. This article reviews the measurement of HRQOL in patients with emphysema. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) offers an example of the application of both generic and disease-targeted, as well as profile and decision theory, methods. The NETT illustrates how HRQOL measures can be used to assess outcomes and estimate cost-effectiveness in a major clinical trial.

  7. Systematic review of health-related quality of life models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A systematic literature review was conducted to (a) identify the most frequently used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) models and (b) critique those models. Methods Online search engines were queried using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We reviewed titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles for their relevance to this review. Then the most commonly used models were identified, reviewed in tables, and critiqued using published criteria. Results Of 1,602 titles identified, 100 articles from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used HRQOL models were: Wilson and Cleary (16%), Ferrans and colleagues (4%), or World Health Organization (WHO) (5%). Ferrans and colleagues’ model was a revision of Wilson and Cleary’s model and appeared to have the greatest potential to guide future HRQOL research and practice. Conclusions Recommendations are for researchers to use one of the three common HRQOL models unless there are compelling and clearly delineated reasons for creating new models. Disease-specific models can be derived from one of the three commonly used HRQOL models. We recommend Ferrans and colleagues’ model because they added individual and environmental characteristics to the popular Wilson and Cleary model to better explain HRQOL. Using a common HRQOL model across studies will promote a coherent body of evidence that will more quickly advance the science in the area of HRQOL. PMID:23158687

  8. Health-related quality of life in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Anette; Geser, Felix; Stampfer-Kountchev, Michaela; Seppi, Klaus; Sawires, Martin; Köllensperger, Martin; Scherfler, Christoph; Quinn, Niall; Pellecchia, Maria T; Barone, Paolo; Del Sorbo, Francesca; Albanese, Alberto; Ostergaard, Karen; Dupont, Erik; Cardozo, Adriana; Tolosa, Eduardo; Nilsson, Christer F; Widner, Håkan; Lindvall, Olle; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Daniels, Christine; Deuschl, Günther; Coelho, Miguel; Sampaio, Cristina; Abele, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas; Schimke, Nicole; Eggert, Karla M; Oertel, Wolfgang; Djaldetti, Ruth; Colosimo, Carlo; Meco, Giuseppe; Poewe, Werner; Wenning, Gregor K

    2006-06-01

    Although multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive disability and decreased life expectancy, little is known about patients' own evaluation of their illness and factors associated with poor health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL). We, therefore, assessed Hr-QoL and its determinants in MSA. The following scales were applied to 115 patients in the European MSA-Study Group (EMSA-SG) Natural History Study: Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36), EQ-5D, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE), Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS), Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) Parkinson's disease staging scale, Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS), and Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS). Forty-six percent of patients had moderate to severe depression (BDI > or = 17); Hr-QoL scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were significantly impaired. Pain, the only domain with similar scores in MSA and published PD patients, was reported more frequently in patients with MSA-P (predominantly parkinsonian motor subtype) than MSA-C (predominantly cerebellar motor subtype; 76% vs. 50%; P = 0.005). Hr-QoL scores correlated most strongly with UMSARS motor, COMPASS, and BDI scores but not with MMSE scores, age at onset, or disease duration. The COMPASS and UMSARS activities of daily living scores were moderate-to-strong predictors for the SF-36 physical summary score and the BDI and UMSARS motor scores for the SF-36 mental summary score. This report is the first study to show that Hr-QoL is significantly impaired in MSA. Although not all possible factors related to impaired Hr-QoL in MSA could be assessed, autonomic dysfunction, motor impairment, and depression were most closely associated with poor Hr-QoL, and therapeutic management, therefore, should concentrate upon these aspects of the disease.

  9. Anxiety sensitivity facets in relation to tobacco use, abstinence-related problems, and cognitions in treatment-seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Casey R; Leventhal, Adam M; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS)--fear of anxiety-related experiences--has been implicated in smoking motivation and maintenance. In a cross-sectional design, we examined AS facets (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) in relation to tobacco use, abstinence-related problems, and cognitions in 473 treatment-seeking smokers. After controlling for sex, race, age, educational attainment, hypertension status, and neuroticism, linear regression models indicated that AS physical and cognitive concerns were associated with tobacco dependence severity (β=.13-.14, p<.01), particularly the severity of persistent smoking regardless of context or time of day (β=.14-.17, p<.01). All three AS facets were related to more severe problems during past quit attempts (β=.23-.27, p<.001). AS cognitive and social concerns were related to negative affect reduction smoking motives (β=.14, p<.01), but only the social concerns aspect of AS was related to pleasurable relaxation smoking motives and positive and negative reinforcement-related smoking outcome expectancies (β=.14-.17, p<.01). These data suggest that AS physical and cognitive concerns are associated with negative reinforcement-related smoking variables (e.g., abstinence-related problems), whereas the social concerns aspect of AS is associated with positive and negative reinforcement-related smoking variables. Together with past findings, current findings can usefully guide AS-oriented smoking cessation treatment development and refinement.

  10. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  11. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  12. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  13. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  14. 21 CFR 26.19 - Information relating to quality aspects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.19...

  15. Summary of Documentation for DYNA3D-ParaDyn's Software Quality Assurance Regression Test Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, Edward

    2016-08-18

    The Software Quality Assurance (SQA) regression test suite for DYNA3D (Zywicz and Lin, 2015) and ParaDyn (DeGroot, et al., 2015) currently contains approximately 600 problems divided into 21 suites, and is a required component of ParaDyn’s SQA plan (Ferencz and Oliver, 2013). The regression suite allows developers to ensure that software modifications do not unintentionally alter the code response. The entire regression suite is run prior to permanently incorporating any software modification or addition. When code modifications alter test problem results, the specific cause must be determined and fully understood before the software changes and revised test answers can be incorporated. The regression suite is executed on LLNL platforms using a Python script and an associated data file. The user specifies the DYNA3D or ParaDyn executable, number of processors to use, test problems to run, and other options to the script. The data file details how each problem and its answer extraction scripts are executed. For each problem in the regression suite there exists an input deck, an eight-processor partition file, an answer file, and various extraction scripts. These scripts assemble a temporary answer file in a specific format from the simulation results. The temporary and stored answer files are compared to a specific level of numerical precision, and when differences are detected the test problem is flagged as failed. Presently, numerical results are stored and compared to 16 digits. At this accuracy level different processor types, compilers, number of partitions, etc. impact the results to various degrees. Thus, for consistency purposes the regression suite is run with ParaDyn using 8 processors on machines with a specific processor type (currently the Intel Xeon E5530 processor). For non-parallel regression problems, i.e., the two XFEM problems, DYNA3D is used instead. When environments or platforms change, executables using the current source code and the new

  16. Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., "more, less," and "fewer") mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N = 31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation…

  17. Determination of School-Related Problems in Children Treated for Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Medine C.; Sari, Hatice Yildirim; Cetingul, Nazan; Kantar, Mehmet; Erermis, Serpil; Aksoylar, Serap

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and case-control study was carried out in a pediatric oncology outpatient clinic to determine the school-related physical, social, and psychological problems and problems experienced in academic achievement of children treated for cancer. The sample of the study consisted of 56 Turkish patients with cancer, aged 7-18 years, who…

  18. Peer and School Problems in the Lives of Urban Adolescents: Frequency, Difficulty, and Relation to Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.; Kliewer, Wendy; Allison, Kevin W.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Meyer, Aleta L.; Esposito, Layla

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the occurrence of problem situations in the peer and school domains and their relation to adjustment among urban adolescents. Students from three urban middle schools ("N"=176) serving a predominantly African American population rated 61 problem situations identified in a previous qualitative study and completed measures of…

  19. Implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation in terms of quantum white noise derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Un Cig; Obata, Nobuaki

    2010-12-15

    The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.

  20. Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations among facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs…

  1. Comparison of Quality Engineering Practices in Malaysian and Indonesian Automotive Related Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Nilda Tri; Sha'ri Mohd, Yusof; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    The main motivating factor driving this research is to find differences between the automotive related companies in Malaysia and Indonesia with regard to quality engineering (QE) implementation. A comparative study between Malaysia and Indonesia provides the opportunity to gain perspective and thorough understanding of the similarities and differences on the critical factors for successful QE practices in the context of both these countries. Face to face interviews are used to compare the QE practices in two automotive companies in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively. The findings of study showed that both countries have clear quality objectives to achieving zero defects in processes and products and total customer satisfaction. Top and middle management in both countries were found to be directly involved in quality improvement on the shop floor to provide On-The-Job training and actively encourage team members to perform quality problem solving through the formation of quality control circles (QCC) particularly in Indonesia automotive industry. In Malaysia automotive industry, the implementation was not fully effective, but they have started to cultivate those values in the daily execution. Based on the case study results and analysis, the researcher has provided suggestions for both countries as an improvement plan for successful QE implementation. These recommendations will allow management to implement appropriate strategies for better QE implementation which hopefully can improve company's performance and ultimately the making the automotive industry in both countries to reach world class quality. It is strongly believed that the findings of this study can help Malaysia and Indonesia automotive industries in their efforts to become more effective and competitive.

  2. Classroom Quality at Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten and Children’s Social Skills and Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Mokrova, Irina L.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children’s social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and first grade. Participants included 1175 ethnically-diverse children (43% African American) living in low-wealth rural communities of the US. Results indicated that children who experienced higher levels of emotional and organizational classroom quality in both pre-kindergarten and kindergarten demonstrated better social skills and fewer behavior problems in both kindergarten and first grade comparing to children who did not experience higher classroom quality. The examination of the first grade results indicated that the emotional and organizational quality of pre-kindergarten classrooms was the strongest predictor of children’s first grade social skills and behavior problems. The study results are discussed from theoretical, practical, and policy perspectives. PMID:26949286

  3. Health-related quality of life in migrant preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minority groups have a lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but there is little information if this finding also applies to children. In this study, we compared HRQOL between young children with and without migrant parents. Methods Two cross-sectional studies of culturally diverse preschool populations in Switzerland: Ballabeina (40 preschools, 258 girls and 232 boys aged 4 to 6 years) and Youp’là Bouge (58 child care centers, 453 girls and 522 boys aged 2 to 4 years). Most children were born in Switzerland (Ballabeina: 92.3%; Youp’là Bouge: 93.7%). Number of migrant parents was considered as the main exposure. HRQOL was measured using the 23-item Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Results Children of migrant parents had a significantly lower HRQOL total score (mean ± SD, Ballabeina: 84.2 ± 9.1; 82.7 ± 9.6 and 81.7 ± 11.7 for children with none, one or two migrant parents, respectively; Youp’là Bouge: 83.8 ± 8.6; 82.9 ± 9.5; 80.7 ± 11.7, all p < 0.05). Similar results were found in Ballabeina and Youp’là Bouge for social, school and physical functioning (all p < 0.05), but not for emotional functioning. The differences in HRQOL measures were partly mediated by children’s place of birth, parental education, paternal occupational level, children’s BMI, screen time and physical activity in one study (Ballabeina), but not in the other (Youp’là Bouge). Conclusion In preschoolers, children of migrant parents have lower HRQOL than children of non-migrant parents. These differences are only partly mediated by other sociocultural characteristics or lifestyle behavior. These families may need assistance to prevent further inequalities. PMID:23617686

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollutants Raises Risk of ADHD-Related Problems in Childhood

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Researchers at the EPA/NIEHS Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health found that prenatal exposure to air pollutants can increase the risk of behavioral problems related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children.

  5. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In February 2006, EPA released the final document, Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Other Photochemical Oxidants. Tropospheric or surface-level ozone (O3) is one of six major air pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under the U.S. Clean Air Act. As mandated by the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must periodically review the scientific bases (or criteria) for the various NAAQS by assessing newly available scientific information on a given criteria air pollutant. This document, Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Other Photochemical Oxidants, is an updated revision of the 1996 Ozone Air Quality Criteria Document (O3 AQCD) that provided scientific bases for the current O3 NAAQS set in 1997. The Clean Air Act mandates periodic review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six common air pollutants, also referred to as criteria pollutants, including ozone.

  6. Psychosocial problems of donor heart recipients adversely affecting quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, B; Wollenek, G; Grundböck, A

    1992-10-01

    Heart transplantation has become an accepted therapy for patients suffering from terminal heart disease for whom neither standard forms of medication nor the usual surgery are of any benefit. Although results regarding postoperative quantity and quality of life are encouraging, it must not be overlooked that the patient and his family face, and have to overcome, profound psychosocial problems. The main stressors were identified in interviews with 47 heart transplant patients. The main preoperative problems were: the way of being informed about the diagnosis, the waiting period for transplantation, anguishing doubts about the decision to have a transplant, being a body without heart ('zombie'), guilt and shame regarding the donor, the reactions of others. Postoperatively the patients have to cope with: re-entering social systems, reactions of friends, neighbours and colleagues, rejection episodes, death of a fellow patient, the need to redesign family life. All the problems reported by the patients interviewed are discussed regarding their psychosocial implications, and hints are given on how to minimize them.

  7. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among U.S.-born Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-07-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the

  8. PHARMACIST WORK STRESS AND LEARNING FROM QUALITY RELATED EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Todd A.; Bishop, Andrea; Morrison, Bobbi; Murphy, Andrea; Barker, James; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Phipps, Denham; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Among the many stresses faced by pharmacy staff, quality related event (QRE) learning can be among the most significant. In the absence of a supportive organizational culture, the potential for blaming individuals, versus identifying key process flaws, is significant and can be very intimidating to those involved in such discussions and may increase an already stressful work environment. Objective This research develops and tests a model of the relationship between the work stress faced by pharmacists and the extent of QRE learning in community pharmacies. Building upon recent research models that explore job characteristics and safety climate, the model proposes that work stress captured by the effort that the pharmacist invests into job performance, the extent to which the pharmacist is rewarded for such efforts, and the extent of pharmacist work-related commitment to their job, influence pharmacist assessment of the working conditions within their community pharmacy. It is further proposed that working conditions influence the extent of a blame culture and safety focus in the pharmacy, which, in turn, influences organizational learning from QREs. Methods This research formed part of a larger study focused on QRE reporting in community pharmacies. As part of the larger study, a total of 1035 questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacists, pharmacy managers, and pharmacy owners in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan during the fall of 2013 and winter and spring of 2014. Partial least squares (PLS) using SmartPLS was selected to test and further develop the proposed model. An examination of the statistical significance of latent variable paths, convergent validity, construct reliability, discriminant validity, and variance explained was used to assess the overall quality of the model. Results Of the 1035 questionnaire sent, a total of 432 questionnaires were returned for an initial response rate of approximately 42%. However, for this research

  9. Health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, John D.; Patten, Scott B.; Tremlett, Helen; Wolfson, Christina; Warren, Sharon; Fiest, Kirsten M.; McKay, Kyla A.; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the direct and indirect influences of physical comorbidity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, fatigue, and disability on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A large (n = 949) sample of adults with MS was recruited from 4 Canadian MS clinics. HRQoL was assessed using the patient-reported Health Utilities Index Mark 3. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, physical comorbidity, depression, anxiety, and fatigue were evaluated as predictors of HRQoL in a cross-sectional path analysis. Results: All predictors were significantly associated with HRQoL and together accounted for a large proportion of variance (63%). Overall, disability status most strongly affected HRQoL (β = −0.52) but it was closely followed by depressive symptoms (β = −0.50). The direct associations of physical comorbidity and anxiety with HRQoL were small (β = −0.08 and −0.10, respectively), but these associations were stronger when indirect effects through other variables (depression, fatigue) were also considered (physical comorbidity: β = −0.20; anxiety: β = −0.34). Conclusions: Increased disability, depression and anxiety symptoms, fatigue, and physical comorbidity are associated with decreased HRQoL in MS. Disability most strongly diminishes HRQoL and, thus, interventions that reduce disability are expected to yield the most substantial improvement in HRQoL. Yet, interventions targeting other factors amenable to change, particularly depression but also anxiety, fatigue, and physical comorbidities, may all result in meaningful improvements in HRQoL, as well. Our findings point to the importance of further research confirming the efficacy of such interventions. PMID:26962068

  10. Are serum zinc and copper levels related to semen quality?

    PubMed

    Yuyan, Li; Junqing, Wu; Wei, Yuan; Weijin, Zhou; Ersheng, Gao

    2008-04-01

    Low serum zinc levels are harmful to semen quality in Chinese men. In this study, eligible men aged 20-59 years old-excluding those who had ever had urinary or genital disease, tuberculosis, or occupational heavy metal contact-were examined for semen quality and serum zinc and copper concentrations. Progressive motility showed differences among the five copper groups, but multiple logistic analyses did not show that higher or lower serum copper levels had a significant effect on sperm quality. When serum zinc concentration was low, the risk of asthenozoospermia was higher. The ratio of Cu/Zn was higher in the progressive motility abnormal group than in the normal group.

