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Sample records for quality sbs symptoms

  1. Association of ventilation system type with SBS symptoms in office workers

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.

    2001-02-07

    This paper provides a review and synthesis of current knowledge about the associations of ventilation system types in office buildings with sick building syndrome symptoms and discusses potential explanations for the associations. Relative to natural ventilation, air conditioning, with or without humidification, was consistently associated with a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of one or more SBS symptoms. Prevalences were typically higher by approximately 30% to 200% in the air conditioned buildings. In two of three assessments from a single study, symptom prevalences were also significantly higher in air conditioned buildings than in buildings with simple mechanical ventilation and no humidification. In approximately half of assessments, SBS symptom prevalences were significantly higher in buildings with simple mechanical ventilation than in buildings with natural ventilation. Insufficient information was available for conclusions about the potential increased risk of SBS symptoms with humidification. The statistically significant associations of mechanical ventilation and air conditioning with SBS symptoms are much more frequent than expected from chance and also not likely to be a consequence of confounding by several potential personal, job, or building related confounders. The reasons for the increases in symptom prevalences with mechanical ventilation and particularly with air conditioning remain unclear. Multiple deficiencies in HVAC system design, construction, operation, or maintenance, including some which cause pollutant emissions from HVAC systems, may contribute to the increases in symptom prevalences.

  2. [The sick building syndrome (SBS)].

    PubMed

    Ezratty, Véronique

    2003-10-11

    AN INCREASINGLY COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROBLEM: Complaints related to indoor environment represent one of the most frequent problems that environmental health practitioners are confronted with. Hence the incidence of the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) has been increasing since the Seventies. DIFFERING DEFINITIONS AND CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS: The WHO defines SBS as an excess of complaints and symptoms occurring in certain occupants of non-industrial buildings. The syndrome can only be evoked after elimination in the person concerned of a disease related to the building, the aetiological agent of which is identifiable. The symptoms described during SBS (headaches, concentration problems, asthenia, irritation of the skin or nasal mucosa, of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.) are non specific and frequently observed in the general population. AN UNKNOWN CASE, BUT NUMEROUS AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS SUSPECTED: There is no unanimously accepted definition nor physio-pathological theory to explain the occurrence of SBS in a particular building. Many favouring factors, including the type and rate of ventilation, volatile organic compounds, particles and humidity have been suspected. TECHNICAL, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL MANAGEMENT IS REQUIRED: Although the symptoms are benign, they can be uncomfortable or even handicapping and prevent the functioning of workplaces. The SBS, the social and economical costs of which are high, requires multidisciplinary management. PMID:14576597

  3. A survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Angell, W.J.

    1998-03-01

    A survey and critical review were undertaken of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, including California schools. Over 450 relevant publications were obtained and reviewed, including papers published in the archival peer-reviewed scientific literature, proceedings of scientific meetings, government reports, 77 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports (HHER) and 70 reports on investigations of problem schools in California. Most of the reviewed literature was for complaint or problem schools. The types of health symptoms reported in schools were very similar to those defined as sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, although this may be due, at least in part, to the type of health symptom questionnaires used. Some of the symptoms, e.g., wheezing, are indicative of asthma. In the studies in which complaint and noncomplaint buildings or areas were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms.

  4. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fitted to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent), and as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person, relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent). Variations in SBS symptom types, building features, and outdoor air quality may cause the relationship ofSBS symptom prevalence with ventilation rate in specific situations to differ from the average relationship predicted in this paper.

  5. Binary Stars in SBS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erastova, L. K.

    2016-06-01

    Thirty spectroscopic binary stars were found in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS). They show composite spectra - WD(DA)+dM or dC (for example Liebert et al. 1994). They may have red color, if the radiation of the red star dominates, and blue one, if the blue star is brighter and have peculiar spectrum in our survey plate. We obtained slit spectra for most of such objects. But we often see the spectrum of one component, because our slit spectra did not cover all optical range. We examine by eye the slit spectra of all SBS stellar objects (˜700) in SDSS DR7, DR8 or DR9 independent on our observations. We confirmed or discovered the duplicity of 30 stars. Usually they are spectroscopic binaries, where one component is WD (DA) and the second one is a red star with or without emission. There also are other components combinations. Sometimes there are emission lines, probably, indicating variable ones.

  6. SBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R. X.; Baur, W. H.

    This document is part of Subvolume E `Zeolite-Type Crystal Structures and their Chemistry. Framework Type Codes RON to STI' of Volume 14 `Microporous and other Framework Materials with Zeolite-Type Structures' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'.

  7. Caviton collapse of SRS by SBS

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, C.; Bezzerides, B.; DuBois, D.F.; Rose, H.

    1984-01-01

    Particle simulations are performed to show that the ion waves resulting from Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) can trigger the collapse of the plasma waves excited by Stimulated Raman Scatter (SRS). We discuss the effect of this collapse mechanism on the hot-electron spectrum produced by the electrostatic waves. A fluid model for the coupling of the ion fluctuations to the plasma waves is formulated and we discuss the necessary condition on the SBS to induce collapse of the plasma waves produced by SRS.

  8. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Dementia: Consent, Quality of Life, and Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Degenerative forms of dementia are progressive, incurable, fatal, and likely to cause suffering in conjunction with personal incapacity. Timely diagnostic disclosure and counseling can facilitate important advance care planning. The risk of harm associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of dementia often has to be balanced against the risk of harm associated with medication management of NPS. A palliative care framework can help preserve autonomy, quality of life, comfort, and dignity for patients with NPS. PMID:23853768

  9. Beyond air quality--factors that affect prevalence estimates of sick building syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mikatavage, M A; Rose, V E; Funkhouser, E; Oestenstad, R K; Dillon, K; Reynolds, K D

    1995-11-01

    If the prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) is estimated before intervention begins, then a reduction in the estimate may later be used to measure success of the intervention, and in particular, those efforts toward improving air quality. However, the measure of success will be distorted if factors other than air quality affect the SBS prevalence estimate. In this study the background prevalence of SBS was estimated and study factors identified that alone affected the estimate. Two symptom questionnaires were randomly administered to workers from 39 offices before routine physical examinations; one questionnaire described the SBS study, the other did not. SBS was defined as a symptom in the prior 24-hour or 7-day recall period that was more severe at work and not related to suspected confounders--allergy, cold, flu. Prevalence and prevalence ratios were estimated along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Symptoms were reported by 45% of 1088 workers surveyed, but most reported them as more severe outside work or related them to confounders. SBS prevalence was 5%. It was 3.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.8, 5.7) among workers cognizant of the study relative to those blinded, 2.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.2, 4.1) for the 7-day relative to the 24-hour recall period, and 2.5 times higher (95% CI: 1.4, 5.0) for females. SBS prevalence did not differ by workday or age. Since study factors alone affected prevalence estimates, a standardized assessment method seems necessary for SBS.

  10. Spillover between Marital Quality and Parent-child Relationship Quality: Parental Depressive Symptoms as Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. Additionally, this study tested both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers’ and fathers’ daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Further, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent’s relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships. PMID:24821519

  11. Monitoring asthma in childhood: symptoms, exacerbations and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brand, Paul L P; Mäkelä, Mika J; Szefler, Stanley J; Frischer, Thomas; Price, David

    2015-06-01

    Monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice is primarily performed by reviewing disease activity (daytime and night-time symptoms, use of reliever medication, exacerbations requiring frequent use of reliever medication and urgent visits to the healthcare professional) and the impact of the disease on children's daily activities, including sports and play, in a clinical interview. In such an interview, most task force members also discuss adherence to maintenance therapy and the patients' (and parents') views and beliefs on the goals of treatment and the amount of treatment required to achieve those goals. Composite asthma control and quality of life measures, although potentially useful in research, have limited value in clinical practice because they have a short recall window and do not cover the entire spectrum of asthma control. Telemonitoring of children with asthma cannot replace face-to-face follow-up and monitoring because there is no evidence that it is associated with improved health outcomes.

  12. SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering) pulse distortion in multimode optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Hawkins, R.J.; Laumann, C.W.; Hatch, J. )

    1989-01-01

    We have observed sever temporal-pulse-shape distortion due to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in multimode optical fibers used to diagnose 351 m laser pulses on the Nova laser system. Our measurements can be fit by a basic model of SBS and provide a clear indication of the intensity and temporal regimes where significant SBS-induced temporal-pulse-shape distortion can be avoided. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. SBS reduction in nanosecond fiber amplifiers by frequency chirping.

    PubMed

    Ionov, Pavel I; Rose, Todd S

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate a technique for SBS reduction in a nanosecond Yb-fiber amplifier by imposing 1.19 GHz/ns frequency chirp on the seed pulses with a pulse-driven phase modulator. A nearly 9-fold increase in the SBS threshold was observed for 8.4 ns pulses. SBS threshold data and transient SBS gain for various degrees of chirp are reported and compared with theoretical calculations. We further demonstrate the recovery of the input narrowband spectrum by applying an opposite chirp with a second phase modulator after the amplification. PMID:27410540

  14. The Relationship Between Focused Attention Meditation Practice Habits, Psychological Symptoms, and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Bilican, F Isil

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between focused attention meditation practice habits, psychological symptoms, and quality of life. The participants were 30 adults from New York, NY, practicing Ananda Marga spirituality. They were administered the Symptom Check List-90-R and the Quality of Life Index. The findings pointed out while Ananda Marga meditation practice habits were not associated with improvements in psychological symptoms, longer years in meditation practice was associated with improvements in overall, social and psychological/spiritual quality of life. Longer periods of meditation practice per session were related to lower levels of overall quality of life and economic quality of life.

  15. Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS) among adults in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Indoor environment is associated with the sick building syndrome (SBS), but little is known about the contribution of outdoor air pollution and meteorological conditions to SBS. We studied associations between outdoor air pollution, meteorological parameters and selected indoor exposure and building characteristics at home and weekly SBS symptoms in a standardized questionnaire study among 3485 randomly selected adults in China. Outdoor factors included particulate matters with diameter <10μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), outdoor temperature (T), relative air humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) during last three months. Multiple logistic regression was applied calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Asthma or allergic rhinitis (atopy) was associated with all types of SBS symptoms except fatigue. Indoor factors played a major role in SBS symptoms. Mold/dampness on the floor/ceiling was associated with fatigue OR=1.60 (1.11-2.30) and headache OR=1.80 (1.07-3.04). Moldy odor was associated with fatigue OR=1.59 (1.07-2.37) and dermal symptoms OR=1.91 (1.21-3.02). Window pane condensation in winter was associated with fatigue OR=1.73 (1.30-2.31) and throat symptoms OR=1.53 (1.01-2.31). Damp bed clothing was related with throat symptom OR=1.62 (1.09-2.40). Home redecoration was associated with fatigue OR=1.49 (1.07-2.06). Frequent window opening was associated with less nose symptoms OR=0.54 (0.36-0.82) and mechanical ventilation in the bathroom reduced dermal symptoms OR=0.66 (0.44-0.99). Females were more susceptible to redecoration and window pane condensation than men. No associations with SBS were observed for outdoor air pollutants or meteorological parameters in the final models combining indoor and outdoor factors, although SO2, T, and RH were associated with some SBS symptoms (fatigue, eyes and nose symptoms) in the separate outdoor models. In conclusion, indoor mold/dampness, air pollution from redecoration

  16. Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS) among adults in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Indoor environment is associated with the sick building syndrome (SBS), but little is known about the contribution of outdoor air pollution and meteorological conditions to SBS. We studied associations between outdoor air pollution, meteorological parameters and selected indoor exposure and building characteristics at home and weekly SBS symptoms in a standardized questionnaire study among 3485 randomly selected adults in China. Outdoor factors included particulate matters with diameter <10μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), outdoor temperature (T), relative air humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) during last three months. Multiple logistic regression was applied calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Asthma or allergic rhinitis (atopy) was associated with all types of SBS symptoms except fatigue. Indoor factors played a major role in SBS symptoms. Mold/dampness on the floor/ceiling was associated with fatigue OR=1.60 (1.11-2.30) and headache OR=1.80 (1.07-3.04). Moldy odor was associated with fatigue OR=1.59 (1.07-2.37) and dermal symptoms OR=1.91 (1.21-3.02). Window pane condensation in winter was associated with fatigue OR=1.73 (1.30-2.31) and throat symptoms OR=1.53 (1.01-2.31). Damp bed clothing was related with throat symptom OR=1.62 (1.09-2.40). Home redecoration was associated with fatigue OR=1.49 (1.07-2.06). Frequent window opening was associated with less nose symptoms OR=0.54 (0.36-0.82) and mechanical ventilation in the bathroom reduced dermal symptoms OR=0.66 (0.44-0.99). Females were more susceptible to redecoration and window pane condensation than men. No associations with SBS were observed for outdoor air pollutants or meteorological parameters in the final models combining indoor and outdoor factors, although SO2, T, and RH were associated with some SBS symptoms (fatigue, eyes and nose symptoms) in the separate outdoor models. In conclusion, indoor mold/dampness, air pollution from redecoration

  17. Health-related quality of life and the transformation of symptoms.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David; Lilford, Richard; Ogden, Jane; Wessely, Simon

    2007-05-01

    This paper traces the development of health-related Quality of Life instruments over the last half century. It identifies the emergence of key components of quality of life measurement in other health status questionnaires between about 1950 and 1980 and their formalization in Quality of Life instruments in the mid 1980s. The common developmental thread that linked these Quality of Life instruments and their precursors was the identification of 'distal symptoms' that represented the impact of illness beyond its immediate bodily manifestations. The measurement of distal symptoms through Quality of Life instruments also served to detach symptoms from their customary patho-physiological referent. Other contemporary examples of these free-floating symptoms reinforce the argument that the nature and meaning of symptoms has been transformed over recent decades. PMID:17498169

  18. Depressive symptoms in third-grade teachers: relations to classroom quality and student achievement.

    PubMed

    McLean, Leigh; McDonald Connor, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated associations among third-grade teachers' (N = 27) symptoms of depression, quality of the classroom-learning environment (CLE), and students' (N = 523, Mage  = 8.6 years) math and literacy performance. teachers' depressive symptoms in the winter negatively predicted students' spring mathematics achievement. This depended on students' fall mathematics scores; students who began the year with weaker math skills and were in classrooms where teachers reported more depressive symptoms achieved smaller gains than did peers whose teachers reported fewer symptoms. teachers' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with quality of CLE, and quality of CLE mediated the association between depressive symptoms and student achievement. The findings point to the importance of teachers' mental health, with implications for policy and practice.

  19. Spectral study of quasars of the Second Byurakan Survey of the northern sky. I. The quasars SBS 0953 + 549, SBS 1116 + 603, and SBS 1138 + 584

    SciTech Connect

    Levshakov, S.A.; Varshalovich, D.A.; Nazarov, E.A.

    1987-05-01

    The 6-m telescope was used in conjunction with a scanner (IPCS) and the SP-124 spectrograph to make an investigation with resolution approx. 3.5 A of three new quasars: SBS 0953 + 549 (z/sub e/ = 2.580), SBS 1116 + 603 (z/sub e/ = 2.628), and SBS 1138 + 584 (z/sub e/ = 1.699). The spectra of these quasars are analyzed. The emission line L/sub approx./ in the quasar SBS 1116 + 603 may have a two-component structure: a narrow peak (FWHM a 3000 km/sec) and a broad pedestal (FWHM a 19,400 km/sec). In the quasar SBS 0953 + 549, the profile of the emission line L/sub approx./ recalls the profiles of P Cyg type lines, which are observed in the spectra of stars with expanding shells; two strong (tau approx. 1) and broad (FWHM approx. 1700 and 1000 km/sec) absorption lines with z/sub a/ = 2.451 and 2.503 have been found and identified as L/sub approx./ lines. The symmetric profiles of these lines correspond to N(HI) approx. 10/sup 20/ cm/sup -2/ for the cloud with z/sub a/ = 2.541 and 5 x 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -2/ for the cloud with z/sub a/ = 2.503. The authors have also estimated the line-of-sight densities of heavy elements found at z/sub a/ = 0.3800 (SBS 0953 + 549) and z/sub a/ = 1.4082 (SBS 1138 + 584). The densities of the absorption details in these and other known quasars are compared.

  20. Intimate Partner Victimization, Poor Relationship Quality, and Depressive Symptoms during Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276

  1. Phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in female patients with goiter.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Dowli, Alexander; Jabbour, Jad; Sabri, Alain; Azar, Sami T

    2016-07-01

    Our objective is to report on the prevalence of phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in a group of female patients with goiter who had not been selected for surgery or who had not presented to the emergency room with respiratory distress. A total of 40 patients with goiter and 14 controls were enrolled in this study. Demographic data included age, sex, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, allergy, smoking, duration of disease, presence or absence of compressive symptoms, presence or absence of thyroid gland nodules, vascular status, presence or absence of calcifications, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Phonatory symptoms included hoarseness, vocal fatigue, vocal straining, lump sensation, and aphonia. The Voice Handicap Index 10 was used to assess the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life. The most common phonatory symptom in the patients with goiter was vocal fatigue followed by lump sensation. The only phonatory symptom that was significantly more present in patients with goiter was vocal straining. As for the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life, 15.8% of goiter patients had a Voice Handicap Index score >7 compared with 7.7% of controls. Phonatory symptoms are common in patients with goiter, with vocal straining occurring significantly more frequently than in controls. In 1 of 6 patients, the presence of phonatory symptoms had an impact on quality of life. PMID:27434485

  2. Symptoms and Quality of Life for People Living with HIV Infection in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Portillo, Carmen; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.; Wantland, Dean; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Background People living with HIV infection are confronted with physical and psychological symptoms that impact their quality of life. This study explored the symptom experience of people living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and its correlation with quality of life. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to survey 44 men, women, and transgender people living with HIV infection. Measures included a demographic questionnaire, sign and symptom checklist, and a quality of life instrument. Results The sample was 50% male with a mean age of 42.1 years; the participants had been living with HIV infection on average for 9.8 years. The top five symptoms reported by the sample included: muscle aches (81.8%), depression (77.2%), weakness (70.5%), fear/worries (70.5), and difficulty with concentration (65.9%). Symptom frequency was significantly related to four dimensions of quality of life: overall function (r=−0.58), life satisfaction (r=−0.59), health worries (r=0.32) and HIV medication worries (r=0.59). The symptom experience was not related to financial worries, disclosure worries, or sexual functioning. Individuals who reported taking HIV medications reported significantly fewer symptoms than those not taking HIV medications (t=3.061, df=42, p<0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that people living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico experience a wide array of physical and psychological symptoms and that these symptoms have a correlation with their perceived quality of life. Better management of symptoms may have an impact on perceived quality of life for people living with HIV infection. PMID:19266741

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  4. SBS mitigation with 'two-tone' amplification: a theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronder, T. J.; Shay, T. M.; Dajani, I.; Gavrielides, A.; Robin, C. A.; Lu, C. A.

    2008-02-01

    A new technique for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects in narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is demonstrated with a model that reduces to solving an 8×8 system of coupled nonlinear equations with the gain, SBS, and four-wave mixing (FMW) incorporated into the model. This technique uses two seed signals, or 'two-tones', with each tone reaching its SBS threshold almost independently and thus increasing the overall threshold for SBS in the fiber amplifier. The wavelength separation of these signals is also selected to avoid FWM, which in this case possesses the next lowest nonlinear effects threshold. This model predicts an output power increase of 86% (at SBS threshold with no signs of FWM) for a 'two-tone' amplifier with seed signals at 1064nm and 1068nm, compared to a conventional fiber amplifier with a single 1064nm seed. The model is also used to simulate an SBS-suppressing fiber amplifier to test the regime where FWM is the limiting factor. In this case, an optimum wavelength separation of 3nm to 10nm prevents FWM from reaching threshold. The optimum ratio of the input power for the two seed signals in 'two-tone' amplification is also tested. Future experimental verification of this 'two-tone' technique is discussed.

  5. Quality of life in patients with psychotic disorders: impact of symptoms, personality, and attachment.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the relative contribution of symptoms and specific psychosocial factors to different domains of quality of life (QoL) in patients with psychotic disorders. Positive, negative, and depressive symptoms; Five-Factor Model personality traits; and attachment dimensions were assessed in 110 patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders. Hierarchical and stepwise regression analyses were conducted. Psychosocial factors were able to predict all domains of QoL, when symptom severity was controlled for. Furthermore, the physical QoL domain was best predicted by attachment, personality, and sex (R = 43.1%); the psychological QoL domain, by personality and depressive symptoms (R = 60.5%); the social domain, by personality and positive symptoms (R = 30.3%); and the environmental domain, by personality and negative symptoms (R = 27.9%). Our findings highlight the role that specific individual characteristics play in different aspects of QoL in patients with psychotic disorders.

  6. Postthoracotomy Pain Syndrome Following Surgery for Lung Cancer: Symptoms and Impact on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Kathleen G; Hoffman, Leslie A; Dabbs, Annette De Vito; Ferson, Peter F; King, Linda; Dudjak, Linda A; Zullo, Thomas G; Rosenzweig, Margaret Q

    2015-01-01

    Postthoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is a common complication following thoracic surgery. Most studies examining the influence of PTPS on patient-reported symptoms include few patients managed using a minimally invasive approach. Associated sensory changes, potentially neuropathic in origin, are not well described. We therefore examined the symptoms and quality of life (QOL) of patients with and without PTPS who underwent a standard thoracotomy (n = 43) or minimally invasive surgery (n = 54). Patients in this prospective, cross-sectional study completed questionnaires to assess pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire), neuropathic symptoms (Neuropathic Symptom Questionnaire), symptom distress (Symptom Distress Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and QOL (Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy-Lung). Excepting younger age (p = .009), no demographic or surgical characteristic differentiated patients with and without PTPS. Patients with PTPS described discomfort as pain only (15.1%), neuropathic symptoms only (30.2%) or pain and neuropathic symptoms (54.7%). Scores differed between patients with and without PTPS for symptom distress (p < .001), anxiety and depression (p < .001), and QOL (p = .009), with higher distress associated with PTPS. Despite new surgical techniques, PTPS remains common and results in considerable distress. A focused assessment is needed to identify all experiencing this condition, with referral to pain management specialists if symptoms persist. PMID:26649245

  7. Postthoracotomy Pain Syndrome Following Surgery for Lung Cancer: Symptoms and Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Kathleen G.; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Dabbs, Annette De Vito; Ferson, Peter F.; King, Linda; Dudjak, Linda A.; Zullo, Thomas G.; Rosenzweig, Margaret Q.

    2015-01-01

    Postthoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is a common complication following thoracic surgery. Most studies examining the influence of PTPS on patient-reported symptoms include few patients managed using a minimally invasive approach. Associated sensory changes, potentially neuropathic in origin, are not well described. We therefore examined the symptoms and quality of life (QOL) of patients with and without PTPS who underwent a standard thoracotomy (n = 43) or minimally invasive surgery (n = 54). Patients in this prospective, cross-sectional study completed questionnaires to assess pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire), neuropathic symptoms (Neuropathic Symptom Questionnaire), symptom distress (Symptom Distress Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and QOL (Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy–Lung). Excepting younger age (p = .009), no demographic or surgical characteristic differentiated patients with and without PTPS. Patients with PTPS described discomfort as pain only (15.1%), neuropathic symptoms only (30.2%) or pain and neuropathic symptoms (54.7%). Scores differed between patients with and without PTPS for symptom distress (p < .001), anxiety and depression (p < .001), and QOL (p = .009), with higher distress associated with PTPS. Despite new surgical techniques, PTPS remains common and results in considerable distress. A focused assessment is needed to identify all experiencing this condition, with referral to pain management specialists if symptoms persist. PMID:26649245

  8. Quality of life and symptom prevalence in children with cancer in Lebanon: the perspective of parents.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda; Sagherian, Knar; Tamim, Hani

    2013-04-01

    In evaluating the outcomes of pediatric palliative care, health-care providers rely at times on the parents' input in evaluating children's quality of life and symptom experience. To date, the number of studies addressing the perspective of parents is scarce. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of life, symptom prevalence and management, and the quality of palliative care provided to Lebanese children with cancer from their parents' perspectives. A convenience sample of 85 caregivers from the Children's Cancer Center of Lebanon was enrolled in the study over a 1-year period [2010-2011]. Using face- to-face interviews, the administered Arabic questionnaire was a combination of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory cancer module and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (both parent's versions), and selected items from the Needs at End of life Screening Tool. The majority of the sample was recruited from the outpatient clinic; mean age of children was 12.5 years with the majority having leukemia. According to parents, children encountered health-related quality of life problems in the areas related to nausea, worry and treatment anxiety. The most common symptoms were feeling irritable, feeling nervous, lack of energy, lack of appetite, pain, and feeling sad. The most treated symptoms were found to be nausea, vomiting, cough, and pain with success rates ranging between 56.3% and 73.7%. According to the parents, cancer children had acceptable health-related quality of life. They experienced physical and psychological symptoms that were inadequately managed by the healthcare team. However, parents were highly satisfied with the provided quality of care by the center. The findings in this study highlight the importance of both physical and psychological symptom management among Lebanese children with cancer.

  9. Symptoms and Quality of Life in Cancer Patients With Brain Metastases Following Palliative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jennifer; Hird, Amanda; Zhang Liying; Tsao, May; Sinclair, Emily; Barnes, Elizabeth; Danjoux, Cyril; Chow, Edward

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To examine prospectively patient self-rated symptoms and quality of life (QOL) indicators in patients with brain metastases following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with brain metastases referred for WBRT were approached for this study. Patients were asked to rate their symptoms and QOL using the Spitzer Quality of Life Index questionnaire. Follow-up was at 1, 2, and 3 months following WBRT. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the change in symptom severity over time. Results: Between August 2005 to October 2007, 129 patients with brain metastases were enrolled. The majority of patients (88%) received 20 Gy in five fractions. Median age was 64 years, and median Karnofsky Performance Status at baseline was 70. The most commonly experienced symptoms at baseline were headaches, weakness, balance problems, and fatigue. Thirty-five percent of patients rated neurological functional (NF) status as 1, indicating moderate neurological symptoms and need for assistance. Forty-three percent of patients had stable or decreased fatigue, and 47% had a stable or improved NF status over time (p = 0.0040). Although certain QOL domains improved over time, all other QOL domains and symptom items did not change significantly following WBRT. Conclusion: WBRT may have contributed to symptom stabilization in our study. An alternative goal of WBRT may be the prevention of symptom progression and QOL deterioration. Further research is required to select the most appropriate group of patients with brain metastases who would benefit most from WBRT.

  10. Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information.

    PubMed

    Daisey, J M; Angell, W J; Apte, M G

    2003-03-01

    We reviewed the literature on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), ventilation, and building-related health problems in schools and identified commonly reported building-related health symptoms involving schools until 1999. We collected existing data on ventilation rates, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and symptom-relevant indoor air contaminants, and evaluated information on causal relationships between pollutant exposures and health symptoms. Reported ventilation and CO2 data strongly indicate that ventilation is inadequate in many classrooms, possibly leading to health symptoms. Adequate ventilation should be a major focus of design or remediation efforts. Total volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde (HCHO) and microbiological contaminants are reported. Low HCHO concentrations were unlikely to cause acute irritant symptoms (<0.05 ppm), but possibly increased risks for allergen sensitivities, chronic irritation, and cancer. Reported microbiological contaminants included allergens in deposited dust, fungi, and bacteria. Levels of specific allergens were sufficient to cause symptoms in allergic occupants. Measurements of airborne bacteria and airborne and surface fungal spores were reported in schoolrooms. Asthma and 'sick building syndrome' symptoms are commonly reported. The few studies investigating causal relationships between health symptoms and exposures to specific pollutants suggest that such symptoms in schools are related to exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), molds and microbial VOCs, and allergens. PMID:12608926

  11. Mediation and Moderation: Testing Relationships between Symptom Status, Functional Health, and Quality of Life in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptom status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is…

  12. Quality of life, social support, and severity of psychiatric symptoms in Jordanian patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hamaideh, S; Al-Magaireh, D; Abu-Farsakh, B; Al-Omari, H

    2014-06-01

    The major purposes of this study were to examine levels and correlations of quality of life (QOL), social support, and severity of psychiatric symptoms as well as to identify the variables that best predict QOL among Jordanian patients with schizophrenia. Descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 160 patients selected through systematic random sampling from two psychiatric outpatient clinics. Results showed that the highest domain of QOL was the social relationship domain, and the highest source of social support was perceived from significant others. Severity of affective symptoms was the highest, and severity of positive symptoms was the lowest. QOL correlated positively with social support, patients' educational and income level, and employment; and negatively with severity of psychiatric symptoms, duration of untreated illness, and duration of treatment. Support from friends, duration of untreated illness, income level, and severity of affective symptoms predicted QOL and accounting for 47.3% of the variance.

  13. Symptom Burden, Depression, and Quality of Life in Chronic and End-Stage Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Unruh, Mark L.; Weisbord, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: While many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have impaired physical and psychologic well-being, less is known about these health domains in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The authors sought to compare symptoms, depression, and quality of life in patients with ESRD and those with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Patients with ESRD and subjects with advanced CKD were enrolled. Patients’ symptoms, depression, and quality of life were assessed using the Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively, and these health domains were compared between patient groups. Results: Ninety patients with ESRD and 87 with CKD were enrolled. There were no differences in the overall number of symptoms or in the total DSI symptom-severity score. Median scores on the PHQ-9 were similar, as was the proportion of patients with PHQ-9 scores >9. SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores were comparable, as were SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores. Conclusions: The burden of symptoms, prevalence of depression, and low quality of life are comparable in patients with ESRD and advanced CKD. Given the widely recognized impairments in these domains in ESRD, findings of this study underscore the substantial decrements in the physical and psychologic well-being of patients with CKD. PMID:19423570

  14. Relation of subjective quality of life to motor symptom profile in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Stavitsky, Karina; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) presents with extensive heterogeneity in symptomatology, inviting examination of disease subtypes. One significant categorization is by whether patients present at onset with tremor as the dominant symptom (TD) or with nontremor symptoms (NTD). We examined differences in quality of life between TD and NTD patients using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39), correlating performance with aspects of motor function as indexed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Participants included 35 nondemented individuals (19 TD, 16 NTD) matched on clinical and demographic characteristics. NTD had significantly lower overall PDQ-39 scores, particularly for the mobility subscale. Several UPDRS subscale scores significantly correlated with quality of life, especially for NTD. Further, the correlations were driven by nontremor type symptoms, even in TD patients. Determining reliable subtypes of PD may aid in prognosis and treatment optimization, thereby enhancing quality of life in afflicted individuals.