  11. Peer Victimization as a Mediator of the Relation between Facial Attractiveness and Internalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, peer victimization, and internalizing problems in early adolescence. We hypothesized that experiences of peer victimization would partially mediate the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Ratings of attractiveness were obtained from standardized photographs of participants (93 girls, 82 boys). Teachers provided information regarding peer victimization experiences in sixth grade, and seventh grade teachers assessed internalizing problems. Attractiveness was negatively correlated with victimization and internalizing problems. Experiences of peer victimization were positively correlated with internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling provided support for the hypothesized model of peer victimization partially mediating the relationship between attractiveness and internalizing problems. Implications for intervention programs and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21984861

  12. Pain-related and Psychological Symptoms in Adolescents With Musculoskeletal and Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Two-thirds of adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain report a concurrent sleep problem. Both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems can have deleterious effects on physiological and psychological well-being. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain, using data on 3568 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive battery of questionnaires was administered to derive clinical phenotypes of musculoskeletal pain. Adolescents with single symptoms were compared with those reporting both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare groups on pain-related variables and psychological complaints. The association between sociodemographic variables and comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Over half the sample was female (n=2076, 58.2%) and the majority of European ancestry (n=3174, 97.7%). Only 5.5% (n=196) of participants were identified as having a pain condition, while 21.2% (n=749) reported a significant sleep problem, and 2.8% (n=99) reported comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Adolescents with comorbid problems experienced greater pain intensity and pain-related anxiety. Other psychological complaints were also higher in those who experienced concurrent problems, including depression, fatigue, concentration, and overall severity of psychological symptoms. Discussion: Comorbid sleep and pain problems were associated with a higher incidence of pain-related and psychological symptoms. Sleep problems may therefore be an important modifiable risk factor for alleviating distress in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25974623

  13. Gender differences in the relation between mothering behaviors and child behavior problems among Hispanic preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain

    2016-01-01

    This report examined gender differences in behavior problems and prediction of their changes from 2½ to 3½ years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3½ were correlated with more supportive and less intrusive mothering at 2½ but only for boys, and increases in externalizing behavior among boys were uniquely predicted by greater maternal intrusiveness. Implications for understanding parental control factors among Hispanic families are discussed. PMID:27010364

  14. On the use of computation optimization opportunities in computer technologies for applied and computational mathematics problems with prescribed quality characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babich, M. D.; Zadiraka, V. K.; Lyudvichenko, V. A.; Sergienko, I. V.

    2010-12-01

    The use of various opportunities for computation optimization in computer technologies for applied and computational mathematics problems with prescribed quality characteristics is investigated. More precisely, the choice and determination of computational resources and methods of their efficient use for finding an approximate solution of problems up to prescribed accuracy in a limited amount of processor time are investigated.

  15. The Role of Marital Quality and Spousal Support in Behaviour Problems of Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, N.; Baker, B. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be at an increased risk for developing behavioural problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the marital domain, including marital quality and spousal support, and behaviour problems in children with and without ID. Methods: The relationship…

  16. Early Childhood Educators' Meta-Cognitive Knowledge of Problem-Solving Strategies and Quality of Childcare Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeon Ha

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of early childhood educators' meta-cognitive knowledge on the quality of their childcare curriculum implementation, and to gain insights regarding successful problem-solving strategies associated with early education and care. Early childhood educators' implementation of general problem-solving strategies in…

  17. Assessment of the quality of measures of child oral health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several measures of oral health-related quality of life have been developed for children. The most frequently used are the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (C-OIDP) and the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP). The aim of this study was to assess the methodological quality of the development and testing of these three measures. Methods A systematic search strategy was used to identify eligible studies published up to December 2012, using both MEDLINE and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts were read independently by two investigators and full papers retrieved where the inclusion criteria were met. Data were extracted by two teams of two investigators using a piloted protocol. The data were used to describe the development of the measures and their use against existing criteria. The methodological quality and measurement properties of the measures were assessed using standards proposed by the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) group. Results The search strategy yielded 653 papers, of which 417 were duplicates. Following analysis of the abstracts, 119 papers met the inclusion criteria. The majority of papers reported cross-sectional studies (n = 117) with three of longitudinal design. Fifteen studies which had used the original version of the measures in their original language were included in the COSMIN analysis. The most frequently used measure was the CPQ. Reliability and construct validity appear to be adequate for all three measures. Children were not fully involved in item generation which may compromise their content validity. Internal consistency was measured using classic test theory with no evidence of modern psychometric techniques being used to test unidimensionality of the measures included in the COSMIN analysis. Conclusion The three measures evaluated appear to be able to discriminate between groups. CPQ has been most widely

  18. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  19. Behavioral Factors Related to Sleep Quality and Duration in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Joohee; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to measure the sleep quality and duration in healthy adults and to identify any influencing factors. Methods This study was a descriptive research investigation that evaluated 240 healthy adults at least 19 years of age. The data were assessed using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Korean YZ, and the Fatigue Severity Scale. Results The PSQI global score was 5.69 ± 3.23, and 59.6% of the participants were classified as having poor quality sleep (PSQI score > 5). The significant risk factors for poor sleep quality were female gender (p = 0.021), number of comorbid conditions (p = 0.003), depression (p < 0.001), fatigue (p < 0.001), and anxiety (p < 0.001). Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that significant predictors of poor sleep quality were depression (p < 0.001) and fatigue (p < 0.001). Participants slept an average of 6.16 ± 1.36 hours a night. A shorter sleep duration was correlated with older age (p = 0.010), a higher body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.026), a greater depression score (p = 0.002), a higher fatigue score (p = 0.028), and lower sleep quality (p < 0.001). In addition, stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that factors significantly associated with sleep duration were depression (p = 0.002) and BMI (p = 0.034). Conclusion The number of comorbid conditions and the presence of depression and fatigue were risk factors for both low sleep quality and short sleep duration. Therefore, to improve sleep quality, there is a need for comprehensive interventional programs to manage these and any other factors that disturb sleep. PMID:28261557

  20. Age-related differences in sequential modulations of problem-size and rule-violation effects during arithmetic problem verification tasks.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2016-04-01

    Young and older adults were asked to verify true (e.g., 5 × 61 = 305) and false (5 × 61 = 315) arithmetic problems. Half the problems were small (e.g., 5 × 17 = 85) and half were large problems (e.g., 5 × 93 = 465). Half the false problems respected the five rule (i.e., the product of an operand multiplied by five ends with either 5 or 0), and half violated this rule (e.g., 21 × 5 = 115 vs. 21 × 5 = 113). Both young and older adults showed problem-size effects (i.e., they verified small problems more quickly than large problems) and five-rule violation effects (i.e., they verified problem violating five rule more quickly than problems respecting five rule). Moreover, we found sequential modulations of these problem-size and five-rule effects. Problem-size effects were larger on current problems following large problems than after small problems, and five-rule violation effects were larger after problems violating the five rule than after no-rule violation problems. Finally, sequential modulations of problem-size effects were larger in older adults than in young adults, and there were no age-related differences in sequential modulations of five-rule violation effects. These findings speak to the determiners of arithmetic performance, as to how well arithmetic calculation and non-calculation strategies are executed and selected on current problems depends on strategies used with preceding problems.

  1. Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life for Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Angelos A.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that results in total cognitive impairment and functional decline. Family members are the most usual caregivers worldwide, resulting in a subsequent degradation of their quality of life. Methods. During November 2013–March 2014 in Athens, Greece, 155 AD patients' family caregivers' Health-Related Quality of Life and existence of depressive symptomatology were assessed. Results. A strong negative correlation between the dimensions of HRQoL and the scores of the depression scale was revealed. AD patients' caregivers have a lower HRQoL almost in all dimensions compared to the Greek urban general population. The caregivers' social role, the existence of emotional problems, and their mental health status led to this result. Furthermore significantly important differences in caregivers' total HRQoL and depressive symptomatology were indicated in relation to their gender, hypertension existence, patient care frequency, cohabitation with the patient, disease aggravation, and economic status. Conclusions. Caring for relatives with AD strongly correlates with negative caregivers' HRQoL scores and adversely affects their depressive symptomatology. This negative correlation is enhanced in the later stages of the disease, in greater frequency of care, through living with a patient, in poor financial status, and with the existence of a chronic illness. PMID:28083154

  2. Comparing Cognitive, Relational and Stress Mechanisms Underlying Gender Differences in Recovery from Bereavement-Related Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Four putative mediators underlying gender differences in youths' recovery from bereavement-related internalizing problems were examined in a sample (N = 109; age range = 8-16 years at the initial assessment) of parentally bereaved youth: intrusive thoughts about grief, postdeath stressors, negative appraisals of postdeath stressors, and fear of…

  3. Morningness: protective factor for sleep-related and emotional problems in childhood and adolescence?

    PubMed

    Gelbmann, Gloria; Kuhn-Natriashvili, Sofia; Pazhedath, Thressia Joslin; Ardeljan, Marina; Wöber, Christian; Wöber-Bingöl, Ciçek

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between morningness/eveningness, sleep, and psychological problems is well documented in adults as well as in adolescents. However, research on the circadian orientation and its concomitants in younger children is scarce. The authors investigated the distribution of morningness/eveningness and its connection to sleeping and psychological problems in 91 children and 151 adolescents in Austria. The authors found that morning (M) types had less sleep-related and psychological problems than intermediate (I) and evening (E) types, respectively. Among children, M-types suffered less from daytime sleepiness (females: χ(2)((2)) = 8.1, p = .017; males: χ(2)((2)) = 14.8, p = .001). Among adolescents, M-types showed fewer sleep-wake problems (females: χ(2)((2)) = 17.5, p < .001; males: χ(2)((2)) = 19.8, p < .001), and female M-types showed less externalizing (χ(2)((2)) = 8.7, p = .013) as well as internalizing problem behavior (χ(2)((2)) = 9.0, p = .011). In conclusion, these findings indicate that morningness may act as a protective factor against the development of sleep-related problems in childhood and sleep-related and psychological problems in adolescence, especially in females.

  4. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  5. Rewarding results: Improving the quality of treatment for people with alcohol and drug problems.

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    Substance use disorders are the nation's number one health problem, and lie at the root of many public safety and workplace issues. Improving quality of treatment is as important as improving access to treatment. Leadership for improvement must come from many sources: Congress, SAMHSA, state legislatures, state and local treatment agencies, criminal justice, welfare and other public agencies, employers and managed care organizations, providers, and community leaders. We hope that our report helps leaders see ways to improve treatment quality. Our recommendations can be summed up in a single phrase: reward results. We recognize that there are many avenues for treatment quality improvement, including training, credentialing, best practice dissemination, work force development, facility licensing standards, improvement and implementation of new models for treatment of dual diagnosis patients. We believe, however, that rewarding results is essential to motivating action for improvement. We also believe that if providers receive rewards for improved results, they will creatively open new avenues for improvement--a focus on results gives greater freedom than more detailed mandates for change. Finally, we believe that rewards for result may lead to a restructured treatment system with greater stability and correspondingly greater capacity to improve. While we have placed central emphasis on the role of institutional buyers and managers of care, we believe that the voices of patients and families must be heard. People who have progressed to the stage of recovery, and their families, often have essential insight into what did and did not work for them--their personal stories are frequently compelling and persuasive. We also believe that providers of treatment for substance use disorders are profoundly committed to serving their patients, and often have great understanding of what works. Wise managers will listen very carefully and systematically to the voices of consumers

  6. Health 2.0: Relational Resources for the Development of Quality in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Camargo-Borges, Celiane; Moscheta, Murilo Santos

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches in healthcare have been challenged giving way to broader forms of users' participation in treatment. In this article we present the Health 2.0 movement as an example of relational and participatory practices in healthcare. Health 2.0 is an approach in which participation is the major aim, aspiring to reshape the system into more collaborative and less hierarchical relationships. We offer two illustrations in order to discuss how Health 2.0 is related and can contribute to a positive uptake of patient's knowledge, which implies challenging healthcare practices exclusively focused on scientific expertise. In contrast, the illustrations we discuss focus on relations and cultural practices, searching for responsive and context-sensitive interventions, entertaining multiple views and allowing space for creativity. Finally we introduce two relational resources to contribute with the development and sustainability of Health 2.0 practices: Relational being and edge of fluidity. Those are resources aiming to engage professionals in a type of conversation with their clients, which is different from the hierarchical, linear and fact-oriented approach. This conversation aims at creating a space where the voices of all involved are welcomed, raising different opinions and points of view, bringing up new light and possibilities to the problem being investigated. These resources may be useful for those who are interested in improving quality in healthcare by investing in collaboration, contextual sensitivity and relational engagement.

  7. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  8. Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

  9. Clustering Qualitative Data Based on Binary Equivalence Relations: Neighborhood Search Heuristics for the Clique Partitioning Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusco, Michael J.; Kohn, Hans-Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    The clique partitioning problem (CPP) requires the establishment of an equivalence relation for the vertices of a graph such that the sum of the edge costs associated with the relation is minimized. The CPP has important applications for the social sciences because it provides a framework for clustering objects measured on a collection of nominal…

  10. Identification the Relation between Active Basketball Classification Referees' Empathetic Tendencies and Their Problem Solving Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaçam, Aydin; Pulur, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relation between basketball classification referees' problem solving ability and empathetic tendencies. Research model of the study is relational screening model. Sampling of the study is constituted by 124 male and 18 female basketball classification referees who made active refereeing within Turkish Basketball…

  11. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  12. Factors Related to Social-Emotional Problem Behavior in Nursing Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Esther O.; And Others

    Data on demographics, physical capability and social-emotional behavioral variables for 134 residents between the ages of 50 and 96 were collected in four nursing homes to examine the dimensions related to problem behaviors. Social-emotional behaviors related on six scales of reliabilities ranging from .90 to .74. The scales included depression,…

  13. Obesity and Its Related Health Problems in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Jun-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Obesity and its related health problems in people with intellectual disabilities were examined, focusing on differences related to their place of residence. The prevalence of obesity was higher in older women living in community group homes than in the same age group of women living in institutes or among the general population. Hyperglycemia,…

  14. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  15. Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie Ashley; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4…

  16. Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Affects Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Goreishi, Abolfazl; Shajari, Zahra; Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases endanger not only physical health but also psychological and social health of patient. Thus, evaluation of such patients for psychological treatment decisions is very important. Method This is a descriptive study that was performed with 50 chronic patients (ischemic heart disease) selected from Valiasr and Mousavi at cardiac wards in Zanjan Province. They were given three types of questionnaire: demographic, WHOQOL, and Zung depression and anxiety index. The information was statically analyzed by frequency chart, central indexes, dispersion, Chi-Square and t tests, Pearson’s correlation index (P < 0.05). Results The average of quality of life in all patients were calculated as was respectively 12.19, 11.98, 12.08, and 12.4 in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains respectively, 68 percent of total number of the patients had various degrees of anxiety and 78 percent of them had various degrees of depression. There was a significant relationship between the life quality average in all domains and anxiety intensity and depression intensity (P < 0.05) and there was a significant relationship between life quality average in all domains and income (P < 0.05). Conclusion As the level of depression and anxiety goes up, quality of life decreases pointing out that they have a reverse relationship. Depression and anxiety are one of the most significant factors of quality of life among other variables. Regarding specific conditions of the treatment, it is necessary to pay special attention to psychological aspects.

  17. A note on relative motion in the general three-body problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.; Lass, H.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the equations of the general three-body problem take on a very symmetric form when one considers only their relative positions, rather than position vectors relative to some given coordinate system. From these equations one quickly surmises some well known classical properties of the three-body problem, such as the first integrals and the equilateral triangle solutions. Some new Lagrangians with relative coordinates are also obtained. Numerical integration of the new equations of motion is about 10% faster than with barycentric or heliocentric coordinates.

  18. Depression and Health Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Survivors of a Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Battista, Ashley; Godfrey, Celia; Soo, Cheryl; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is (TBI) a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in youth. Adult survivors of a severe pediatric TBI are vulnerable to global impairments, including greater employment difficulties, poor quality of life (HRQoL) and increased risk of mental health problems. When estimating the health related quality of life in adolescents, the presence of anxiety and depression and the quality of social relationships are important considerations, because adolescents are entrenched in social development during this phase of maturation. The influence of anxiety, depression and loneliness on health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of TBI has not been documented. This pilot study aimed to identify and measure the relationship between anxiety, depression and loneliness and perceived health related quality of life in adolescent survivors of a TBI. Method: mixed method/cohort pilot study (11 adolescents, mild to severe TBI; 9 parents), using self-report and proxy-report measures of anxiety, depression, health related quality of life, loneliness and clinical psychiatric interviews (adolescent only). Results: Self-reported depression was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = −0.88, p<0.001). Age at injury was significantly correlated with self-reported HRQoL (rs [11] = −0.68, p = 0.02). Self-reported depression predicted self-reported HRQoL (R2 = 0.79, F [1, 10] = 33.48, p<0.001), but age at injury did not (R2 = 0.19, F [1, 10] = 2.09, p = 0.18). Conclusions: Our results suggest that depression is a predictor of health related quality of life in youth post-TBI. The possibility of using targeted assessment and therapy for depression post-TBI to improve health related quality of life should be explored. PMID:25010719

  19. [Current situations and problems of quality control for medical imaging display systems].

    PubMed

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Setojima, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Katsumi; Takada, Katsumi; Okuno, Teiichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Nakajima, Tadashi; Fujisawa, Ichiro

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic imaging has been shifted rapidly from film to monitor diagnostic. Consequently, Japan medical imaging and radiological systems industries association (JIRA) have recommended methods of quality control (QC) for medical imaging display systems. However, in spite of its need by majority of people, executing rate is low. The purpose of this study was to validate the problem including check items about QC for medical imaging display systems. We performed acceptance test of medical imaging display monitors based on Japanese engineering standards of radiological apparatus (JESRA) X-0093*A-2005 to 2009, and performed constancy test based on JESRA X-0093*A-2010 from 2010 to 2012. Furthermore, we investigated the cause of trouble and repaired number. Medical imaging display monitors had 23 inappropriate monitors about visual estimation, and all these monitors were not criteria of JESRA about luminance uniformity. Max luminance was significantly lower year-by-year about measurement estimation, and the 29 monitors did not meet the criteria of JESRA about luminance deviation. Repaired number of medical imaging display monitors had 25, and the cause was failure liquid crystal panel. We suggested the problems about medical imaging display systems.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life in Relation to Obesity Grade, Type 2 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Slagter, Sandra N.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; van Beek, André P.; Keers, Joost C.; Lutgers, Helen L.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) may be compromised in obese individuals, depending on the presence of other complications. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of obesity-related conditions on HR-QoL. These conditions are i) grade of obesity with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), ii) metabolic syndrome (MetS), and iii) level of inflammation. Methods From the Dutch LifeLines Cohort Study we included 13,686 obese individuals, aged 18–80 years. HR-QoL was measured with the RAND 36-Item Health Survey which encompasses eight health domains. We calculated the percentage of obese individuals with poor HR-QoL, i.e. those scoring below the domain and sex specific cut-off value derived from the normal weight population. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the probability of having poor domain scores according to the conditions under study. Results Higher grades of obesity and the additional presence of T2D were associated with lower HR-QoL, particularly in the domains physical functioning (men: odds ratios (ORs) 1.48–11.34, P<0.005, and women: ORs 1.66–5.05, P<0.001) and general health (men: ORs 1.44–3.07, P<0.005, and women: ORs 1.36–3.73, P<0.001). A higher percentage of obese individuals with MetS had a poor HR-QoL than those without MetS. Furthermore, we observed a linear trend between inflammation and the percentage of obese individuals with poor scores on the HR-QoL domains. Individuals with MetS were more likely to have poor scores in the domains general health, vitality, social functioning and role limitations due to emotional problems. Obese women with increased inflammation levels were more likely to have poor scores on all domains except role limitations due to emotional problems and mental health. Conclusions The impact of obesity on an individual’s quality of life is enhanced by grade of obesity, T2D, MetS and inflammation and are mainly related to reduced physical health. The mental well-being is less

  1. Solitary Cannabis Use Frequency Mediates the Relationship Between Social Anxiety and Cannabis Use and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Dean, Kimberlye E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Individuals with elevated social anxiety are seven times more likely to meet criteria for cannabis use disorders, yet social anxiety is unrelated to more frequent cannabis use. The lack of relation to cannabis use frequency may be at least partially due to lack of attention to cannabis use context. It may be that socially anxious persons engage in frequent solitary cannabis use, perhaps using before social situations in the hope that being intoxicated during the social event will help them feel less anxious. In fact, using cannabis alone has been associated with experiencing more cannabis-related problems in prior work. Methods The current study sought to identify whether solitary cannabis use frequency mediated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems among 276 current cannabis using undergraduates who completed an online survey of putative predictors of substance use. Results Social anxiety was robustly related to more frequent solitary (but not social) cannabis use and solitary cannabis use frequency uniquely mediated the relation of social anxiety to cannabis use and related problems. Discussion and Conclusions Frequent solitary use appears to play an important role in the experience of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious persons. Scientific Significance Intervention strategies may benefit from targeting frequent solitary cannabis use, particularly among at-risk users such as those with elevated social anxiety. PMID:26890064

  2. Being Poorer Than the Rest of the Neighborhood: Relative Deprivation and Problem Behavior of Youth.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; van Ham, Maarten; Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim; Hooimeijer, Pieter

    2017-03-31

    According to the neighborhood effects hypothesis, there is a negative relation between neighborhood wealth and youth's problem behavior. It is often assumed that there are more problems in deprived neighborhoods, but there are also reports of higher rates of behavioral problems in more affluent neighborhoods. Much of this literature does not take into account relative wealth. Our central question was whether the economic position of adolescents' families, relative to the neighborhood in which they lived, was related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problem behavior. We used longitudinal data for youth between 12-16 and 16-20 years of age, combined with population register data (N = 926; 55% females). We employ between-within models to account for time-invariant confounders, including parental background characteristics. Our findings show that, for adolescents, moving to a more affluent neighborhood was related to increased levels of depression, social phobia, aggression, and conflict with fathers and mothers. This could be indirect evidence for the relative deprivation mechanism, but we could not confirm this, and we did not find any gender differences. The results do suggest that future research should further investigate the role of individuals' relative position in their neighborhood in order not to overgeneralize neighborhood effects and to find out for whom neighborhoods matter.

  3. Relation of adolescent mothers' history of antisocial behavior to child conduct problems and social competence.

    PubMed

    Rhule, Dana M; McMahon, Robert J; Spieker, Susan J

    2004-09-01

    We examined the extent to which maternal antisocial behavior (ASB) is directly related to child conduct problems and social competence and assessed the potential mediating role of negative parenting. The sample included 93 adolescent mothers and their children (44 boys, 49 girls). Mothers retrospectively reported about their ASB since the child's birth, through Grade 2. Negative parenting was coded during a parent-child interaction task (PCIT) at Grade 2. Teachers assessed child outcomes at Grade 3. Maternal ASB during the child's life was directly related to parenting and both child outcomes. In the overall sample, negative parenting partially mediated the relation between maternal ASB and child conduct problems. However, the pattern of relations differed by sex. For boys, maternal ASB was directly related to conduct problems, independent of parenting. For girls, maternal ASB was strongly related to parenting but not conduct problems. Negative parenting did not mediate the relation between maternal ASB and child social competence. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  4. Physicians debate Internet-related marital problems on CMA's online service

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, P

    1997-01-01

    The Internet itself has been the topic recently on the CMA's Internet-based discussion group for physicians, Clinical Q&A. A recent discussion involved physicians from around the country who have dealt with patients with marital problems related to the Internet. They concluded that the Internet may have made problems manifest, but the underlying issue--marital disharmony--already existed. PMID:9176432

  5. Quality of life related to swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Danielle; das Graças Wanderley de Sales Coriolano, Maria; Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; de Marcos Rabelo, Aneide Rocha; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-10-01

    Swallowing difficulties in Parkinson's disease can result in decreased quality of life. The swallowing quality of life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) is an instrument for specifically assessing quality of life with respect to swallowing, which has been little explored in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life with respect to swallowing in persons with PD compared to controls and at several stages of the disease using the SWAL-QOL. The experimental group was composed of 62 persons with PD at stages 1-4. Forty-one age-matched healthy subjects constituted the control group. The SWAL-QOL scores were significantly lower for the patients with PD than for the controls in all SWAL-QOL domains. Eating duration had the largest difference in score between persons with PD and the controls and the lowest mean score, followed by communication, fatigue, fear, sleep, and food selection. The scores of most domains were lower at later stages of the disease. The scores for eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep were significantly lower at stage 4 than stages 1 and 2. In conclusion, patients with PD have significantly lower scores in all domains of the SWAL-QOL than normal controls. This means swallowing difficulties occurring in patients with PD negatively affect their QOL. Progression of the disease worsens swallowing QOL, more specifically in the domains of eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep. This occurs mostly at later stages of the disease.

  6. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  7. Prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J; Lensing, S; Horton, J A; Lovejoy, J; Zaghloul, S; Forrester, I; McGee, B B; Bogle, M L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess demographic and geographic differences in prevalence of self-reported nutrition-related health problems in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. METHODS: The authors analyzed 1991 and 1993 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for adults 18 years or older. RESULTS: Less educated African American women and women of other minority groups who were aged 35 to 64 years reported the highest prevalence of health problems. Geographic differences involved prevalence of hypertension, health status, and insurance status. CONCLUSIONS: Specific demographic subgroups and geographic areas with a high risk of health problems are in particular need of targeted interventions. PMID:10474563

  8. Siblings exposed to intimate partner violence: linking sibling relationship quality & child adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed.

  9. Classical Zero-Point Radiation and Relativity: The Problem of Atomic Collapse Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    2016-07-01

    The physicists of the early twentieth century were unaware of two aspects which are vital to understanding some aspects of modern physics within classical theory. The two aspects are: (1) the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the importance of special relativity. In classes in modern physics today, the problem of atomic collapse is still mentioned in the historical context of the early twentieth century. However, the classical problem of atomic collapse is currently being treated in the presence of classical zero-point radiation where the problem has been transformed. The presence of classical zero-point radiation indeed keeps the electron from falling into the Coulomb potential center. However, the old collapse problem has been replaced by a new problem where the zero-point radiation may give too much energy to the electron so as to cause "self-ionization." Special relativity may play a role in understanding this modern variation on the atomic collapse problem, just as relativity has proved crucial for a classical understanding of blackbody radiation.

  10. [Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample].

    PubMed

    Trick, Sarah; Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz

    2016-10-01

    Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample Numerous research studies emphasize parental monitoring as a protective factor for adolescent problem behaviour. The purpose of the study presented was to use Stattin and Kerr's (2000) monitoring subscales for the first time in a German-speaking area and to explore the relations to behaviour problems in an adolescent school sample. The two active monitoring strategies "parental control" and "parental solicitation" as well as "parental knowledge" and "child disclosure" relating to behaviour problems and risk behaviour were examined. A sample of 494 pupils, grades 5, 7 and 9, of German secondary schools and their parents answered questions on "parental knowledge", "control", "solicitation" and "child disclosure". Adolescents also answered the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and items about risk behaviour like frequency of violence, delinquency, substance abuse, self-injuring behaviour and school absenteeism. Behaviour problems in terms of the SDQ could be predicted sufficiently by "parental knowledge", but for the prediction of risk behaviour, the active parental monitoring strategies were of importance, too. More "parental knowledge", more "control" and less "solicitation" could predict less risk behaviour. Results confirm "parental knowledge" as a general protective factor for problem behaviour. However, they show the importance of "parental control" for adolescent risk behaviour.

  11. Child Health-Related Quality of Life and Parental Social Capital in Greece: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…

  12. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Van Beek, Leen; Ghesquièr, Pol; De Smedt, Bert; Lagae, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10) and large problem size (sum > 10) and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1, and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties. PMID:25309405

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  14. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacci, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan. (PKP)

  15. Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A

    2010-01-01

    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal EEG asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred and nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4 months of age. Infants' approach behaviors during play with an unpredictable toy and baseline frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry were assessed at 9 months of age. Inhibitory control during a Go/No-Go task and parent-report of behavior problems were evaluated at 4 years of age. High anger-prone infants with left, but not right, frontal EEG asymmetry showed significantly more approach behaviors and less inhibitory control relative to less anger-prone infants. Although a link between anger proneness in infancy and behavior problems in early childhood was not found, a combination of low approach behaviors and poor inhibitory control was predictive of internalizing behaviors.

  16. Noise levels, noise annoyance, and hearing-related problems in a dental college.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer; Ali, Wesal Jasim

    2016-04-20

    Through a cross-sectional survey and integrated sound level meter, this research examined noise exposure and auditory- and nonauditory-related problems experienced by students of a dentistry college located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A structured interview questionnaire was used to examine hearing-related problems, noise annoyance, and awareness of 114 students toward noise. The results showed that maximum noise levels were between 65 and 79 dB(A) with peak levels (high and low frequencies) ranging between 89 and 93 dB(A). Around 80% of the students experienced a certain degree of noise annoyance; 54% reported one of the hearing-related problems; and about 10% claimed to have hearing loss to a certain extent. It is recommended that sound-absorbent materials be used during the construction of dental clinics and laboratories to reduce the noise levels.

  17. Cardiac rehabilitation programs and health-related quality of life. State of the art.

    PubMed

    Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Alguacil Diego, Isabel María; Alonso Martín, Joaquín Jesús; Molero Sánchez, Alberto; Miangolarra Page, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main health problem in developed countries. Prevention is presented as the most effective and efficient primary care intervention, whereas cardiac rehabilitation programs are considered the most effective of secondary prevention interventions; however, these are underused. This literature review examines the effectiveness and the levels of evidence of cardiac rehabilitation programs, their components, their development and role in developed countries, applications in different fields of research and treatment, including their psychological aspects, and their application in heart failure as a paradigm of disease care under this type of intervention. It is completed by a review of the impact of such programs on measures of health-related quality of life, describing the instruments involved in studies in recent scientific literature.

  18. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  19. Improving Teaching Quality and Problem Solving Ability through Contextual Teaching and Learning in Differential Equations: A Lesson Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khotimah, Rita Pramujiyanti; Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Differential equations is a branch of mathematics which is closely related to mathematical modeling that arises in real-world problems. Problem solving ability is an essential component to solve contextual problem of differential equations properly. The purposes of this study are to describe contextual teaching and learning (CTL) model in…

  20. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems. Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79–1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42–1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04–1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82–1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03–1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00–1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41–1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61–1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1

  1. Health-related quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, Darren B; Shin, Jennifer; Hud, Laryssa; Archer-Chicko, Christine; Kaplan, Sandra; Sager, Jeffery S; Gallop, Robert; Christie, Jason; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Palevsky, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Background Improved outcomes with expanding treatment options for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension present the opportunity to consider additional end-points in approaching therapy, including factors that influence health-related quality of life. However, comparatively little is known about health-related quality of life and its determinants in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods Health-related quality of life was evaluated in a cross sectional study of 155 outpatients with pulmonary arterial hypertension using generic and respiratory-disease specific measurement tools. Most patients had either World Health Organization functional Class II or III symptoms. Demographic, hemodynamic and treatment variables were assessed for association with health-related quality of life scores. Results Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension suffered severe impairments in both physical and emotional domains of health-related quality of life. Patients with idiopathic ("primary") pulmonary arterial hypertension had the best, and those with systemic sclerosis the worst health-related quality of life. Greater six-minute walk distance correlated with better health-related quality of life scores, as did functional Class II versus Class III symptoms. Hemodynamic measurements, however, did not correlate with health-related quality of life scores. No differences in health-related quality of life were found between patients who were being treated with calcium channel antagonists, bosentan or continuously infused epoprostenol at the time of quality of life assessment. Conclusion Health-related quality of life is severely impaired in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and is associated with measures of functional status. Specific associations with impaired health-related quality of life suggest potential areas for targeted intervention. PMID:16092961

  2. Health-related quality of life in Swedish pediatric burn patients and associations with burn and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sveen, J; Sjöberg, F; Öster, C

    2014-08-01

    Although many children with burns recover well and have a satisfying quality of life after the burn, some children do not adjust as well. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) focuses on the impact health status has on quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL with the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (BOQ) in a nationwide Swedish sample of children with burns 0.3-9.0 years after injury. Participants were parents (n=109) of children aged up to 18 years at the time of investigation who were treated at the Linköping or Uppsala Burn Center between 2000 and 2008. The majority of children did not have limitations in physical function and they did not seem to experience much pain. However, there were indications of psychosocial problems. Parents of preschool children reported most problems with the children's behavior and family disruption, whereas parents of children aged 5-18 years reported most problems with appearance and emotional health. There were mainly burn-related variables associated with suboptimal HRQoL in children aged 5-18 years, while family-related variables did not contribute as much.