  15. Symptom clusters and quality of life among patients with advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Doris SF; Chan, Helen YL; Leung, Doris YP; Hui, Elsie; Sit, Janet WH

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify symptom clusters among patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the independent relationships with their quality of life (QoL). Methods This is the secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which interviewed 119 patients with advanced HF in the geriatric unit of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. The symptom profile and QoL were assessed by using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the McGill QoL Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the symptom clusters. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the independent relationships with their QoL, after adjusting the effects of age, gender, and comorbidities. Results The patients were at an advanced age (82.9 ± 6.5 years). Three distinct symptom clusters were identified: they were the distress cluster (including shortness of breath, anxiety, and depression), the decondition cluster (fatigue, drowsiness, nausea, and reduced appetite), and the discomfort cluster (pain, and sense of generalized discomfort). These three symptom clusters accounted for 63.25% of variance of the patients' symptom experience. The small to moderate correlations between these symptom clusters indicated that they were rather independent of one another. After adjusting the age, gender and comorbidities, the distress (β = −0.635, P < 0.001), the decondition (β = −0.148, P = 0.01), and the discomfort (β = −0.258, P < 0.001) symptom clusters independently predicted their QoL. Conclusions This study identified the distinctive symptom clusters among patients with advanced HF. The results shed light on the need to develop palliative care interventions for optimizing the symptom control for this life-limiting disease. PMID:27403150

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) among Pupils in Relation to SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10 in Schools in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zhuohui; Norback, Dan

    2014-01-01

    There are fewer longitudinal studies from China on symptoms as described for the sick building syndrome (SBS). Here, we performed a two-year prospective study and investigated associations between environmental parameters such as room temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM10), and health outcomes including prevalence, incidence and remission of SBS symptoms in junior high schools in Taiyuan, China. Totally 2134 pupils participated at baseline, and 1325 stayed in the same classrooms during the study period (2010–2012). The prevalence of mucosal symptoms, general symptoms and symptoms improved when away from school (school-related symptoms) was 22.7%, 20.4% and 39.2%, respectively, at baseline, and the prevalence increased during follow-up (P<0.001). At baseline, both indoor and outdoor SO2 were found positively associated with prevalence of school-related symptoms. Indoor O3 was shown to be positively associated with prevalence of skin symptoms. At follow-up, indoor PM10 was found to be positively associated with new onset of skin, mucosal and general symptoms. CO2 and RH were positively associated with new onset of mucosal, general and school-related symptoms. Outdoor SO2 was positively associated with new onset of skin symptoms, while outdoor NO2 was positively associated with new onset of skin, general and mucosal symptoms. Outdoor PM10 was found to be positively associated with new onset of skin, general and mucosal symptoms as well as school-related symptoms. In conclusion, symptoms as described for SBS were commonly found in school children in Taiyuan City, China, and increased during the two-year follow-up period. Environmental pollution, including PM10, SO2 and NO2, could increase the prevalence and incidence of SBS and decrease the remission rate. Moreover, parental asthma and allergy (heredity) and pollen or pet allergy (atopy) can be risk factors

  17. A longitudinal study of sick building syndrome (SBS) among pupils in relation to SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10 in schools in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zhuohui; Norback, Dan

    2014-01-01

    There are fewer longitudinal studies from China on symptoms as described for the sick building syndrome (SBS). Here, we performed a two-year prospective study and investigated associations between environmental parameters such as room temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM10), and health outcomes including prevalence, incidence and remission of SBS symptoms in junior high schools in Taiyuan, China. Totally 2134 pupils participated at baseline, and 1325 stayed in the same classrooms during the study period (2010-2012). The prevalence of mucosal symptoms, general symptoms and symptoms improved when away from school (school-related symptoms) was 22.7%, 20.4% and 39.2%, respectively, at baseline, and the prevalence increased during follow-up (P<0.001). At baseline, both indoor and outdoor SO2 were found positively associated with prevalence of school-related symptoms. Indoor O3 was shown to be positively associated with prevalence of skin symptoms. At follow-up, indoor PM10 was found to be positively associated with new onset of skin, mucosal and general symptoms. CO2 and RH were positively associated with new onset of mucosal, general and school-related symptoms. Outdoor SO2 was positively associated with new onset of skin symptoms, while outdoor NO2 was positively associated with new onset of skin, general and mucosal symptoms. Outdoor PM10 was found to be positively associated with new onset of skin, general and mucosal symptoms as well as school-related symptoms. In conclusion, symptoms as described for SBS were commonly found in school children in Taiyuan City, China, and increased during the two-year follow-up period. Environmental pollution, including PM10, SO2 and NO2, could increase the prevalence and incidence of SBS and decrease the remission rate. Moreover, parental asthma and allergy (heredity) and pollen or pet allergy (atopy) can be risk factors for

  18. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.L.; Bridgman, H.A.; Wlodarczyk, J.; Abramson, R.; Adler, J.A.; Hensley, M.J. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms.

  19. Phasing of independent laser channels under impact SBS excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, A. A.; Efimkov, V. F.; Zubarev, I. G.; Mikhailov, S. I.

    2015-10-01

    It is shown experimentally that phasing of independent laser channels under impact SBS excitation calls for a stable difference in arm lengths, as in a classical Michelson interferometer. A scheme with automatic compensation for fluctuations of interferometer arm lengths has been proposed and experimentally implemented. This scheme makes it possible to perform stable phasing of two laser channels under standard laboratory conditions.

  20. Nucleon form factors program with SBS at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-12-01

    The physics of the nucleon form factors is the basic part of the Jefferson Laboratory program. We review the achievements of the 6-GeV era and the program with the 12- GeV beam with the SBS spectrometer in Hall A, with a focus on the nucleon ground state properties.

  1. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454

  2. Secondary Analysis of the "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyo, Grace; Skybo, Theresa; Carroll, Alisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is preventable; however, an estimated 21-74 per 100,000 children worldwide are victims annually. This study examined the effectiveness of an SBS prevention program in the US. Methods: A descriptive, secondary analysis of the Prevent Child Abuse Ohio (PCAO) "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS education program…

  3. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined bidirectional paths between perceived parent-adolescent relationship quality and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating role of sex, age, and personality type. 1313 Dutch adolescents (51% girls) from two cohorts (923 12-year olds and 390 16-year olds at Wave 1) reported on their personality, depressive…

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  5. Molecular analysis of the processes of surface brown spot (SBS) formation in pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Dangshansuli) by de novo transcriptome assembly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Xue, Cheng; Wu, Ting-ting; Heng, Wei; Jia, Bing; Ye, Zhenfeng; Liu, Li; Zhu, Liwu

    2013-01-01

    Browning disorder, which usually occurs post-harvest in pears subjected to long-term storage, can cause browning of the pear flesh and/or core. In 2011, investigators in China found a novel type of brown spot (designated as surface brown spot, SBS) in pre-harvest 'Dangshansuli' pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.). SBS has a large impact on the exterior quality of the pears. Interestingly, the brown coloration was only found on the peel and not the flesh or the core. In this paper, de novo transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of pears with SBS using Illumina sequencing showed that SBS up-regulated the expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, phenolic compound synthesis and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and SBS was associated with inhibition of primary and secondary metabolism genes. Ca(2+)-sensor proteins might be involved in the signal transduction that occurs during the process of SBS formation, and this signaling is likely to be regulated by H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3). Phytohormone and mineral element analyses confirmed that GA3, ABA, H2O2 and Ca(2+) contribute to SBS formation. In addition to the seasonal characteristics, low levels of O2 and Ca(2+) in the fruit are potential causes of the browning response due to exposure to oxidative stress, oxidative-reductive imbalance and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affected the membrane integrity. Disruption of the membranes allows for PPO and phenolic compounds to come into contact, and the phenolic compounds are oxidized to form the browning pigments.

  6. The Relationship of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms with Menstrual Attitude and Sleep Quality in Turkish Nursing Student

    PubMed Central

    Aşcı, Özlem; Gökdemir, Fulya; Kahyaoğlu Süt, Hatice; Payam, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptoms induced by premenstrual syndrome (PMS) adversely affect the women in reproduction period and decrease their quality of life. In literature, it is a common opinion thought that PMS could be associated with both sleep quality and menstrual attitudes. However, there has been no sufficient number of studies to define in what ways the PMS symptoms are correlated with sleep quality and menstrual attitudes. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of PMS symptoms with menstrual attitude and sleep quality. Methods: The data were collected from 183 nursing students at Health School of Artvin Çoruh University by using a correlational design. Voluntary students completed a questionnaire involving socio-demographic characteristics, Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS), Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: Average age was 19.9 (1.8). The study determined a positively significant correlation between score of PMSS and mean scores of PSQI (r=0.306; P<0.001), and a negatively significant correlation between score of PMSS and total mean score of MAQ (r=-0.317; P<0.01). Similarly, multiple linear regression analysis showed that PSQI total score (β=5.412; P<0.001) and MAQ total score (β=-27.455; P=0.001) significantly affected total score of PMSS. Conclusion: The intensity of PMS symptoms is associated with poor sleep quality and negative menstrual attitudes. Determining the methods of coping with PMS and strengthening the young girls on this subject may enhance their quality of future life. PMID:26464834

  7. Perceived social support predicted quality of life in patients with heart failure, but the effect is mediated by depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Misook L; Mosor, Debra K; Lennie, Terry A; Frazier, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Depressive symptoms and inadequate social support are well-known independent predictors of increased mortality and morbidity in heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear how depressive symptoms and social support interact to influence quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the nature of the relationships (direct, mediator, and moderator) among depressive symptoms, social support, and quality of life in patients with HF. Methods We performed a secondary data analysis that included 362 patients with HF who completed measures of depressive symptoms (the Beck Depression Inventory-II), perceived social support (the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and quality of life (the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire) instruments. The direct, mediator, and moderator effects of both depressive symptoms and social support on quality of life were tested using multiple regressions and 2×2 ANCOVA. Results Less social support and greater depressive symptoms independently predicted poorer quality of life. The relationship between social support and quality of life was mediated by depressive symptoms. Neither social support nor depressive symptoms moderated quality of life. Conclusion Promotion of social support will improve quality of life only when depressive symptoms are also effectively managed. PMID:23076798

  8. Effects of Symptom Perception Interventions on Trigger Identification and Quality of Life in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Thomas; Harver, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background. Management of individual triggers is suboptimal in practice. In this project, we investigated the impact of symptom perception interventions on asthma trigger identification and self-reported asthma quality of life. Methods. Children with asthma (n = 227) participated in three asthma education sessions and then were randomized first to one of three home monitoring conditions (symptom monitoring and peak flow training with feedback, peak flow training without feedback, or no peak flow training) and then subsequently to one of three resistive load discrimination training conditions (signal detection training with feedback, signal detection training without feedback, or no training). Triggers were reported at enrollment, following home monitoring, and following discrimination training; quality of life was measured after home monitoring and after resistive load testing. Results. Symptom perception interventions resulted in increases in reported triggers, which increased reliably as a function of home monitoring, and increased further in participants who completed discrimination training with feedback. Increases in the number of reported asthma triggers were associated with decreases in quality of life. Discussion. Patients may benefit from strategies that make trigger-symptom contingencies clear. Complementary strategies are needed to address changes in the perceived burden of asthma which comes from awareness of new asthma triggers. PMID:26605084

  9. Quality of Life and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms After Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ron B.; Parker, Portia D.; Moore, Reneé H.; Rosen, Carol L.; Giordani, Bruno; Muzumdar, Hiren; Paruthi, Shalini; Elden, Lisa; Willging, Paul; Beebe, Dean W.; Marcus, Carole L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data from a randomized, controlled study of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were used to test the hypothesis that children undergoing surgery had greater quality of life (QoL) and symptom improvement than control subjects. The objectives were to compare changes in validated QoL and symptom measurements among children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting; to determine whether race, weight, or baseline OSAS severity influenced changes in QoL and symptoms; and to evaluate associations between changes in QoL or symptoms and OSAS severity. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 9.9 years with OSAS (N = 453) were randomly assigned to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting with supportive care. Polysomnography, the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument, and the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale were completed at baseline and 7 months. Changes in the QoL and symptom surveys were compared between arms. Effect modification according to race and obesity and associations between changes in polysomnographic measures and QoL or symptoms were examined. RESULTS: Greater improvements in most QoL and symptom severity measurements were observed in children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy, including the parent-completed Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (effect size [ES]: 0.37), the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument (ES: –0.93), the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (ES: –0.42), and the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (ES: –1.35). Effect modification was not observed by obesity or baseline severity but was noted for race in some symptom measures. Improvements in OSAS severity explained only a small portion of the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillectomy compared with watchful waiting resulted in significantly

  10. The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Quality of Parenting and Intimate Relationships in Single Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolomucci, Eileen M.

    This study examines depressive symptoms in economically disadvantaged black single mothers involved in an intimate relationship with a male friend for at least six months. The effects of depressive symptoms on the following three dimensions of family functioning are evaluated: (1) quality of parenting; (2) quality of intimate relationships; and…

  11. Marital quality, depressive symptoms, and the metabolic syndrome: a couples structural model.

    PubMed

    Henry, Nancy J M; Smith, Timothy W; Butner, Jonathan; Berg, Cynthia A; Sewell, Kelsey K; Uchino, Bert N

    2015-06-01

    The indirect association of marital quality with metabolic syndrome (MetS) through depressive symptoms was examined in 301 middle-aged and older couples. MetS components (i.e., waist circumference, blood pressure, blood draws to assess triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fasting glucose) were assessed following a 12-h fast, and were treated as a continuous latent variable for analyses. In structural equation modeling of this indirect effect, overall model fit was good, and husbands' and wives' marital quality was associated with MetS only through depressive symptoms. Joint tests of the parameters indicated that gender did not moderate this association. The best fitting, most parsimonious model, after nested model comparisons, was one in which husbands' and wives' indirect paths were equated. Overall, marital quality was related to MetS through its relationship to depressive symptoms for men and women. Associations of marital quality and depression with MetS may overlap, and couple-based approaches to psychosocial risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be useful in future research.

  12. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  13. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, Clifford B.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1999-01-01

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases.

  14. The Investigation of SBS Galaxies from SDSS DR 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Paronyan, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) is a well-known combined survey, which uses the presence of UV-excess radiation in the continuum, or the presence of emission lines in the spectra for the identification of active and star-forming galaxies. This work reports on a comparative study of galaxies identified with UV-excess (UVX), and galaxies identified via emission-line techniques (ELG) in the fields of the SBS. The spectroscopic parameters used for the comparison are the [OII]λ3727Å/Hβ and [OIII]λ5007Å/Hβ emission-line ratios, the equivalent widths of [OII]λ3727Å, [OIII]λ5007Å, and Hβ emission lines. Spectroscopic parameters were determined from the spectra obtained from SDSS DR7. Based on emission line ratios, we have built also diagnostic diagrams to distinguish AGN (Seyferts and LINERs) and SB galaxies.

  15. Short-term symptom and quality-of-life comparison between laparoscopic Nissen and Toupet fundoplications.

    PubMed

    Radajewski, R; Hazebroek, E J; Berry, H; Leibman, S; Smith, G S

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic antireflux surgery is an established method of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study evaluates the efficacy of Nissen versus Toupet fundoplication in alleviating the symptoms of GERD and compares the two techniques for the development of post-fundoplication symptoms and quality of life (QOL) at 12 months post-surgery. In this prospective consecutive cohort study, 94 patients presenting for laparoscopic antireflux surgery underwent either laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LN) (n = 51) from February 2002 to February 2004 or a laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LT) (n = 43) from March 2004 to March 2006, performed by a single surgeon (G. S. S.). Symptom assessment, a QOL scoring instrument, and dysphagia questionnaires were applied pre- and postoperatively. At 12 months post-surgery, patient satisfaction levels in both groups were high and similar (LT: 98%, LN: 90%; P = 0.21). The proportion of patients reporting improvement in their reflux symptoms was similar in both groups (LT: 95%, LN: 92%; P = 0.68), as were post-fundoplication symptoms (LT: 30%, LN: 37%; P = 0.52). Six patients in the Nissen group required dilatation for dysphagia compared with one in the Toupet group (LT: 2%, LN: 12%; P = 0.12). One patient in the Nissen group required conversion to Toupet for persistent dysphagia (P = 0.54). In this series, overall symptom improvement, QOL, and patient satisfaction were equivalent 12 months following laparoscopic Nissen or Toupet fundoplication. There was no difference in post-fundoplication symptoms between the two groups, although there was a trend toward a higher dilatation requirement and reoperation after Nissen fundoplication.

  16. Posterior laryngitis: a study of persisting symptoms and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Hillevi; Ahlner-Elmqvist, Marianne; Jannert, Magnus; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2013-01-01

    Posterior laryngitis is a common cause of chronic cough, hoarseness, voice fatigue and throat pain. The aim of the present study was to examine how patients with posterior laryngitis have been examined, treated and followed up, and to assess their present health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patients treated for posterior laryngitis at consultation at the ear-, nose- and throat clinic during 2000-2008 were contacted by mail. The letter contained questionnaires addressing the current symptoms and medication, and the HRQOL 36-item short-form questionnaire (SF-36). Medical records were scrutinized. One hundred and twenty-two patients with verified signs and symptoms of posterior laryngitis were included. Forty percent of the patients had been treated for acid-related symptoms prior to consultation. The most common symptoms at the time of consultation were the sensation of hoarseness (women 40 %, men 37 %), globus (women 35 %, men 33 %) and cough (women 33 %, men 26 %). The most frequent diagnosis was gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Ninety percent of the women and 92 % of the men were treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). At the time of study, 63 % of the patients still had symptoms. The results of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significantly lower HRQOL for women. Patients with posterior laryngitis present varying symptoms, and are often not adequately treated or followed up. When PPI treatment fails, other aetiologies of their complaints, such as visceral hypersensitivity, weakly gaseous acid reflux or non-acid reflux are not considered. Symptoms from posterior laryngitis have a negative impact on the HRQOL for women.

  17. Postnatal quality of life, depressive symptoms, and social support among women in southern India.

    PubMed

    Bodhare, Trupti N; Sethi, Pruthwiraj; Bele, Samir D; Gayatri, Dasari; Vivekanand, Achanta

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of postnatal quality of life (QOL) has remained a poorly researched area in India. The present cross-sectional study assessed postnatal QOL, using the Mother Generated Index (MGI) and its associated risk factors, and was conducted during January-March 2013 among 274 mothers, 6-8 weeks postnatally. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics and social support. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and QOL using the MGI. The vast majority (90.1 percent) of respondents in our study had a primary MGI score <5, those with significantly higher prevalence of physical problems and psychological distress. A total of 39.8 percent of respondents were screened as having other (not major) depressive symptoms and 4.7 percent as having major depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.033, p = .018) and socioeconomic status (β = 0.156, p < .001) were significantly positively associated with QOL, while increased depressive symptom scores (β = -0.075, p < .001) were significantly negatively associated with QOL. A wide spectrum of QOL aspects were reported, including physical, emotional, social, and economic concerns by the mothers. Prevention, evaluation, and treatment of postnatal depressive symptoms and impaired QOL are warranted, taking into account the role of various biopsychosocial risk factors and specific concerns raised by the mothers. PMID:25719436

  18. Quality of life in Parkinson's disease: the relative importance of the symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shibley; Griffin, Harry J; Quinn, Niall P; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2008-07-30

    A body of literature now exists, which demonstrates that idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) has a major negative impact on quality of life (QoL), and that depression and cognitive impairment are among the main predictors of poor QoL in this disorder. Relatively little work has been done to assess the differential contribution of the specific symptoms of PD to QoL, which was the aim of this study. One hundred thirty patients with PD completed a booklet of questionnaires, which included the PDQ39 as a disease-specific measure of QoL, a symptom checklist, a mobility checklist, as well as patient ratings of disease stage and disability. The results indicated that the contribution of physical, medication-related, and cognitive/psychiatric symptoms to QoL can be significant. Sudden unpredictable on/off states, difficulty in dressing, difficulty in walking, falls, depression, and confusion were PD symptoms, which significantly influenced QoL scores. Among the mobility problems associated with PD, start hesitation, shuffling gait, freezing, festination, propulsion, and difficulty in turning had a significant effect on QoL scores. In addition to depression and anxiety, the major predictors of QoL were shuffling, difficulty turning, falls, difficulty in dressing, fatigue, confusion, autonomic disturbance particularly urinary incontinence, unpredictable on/off fluctuations, and sensory symptoms such as pain. The implications of these results for the medical management of PD are discussed. PMID:18543333

  19. Frequency and Quality of Social Networking Among Young Adults: Associations With Depressive Symptoms, Rumination, and Corumination.

    PubMed

    Davila, Joanne; Hershenberg, Rachel; Feinstein, Brian A; Gorman, Kaitlyn; Bhatia, Vickie; Starr, Lisa R

    2012-04-01

    Two studies examined associations between social networking and depressive symptoms among youth. In Study 1, 384 participants (68% female; mean age = 20.22 years, SD = 2.90) were surveyed. In Study 2, 334 participants (62% female; M age = 19.44 years, SD = 2.05) were surveyed initially and 3 weeks later. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were associated with quality of social networking interactions, not quantity. There was some evidence that depressive rumination moderated associations, and both depressive rumination and corumination were associated with aspects of social networking usage and quality. Implications for understanding circumstances that increase social networking, as well as resulting negative interactions and negative affect are discussed.

  20. Longitudinal Associations of Depressive Symptoms and Pain with Quality of Life in Patients Receiving Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Belayev, Linda Y.; Mor, Maria K.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Shields, Anne Marie; Rollman, Bruce L.; Palevsky, Paul M.; Arnold, Robert M.; Fine, Michael J.; Weisbord, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms and pain are common in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD), yet their associations with quality of life (QOL) are not fully understood. We sought to characterize the longitudinal associations of these symptoms with QOL. Methods As part of a trial comparing two symptom management strategies in patients receiving chronic HD, we assessed depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and pain using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) monthly over 24 months. We assessed health-related QOL (HR-QOL) quarterly using the Short Form 12 (SF-12) and global QOL (G-QOL) using a single item survey. We used random effects linear regression to analyze the independent associations of depressive symptoms and pain, scaled based on 5 point increments in symptom scores, with HR-QOL and G-QOL. Results Overall, 286 patients completed 1,417 PHQ-9 and SF-MPQ symptom assessments, 1,361 SF-12 assessments, and 1,416 G-QOL assessments. Depressive symptoms were independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β= -1.09; 95% CI: -1.69, -0.50, p<0.001); SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β= -4.52; 95%CI: -5.15, -3.89, p<0.001); and G-QOL scores (β= -0.64; 95%CI: -0.79, -0.49, p<0.001). Pain was independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β= -0.99; 95% CI: -1.30, -0.68, p<0.001) and G-QOL scores (β= -0.12; 95%CI: -0.20, -0.05, p=0.002); but not with SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β= -0.16; 95%CI: -0.050, 0.17, p=0.34). Conclusion In patients receiving chronic HD, depressive symptoms and to a lesser extent pain, are independently associated with reduced HR-QOL and G-QOL. Interventions to alleviate these symptoms could potentially improve patients' HR-QOL and G-QOL. PMID:25403142

  1. Longitudinal associations of depressive symptoms and pain with quality of life in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Belayev, Linda Y; Mor, Maria K; Sevick, Mary Ann; Shields, Anne Marie; Rollman, Bruce L; Palevsky, Paul M; Arnold, Robert M; Fine, Michael J; Weisbord, Steven D

    2015-04-01

    Depressive symptoms and pain are common in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD), yet their associations with quality of life (QOL) are not fully understood. We sought to characterize the longitudinal associations of these symptoms with QOL. As part of a trial comparing two symptom management strategies in patients receiving chronic HD, we assessed depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and pain using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) monthly over 24 months. We assessed health-related QOL (HR-QOL) quarterly using the Short Form 12 (SF-12) and global QOL (G-QOL) using a single-item survey. We used random effects linear regression to analyze the independent associations of depressive symptoms and pain, scaled based on 5-point increments in symptom scores, with HR-QOL and G-QOL. Overall, 286 patients completed 1417 PHQ-9 and SF-MPQ symptom assessments, 1361 SF-12 assessments, and 1416 G-QOL assessments. Depressive symptoms were independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β = -1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.69, -0.50, P < 0.001); SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β = -4.52; 95% CI: -5.15, -3.89, P < 0.001); and G-QOL scores (β = -0.64; 95%CI: -0.79, -0.49, P < 0.001). Pain was independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.30, -0.68, P < 0.001) and G-QOL scores (β = -0.12; 95%CI: -0.20, -0.05, P = 0.002); but not with SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β = -0.16; 95%CI: -0.050, 0.17, P = 0.34). In patients receiving chronic HD, depressive symptoms and to a lesser extent pain, are independently associated with reduced HR-QOL and G-QOL. Interventions to alleviate these symptoms could potentially improve patients' HR-QOL and G-QOL.

  2. Eating behaviors, diet quality, and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Eriksen, Whitney T; Souders, Margaret C; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers face unique challenges in the children's daily eating routines and food intake patterns. The aim of this brief review is to describe eating behaviors of children with ASD, including increased food neophobia and food selectivity, and review findings on children's diet quality, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Advancing knowledge about the interrelationships between these nutrition-related domains in children with ASD is expected to have important implications for clinical nursing practice and caregiver care.

  3. Trajectories of depressive symptoms in patients undergoing interferon treatment are predicted by baseline sleep quality

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Megan M.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Garrity, Jessica; Reynolds, Charles F.; Lotrich, Francis E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Some patients with hepatitis C (HCV) starting interferon-α (IFN-α) experience depression, although many patients do not develop depressive symptoms. We have found that poor sleep is associated with increased depressive symptoms on average. It is unknown whether this association holds generally or is driven by a specific, distinct subgroup. This investigation first determined whether patterns of change in depressive symptoms form clinically meaningful, distinct sub-groups; and then tested the extent to which sleep disturbances are associated with a less favorable depression trajectory. Method Group-based trajectory modeling was used on 124 HCV patients who started IFN-α therapy. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) assessed pre-treatment sleep, the Beck Depression Inventory minus the sleep question (BDI-s) assessed depression over time, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV provided categorical diagnoses. Results Three distinct subgroups were found, where each subgroup shared similar patterns of depressive symptoms over time. The groups were characterized as “non-depressed”, “slow increase”, and “rapid increase”. The non-depressed subgroup (44.4%) experienced low depressive symptoms with little change over time. In comparison, all rapid increasers (11.3%) were diagnosed with a mood disorder by 12 weeks of treatment. The PSQI was strongly associated with group membership,. where the odds of developing a rapid increase was elevated 39% for every unit score increase in the PSQI compared to individuals who remained non-depressed (OR=1.39, 95%CI=1.07–1.80, adjusted for depression at baseline). Conclusion Only a distinct sub-population of people is notably vulnerable to a developing a rapid increase in depression symptoms during IFN-α therapy. This group may be identifiable by their markedly poor sleep prior to IFN-α therapy. PMID:26407225

  4. Prevalence, work-loss days and quality of life of community dwelling subjects with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jee Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hee; Seong, Su Jeong; Ryu, Ji Min; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-02-01

    The nationwide prevalence of major depressive disorder in Korea is lower than most countries, despite the high suicide rate. To explain this unexpectedly low prevalence, we examined the functional disability and quality of life in community-dwelling subjects with significant depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder. A total of 1,029 subjects, randomly chosen from catchment areas, were interviewed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, WHO Quality of Life scale, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Those with scores over 21 on the depression scale were interviewed by a psychiatrist for diagnostic confirmation. Among community-dwelling subjects, the 1-month prevalence of major depressive disorder was 2.2%, but the 1-month prevalence of depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder was 14.1%. Depressive disorders were the cause of 24.7% of work loss days, while depressive symptoms not diagnosable as depressive disorder were the cause of 17.2% of work loss days. These findings support the dimensional or spectrum approach to depressive disorder in the community and might be the missing link between the apparent low prevalence of depressive disorder and high suicide rate in Korea.

  5. Psychiatric symptoms and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Bilgic, Özlem; Akış, Havva Kaya; Eskioğlu, Fatma; Kılıç, Emine Zinnur

    2010-01-01

    Information about the relationship between psoriasis and psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in children and adolescents is limited. We aimed to examine the symptoms of depression and anxiety and health-related quality of life levels in children and adolescents with psoriasis. Forty-eight outpatients with psoriasis aged 8 to 18 years are included in this study. Child Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventories for Children (STAI-C) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Parent and Child Versions (PedQL-P and C) were applied to both patient and control groups. Psoriasis symptom severity was measured by the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Both study and control groups were divided into two age groups, child (8-12 yrs) and adolescent (13-18 yrs), to exclude the effect of puberty on psychological condition. The mean CDI score was higher, and PedQL-C psychosocial and total scores were lower in the children compared with controls. Duration of psoriasis had an increasing effect on physical-health and total scores of PedQL-C in the child group and all PedQL-C scores in the entire sample. Psoriasis severity showed a negative correlation with psychosocial and total scores of PedQL-P in the adolescent group and PedQL-P physical-health scores in the entire sample. Psoriasis is related to depression and impaired quality of life in children. The depressive symptoms in children with psoriasis should not be overlooked and psychiatric assessment of these children should be provided.