  3. Social information processing in preschool children: Relations to sociodemographic risk and problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in preschool are related to both sociodemographic risk and behavior problems in preschool. Response evaluation and in particular the positive evaluation of an aggressive response were related to both sociodemographic risk and children's aggressive behavior and partially mediated the links between sociodemographic risk and aggressive behavior in preschool.

  4. Lower Health-Related Quality of Life in Polytrauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zwingmann, Jörn; Hagelschuer, Paul; Langenmair, Elia; Bode, Gerrit; Herget, Georg; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Hammer, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although trauma-associated mortality has fallen in recent decades, and medical care has continued to improve in many fields, the quality of life after experiencing polytrauma has attracted little attention in the literature. This group of patients suffer from persisting physical disabilities. Moreover, they experience long-term social, emotional, and psychological effects that limit/lower considerably their quality of life. We analyzed retrospective data on 147 polytraumatized patients by administering written questionnaires and conducting face-to-face interviews 6 ± 0.8 years after the trauma in consideration of the following validated scores: Glasgow Outcome Scale, European Quality of Life Score, Short Form-36, Trauma Outcome Profile, and Beck Depressions Inventory II. Our analysis of these results reveals that polytraumatized patients suffer from persistent pain and functional disabilities after >5 years. We also observed changes in their socioeconomic situation, as well as psychological after-effects. The rehabilitation of this particular group of patients should not only address their physical disabilities. The psychological after-effects of trauma must be acknowledged and addressed for an even longer period of time. PMID:27175646

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  6. HON label and DISCERN as content quality indicators of health-related websites.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz

    2012-03-01

    Content quality indicators are warranted in order to help patients and consumers to judge the content quality of health-related on-line information. The aim of the present study is to evaluate web-based information on health topics and to assess particular content quality indicators like HON (Health on the Net) and DISCERN. The present study is based on the analysis of data issued from six previous studies which assessed with a standardized tool the general and content quality (evidence-based health information) of health-related websites. Keywords related to Social phobia, bipolar disorders, pathological gambling as well as cannabis, alcohol and cocaine addiction were entered into popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability and content quality (evidence-based information). "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of 874 websites identified, 388 were included. Despite an observed association with higher content quality scores, the HON label fails to predict good content quality websites when used in a multiple regression. Sensibility and specificity of a DISCERN score >40 in the detection of good content quality websites were, respectively, 0.45 and 0.96. The DISCERN is a potential quality indicator with a relatively high specificity. Further developments in this domain are warranted in order to facilitate the identification of high-quality information on the web by patients.

  7. Relationships between feeding problems, behavioral characteristics and nutritional quality in children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cynthia R; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiqitious in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime behaviors and social, communication, and cognitive levels as well repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, sensory behaviors, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, we examined whether feeding habits were predictive of nutritional adequacy. In this sample, we found strong associations between parent reported feeding habits and (1) repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, (2) sensory features, and (3) externalizing and internalizing behavior. There was a lack of association between feeding behaviors and the social and communication deficits of ASD and cognitive levels. Increases in the degree of problematic feeding behaviors predicted decrements in nutritional adequacy.

  8. Tobacco-related mortality among persons with mental health and substance abuse problems.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Frank C; Anteneh, Berhanu; Le, Thao; Delucchi, Kevin; Guydish, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The rate of cigarette smoking is greater among persons with mental health and/or substance abuse problems. There are few population-based datasets with which to study tobacco mortality in these vulnerable groups. The Oregon Health Authority identified persons who received publicly-funded mental health or substance abuse services from January 1996 through December 2005. These cases were then matched to Oregon Vital Statistics records for all deaths (N= 148,761) in the period 1999-2005. The rate of tobacco-related death rates was higher among persons with substance abuse problems only (53.6%) and those with both substance abuse and mental health problems (46.8%), as compared to the general population (30.7%). The rate of tobacco-related deaths among persons with mental health problems (30%) was similar to that in the general population. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment alone, or receiving both substance abuse and mental health treatment, were more likely to die and more likely to die prematurely of tobacco-related causes as compared to the general population. Persons receiving mental health services alone were not more likely to die of tobacco-related causes, but tobacco-related deaths occurred earlier in this population.

  9. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Bourdreaux, Janet Titus; Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Tarifa, Rosana Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment. PMID:26626010

  10. Curiosity killed the cocktail? Curiosity, sensation seeking, and alcohol-related problems in college women.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Mullins, Peter M; Neighbors, Clayton; Blayney, Jessica A

    2010-05-01

    Curiosity, composed of two factors: exploration and absorption, has been previously associated with life satisfaction, life meaningfulness, and enhanced positive affect. It also shares some overlap with sensation seeking, which has been linked to alcohol use and other addictive behaviors. The present research explored the association between curiosity and college women's problematic drinking in the context of sensation seeking. Participants (79 women) completed questionnaires measuring curiosity, sensation seeking, alcohol consumption, and consequences related to alcohol consumption. A zero-inflated negative binomial model indicated that curiosity and sensation seeking accounted for unique variance in alcohol-related problems after controlling for drinking. The curiosity factors had opposing relationships to alcohol-related problems: higher scores on absorption were associated with more alcohol-related problems whereas higher scores on exploration were associated with fewer alcohol-related problems. Should findings be replicated, the curiosity factors may represent additional prevention and intervention targets. Future directions for research about curiosity and drinking and for the inclusion of positive psychology constructs in addictive behaviors research are discussed.

  11. [The quality of information systems on violence-related deaths in Argentina and Brazil between 1990 and 2010].

    PubMed

    Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo; Zunino, Marina Gabriela; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Violence-related deaths are a public health issue by virtue of the magnitude of their impact on society and on the health services. A study of the descriptive temporal trend was conducted using the official national information systems of violence-related mortality in Argentina and Brazil for the period from 1990 to 2010. Indicators were created to evaluate information quality by sex, age, and cause of death. The results demonstrate a temporal trend of improvement in the quality of the information systems. This trend is repeated especially when violence-related deaths are analyzed, with a decrease in the number of records for violence-related death of undetermined intent; as well as a high percentage of firearm-related deaths of undetermined intent in Argentina. The analysis of the quality of information systems regarding violence-related deaths makes it possible to detect problems and orient actions in order to obtain better quality information and therefore permit improvement in the creation of preventive public policies.

  12. Relation of perceived emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2002-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in middle-aged women. 99 middle-aged Spanish women, who studied in two adult schools, volunteered to participate. 49 were premenopausal and 45 were postmenopausal. These women completed the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and Health Survey SF-36. Scores were analyzed according to social, physical, and mental health, menopausal status, and scores on perceived emotional intelligence. Then, the data regarding the mental and physical health of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women were compared after controlling for age. No associations between menopausal status and health-related quality of life were found. Perceived skill at mood repair was significantly associated with scores on health-related quality of life in these middle-aged women. These findings provide empirical evidence that aspects of perceived emotional intelligence may account for the health-related quality of life in midlife including social, physical, and psychological symptoms.

  13. Numerical study of a parametric parabolic equation and a related inverse boundary value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustonen, Lauri

    2016-10-01

    We consider a time-dependent linear diffusion equation together with a related inverse boundary value problem. The aim of the inverse problem is to determine, based on observations on the boundary, the nonhomogeneous diffusion coefficient in the interior of an object. The method in this paper relies on solving the forward problem for a whole family of diffusivities by using a spectral Galerkin method in the high-dimensional parameter domain. The evaluation of the parametric solution and its derivatives is then completely independent of spatial and temporal discretizations. In the case of a quadratic approximation for the parameter dependence and a direct solver for linear least squares problems, we show that the evaluation of the parametric solution does not increase the complexity of any linearized subproblem arising from a Gauss-Newtonian method that is used to minimize a Tikhonov functional. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by diffusivity reconstructions in two and three spatial dimensions.

  14. Influences of motivational contexts on prescription drug misuse and related drug problems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Vuolo, Mike; Wells, Brooke E; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has emerged as a significant problem among young adults. While the effects of motivational contexts have been demonstrated for illicit drugs, the role of motivational contexts in prescription drug misuse remains understudied. Using data from 400 young adults recruited via time-space sampling, we examined the role of motivational contexts in the frequency of misuse of three prescription drug types as well as drug-related problems and symptoms of dependency. Both negative and positive motivations to use drugs are associated with increases in prescription drug misuse frequency. Only negative motivations are associated directly with drug problems and drug dependence, as well as indirectly via prescription pain killer misuse. Addressing positive and negative motivational contexts of prescription drug misuse may not only provide a means to reduce misuse and implement harm reduction measures, but may also inform the content of treatment plans for young adults with prescription drug misuse problems.

  15. Health-related quality of life after liver transplantation for adult recipients.

    PubMed

    Bownik, Hillary; Saab, Sammy

    2009-11-01

    1. Pretransplantation health-related quality of life scores are affected by the etiology of liver cirrhosis, with hepatocellular and cholestatic etiologies having higher health-related quality of life scores than alcohol or viral hepatitis etiologies. 2. Posttransplantation health-related quality of life scores are not affected by the etiology of the original liver cirrhosis, but transplant recipient scores continue to remain significantly lower than those of healthy patient controls. 3. During the first 6 months after liver transplantation, the majority of physical and mental components of health-related quality of life scores improve, but these increases are not sustained in the long term. 4. At 1 year after liver transplantation, emotional and mental health-related quality of life scores begin to decrease. 5. During postoperative years 1 to 5, episodes of acute cellular rejection and patient age over 60 years decrease physical function and overall general health-related quality of life scores. 6. Beyond 5 years after orthotopic liver transplantation, age over 60, osteoporosis, and episodes of chronic rejection decrease health-related quality of life scores through decreases in the physical function and bodily pain domains. 7. Hepatitis C as an indication for liver transplantation is an independent factor in decreasing posttransplantation health-related quality of life scores. 8. Further studies are necessary that include a complete evaluation of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status, education, and ethnicity in order to better understand factors influencing post-liver transplantation health-related quality of life scores. 9. The development of a health-related quality of life assessment tool specific to transplantation could help us to more accurately assess factors (such as immunosuppression) that alter posttransplantation health-related quality of life.

  16. Detection of medication-related problems in hospital practice: a review

    PubMed Central

    Manias, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the effectiveness of detection methods in terms of their ability to identify and accurately determine medication-related problems in hospitals. A search was conducted of databases from inception to June 2012. The following keywords were used in combination: medication error or adverse drug event or adverse drug reaction, comparison, detection, hospital and method. Seven detection methods were considered: chart review, claims data review, computer monitoring, direct care observation, interviews, prospective data collection and incident reporting. Forty relevant studies were located. Detection methods that were better able to identify medication-related problems compared with other methods tested in the same study included chart review, computer monitoring, direct care observation and prospective data collection. However, only small numbers of studies were involved in comparisons with direct care observation (n = 5) and prospective data collection (n = 6). There was little focus on detecting medication-related problems during various stages of the medication process, and comparisons associated with the seriousness of medication-related problems were examined in 19 studies. Only 17 studies involved appropriate comparisons with a gold standard, which provided details about sensitivities and specificities. In view of the relatively low identification of medication-related problems with incident reporting, use of this method in tracking trends over time should be met with some scepticism. Greater attention should be placed on combining methods, such as chart review and computer monitoring in examining trends. More research is needed on the use of claims data, direct care observation, interviews and prospective data collection as detection methods. PMID:23194349

  17. Ecosystem attributes related to tidal wetland effects on water quality.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S; Fischer, D

    2013-01-01

    Biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is central to nutrient cycling, carbon balance, and several ecosystem services, yet it is not always clear why levels of function might vary among systems. Wetlands are widely recognized for their ability to alter concentrations of solutes and particles as water moves through them, but we have only general expectations for what attributes of wetlands are linked to variability in these processes. We examined changes in several water quality variables (dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended particles) to ascertain which constituents are influenced during tidal exchange with a range of 17 tidal freshwater wetlands along the Hudson River, New York, USA. Many of the constituents showed significant differences among wetlands or between flooding and ebbing tidal concentrations, indicating wetland-mediated effects. For dissolved oxygen, the presence of even small proportional cover by submerged aquatic vegetation increased the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water returned to the main channel following a daytime tidal exchange. Nitrate concentrations showed consistent declines during ebbing tides, but the magnitude of decline varied greatly among sites. The proportional cover by graminoid-dominated high intertidal vegetation accounted for over 40% of the variation in nitrate decline. Knowing which water-quality alterations are associated with which attributes helps suggest underlying mechanisms and identifies what functions might be susceptible to change as sea level rise or salinity intrusion drives shifts in wetland vegetation cover.

  18. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  19. Investigating Possible Reciprocal Relations Between Depressive and Problem Gambling Symptoms in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mackinnon, Sean P.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Previous cross-sectional research has shown that depression and problem gambling co-occur. Longitudinal research, however, allows for a better determination of directionality, as behavioural changes in gambling involvement can be more reliably studied over time. Our study assesses symptoms of depression and problem gambling across 4 waves and addresses whether their relation is directional (with one reliably preceding the other), bidirectional, or pathoplastic. Method: As part of the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults, prospective data were collected on Canadian young adults’ (Wave 1: n = 679, 51.8% female, aged 18 to 20 years) depressive symptoms, involvement in gambling, and risky gambling behaviour. Recruitment and the first cycle of data collection (Wave 1) took place in fall 2007. Three additional waves of data collection then occurred in 12- to 18-month intervals: fall 2008, spring 2010, and spring 2011. The Problem Gambling Severity Index and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview—Short Form were administered through telephone interview at each wave. Results: Bivariate growth curves showed that depressive and problem gambling symptoms were positively correlated at Wave 1, Wave 2, and Wave 4. Neither disorder was found to be a risk factor for the other, and depression and problem gambling were not pathoplastically related (that is, increases in one did not result in increases in the other over time, and vice versa). Conclusions: While depression and problem gambling are related, their co-occurrence may be better explained not by depressive- or gambling-related risk, but by the presence of a common underlying factor (such as substance abuse). PMID:27253700

  20. How number line estimation skills relate to neural activations in single digit subtraction problems.

    PubMed

    Berteletti, I; Man, G; Booth, J R

    2015-02-15

    The Number Line (NL) task requires judging the relative numerical magnitude of a number and estimating its value spatially on a continuous line. Children's skill on this task has been shown to correlate with and predict future mathematical competence. Neurofunctionally, this task has been shown to rely on brain regions involved in numerical processing. However, there is no direct evidence that performance on the NL task is related to brain areas recruited during arithmetical processing and that these areas are domain-specific to numerical processing. In this study, we test whether 8- to 14-year-old's behavioral performance on the NL task is related to fMRI activation during small and large single-digit subtraction problems. Domain-specific areas for numerical processing were independently localized through a numerosity judgment task. Results show a direct relation between NL estimation performance and the amount of the activation in key areas for arithmetical processing. Better NL estimators showed a larger problem size effect than poorer NL estimators in numerical magnitude (i.e., intraparietal sulcus) and visuospatial areas (i.e., posterior superior parietal lobules), marked by less activation for small problems. In addition, the direction of the activation with problem size within the IPS was associated with differences in accuracies for small subtraction problems. This study is the first to show that performance in the NL task, i.e. estimating the spatial position of a number on an interval, correlates with brain activity observed during single-digit subtraction problem in regions thought to be involved in numerical magnitude and spatial processes.

  1. Dimensions of disinhibited personality and their relation with alcohol use and problems

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Finn, Peter R.; Endres, Michael J.; Gerst, Kyle R.; Spinola, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been associated with different aspects of disinhibited personality and antisociality, less is known about the specific relationships among different domains of disinhibited personality, antisociality, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. The current study was designed to address three goals, (i) to provide evidence of a three-factor model of disinhibited personality (comprised of impulsivity [IMP], risk taking/ low harm avoidance [RTHA], excitement seeking [ES]), (ii) to test hypotheses regarding the association between each dimension and alcohol use and problems, and (iii) to test the hypothesis that antisociality (social deviance proneness [SDP]) accounts for the direct association between IMP and alcohol problems, while ES is directly related to alcohol use. Measures of disinhibited personality IMP, RTHA, ES and SDP and alcohol use and problems were assessed in a sample of young adults (N=474), which included a high proportion of individuals with AUDs. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of disinhibited personality reflecting IMP, RTHA, and ES. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that IMP was specifically associated with alcohol problems, while ES was specifically associated with alcohol use. In a second SEM, SDP accounted for the majority of the variance in alcohol problems associated with IMP. The results suggest aspects of IMP associated with SDP represent a direct vulnerability to alcohol problems. In addition, the results suggest that ES reflects a specific vulnerability to excessive alcohol use, which is then associated with alcohol problems, while RTHA is not specifically associated with alcohol use or problems when controlling for IMP and ES. PMID:23588138

  2. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  3. Applications of dynamic scheduling technique to space related problems: Some case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakasuka, Shinichi; Ninomiya, Tetsujiro

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the applications of 'Dynamic Scheduling' technique, which has been invented for the scheduling of Flexible Manufacturing System, to two space related scheduling problems: operation scheduling of a future space transportation system, and resource allocation in a space system with limited resources such as space station or space shuttle.

  4. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament…

  5. Relations between Secondary Pupils' Conceptions about Functions and Problem Solving in Different Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti; Eracleous, Anastasia; Gagatsis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores pupils' constructed definitions of the concept of function in relation to their abilities in dealing with tasks of functions involving different forms of representations and problem solving tasks. A major concern is also to examine the interrelations between these three ways of thinking about or dealing with the concept…

  6. [Psychological problems related to the sexual stimulation video (SSV) test in the diagnosis of erectile disorders].

    PubMed

    Rosso, C; Furlan, P M; Rolle, L; Fontana, D

    1994-09-01

    The Authors analyze scientific community's attitude towards VSS test. Related psychological problems are examined: the doctor's fear to be accused of voyeurism, the doctor's inadequacy in "invading" patient's field of intimacy, the doctor's relationship with his own erotic fantasies and with pornography, the "castrating" aspects in hospital environment and so on.

  7. Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Level of Problem Solving and Its Relation with Creative Drama Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Suna

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks an answer to the question "Can Creative Drama programs be benefited from in developing the experiences of noticing educational and psychosocial problems and solving them in relation with the teaching profession?." The importance given to Creative Drama method in educational programs increases day by day. Drama education…

  9. Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco…

  10. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  11. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  12. Vision Problems and Their Relation to Learning, Working, Living and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodnoy, Bernard E.

    Presented is an abstract of a lecture-workshop presentation on vision problems and their relation to learning, working, living, and health. Areas covered by the author in his lecture are outlined as including the essential tests of the primary vision examination; the value of testing depth perception at the reading distance; the testing and care…

  13. The Relation between Dimensions of Attachment and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions…

  14. Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokler, Riza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five…

  15. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  16. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  17. Is There a Causal Relation between Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480…

  18. Epistemic Profiles and Self-Regulated Learning: Examining Relations in the Context of Mathematics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.

    2008-01-01

    Relations were examined between epistemic profiles, regulation of cognition, and mathematics problem solving. Two hundred sixty-eight students were sampled from undergraduate mathematics and statistics courses. Students completed inventories reflecting their epistemic profiles and learning strategies, and were profiled as rational, empirical, or…

  19. Human-Relations Training with Seventh-Grade Boys Identified as Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Betty; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Boys (N=12), identified as constituting behavior problems in a class of underachievers, were given group human-relations training. Self-esteem was improved by training procedures including videotape as well as facilitative communication. Group experiences seemed to affect classroom behavior positively, as evidenced by a decrease in behavior…

  20. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  1. Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy in Families with Conduct-Problem Children: Links with Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Windecker-Nelson, Bess

    2004-01-01

    We addressed the question of whether mothers of conduct-problem (CP) children differ from mothers of non-CP children in their awareness and coaching of emotion, and also examined whether mother's awareness and coaching of emotion is associated with better peer relations in CP children. Meta-emotion philosophy, assessed through audio taped…

  2. Relation of Adolescent Mothers' History of Antisocial Behavior to Child Conduct Problems and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the extent to which maternal antisocial behavior (ASB) is directly related to child conduct problems and social competence and assessed the potential mediating role of negative parenting. The sample included 93 adolescent mothers and their children (44 boys, 49 girls). Mothers retrospectively reported about their ASB since the child's…

  3. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  4. Religious Practice and Health-Related Quality of Life in Iranian Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Sharajabad, Fariba Alizadeh; Sanaati, Favziye

    2017-03-24

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between religious practice and health-related quality of life in adolescent girls in Tabriz, Iran, 2014-2015. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 520 female students who were selected using the random sampling method. Religious practice and health-related quality of life questionnaires were used for data collection. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between health-related quality of life and received religious support, religiosity, father's and mother's education, father's occupation, family economic status, and the number of children. It is necessary to find ways to further promote religious practices in adolescents and ultimately their quality of life.

  5. Functional assessment of geriatric patients in regard to health-related quality of life (HRQoL)

    PubMed Central

    Muszalik, Marta; Kornatowski, Tomasz; Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Dijkstra, Ate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The main aim of our research was to evaluate general health, functioning, and performance parameters, as well as care problems of Geriatric Clinic inpatients in relation to deficits in fulfilling needs. The assessment of health-related quality of life was also performed. Patients and methods The research subjects were patients attending the Clinic of Geriatrics: 149 women and 78 men; 227 persons in total. The research was carried out using a diagnostic poll method, with the application of the Activities of Daily Living questionnaire of assessment of daily efficiency on the basis of the Katz index, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living questionnaire, the Care Dependency Scale used to measure the level of care dependency and human needs, and the Nottingham Health Profile scale. Results The results showed that the majority of respondents achieved high and medium levels of functional capability. The main problems associated with the fulfillment of needs were difficulties with the adoption of appropriate body posture, movement restrictions, and problems related to participating in unassisted leisure activities outside the home. The general deficit in fulfilling the needs of the patients was low. The most significant problems were related to sleep disorders, restrictions in freedom of movement, loss of vital energy, and ailments resulting in the observable presence of pain. Conclusion Good daily functioning of elderly patients significantly depended on their intellectual and mental efficiency. Elderly patients require a comprehensive, holistic approach to a variety of problems that occur with aging. PMID:25565788

  6. Racism-related stress, Africultural coping, and religious problem-solving among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Coles, Ma'at E Lyris; Constantine, Madonna G

    2006-07-01

    This study explored the extent to which three types of racism-related stress (i.e., individual, institutional, and cultural) would predict the use of specific Africultural coping strategies (i.e., cognitive/emotional debriefing, spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping) and religious problem-solving styles (i.e., self-directing, deferring, and collaborative) in a sample of 284 African American men and women. The authors found that higher institutional racism-related stress was associated with greater use of cognitive/emotional debriefing, spiritual-centered, and collective coping in African American women. Findings also indicated that higher cultural racism-related stress was predictive of lower use of self-directing religious problem-solving in African American women. Moreover, higher perceived cultural racism-related stress was related to greater use of collective coping strategies in African American men. Individual racism-related stress was not predictive of any forms of Africultural coping strategies or religious problem-solving. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Job dissatisfaction as a contributor to stress-related mental health problems among Japanese civil servants.

    PubMed

    Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness. This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3,172 civil servants (2,233 men and 939 women) in 1998, taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems. In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health.

  8. Relations between local and global perceptual image quality and visual masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Mushfiqul; Patil, Pranita; Hagan, Martin T.; Chandler, Damon M.

    2015-03-01

    Perceptual quality assessment of digital images and videos are important for various image-processing applications. For assessing the image quality, researchers have often used the idea of visual masking (or distortion visibility) to design image-quality predictors specifically for the near-threshold distortions. However, it is still unknown that while assessing the quality of natural images, how the local distortion visibilities relate with the local quality scores. Furthermore, the summing mechanism of the local quality scores to predict the global quality scores is also crucial for better prediction of the perceptual image quality. In this paper, the local and global qualities of six images and six distortion levels were measured using subjective experiments. Gabor-noise target was used as distortion in the quality-assessment experiments to be consistent with our previous study [Alam, Vilankar, Field, and Chandler, Journal of Vision, 2014], in which the local root-mean-square contrast detection thresholds of detecting the Gabor-noise target were measured at each spatial location of the undistorted images. Comparison of the results of this quality-assessment experiment and the previous detection experiment shows that masking predicted the local quality scores more than 95% correctly above 15 dB threshold within 5% subject scores. Furthermore, it was found that an approximate squared summation of local-quality scores predicted the global quality scores suitably (Spearman rank-order correlation 0:97).

  9. Solutions of the benchmark problems by the dispersion-relation-preserving scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Shen, H.; Kurbatskii, K. A.; Auriault, L.

    1995-01-01

    The 7-point stencil Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme of Tam and Webb is used to solve all the six categories of the CAA benchmark problems. The purpose is to show that the scheme is capable of solving linear, as well as nonlinear aeroacoustics problems accurately. Nonlinearities, inevitably, lead to the generation of spurious short wave length numerical waves. Often, these spurious waves would overwhelm the entire numerical solution. In this work, the spurious waves are removed by the addition of artificial selective damping terms to the discretized equations. Category 3 problems are for testing radiation and outflow boundary conditions. In solving these problems, the radiation and outflow boundary conditions of Tam and Webb are used. These conditions are derived from the asymptotic solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Category 4 problems involved solid walls. Here, the wall boundary conditions for high-order schemes of Tam and Dong are employed. These conditions require the use of one ghost value per boundary point per physical boundary condition. In the second problem of this category, the governing equations, when written in cylindrical coordinates, are singular along the axis of the radial coordinate. The proper boundary conditions at the axis are derived by applying the limiting process of r approaches 0 to the governing equations. The Category 5 problem deals with the numerical noise issue. In the present approach, the time-independent mean flow solution is computed first. Once the residual drops to the machine noise level, the incident sound wave is turned on gradually. The solution is marched in time until a time-periodic state is reached. No exact solution is known for the Category 6 problem. Because of this, the problem is formulated in two totally different ways, first as a scattering problem then as a direct simulation problem. There is good agreement between the two numerical solutions. This offers confidence in the computed results. Both

  10. Severe hip displacement reduces health-related quality of life in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ramstad, Kjersti; Jahnsen, Reidun B; Terjesen, Terje

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Hip displacement is common in children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) and can cause problems such as pain, contractures, and nursing difficulties. Caregiver priorities and child health index of life with disabilities (CPCHILD) is a recently developed measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children with severe CP. The associations between CPCHILD scores and hip displacement have not been investigated. We explored the effect of hip displacement on HRQL. Patients and methods 67 children were recruited from the population-based Norwegian CP register. Mean age was 9 (7–12) years. There were 40 boys. Gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) distribution was 12 level III, 17 level IV, and 38 level V. Hip displacement was assessed by radiographic migration percentage (MP). The criterion for hip displacement was MP of the worst hip of ≥40%. Primary caregivers responded to 5 of the 6 domains of the CPCHILD questionnaire. Results Hip displacement was found in 18 children and it was significantly associated with lower scores on the CPCHILD domains 3 (Comfort and Emotions) and 5 (Health), but not with domains 1 (Activities of Daily Living/Personal Care), 2 (Positioning, Transfer, and Mobility), and 6 (Overall Quality of Life). GMFCS level V was a significant predictor of low scores in all the domains. Interpretation For the assessment of HRQL in children with severe CP and hip problems, we propose a modified and simplified version of the CPCHILD consisting of 14 of 37 questions. This would reduce the responders’ burden and probably increase the response rate in clinical studies without losing important information. PMID:27892753

  11. Severe hip displacement reduces health-related quality of life in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ramstad, Kjersti; Jahnsen, Reidun B; Terjesen, Terje

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Hip displacement is common in children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) and can cause problems such as pain, contractures, and nursing difficulties. Caregiver priorities and child health index of life with disabilities (CPCHILD) is a recently developed measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children with severe CP. The associations between CPCHILD scores and hip displacement have not been investigated. We explored the effect of hip displacement on HRQL. Patients and methods - 67 children were recruited from the population-based Norwegian CP register. Mean age was 9 (7-12) years. There were 40 boys. Gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) distribution was 12 level III, 17 level IV, and 38 level V. Hip displacement was assessed by radiographic migration percentage (MP). The criterion for hip displacement was MP of the worst hip of ≥40%. Primary caregivers responded to 5 of the 6 domains of the CPCHILD questionnaire. Results - Hip displacement was found in 18 children and it was significantly associated with lower scores on the CPCHILD domains 3 (Comfort and Emotions) and 5 (Health), but not with domains 1 (Activities of Daily Living/Personal Care), 2 (Positioning, Transfer, and Mobility), and 6 (Overall Quality of Life). GMFCS level V was a significant predictor of low scores in all the domains. Interpretation - For the assessment of HRQL in children with severe CP and hip problems, we propose a modified and simplified version of the CPCHILD consisting of 14 of 37 questions. This would reduce the responders' burden and probably increase the response rate in clinical studies without losing important information.

  12. The effects of group monitoring on fatigue-related einstellung during mathematical problem solving.

    PubMed

    Frings, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Fatigue resulting from sleep deficit can lead to decreased performance in a variety of cognitive domains and can result in potentially serious accidents. The present study aimed to test whether fatigue leads to increased Einstellung (low levels of cognitive flexibility) in a series of mathematical problem-solving tasks. Many situations involving fatigue and problem solving also involve people working in teams. However, little research has considered the role of social processes in managing the effects of fatigue. Research into the group monitoring hypothesis suggests that membership in a team can offset the effects of impairing factors such as fatigue upon performance. Thus, the present study also aimed to test whether group membership exacerbates or ameliorates the negative effects of fatigue. During the course of a weekend military training exercise, participants (N = 171) attempted to solve a series of problems either alone or in a team, and while either reasonably alert (nonfatigued) or fatigued through sleep deficit. Fatigued problem solvers working alone showed increased Einstellung. In contrast, and in line with the group monitoring hypothesis, teams of fatigued problem solvers did not experience increased Einstellung. The present study also showed that teams with a group member who was relatively less fatigued experienced less Einstellung than other groups. These effects persisted even once participants were cued toward more direct strategies. These findings highlight the risk of Einstellung when fatigued and also the importance of team membership with reference to problem solving in an occupational context.

  13. Early childhood externalising behaviour problems: child, parenting, and family-related predictors over time.

    PubMed

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R; Baghurst, Peter A; Sawyer, Michael G; Prior, Margot R; Clark, Jennifer J; Arney, Fiona M; Carbone, Josephine A

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the dynamic relationships between child, parenting, and family-related predictor variables and early childhood externalising behaviour problems. A community sample of 395 Australian children was followed longitudinally, and assessed at 4 and 6 years with the Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and standard measures of parenting, temperament, and familial adversity. Variables based on the average scores across the two assessments and the change in scores between assessments were utilised as predictors of parent-reported and teacher-reported externalising behaviour problems at age 6. It was hypothesised that both higher average scores and more detrimental changes in scores, would independently predict externalising problems at age 6. Multivariable analyses found that the presence of parent-reported child externalising problems in six-year-olds were predicted by: (i) the presence of parent-reported child externalising problems at age 4, (ii) higher average "teacher-reported child externalising behaviour," "inflexible temperament," "non-persistent temperament," and "over-reactive parenting," and (iii) an increased "inflexible temperament" score between age 4 and age 6. The presence of teacher-reported child externalising problems at age 6 was predicted by higher average "parent-reported child externalising behaviour," and "over-reactive parenting." The results provide further evidence of the adverse impact of continuing high levels of temperament difficulties and over-reactive parenting on externalising behaviour in early childhood. However, contrary to expectations, the contribution of including the dynamic change scores was limited.

  14. Development and genetics of brain temporal stability related to attention problems in adolescent twins.

    PubMed

    Smit, Dirk J A; Anokhin, Andrey P

    2016-07-12

    The brain continuously develops and reorganizes to support an expanding repertoire of behaviors and increasingly complex cognition. These processes may, however, also result in the appearance or disappearance of specific neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention problems. To investigate whether brain activity changed during adolescence, how genetics shape this change, and how these changes were related to attention problems, we measured EEG activity in 759 twins and siblings, assessed longitudinally in four waves (12, 14, 16, and 18years of age). Attention problems were assessed with the SWAN at waves 12, 14, and 16. To characterize functional brain development, we used a measure of temporal stability (TS) of brain oscillations over the recording time of 5min reflecting the tendency of a brain to maintain the same oscillatory state for longer or shorter periods. Increased TS may reflect the brain's tendency to maintain stability, achieve focused attention, and thus reduce "mind wandering" and attention problems. The results indicate that brain TS is increased across the scalp from 12 to 18. TS showed large individual differences that were heritable. Change in TS (alpha oscillations) was heritable between 12 and 14 and between 14 and 16 for the frontal brain areas. Absolute levels of brain TS at each wave were positively correlated with attention problems but not significantly. High and low attention problems subjects showed different developmental trajectories in TS, which was significant in a cluster of frontal leads. These results indicate that trajectories in brain TS development are a biomarker for the developing brain. TS in brain oscillations is highly heritable, and age-related change in TS is also heritable in selected brain areas. These results suggest that high and low attention problems subjects are at different stages of brain development.