  6. Symptoms, psychological distress, social support, and quality of life of Chinese patients newly diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hu; Sellick, Ken

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to describe symptoms, psychological distress, social support, and quality of life of Chinese patients newly diagnosed with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer, and to identify the extent to which demographic, physical, and psychosocial factors predict their quality of life. A convenience sample of 146 newly diagnosed GIT cancer patients recruited from 3 major hospitals in Shanghai completed a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to obtain demographic and medical data and measures of symptoms, psychological distress, social support, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and global quality of life (GQoL). Measures developed in English were translated into Chinese using the procedure advocated by WHO. The results showed that the most common signs and symptoms reported were fatigue, pain, and weight loss; 28% of the patients were depressed; and overall, patients had a moderate quality of life. Comparative analyses found some difference on measures for demographic and diagnostic subgroups. Depression, symptom distress, and social support accounted for 44% of the total variance for HRQoL, while perceived financial difficulty and symptom distress accounted for 20% of the total variance for GQoL. Findings from this research give insights into the importance of quality of life assessment, symptom management, and intervention to improve the quality of life of Chinese cancer patients. It also raises questions about measures of quality of life that are culturally relevant. PMID:15525867

  7. Relationships between disability, quality of life and prevalence of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Matilde; Raggi, Alberto; Pagani, Marco; Carella, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from a variety of motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS), report reduced quality of life and increased disability. Aims of this study are to assess the impact of Parkinson's disease on disability and quality of life, to evaluate the relationships between them and NMS prevalence. In this cross-sectional study, adult patients were consecutively enrolled and administered the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS II), the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Non Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQuest). One-sample t-test was used to compare WHO-DAS II and SF-36 scores with normative value. Pearson's correlation was performed between NMSQuest, WHO-DAS II and SF-36 summary scales. Independent-sample t-test was used to compare NMSQuest, WHO-DAS II and SF-36 scores in patients with Hoehn & Yahr stage <3 and ≥ 3. In total, 96 patients were enrolled. SF-36 and WHO-DAS II scores were significantly worse than the normative values. Correlation coefficients between NMSQuest, WHO-DAS II and SF-36's mental score were moderate, and were high between WHO-DAS II and and SF-36's physical score. Patients with Hoehn & Yahr stage ≥ 3 reported reduced quality of life, higher disability and more NMS. Parkinson's disease severity is strongly associated with reduced quality of life, increased disability and NMS prevalence. Disability and quality of life assessment tools measure psychosocial facets that are similar specifically with regard to physical health component of health-related quality of life, are sensitive enough to capture differences related to disease's progression and increased prevalence of NMS.

  8. Correlation of quality of life with clinical symptoms and signs at the time of glaucoma diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, R P

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between clinical measures of visual function and patient-reported measures of symptoms and health status in a large cohort of glaucoma patients at the time of diagnosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The 607 patients in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) received standardized examinations of visual acuity and visual field at enrollment. In addition, they completed a health-related quality-of-life instrument, which included the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), a symptom and a comorbidity chart, a question about their degree of worry about becoming blind, and many other items. RESULTS: The SIP total and dimension scores correlated only weakly, and not significantly, with visual acuity and visual field measures. The VAQ total and subscale scores, particularly the peripheral vision subscale, correlated weakly and significantly with visual acuity and visual field scores, especially those from the better eye. Worry about blindness and symptoms attributed to glaucoma correlated weakly but significantly to visual field scores from the worse eye. Attempts to improve correlations by scoring the visual fields differently, including only paracentral and pericentral test locations in the scores, and simulating binocular visual field scores were largely unsuccessful. CONCLUSIONS: At diagnosis, most patients were relatively free of glaucoma-induced impairments, so clinical measures were poor predictors of a patient's perception of health-related quality of life. The vision-specific VAQ and glaucoma-related symptom score correlated better than the generic SIP with clinical measures at the time of enrollment into CIGTS. PMID:10360308

  9. A promotion of stability for temporal compression based on SBS in an interferometric scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Zhaohong; Yuan, Hang; Bai, Zhenxu; Wang, Hongli; Zhu, Xuehua; Liu, Rui; Li, Sensen; Chen, Yi; Wang, Yirui; Cui, Can; Zhang, Hengkang; He, Weiming; Lu, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    An approach that introducing a standing wave into focal area to stabilize the output energy and duration of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) compression is presented. An interferometric scheme filled with FC-770 is used to improve the stability of both output energy and duration two times compared with an equivalent conventional SBS compressor. Moreover, the interferometric scheme shows a promotion for the performance of SBS compression.

  10. Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship between Symptoms and Quality of Life in Veterans Treated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Paula P.; Hayes, Andrew F.; Lunney, Carole A.; McFall, Miles; Uddo, Madeline

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms relates to change in quality of life. The sample consisted of 325 male Vietnam veterans with chronic PTSD who participated in a randomized trial of group psychotherapy. Latent growth modeling was used to test for synchronous effects of PTSD symptom change on…

  11. Characterization of blends of PP and SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J.; Albano, C.; Candal, M. V.; Ichazo, M. N.; Hernández, M.

    2005-07-01

    The present work has the objective of analyzing blends of PP with 30 wt% SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation. In order to do so, SBS was irradiated at 10, 25 and 50 kGy with gamma rays. Results indicate that the gel fraction increases with irradiation dose, varying from 0.3% to 13.0% for the doses employed. Concerning tensile properties, it can be seen that the incorporation of SBS non-irradiated or irradiated decreases Young's modulus, while increasing elongation at break. Respect to thermal studies, it was detected that SBS decreases melting enthalpy of blends, fact that implies a decrease on crystallinity degree, being this effect more noticeable when SBS is irradiated at doses higher than 10 kGy. On the other hand, melting temperature diminishes slightly when adding SBS to PP, but does not show significant variations when SBS is irradiated. PPs MFI decreased with the addition of SBS, being the effect more notorious with irradiation dose. Finally, it can be concluded that SBS can be vulcanized by gamma irradiation, and that the crosslinking degree increases with irradiation dose.

  12. Effect of ageing on rheological properties of storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yu, Jianying; Wu, Shaopeng

    2010-10-15

    Oxidative ageing as an inevitable process in practical road paving has a great effect on the properties of polymer-modified asphalts (PMAs). In this article, the effect of short-term and long-term oxidative ageing on the rheological, physical properties and the morphology of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)- and storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts was studied, respectively. The analysis on the rheological and physical properties of the PMAs before and after ageing showed the two major effects of ageing. On one hand, ageing prompted the degradation of polymer and increased the viscous behaviour of the modified binders, on the other, ageing changed the asphalt compositions and improved the elastic behaviour of the modified binders. The final performance of the aged binders depended on the combined effect. After ageing, the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts showed an obvious viscous behaviour compare with the SBS-modified asphalts and this led to an improved low-temperature creep property. The rutting resistance of the SBS-modified asphalts declined by the addition of sulfur due to the structural instability of the SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. The rheological properties of the modified binders before and after ageing also depended strongly on the structural characteristics of SBS. The observation by using optical microscopy showed the compatibility between asphalt and SBS was improved with further ageing, especially for the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

  13. Effect of ageing on rheological properties of storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yu, Jianying; Wu, Shaopeng

    2010-10-15

    Oxidative ageing as an inevitable process in practical road paving has a great effect on the properties of polymer-modified asphalts (PMAs). In this article, the effect of short-term and long-term oxidative ageing on the rheological, physical properties and the morphology of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)- and storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts was studied, respectively. The analysis on the rheological and physical properties of the PMAs before and after ageing showed the two major effects of ageing. On one hand, ageing prompted the degradation of polymer and increased the viscous behaviour of the modified binders, on the other, ageing changed the asphalt compositions and improved the elastic behaviour of the modified binders. The final performance of the aged binders depended on the combined effect. After ageing, the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts showed an obvious viscous behaviour compare with the SBS-modified asphalts and this led to an improved low-temperature creep property. The rutting resistance of the SBS-modified asphalts declined by the addition of sulfur due to the structural instability of the SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. The rheological properties of the modified binders before and after ageing also depended strongly on the structural characteristics of SBS. The observation by using optical microscopy showed the compatibility between asphalt and SBS was improved with further ageing, especially for the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. PMID:20637542

  14. Abdominoplasty Improves Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Saariniemi, Kai M. M.; Salmi, Asko M.; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Helle, Marjo H.; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic) abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Raitasalo's modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI), and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) 26.4. Fifty-three (83%) women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799. PMID:25506426

  15. Quality of Life and Symptom Experience of Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Zümrüt Akgün; Tan, Mehtap

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of educational interventions on breast cancer patients during chemotherapy, with a secondary aim of focusing on describing symptoms in patients during chemotherapy and their effects on the quality of life of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The study was quasi-experimental. A sample of 120 patients participated, of which 60 were in the experimental group and 60 were in the control group. Pre/posttest quality-of-life subgroups were compared in terms of their mean scores. In the posttest in the experimental group, mean scores of the Family subscale, Health and Functioning subscale, Psychological/Spiritual subscale, and Social and Economic subscale correlated negatively and the difference was statistically significant (P < .05). PMID:27309408

  16. A longitudinal examination of re-employment quality on internalizing symptoms and job-search intentions.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Samuel S; Howe, George W; Nettles, Christopher D; Weihs, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Underemployed workers-those receiving less pay, working fewer hours, or using fewer skills than they would prefer-appear to experience negative mental health outcomes similar to the unemployed. Prior cross-sectional research provides mixed empirical evidence for this conclusion, however. The current study sought to clarify the impact of underemployment longitudinally, assessing mental health 5 times over 8 months after job loss. In addition to the commonly used indicators of underemployment, we designed a measure of cognitive complexity using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), an extensive government database used to organize and categorize occupational information. Replicating past research, we found concurrent associations between all indexes of reemployment job quality and internalizing symptoms in the period immediately after reemployment. However, when controlling for quality of prior employment, all indicators except our measure for cognitive complexity became nonsignificant. As participants transitioned from unemployment to reemployment, only reductions in cognitive complexity were associated with sustained general internalizing symptoms. We also found that although changes in cognitive complexity had an immediate impact on the well-being of the recently reemployed, only the number of available weekly hours (full-time vs. part-time status) was relevant 6 to 12 weeks later. Our longitudinal model thus provides significant nuance to the current understanding of underemployment and mental health. PMID:25151465

  17. Indoor air quality in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João; Ramos, Elisabete; Barros, Henrique; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to characterize the indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools and its relationship with children's respiratory symptoms. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, PM2.5, PM10, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi were assessed in 73 classrooms from 20 public primary schools located in Porto, Portugal. Children who attended the selected classrooms (n = 1134) were evaluated by a standardised health questionnaire completed by the legal guardians; spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide tests. The results indicated that no classrooms presented individual VOC pollutant concentrations higher than the WHO IAQ guidelines or by INDEX recommendations; while PM2.5, PM10 and bacteria levels exceeded the WHO air quality guidelines or national limit values. High levels of total VOC, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher odds of wheezing in children. Thus, indoor air pollutants, some even at low exposure levels, were related with the development of respiratory symptoms. The results pointed out that it is crucial to take into account the unique characteristics of the public primary schools, to develop appropriate control strategies in order to reduce the exposure to indoor air pollutants and, therefore, to minimize the adverse health effects.

  18. Quantification of the association of ventilation rates with sick building syndrome symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2009-06-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fit to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent) as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person and relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent) as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person.

  19. Effects of Estradiol and Venlafaxine on Insomnia Symptoms and Sleep Quality in Women with Hot Flashes

    PubMed Central

    Ensrud, Kristine E.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Hohensee, Chancellor; Caan, Bette; Carpenter, Janet S.; Freeman, Ellen W.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Landis, Carol A.; Manson, JoAnn; Newton, Katherine M.; Otte, Julie; Reed, Susan D.; Shifren, Jan L.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Woods, Nancy F.; Joffe, Hadine

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine effects of low-dose estradiol and low-dose venlafaxine on self-reported sleep measures in menopausal women with hot flashes. Design: 3-arm double-blind randomized trial. Participants assigned in a 2:2:3 ratio to 17β estradiol 0.5 mg/day (n = 97), venlafaxine XR 75 mg/day (n = 96), or placebo (n = 146) for 8 weeks. Setting: Academic research centers. Participants: 339 community-dwelling perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with ≥ 2 bothersome hot flashes per day. Measurements and Results: Insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) at baseline, week 4 and 8; 325 women (96%) provided ISI data and 312 women (92%) provided PSQI data at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, mean (SD) hot flash frequency was 8.1/day (5.3), mean ISI was 11.1 (6.0), and mean PSQI was 7.5 (3.4). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in ISI at week 8 was −4.1 points (−5.3 to −3.0) with estradiol, −5.0 points (−6.1 to −3.9) with venlafaxine, and −3.0 points (−3.8 to −2.3) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.09 for estradiol and 0.007 for venlafaxine). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in PSQI at week 8 was −2.2 points (−2.8 to −1.6) with estradiol, −2.3 points (−2.9 to −1.6) with venlafaxine, and −1.2 points (−1.7 to −0.8) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.04 for estradiol and 0.06 for venlafaxine). Conclusions: Among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes, both low dose oral estradiol and low-dose venlafaxine compared with placebo modestly reduced insomnia symptoms and improved subjective sleep quality. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01418209 at www.clinicaltrials.gov Citation: Ensrud KE, Guthrie KA, Hohensee C, Caan B, Carpenter JS, Freeman EW, LaCroix AZ, Landis CA, Manson J, Newton KM, Otte J, Reed SD, Shifren JL, Sternfeld B, Woods NF, Joffe H. Effects of estradiol and venlafaxine on insomnia symptoms

  20. EuroQol 5D Quality of Life in Meniere's Disorder Can Be Explained with Symptoms and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levo, Hilla; Stephens, Dafydd; Poe, Dennis; Kentala, Erna; Rasku, Jyrki; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors explaining changes in the generic quality of life among patients with Meniere's disorder (MD) and to evaluate the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) quality-of-life measures. A questionnaire focusing on symptoms and disabilities caused by MD was collected from 726 individuals. General health-related quality…

  1. Uraemic pruritus markedly affects the quality of life and depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Suseł, Joanna; Batycka-Baran, Aleksandra; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the influence of uraemic pruritus on patients' wellbeing. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of uraemic pruritus on quality of life and depressive symptoms in patients with end-stage renal disease. A total of 200 haemodialysis patients were included into the study. The prevalence of uraemic pruritus was 38%. Patients with uraemic pruritus had significantly lower quality of life according to SF-36 questionnaire compared to the remaining of analysed subjects. Among patients with uraemic pruritus, 64.5% individuals also showed impaired skin-related quality of life evaluated with Dermatology Life Quality Index. The quality of life impairment correlated with uraemic pruritus intensity assessed with VAS and the 4-item itch questionnaire. Depression level significantly correlated with quality of life and severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with uraemic pruritus intensity. Our study underscores that uraemic pruritus should be regarded as an important health problem among haemodialysis patients.

  2. Anticipated discrimination is related to symptom severity, functionality and quality of life in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Üçok, Alp; Karadayı, Gülşah; Emiroğlu, Birgül; Sartorius, Norman

    2013-10-30

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a possible relationship between the level of anticipated discrimination with severity of symptoms and functionality. We included 103 patients with schizophrenia. Severity of symptoms was measured by PANSS and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Quality of life (QL) and functionality were measured by using QLS, PSP and Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia Scale (FROGS). Anticipated/experienced discrimination was evaluated with four selected items from Discrimination and Stigma Scale. First, variables related to each item were determined by using t-test and later the variables that have an independent contribution to anticipated discrimination subscale of DISC were evaluated with linear regression analysis. Results showed that those who stated that they felt the need to conceal their diagnosis more had shorter duration of illness, lower PANNS scores, higher scores on professional performance subscale of QLS, a lower number of suicide attempts and higher current employment rates. Participants who reported that they had been avoided or shunned more had higher depression scores. While patients with lower level of functionality tended to stop themselves more, patients with high level of functionality tended to conceal their diagnosis.

  3. PELVIC FLOOR SYMPTOMS AND QUALITY OF LIFE ANALYSES IN WOMEN UNDERGOING SURGERY FOR RECTAL PROLPASE

    PubMed Central

    ELLINGTON, DR; MANN, M; BOWLING, CB; DRELICHMAN, ER; GREER, WJ; SZYCHOWSKI, JM; RICHTER, HE

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterize pelvic floor symptom distress and impact, sexual function and quality of life in women who underwent rectal prolapse surgery. Methods Subjects undergoing rectal prolapse surgery from 2004–2009 completed questionnaires including the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. Baseline demographic, medical, and surgical characteristics were extracted by chart review. Demographic and clinic outcomes of women undergoing transperineal and abdominal approaches were compared. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical measures. Results 45 were identified; two deceased at follow-up. 28/43 subjects (65.1%) responded to the questionnaires. Mean time from original procedure was 3.9 ± 3.1 years. No differences in median total Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and subscale scores, and Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire scores in women undergoing open rectopexy versus transperineal proctectomy were seen (all p>0.05). 26 (60%) participants answered the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, nine reported sexual activity within the last month. All underwent abdominal procedures. Conclusion There are few colorectal or other pelvic floor symptoms after rectal prolapse repair. Robust prospective studies are needed to more fully characterize and understand issues associated with rectal prolapse surgery in women. PMID:25379122

  4. Associations between chronotype, sleep quality, suicidality, and depressive symptoms in patients with major depression and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Boysan, Murat; Atli, Abdullah; Agargun, Mehmed Yucel; Besiroglu, Lutfullah

    2010-10-01

    Research interest concerning associations between sleep characteristics and suicidality in psychopathology has been growing. However, possible linkages of suicidality to sleep characteristics in terms of sleep quality and chronotypes among depressive patients have not been well documented. In the current study, the authors investigated the possible effects of sleep quality and chronotype on the severity of depressive symptoms and suicide risk in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls. The study was conducted on 80 patients clinically diagnosed with major depression and 80 healthy subjects who were demographically matched with the patient group. All participants completed a questionnaire package containing self-report measures, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS), and subjects were interviewed with the suicidality section of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results are as follows: (a) logistic regression analyses revealed that poor sleep quality and depression symptom severity significantly predicted onset of major depression; (b) morningness-type circadian rhythm may play as a significant relief factor after onset of major depression; (c) sleep variables of chronotype and sleep quality did not significantly predict suicide ideation after controlling for depressive symptoms in the major depression group; and (d) suicide ideation and poor sleep quality were antecedents of depression symptom severity in patients with major depression, and in healthy controls. Findings are discussed under the theoretical assumptions concerning possible relations between chronotype, sleep quality, depression, and suicidality. PMID:20969525

  5. Properties of dark solitons under SBS in focused beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel'dyugin, Igor'M.; Erokhin, A. I.; Efimkov, V. F.; Zubarev, I. G.; Mikhailov, S. I.

    2012-12-01

    Using the method of four-wave probing of the waist of the laser beam focused into the bulk of a short active medium (L ll τc, where L is the length of the active medium, τ is the pulse duration, and c is the speed of light), we have studied the dynamics of the behaviour of a dark soliton, appearing upon a jump of the input Stokes signal phase by about π under SBS. The computer simulation has shown that when spontaneous noises with the gain increment Γ, exceeding the self-reflection threshold by 2 - 3 times, are generated, the dark soliton propagates along the interaction region for the time t ≈ T2Γth/2, where T2 is the the lifetime of acoustic phonons, and Γth = 25 - 30 is the stationary threshold gain increment.

  6. SBS vs Inhouse Recycling Methods-An Invitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Jaya Krishanan; Arun; Sundari, Shanta; Chandrasekhar, Shyamala; Kumar, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In today’s world of economic crisis it is not feasible for an orthodontist to replace each and every debonded bracket with a new bracket- quest for an alternative thrives Orthodontist. The concept of recycling bracket for its reuse has evolved over a period of time. Orthodontist can send the brackets to various commercial recycling companies for recycling, but it’s impractical as these are complex procedures and require time and usage of a new bracket would seem more feasible. Thereby, in-house methods have been developed. The aim of the study was to determine the SBS (Shear Bond Strength) and to compare, evaluate the efficiency of in house recycling methods with that of the SBS of new brackets. Materials and Methods Five in–house-recycling procedures-Adhesive Grinding Method, Sandblasting Method, Thermal Flaming Method, Buchman method and Acid Bath Method were used in the present study. Initial part of the study included the use of UV/Vis spectrophotometer where in the absorption level of base of new stainless steel bracket is compared with the base of a recycled bracket. The difference seen in the UV absorbance can be attributed to the presence of adhesive remnant. For each recycling procedure the difference in UV absorption is calculated. New stainless steel brackets and recycled brackets were tested for its shear bond strength with Instron testing machine. Comparisons were made between shear bond strength of new brackets with that of recycled brackets. The last part of the study involved correlating the findings of UV/Vis spectrophotometer with the shear bond strength for each recycling procedure. Results Among the recycled brackets the Sandblasting technique showed the highest shear bond strength (19.789MPa) and the least was shown by the Adhesive Grinding method (13.809MPa). Conclusion The study concludes that sand blasting can be an effective choice among the 5 in house methods of recycling methods. PMID:26501002

  7. The Effects of Symptoms on Quality of Life during Chemotherapy in African-American Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gaton-Johansson, Fannie; Watkins, Crystal C; Kanu, Iye Kamara; Whitehouse, Erin; Sarenmalm, Elisabeth Kenne; Brovall, Maria; Kozachik, Sharon L

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of burdensome symptoms dur- ing chemotherapy treatment in African-American women. This study explored the symptom burden occurring during chemotherapy treatment and how these symptoms impacted functional well-being and quality of life (QOL). A sample of 30 African-American women with breast cancer (BC) completed a battery of questionnaires that were used to collect the data at baseline, midpoint, and at the completion of chemotherapy. There were significant differences in the severity of symptoms for worse pain, pain inteiference with activities of daily living (ADLs), present fatigue and history offatigue, present nausea and history of nausea and insomnia as well as lower intensity of QOL measures over the course of chemotherapy treatment. All symptoms had greater intensity at midpoint and completion than at baseline. Worst pain had a significant negative effect on functional well-being. Both pain and depression each had significant negative effects on QOL. PMID:27045153

  8. Decline in the Quality of Family Relationships Predicts Escalation in Children's Internalizing Symptoms from Middle to Late Childhood.

    PubMed

    Brock, Rebecca L; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-10-01

    An integration of family systems perspectives with developmental psychopathology provides a framework for examining the complex interplay between family processes and developmental trajectories of child psychopathology over time. In a community sample of 98 families, we investigated the evolution of family relationships, across multiple subsystems of the family (i.e., interparental, mother-child, father-child), and the impact of these changing family dynamics on developmental trajectories of child internalizing symptoms over 6 years, from preschool age to pre-adolescence. Parent-child relationship quality was observed during lengthy sessions, consisting of multiple naturalistic, carefully scripted contexts. Each parent completed reports about interparental relationship satisfaction and child internalizing symptoms. To the extent that mothers experienced a steeper decline in interparental relationship satisfaction over time, children developed internalizing symptoms at a faster rate. Further, symptoms escalated at a faster rate to the extent that negative mother-child relationship quality increased (more negative affect expressed by both mother and child, greater maternal power assertion) and positive mother-child relationship quality decreased (less positive affect expressed by both mother and child, less warmth and positive reciprocity). Time-lagged growth curve analyses established temporal precedence such that decline in family relationships preceded escalation in child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that family dysfunction, across multiple subsystems, represents a driving force in the progression of child internalizing symptoms.

  9. Decline in the Quality of Family Relationships Predicts Escalation in Children's Internalizing Symptoms from Middle to Late Childhood.

    PubMed

    Brock, Rebecca L; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-10-01

    An integration of family systems perspectives with developmental psychopathology provides a framework for examining the complex interplay between family processes and developmental trajectories of child psychopathology over time. In a community sample of 98 families, we investigated the evolution of family relationships, across multiple subsystems of the family (i.e., interparental, mother-child, father-child), and the impact of these changing family dynamics on developmental trajectories of child internalizing symptoms over 6 years, from preschool age to pre-adolescence. Parent-child relationship quality was observed during lengthy sessions, consisting of multiple naturalistic, carefully scripted contexts. Each parent completed reports about interparental relationship satisfaction and child internalizing symptoms. To the extent that mothers experienced a steeper decline in interparental relationship satisfaction over time, children developed internalizing symptoms at a faster rate. Further, symptoms escalated at a faster rate to the extent that negative mother-child relationship quality increased (more negative affect expressed by both mother and child, greater maternal power assertion) and positive mother-child relationship quality decreased (less positive affect expressed by both mother and child, less warmth and positive reciprocity). Time-lagged growth curve analyses established temporal precedence such that decline in family relationships preceded escalation in child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that family dysfunction, across multiple subsystems, represents a driving force in the progression of child internalizing symptoms. PMID:25790794

  10. Decline in the Quality of Family Relationships Predicts Escalation in Children’s Internalizing Symptoms from Middle to Late Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    An integration of family systems perspectives with developmental psychopathology provides a framework for examining the complex interplay between family processes and developmental trajectories of child psychopathology over time. In a community sample of 98 families, we investigated the evolution of family relationships, across multiple subsystems of the family (i.e., interparental, mother-child, father-child), and the impact of these changing family dynamics on developmental trajectories of child internalizing symptoms over 6 years, from preschool age to pre-adolescence. Parent–child relationship quality was observed during lengthy sessions, consisting of multiple naturalistic, carefully scripted contexts. Each parent completed reports about interparental relationship satisfaction and child internalizing symptoms. To the extent that mothers experienced a steeper decline in interparental relationship satisfaction over time, children developed internalizing symptoms at a faster rate. Further, symptoms escalated at a faster rate to the extent that negative mother-child relationship quality increased (more negative affect expressed by both mother and child, greater maternal power assertion) and positive mother-child relationship quality decreased (less positive affect expressed by both mother and child, less warmth and positive reciprocity). Time-lagged growth curve analyses established temporal precedence such that decline in family relationships preceded escalation in child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that family dysfunction, across multiple subsystems, represents a driving force in the progression of child internalizing symptoms. PMID:25790794

  11. Sick building syndrome (SBS) among office workers in a Malaysian university--Associations with atopy, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the office environment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fang-Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Md Said, Salmiah; Than, Leslie Thian-Lung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-12-01

    There are few studies on sick building syndrome (SBS) including clinical measurements for atopy and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Our aim was to study associations between SBS symptoms, selected personal factors, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers from a university in Malaysia. Health data were collected by a questionnaire (n=695), skin prick test (SPT) (n=463) and FeNO test (n=460). Office settled dust was vacuumed and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-β-glucan and house dust mites (HDM) allergens group 1 namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Office indoor temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by a direct reading instrument. Associations were studied by two-levels multiple logistic regression with mutual adjustment and stratified analysis. The prevalence of weekly dermal, mucosal and general symptoms was 11.9%, 16.0% and 23.0% respectively. A combination of SPT positivity (allergy to HDM or cat) and high FeNO level (≥25 ppb) was associated with dermal (p=0.002), mucosal (p<0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.05). Der f1 level in dust was associated with dermal (p<0.001), mucosal (p<0.001) and general (p=0.02) symptoms. Among those with allergy to D. farinae, associations were found between Der f 1 levels in dust and dermal (p=0.003), mucosal (p=0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.007). Office-related symptoms were associated with Der f 1 levels in dust (p=0.02), low relative air humidity (p=0.04) and high office temperature (p=0.05). In conclusion, a combination of allergy to cat or HDM and high FeNO is a risk factor for SBS symptoms. Der f 1 allergen in dust can be a risk factor for SBS in the office environment, particularly among those sensitized to Der f 1 allergen. PMID:26225741

  12. Sick building syndrome (SBS) among office workers in a Malaysian university--Associations with atopy, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the office environment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fang-Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Md Said, Salmiah; Than, Leslie Thian-Lung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-12-01

    There are few studies on sick building syndrome (SBS) including clinical measurements for atopy and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Our aim was to study associations between SBS symptoms, selected personal factors, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers from a university in Malaysia. Health data were collected by a questionnaire (n=695), skin prick test (SPT) (n=463) and FeNO test (n=460). Office settled dust was vacuumed and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-β-glucan and house dust mites (HDM) allergens group 1 namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Office indoor temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by a direct reading instrument. Associations were studied by two-levels multiple logistic regression with mutual adjustment and stratified analysis. The prevalence of weekly dermal, mucosal and general symptoms was 11.9%, 16.0% and 23.0% respectively. A combination of SPT positivity (allergy to HDM or cat) and high FeNO level (≥25 ppb) was associated with dermal (p=0.002), mucosal (p<0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.05). Der f1 level in dust was associated with dermal (p<0.001), mucosal (p<0.001) and general (p=0.02) symptoms. Among those with allergy to D. farinae, associations were found between Der f 1 levels in dust and dermal (p=0.003), mucosal (p=0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.007). Office-related symptoms were associated with Der f 1 levels in dust (p=0.02), low relative air humidity (p=0.04) and high office temperature (p=0.05). In conclusion, a combination of allergy to cat or HDM and high FeNO is a risk factor for SBS symptoms. Der f 1 allergen in dust can be a risk factor for SBS in the office environment, particularly among those sensitized to Der f 1 allergen.

  13. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding. PMID:26787123

  14. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding.

  15. The association of quality of social relations, symptom severity and intelligence with anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Mart L J M; Van Gool, Arthur R; Verheij, Fop; De Nijs, Pieter F A; Verhulst, Frank C; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2013-11-01

    Limited quality of social relations, milder symptom severity and higher intelligence were shown to account for higher anxiety levels in autism spectrum disorders. The current study replicated and extended earlier findings by combining these three determinants of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders in one study. The sample consisted of 134 school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders, of whom 58 (43%) had a co-morbid anxiety disorder according to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent version. In this sample, we tested associations between these determinants and anxiety univariately and multivariately to clarify the unique contribution of all determinants. Since we hypothesized that the association between limited quality of social relations and anxiety would be amplified by low symptom severity and/or high intelligence, we additionally tested for moderating effects. We found that higher anxiety levels were associated with a lower quality of social relations and lower symptom severity. In this mainly high-functioning sample, intelligence was not related to anxiety levels. No moderation effects were found. Since lower quality of social relations and lower symptom severity are associated with higher anxiety levels in children with autism spectrum disorders, therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing anxiety in autism spectrum disorders should pay attention to improving social relations, and presumably children with a lower symptom severity could benefit most from such interventions.