  15. Summary of biological investigations relating to water quality in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages, Wisconsin and Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder, B.C.; Rheaume, S.J.; Parsons, S.R.; Lenz, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    Most biological studies related to waterquality conditions in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages have focused on populations and community structure of aquatic biota. Chemical concentrations in tissues of aquatic biota have been the next most common area of research. Our review suggests a paucity of data related to the health of all types of aquatic biota, especially amphibians, invertebrates, and reptiles; toxicity studies also were relatively uncommon. Overall, organisms primarily studied have been fish and invertebrates, although birds are most frequently examined in studies of organism health. The Fox/ Wolf Subbasin has been the focus of many more studies than the other subbasins, most likely because of the greater extent and severity of known water-quality problems in the Lower Fox River/Green Bay area over the past several decades and because it is the largest subbasin. Studies in the other subbasins are needed to adequately assess the water quality of these areas.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter. PMID:26540067

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life of Former Lead Workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Martha Carvalho Pereira; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lins, Liliane

    2015-11-03

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life of former lead workers. Using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36), a cross-section design study evaluated the health-related quality of life of 186 former workers of a lead smelter that operated in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Brazil, from 1960 to 1993, when it closed down. The smelter had very poor occupational and environmental hygiene standards. The health-related quality of life of former lead workers was low, compared to population-based and other nosological groups from Brazil. Former lead workers who indicated metal poisoning, difficulty getting another job and who could not get another job after dismissal by the smelter presented poorer health-related quality of life. Former lead workers with poor health-related quality of life form part of the huge occupational liability left by the Santo Amaro lead smelter.

  18. Structural mapping in statistical word problems: A relational reasoning approach to Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric D; Tubau, Elisabet

    2016-09-27

    Presenting natural frequencies facilitates Bayesian inferences relative to using percentages. Nevertheless, many people, including highly educated and skilled reasoners, still fail to provide Bayesian responses to these computationally simple problems. We show that the complexity of relational reasoning (e.g., the structural mapping between the presented and requested relations) can help explain the remaining difficulties. With a non-Bayesian inference that required identical arithmetic but afforded a more direct structural mapping, performance was universally high. Furthermore, reducing the relational demands of the task through questions that directed reasoners to use the presented statistics, as compared with questions that prompted the representation of a second, similar sample, also significantly improved reasoning. Distinct error patterns were also observed between these presented- and similar-sample scenarios, which suggested differences in relational-reasoning strategies. On the other hand, while higher numeracy was associated with better Bayesian reasoning, higher-numerate reasoners were not immune to the relational complexity of the task. Together, these findings validate the relational-reasoning view of Bayesian problem solving and highlight the importance of considering not only the presented task structure, but also the complexity of the structural alignment between the presented and requested relations.

  19. Assessing the status of research on violence-related problems among youth.

    PubMed

    Acosta, O M; Albus, K E; Reynolds, M W; Spriggs, D; Weist, M D

    2001-06-01

    Presents results of a systematic review of abstracts on studies related to violence and youth in an effort to identify areas that have received little attention in the psychological literature and to present recommendations for future research. A total of 1,168 empirical articles on violence-related problems in youth were identified by a PsycINFO (American Psychological Association, 1980-1999) search. These articles were then classified in a multidimensional grid, allowing for comparisons among different types of articles. A review of abstracts from these articles indicated that most of the research activity has been descriptive (e.g., reviewing correlates or predictors of violence involvement) or assessment related (e.g., evaluating specific measures). Fewer articles examined the treatment or prevention of violence-related problems among youth. Further, the majority of studies pertained to direct exposure to violence (as a victim or perpetrator), with very few studies looking at the effects of witnessing violence, knowing individuals exposed to violence, or being exposed to violence through the media. Comparing treatment and prevention articles, we found that the least empirical attention was paid to the prevention of violence-related problems in youth, and not a single study was identified through this search that sought to examine the prevention of youth witnessing violence. Implications for future research agendas are discussed.

  20. [Intercultural nursing: analysis of changes in the perception of relational problems with foreign patients].

    PubMed

    Manara, Duilio F; Isernia, Ilaria; Buzzetti, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Today's society is highly impacted by immigration, as well as healthcare system. It is becoming increasingly common and frequent to establish relationships with patients with different cultural backgrounds. The aim of this study is analyzing Italian nurses' perception of the relational dynamics with foreign patients, to determine its evolution, and to identify the variables which can affect the quality of care. The study is both qualitative and quantitative with descriptive aim, using a questionnaire that assesses the theoretical-practical level of preparation, both perceptive and effective, of nurses when assisting foreign patients. To evaluate the emotional and experiential impact of the relationship with foreign patients, the difficulties encountered while establishing such relationship, and the resolution strategies - both effective and potential. The sample, composed of 101 Italian nurses employed at SanRaffaele Hospital in 6 specific Operational Units, resulted in a total of 91 returned questionnaires during the period May-June 2011. The data was analyzed through statistical instruments and compared to the results of a similar study done in 2004. The experience of intercultural nursing is seen by the sample as interesting and rewarding. The vast majority of nurses have positive responses. The more frequent issues are those connected with communication with foreign patients, and those connected with the increase workload due the presence of foreign patients. Nurses responded to difficulties more with human skills than with specific abilities, and tend to delegate the problem to the Cultural Mediation service. This new issue has a very high impact on nurses. The emerged difficulties have not decreased over time, this due to the lack of a proper policy within health care facilities in recent years, with the exception of a little improvement on the academic education. However the current academic education does not provide solutions useful in the everyday routing

  1. Potential problems relative to TDRS/IUS tilt table elevation with failed VRCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J.

    1980-01-01

    Operational concerns and preliminary solution alternatives related to elevating the inertial upper stage/tracking and data relay satellite (IUS/TDRS) with a failed orbiter vernier reaction control system (VRCS) are presented. Problems arise from the combination of TDRS thermal constraints and tilt table constraints (the primary reaction control system (PRCS) cannot be used to hold attitude while the tilt table is being elevated), and the problems are compounded by the minimum PRCS attitude deadband. The potential solution options are affected by the launch window, flight profile, crew procedures, vehicle capability and constraints, and flight rules.

  2. Analysing the Relationship between the Problem-Solving-Related Beliefs, Competence and Teaching of Three Cypriot Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Xenofontos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the problem-solving-related beliefs, competence and classroom practice of three Cypriot upper-primary teachers. Data derived from semi-structured interviews focused on teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematical problems, problem-solving, and their competence as both problem-solvers and teachers of…

  3. The mind-brain relation and neuroscientific foundations: I. The problem and neuroscientific approaches.

    PubMed

    Meissner, W W

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the mind-body relation is crucial for any meaningful advance in the psychoanalytic understanding of the neurobiological integrity of the human person and of the interaction between psychoanalysis and the neurosciences. Recent neuroscientific research has contributed significant findings having important implications for understanding the mind-body relation. Here the author comments on some theoretical positions regarding the mind-body problem of brain researchers in terms of the monistic-dualistic alternatives. Furthermore, the author briefly considers some of the recent technological advancements that have revolutionized thinking specifically about the mind-brain relation.

  4. The Effectiveness of the Higher Education Quality Assessment System: Problems and Countermeasures in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guangli, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the higher education quality assessment system is essentially a matter of policy evaluation. On the macro level, such a system refers to external quality assessment, which includes government evaluation, quality certification, and university rankings. Depending on the degree of government intervention, the external quality…

  5. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  6. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  7. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  8. Guidelines for Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems Associated with Kilns, Copiers, and Welding in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Guidelines for controlling indoor air quality problems associated with kilns, copiers, and welding in schools are provided in this document. Individual sections on kilns, duplicating equipment, and welding operations contain information on the following: sources of contaminants; health effects; methods of control; ventilation strategies; and…

  9. Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    U.S. House of Representative members requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes…

  10. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    PubMed

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air.

  11. Health Related Quality of Life in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical and Demographic Related Factors in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Sezen; Erermis, Serpil; Ozturk, Onder; Ozbaran, Burcu; Demiral, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Aydin, Cahide

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the Health Related Quality of Life and related clinical variables (HRQoL) of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We included 102 children with ASD (46 with autism, 38 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and 18 with Asperger's syndrome (AS)) and 39 typically developing children…

  12. Daily mood and sleep: reciprocal relations and links with adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-02-01

    Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health.

  13. Alcohol-related problems and life satisfaction predict motivation to change among mandated college students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Cero, Ian; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the role specific types of alcohol-related problems and life satisfaction play in predicting motivation to change alcohol use. Participants were 548 college students mandated to complete a brief intervention following an alcohol-related policy violation. Using hierarchical multiple regression, we tested for the presence of interaction and quadratic effects on baseline data collected prior to the intervention. A significant interaction indicated that the relationship between a respondent's personal consequences and his/her motivation to change differs depending upon the level of concurrent social consequences. Additionally quadratic effects for abuse/dependence symptoms and life satisfaction were found. The quadratic probes suggest that abuse/dependence symptoms and poor life satisfaction are both positively associated with motivation to change for a majority of the sample; however, the nature of these relationships changes for participants with more extreme scores. Results support the utility of using a multidimensional measure of alcohol related problems and assessing non-linear relationships when assessing predictors of motivation to change. The results also suggest that the best strategies for increasing motivation may vary depending on the types of alcohol-related problems and level of life satisfaction the student is experiencing and highlight potential directions for future research.

  14. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  15. Social impressions while drinking account for the relationship between alcohol-related problems and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Matthews, Russell A

    2012-04-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to experiencing alcohol-related problems; yet we know little about factors that may account for this relationship. One possibility is that socially anxious individuals hold beliefs about the impressions they make on others while drinking and these beliefs play an important role in their drinking behaviors. The present study used exploratory factor analysis among participants with clinically elevated social anxiety (n=166) to develop a measure, the Social Impressions while Drinking Scale (SIDS), to assess beliefs regarding others' impressions of drinking behaviors that may be particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals. A valuations scale was also developed to assess the importance of each belief. Empirically-derived subscales were identified with adequate reliability. Among socially anxious participants, the Gregarious and Sexual Facilitation subscales were uniquely related to drinking problems and frequency respectively. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety achieved higher scores on all SIDS subscales compared to those with lower social anxiety (n=166). Several SIDS scales mediated the relations between social anxiety group status and drinking problems (Interaction Fears, Observation Fears, Aggression, Gregariousness). Results highlight the importance of examining beliefs specific to high-risk populations in assessing their alcohol-related behaviors.

  16. Mental health problems during puberty: Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N=2230, age 11.09±0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N=2149, age 13.56±0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental health was assessed by the Youth Self-Report, pubertal (Tanner) stage by parent-rated drawings of secondary sex characteristics. Overall, higher Tanner stages were related to more reported tiredness, irritability, rule-breaking behaviors, and substance use; and fewer fears and somatic complaints. Girls showed increases in social uncertainty, depressed mood, and worries; boys a decrease in self-criticism. Increasing problems during puberty were mostly related to the process of physical maturation, whereas decreasing problems were rather related to general age-related developments. Pubertal timing was associated with different symptoms than pubertal status or age. Puberty seems to affect girls more negatively than boys.

  17. Promoting health-related quality of life in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Wong, Florence

    2017-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are an effective treatment to reduce mortality rates in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death. However, ICDs have been shown to reduce the patient's mental and physical health-related quality of life. It is essential for nurses to have an understanding of the factors associated with health-related quality of life in patients with ICDs, to develop appropriate strategies to improve patient care and optimise quality of life. A case study is included in this article to enhance understanding of the effects these devices can have on a patient's quality of life.

  18. Children enrolled in public pre-K: the relation of family life, neighborhood quality, and socioeconomic resources to early competence.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Oscar; Bryant, Donna; McCandies, Terry; Burchinal, Margaret; Early, Diane; Clifford, Richard; Pianta, Robert; Howes, Carollee

    2006-04-01

    This article presents data on the family and social environments of 501 children enrolled in public sponsored pre-K in 5 states and tests the relation of these resources to child competence. Structured interviews and questionnaires provide information from parents about the family's social and economic status. Direct assessments and teacher reports provide data on children's literacy, numeracy, and behavioral problems. A majority of the children served in public pre-K lived in poverty and showed decrements in language but not in other domains. A socioeconomic resource factor consisting of parental education, household income, and material need predicted all domains of children's functioning. Children from households high in socioeconomic resources entered pre-K with more well developed language and math skill but fewer behavioral problems than their disadvantaged peers. Neighborhood quality status was related to language competence and mother's marital status to math competence. Neighborhood quality and income level may have their impact on child competence through their relation to dyadic quality and the health and the psychological well-being of the parents.

  19. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  20. Still a difficult business? Negotiating alcohol-related problems in general practice consultations.

    PubMed

    Rapley, Tim; May, Carl; Frances Kaner, Eileen

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes general practitioners' (GPs) experiences of detecting and managing alcohol and alcohol-related problems in consultations. We undertook qualitative research in two phases in the North-East of England. Initially, qualitative interviews with 29 GPs explored their everyday work with patients with alcohol-related issues. We then undertook group interviews--two with GPs and one with a primary care team--where they discussed and challenged findings of the interviews. The GPs reported routinely discussing alcohol with patients with a range of alcohol-related problems. GPs believed that this work is important, but felt that until patients were willing to accept that their alcohol consumption was problematic they could achieve very little. They tentatively introduced alcohol as a potential problem, re-introduced the topic periodically, and then waited until the patient decided to change their behaviour. They were aware that they could identify and manage more patients. A lack of time and having to work with the multiple problems that patients brought to consultations were the main factors that stopped GPs managing more risky drinkers. Centrally, we compared the results of our study with [Thom, B., & Tellez, C. (1986). A difficult business-Detecting and managing alcohol-problems in general-practice. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 405-418] seminal study that was undertaken 20 years ago. We show how the intellectual, moral, emotional and practical difficulties that GPs currently face are quite similar to those faced by GPs from 20 years ago. As the definition of what could constitute abnormal alcohol consumption has expanded, so the range of consultations that they may have to negotiate these difficulties in has also expanded.

  1. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

  2. Gender Differences in 16-Year Trends in Assault- and Police-Related Problems Due to Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and predictors of physical assault and having trouble with the police due to drinking over 16 years among women and men who, at baseline, were untreated for their alcohol use disorder. Predictors examined were the personal characteristics of impulsivity, self-efficacy, and problem-solving and emotional-discharge coping, as well as outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation. Women and men were similar on rates of perpetrating assault due to drinking, but men were more likely to have had trouble with the police due to drinking. Respondents who, at baseline, were more impulsive and relied more on emotional discharge coping, and less on problem-solving coping, assaulted others more frequently during the first year of follow-up. Similarly, less problem-solving coping at baseline was related to having had trouble with the police more often at one and 16 years due to drinking. The association between impulsivity and more frequent assault was stronger for women, whereas associations of self-efficacy and problem-solving coping with less frequent assault and police trouble were stronger for men. Participation in AA was also associated with a lower likelihood of having trouble with the police at one year, especially for men. Interventions aimed at decreasing impulsivity and emotional discharge coping, and bolstering self-efficacy and problem-solving coping, during substance abuse treatment, and encouragement to become involved in AA, may be helpful in reducing assaultive and other illegal behaviors. PMID:19446963

  3. The Universities and Environmental Quality--Commitment to Problem Focused Education. A Report to The President's Environmental Quality Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhart, John S.; Cherniack, Stacie

    This report is based on a study of a few of the multidisciplinary enviromental programs in over 30 universities. The study was undertaken to discover what kind of programs have been tried, which ones have been successful, and how the federal government might encourage effective interdisciplinary problem-focused programs. The report reviews the…

  4. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  5. TSCA Work Plan Chemical Problem Formulation and Initial Assessment Tetrabromobisphenol A and Related Chemicals Cluster Flame Retardants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released a problem formulation for TBBPA and related chemicals used as a flame retardants in plastics/printed circuit boards for electronics. The goal of this problem formulation was to identify scenarios where further risk analysis may be necessary.