  16. The impact of neighborhood quality, perceived stress, and social support on depressive symptoms during pregnancy in African American women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Misra, Dawn P; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Templin, Thomas N; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-04-01

    Living in a lower-quality neighborhood is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in the general population as well as among pregnant and postpartum women. However, little is known of the important pathways by which this association occurs. We proposed a model in which perceived stress and social support mediated the effects of neighborhood quality on depressive symptoms during pregnancy (measured by the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, CES-D, scale) in a sample of 1383 African American women from the Detroit metropolitan area interviewed during their delivery hospitalization. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we built a latent variable of neighborhood quality using 4 measures (neighborhood disorder, neighborhood safety/danger, walking environment, overall rating). We then tested two SEM mediation models. We found that lower neighborhood quality was associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (standardized total effect = .16, p = .011). We found that perceived stress partially mediated the neighborhood quality association with depressive symptoms. Although the association of social support with depressive symptoms was negligible, social support mediated associations of neighborhood quality with perceived stress [standardized path coefficient = .38 (.02), p = .009]. Our results point to the need for public health, health care, as well as non-health related interventions (e.g. crime prevention programs) to decrease overall exposure to stressors, as well as stress levels of women living in poor quality neighborhoods. Interventions that increase the levels of social support of women during pregnancy are also needed for their potential to decrease stress and ultimately improve mental health at this important time in the life course.

  17. The impact of neighborhood quality, perceived stress, and social support on depressive symptoms during pregnancy in African American women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Misra, Dawn P; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Templin, Thomas N; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-04-01

    Living in a lower-quality neighborhood is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in the general population as well as among pregnant and postpartum women. However, little is known of the important pathways by which this association occurs. We proposed a model in which perceived stress and social support mediated the effects of neighborhood quality on depressive symptoms during pregnancy (measured by the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, CES-D, scale) in a sample of 1383 African American women from the Detroit metropolitan area interviewed during their delivery hospitalization. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we built a latent variable of neighborhood quality using 4 measures (neighborhood disorder, neighborhood safety/danger, walking environment, overall rating). We then tested two SEM mediation models. We found that lower neighborhood quality was associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (standardized total effect = .16, p = .011). We found that perceived stress partially mediated the neighborhood quality association with depressive symptoms. Although the association of social support with depressive symptoms was negligible, social support mediated associations of neighborhood quality with perceived stress [standardized path coefficient = .38 (.02), p = .009]. Our results point to the need for public health, health care, as well as non-health related interventions (e.g. crime prevention programs) to decrease overall exposure to stressors, as well as stress levels of women living in poor quality neighborhoods. Interventions that increase the levels of social support of women during pregnancy are also needed for their potential to decrease stress and ultimately improve mental health at this important time in the life course. PMID:25703670

  18. Predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms involving the skin on quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Arı, Mustafa; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Alpak, Gokay; Bulut, Mahmut

    2013-11-01

    Acne is one of the most common dermatological diseases, and obsessive compulsive disorder is among the most frequent psychiatric conditions seen in dermatology clinics. Comorbidity of these conditions may therefore be expected. The aim of this study was to measure obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, compare them with those of healthy control subjects, and determine whether there is any predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms for quality of life in patients with acne. Obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life measurements of 146 patients with acne vulgaris and 94 healthy control subjects were made using the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire and Short Form-36 in a cross-sectional design. Patients with acne vulgaris had lower scores for physical functioning, physical role dysfunction, general health perception, vitality, and emotional role dysfunction. They also had higher scores for checking, slowness, and rumination. The only predictor of physical functioning and vitality dimensions of health-related quality of life in these patients was rumination score. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris are higher than in controls, and this may correlate with both disease severity and quality of life for patients.

  19. Psychopathology and quality of life burden in chronic daily headache: influence of migraine symptoms.

    PubMed

    Autret, A; Roux, S; Rimbaux-Lepage, S; Valade, D; Debiais, S

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the psychopathology and the quality of life of chronic daily headache patients between those with migraine headache and those with tension-type headache. We enrolled 106 adults with chronic daily headache (CDH) who consulted for the first time in specialised centres. The patients were classified according to the IHS 2004 criteria and the propositions of the Headache Classification Committee (2006) with a computed algorithm: 8 had chronic migraine (without medication overuse), 18 had chronic tension-type headache (without medication overuse), 80 had medication overuse headache and among them, 43 fulfilled the criteria for the sub-group of migraine (m) MOH, and 37 the subgroup for tension-type (tt) MOH. We tested five variables: MADRS global score, HAMA psychic and somatic sub-scales, SF-36 psychic, and somatic summary components. We compared patients with migraine symptoms (CM and mMOH) to those with tension-type symptoms (CTTH and ttMOH) and neutralised pain intensity with an ANCOVA which is a priori higher in the migraine group. We failed to find any difference between migraine and tension-type groups in the MADRS global score, the HAMA psychological sub-score and the SF36 physical component summary. The HAMA somatic anxiety subscale was higher in the migraine group than in the tension-type group (F(1,103) = 10.10, p = 0.001). The SF36 mental component summary was significantly worse in the migraine as compared with the tension-type subgroup (F(1,103) = 5.758, p = 0.018). In the four CDH subgroups, all the SF36 dimension scores except one (Physical Functioning) showed a more than 20 point difference from those seen in the adjusted historical controls. Furthermore, two sub-scores were significantly more affected in the migraine group as compared to the tension-type group, the physical health bodily pain (F(1,103) = 4.51, p = 0.036) and the mental health (F(1,103) = 8.17, p = 0.005). Considering that the statistic procedure

  20. Psychopathology and quality of life burden in chronic daily headache: influence of migraine symptoms.

    PubMed

    Autret, A; Roux, S; Rimbaux-Lepage, S; Valade, D; Debiais, S

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the psychopathology and the quality of life of chronic daily headache patients between those with migraine headache and those with tension-type headache. We enrolled 106 adults with chronic daily headache (CDH) who consulted for the first time in specialised centres. The patients were classified according to the IHS 2004 criteria and the propositions of the Headache Classification Committee (2006) with a computed algorithm: 8 had chronic migraine (without medication overuse), 18 had chronic tension-type headache (without medication overuse), 80 had medication overuse headache and among them, 43 fulfilled the criteria for the sub-group of migraine (m) MOH, and 37 the subgroup for tension-type (tt) MOH. We tested five variables: MADRS global score, HAMA psychic and somatic sub-scales, SF-36 psychic, and somatic summary components. We compared patients with migraine symptoms (CM and mMOH) to those with tension-type symptoms (CTTH and ttMOH) and neutralised pain intensity with an ANCOVA which is a priori higher in the migraine group. We failed to find any difference between migraine and tension-type groups in the MADRS global score, the HAMA psychological sub-score and the SF36 physical component summary. The HAMA somatic anxiety subscale was higher in the migraine group than in the tension-type group (F(1,103) = 10.10, p = 0.001). The SF36 mental component summary was significantly worse in the migraine as compared with the tension-type subgroup (F(1,103) = 5.758, p = 0.018). In the four CDH subgroups, all the SF36 dimension scores except one (Physical Functioning) showed a more than 20 point difference from those seen in the adjusted historical controls. Furthermore, two sub-scores were significantly more affected in the migraine group as compared to the tension-type group, the physical health bodily pain (F(1,103) = 4.51, p = 0.036) and the mental health (F(1,103) = 8.17, p = 0.005). Considering that the statistic procedure

  1. Helium Abundance in the Most Metal-deficient Blue Compact Galaxies: I ZW 18 and SBS 0335-052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, Yuri I.; Chaffee, Frederic H.; Foltz, Craig B.; Green, Richard F.; Guseva, Natalia G.; Thuan, Trinh X.

    1999-12-01

    We present high-quality spectroscopic observations of the two most metal-deficient blue compact galaxies known, I Zw 18 and SBS 0335-052. We use the data to determine the heavy-element and helium abundances. The oxygen abundances in the northwest and the southeast components of I Zw 18 are found to be the same within the errors, 7.17+/-0.03 and 7.18+/-0.03, respectively, although marginally statistically significant spatial variations of oxygen abundance might be present. In contrast, we find a statistically significant gradient of oxygen abundance in SBS 0335-052. The largest oxygen abundance, 12+logO/H=7.338+/-0.012, is found in the region 0.6" to the northeast of the brightest part of the galaxy, and it decreases toward the southwest to values of ~7.2, comparable to that in I Zw 18. The underlying stellar absorption strongly influences the observed intensities of He I emission lines in the brightest northwest component of I Zw 18, and hence this component should not be used for primordial He abundance determination. The effect of underlying stellar absorption, though present, is much smaller in the southeast component. Assuming all systematic uncertainties are negligible, the He mass fraction Y=0.243+/-0.007 derived in this component is in excellent agreement with recent measurements by Izotov & Thuan, suggesting the robustness of the technique applied in measurements of the helium abundance in low-metallicity blue compact galaxies. The high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (>=100 in the continuum) of SBS 0335-052 allows us to measure the helium mass fraction with a precision better than 2%-5% in nine different regions along the slit. We show that, while underlying stellar absorption in SBS 0335-052 is important only for the He I 4471 Å emission line, other mechanisms such as collisional and fluorescent enhancements are influencing the intensities of all He I emission lines and should be properly taken into account. When the electron number density derived from

  2. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ρ. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas.

  3. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity is more strongly associated than perinatal depressive symptoms with postnatal mother-infant interaction quality.

    PubMed

    Raine, Karen; Cockshaw, Wendell; Boyce, Philip; Thorpe, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Maternal mental health has enduring effects on children's life chances and is a substantial cost driver for child health, education and social services. A key linking mechanism is the quality of mother-infant interaction. A body of work associates maternal depressive symptoms across the antenatal and postnatal (perinatal) period with less-than-optimal mother-infant interaction. Our study aims to build on previous research in the field through exploring the association of a maternal personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, with subsequent mother-infant interaction quality. We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine the association between antenatal interpersonal sensitivity and postnatal mother-infant interaction quality in the context of perinatal depressive symptoms. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured during early pregnancy and depressive symptoms in the antenatal year and across the first 21 months of the postnatal period. In a subsample of the ALSPAC, mother-infant interaction was measured at 12 months postnatal through a standard observation. For the subsample that had complete data at all time points (n = 706), hierarchical regression examined the contribution of interpersonal sensitivity to variance in mother-infant interaction quality. Perinatal depressive symptoms predicted little variance in mother-infant interaction. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity explained a greater proportion of variance in mother-infant interaction quality. The personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, is a more robust indicator of subsequent mother-infant-interaction quality than perinatal depressive symptoms, thus affording enhanced opportunity to identify vulnerable mother-infant relationships for targeted early intervention.

  4. Randomized controlled trial of desloratadine for persistent allergic rhinitis: correlations between symptom improvement and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Zuberbier, Torsten; Canonica, G Walter; Fokkens, Wytske J; Gopalan, Gokul; Shekar, Tulin

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms can impart emotional, quality of life (QOL), and work productivity burdens, especially in persistent AR (PER). Desloratadine, an H1-receptor antagonist, has been shown to be effective against nasal and nonnasal AR symptoms and to improve QOL. Exploratory analyses were conducted to evaluate whether desloratadine-mediated symptom improvement correlated with improvements in QOL and productivity. The Aerius Control: Clinical and Evaluative Profile of Treatment 2 (NCT00405964) study was a 12-week, multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled prospective study of once-daily desloratadine at 5 mg in subjects with moderate-to-severe PER. Assessments included twice-daily symptom severity ratings (0 = none to 3 = severe; total and individual symptoms), sleep interference (morning [A.M.]), interference with activities of daily living (ADL; evening [P.M.]), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire-Standardized version (baseline and days 29 and 85), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-Allergy-Specific questionnaire (baseline and weekly). Pearson product-moment correlation statistics (r) were determined to assess correlations between symptom score improvements and QOL factors. All desloratadine-treated patients (n = 360) were included in this exploratory analysis. In the desloratadine-treated patients, all correlations tested were positive (all p < 0.0001). The highest coefficients were seen for the correlations between A.M./P.M. PRIOR total five-symptom score and interference with ADL (r = 0.72) and between A.M. NOW congestion and ADL interference (r = 0.69). Continuous daily treatment of moderate-to-severe PER with desloratadine at 5 mg/day significantly improved symptoms, which correlated positively, albeit moderately, with QOL benefits and reversal of functional impairments caused by PER.

  5. β-Glucan supplementation, allergy symptoms, and quality of life in self-described ragweed allergy sufferers.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Talbott, Tracy L; Dingler, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study compared the effects of daily supplementation for 4 week with 250 mg Wellmune WGP® β-1,3/1,6-Glucan (WGP) with placebo 250 mg/day (rice flour) on physical and psychological health attributes of self-described "moderate" ragweed allergy sufferers. Study participants (mean age = 36 ± 9 year; range 18-53 year) were recruited before the beginning of ragweed season (September) in Northeastern Ohio. Serum IgE concentration, allergy symptoms [via self-report, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ)], psychological well-being [Profile of Mood States (POMS)], and physical function (RAND SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study) were measured immediately prior to and after supplementation with WGP (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA). Compared with placebo, WGP reduced total allergy symptoms (28%), symptom severity (52%), and symptom rating on the VAS (37%) (P < 0.05), but had no effect on serum IgE levels. As measured by the POMS, WGP increased participants' rating of vigor (10%), but reduced tension (34%), depression (45%), anger (41%), fatigue (38%), and confusion (34%) (P < 0.05). Study participants given WGP reported increased physical health (11%), energy (19%), and emotional well-being (7%) compared with study participants given the placebo (RAND SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study). The WGP group also reported decreased sleep problems (53%), reduced nasal symptoms (59%), eye symptoms (57%), non-nasal symptoms (50%), activities (53%), emotions (57%), and improved quality of life (QOL) (56%), as well as improved global mood state (13%). Supplementation with WGP for 4 weeks improved allergy symptoms, overall physical health, and emotional well-being compared with placebo in self-described "moderate" ragweed allergy sufferers during ragweed allergy season.

  6. The Association of Quality of Social Relations, Symptom Severity and Intelligence with Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Verheij, Fop; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Limited quality of social relations, milder symptom severity and higher intelligence were shown to account for higher anxiety levels in autism spectrum disorders. The current study replicated and extended earlier findings by combining these three determinants of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders in one study. The sample consisted of 134…

  7. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Adolescent Attachment Relationship Quality and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijck, Fenna E. A. M.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the direction of effects between adolescents' generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and perceived parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality, as well as the moderating role of gender and age. 1,313 Dutch adolescents (48.5% boys) from two age cohorts of early (n = 923, M[subscript age] = 12 at W1) and…

  8. Parenteral nutrition improves nutritional status, autonomic symptoms and quality of life in transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Stancanelli, Claudia; Mazzeo, Anna; Vita, Giuseppe; Messina, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an inherited amyloidosis, leading to death in about ten years in most cases due to cardiac failure or wasting syndrome. Previous studies showed that modified body mass index was related to time before death, duration of gastrointestinal disturbances, malabsorption and functional capacity. We report two patients in whom nutritional status worsened despite diet modification, hypercaloric supplement and two relevant therapeutic approaches such as liver transplant and tafamidis meglumine, respectively. The first patient, a 52-year-old lady carrying Thr49Ala mutation, had a disease duration of twelve years and had lost weight up to 35 kg because of daily diarrhea. The second patient, a 63-year-old man with Glu89Gln mutation and a disease duration of fifteen years, was in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification class III and his weight was 39 kg. In both cases, a peripherally inserted central catheter was placed for parenteral nutrition. It allowed to improve their nutritional status and clinical conditions, with body weight gains of 11 and 8 kg in a one year follow-up, respectively. Moreover, reduction of autonomic symptoms including postural hypotension, nausea and diarrhoea was recorded with ameliorated quality of life. Our experience suggests that parenteral nutrition may be useful in reducing complications and disabilities in TTR-FAP patients, even when all dietary adjustments have been ineffective. Reasonably, the improvement in nutritional status may prolong survival in TTR-FAP patients.

  9. Building-Related Symptoms among Office Employees Associated with Indoor Carbon Dioxide and Total Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Lin, Jia-Min; Chen, Ying-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether sick building syndrome (SBS) complaints among office workers were associated with the indoor air quality. With informed consent, 417 employees in 87 office rooms of eight high-rise buildings completed a self-reported questionnaire for symptoms experienced at work during the past month. Carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, humidity and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) in each office were simultaneously measured for eight office hours using portable monitors. Time-averaged workday difference between the indoor and the outdoor CO2 concentrations (dCO2) was calculated as a surrogate measure of ventilation efficiency for each office unit. The prevalence rates of SBS were 22.5% for eye syndrome, 15.3% for upper respiratory and 25.4% for non-specific syndromes. Tiredness (20.9%), difficulty in concentrating (14.6%), eye dryness (18.7%) were also common complaints. The generalized estimating equations multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) per 100 ppm increase in dCO2 were significantly associated with dry throat (1.10, 95% CI=(1.00-1.22)), tiredness (1.16, 95% CI=(1.04-1.29)) and dizziness (1.22, 95% CI=(1.08-1.37)). The ORs for per 100 ppb increases in TVOCs were also associated with upper respiratory symptoms (1.06, 95% CI=(1.04-1.07)), dry throat (1.06, 95% CI=(1.03-1.09)) and irritability (1.02, 95% CI=(1.01-1.04)). In conclusion, the association between some SBS symptoms and the exposure to CO2 and total VOCs are moderate but may be independently significant. PMID:26024357

  10. Building-Related Symptoms among Office Employees Associated with Indoor Carbon Dioxide and Total Volatile Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Lin, Jia-Min; Chen, Ying-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether sick building syndrome (SBS) complaints among office workers were associated with the indoor air quality. With informed consent, 417 employees in 87 office rooms of eight high-rise buildings completed a self-reported questionnaire for symptoms experienced at work during the past month. Carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, humidity and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) in each office were simultaneously measured for eight office hours using portable monitors. Time-averaged workday difference between the indoor and the outdoor CO2 concentrations (dCO2) was calculated as a surrogate measure of ventilation efficiency for each office unit. The prevalence rates of SBS were 22.5% for eye syndrome, 15.3% for upper respiratory and 25.4% for non-specific syndromes. Tiredness (20.9%), difficulty in concentrating (14.6%), eye dryness (18.7%) were also common complaints. The generalized estimating equations multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) per 100 ppm increase in dCO2 were significantly associated with dry throat (1.10, 95% CI = (1.00–1.22)), tiredness (1.16, 95% CI = (1.04–1.29)) and dizziness (1.22, 95% CI = (1.08–1.37)). The ORs for per 100 ppb increases in TVOCs were also associated with upper respiratory symptoms (1.06, 95% CI = (1.04–1.07)), dry throat (1.06, 95% CI = (1.03–1.09)) and irritability (1.02, 95% CI = (1.01–1.04)). In conclusion, the association between some SBS symptoms and the exposure to CO2 and total VOCs are moderate but may be independently significant. PMID:26024357

  11. Building-Related Symptoms among Office Employees Associated with Indoor Carbon Dioxide and Total Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Lin, Jia-Min; Chen, Ying-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-05-27

    This study investigated whether sick building syndrome (SBS) complaints among office workers were associated with the indoor air quality. With informed consent, 417 employees in 87 office rooms of eight high-rise buildings completed a self-reported questionnaire for symptoms experienced at work during the past month. Carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, humidity and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) in each office were simultaneously measured for eight office hours using portable monitors. Time-averaged workday difference between the indoor and the outdoor CO2 concentrations (dCO2) was calculated as a surrogate measure of ventilation efficiency for each office unit. The prevalence rates of SBS were 22.5% for eye syndrome, 15.3% for upper respiratory and 25.4% for non-specific syndromes. Tiredness (20.9%), difficulty in concentrating (14.6%), eye dryness (18.7%) were also common complaints. The generalized estimating equations multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) per 100 ppm increase in dCO2 were significantly associated with dry throat (1.10, 95% CI=(1.00-1.22)), tiredness (1.16, 95% CI=(1.04-1.29)) and dizziness (1.22, 95% CI=(1.08-1.37)). The ORs for per 100 ppb increases in TVOCs were also associated with upper respiratory symptoms (1.06, 95% CI=(1.04-1.07)), dry throat (1.06, 95% CI=(1.03-1.09)) and irritability (1.02, 95% CI=(1.01-1.04)). In conclusion, the association between some SBS symptoms and the exposure to CO2 and total VOCs are moderate but may be independently significant.

  12. The Impact of Dyspepsia on Symptom Severity and Quality of Life in Adults with Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Mei-Ling Sharon; Norhatta, Norbelinda; Goh, Khean Jin; Moy, Foong Ming; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Asraff, Azman Ahmad; Lee, Qin Zhi; Ng, Jiun Hoong; Tan, Eugene Choon Li; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Dyspepsia and headache frequently co-exist, but the clinical implication of this association is uncertain. We planned to examine the prevalence and impact of dyspepsia in adults with headache. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a secondary care setting. Clinical, psychological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data were compared between subjects with headache and controls (non-headache subjects). The impact of dyspepsia was analysed further in subjects with headache alone. Results 280 subjects (93 cases with headache and 187 matched controls) were recruited. The following baseline characteristics of subjects were as follows: mean age 45.0±17.3 years, 57.0% females and ethnic distribution—Malaysian = 45 (48.4%), Chinese n = 24 (25.8%) and Indians n = 24 (25.8%). Headache sub-types among cases with headache were as follows: tension-type headache (TTH) n = 53 (57.0%) and migraine n = 40 (43.0%). Dyspepsia was more prevalent in cases with headache compared to controls (25.8% vs 12.8%, p = 0.011), and headache was independently associated with dyspepsia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.39–5.43). Among cases with headache, there was a trend towards a higher prevalence of dyspepsia in those with migraine (27.5%) compared to TTH (24.5%). Subjects with headache and dyspepsia, compared to those with headache alone, had a greater severity of headache symptoms (63.67±22.85 mm vs 51.20 ±24.0 mm VAS, p = 0.029). Overall HRQOL scores were lower in headache subjects with dyspepsia (EQ-5D summary score 0.82±0.18 vs 0.90 ±0.16, p = 0.037 and EQ-5D VAS 62.08±17.50 mm vs 72.62 ±18.85 mm, p = 0.018), compared to those without dyspepsia. Conclusion Dyspepsia is associated with more severe headache symptoms and results in a lower HRQOL in patients with headache. PMID:25629323

  13. The Mediating Role of Resilience on Quality of Life and Cancer Symptom Distress in Adolescent Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Berry, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how cancer symptom distress and resilience contribute to quality of life (QoL) in adolescent cancer and may potentially help these patients achieve better health-related outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe cancer symptom distress, QoL, and resilience in adolescents with cancer and to determine whether resilience is a mediating variable. Forty adolescent cancer patients were recruited, and data were collected via a demographic questionnaire, the Cancer Symptom Distress Scale, the Resilience Scale, and the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Scale. Pearson's correlation, multiple regressions, and the Sobel test were conducted. Both resilience and cancer symptom distress were regressed against QoL, accounting for 62.1% of observed variation in QoL scores. The bootstrap result estimated the true indirect effect between -.0189 and -.0024, with a 95% confidence interval. Resilience mediates the relationship between cancer symptom distress and QoL. Clinical use of a resilience measure, for example to use in developing and evaluating interventions focused on enhancing resilience, may be practical for nurses.

  14. Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma?

    PubMed

    Faye, A D; Gawande, S; Tadke, R; Kirpekar, V C; Bhave, S H; Pakhare, A P; Tayade, B

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD), quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL) BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II). Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were "sensations of shortness of breath or smothering," "feeling of choking," and "fear of dying" found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1). Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability. PMID:26425540

  15. The effects of Reiki therapy and companionship on quality of life, mood, and symptom distress during chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Orsak, Gabriela; Stevens, Arlene M; Brufsky, Adam; Kajumba, Mayanja; Dougall, Angela Liegey

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of Reiki therapy and companionship on improvements in quality of life, mood, and symptom distress during chemotherapy. Thirty-six breast cancer patients received usual care, Reiki, or a companion during chemotherapy. First, data were collected from patients receiving usual care. Second, patients were randomized to either receive Reiki or a companion during chemotherapy. Questionnaires assessing quality of life, mood, symptom distress, and Reiki acceptability were completed at baseline and chemotherapy sessions 1, 2, and 4. Reiki was rated relaxing with no side effects. Reiki and companion groups reported improvements in quality of life and mood that were greater than those seen in the usual care group. Interventions during chemotherapy, such as Reiki or companionship, are feasible, acceptable, and may reduce side effects.

  16. The effects of Reiki therapy and companionship on quality of life, mood, and symptom distress during chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Orsak, Gabriela; Stevens, Arlene M; Brufsky, Adam; Kajumba, Mayanja; Dougall, Angela Liegey

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of Reiki therapy and companionship on improvements in quality of life, mood, and symptom distress during chemotherapy. Thirty-six breast cancer patients received usual care, Reiki, or a companion during chemotherapy. First, data were collected from patients receiving usual care. Second, patients were randomized to either receive Reiki or a companion during chemotherapy. Questionnaires assessing quality of life, mood, symptom distress, and Reiki acceptability were completed at baseline and chemotherapy sessions 1, 2, and 4. Reiki was rated relaxing with no side effects. Reiki and companion groups reported improvements in quality of life and mood that were greater than those seen in the usual care group. Interventions during chemotherapy, such as Reiki or companionship, are feasible, acceptable, and may reduce side effects. PMID:25381189

  17. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations.

  18. Determining indoor air quality and identifying the origin of odour episodes in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Eva; Roca, Xavier; Perales, Jose Francisco; Guardino, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and determining air quality of indoor air has been developed. The air samples are collected using pump samplers by the inhabitants when they perceive odorous and/or discomfort episodes. Glass multi-sorbent tubes are connected to the pump samplers for the retention of VOC. The analysis is performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This methodology can be applied in cases of sick building syndrome (SBS) evaluation, in which building occupants experience a series of varied symptoms that appear to be linked to time spent in the building. Chemical pollutants concentrations (e.g., VOC) have been described to contribute to SBS. To exemplify the methodology, a qualitative determination and an evaluation of existing VOC were performed in a dwelling where the occupants experienced the SBS symptoms. Higher total VOC (TVOC) levels were detected during episodes in indoor air (1.33 +/- 1.53 mg/m3) compared to outdoor air (0.71 +/- 0.46 mg/m3). The concentrations of individual VOCs, such as ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, acetonitrile and 1-methoxy-2-propanol, were also higher than the expected for a standard dwelling. The external source of VOC was found to be an undeclared activity of storage and manipulation of solvents located at the bottom of a contiguous building.