  6. A study of medication-related problems in stroke patients: A need for pharmaceutical care

    PubMed Central

    Kanagala, Viswa Srujani; Anusha, Annapareddy; Rao, Bhukya Srinivasa; Challa, Siva Reddy; Nalla, Krishna Sri; Gadde, Raja Sree

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study was aimed to assess the incidence and characteristics of drug-related problems (DRPs). Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted among 133 patients with stroke disease who were aged 18 years or older and admitted to the general medicine ward. During the 6 months study period, the incidence of DRPs was identified using the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Foundation classification system, version 6.2. Findings: A total of 133 patients were screened for DRPs. Among them, 120 patients have at least one DRP. A total of 254 DRPs were identified (on average, 2.015 DRPs per each patient case). Conclusion: Increasing the evidence of the incidence of medication-related problems in tertiary care hospitals indicates the need for the establishment of a clinical pharmacist in hospital settings. PMID:27512717

  7. Development and application of unique natural solvents for treating paraffin and asphaltene related problems

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.R.; Cotney, C.R.

    1996-09-01

    Paraffin and asphaltene related problems including solid deposits, stabilization of emulsions and sludge production continue to plaque the oil and gas industry. Condensates and refined aromatic solvents are popular treatments for dissolving and/or controlling paraffin and asphaltene related problems. These treating fluids are typically used as a quick fix with little regard for formation damage consequences and long term effectiveness. Testing, blending and refining of unique condensate feedstocks has resulted in unique natural multi-component hydrocarbon solvents. These unique solvents will dissolve a broad carbon number spectrum of organic deposits and keep them in solution under extreme conditions. These natural solvents maximize solvency, demulsifying properties and natural wettibility tendencies without the addition of chemical additives. Those natural solvents offer economic alternatives and enhancement to common treatment practices including condensate treatments, hot oiling, chemical treatments, stimulation and production treatments.

  8. Numerical multistep methods for the efficient solution of quantum mechanics and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we present the recent development in the numerical integration of the Schrödinger equation and related systems of ordinary differential equations with oscillatory solutions, such as the N-body problem. We examine several types of multistep methods (explicit, implicit, predictor-corrector, hybrid) and several properties (P-stability, trigonometric fitting of various orders, phase fitting, high phase-lag order, algebraic order). We analyze the local truncation error and the stability of the methods. The error for the Schrödinger equation is also presented, which reveals the relation of the error to the energy. The efficiency of the methods is evaluated through the integration of five problems. Figures are presented and analyzed and some general conclusions are made. Code written in Maple is given for the development of all methods analyzed in this paper. Also the subroutines written in Matlab, that concern the integration of the methods, are presented.

  9. Simulator test to study hot-flow problems related to a gas cooled reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, J. W.; Freeman, M. P.; Doak, K. W.; Thorpe, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    An advance study of materials, fuel injection, and hot flow problems related to the gas core nuclear rocket is reported. The first task was to test a previously constructed induction heated plasma GCNR simulator above 300 kW. A number of tests are reported operating in the range of 300 kW at 10,000 cps. A second simulator was designed but not constructed for cold-hot visualization studies using louvered walls. A third task was a paper investigation of practical uranium feed systems, including a detailed discussion of related problems. The last assignment resulted in two designs for plasma nozzle test devices that could be operated at 200 atm on hydrogen.

  10. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  11. Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems & Indoor Air Quality - Exhaust Fan Mitigation.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-07-01

    Overall, the findings show that exhaust fans basically provide small amounts of ventilation compensation. By monitoring the common indoor air pollutants (radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor), it was found that the quality of the indoor air was not adversely affected by the use of exhaust fans. Nor did their use provide any measurable or significant benefits since no improvement in air quality was ascertained. While exhaust fans of this small size did not increase radon, which is the contaminant of most concern, the researchers caution that operation of a larger fan or installation in a very tight home could result in higher levels because depressurization is greater. The daily energy consumption for use of these appliances during the heating season was calculated to be 1.5 kilowatt hours or approximately 3% of the energy consumption in the study homes. The information collected in this collaborative field study indicates that the use of these particular ventilation systems has no significant effect on indoor air quality.

  12. Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Before and After Military Combat Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    disorder; self- reported a diagnosis of schizophrenia, psychosis, or manic - depressive disor- der; or reported taking medication for anxiety, depression , or...sequences and report significantly higher rates of PTSD, major depression , and al- cohol misuse postdeployment.8-12 Simi- lar findings have been...with increased rates of al- cohol consumption or problem drink- ing. It is also possible that depression , PTSD, or stressors related to deploy- ment or

  13. Cancer Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Charalambous, Andreas; Kouta, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is a common and debilitating symptom that can influence quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients. The increase in survival times stresses for a better understanding of how CRF affects patients' QoL. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study with 148 randomly recruited prostate cancer patients aiming to explore CRF and its impact on QoL. Assessments included the Cancer Fatigue Scale, EORTC QLQ-C30, and EORTC QLQ-PR25. Additionally, 15 in-depth structured interviews were performed. Quantitative data were analyzed with simple and multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. Qualitative data were analyzed with the use of thematic content analysis. The 66.9% of the patients experienced CRF with higher levels being recorded for the affective subscale. Statistically significant differences were found between the patients reporting CRF and lower levels of QoL (mean = 49.1) and those that did not report fatigue and had higher levels of QoL (mean = 72.1). The interviews emphasized CRF's profound impact on the patients' lives that was reflected on the following themes: “dependency on others,” “loss of power over decision making,” and “daily living disruption.” Cancer related fatigue is a significant problem for patients with advanced prostate cancer and one that affects their QoL in various ways. PMID:26981530

  14. Health-related quality of life after TBI: a systematic review of study design, instruments, measurement properties, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Polinder, Suzanne; Haagsma, Juanita A; van Klaveren, David; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van Beeck, Ed F

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQL) is essential to quantify the subjective burden of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in survivors. We performed a systematic review of HRQL studies in TBI to evaluate study design, instruments used, methodological quality, and outcome. Fifty-eight studies were included, showing large variation in HRQL instruments and assessment time points used. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) was most frequently used. A high prevalence of health problems during and after the first year of TBI was a common finding of the studies included. In the long term, patients with a TBI still showed large deficits from full recovery compared to population norms. Positive results for internal consistency and interpretability of the SF-36 were reported in validity studies. The Quality of Life after Brain Injury instrument (QOLIBRI), European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ), Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life short version (WHOQOL-BREF) showed positive results, but evidence was limited. Meta-analysis of SF-36 showed that TBI outcome is heterogeneous, encompassing a broad spectrum of HRQL, with most problems reported in the physical, emotional, and social functioning domain. The use of SF-36 in combination with a TBI-specific instrument, i.e., QOLIBRI, seems promising. Consensus on preferred methodologies of HRQL measurement in TBI would facilitate comparability across studies, resulting in improved insights in recovery patterns and better estimates of the burden of TBI.

  15. Comparison of patient evaluations of health care quality in relation to WHO measures of achievement in 12 European countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Sixma, Herman J.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Eijk, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into similarities and differences in patient evaluations of quality of primary care across 12 European countries and to correlate patient evaluations with WHO health system performance measures (for example, responsiveness) of these countries. METHODS: Patient evaluations were derived from a series of Quote (QUality of care Through patients' Eyes) instruments designed to measure the quality of primary care. Various research groups provided a total sample of 5133 patients from 12 countries: Belarus, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, and Ukraine. Intraclass correlations of 10 Quote items were calculated to measure differences between countries. The world health report 2000 - Health systems: improving performance performance measures in the same countries were correlated with mean Quote scores. FINDINGS: Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from low to very high, which indicated little variation between countries in some respects (for example, primary care providers have a good understanding of patients' problems in all countries) and large variation in other respects (for example, with respect to prescription of medication and communication between primary care providers). Most correlations between mean Quote scores per country and WHO performance measures were positive. The highest correlation (0.86) was between the primary care provider's understanding of patients' problems and responsiveness according to WHO. CONCLUSIONS: Patient evaluations of the quality of primary care showed large differences across countries and related positively to WHO's performance measures of health care systems. PMID:15042232

  16. The Huntington's Disease health-related Quality of Life questionnaire (HDQoL): a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Hocaoglu, MB; Gaffan, EA; Ho, AK

    2012-01-01

    Hocaoglu MB, Gaffan EA, Ho AK. The Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire: a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life. Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, and yet there is no disease-specific patient-reported health-related quality of life outcome measure for patients. Our aim was to develop and validate such an instrument, i.e. the Huntington's Disease health-related Quality of Life questionnaire (HDQoL), to capture the true impact of living with this disease. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the full spectrum of people living with HD, to form a pool of items, which were then examined in a larger sample prior to data-driven item reduction. We provide the statistical basis for the extraction of three different sets of scales from the HDQoL, and present validation and psychometric data on these scales using a sample of 152 participants living with HD. These new patient-derived scales provide promising patient-reported outcome measures for HD. Section Editor: Aad Tibben, email: a.tibben@lumc.nl PMID:22151007

  17. Health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p < .001) or their parents (p < .001), although disagreement (intra-class coefficient = -.075) between children and parental scores suggested variance in points of view. This study specifically investigated health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being.

  18. The relative entropy is fundamental to multiscale and inverse thermodynamic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shell, M. Scott

    2008-10-01

    We show that the relative entropy, Srel≡∑pT ln(pT/pM), provides a fundamental and unifying framework for multiscale analysis and for inverse molecular-thermodynamic problems involving optimization of a model system (M) to reproduce the properties of a target one (T). We demonstrate that the relative entropy serves as a generating function for principles in variational mean-field theory and uniqueness and gives intuitive results for simple case scenarios in model development. Moreover, we suggest that the relative entropy provides a rigorous framework for multiscale simulations and offers new numerical techniques for linking models at different scales. Finally, we show that Srel carries physical significance by using it to quantify the deviations of a three-site model of water from simple liquids, finding that the relative entropy, a thermodynamic concept, even predicts water's kinetic anomalies.

  19. It's All Relative: A Validation of Radiation Quality Comparison Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Elgart, S. R.; Semones, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) has been calculated to quantify the difference between heavy ion and gamma ray radiation. The RBE is then applied to gamma ray data to predict the effects of heavy ions in humans. The RBE is an iso-effect dose-to-dose ratio which, due to its counterintuitive nature, has been commonly miscalculated as an iso-dose effect-to-effect ratio. A paper recently published by Shuryak et al described this second measure intentionally for the first time in 2017, referring to it as the radiation effects ratio (RER). In this study, we utilized simulations to test the ability of both the RBE and the RER to predict known heavy ion effects. RBEs and RERs were calculated using mouse data from Chang et al, and the ability of the RBE and RER to predict the heavy ion data from which they were calculated was verified. Statistical transformations often utilized during data analysis were applied to the gamma and heavy ion data to determine whether RBE and RER are each uniquely defined measures. Scale changes are expected when translating effects from mice to humans and between human populations; gamma and heavy ion data were transformed to represent potential scale changes. The ability of the RBE and RER to predict the transformed heavy ion data from the transformed gamma data was then tested. The RBE but not the RER was uniquely defined after all statistical transformations. The RBE correctly predicted the scale-transformed heavy ion data, while the RER did not. This presentation describes potential implications for both metrics in light of these findings.

  20. Increased Risk for Substance Use-Related Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lundström, Sebastian; Serlachius, Eva; Almqvist, Catarina; Frisén, Louise; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data, substance use-related problems have been assumed to be rare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using Swedish population-based registers we identified 26,986 individuals diagnosed with ASD during 1973-2009, and their 96,557 non-ASD relatives. ASD, without diagnosed comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or intellectual disability, was related to a doubled risk of substance use-related problems. The risk of substance use-related problems was the highest among individuals with ASD and ADHD. Further, risks of substance use-related problems were increased among full siblings of ASD probands, half-siblings and parents. We conclude that ASD is a risk factor for substance use-related problems. The elevated risks among relatives of probands with ASD suggest shared familial (genetic and/or shared environmental) liability.

  1. Motivational pathways from reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity to gambling frequency and gambling-related problems.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Quilty, Lena C; Hendershot, Christian S; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-12-01

    Motives for gambling have been shown to have an important role in gambling behavior, consistent with the literature on motives for substance use. While studies have demonstrated that traits related to sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) are predictive of substance use motives, little research has examined the role of these traits in gambling motives. This study investigated motivational pathways from SR and SP to gambling frequency and gambling problems via specific gambling motives, while also taking into account history of substance use disorder (SUD). A community sample of gamblers (N = 248) completed self-report questionnaires assessing SR, SP, gambling frequency, gambling-related problems, and motives for gambling (social, negative affect, and enhancement/winning motives). Lifetime SUD was also assessed with a structured clinical interview. The results of a path analysis showed that SR was uniquely associated with all 3 types of gambling motives, whereas SP and SUD were associated with negative affect and enhancement/winning motives but not social motives. Also, both negative affect and enhancement/winning motives were associated with gambling problems, but only enhancement/winning motives were significantly related to gambling frequency. Analyses of indirect associations revealed significant indirect associations from SR, SP, and SUD to gambling frequency mediated through enhancement/winning motives and to gambling problems mediated through both negative affect and enhancement/winning motives. The findings highlight the importance of SR and SP as independent predictors of gambling motives and suggest that specific motivational pathways underlie their associations with gambling outcomes.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  3. Rural-Urban Analyses of Health-Related Quality of Life among People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Robert J.; Zhu, Li; Schiffer, Randolph; Radin, Dagmar; James, Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Context: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multi-dimensional construct including aspects of life quality or function that are affected by physical health and symptoms, psychosocial factors, and psychiatric conditions. HRQOL gives a broader measure of the burden of disease than physical impairment or disability levels. Purpose: To…

  4. How Logical Reasoning Mediates the Relation between Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the role of logical reasoning in the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in 146 fourth grade Dutch children. We assessed their standardized reading comprehension measure, along with their decoding efficiency and vocabulary as measures of lexical quality, syllogistic reasoning as measure of…

  5. Validating the Relationship Qualities of Influence and Persuasion with the Family Social Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Rachel Oakley; Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the family social relations model (SRM) to test for the personal relationship qualities of influence and persuasion in the family decision-making context of buying a new car. Uncovers patterns in the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion across three decisions families make when buying a new car (i.e., how much to spend, car…

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life among Abused Women One Year after Leaving a Violent Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E.; Kristoffersen, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    This is the first follow up study measuring quality of life among abused women who have left their abusive partner. The women (n = 22) answered a questionnaire while staying at women's shelter and one year later. The aim was to examine long-term effects of intimate partner violence against women on health-related quality of life. Health-related…

  7. Quality of Parental Homework Involvement: Predictors and Reciprocal Relations with Academic Functioning in the Reading Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Hanna; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined predictors of the quality of parental homework involvement and reciprocal relations between the quality of parental homework involvement and students' reading achievement and academic functioning in a reading-intensive subject (German). Data from 2,830 students in nonacademic tracks and their parents who were surveyed in both…

  8. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

  9. Relational Resources of a University as a Source of Education Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagdasaryan, Irina; Vasilyeva, Zoya; Almabekova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers high quality educational services provided by a university being the highest priority and assumes relational resources as valuable sources that can facilitate and enhance quality assurance. Each university with a unique resource base is connected with a variety of entities--other universities, non-profit and for-profit…

  10. A Qualitative Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life of Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bridget; Rice, Helen; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Colver, Allan F.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated what disabled children thought most important in their lives and examined how well their priorities are represented in KIDSCREEN, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. Participants were a subgroup of families who had previously taken part in a study of quality of life and participation in…

  11. Desire to Institutionalize a Relative with Dementia: Quality of Premorbid Relationship and Caregiver Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the relationship between individuals with dementia and their family caregivers has an impact on important clinical outcomes for both. It is unclear, however, how quality of relationship (QoR) affects caregivers' desire to place their relative in a nursing home. We examined the association of QoR with caregivers' desire to…

  12. Relations among Preschool Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Classroom Quality, and Children's Language and Literacy Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among preschool teachers' self-efficacy (n = 67), classroom quality (instructional and emotional support), and children's (n = 328) gains in print awareness and vocabulary knowledge over an academic year in the US. Results indicated that teachers' self-efficacy and classroom quality served as significant and…

  13. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP

  14. Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study was a cross-cultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a…

  15. The Use of Quality Circle Techniques To Improve Problem Solving in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Candido, Linda S.

    A sequentially planned program using quality circle techniques was adapted for the educational environment and Implemented in an elementary school in central Florida. The program consisted of 10 sessions designed to acquaint team leaders and administrators with the quality circle techniques and, under the direction of a trained facilitator, to…

  16. The Asymmetrical Quality of Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Common versus Rare Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Morse, Laura; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    The Internet provides a new means of obtaining psychological health care, but Internet site quality varies widely. To help in the search for reliable information in cyberspace, a ratings scale, which assesses six dimensions of site quality (accuracy, practicality, normalization, sense of belonging, referral, and feedback mechanisms) is offered…

  17. The Pennsylvania Experience with Hydraulic Fracturing for Shale Gas Development: Relatively Infrequent Water Quality Incidents with Lots of Public Attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.; Li, Z.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Vidic, R.