  19. Distance therapy to improve symptoms and quality of life: complementing office-based care with telehealth.

    PubMed

    Kroenke, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Two randomized trials exemplify strategies for administering behavioral interventions through distance therapy-the use of telemedicine or e-health approaches to treating patients outside the conventional in-person office-based visit. In the first trial, telephone-based coping skills training for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was not more effective than an education control in reducing mortality or rehospitalization. However, it was superior in improving psychological and somatic quality of life. In the second trial, a web-based distress management program was not more effective than usual care in postoperative psychological outcomes in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. However, both of these trials raise important methodological issues in designing and interpreting trials testing telehealth delivery of behavioral interventions. Key issues include: 1) selection of the appropriate control group (e.g., when may a usual care or active comparator be preferable to an attention control?); 2) choice of the appropriate outcome (i.e., one most likely to respond to the specific intervention); 3) enrolling only patients who have at least some threshold level of the symptom or risk level for the outcome being targeted by the intervention; 4) focusing on patients likely to participate in telehealth or other distance-administered treatment programs; and 5) optimal timing for the delivery of behavioral interventions that may occur around the time of major events such as hospitalization or procedures. A policy implication is that once distance therapy interventions are proven effective, reimbursement changes will be necessary to enhance the likelihood of uptake by providers and health care systems. PMID:25304115

  20. The Mediating Role of Rumination in the Relation between Quality of Attachment Relations and Depressive Symptoms in Non-Clinical Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruijten, Tamara; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Rood, Lea

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between indices of the quality of attachment relationships of adolescents with parents and peers, rumination, and symptoms of depression. More specifically, a mediation model was investigated in which rumination was hypothesized to mediate the relation between quality of attachment relations and symptoms of…

  1. The Impact of Stressful Life events, Symptom Status, and Adherence Concerns on Quality of Life in People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Corless, Inge B.; Voss, Joachim; Guarino, A.J.; Wantland, Dean; Holzemer, William; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Willard, Suzanne; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Portillo, Carmen; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Rosa, Maria E.; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Robinson, Linda; Cuca, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    Studies concerning persons living with HIV (PLWH) report that stressful life events (SLE) contribute to an exacerbation of symptoms and reduced antiretroviral (ARV) adherence and quality of life (QOL). Little is known about whether these findings are site-specific. Our study's aims were to characterize the type and frequency of SLE for PLWH in Puerto Rico, South Africa, and the United States and to assess the impact of SLE by national site, symptoms, and ARV adherence concerns on QOL. The sample consisted of 704 participants. The total number of SLE correlated significantly with the total number of symptoms, adherence concerns, and QOL (p ≤ .001). Overall, 27.2% of the variance in QOL was explained by the aforementioned variables. Although SLE were of concern to PLWH, worries about ARV adherence were of even greater concern. Routine assessment of ARV concerns and SLE can promote ongoing ARV adherence and improved QOL. PMID:23473660

  2. The impact of stressful life events, symptom status, and adherence concerns on quality of life in people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Corless, Inge B; Voss, Joachim; Guarino, A J; Wantland, Dean; Holzemer, William; Jane Hamilton, Mary; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Willard, Suzanne; Kirksey, Kenn; Portillo, Carmen; Rivero Mendez, Marta; Rosa, Maria E; Nicholas, Patrice K; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Robinson, Linda; Cuca, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    Studies concerning persons living with HIV (PLWH) report that stressful life events (SLEs) contribute to an exacerbation of symptoms and reduced antiretroviral (ARV) adherence and quality of life (QOL). Little is known about whether these findings are site-specific. Our study's aims were to characterize the type and frequency of SLEs for PLWH in Puerto Rico, South Africa, and the United States, and to assess the impact of SLEs by national site, symptoms, and ARV adherence concerns on QOL. The sample consisted of 704 participants. The total number of SLEs correlated significantly with the total number of symptoms, adherence concerns, and QOL (p ≤ .001). Overall, 27.2% of the variance in QOL was explained by the aforementioned variables. Although SLEs were of concern to PLWH, worries about ARV adherence were of even greater concern. Routine assessment of ARV concerns and SLEs can promote ongoing ARV adherence and improved QOL. PMID:23473660

  3. Physical activity, quality of life and symptoms of depression in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Salguero, Alfonso; Martínez-García, Raquel; Molinero, Olga; Márquez, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression in community dwelling and institutionalized elderly. The sample was a cohort of 436 elderly (234 women and 202 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. 58% were community-dwellers and 42% were institutionalized in senior residences. Participants completed measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, SF-36) and symptoms of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). All SF-36 domains, except role-emotional, were significantly correlated with the YPAS activity dimension summary index. Physical function, role-physical, general health and vitality correlated with total time activity, and correlations were observed between weekly energy expenditure and physical function, role physical, vitality and mental health. Depressive symptom scores correlated significantly with the YPAS activity dimension summary index and the weekly energy expenditure. Scores for various domains of the SF-36 and for depressive symptoms significantly differed among less and more active individuals of the same sex and institutionalization category. Differences generally reached a higher extent in institutionalized subjects in comparison to community dwellers. In conclusion, physical activity was related to different domains of both the physical and mental components of HRQoL and to decreased depressive symptoms. Results emphasize the positive effects of physical activity in both community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

  4. β‐Glucan supplementation, allergy symptoms, and quality of life in self‐described ragweed allergy sufferers

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Talbott, Tracy L; Dingler, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study compared the effects of daily supplementation for 4 week with 250 mg Wellmune WGP® β-1,3/1,6-Glucan (WGP) with placebo 250 mg/day (rice flour) on physical and psychological health attributes of self-described “moderate” ragweed allergy sufferers. Study participants (mean age = 36 ± 9 year; range 18–53 year) were recruited before the beginning of ragweed season (September) in Northeastern Ohio. Serum IgE concentration, allergy symptoms [via self-report, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ)], psychological well-being [Profile of Mood States (POMS)], and physical function (RAND SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study) were measured immediately prior to and after supplementation with WGP (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA). Compared with placebo, WGP reduced total allergy symptoms (28%), symptom severity (52%), and symptom rating on the VAS (37%) (P < 0.05), but had no effect on serum IgE levels. As measured by the POMS, WGP increased participants' rating of vigor (10%), but reduced tension (34%), depression (45%), anger (41%), fatigue (38%), and confusion (34%) (P < 0.05). Study participants given WGP reported increased physical health (11%), energy (19%), and emotional well-being (7%) compared with study participants given the placebo (RAND SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study). The WGP group also reported decreased sleep problems (53%), reduced nasal symptoms (59%), eye symptoms (57%), non-nasal symptoms (50%), activities (53%), emotions (57%), and improved quality of life (QOL) (56%), as well as improved global mood state (13%). Supplementation with WGP for 4 weeks improved allergy symptoms, overall physical health, and emotional well-being compared with placebo in self-described “moderate” ragweed allergy sufferers during ragweed allergy season. PMID

  5. Association of metacognitive beliefs, obsessive beliefs and symptom severity with quality of life in obsessive-compulsive patients.

    PubMed

    Barahmand, Usha; Tavakolian, Ehsan; Alaei, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obsessive beliefs, obsessive-compulsive disorder severity and metacognitive beliefs to the quality of life in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Sixty one adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD were recruited for the study. Participants were assessed by trained clinicians using an unstructured clinical interview, the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Metacognitive Beliefs Questionnaire and the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson's of correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Findings indicate that obsessive beliefs, severity total OCD and metacognitive beliefs were associated with total quality of life scores. Regression analysis revealed that while OCD total severity explained 40.1% of the variance in total quality of life, obsessive beliefs (perfectionism/certainty domain) and metacognitions (cognitive self-consciousness and negative beliefs about thoughts in general) explained an additional 13.7%, 7.7% and 5.4% of the variance in QoL. Findings indicate that the metacognitive beliefs associated with OCD symptom severity are different from that associated with quality of life. The implications are that metacognitive therapy aimed at symptom reduction may not necessarily result in improved QoL in OCD patients.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, electronic structure, and photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xian; He, Jianqiao; Zheng, Chong; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-28

    Copper thioantimonates have received enormous attention due to their potential for applications in photovoltaic devices. In this work, a new layered compound KCu2SbS3 was synthesized via a reactive flux method using thiourea as a reactive flux. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1[combining macron]. The structure features two-dimensional [Cu2SbS3](-) layers stacking along the c axis with K(+) ions intercalated between the layers. Each [Cu2SbS3](-) layer is composed of two single graphene-like layers connected via interlayer Cu-S bonds and CuSb contacts. The optical measurements indicate that the compound has a band gap of 1.7 eV. The Hall effect measurement shows that KCu2SbS3 is a p-type semiconductor with a carrier concentration of 7 × 10(16) cm(-3). First-principles calculations reveal that the direct transition occurs between Cu-3d-S-3p orbitals (VBM) to Sb-5p-S-3p orbitals (CBM). The photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3 under visible light irradiation were analyzed. The photocurrent is 3.7 μA cm(-2) at 10 V bias, demonstrating its potential for applications in photoelectric devices.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, electronic structure, and photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xian; He, Jianqiao; Zheng, Chong; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-28

    Copper thioantimonates have received enormous attention due to their potential for applications in photovoltaic devices. In this work, a new layered compound KCu2SbS3 was synthesized via a reactive flux method using thiourea as a reactive flux. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1[combining macron]. The structure features two-dimensional [Cu2SbS3](-) layers stacking along the c axis with K(+) ions intercalated between the layers. Each [Cu2SbS3](-) layer is composed of two single graphene-like layers connected via interlayer Cu-S bonds and CuSb contacts. The optical measurements indicate that the compound has a band gap of 1.7 eV. The Hall effect measurement shows that KCu2SbS3 is a p-type semiconductor with a carrier concentration of 7 × 10(16) cm(-3). First-principles calculations reveal that the direct transition occurs between Cu-3d-S-3p orbitals (VBM) to Sb-5p-S-3p orbitals (CBM). The photoelectric response properties of KCu2SbS3 under visible light irradiation were analyzed. The photocurrent is 3.7 μA cm(-2) at 10 V bias, demonstrating its potential for applications in photoelectric devices. PMID:26794832

  8. Lung function, asthma symptoms, and quality of life for children in public housing in Boston: a case-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan I; Welker-Hood, LK; Clougherty, Jane E; Dodson, Robin E; Steinbach, Suzanne; Hynes, HP

    2004-01-01

    Background Children in urban public housing are at high risk for asthma, given elevated environmental and social exposures and suboptimal medical care. For a multifactorial disease like asthma, design of intervention studies can be influenced by the relative prevalence of key risk factors. To better understand risk factors for asthma morbidity in the context of an environmental intervention study, we conducted a detailed baseline evaluation of 78 children (aged 4–17 years) from three public housing developments in Boston. Methods Asthmatic children and their caregivers were recruited between April 2002 and January 2003. We conducted intake interviews that captured a detailed family and medical history, including questions regarding asthma symptom severity, access to health care, medication usage, and psychological stress. Quality of life was evaluated for both the child and caregiver with an asthma-specific scale. Pulmonary function was measured with a portable spirometer, and allergy testing for common indoor and outdoor allergens was conducted with skin testing using the prick puncture method. Exploratory linear and logistic regression models evaluating predictors of respiratory symptoms, quality of life, and pulmonary function were conducted using SAS. Results We found high rates of obesity (56%) and allergies to indoor contaminants such as cockroaches (59%) and dust mites (59%). Only 36% of children with persistent asthma reported being prescribed any daily controller medication, and most did not have an asthma action plan or a peak flow meter. One-time lung function measures were poorly correlated with respiratory symptoms or quality of life, which were significantly correlated with each other. In multivariate regression models, household size, body mass index, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were positively associated with respiratory symptom severity (p < 0.10). Symptom severity was negatively associated with asthma-related quality of life for the

  9. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional...

  10. HI studies of extremely metal-deficient galaxies - II. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of SBS 1129+576

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekta; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Pustilnik, Simon A.

    2006-10-01

    We present Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope HI observations of an extremely metal-deficient galaxy SBS 1129+576. SBS 1129+576 has a weighted mean oxygen abundance of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.41 +/- 0.07, or 1/18 of the solar value. Our HI observations show that the galaxy is strongly interacting with a companion (projected separation ~27 kpc) galaxy, SBS 1129+577. HI emission from a third, smaller galaxy, SDSS J113227.68+572142.3, is also present in the data cube. We study the HI morphology and kinematics of this small group at angular resolutions ranging from ~40 to 8arcsec. The low-resolution map shows a bridge of emission connecting the two larger galaxies and a large one-armed spiral distortion of the disc of SBS 1129+577. We measure HI masses of ~4.2 × 108, ~2.7 × 109 and ~2.1 × 108Msolar for SBS 1129+576, SBS 1129+577 and the gas in the bridge, respectively. Assuming that most of the bridge gas originally came from SBS 1129+576, approximately one-third of its original gas mass has been stripped off. The third smaller galaxy has an HI mass of (MHI ~ 1.1 × 107Msolar) and does not show any sign of interaction with the other two galaxies. The higher-resolution maps show that SBS 1129+577 has a central bar and a ring surrounding the bar; there is also a hint of an integral-shaped warp in SBS 1129+576. All these features are very likely to have been induced by the tidal interaction. In both SBS 1129+576 and SBS 1129+577, there is, in general, a good correspondence between regions with high HI column density and those with ongoing star formation. The two brightest HII regions in SBS 1129+576 have (inclination-corrected) gas column densities of ~1.6 × 1021 and ~1.8 × 1021 atoms cm-2, respectively. The inclination-corrected HI column density near the HII regions in SBS 1129+577 is generally above ~2.0 × 1021 atoms cm-2. These values are close to the threshold density for star formation observed in other blue compact galaxies. In contrast to SBS 1129+576 and SBS 1129

  11. The Mediating Effects of Self-Esteem and Optimism on the Relationship between Quality of Life and Depressive Symptoms of Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the mediating effects of the internal psychological factors of self-esteem and optimism on the relationship between breast cancer patients' quality of life in terms of symptoms and functioning and depressive symptoms. Methods The study centered on 384 breast cancer patients who had within a 24-month period received diagnosis of 0-4 stage cancer and had medical treatment. To achieve the study's purpose, the study made use of EORTC QLQ BR23, CES-D, and the Self-Esteem and Optimism Scales. Results Findings revealed that breast cancer patients' quality of life was negatively impacted by self-esteem and optimism, and that self-esteem and optimism impacted negatively on depressive symptoms. Analyses showed that when breast cancer patients' quality of life affects depressive symptoms, the full mediation effect of self-esteem was statistically significant. Also, findings revealed there to be a significant partial mediation effect due to optimism. Conclusion Study findings demonstrated that enhancing self-esteem is crucial in the psychological intervention of depressive symptoms because self-esteem functioned as the main causal factor accounting for all variation when breast cancer patients' quality of life affected depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that optimism is also vital to psychological intervention because it functioned as partial cause of heightened depressive symptoms when breast cancer patients' quality of life affected depressive symptoms. PMID:25395975

  12. Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Nonmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L.; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…

  13. Exploring Teachers' Depressive Symptoms, Interaction Quality, and Children's Social-Emotional Development in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amy; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget; DeCoster, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study explored the role Head Start teachers' (n = 355) depressive symptoms play in their interactions with children and in children's (n = 2,203) social-emotional development, specifically changes in children's problem behaviors and social skills as reported by parents and teachers during the preschool year. Results of the…

  14. Benefits of teaching voice amplification as related to subjective laryngeal symptoms and perceived voice quality in teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, Valdis

    2005-04-01

    Loud speaking due to noisy working conditions is a common cause for teachers' voice disorders. One way to diminish the vocal load of teaching is to make use of technical equipment. This Icelandic study explores: (1) if the use of amplification in classrooms would diminish the teachers' experienced symptoms of vocal fatigue; and (2) whether there is a possible change in perceptual voice quality during a teachers' working day. Thirty-three teachers, from grade school to university level, voluntarily served as subjects. They used amplifiers while teaching for one week at least. After that, they filled out a questionnaire concerning their symptoms and experiences. The results showed that the majority of teachers found amplification beneficial. They found it easier to talk and experienced less fatigue. The few disadvantages were technical. For a perceptual analysis, three females and two males (mean age 51 years) with long teaching experience and three or more dysphonic symptoms during the term, had their speech recorded while teaching, with and without amplification. In the clinical examination, no pathological changes were found in the vocal folds. In both studies, the quality of the voices was esteemed better when amplification was used.

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome consulters in Zhejiang province: The symptoms pattern, predominant bowel habit subgroups and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jian-Min; Wang, Liang-Jing; Chen, Shu-Jie; Sun, Lei-Min; Dai, Ning

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pattern of symptoms, predominant bowel habits and quality of life (QOL) by the Chinese version of the SF-36 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) consulters in Zhejiang province. METHODS: From January 2001 to January 2002, 662 Roma II criteria- positive IBS patients were enrolled by gastroenterologists in 10 hospitals from Digestive Disease Center of Zhejiang (DDCZ). Patients were classified into constipation predominant IBS (IBS-C), diarrhea predominant IBS (IBS-D) and alternating constipation and diarrhea IBS (IBS-A) according to the predominant bowel habits. All patients were evaluated for the demographic checklists, IBS bowel symptoms, extra-colonic symptoms, and QOL by Chinese version of the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: (1) Besides abdominal pain, the predominant colonic symptoms were in order of altered stool form, abnormalities of stool passage, abdominal distension and passage of mucus in IBS patients. Also, IBS subjects reported generalized body discomfort and psychosocial problems including dyspeptic symptoms, poor appetite, heartburn, headache, back pain, difficulty with urination, fatigue, anxiety and depression. (2) IBS-C and IBS-A are more common among female patients, whereas male patients experienced more cases of IBS-D. In regards to the IBS symptoms, there were significant differences among IBS subgroups. Abdominal pain (frequency ≥ 2 days per week and duration ≥ 1 hour per day) was frequent in IBS-A patients (P = 0.010 and 0.027, respectively), IBS-D patients more frequently experienced the passage of mucus, dyspeptic symptoms and anxiety (P = 0.000, 0.014 and 0.015, respectively). (3) IBS patients experienced significant impairment in QOL, decrements in QOL were most pronounced in vitality, general health, mental health, and bodily pain. Compared with the general population (adjusted for gender and age), IBS patients scored significantly lower on all SF-scales (P < 0.001), except for physical function scale (P = 0

  16. A model of BIS/BAS sensitivity, emotion regulation difficulties, and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in relation to sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Markarian, Shaunt A; Pickett, Scott M; Deveson, Danielle F; Kanona, Brenda B

    2013-11-30

    Recent research has indicated that interactions between behavioral inhibition system (BIS)/behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties increases risk for psychopathology. Considering sleep quality (SQ) has been linked to emotion regulation difficulties (ERD) and psychopathology, further investigation of a possible mechanism is needed. The current study examined associations between BIS/BAS sensitivity, ERD, and SQ to depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in an undergraduate sample (n=459). Positive relationships between BIS sensitivity and both ERD and stress symptoms, and negative relationships between BAS-reward sensitivity and both ERD and depression symptoms were observed. Furthermore, ERD were positively related to depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Succeeding analyses revealed differential relationships between ERD and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms among good quality and poor quality sleepers. The findings are discussed within the context of personality dimensions and self-regulatory mechanisms, along with implications for the treatment of depression, anxiety and sleep difficulties.

  17. A model of BIS/BAS sensitivity, emotion regulation difficulties, and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in relation to sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Markarian, Shaunt A; Pickett, Scott M; Deveson, Danielle F; Kanona, Brenda B

    2013-11-30

    Recent research has indicated that interactions between behavioral inhibition system (BIS)/behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties increases risk for psychopathology. Considering sleep quality (SQ) has been linked to emotion regulation difficulties (ERD) and psychopathology, further investigation of a possible mechanism is needed. The current study examined associations between BIS/BAS sensitivity, ERD, and SQ to depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in an undergraduate sample (n=459). Positive relationships between BIS sensitivity and both ERD and stress symptoms, and negative relationships between BAS-reward sensitivity and both ERD and depression symptoms were observed. Furthermore, ERD were positively related to depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Succeeding analyses revealed differential relationships between ERD and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms among good quality and poor quality sleepers. The findings are discussed within the context of personality dimensions and self-regulatory mechanisms, along with implications for the treatment of depression, anxiety and sleep difficulties. PMID:23845417

  18. Health-related quality of life mediates associations between multi-morbidity and depressive symptoms in Chinese primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Weng Yee; Choi, Edmond Pui Hang; Wan, Eric Yuk Fai; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Qualifying the relationship between multi-morbidity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depressive symptoms in primary care can help to inform the development of appropriate interventions and services which can help to enhance HRQOL in patients with chronic disease. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine whether the physical aspect of HRQOL mediates the relationship between chronic disease multi-morbidity and depressive symptoms in Chinese primary care patients. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on patients recruited from the waiting rooms of 59 primary care clinics distributed across Hong Kong. About 9259 subjects were included for the mediation model analysis. The primary outcome was level of depressive symptoms as measured by the Patient Health Questionniare 9. The mediation model was tested using a bootstrapping method. Results. The prevalence of chronic disease was 50.4%, with 25.4% having two or more co-morbidities. The relationship between multi-morbidity and depressive symptoms was found to be mediated by the Physical Component Summary score of the SF-12 v2. Further analysis found the general health (GH) and role physical domains of the SF-12 were the strongest mediators, followed by bodily pain and physical functioning (PF). Conclusion. To enhance the functional capacity of primary care patients with co-existing chronic disease and depressive symptoms, health care interventions should be directed at improving the physical aspects of HRQOL, in particular enhancing patients’ GH perception, role functioning and PF, and to better manage chronic pain. PMID:26567547

  19. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    PubMed

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm], or mold levels, which were tested by 7 parameters) correlated directly with individual health symptoms. Indicators of atopy or allergy (sinusitis, allergies, and asthma), when present singly, in combinations of 2 conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely

  20. A Home-Based Intervention to Reduce Depressive Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Harris, Lynn Fields; McCoy, Megan C.; Chernett, Nancy L.; Pizzi, Laura T.; Jutkowitz, Eric; Hess, Edward; Hauck, Walter W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective care models for treating older African Americans with depressive symptoms are needed. Objective To determine whether a home-based intervention alleviates depressive symptoms and improves quality of life in older African Americans. Design Parallel, randomized trial stratified by recruitment site. Interviewers assessing outcomes were blinded to treatment assignment. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00511680) Setting A senior center and participants’ homes from 2008 to 2010. Patients African Americans aged 55 years or older with depressive symptoms. Intervention A multicomponent, home-based intervention delivered by social workers or a wait-list control group that received the intervention at 4 months. Measurements Self-reported depression severity at 4 months (primary outcome) and depression knowledge, quality of life, behavioral activation, anxiety, function, and remission at 4 and 8 months. Results Of 208 participants (106 and 102 in the intervention and wait-list groups, respectively), 182 (89 and 93, respectively) completed 4 months and 160 (79 and 81, respectively) completed 8 months. At 4 months, participants in the intervention group showed reduced depression severity (difference in mean change in Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score from baseline, −2.9 [95% CI, −4.6 to −1.2]; difference in mean change in Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score from baseline, −3.7 [CI, −5.4 to −2.1]); improved depression knowledge, quality of life, behavioral activation, and anxiety (P < 0.001); and improved function (P = 0.014) compared with wait-list participants. More intervention than wait-list participants entered remission at 4 months (43.8% vs. 26.9%). After treatment, control participants showed benefits similar in magnitude to those of participants in the initial intervention group. Those in the initial intervention group maintained benefits at 8 months. Limitation The study had a small sample, short duration, and differential

  1. Bentonite-based organoclays as innovative flame retardants agents for SBS copolymer.

    PubMed

    Franchini, M Comes; Fabbri, P; Frache, A; Ori, G; Messori, M; Siligardi, C; Ricci, A

    2008-12-01

    Two organophilic bentonites, based on nitrogen-containing compounds, have been synthesised via ion exchange starting from pristine bentonite with octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB) and with synthetic melamine-derived N2,N4-dihexadecyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (DEDMEL). The chemical and morphological characterization of the organoclays was based on XRD, TEM, Laser Granulometry, X-Ray Fluorescence and CEC capacity. Copoly(styrene-butadiene-styrene)-nanocomposites (SBS-nanocomposites) were obtained by intercalation of the SBS-copolymer into these new organoclays by melt intercalation method. XRD and TEM analysis of the organoclays and of the micro/nano-composites obtained are presented. The effect of the organoclays on the SBS-nanocomposite's flammability properties was investigated using cone calorimeter. An encouraging decrease of 20% in the peak heat released rate (PHRR) has been obtained confirming the important role of melamine's based skeleton and its derived organoclays to act as effective fire retardants and for the improvement of this important functional property in SBS copolymers. PMID:19205200

  2. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    SEZGIN, Hacer; HOCAOGLU, Cicek; GUVENDAG-GUVEN, Emine Seda

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. Aim We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ2=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ2=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Conclusions Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have

  3. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    SEZGIN, Hacer; HOCAOGLU, Cicek; GUVENDAG-GUVEN, Emine Seda

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. Aim We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ2=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ2=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Conclusions Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have

  4. The impact of nonmotor symptoms on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weng-Ming; Lin, Ru-Jen; Yu, Rwei-Ling; Tai, Chun-Hwei; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are important factors for quality of life (QoL). Few studies on NMS have been conducted in Asian PD patients. Additionally, effects of anti-PD drugs on risk of NMS are still controversial. We therefore conducted this hospital-based cross-sectional study to examine the clinical factors, including concomitant anti-PD medication use, on the occurrence of NMS and QoL in Taiwanese PD patients. Patients and methods PD patients who received long-term follow-up in the movement disorders clinics were enrolled and received NMS questionnaire (NMSQuest) and the 39-item Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was checked for the correlation between clinical factors and NMSQT/PDQSI. Multiple linear regressions were applied to assess the influence of clinical factors on NMSQT/PDQSI. Results A total of 210 PD patients (mean age 66.1±9.86 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.2±0.9) were included in this study. Up to 98% of patients reported at least one symptom of NMS. The most prevalent symptom was urinary complaints (56%), followed by memory/apathy (30%) and depression/anxiety (28%). The correlation between NMSQT and PDQSI was strong (rs=0.667), especially the item of depression/anxiety (rs=0.607). The regression model for NMSQT indicated that disease duration and severity, but not pharmacological therapy, were major predictors of NMS. Conclusion Our data indicated a high prevalence rate of NMS in PD patients. Among symptoms of NMS, depression and anxiety had the greatest impact on QoL. Concomitant anti-PD medication use did not affect the occurrence of NMS and QoL. PMID:26635475

  5. The Mediating Role of Rumination in the Relation Between Quality of Attachment Relations and Depressive Symptoms in Non-Clinical Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ruijten, Tamara; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Rood, Lea

    2011-08-01

    This study examined associations between indices of the quality of attachment relationships of adolescents with parents and peers, rumination, and symptoms of depression. More specifically, a mediation model was investigated in which rumination was hypothesized to mediate the relation between quality of attachment relations and symptoms of depression. A total of 455 high school students completed a battery of questionnaires, including quality of attachment relations, rumination, and depression. Results showed that most indices of quality of attachment relations were significantly associated with rumination and symptoms of depression. When examining the relative contribution of these variables in explaining variance in depression symptoms, trust in parents, communication with peers, and alienation from peers accounted for a significant portion of the variance in depression scores. Finally, the relation between communication with peers and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by rumination, whereas partial mediation was found for the relations between parental trust and depressive symptoms, and between alienation from peers and depressive symptoms. Implications of the findings may be that the treatment of depression in adolescence should consist of both cognitive interventions aimed at targeting ruminative thinking as well as a focus on interpersonal relationships of the adolescent with parents and peers.

  6. Of PCOS Symptoms, Hirsutism Has the Most Significant Impact on the Quality of Life of Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Khomami, Mahnaz Bahri; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Somayeh; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder affecting women both physically and psychologically and can lead to a poor quality of life compared to their normal counterparts. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of various clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome on the health-related quality of life of Iranian women diagnosed with this syndrome. Materials and Methods A total of 796 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged 15–49 years, completed the questionnaires, interviews, and medical assessments required for this study. A reliable and validated Persian version of the health-related quality of life questionnaire for polycystic ovary syndrome patients was used. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and health-related quality of life. Results The mean age of participants was 28.02 years. 35.4% of the subjects were classified as overweight or obese. Hirsutism, was reported to have the strongest impact on the patients’ health-related quality of life, followed in descending order by body mass index, irregular menses and infertility. The relative level of hirsutism was directly proportional to decrease in health-related quality of life score (p<0.001). Conclusions The results of the study found that hirsutism had the strongest impact on the health-related quality of life measures in Iranian women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. Health care officials need to evaluate in depth the effect of each clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome separately and design management strategies, keeping in mind the psychological and physical manifestations. PMID:25874409

  7. Intimate partner victimization, poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms during young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Copp, Jennifer E

    2014-11-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 927), we examined physical victimization, poor quality, and depression among young adults in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depression with the inclusion of prior depression, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. With the inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depression. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depression. Associations between victimization and depression did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor quality on depression conditional on gender. Thus, victimization occurs within relationships characterized by a range of negative dynamics. Multifaceted relationship-centered prevention efforts are more useful than focusing only on the use of aggression with a partner. PMID:25131276

  8. The effect of aromatherapy and massage administered in different ways to women with breast cancer on their symptoms and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ovayolu, Ozlem; Seviğ, Umit; Ovayolu, Nimet; Sevinç, Alper

    2014-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of aromatherapy and classic massage administered in various ways to breast cancer patients on their symptoms and quality of life. The sampling consisted of 280 patients. Quality of life and symptoms of the patients were evaluated once at baseline and then at week 6 and week 10 following the intervention. After intervention, the control group was observed to have lower total quality of life score and subdomain scores, whereas fragrance, massage and aromatherapy massage groups had higher scores, and the increase was more obvious particularly in the patients in the aromatherapy massage group. Similarly, whereas psychological and physical symptoms were experienced more intensely in the control group, the severity of all the symptoms experienced by the other patients decreased at week 6 and week 10 as compared with baseline especially in the group that was administered massage with aromatherapy. PMID:25157942

  9. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study

    PubMed Central

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A.; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  10. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study.

    PubMed

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  11. Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Relationship Quality: Associations with Preadolescent and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…

  12. Use of patient-reported outcomes to measure symptoms and health related quality of life in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Alexandra; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Davidson, Susan; Velikova, Galina

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in routine practice in cancer care to measure symptoms and health related quality of life (HRQOL). PROs are designed to capture the patient's perspective of their care and treatment, and complement the traditional clinical outcomes of survival and toxicity assessment. Integrating routine collection and feedback of PROs has been found to improve care for patients on both an individual level, through improved communication and management of symptoms, and at an organizational level, by enabling aggregation of data to compare performance. This article reviews the benefits and challenges of introducing patient-reported assessments into routine clinical practice. Methods for choosing a questionnaire; collection and presentation of results; timing and frequency of administration as well as clinician training methods to aid the ability of clinicians to integrate the use of PROs into their own practice are described. Electronic PRO capture and integration with electronic health records seems to provide the most effective method for seamless integration into existing patient care pathways. Case studies from our own practice illustrate the issues raised. Electronic methods enabling immediate collection, scoring and interpretation of the data, as well as real-time data capture, email alert systems and individualized, online self-management advice may enable severe symptoms to be managed in a more timely manner. Evaluation methods are described to establish the effectiveness of the PRO intervention. Engaging stakeholders throughout the process of initial consultation and development, during delivery and evaluation is key to success. Future work needs to focus on the effectiveness of PROs in longer-term follow-up of patients in routine care and the relationship between the PRO severity grading and clinician severity grading using the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (CTCAE). PMID:25448486

  13. The effect of complete transurethral resection of the prostate on symptoms, quality of life, and voiding function improvement

    PubMed Central

    Verikaite, Jone; Jievaltas, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) still remains the most popular surgical treatment for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. However, in some patients, the improvement of symptoms after TURP is insufficient. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the resected prostate tissue weight (RPTW) on the improvement of symptoms (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and voiding function after TURP. Material and methods The study included 89 men who had undergone TURP in our institution. IPSS, QoL, post–voiding residual urine volume (PVR) and Qmax were recorded before the operation and six months after TURP. The total prostate volume (TPV) and transition zone volume (TZV) were measured before the operation by transrectal ultrasound. The impact of RPTW, RPTW/TZV ratio, and RPTW/TPV ratio were analyzed according to the efficacy of TURP. Results The mean Qmax after TURP increased by 10.15 mL/s, IPSS decreased by 16.7 points, QoL increased by 3.57 points, and PVR decreased by 95.3 mL. According to Qmax, the treatment was effective in 74.2%, according to IPSS, in 91%, and according to QoL, in 74.2% of patients. The ROC analysis demonstrated that RPTW/TZV and RPTW/TPV ratios were the most significant predictors of obtaining favorable results. Survival analysis (life table) shows that in order to achieve 50% improvement on Qmax, QoL, and IPSS, more than 30–35% of TPV and more than 60% of the TZV should be removed. Conclusions The efficacy of the TURP at short term follow-up depends on the completeness of the resection. PMID:26251736

  14. Cancer-related PTSD symptoms in a veteran sample: association with age, combat PTSD, and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Patidar, Seema M.; Mulligan, Elizabeth A.; Naik, Aanand D.; Moye, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is a potentially traumatic experience that may evoke posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among survivors. This paper describes the rates of endorsement of cancer-related PTSS along with the relationship of demographic, cancer, and combat variables on PTSS and quality of life. Methods Veterans (N = 166) with head and neck, esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancers were recruited through tumor registries at two regional Veterans Administration Medical Centers. Standardized scales were used to assess self-report of PTSS, combat, and quality of life. Results Most participants (86%) reported experiencing at least some cancer-related PTSS; 10% scored above a clinical cutoff for probable PTSD. In linear regressions, younger age and current combat PTSS were associated with cancer-related PTSS, whereas disease and treatment characteristics were not; in turn, cancer-related PTSS were negatively associated with physical and social quality of life. Conclusions Individual characteristics and psychosocial factors may play a larger role than disease-related variables in determining how an individual responds to the stress of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Given the rates of reported cancer-related PTSS in this sample, and other non-veteran samples, clinicians should consider screening these following diagnosis and treatment, particularly in younger adults and those with previous trauma histories. PMID:24519893

  15. Differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics and quality of life outcomes among oncology patients with different types of pain.

    PubMed

    Posternak, Victoria; Dunn, Laura B; Dhruva, Anand; Paul, Steven M; Luce, Judith; Mastick, Judy; Levine, Jon D; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Hammer, Marylin; Wright, Fay; Miaskowski, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study, in oncology outpatients receiving chemotherapy (n = 926), were to: describe the occurrence of different types of pain (ie, no pain, only noncancer pain [NCP], only cancer pain [CP], or both CP and NCP) and evaluate for differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics, and quality of life (QOL) among the 4 groups. Patients completed self-report questionnaires on demographic and symptom characteristics and QOL. Patients who had pain were asked to indicate if it was or was not related to their cancer or its treatment. Medical records were reviewed for information on cancer and its treatments. In this study, 72.5% of the patients reported pain. Of the 671 who reported pain, 21.5% reported only NCP, 37.0% only CP, and 41.5% both CP and NCP. Across the 3 pain groups, worst pain scores were in the moderate to severe range. Compared with the no pain group, patients with both CP and NCP were significantly younger, more likely to be female, have a higher level of comorbidity, and a poorer functional status. In addition, these patients reported: higher levels of depression, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disturbance; lower levels of energy and attentional function; and poorer QOL. Patients with only NCP were significantly older than the other 3 groups. The most common comorbidities in the NCP group were back pain, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and depression. Unrelieved CP and NCP continue to be significant problems. Oncology outpatients need to be assessed for both CP and NCP conditions.

  16. Cannabis Use in Patients with Fibromyalgia: Effect on Symptoms Relief and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Fiz, Jimena; Durán, Marta; Capellà, Dolors; Carbonell, Jordi; Farré, Magí

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of cannabis use and the associated benefits reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM) who were consumers of this drug. In addition, the quality of life of FM patients who consumed cannabis was compared with FM subjects who were not cannabis users. Methods Information on medicinal cannabis use was recorded on a specific questionnaire as well as perceived benefits of cannabis on a range of symptoms using standard 100-mm visual analogue scales (VAS). Cannabis users and non-users completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Results Twenty-eight FM patients who were cannabis users and 28 non-users were included in the study. Demographics and clinical variables were similar in both groups. Cannabis users referred different duration of drug consumption; the route of administration was smoking (54%), oral (46%) and combined (43%). The amount and frequency of cannabis use were also different among patients. After 2 hours of cannabis use, VAS scores showed a statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction of pain and stiffness, enhancement of relaxation, and an increase in somnolence and feeling of well being. The mental health component summary score of the SF-36 was significantly higher (p<0.05) in cannabis users than in non-users. No significant differences were found in the other SF-36 domains, in the FIQ and the PSQI. Conclusions The use of cannabis was associated with beneficial effects on some FM symptoms. Further studies on the usefulness of cannabinoids in FM patients as well as cannabinoid system involvement in the pathophysiology of this condition are warranted. PMID:21533029

  17. STUD Pulse performance comparisons between weak and strong damping limits of SBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huller, Stefan; Afeyan, Bedros

    2012-10-01

    The physical mechanisms that make STUD pulses (spike trains of uneven duration and delay) optimal rely, among other physical effects, on damping of the driven waves in between spikes. By varying the damping of ion acoustic waves in inhomogeneously flowing plasma regions ranging from -8 to -2 of the Mach number, we can establish to what extent STUD pulses can be effective to control SBS growth in various damping levels. By changing the duty cycle of the chain of spikes, by changing their modulation period, by adding random inter spike phase kicks and by changing the spatial hot spot profile scrambling rate, we establish bounds on how much Brillouin backscattering Rosenbluth gain can be tolerated at the average intensity and still have STUD pulses control SBS as compared to RPP or SSD or ISI. The situation is complicated by the implication of the strong coupling regime in hot spots, by pump depletion and by initial noise level dependencies which we also examine.

  18. On the reconstruction of parameters of quasi-Gaussian pump beams during transient SBS

    SciTech Connect

    Dementjev, Aleksandr S; Kosenko, E K; Murauskas, E; Girdauskas, V

    2006-08-31

    The radii and radii of curvature of Stokes stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) beams are measured by the method of moments for smooth nearly Gaussian focused pump beams with the propagation ratio M{sup 2}{sub {sigma}p{<=}}1.2. It is shown that in the case of sufficiently deeply focused pump radiation, the propagation ratio M{sup 2}{sub {sigma}S} of Stokes beams near the threshold of the transient SBS is smaller than M{sup 2}{sub {sigma}p} and approaches it with increasing the pump pulse energy. It is also found that the radii of Stokes beams at the output from a nonlinear medium are smaller than the radii of pump beams, while the radii of wave-front curvature are close (in modulus) to the radii of wave-front curvature for pump beams. (laser beams)

  19. Diamino Telechelic Polybutadienes for Solventless Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) Triblock Copolymer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shengxiang; Hoye, Thomas R.; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2008-01-01

    High molecular weight, high functionality diamino telechelic polybutadienes (TPBs) were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) in the presence of a chain transfer agent, 1,8-dicyano-4-octene, followed by lithium aluminum hydride reduction. Melt coupling of diamino TPB with anhydride-terminated polystyrene (PS-anh) resulted in the formation of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock copolymers; ca. 80% maximum conversion of PS-anh was achieved within 30 seconds. The results from SAXS, TEM, and rheological measurements of the coupling products confirmed the formation of SBS triblock copolymers having lamellar morphology. A fluororesent-labeled PS-anh was used to study the coupling kinetics by diluting the reactants by the addition of non-functional PS. PMID:19907636

  20. Treatment patterns, symptom reduction, quality of life, and resource use associated with lubiprostone in irritable bowel syndrome constipation subtype.

    PubMed

    Solem, Caitlyn T; Patel, Haridarshan; Mehta, Sonam; Mody, Reema; Macahilig, Cynthia; Gao, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Real-world patient outcomes data is scarce concerning the high disease burden of IBS-C. The aim of this study was to compare patient-reported symptom control, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), resource utilization, and treatment satisfaction of lubiprostone vs non-lubiprostone treatment for irritable bowel syndrome-constipation (IBS-C). Research design and methods An observational, retrospective US chart review and computer-assisted telephone patient survey was conducted March to August 2013 recruiting women over 18 years old with physician-confirmed IBS-C who had initiated new treatment from inadequate relief of previous treatments and who had been on the new treatment ≥3 months. Multiple IBS-C treatments were permitted. IBS-C severity, time since diagnosis, age, and race were controlled using inverse probability of treatment weighting. Weighted outcomes were compared using t-tests (continuous outcomes) and chi-squared tests (categorical outcomes). Main outcomes measures Instruments included Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM) and IBS quality of life (IBS-QoL). A single item assessed current treatment satisfaction. Results Of 162 patients (mean age 45.9 [SD 15.3] years old, 71% white, 61.1% with moderate IBS-C), 76 switched to lubiprostone and 86 to non-lubiprostone. Groups were similar in clinical and demographic characteristics and previous 30 day IBS-C treatment. After weighting, all PAC-SYM scores were lower for lubiprostone (P < 0.05). All IBS-QoL subscales were higher for lubiprostone including overall, dysphoria, social reaction, sexual, and relationship scores (P < 0.05.) More lubiprostone patients reported positive treatment satisfaction (92.3% vs 71.0%, P < 0.001). Conclusions In IBS-C patients with inadequate response to previous therapies, lubiprostone improved patient-reported symptom control, treatment satisfaction, and HRQoL. Key limitations include lack of measurement of patient-reported outcomes

  1. Prospective study of the influence of psychological and medical factors on quality of life and severity of symptoms among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rana, M; Kanatas, A; Herzberg, P Y; Khoschdell, M; Kokemueller, H; Gellrich, N-C; Rana, M

    2015-04-01

    About 400,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) annually, and the incidence is increasing. Many advanced carcinomas of the oral cavity require radical surgical treatment that can impair patient's quality of life (QoL) and severity of symptoms. We therefore aimed to identify coping strategies and disease-specific medical factors that affect QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC were asked to complete the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness (FQCI), the University of Washington Quality of life Questionnaire (UW-QOL version 4), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to measure psychological stress. We also assessed the impact of various factors on QoL and severity of symptoms, including stage and site of tumour, method of reconstruction, time of diagnosis, and social structure (age, sex, marital status, living arrangements, level of education, and employment). We enrolled a consecutive sample of 104 patients over a period of one year. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that both depressive coping and size of tumour had an adverse effect on QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with high educational attainment and those who lived alone reported impaired QoL, and women experienced increased severity of symptoms. Impaired QoL and increased severity of symptoms were associated with a depressive style of coping, size of tumour, educational attainment, and living arrangements. It is important to identify these patients during treatment as they could benefit from psycho-oncological counselling.

  2. Sleep Quality and Reexperiencing Symptoms of PTSD Are Associated With Current Pain in U.S. OEF/OIF/OND Veterans With and Without mTBIs.

    PubMed

    Powell, Margaret A; Corbo, Vincent; Fonda, Jennifer R; Otis, John D; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2015-08-01

    Pain, a debilitating condition, is frequently reported by U.S. veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. This study investigated how commonly reported clinical factors were associated with pain and whether these associations differed for individuals with a history of chronic pain. From the Boston metropolitan area, 171 veterans enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence were assessed for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, current mood and anxiety diagnoses, lifetime traumatic brain injury, combat experiences, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the association of these conditions with current pain. Average pain for the previous 30 days, assessed with the McGill Pain Questionnaire, was 30.07 out of 100 (SD = 25.43). Sleep quality, PTSD symptom severity, and alcohol use were significantly associated with pain (R(2) = .24), as were reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD (R(2) = .25). For participants with a history of chronic pain (n = 65), only PTSD symptoms were associated with pain (R(2) = .19). Current pain severity was associated with increased PTSD severity (notably, reexperiencing symptoms), poor sleep quality, and increased alcohol use. These data support the hypothesis that PTSD symptoms influence pain, but suggest that problems with sleep and alcohol use may exacerbate the relationship. PMID:26194844

  3. Broadening-free SBS-based slow and fast light in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas; Wiatrek, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    To change the group velocity of optical signals has a lot of possible applications in telecommunications, sensing, nonlinear optics and so on. Especially the exploitation of the effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fibers is of special interest since it just requires standard telecom equipment and low to moderate optical power. However, each delay in one single, low-gain SBS based slow-light system is accompanied by pulse broadening. This is a result of the inherent Kramers-Kronig relations between the gain, the phase-change and the accompanied group velocity. For an ideal flat gain the phase-change is non-ideal, and for an ideal phase-change the gain curve leads to a broadening. Furthermore, if the gain bandwidth is broadened in order to adapt it to the signal, the delay will be reduced. Thus, for one single low-gain slow-light system the broadening can be reduced by several methods but it cannot be zero. Here we will show how a zero-broadening SBS based slow-light system can be achieved by two different methods. The basic idea is a reshaping of the original pulse by an adapted gain in a second stage. This adaptation is achieved by the superposition of two Gaussian gain profiles or by a single saturated gain. As will be shown, these systems show an almost ideal over-all gain and phase function over the bandwidth of the pulses. Thus, SBS based slow-light with a delaybandwidth product of more than 1 bit and zero distortion is possible.

  4. Cross-sectional TEM analysis of solvent-cast SBS thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G.; Libera, M.

    1996-12-31

    Block copolymers can assume a range of microphase-separated morphologies, and the dependence of morphology on temperature and composition is an area of active research. Our work has been studying the morphology of solvent-cast thin films of polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene (SBS) as a function of solvent evaporation rate and post-specimen annealing. This paper describes the analysis of thin film cross-sections to distinguish between possible morphologies.

  5. Efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray for nasal symptoms, quality of life, rhinitis-disturbed sleep, and nasal nitric oxide in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takechiyo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Kubo, Seita; Sakashita, Masafumi; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Susuki, Dai; Narita, Norihiko; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shinji; Terasawa, Yuko; Kayano, Yuichiro; Masada, Mikio; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroid therapy has exhibited effectiveness for improving nasal symptoms and quality of life (QOL) scores associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis. We prospectively investigated the efficacy of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) for improving the total nasal symptom score, QOL score, and sleep quality in subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Nasal airway conditions were also objectively assessed by measuring nasal nitric oxide (NO). Fifty-seven patients with PAR were randomized to MFNS or placebo for a 14-day, double-blind, crossover study. The subjects recorded their symptoms on nasal symptom forms and a visual analog scale. QOL and sleep quality were surveyed in accordance with the Japanese version of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JRQLQ) and the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Nasal NO was measured during a single exhalation using a chemiluminescence analyzer. MFNS treatment achieved significant reductions versus placebo for total nasal symptoms (p < 0.001). There were significant decreases of the usual daily activity domain (p < 0.005), outdoor activities (p < 0.01), social function (p < 0.05), and the overall QOL score (p < 0.05) of JRQLQ with MFNS therapy versus placebo. A significant reduction of the sleepiness scale was also observed in the MFNS group with high sleep disturbance (p < 0.01). A significant decrease of nasal NO was found in the MFNS group (p < 0.01), especially among patients with severe nasal symptoms (p < 0.005). This prospective study indicated that MFNS therapy significantly improves nasal symptoms, QOL, sleep quality, and upper airway condition in Japanese subjects with PAR.

  6. Physical Therapy in Palliative Care: From Symptom Control to Quality of Life: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil P; Jim, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Physiotherapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing movement potential, within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Physical therapists practice in a broad range of inpatient, outpatient, and community-based settings such as hospice and palliative care centers where as part of a multidisciplinary team of care, they address the physical and functional dimensions of the patients’ suffering. Physiotherapy treatment methods like therapeutic exercise, electrical modalities, thermal modalities, actinotherapy, mechanical modalities, manual physical therapy and assistive devices are useful for a range of life-threatening and life-limiting conditions like cancer and cancer-associated conditions; HIV; neurodegenerative disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis; respiratory disorders like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; and altered mental states. The professional armamentarium is still expanding with inclusion of other miscellaneous techniques which were also proven to be effective in improving quality of life in these patients. Considering the scope of physiotherapy in India, and in palliative care, professionals in a multidisciplinary palliative care team need to understand and mutually involve toward policy changes to successfully implement physical therapeutic palliative care delivery. PMID:21218003

  7. A theoretical treatment of two approaches to SBS mitigation with two-tone amplification.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Iyad; Zeringue, Clint; Bronder, T J; Shay, Thomas; Gavrielides, Athanasios; Robin, Craig

    2008-09-01

    A technique that employs two seed signals for the purpose of mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects in narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is investigated theoretically by constructing a self-consistent model that incorporates the laser gain, SBS, and four-wave mixing (FWM). The model reduces to solving a two-point boundary problem consisting of an 8x8 system of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Optimal operating conditions are determined by examining the interplay between the wavelength separation and power ratio of the two seeds. Two variants of this 'two-tone' amplification are considered. In one case the wavelength separation is precisely twice the Brillouin shift, while the other case considers a greater wavelength separation. For the former case, a two-fold increase in total output power over a broad range of seed power ratios centered about a ratio of approximately 2 is obtained, but with fairly large FWM. For the latter case, this model predicts an approximately 100% increase in output power (at SBS threshold with no signs of FWM) for a 'two-tone' amplifier with seed signals at 1064nm and 1068nm, compared to a conventional fiber amplifier with a single 1068nm seed. More significantly for this case, it is found that at a wavelength separation greater than 10nm, it is possible to appreciably enhance the power output of one of the laser frequencies. PMID:18773034

  8. Health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in accident and emergency attenders suffering from psychosocial crises: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Senneseth, Mette; Alsaker, Kjersti; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2012-01-01

    Aims This paper is a report of a study of health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients attending an Accident and Emergency department because of psychosocial crises. Background Psychosocial crises are commonplace globally, but there is little knowledge about patients attending Accident and Emergency departments because of psychosocial crises. Methods Data were collected at an Accident and Emergency department in Norway from September 2008 to June 2009. A total of 99 adults participated in the baseline study and 41 of these participated at 2 months follow-up. The Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Post Traumatic Symptom Scale were used to obtain data. Findings Participants reported significantly lower scores in all health-related quality of life domains at baseline compared with the general Norwegian population. The mental health score was two standard deviations below the norm. Health-related quality of life scores were improved and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reduced after 2 months. High levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reported by 78% of the participants at baseline and 59% at follow-up. Participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at follow-up also reported low health-related quality of life scores. Conclusion This study suggests a need for an acute psychosocial intervention and an opportunity to receive follow-up support at Accident and Emergency departments. PMID:21740459

  9. Transurethral Procedures for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Resulting From Benign Prostatic Enlargement: A Quality and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Wook; Choi, Jong Bo; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Son, Hwancheol; Jung, Tae Young; Oh, Seung-June; Jeong, Hee Jong; Bae, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Thanks to advancements in surgical techniques and instruments, many surgical modalities have been developed to replace transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, TURP remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We conducted a meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgical therapies for BPH compared with TURP. Methods This meta-analysis used a Medline search assessing the period from 1997 to 2011. A total of 784 randomized controlled trials were identified in an electronic search. Among the 784 articles, 36 randomized controlled trials that provided the highest level of evidence (level 1b) were included in the meta-analysis. We also conducted a quality analysis of selected articles. Results Only 2 articles (5.56%) were assessed as having a low risk of bias by use of the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool. On the other hand, by use of the Jadad scale, there were 26 high-quality articles (72.22%). Furthermore, 28 articles (77.78%) were assessed as high-quality articles by use of the van Tulder scale. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) showed the highest reduction of the International Prostate Symptom Score compared with TURP (P<0.0001). Bipolar TURP, bipolar transurethral vaporization of the prostate, HoLEP, and open prostatectomy showed superior outcome in postvoid residual urine volume and maximum flow rate. The intraoperative complications of the minimally invasive surgeries had no statistically significant inferior outcomes compared with TURP. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in any of the modalities compared with TURP. Conclusions The selection of an appropriate surgical modality for BPH should be assessed by fully understanding each patient's clinical conditions. PMID:23869269

  10. Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms Predict Sustained Quality of Life Deficits in HIV-Positive Ugandan Adults Despite Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Woolfork, Makhabele N; Guwatudde, David; Bagenda, Danstan; Manabe, Yukari C; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of psychosocial status at onset of antiretroviral therapy on changes in quality of life (QOL) and subjectively rated health (SRH) among adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource-limited settings is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluate the association between stigma, anxiety, depression, and social support and change in QOL and SRH in HIV-infected Ugandan adults during an 18-month period. Psychosocial indicators were assessed at enrollment using structured questionnaires. QOL and SRH measures were assessed at months 0, 6, 12, and 18 using the Medical Outcomes Survey-HIV. Linear mixed models determined risk estimated differences in QOL and SRH in relation to quartiles of each psychosocial status indicator. Repeated measures generalized estimating equations modeling was implemented to assess differences in likelihood of improved versus nonimproved SRH during follow-up. QOL scores and SRH improved significantly for all participants over 18 months (P < 0.0001). The gain in QOL increased dose-dependently as baseline depressive symptoms (time∗depression P < 0.001) and anxiety levels (time∗anxiety P < 0.001) declined. Lower social support was associated with worse QOL at baseline (P = 0.0005) but QOL improvement during follow-up was not dependent on baseline level of social support (time∗social support P = 0.8943) or number of stigmatizing experiences (time∗stigma P = 0.8662). Psychosocial determinants did not predict changes in SRH in this study. High levels of depression and anxiety symptoms at HAART initiation predicts lower gains in QOL for HIV-positive patients for as long as 18 months. Long-term QOL improvements in HIV-infected adults may be enhanced by implementation of psychosocial interventions to reduce depression and anxiety in HIV-infected adults. PMID:26945347

  11. Effects of an early intervention on maternal post-traumatic stress symptoms and the quality of mother-infant interaction: the case of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Ayala; Habersaat, Stephanie; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Nessi, Jennifer; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Ansermet, François; Müller-Nix, Carole

    2014-11-01

    Preterm birth may represent a traumatic situation for both parents and a stressful situation for the infant, potentially leading to difficulties in mother-infant relationships. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an early intervention on maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms, and on the quality of mother-infant interactions, in a sample of very preterm infants and their mothers. Half of the very preterm infants involved in the study (n=26) were randomly assigned to a 3-step early intervention program (at 33 and 42 weeks after conception and at 4 months' corrected age). Both groups of preterm infants (with and without intervention) were compared to a group of full-term infants. The impact of the intervention on maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms was assessed 42 weeks after conception and when the infants were 4 and 12 months of age. The impact of the intervention on the quality of mother-infant interactions was assessed when the infants were 4 months old. Results showed a lowering of mothers' posttraumatic stress symptoms between 42 weeks and 12 months in the group of preterm infants who received the intervention. Moreover, an enhancement in maternal sensitivity and infant cooperation during interactions was found at 4 months in the group with intervention. In the case of a preterm birth, an early intervention aimed at enhancing the quality of the mother-infant relationship can help to alleviate maternal post-traumatic stress symptoms and may have a positive impact on the quality of mother-infant interactions.

  12. Idea density in the life-stories of people with schizophrenia: Associations with narrative qualities and psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Moe, Aubrey M; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Shakeel, Mohammed K; Gallagher, Colin J; Docherty, Nancy M

    2016-04-01

    Disordered speech and language deficits are well-documented in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Researchers often assess speech samples using manualized rating systems, though recently computerized language assessment methods have been used more frequently in the study of speech from people with schizophrenia. Most typically, these computerized assessments measure aspects of expressivity (i.e., pause durations, prosody) or use word-count technology; less attention has focused on similar methods that can capture more sophisticated aspects of linguistic complexity (e.g., idea density). The primary objective of the present study was to assess idea density - via a computerized measure - in the life-story narratives of people with schizophrenia (n=32) compared to a group of community control participants (n=15). In the schizophrenia group, we also examined associations between idea density, narrative qualities rated via a manualized measure, and psychiatric symptoms. Our findings indicate that idea density is diminished in individuals with schizophrenia compared to controls. Further, our results suggest that though people with schizophrenia with richer idea density tended to have more developed insight into illness, they also had higher levels of depression, anxiety, and avolition. Implications of these results and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Non-Motor Symptoms of Essential Tremor Are Independent of Tremor Severity and Have an Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Musacchio, Thomas; Purrer, Veronika; Papagianni, Aikaterini; Fleischer, Anna; Mackenrodt, Daniel; Malsch, Carolin; Gelbrich, Götz; Steigerwald, Frank; Volkmann, Jens; Klebe, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background Several publications have focused on accompanying non-motor symptoms (NMS) in essential tremor (ET) patients; however, it remains unclear if NMS are an intrinsic part of the disease or secondary phenomena. We present the results of several neuropsychiatric tests and their impact on quality of life (QoL) in community-dwelling patients with ET. Methods Participants were recruited via a newspaper article about ET published in the local media and on the internet. All participants completed several standard neuropsychiatric tests, including those that assess QoL. To compare differences between cases and controls, Student’s t-tests with Bonferroni-Holm post hoc tests were performed. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were also calculated. Results We enrolled 110 patients with definite or probable ET. Highly significant changes were observed for apathy, anxiety, and cognition and negatively impacted QoL. Most aberrations were independent of tremor severity and duration. Discussion The significant neuropsychiatric deficits and reduced QoL demonstrate a degree of illness that appears to be a non-motor phenotype rather than a secondary effect of ET. In the future, NMS should carefully be explored in ET patients as they may have an impact on QoL and treatment. PMID:26989573

  14. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Christopher; Andreae, Andreas; Koemeda, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker; von Wyl, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N = 5711) and one outpatient sample (N = 239) were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index) and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires.

  15. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Christopher; Andreae, Andreas; Koemeda, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker; von Wyl, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N = 5711) and one outpatient sample (N = 239) were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index) and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires. PMID:27699166

  16. Severity of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms among Middle Aged and Elderly Nigerian Men: Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Philip Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the severity of LUTS among middle aged and elderly Nigerian men and determine the influence of LUTS severity on QoL. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among new patients presenting with LUTS attending Urology clinic between 2011 and 2015. Assessment of symptoms was based on IPSS and bother score completed by the eligible subjects on the same day of their clinic visits. Results. Four hundred patients were studied comprising 229 middle aged and 171 elderly men. Interquartile range (IQR) of IPSS scores for men <65 years and those ≥65 years was 14.0 (16.0) and 19 (15.0), respectively (p < 0.001). Mild LUTS was significantly associated with best, good, and poor quality of life while moderate LUTS was associated with poor QoL. Severe LUTS was significantly associated with all the categories of QoL (Best-Worst). Among the cohort of subjects with poor QoL, elderly patients had a significantly higher median IPSS score (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There is no level of severity of LUTS in which patients' QoL is not impaired although mild symptomatology may be associated with better QoL and severe symptomatology with poor QoL. Careful attention to QoL may help identify patients who require early and prompt treatment irrespective of the IPSS. PMID:27413368

  17. Electronic Symptom Reporting Between Patient and Provider for Improved Health Care Service Quality: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Part 2: Methodological Quality and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold; Schuster, Tibor; Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background We conducted in two parts a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on electronic symptom reporting between patients and providers to improve health care service quality. Part 1 reviewed the typology of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets. Four innovation categories were identified: consultation support, monitoring with clinician support, self-management with clinician support, and therapy. Objective To assess the methodological quality of the RCTs, and summarize effects and benefits from the methodologically best studies. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles between 1990 and November 2011. Risk of bias and feasibility were judged according to the Cochrane recommendation, and theoretical evidence and preclinical testing were evaluated according to the Framework for Design and Evaluation of Complex Interventions to Improve Health. Three authors assessed the risk of bias and two authors extracted the effect data independently. Disagreement regarding bias assessment, extraction, and interpretation of results were resolved by consensus discussions. Results Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. No articles fulfilled all quality requirements. All interventions were feasible to implement in a real-life setting, and theoretical evidence was provided for almost all studies. However, preclinical testing was reported in only a third of the articles. We judged three-quarters of the articles to have low risk for random sequence allocation and approximately half of the articles to have low risk for the following biases: allocation concealment, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. Slightly more than one fifth of the articles were judged as low risk for blinding of outcome assessment. Only 1 article had low risk of bias for blinding of

  18. Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and quality of life in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during three-month methylphenidate treatment.

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Kagan; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoglu, Serhat; Kiliç, Birim G; Aysev, Ayla; Uslu, Runa

    2010-12-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the changes that occur in depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and health-related quality of life during methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty-five treatment naive children with ADHD, aged 8-14, were assessed based on self, parent and teacher reports at the baseline and at the end of the first and third month of MPH treatment regarding changes in inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Changes in the quality of life were also noted. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests with Bonferroni corrections were conducted in order to evaluate the data. Symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity were significantly reduced (p < 0.017) following a three-month MPH treatment. There were significant decreases in depression (p = 0.004), trait anxiety (p = 0.000) and checking compulsion symptom scores (p = 0.001). Moreover, parents reported significant improvements in psychosocial (p = 0.001) and total scores (p = 0.009) of quality of life, despite no change in physical health scores (p > 0.05). Children's ratings of quality of life measures showed no significant changes in physical health and psychosocial scores (p > 0.05), while total scores significantly improved (p = 0.001) after the treatment. Over a three-month MPH treatment, depression, trait anxiety and checking compulsion symptoms decreased and quality of life seemed to improve along with those of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.