    2015-12-01

    New techniques of hydraulic fracturing - "fracking" - have changed the United States over the last 10 years into a leading producer of natural gas extraction from shale. The first such gas well in Pennsylvania was drilled and completed using high-volume hydraulic fracturing in 2004. By late 2014, more than 8500 of these gas wells had been drilled in the Marcellus Shale gas field in Pennsylvania alone. Almost 1000 public complaints about groundwater quality were logged by the PA Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP) between 2008 and 2012. Only a fraction of these were attributed to unconventional gas development. The most common problem was gas migration into drinking water, but contamination incidents also included spills, seepage, or leaks of fracking fluids, brine salts, or very occasionally, radioactive species. Many problems of gas migration were from a few counties in the northeastern part of the state. However, sometimes one gas well contaminated multiple water wells. For example, one gas well was reported by the state regulator to have contaminated 18 water wells with methane near Dimock PA. It can be argued that such problems at a relatively small fraction of gas wells initiated pockets of pushback against fracking worldwide. This resistance to fracking has grown even though fracking has been in use in the U.S.A. since the 1940s. We have worked as part of an NSF-funded project (the Shale Network) to share water quality data and publish it online using the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System. Sharing data has led to collaborative investigation of specific contamination incidents to understand how problems can occur, and to efforts to quantify the frequency of impacts. The Shale Network efforts have also highlighted the need for more transparency with water quality data in the arena related to the energy-water nexus. As more data are released, new techniques of data analysis will allow better understanding of how to tune best practices to be

  18. Dystrophic changes in masticatory muscles related chewing problems and malocclusions in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    van den Engel-Hoek, L; de Groot, I J M; Sie, L T; van Bruggen, H W; de Groot, S A F; Erasmus, C E; van Alfen, N

    2016-06-01

    Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) worsens with age, with increasingly effortful mastication. The aims of this study were to describe mastication problems in consecutive stages in a group of patients with DMD and to determine related pathophysiological aspects of masticatory muscle structure, tongue thickness, bite force and dental characteristics. Data from 72 patients with DMD (4.3 to 28.0 years), divided into four clinical stages, were collected in a cross sectional study. Problems with mastication and the need for food adaptations, in combination with increased echogenicity of the masseter muscle, were already found in the early stages of the disease. A high percentage of open bites and cross bites were found, especially in the later stages. Tongue hypertrophy also increased over time. Increased dysfunction, reflected by increasingly abnormal echogenicity, of the masseter muscle and reduced occlusal contacts (anterior and posterior open bites) were mainly responsible for the hampered chewing. In all, this study shows the increasing involvement of various elements of the masticatory system in progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To prevent choking and also nutritional deficiency, early detection of chewing problems by asking about feeding and mastication problems, as well as asking about food adaptations made, is essential and can lead to timely intervention.

  19. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.

  20. Evaluating medication-related quality of care in residential aged care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Jodie B; Vitry, Agnes; Caughey, Gillian E

    2015-01-01

    Given the growing aged care population, the complexity of their medication-related needs and increased risk of adverse drug events, there is a necessity to systematically monitor and manage medication-related quality of care. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise medication-related quality of care indicators with respect to application to residential aged care. MEDLINE (Ovid), Psychinfo, CINAHL, Embase and Google® were searched from 2001 to 2013 for studies that were in English, focused on older people aged 65+ years and discussed the development, application or validation of original medication-related quality of care indicators. The quality of selected articles was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program and psychometric qualities extracted and synthesised using content analysis. Indicators were mapped to six medication-related quality of care attributes and a minimum indicator set derived. Thirty three articles describing 25 indicator sets met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen (52%) contained prescribing quality indicators only. Eight (32%) were developed specifically for aged care. Twenty three (92%) were validated and seven (28%) assessed for reliability. The most common attribute addressed was medication appropriateness (n = 24). There were no indicators for evaluating medication use in those with limited life expectancy, which resulted in only five of the six attributes being addressed. The developed minimum indicator set contains 28 indicators representing 22 of 25 identified indicator sets. Whilst a wide variety of validated indicator sets exist, none addressed all aspects of medication-related quality of care pertinent to residential aged care. The minimum indicator set is intended as a foundation for comprehensively evaluating medication-related quality of care in this setting. Future work should focus on bridging identified gaps.

  1. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as Moderators of the Relation Between Social Withdrawal and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly A; Barstead, Matthew G; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2017-04-01

    Social withdrawal, or refraining from social interaction in the presence of peers, places adolescents at risk of developing emotional problems like anxiety and depression. The personality traits of neuroticism and conscientiousness also relate to emotional difficulties. For example, high conscientiousness predicts lower incidence of anxiety disorders and depression, while high neuroticism relates to greater likelihood of these problems. Based on these associations, socially withdrawn adolescents high in conscientiousness or low in neuroticism were expected to have lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants included 103 adolescents (59 % female) who reported on their personality traits in 8th grade and their anxiety and depressive symptoms in 9th grade. Peer ratings of social withdrawal were collected within schools in 8th grade. A structural equation model revealed that 8th grade withdrawal positively predicted 9th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms controlling for 8th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms, but neuroticism did not. Conscientiousness moderated the relation of withdrawal with depressive symptoms but not anxiety, such that high levels of conscientiousness attenuated the association between withdrawal and depressive symptoms. This buffering effect may stem from the conceptual relation between conscientiousness and self-regulation. Conscientiousness did not, however, moderate the association between withdrawal and anxiety, which may be partly due to the role anxiety plays in driving withdrawal. Thus, a conscientious, well-regulated personality partially protects withdrawn adolescents from the increased risk of emotional difficulties.

  2. Effects of Qigong Training on Health-Related Quality of Life, Functioning, and Cancer-Related Symptoms in Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Luk, W. S.; Chung, Louisa M. Y.; Wong, Janet Y. H.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems. PMID:24971148

  3. Effects of qigong training on health-related quality of life, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Luk, W S; Chung, Louisa M Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Chung, Joanne W Y

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems.

  4. Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok

    SciTech Connect

    Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

    1995-12-31

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

  5. Assessment of health benefits related to air quality improvement strategies in urban areas: An Impact Pathway Approach.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Carlos; Roebeling, Peter; Lopes, Myriam; Ferreira, Joana; Costa, Solange; Teixeira, João P; Borrego, Carlos; Miranda, Ana I

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is, increasingly, a concern to our society given the threats to human health and the environment. Concerted actions to improve air quality have been taken at different levels, such as through the development of Air Quality Plans (AQPs). However, air quality impacts associated with the implementation of abatement measures included in AQPs are often neglected. In order to identify the major gaps and strengths in current knowledge, a literature review has been performed on existing methodologies to estimate air pollution-related health impacts and subsequent external costs. Based on this review, the Impact Pathway Approach was adopted and applied within the context of the MAPLIA research project to assess the health impacts and benefits (or avoided external costs) derived from improvements in air quality. Seven emission abatement scenarios, based on individual and combined abatement measures, were tested for the major activity sectors (traffic, residential and industrial combustion and production processes) of a Portuguese urban area (Grande Porto) with severe particular matter (PM10) air pollution problems. Results revealed a strong positive correlation between population density and health benefits obtained from the assessed reduction scenarios. As a consequence, potential health benefits from reduction scenarios are largest in densely populated areas with high anthropic activity and, thus, where air pollution problems are most alarming. Implementation of all measures resulted in a reduction in PM10 emissions by almost 8%, improving air quality by about 1% and contributing to a benefit of 8.8 million €/year for the entire study domain. The introduction of PM10 reduction technologies in industrial units was the most beneficial abatement measure. This study intends to contribute to policy support for decision-making on air quality management.

  6. Fisher Sand & Gravel New Mexico, Inc. General Air Quality Permit: Related Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to the Fisher Sand & Gravel – New Mexico, Inc., Grey Mesa Gravel Pit General Air Quality Permit for New or Modified Minor Source Stone Quarrying, Crushing, and Screening Facilities in Indian Country.

  7. Motivational Processes in Children's Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: School physical education (PE) not only offers and promotes health-related physical activity (PA), but also encompasses the promotion and development of health-related well-being such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Furthermore, assessing PA and HRQOL have become major issues in pediatric public health and also serve as a…

  8. The Intervening Role of Relational Aggression between Psychological Control and Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Goossens, Luc; Duriez, Bart; Niemiec, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among psychologically controlling parenting, relational aggression, friendship quality, and loneliness during adolescence. A model was proposed in which relational aggression plays an intervening role in the relations between both parental psychological control and friendship outcomes. In a sample comprised…

  9. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  10. Does Helping Keep Teens Protected? Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations Between Prosocial Behavior and Problem Behavior.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo; Nielson, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined bidirectional, longitudinal links between prosocial and problem behavior. Participants (N = 500) were recruited from a Northwestern city in the United States and assessed for 3 consecutive years from 2009 to 2011 (M(age) of youth at Time 1 = 13.32, SD = 1.05; 52% girls; 67% European American, 33% single-parent families). Results suggested that effects of earlier prosocial behavior toward family and strangers were predictive of fewer problem behaviors 2 years later, while results for prosocial behavior toward friends were more mixed. Results also suggested depression predicted lower prosocial behavior toward family members and anxiety predicted higher prosocial behavior toward friends. Findings show a complex pattern of relations that demonstrate the need to consider targets of helping.

  11. On study of nonclassical problems of fracture and failure mechanics and related mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Nonclassical problems of fracture and failure mechanics that have been analyzed by the author and his collaborators at the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics (Kiev, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) during the past forty years are considered in brief. The results of the analysis are presented in a form that would be quite informative for the majority of experts interested in various fundamental and applied aspects of fracture and failure problems including the identification of related mechanisms. This paper was prepared on invitation of the Editorial Board of the journal "Annals. The European Academy of Sciences" and may be considered as an Extended Pascal Medal Lecture (The 2007 Blaise Pascal Medal in Materials Sciences of the EAS)

  12. Age-Related Hearing Loss: Quality of Care for Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), known as presbycusis, is characterized by progressive deterioration of auditory sensitivity, loss of the auditory sensory cells, and central processing functions associated with the aging process. ARHL is the third most prevalent chronic condition in older Americans, after hypertension and arthritis, and is a…

  13. Predicting natural resolution of alcohol-related problems: a prospective behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jalie A; Vuchinich, Rudy E; Rippens, Paula D

    2002-08-01

    This study investigated whether the relative allocation of discretionary monetary expenditures to alcoholic beverages versus savings (presumed to reflect relative preferences for immediate vs. delayed rewards) before quitting abusive drinking predicted natural resolution among untreated problem drinkers. Drinking, life events, income, and expenditures were assessed for the year before resolution and again 1 and 2 years later (N = 50). Compared with those who relapsed, participants who remained resolved at 2 years reported proportionally more pre-resolution discretionary expenditures on savings and less on alcohol. Income and expenditures were similar across groups. The findings support the predictive utility of this functional index of relative reward preferences that operate over variable time horizons and suggest that temporal discounting is an important process in addictive behavior change.

  14. [Peer Support for Individuals with Mental Health Problems and their Relatives - Background, Concept and Baseline Data].

    PubMed

    Mahlke, Candelaria; Heumann, Kolja; Ruppelt, Friederike; Meyer, Hans-Jochim; Rouhiainen, Tuula; Sielaff, Gyöngyver; Lambert, Martin; Bock, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Severe mental illness comes along with cyclic hospital re-admission, heavy losses in quality of life and stigmatization. Therefore a refinement of intervention is still required, for patients themselves and their relatives. In mental health services there is an international trend toward recovery-orientated interventions, like peer support. In Germany this is the first trial to implement peer-support area-wide in a metropolis. This article describes the implementation of the network, the methodology of the research setting and the baseline data of the randomized controlled trial.

  15. Agricultural and water-quality conflicts. Economic dimensions of the problem. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Crutchfield, S.; Hansen, L.; Ribaudo, M.

    1993-07-01

    Modern farm production practices, which use agricultural chemicals, benefit consumers through lower prices and increased output. Consequences of agricultural production, however, such as soil erosion, chemical runoff and leaching, and wetlands conversion, may impair surface and ground water quality. These off-farm water-quality effects impose costs on society, including damage to fish and wildlife resources, costs of avoiding potential health hazards and preserving natural environments, and lost recreational opportunities. The report summarizes conflicts between agricultural production and water quality and discusses policies that stress the use of economic and technical assistance incentives to encourage adoption of pollution-reducing farming practices.

  16. Health-related quality of life and its determinants in children with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of new therapeutics has led to progress in the early management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in pediatric intensive care units (PICU). Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their family. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of CDH treated according to the most recent concepts and methods outlined above on child survivors’ QoL and their parents’ QoL. Patients and methods This study incorporated a cross-sectional design performed in two PICU (Marseille, France). Families of CDH survivors born between 1999 and 2008 were eligible. The following data were recorded: socio-demographics, antenatal history and delivery, initial hospitalization history. Self-reported data were collected by mail, including current clinical problems of the children (13-symptom list), children’s QoL (Kidscreen-27 questionnaire), and parents’ QoL (Short-Form 36 questionnaire). Children’s QoL score was compared with controls and QoL of survivors of childhood leukemia. Parent’s QoL was compared with controls. Non-parametric statistics were employed. Results Forty-two families agreed to participate and questionnaires were completed by 32 of them. Twenty-one children had a current clinical problems related to CDH. All the QoL scores of CHD survivors were significantly lower compared with controls. The physical well-being dimension was significantly higher for CHD survivors compared with survivors of childhood leukemia. Gastro-esophageal reflux at discharge, antenatal diagnosis, length of stay in the PICU, and neuropsychological and respiratory issues significantly impacted QoL scores of children. The parents of CHD survivors had significantly poorer score in emotional role dimension compared with controls. Conclusion The impact of CDH on QoL seems to be important and must be understood by clinicians who treat these children and their parents. PMID:23786966

  17. Evaluating the impact of wind turbine noise on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Daniel; McBride, David; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N; Hill, Erin M

    2011-01-01

    We report a cross-sectional study comparing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals residing in the proximity of a wind farm to those residing in a demographically matched area sufficiently displaced from wind turbines. The study employed a nonequivalent comparison group posttest-only design. Self-administered questionnaires, which included the brief version of the World Health Organization quality of life scale, were delivered to residents in two adjacent areas in semirural New Zealand. Participants were also asked to identify annoying noises, indicate their degree of noise sensitivity, and rate amenity. Statistically significant differences were noted in some HRQOL domain scores, with residents living within 2 km of a turbine installation reporting lower overall quality of life, physical quality of life, and environmental quality of life. Those exposed to turbine noise also reported significantly lower sleep quality, and rated their environment as less restful. Our data suggest that wind farm noise can negatively impact facets of HRQOL.

  18. Task-based measures of image quality and their relation to radiation dose and patient risk

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Hoeschen, Christoph; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Little, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of task-based assessment of image quality is reviewed in the context of imaging with ionizing radiation, and objective figures of merit (FOMs) for image quality are summarized. The variation of the FOMs with the task, the observer and especially with the mean number of photons recorded in the image is discussed. Then various standard methods for specifying radiation dose are reviewed and related to the mean number of photons in the image and hence to image quality. Current knowledge of the relation between local radiation dose and the risk of various adverse effects is summarized, and some graphical depictions of the tradeoffs between image quality and risk are introduced. Then various dose-reduction strategies are discussed in terms of their effect on task-based measures of image quality. PMID:25564960

  19. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    PubMed

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  20. [Important problems of high quality drinking water supply, and the ways of their solution].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhaĭlova, R I; Kir'ianova, L F; Sevost'ianova, E M; Ryzhova, I N; Skovronskiĭ, A Iu

    2006-01-01

    The article covers the results of experimental and natural studies concerning important directions in the field of drinking water supply, including such aspects as: research into and classification of the barrier role of conventional and prospective technologies of water preparation in terms of chemical and biological pollution; revision of the standards of drinking water quality control in accordance with international documents; the main aspects of revision of the general conception of high quality water supply, within which hygienic requirements concerning the quality of prepackaged waters and the ranking of different techniques of water preparation used in water purification units, have been developed for the first time. The authors present the results of experimental studies on the patterns of disinfection, purification, and conditioning of drinking water quality using energetic- and-information technologies of water preparation.