  19. The Effects of a Self-Care Program on the Severity of Symptoms and Quality of Life of Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Ghorbani, Mojtaba; Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Purfarzad, Zahra; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disease that needs special self-care strategies. The current study aimed at determining the effects of a self-care program on the severity of symptoms and quality of life of patients with IBS. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 119 patients were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 60) and control (n = 59) groups. Patients in both groups received the usual treatment of IBS by a gastroenterologist. The control group did not receive any intervention, whereas the experimental group was trained in the self-care program. The process of implementing the self-care program included designing and determining the content validity of the self-care training package, individual training, the first follow-up call, group training, and the second follow-up call. The instruments for collecting data were IBS-Quality of Life and IBS-Symptom Severity Scale. Two sets of evaluations (before and 2 months after the intervention) were done for both groups. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, Version 16. The results showed that there was not a significant difference between the two groups in the severity of symptoms and quality of life before the intervention (p > .05); however, the 2 groups were significantly different after the intervention (p < .0001). Implementation of the self-care program resulted in the improvement of quality of life and reduction in the symptom severity in the experimental group after the intervention (p < .0001), whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group (p > .05). Hence, the data supports that self-care program was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing the severity of symptoms in patients with IBS. PMID:27684634

  20. Neighbourhood environment, physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in Hong Kong older adults: a protocol for an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Sit, Cindy H P; Zhang, Casper J P; Barnett, Anthony; Cheung, Martin M C; Lai, Poh-chin; Johnston, Janice M; Lee, Ruby S Y

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The neighbourhood environment can assist the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle and affect the physical and mental well-being of older adults. The psychosocial and behavioural mechanisms through which the environment may affect physical and mental well-being are currently poorly understood. Aim This observational study aims to examine associations between the physical and social neighbourhood environments, physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in Chinese Hong Kong older adults. Methods and analyses An observational study of the associations of measures of the physical and social neighbourhood environment, and psychosocial factors, with physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in 900 Hong Kong older adults aged 65+ years is being conducted in 2012–2016. The study involves two assessments taken 6 months apart. Neighbourhood walkability and access to destinations are objectively measured using Geographic Information Systems and environmental audits. Demographics, socioeconomic status, walking for different purposes, perceived neighbourhood and home environments, psychosocial factors, health status, social networks, depressive symptoms and quality of life are being assessed using validated interviewer-administered self-report measures and medical records. Physical functionality is being assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours are also being objectively measured in approximately 45% of participants using accelerometers over a week. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours, quality of life and depressive symptoms are being assessed twice (6 months apart) to examine seasonality effects on behaviours and their associations with quality of life and depressive symptoms. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the University of Hong Kong Human Research Ethics Committee for Non-Clinical Faculties (EA270211) and the Department

  1. An obesity provoking behaviour negatively influences young normal weight subjects' health related quality of life and causes depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ernersson, Asa; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Sepa Frostell, Anneli; Nyström, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-12-01

    In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQo

  2. Examining the links between perceived impact of pregnancy, depressive symptoms, and quality of life during adolescent pregnancy: the buffering role of social support.

    PubMed

    Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the indirect effect of the perceived impact of pregnancy on quality of life (QoL) through the severity of depressive symptoms among a sample of pregnant adolescents, and to explore whether adolescents' satisfaction with support from their mothers (SM) or partners (SP) was a buffer of this effect. Demographic and pregnancy-related data were collected for 395 pregnant adolescents age 12-19 and were controlled for testing the proposed indirect effect. SM and SP were tested as moderators of the links between perceived impact of pregnancy and depressive symptoms and between depressive symptoms and QoL. A computational tool for path analysis-based moderation and mediation analysis as well as their combination was used to test indirect and interaction effects (PROCESS). A significant indirect effect of the perceived impact of pregnancy on QoL through the severity of depressive symptoms was found (0.51, CI = 0.29/0.78). There was no significant direct effect of the perceived impact of pregnancy on QoL after controlling for the severity of depressive symptoms. SM and SP buffered the indirect effect by weakening the association between a negative perception of the impact of pregnancy and higher severity of depressive symptoms. Identifying adolescents with a negative perception of the impact of pregnancy, improving the quality of their relations with their mothers and partners, and promoting satisfactory support from these figures may be extremely important to prevent and treat depressive symptoms and, in so doing, improve adolescents' QoL during pregnancy.

  3. Reliability and validity of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire in dyspepsia: A six-country study

    PubMed Central

    Kulich, Károly R; Madisch, Ahmed; Pacini, Franco; Piqué, Jose M; Regula, Jaroslaw; Van Rensburg, Christo J; Újszászy, László; Carlsson, Jonas; Halling, Katarina; Wiklund, Ingela K

    2008-01-01

    Background Symptoms of dyspepsia significantly disrupt patients' lives and reliable methods of assessing symptom status are important for patient management. The aim of the current study was to document the psychometric characteristics of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and the Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia questionnaire (QOLRAD) in Afrikaans, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish and Spanish patients with dyspepsia. Methods 853 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia completed the GSRS, the QOLRAD, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Results The internal consistency reliability of the GSRS was 0.43–0.87 and of the QOLRAD 0.79–0.95. Test-retest reliability of the GSRS was 0.36–0.75 and of the QOLRAD 0.41–0.82. GSRS Abdominal pain domain correlated significantly with all QOLRAD domains in most language versions, and with SF-36 Bodily pain in all versions. QOLRAD domains correlated significantly with the majority of SF-36 domains in most versions. Both questionnaires were able to differentiate between patients whose health status differed according to symptom frequency and severity. Conclusion The psychometric characteristics of the different language versions of the GSRS and QOLRAD were found to be good, with acceptable reliability and validity. The GSRS and QOLRAD were found to be useful for evaluating dyspeptic symptoms and their impact on patients' daily lives in multinational clinical trials. PMID:18237386

  4. Associations of symptoms, psychosocial function and hope with qualities of self-experience in schizophrenia: comparisons of objective and subjective indicators of health.

    PubMed

    Lysaker, Paul H; Buck, Kelly D; Hammoud, Kristin; Taylor, Amanda C; Roe, David

    2006-02-28

    While changes in self-experience have been suggested to be an important element of recovery from severe mental illness, little is known about how qualities of self-experience are linked with other indicators of health including objective measures such as symptoms profiles and subjective measures such as hope. To examine these issues the narratives of self and illness of 65 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorder were obtained prior to entry into rehabilitation and rated using the Scale to Assess Narrative Development (STAND). STAND scores were then compared with concurrent assessments of hope assessed with the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), psychosocial function using the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) and symptom profile defined categorically using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results suggest that higher ratings of the STAND were associated with greater expectations of perseverance on the BHS and higher levels of psychosocial function on the QOL. Lower symptom profiles were similarly linked with higher STAND scores. Results suggest qualities of self-experience expressed within personal narratives are linked to symptom profiles and subjective assessments of health. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Parental support, internalizing symptoms, perceived health status, and quality of life in adolescents with congenital heart disease: influences and reciprocal effects.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Rassart, Jessica; Apers, Silke; Vanhalst, Janne; Moons, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Caring for adolescents with congenital heart disease requires attention to physical health but also to psychosocial functioning. Identifying how such psychosocial variables influence one another over time is important for designing health care strategies. The present study examined how depressive symptoms, loneliness, paternal and maternal support, and quality of life predicted one another. A total of 429 mid- to late adolescents with congenital heart disease (53.4 % boys) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that depressive symptoms and loneliness mutually reinforced one another over time and led to relative decreases in quality of life. Paternal- and not so much maternal-support predicted relative decreases in depressive symptoms and loneliness and relative increases in quality of life. Maternal and paternal support, in turn, were negatively predicted by previous levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. In sum, important temporal sequences were uncovered potentially providing information for prevention and intervention targeting psychosocial functioning in adolescents with congenital heart disease.

  6. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Nascimento, Mariana; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  7. The Bidirectional Relationship between Quality of Life and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A 9-Year Community-Based Study of Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, Deborah; Morin, Alexandre; Mond, Jonathan; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies that have investigated quality of life (QoL) in eating disorders (EDs) have been focussed on the impact of the ED on QoL and little is known regarding the possible reciprocal impact of QoL on EDs. The aim of this study was to provide a first-time investigation of possible bidirectional relationships between EDs and both health-related QoL (HRQoL) and psychological distress (PD). Method Structural equation modeling was applied to longitudinal data collected from a community sample of Australian women (N = 828) surveyed at baseline, five annual follow-ups, and again after nine years. Participants reported height and weight (from which body mass index, BMI, was calculated) and completed measures of ED symptoms (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire), HRQoL (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form), and PD (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale). Results Overall, evidence was found for a bidirectional relationship, whereby ED symptoms predicted reduced HRQoL and greater PD over time, while lower levels of HRQoL and greater PD in turn predicted increased levels of ED symptoms. These relationships were stable, observable within 12 months, and remained observable over a time period of at least four years. However, also observed were some inconsistent findings where ED symptoms predicted a short term (one year) improvement in mental HRQoL. This short term boost was not sustained at longer follow-ups. Conclusions Not only do ED symptoms impact on HRQoL and PD, but perceived poor HRQoL and PD also contribute to ED symptom development or exacerbation. This supports a movement away from symptom-centric approaches whereby HRQoL is conceptualized as a passive outcome expected to be rectified by addressing ED symptoms. Improvement in QoL and PD might rather be viewed as targets to be pursued in their own right under broader approaches in the treatment of EDs. PMID:25812047

  8. Indoor air quality in the 21st century: search for excellence.

    PubMed

    Fanger, P O

    2000-06-01

    Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, even though existing standards and guidelines are met. The reason is that the requirements specified in these standards are rather low, allowing a substantial group of people to become dissatisfied and to be adversely affected. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested as elements behind a new philosophy of excellence: 1) better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; 2) unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; 3) the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; 4) "personalized air", i.e. a small amount of clean air, should be served gently, close to the breathing zone of each individual; and 5) individual control of the thermal environment should be provided. These principles of excellence are compatible with energy efficiency and sustainability.

  9. The effect of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime function in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shao, I-Hung; Wu, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Hueih-Shing; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Wang, Hsu-Hsiang; Chuang, Heng-Chang; Tam, Yuan-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Nocturia has been proven to have a negative impact on the quality of life and sleep quality in general elderly population. However, there are limited studies on the quantitative effect of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime dysfunction, specifically in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Patients and methods During March 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015, a total of 728 patients who visited our urology department due to voiding dysfunction and experienced nocturia at least once per night were enrolled. Three questionnaires were administered to them after obtaining their written consents. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire were applied to evaluate their sleep quality, daytime dysfunction, and voiding problems, respectively. Statistical analysis of the impact of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime dysfunction was performed. Results The mean age of patients was 61 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.7. The mean nocturia number was 3.03. The IPSS, PSQI, and ESS scores were 17.56, 8.35, and 8.22, respectively. The nocturia number increased with age and was significantly correlated to ESS score (daytime dysfunction) and PSQI total score (sleep quality) in overall group. Among subgroups divided by age and sex, there was a significant correlation between nocturia number and daytime dysfunction in male patients or patients younger than 65 years. Conclusion In patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, nocturia number increased with age and was significantly correlated with poor sleep quality. Nocturia plays an important role in patients younger than 65 years in daytime dysfunction. PMID:27418814

  10. Development and usability testing of a web-based cancer symptom and quality-of-life support intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, SE; Halpenny, B; Whitman, G; McReynolds, J; Stewart, M; Lober, WB; Berry, DL

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility and acceptability of computerized screening and patient-reported outcome measures have been demonstrated in the literature. However, patient-centered management of health information entails two challenges: gathering and presenting data using “patient-tailored” methods and supporting “patient-control” of health information. The design and development of many symptom and quality-of-life information systems have not included opportunities for systematically collecting and analyzing user input. As part of a larger clinical trial, the Electronic Self-Report Assessment for Cancer–II project, participatory design approaches were used to build and test new features and interfaces for patient/caregiver users. The research questions centered on patient/caregiver preferences with regard to the following: (a) content, (b) user interface needs, (c) patient-oriented summary, and (d) patient-controlled sharing of information with family, caregivers, and clinicians. Mixed methods were used with an emphasis on qualitative approaches; focus groups and individual usability tests were the primary research methods. Focus group data were content analyzed, while individual usability sessions were assessed with both qualitative and quantitative methods. We identified 12 key patient/caregiver preferences through focus groups with 6 participants. We implemented seven of these preferences during the iterative design process. We deferred development for some of the preferences due to resource constraints. During individual usability testing (n = 8), we were able to identify 65 usability issues ranging from minor user confusion to critical errors that blocked task completion. The participatory development model that we used led to features and design revisions that were patient centered. We are currently evaluating new approaches for the application interface and for future research pathways. We encourage other researchers to adopt user-centered design approaches

  11. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12 GeV program at JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for the Proton Polarimeter Back Tracker (BT) of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS BT GEM trackers consist of two sets of five large GEM chambers of size 60×200 cm2. The GEM chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules, each with an active area of 60×50 cm2. We have built and tested several prototypes and the construction of GEM modules for SBS BT is ongoing. We describe in this paper the design and construction of the GEM module prototype as well as the preliminary results on performance from tests carried out in our detector lab and during test beam at Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab).

  12. SBS 0846+513: a new γ-ray-emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.; Finke, J.; Raiteri, C. M.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Giroletti, M.; Hovatta, T.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Perkins, J. S.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Stawarz, Ł.; Donato, D.

    2012-10-01

    We report Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the radio-loud active galactic nucleus SBS 0846+513 (z = 0.5835), optically classified as a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, together with new and archival radio-to-X-ray data. The source was not active at γ-ray energies during the first two years of Fermi operation. A significant increase in activity was observed during 2010 October-2011 August. In particular, a strong γ-ray flare was observed in 2011 June reaching an isotropic γ-ray luminosity (0.1-300 GeV) of 1.0 × 1048 erg s-1, comparable to that of the brightest flat spectrum radio quasars, and showing spectral evolution in γ rays. An apparent superluminal velocity of (8.2 ± 1.5)c in the jet was inferred from 2011 to 2012 Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images, suggesting the presence of a highly relativistic jet. Both the power released by this object during the flaring activity and the apparent superluminal velocity are strong indications of the presence of a relativistic jet as powerful as those of blazars. In addition, variability and spectral properties in radio and γ-ray bands indicate blazar-like behaviour, suggesting that, except for some distinct optical characteristics, SBS 0846+513 could be considered as a young blazar at the low end of the blazar's black hole mass distribution.

  13. Slow and fast light via SBS in optical fibers for short pulses and broadband pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalosha, V. P.; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2006-12-01

    Slow-light effect via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in single-mode optical fibers was considered for short probe pulses of nanosecond duration relevant to Gb/s data streams. Unlike recent estimations of delay versus pump based on steady-state small-signal approximation we have used numerical solution of three-wave equations describing SBS for a realistic fiber length. Both regimes of small signal and pump depletion (gain saturation) were considered. The physical origin of Stokes pulse distortion is revealed which is related to excitation of long-living acoustic field behind the pulse and prevents effective delay control by pump power increase at cw pumping. We have shown different slope of the gain-dependent delay for different pulse durations. Spectrally broadened pumping by multiple cw components, frequency-modulated pump and pulse train were studied for short pulses which allow to obtain large delay and suppress pulse distortion. In the pump-depletion regime of pumping by pulse train, both pulse delay and distortion decrease with increasing pump, and the pulse achieves advancement.

  14. Slow and fast light via SBS in optical fibers for short pulses and broadband pump.

    PubMed

    Kalosha, V P; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2006-12-25

    Slow-light effect via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in single-mode optical fibers was considered for short probe pulses of nanosecond duration relevant to Gb/s data streams. Unlike recent estimations of delay versus pump based on steady-state small-signal approximation we have used numerical solution of three-wave equations describing SBS for a realistic fiber length. Both regimes of small signal and pump depletion (gain saturation) were considered. The physical origin of Stokes pulse distortion is revealed which is related to excitation of long-living acoustic field behind the pulse and prevents effective delay control by pump power increase at cw pumping. We have shown different slope of the gain-dependent delay for different pulse durations. Spectrally broadened pumping by multiple cw components, frequency-modulated pump and pulse train were studied for short pulses which allow to obtain large delay and suppress pulse distortion. In the pump-depletion regime of pumping by pulse train, both pulse delay and distortion decrease with increasing pump, and the pulse achieves advancement. PMID:19532161

  15. Orbit and attitude determination results during launch support operations for SBS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, K. R.; Iano, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are orbit and attitude determination results from the launch of Satellite Business Systems (SBS)-5 satellite on September 8, 1988 by Arianespace. SBS-5 is a (HS-376) spin stabilized spacecraft. The launch vehicle injected the spacecraft into a low inclination transfer orbit. Apogee motor firing (AMF) attitude was achieved with trim maneuvers. An apogee kick motor placed the spacecraft into drift orbit. Postburn, reorientation and spindown maneuvers were performed during the next 25 hours. The spacecraft was on-station 19 days later. The orbit and attitude were determined by both an extended Kalman filter and a weighted least squares batch processor. Although the orbit inclination was low and the launch was near equinox, post-AMF analysis indicated an attitude declination error of 0.034 deg., resulting in a saving of 8.5 pounds of fuel. The AMF velocity error was 0.4 percent below nominal. The post-AMF drift rate was determined with the filter only 2.5 hours after motor firing. The filter was used to monitor and retarget the reorientation to orbit normal in real time.

  16. SBS 0846+513: a New Gamma-ray Emitting Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.; Finke, J.; Raiteri, C. M.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Giroletti, M.; Hovatta, T.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Perkins, J. S.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Stawarz, L.; Donato, D.

    2012-01-01

    We report Fermi-LAT observations of the radio-loud AGN SBS 0846+513 (z=0.5835), optically classified as a Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy, together with new and archival radio-to-X-ray data. The source was not active at ?-ray energies during the first two years of Fermi operation. A significant increase in activity was observed during 2010 October-2011 August. In particular a strong gamma-ray flare was observed in 2011 June reaching an isotropic ?-ray luminosity (0.1-300 GeV) of 1.0×10(sup 48) erg s(sup -1), comparable to that of the brightest flat spectrum radio quasars, and showing spectral evolution in gamma rays. An apparent superluminal velocity of (8.2+/-1.5)c in the jet was inferred from 2011-2012 VLBA images, suggesting the presence of a highly relativistic jet. Both the power released by this object during the flaring activity and the apparent superluminal velocity are strong indications of the presence of a relativistic jet as powerful as those of blazars. In addition, variability and spectral properties in radio and gamma-ray bands indicate blazar-like behaviour, suggesting that, except for some distinct optical characteristics, SBS 0846+513 could be considered as a young blazar at the low end of the blazar's black hole mass distribution.

  17. Association of Premorbid Adjustment with Symptom Profile and Quality of Life in First Episode Psychosis in a Tertiary Hospital in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Basirnia, Anahita; Abedi, Neda; Shadloo, Behrang; Jafari, Sara; Salesian, Niloofar; Djalali, Mohsen; Sharifi, Vandad

    2010-01-01

    Objective Poor premorbid adjustment has been reported to be a predictor of more severe psychotic symptoms and poor quality of life in such psychotic disorders as schizophrenia. However, most studies were performed on chronic schizophrenic patients, and proposed the likelihood of recall biases and the effect of chronicity. The aim of this study was to investigate these factors in a sample of first episode psychotic patients, as a part of Roozbeh first episode psychosis project (RooF). Method Premorbid adjustment was assessed using Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) in 48 patients with the first psychotic episode who were admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. The severity of symptoms was measured using Positive and Negative Scale (PANSS) in three subgroups of positive, negative and general subscales. Quality of life was measured using WHO QOL , and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) was also measured. Results The mean age was 24 years. Poor Premorbid adjustment in late adolescence was significantly associated with more severe symptoms according to PANSS negative symptoms (p=0.019, r=0.44). Furthermore, sociability and peer relationship domains had a positive correlation with PANSS negative subscale scores (r=0.531, p=0.002 and r=0.385, p=0.03, respectively). There were no significant differences between males and females in premorbid adjustment. Furthermore, this study failed to show any differences between affective and non-affective psychosis in premorbid functioning. Conclusion Our study confirms poor premorbid adjustment association with more severe negative symptoms and poor quality of life in a sample of Iranian first episode psychotic patients. PMID:22952486

  18. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nonspecific building-related symptoms in office employees in Japan: relationships between work environment, Indoor Air Quality, and occupational stress.

    PubMed

    Azuma, K; Ikeda, K; Kagi, N; Yanagi, U; Osawa, H

    2015-10-01

    A nationwide cross-sectional study of 3335 employees was conducted in 320 offices in Japan to estimate the prevalence of building-related symptoms (BRSs) and determine the risk factors related to work environment, Indoor Air Quality, and occupational stress. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The prevalences of general symptoms, eye irritation, and upper respiratory symptoms were 14.4%, 12.1%, and 8.9%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that eye irritation was significantly associated with carpeting [odds ratio (OR), 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-2.41], coldness perception (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13-1.45), and air dryness perception (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.42-1.82). General symptoms were significantly associated with unpleasant odors (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), amount of work (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.45), and interpersonal conflicts (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.23-1.69). Upper respiratory symptoms were significantly associated with crowded workspaces (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63), air dryness perception (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.79-2.38), and reported dustiness on the floor (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.16-1.67). Although psychosocial support is important to reduce and control BRSs, maintaining appropriate air-conditioning and a clean and uncrowded workspace is of equal importance. PMID:25244340

  19. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nonspecific building-related symptoms in office employees in Japan: relationships between work environment, Indoor Air Quality, and occupational stress.

    PubMed

    Azuma, K; Ikeda, K; Kagi, N; Yanagi, U; Osawa, H

    2015-10-01

    A nationwide cross-sectional study of 3335 employees was conducted in 320 offices in Japan to estimate the prevalence of building-related symptoms (BRSs) and determine the risk factors related to work environment, Indoor Air Quality, and occupational stress. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The prevalences of general symptoms, eye irritation, and upper respiratory symptoms were 14.4%, 12.1%, and 8.9%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that eye irritation was significantly associated with carpeting [odds ratio (OR), 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-2.41], coldness perception (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13-1.45), and air dryness perception (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.42-1.82). General symptoms were significantly associated with unpleasant odors (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), amount of work (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.45), and interpersonal conflicts (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.23-1.69). Upper respiratory symptoms were significantly associated with crowded workspaces (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63), air dryness perception (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.79-2.38), and reported dustiness on the floor (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.16-1.67). Although psychosocial support is important to reduce and control BRSs, maintaining appropriate air-conditioning and a clean and uncrowded workspace is of equal importance.

  20. [Effects of inpatient treatment on eating disorder symptoms, health-related quality of life and personal resources in anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Tagay, Sefik; Düllmann, Sonja; Schlegl, Sandra; Nater-Mewes, Ricarda; Repic, Nevena; Hampke, Christian; Brähler, Elmar; Gerlach, Gabriele; Senf, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present prospective-naturalistic study was the evaluation of psychosomatic inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). 128 patients with eating disorders (n=59 AN and n=69 BN) were investigated on admission and discharge using the following standardized questionnaires: eating disorder symptoms (EDI), general psychopathology (BSI), quality of life (SF-12), and personal resources (SOC-13, SWE). Moderate to large effect sizes were achieved for the eating disorder symptoms; in addition, general psychopathology was substantially reduced at the end of treatment, and quality of life as well as personal resources were enhanced. Personal resources were found to be the strongest predictors for therapy outcome. Based on our data, important insights and recommendations may be gained for the inpatient treatment of eating disorders, especially with regard to the potential influence of personal resources.

  1. Nutritional status evaluated by multi-frequency bioimpedance is not associated with quality of life or depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Barros, Annerose; da Costa, Bartira E Pinheiro; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E; Antonello, Ivan C; d'Avila, Domingos O

    2011-02-01

    Hemodialysis therapy significantly impacts on patients' physical, psychological, and social performances. Such reduced quality of life depends on several factors, such as malnutrition, depression, and metabolic derangements. This study aims to evaluate the current nutritional status, quality of life and depressive symptoms, and determine the possible relationships with other risk factors for poor outcomes, in stable hemodialysis patients. This was a single-center, cross-sectional study that enrolled 59 adult patients undergoing hemodialysis. Laboratory tests that included high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (CRP), and quality of life and depressive symptom evaluation, as well as malnutrition-inflammation score, nutritional status and body composition (by direct segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis) determinations were performed. Patients were classified as "underfat", "standard", "overfat", or "obese" by multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis. Seven patients were underfat, 19 standard, 19 overfat, and 14 obese. Triglyceride levels significantly differed between the underfat, standard, overfat, and obese groups (1.06 [0.98-1.98]; 1.47 [1.16-1.67]; 2.53 [1.17-3.13]; 2.12 [1.41-2.95] mmol/L, respectively; P=0.026), as did Kt/V between the underfat, overfat, and obese groups (1.49 ± 0.14; 1.23 ± 0.19; 1.19 ± 0.22; P=0.015 and P=0.006, respectively). Depressive symptoms, quality of life, and CRP and phosphate levels did not diverge among nutritional groups. Creatinine, albumin, and phosphate strongly correlated, as well as percent body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference (r=0.859 [P<0.001], and r=0.716 [P<0.001], respectively). Depressive symptoms and physical and psychological quality-of-life domains also strongly correlated (r(s) = -0.501 [P<0.001], r(s) = -0.597 [P<0.001], respectively). The majority of patients were overfat or obese and very few underfat. Inflammation was prevalent, overall. No association of nutritional status with

  2. Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Are Associated with Quality of Life–Related Symptoms in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ventetuolo, Corey E.; Palevsky, Harold I.; Lederer, David J.; Horn, Evelyn M.; Mathai, Stephen C.; Pinder, Diane; Archer-Chicko, Christine; Bagiella, Emilia; Roberts, Kari E.; Tracy, Russell P.; Hassoun, Paul M.; Girgis, Reda E.; Kawut, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Inflammation is associated with symptoms in many chronic illnesses; however, this link has not been established in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between inflammatory markers and quality of life–related symptoms in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that higher circulating IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels would be associated with worse quality of life–related symptoms. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis using baseline and 3-month assessments of 62 subjects in a clinical trial of aspirin and simvastatin to determine the association between plasma IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 subscales (pain, vitality, mental health). Measurements and Main Results: The mean age was 49.7 ± 13.4 years; 87% were female. Higher IL-6 levels were significantly associated with lower Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 subscale scores, indicating worse bodily pain, vitality, and mental health (all P < 0.01). Higher tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly associated with increased bodily pain, but better mental health scores. Conclusions: IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels are associated with certain quality of life domains in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00384865). PMID:25615959

  3. Symptoms: Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Paskett, Electra D

    2015-01-01

    Lymphedema is one of the main late effects from breast cancer treatment affecting 3-60% of breast cancer survivors. Primarily occurring in the hand, arm, and/or affected breast, symptoms of lymphedema include swelling, pain, redness, restriction of arm/hand movement, tightness and feelings of fullness. These symptoms not only may limit physical functioning but also negatively affect quality of life, body image, social functioning, and financial status of breast cancer survivors with lymphedema. Unfortunately, there are no standardized methods for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema. Despite its prevalence and lack of clinical guidelines, lymphedema is one of the most poorly understood, relatively underestimated, and least researched complications of cancer treatment. This chapter reviews the current problem of breast cancer-related lymphedema by investigating prevention and risk reduction strategies, diagnosis, and treatment. In addition, this chapter identifies future research opportunities focusing on prevention and risk reduction strategies, quality of life and physical function, surveillance, patient education, cost, diagnosis, and treatment. Challenges and recommendations for future research in these areas, particularly among underserved populations, are discussed. PMID:26059932

  4. 293 W, GHz narrow-linewidth, polarization maintaining nanosecond fiber amplifier with SBS suppression employing simultaneous phase and intensity modulation.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yang; Su, Rongtao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Lv, Haibin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2015-10-01

    We present a new method of SBS suppression in fiber amplifier system by employing simultaneously phase and intensity modulation. In this way, a GHz narrow-linewidth polarization-maintaining (PM) all-fiber pulsed laser is obtained based on a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The pulsed seed is generated from a single-frequency continuous wave (CW) laser at 1064 nm by simultaneous modulation using an electro-optic intensity modulator (EOIM) and an electro-optic phase modulator (EOPM). Theoretical model is built and simulation framework has been established to estimate the SBS threshold of the pulsed amplifier system before and after modulation. In experiment, in order to suppress SBS effectively, the pulse width is set to be 4 ns and the phase modulation voltage is set to be 5 V. After amplifying by the amplifier chain, a ~3.5 ns pulsed laser with average/peak power of 293 W/3.9 kW is obtained at intensity repetition rate of 20 MHz and phase repetition rate of 100MHz, showing good agreement with simulation results. The linewidth of the output laser is ~4.5 GHz, the M(2) factor at maximal output power is measured to be ~1.1 and the slope efficiency is ~86%.This method provides some references to suppress the SBS in narrow linewidth pulsed amplifier systems. PMID:26480104

  5. Interpretation of Single- and Multiple-Beam SBS Observations in OMEGA, Long-Scale-Length Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, R. W.; Craxton, R. S.; Seka, W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2001-10-01

    Recent experiments on OMEGA have studied stimulated Brillouin backscatter in preformed long-scale-length plasmas for both single and multiple interaction beams. Scattered light intensities and spectra were obtained for a variety of irradiation conditions. Ion Landau damping is estimated to be sufficiently strong in these plasmas that the locally driven approximation for the ion-sound wave response can be applied. The linear SBS gain coefficient can then obtained by integrating the coupled wave equations for the incident and scattered light throughout the underdense plasma corona. Using density, velocity, and temperature profiles obtained from the two-dimensional Eulerian hydrocode SAGE, we have calculated as a function of wavelength the SBS gain coefficients to be expected in these experiments. Comparison with the observed scattering levels and spectra allows several conclusions to be drawn regarding the SBS process in these plasmas. Most saliently, the scattering appears to be dominated by SBS occurring in hot spots, and plasma velocity profiles have a strong influence on the location and level of scattering. Generally good agreement is found between the observations and the calculations, though some discrepancies remain, particularly in the absorption levels and spectral shifts. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  6. Symptoms and Behavior Problems of Adolescents and Adults with Autism: Effects of Mother-Child Relationship Quality, Warmth, and Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Hong, Jinkuk

    2008-01-01

    Using a cross-lagged panel design, we investigated the impact of positive family processes on change in autism symptoms and behaviors. A sample of 149 co-residing mothers and their adolescent or adult child with autism was drawn from a large, longitudinal study. Maternal warmth and praise were measured using coded speech samples in which mothers…

  7. Parent Relationship Quality Buffers against the Effect of Peer Stressors on Depressive Symptoms from Middle Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazel, Nicholas A.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Technow, Jessica R.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    During the transition to adolescence, several developmental trends converge to increase the importance of peer relationships, the likelihood of peer-related stressors, and the experience of depressive symptoms. Simultaneously, there are significant changes in parent-child relationships. The current study sought to evaluate whether positive…

  8. Elastic Anisotropy and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xiangdan; Sun, Yunzhou; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yusheng; Yi, Lin

    2014-09-01

    Copper-based ternary chalcogenide semiconductors with zincblende-related crystal structures have recently emerged as some of the best performing p-type thermoelectric materials. Here, first-principles calculations are used to investigate the structural, elastic, and thermoelectric properties of Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4. The calculated lattice constants and atomic coordinates are in good agreement with those obtained in the previous experiments, which shows that our method is reliable. We found that the hybridization among atoms forms [SbSe4] and [CuSe4] tetrahedral structures. The spin-orbit (SO) interaction is included in the calculations for electronic structures and thermoelectric properties. It is predicted that Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4 are mechanically stable, relatively soft materials with high compressibility, and are low small-hardness ionic materials, and with more anisotropy in shear than in compressibility. The results also show that the mechanical stability of these materials is limited by the shear modulus G. Furthermore, Cu3SbSe4 can be classified as a brittle material, whereas Cu3SbS4 can be classified as a ductile material. The semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory was used to calculate the Seebeck coefficients, electrical conductivities, electronic thermal conductivities, power factors, and thermoelectric figures of merit ZeT of Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4 along two crystallographic directions, and the optimal doping concentrations were estimated on the basis of the predicted thermoelectric properties. The temperature dependences of the thermoelectric transport properties of Cu3SbSe4 and Cu3SbS4 were also estimated and compared with experimental data, with good agreement observed.

  9. Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lilin; Jaouen, Yves; Hu, Weisheng; Su, Yikai; Bigo, Sébastien

    2007-12-10

    We have demonstrated error-free operations of slow-light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber for 10-Gb/s signals with different modulation formats, including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT) and differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK). The SBS gain bandwidth is broadened by using current noise modulation of the pump laser diode. The gain shape is simply controlled by the noise density function. Super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump allows a flat-top and sharp-edge SBS gain spectrum, which can reduce slow-light induced distortion in case of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. The corresponding maximal delay-time with error-free operation is 35 ps. Then we propose the PSBT format to minimize distortions resulting from SBS filtering effect and dispersion accompanied with slow light because of its high spectral efficiency and strong dispersion tolerance. The sensitivity of the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal is 5.2 dB better than the NRZ case with a same 35-ps delay. The maximal delay of 51 ps with error-free operation has been achieved. Futhermore, the DPSK format is directly demodulated through a Gaussian-shaped SBS gain, which is achieved using Gaussian-noise modulation of the Brillouin pump. The maximal error-free time delay after demodulation of a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal is as high as 81.5 ps, which is the best demonstrated result for 10-Gb/s slow-light.

  10. Dust in an Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy: Mid-infrared Observations ofSBS 0335-052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuan, Trinh X.; Sauvage, Marc; Madden, Suzanne

    1999-05-01

    The metal-deficient (Z=Zsolar/41) blue compact dwarf galaxy SBS 0335-052 was observed with ISOCAM between 5 and 17 μm. With an L12μm/LB ratio of 2.15, the galaxy is unexpectedly bright in the mid-infrared for such a low-metallicity object. The mid-infrared spectrum shows no sign of the unidentified infrared bands, which we interpret as an effect of the destruction of their carriers by the very high UV energy density in SBS 0335-052. The spectral energy distribution (SED) is dominated by a very strong continuum, which makes the ionic lines of [S IV] and [Ne III] very weak. From 5 to 17 μm, the SED can be fitted with a graybody spectrum, modified by an extinction law similar to that observed toward the Galactic center, with an optical depth of AV~19-21 mag. Such a large optical depth implies that a large fraction (as much as ~75%) of the current star formation activity in SBS 0335-052 is hidden by dust with a mass between 3×103 and 5×105 Msolar. Silicate grains that are present as silicate extinction bands at 9.7 and 18 μm can account for the unusual shape of the MIR spectrum of SBS 0335-052. It is remarkable that such a nearly primordial environment contains as much dust as galaxies that are 10 times more metal-rich. If the hidden star formation in SBS 0335-052 is typical of young galaxies at high redshifts, then the cosmic star formation rate derived from UV/optical fluxes would be underestimated. Based on data obtained with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by the ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  11. The Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Quality of Life, Work Productivity, Depressive Symptoms, and Sexuality in Korean Men Aged 40 Years and Older: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean men aged ≥40 years. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey was conducted among men aged ≥40 years. Individuals with LUTS were defined as men reporting at least one LUTS using 2002 International Continence Society definitions. Structuredquestionnaires were used to assess several dimensions of HRQoL, including generic health status (EuroQoL-five-dimensions questionnaire), work productivity (work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire), depressive symptoms (center for epidemiologic studies depression scale), and sexual health (sexual satisfaction and erectile dysfunction). The impact of LUTS was assessed by comparing several dimensions of HRQoL among men with and without LUTS. Results: Of the 1,842 participants, 1,536 (83.4%) reported having at least one LUTS. The prevalence of LUTS increased with age (78.3% among those aged 40–49 years to 89.6% among those aged 60 years or older). Those with LUTS reported a significantlylower level of generic health status and worse work productivity compared with those without LUTS. Significantly more individuals with LUTS reported having a higher level of major depressive symptoms compared with those without LUTS.Those with LUTS reported worse sexual activity and enjoyment, and were significantly more likely to have erectile dysfunction than those without LUTS. Conclusions: LUTS seem to have a substantial impact on several dimensions of HRQoL in Korean men aged ≥40 years. PMID:26126442

  12. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  13. The effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and self-esteem trajectories among diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tiffany

    2015-02-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70% female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed.

  14. The impact of complementary and alternative medicines on cancer symptoms, treatment side effects, quality of life, and survival in women with breast cancer--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leggett, S; Koczwara, B; Miller, M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer amongst women. Women with breast cancer frequently consult dietitians for advice, and increasingly advice on complementary alternative medicines (CAM). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence of CAM administered orally on cancer-related outcomes. Databases were searched for studies recruiting women with a history of breast cancer reporting on the use of CAM administered orally as tablets, capsules, powders, and liquids for any 1 or more of the following: alleviation of cancer-related symptoms and treatment side effects, improvement to quality of life, physical and emotional wellbeing, survival, and mortality. Twenty-two studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Ten CAM categories were established with no more than 4 articles published in each category. Although the evidence is of varying quality there is some data to support that guarana and Ganoderma lucidum may improve fatigue, whereas glutamine may also be effective in improving oral mucositis symptoms. Overall, the current available evidence is inconclusive to make definitive recommendations regarding the effectiveness for individuals' use of CAM in women with breast cancer. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials exploring safety, toxicity, and other potential adverse effects of CAM are required. PMID:25811312

  15. Longitudinal Evaluation of Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Sleep Symptoms with Change in Quality of Life: The Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; An, Ming-Wen; Goodwin, James L.; Shahar, Eyal; Redline, Susan; Resnick, Helaine; Baldwin, Carol M.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Findings from population studies evaluating the progression and incidence of sleep disordered breathing have shown evidence of a longitudinal increase in the severity of sleep disordered breathing. The present study evaluates the association among changes in sleep disordered breathing, sleep symptoms, and quality of life over time. Design: Prospective cohort study. Data were from the Sleep Heart Health Study. Setting: Multicenter study. Participants: Three thousand seventy-eight subjects aged 40 years and older from the baseline and follow-up examination cycles were included. Measurements: The primary outcomes were changes in the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales obtained from the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey. The primary exposure was change in the respiratory disturbance index obtained from unattended overnight polysomnograms performed approximately 5 years apart. Other covariates included measures of excessive daytime sleepiness and difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep. Results: Mean respiratory disturbance index increased from 8.1 ± 11 SD at baseline to 10.9 ± 14 (P < 0.0001) at follow-up. The mean Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores were 48.5 and 54.1 at baseline and 46.3 and 54.8 at follow-up. No associations between change in respiratory disturbance index and changes in Physical Component Summary or Mental Component Summary scores were seen. However, worsening of difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness were significantly associated with lower quality of life. Conclusions: A slight increase in severity of sleep disordered breathing was seen over 5 years; this was not associated with worsening of quality of life. However, subjective symptoms of quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness were associated with declining quality of life. Citation: Silva GE; An MW; Goodwin JL; Shahar E; Redline S; Resnick H; Baldwin CM; Quan SF

  16. Impact of Sex on the Nonmotor Symptoms and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Weintraut, Rita; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Female Parkinson's disease (PD) patients seem to experience not only more severe motor complications and postural instability but also more pronounced depression, anxiety, pain, and sleep disturbances. Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of sex as a possible independent predictor of HRQoL in PD. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 621 consecutive patients treated at the University of Pécs were enrolled. Severity of PD symptoms was assessed by MDS-UPDRS, UDysRS, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale, PDSS-2, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Lille Apathy Rating Scale, and Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination. HRQoL was assessed by PDQ-39 and EQ-5D. Multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the PDQ-39 and EQ-5D index values based on various clinical factors. Results. Although females received significantly lower dosage of levodopa, they had significantly more disabling dyskinesia and worse postural instability. Anxiety, pain, sleep disturbances, and orthostatic symptoms were more frequent among females while sexual dysfunction, apathy, and daytime sleepiness were more severe among males. Women had worse HRQoL than men (EQ-5D index value: 0.620 ± 0.240 versus 0.663 ± 0.229, p = 0.025, and PDQ-39 SI: 27.1 ± 17.0 versus 23.5 ± 15.9, p = 0.010). Based on multiple regression analysis, sex was an independent predictor for HRQoL in PD. Conclusions. Based on our results, female sex is an independent predictor for having worse HRQoL in PD. PMID:27293959

  17. Impact of Sex on the Nonmotor Symptoms and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Weintraut, Rita; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Female Parkinson's disease (PD) patients seem to experience not only more severe motor complications and postural instability but also more pronounced depression, anxiety, pain, and sleep disturbances. Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of sex as a possible independent predictor of HRQoL in PD. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 621 consecutive patients treated at the University of Pécs were enrolled. Severity of PD symptoms was assessed by MDS-UPDRS, UDysRS, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale, PDSS-2, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Lille Apathy Rating Scale, and Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination. HRQoL was assessed by PDQ-39 and EQ-5D. Multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the PDQ-39 and EQ-5D index values based on various clinical factors. Results. Although females received significantly lower dosage of levodopa, they had significantly more disabling dyskinesia and worse postural instability. Anxiety, pain, sleep disturbances, and orthostatic symptoms were more frequent among females while sexual dysfunction, apathy, and daytime sleepiness were more severe among males. Women had worse HRQoL than men (EQ-5D index value: 0.620 ± 0.240 versus 0.663 ± 0.229, p = 0.025, and PDQ-39 SI: 27.1 ± 17.0 versus 23.5 ± 15.9, p = 0.010). Based on multiple regression analysis, sex was an independent predictor for HRQoL in PD. Conclusions. Based on our results, female sex is an independent predictor for having worse HRQoL in PD.

  18. Impact of cadmium and ozone on foliar symptom development, mineral composition, growth, yield and quality of woody and herbaceous plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    Green mountain (GM), Norchip (NC) and Norland (NL) potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars were grown in the field under standard commercial practices to determine their relative susceptibility to oxidants and to evaluate the effectiveness of two antioxidants, EDU and benomyl, applied as soil drenches. The order of foliar susceptibility to oxidants was NL > NC > GM. Symptom severity directly correlated with cumulative oxidant dose, and the time of maximum plant sensitivity was cultivar-dependent. EDU significantly reduced foliar symptoms but benomyl did not. Untreated plants sustained up to a 31% reduction in tuber yield when compared to EDU treated plants. Reductions in specific gravity, tuber size and tuber number were year x cultivar dependent. The uptake and distribution of cadmium (Cd), another phytotoxic pollutant, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown in sand culture amended with 0 or 2.0 ..mu..g Cd/ml as CdCl/sub 2/ in a nutrient solution was compared. Tobacco accumulated twice as much Cd in the foliage as in the roots, whereas tomato plants contained only one-seventh as much Cd in the leaves. Although Cd-treated plants exhibited no visual toxicity symptoms, nor changes in percent dry weight, Mn and Fe concentrations were significantly reduced in the roots. Zinc concentrations of root and shoot tissue did not significantly change. When quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) were grown in a sand substrate receiving nutrient solution amended with Cd (0-10 ..mu..g Cd/ml) and exposed to ozone (O/sub 3/) in a controlled and ambient environment, cadmium treated plants were more susceptible.

  19. Impact of Sex on the Nonmotor Symptoms and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Weintraut, Rita; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Female Parkinson's disease (PD) patients seem to experience not only more severe motor complications and postural instability but also more pronounced depression, anxiety, pain, and sleep disturbances. Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of sex as a possible independent predictor of HRQoL in PD. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 621 consecutive patients treated at the University of Pécs were enrolled. Severity of PD symptoms was assessed by MDS-UPDRS, UDysRS, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale, PDSS-2, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Lille Apathy Rating Scale, and Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination. HRQoL was assessed by PDQ-39 and EQ-5D. Multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the PDQ-39 and EQ-5D index values based on various clinical factors. Results. Although females received significantly lower dosage of levodopa, they had significantly more disabling dyskinesia and worse postural instability. Anxiety, pain, sleep disturbances, and orthostatic symptoms were more frequent among females while sexual dysfunction, apathy, and daytime sleepiness were more severe among males. Women had worse HRQoL than men (EQ-5D index value: 0.620 ± 0.240 versus 0.663 ± 0.229, p = 0.025, and PDQ-39 SI: 27.1 ± 17.0 versus 23.5 ± 15.9, p = 0.010). Based on multiple regression analysis, sex was an independent predictor for HRQoL in PD. Conclusions. Based on our results, female sex is an independent predictor for having worse HRQoL in PD. PMID:27293959

  20. Allostatic load model associated with indoor environmental quality and sick building syndrome among office workers.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chien-Cheng; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Lee, Hui-Ling; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether indoor environmental quality (IEQ) influences allostatic load (AL) and whether AL can be a predictor for sick building syndrome (SBS). We also assessed and compared the associations between AL and SBS versus 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and SBS. A total of 115 office workers from 21 offices completed self-reported SBS questionnaires, and provided 11 biomarkers for their AL. Multiple linear regressions and logistic regression analysis were applied to examine the correlations between IEQ and AL or 8-OHdG and between AL or 8-OHdG and SBS, respectively. Our data revealed that the neuroendocrine system was correlated with CO2, the difference between indoor and outdoor CO2 levels (dCO2), and the indoor-outdoor ratio of CO2 (CO2 I/O). Metabolic system effects were associated with illumination. The relationships between illumination, CO2, dCO2, CO2 I/O and 8-OHdG were consistent with those and AL in specific systems. Furthermore, we found that risks for SBS syndromes were related with neuroendocrine and metabolic system of the AL. 8-OHdG was associated with eye dryness or irritation, eye tiredness and vomiting. We conclude that IEQ significantly influences AL and that AL can be a predictor for reporting SBS with information on system-specific effects. PMID:24759685

  1. Allostatic Load Model Associated with Indoor Environmental Quality and Sick Building Syndrome among Office Workers

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chien-Cheng; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Lee, Hui-Ling; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether indoor environmental quality (IEQ) influences allostatic load (AL) and whether AL can be a predictor for sick building syndrome (SBS). We also assessed and compared the associations between AL and SBS versus 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and SBS. A total of 115 office workers from 21 offices completed self-reported SBS questionnaires, and provided 11 biomarkers for their AL. Multiple linear regressions and logistic regression analysis were applied to examine the correlations between IEQ and AL or 8-OHdG and between AL or 8-OHdG and SBS, respectively. Our data revealed that the neuroendocrine system was correlated with CO2, the difference between indoor and outdoor CO2 levels (dCO2), and the indoor-outdoor ratio of CO2 (CO2 I/O). Metabolic system effects were associated with illumination. The relationships between illumination, CO2, dCO2, CO2 I/O and 8-OHdG were consistent with those and AL in specific systems. Furthermore, we found that risks for SBS syndromes were related with neuroendocrine and metabolic system of the AL. 8-OHdG was associated with eye dryness or irritation, eye tiredness and vomiting. We conclude that IEQ significantly influences AL and that AL can be a predictor for reporting SBS with information on system-specific effects. PMID:24759685

  2. Non-Motor symptoms in Portuguese Parkinson's Disease patients: correlation and impact on Quality of Life and Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Bugalho, Paulo; Lampreia, Tânia; Miguel, Rita; Mendonça, Marcelo D; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's Disease (PD) has varied between studies. Their interrelation isn't totally understood. Also, the relative importance of each symptom, regarding its impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and health related quality of life (HRQL), remains debatable. We assessed all PD patients attending a Portuguese tertiary movement disorders center during one year (n = 134), with ADL, HRQL and other clinical scales approved for identifying the most relevant NMS in PD. All patients had at least one NMS. Sleep/fatigue, affect/cognition, attention/memory were the most frequent complaints, and their prevalence, above 80%, was higher than in most studies. There were significantly correlations between: sleepiness, psychosis and cognition; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular symptoms and pain; depression and apathy; anxiety and insomnia; olfaction, weight and hyperhidrosis. Depression/apathy exerted the strongest influence on HRQL and non-tremor motor dysfunction on ADL. Compared to studies in other countries, we found a higher prevalence of NMS, which could be specific of this population. The interrelation between NMS could be related to degeneration of different brain structures. NMS exert a stronger influence than MS in HRQL, which should be taken in account regarding treatment options. PMID:27573215

  3. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vivian; Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  4. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  5. Non-Motor symptoms in Portuguese Parkinson’s Disease patients: correlation and impact on Quality of Life and Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Bugalho, Paulo; Lampreia, Tânia; Miguel, Rita; Mendonça, Marcelo D.; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) has varied between studies. Their interrelation isn’t totally understood. Also, the relative importance of each symptom, regarding its impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and health related quality of life (HRQL), remains debatable. We assessed all PD patients attending a Portuguese tertiary movement disorders center during one year (n = 134), with ADL, HRQL and other clinical scales approved for identifying the most relevant NMS in PD. All patients had at least one NMS. Sleep/fatigue, affect/cognition, attention/memory were the most frequent complaints, and their prevalence, above 80%, was higher than in most studies. There were significantly correlations between: sleepiness, psychosis and cognition; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular symptoms and pain; depression and apathy; anxiety and insomnia; olfaction, weight and hyperhidrosis. Depression/apathy exerted the strongest influence on HRQL and non-tremor motor dysfunction on ADL. Compared to studies in other countries, we found a higher prevalence of NMS, which could be specific of this population. The interrelation between NMS could be related to degeneration of different brain structures. NMS exert a stronger influence than MS in HRQL, which should be taken in account regarding treatment options. PMID:27573215

  6. Affect and mindfulness as predictors of change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms, and quality of life in a community-based yoga program for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Michael J; Carlson, Linda E; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Paskevich, David M; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the psychological determinants by which benefits are accrued via yoga practice in cancer-related clinical settings. Using a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach, associations between affect, mindfulness, and patient-reported mental health outcomes, including mood disturbance, stress symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQL), were examined in an existing seven-week yoga program for cancer survivors. Participants (N = 66) were assessed before and after the yoga program and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Decreases in mood disturbance and stress symptoms and improvements in HRQL were observed upon program completion. Improvements in mood disturbance and stress symptoms were maintained at the three- and six-month follow-ups. HRQL exhibited further improvement at the three-month follow-up, which was maintained at the six-month follow-up. Improvements in measures of well-being were predicted by initial positive yoga beliefs and concurrently assessed affective and mindfulness predictor variables. Previous yoga experience, affect, mindfulness, and HRQL were related to yoga practice maintenance over the course of the study. PMID:23762132

  7. Concordance between severity of disease, prevalence of nonmotor symptoms, patient-reported quality of life and disability and use of medication in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Covelli, Venusia; Albanese, Alberto; Soliveri, Paola; Carella, Francesco; Romito, Luigi

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the concordance between disease severity, prevalence of nonmotor symptoms, age, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), disability and medication use in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Severity was classified with the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale and Levodopa Equivalent Daily Dose (LEDD) calculated. HRQoL was evaluated with the SF-36, disability with the WHO-DAS II and nonmotor symptoms with the NMSQuest. Patients were clustered using SF-36 and WHO-DAS II into three groups covering the continuum from low disability and HRQoL, to severe disability and HRQoL decrement. Contingency Coefficient were used to verify the relationships between clusters and HY stage; ANOVA to evaluate differences in NMS, age and LEDD between clusters; odds ratio to test the likelihood of taking levodopa or dopamine agonist and being member of the three clusters; t test to evaluate differences in LEDD between patients with HY ≥3 or ≤2. Eighty-six patients were clustered: 48 had low disability and HRQoL decrement, 18 intermediate disability and HRQoL decrement and 20 high disability and HRQoL decrement. A significant relationship was found between PD severity groups, HRQoL and disability profiles. No differences for age and LEDD were observed in the three groups, and those with more disability and lower HRQoL reported a higher number of nonmotor symptoms; patients in HY ≥3 were prescribed higher doses of drugs. In conclusion, we found a substantial concordance between PD staging, prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and patient-reported HRQoL and disability measures. In our opinion, the SF-36 and the WHO-DAS II can be used for profiling patients.

  8. Effects of Qigong Training on Health-Related Quality of Life, Functioning, and Cancer-Related Symptoms in Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Luk, W. S.; Chung, Louisa M. Y.; Wong, Janet Y. H.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Qigong intervention on quality of life (QOL), health-related functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-five survivors of NPC were included in the experimental group (mean age ± SD: 55.4 ± 7.5 years) and 27 in the control group (mean age ± SD: 58.7 ± 9.5 years). The experimental group underwent a weekly 1.5-hour Qigong training program and an identical home program (three times/week) for six months. The control group received no training. Global health status/QOL, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms were assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before training began, after three months of Qigong training, at the end of the six-month Qigong intervention (i.e., posttest), and six months posttest. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no statistically (P > 0.05) or clinically significant improvement in global health status/QOL, functioning, or symptoms in either group. The experimental group had 45.8% fewer sense-related (smell and taste) problems (P < 0.05) but 98.6% more speech-related problems (P < 0.05) than the control group after the Qigong intervention. Qigong training resulted in no apparent improvement in health-related QOL, functionality, or cancer-related symptoms in cancer-free survivors of NPC, except for a possible reduction in smell- and taste-related problems. PMID:24971148

  9. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12GeV program at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size GEM chamber for the Proton Polarimeter of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS Polarimeter trackers consist of two sets of four large chambers of size 200 cm x 60 cm2. Each chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules with an active area of 60 cm x 50 cm. We have built and tested several GEM modules and we describe in this paper the design and construction of the final GEM as well as the preliminary results on performances from tests carried out in our detector lab and with test beams at (Fermilab).

  10. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12GeV program at JLab

    DOE PAGES

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size GEM chamber for the Proton Polarimeter of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS Polarimeter trackers consist of two sets of four large chambers of size 200 cm x 60 cm2. Each chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules with an active area of 60 cm x 50 cm. We have built and tested several GEM modules and we describe in this paper the design and construction of the final GEM as well asmore » the preliminary results on performances from tests carried out in our detector lab and with test beams at (Fermilab).« less

  11. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients

    PubMed Central

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants’ trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822

  12. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants' trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822

  13. Estrogenic botanical supplements, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and hormone-related symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a HEAL study report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It remains unclear whether estrogenic botanical supplement (EBS) use influences breast cancer survivors' health-related outcomes. Methods We examined the associations of EBS use with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), with fatigue, and with 15 hormone-related symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats among 767 breast cancer survivors participating in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. HRQOL was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study short form-36 physical and mental component scale summary score. Fatigue was measured by the Revised-Piper Fatigue Scale score. Results Neither overall EBS use nor the number of EBS types used was associated with HRQOL, fatigue, or hormone-related symptoms. However, comparisons of those using each specific type of EBS with non-EBS users revealed the following associations. Soy supplements users were more likely to have a better physical health summary score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.70). Flaxseed oil users were more likely to have a better mental health summary score (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.94). Ginseng users were more likely to report severe fatigue and several hormone-related symptoms (all ORs ≥ 1.7 and all 95% CIs exclude 1). Red clover users were less likely to report weight gain, night sweats, and difficulty concentrating (all OR approximately 0.4 and all 95% CIs exclude 1). Alfalfa users were less likely to experience sleep interruption (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12-0.68). Dehydroepiandrosterone users were less likely to have hot flashes (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14-0.82). Conclusions Our findings indicate that several specific types of EBS might have important influences on a woman's various aspects of quality of life, but further verification is necessary. PMID:22067368

  14. Anthrax: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort Shortness of breath Confusion or dizziness ... aches Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Swelling of neck or neck glands Sore throat ...

  15. Indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  16. Detection of Amitraz Resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from SBS Nagar, Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, N. K.; Jyoti; Rath, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    The resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from SBS Nagar, Punjab, was evaluated against amitraz by Adult Immersion Test (AIT). The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz revealed the slope of mortality (95% CI) as 2.36 ± 0.61 (0.38 to 4.33). The LC50 (95% CI) and LC95 (95% CI) values were recorded as 332.52 ppm (305.06–362.44) and 1646.93 ppm (1383.97–1959.84), respectively, and the resistance factor (RF) was 13.17 which indicated level II resistance status. The dose response curves for egg mass weight, reproductive index, and percentage inhibition of oviposition were also validated by AIT and the slopes (95% CI) were −7.17 ± 2.41 (−14.85 to 0.50), −0.009 ± 0.02 (−0.16 to −0.031), and 19.99 ± 4.77 (4.81 to 35.17), respectively. The current study reports the development of resistance in R. (B.) microplus to amitraz from Punjab state and the data generated would be useful in formulation of effective control strategies against ticks of this region. PMID:24683347

  17. Detection of amitraz resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from SBS Nagar, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Nandi, Abhijit; Jyoti; Rath, S S

    2014-01-01

    The resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from SBS Nagar, Punjab, was evaluated against amitraz by Adult Immersion Test (AIT). The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz revealed the slope of mortality (95% CI) as 2.36 ± 0.61 (0.38 to 4.33). The LC50 (95% CI) and LC95 (95% CI) values were recorded as 332.52 ppm (305.06-362.44) and 1646.93 ppm (1383.97-1959.84), respectively, and the resistance factor (RF) was 13.17 which indicated level II resistance status. The dose response curves for egg mass weight, reproductive index, and percentage inhibition of oviposition were also validated by AIT and the slopes (95% CI) were -7.17 ± 2.41 (-14.85 to 0.50), -0.009 ± 0.02 (-0.16 to -0.031), and 19.99 ± 4.77 (4.81 to 35.17), respectively. The current study reports the development of resistance in R. (B.) microplus to amitraz from Punjab state and the data generated would be useful in formulation of effective control strategies against ticks of this region.

  18. The effects of indwelling voice prosthesis on the quality of life, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem in patients with total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Polat, Beldan; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Kesimli, Mustafa Caner; Gorgulu, Yasemin; Ulusan, Murat; Deger, Kemal

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of voice rehabilitation with indwelling voice prosthesis on quality of life, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and sexual functions in laryngectomy patients. Provox-1 was applied to 30 patients who underwent total laryngectomy by opening a tracheoesophageal fistula. WHO Quality of Life-BREF, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale forms were asked to be filled out by the patients before voice prosthesis application. These tests were asked to be filled out again 3 months later after the voice prosthesis application. Paired samples and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare before and after operation values. Indwelling voice prosthesis was found to improve quality of life, self-esteem, and sexual function (p < 0.05). Additionally, symptoms of depression and anxiety were regressed (p < 0.05). Indwelling voice prosthesis was found to especially increase the quality of life and decrease depression (p < 0.05). This study is an uncontrolled single-arm study comparing patients' psychosocial statuses pre- and post-voice prosthesis.

  19. Psychological symptoms and quality of life among residents exposed to long-term, low-dose environmental manganese (Mn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Elevated levels of air manganese (air-Mn) exposure have been associated with adverse health effects. This study examined the relationship of air-Mn concentrations with mood and quality of life.Participants and methods: 185 residents (age mean (M)=55.13±10.88; ed...

  20. Quality of life and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder core symptoms: a pooled analysis of 5 non-US atomoxetine clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Rodrigo; Schacht, Alexander; Wehmeier, Peter M; Wagner, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this pooled analysis was to correlate parameters related to quality of life with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms analyzing data of 5 atomoxetine clinical trials in children and adolescents with ADHD. Data from 5 clinical trials (4 from Europe and 1 from Canada) with similar inclusion/exclusion criteria and similar duration (8-12 weeks' follow-up) were included. All studies used the Child Health and Illness Profile, Child Edition (CHIP-CE), parent rating form at baseline and end point. Correlation coefficients and effect sizes to ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) scores were calculated. A total of 794 patients aged 6 to 15 years (mean, 9.7 years), with mean (SD) baseline Clinical Global Impression of Severity of 4.8 (0.89) and ADHD-RS of 41.8 (8.04), were included. Baseline total CHIP-CE mean t score (standard, 50 [10]) was 28.9 (11.76), and the strongest impairments were seen in risk avoidance (30.2 [14.62]) and achievement (30.5 [10.4]) domains. At baseline, CHIP-CE versus ADHD-RS correlation was low (total, -0.345) except for the risk avoidance domain (total, -0.517). For changes from baseline to end point, a low correlation between the scales was found (total, -0.364; placebo-controlled studies only, n = 372). Quality of life impairment in ADHD was found in CHIP-CE total score and several domains. Correlations between CHIP-CE and ADHD-RS at baseline, end point, and for change from baseline to end point were low to moderate. These findings suggest that measuring quality of life adds clinically relevant insight beyond core symptom evaluation in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  1. Symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with aclidinium in a real-life setting

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Peter; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Olejnicka, Beata; Paradis, Bo-Anders; Curiac, Dan; Humerfelt, Sjur; Telg, Gunilla; Christensen, Helene Nordahl; Bitsch, Magnus Alexander; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Bjermer, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease with symptoms that can have a major impact on patients’ physical health. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life (QoL), symptom severity and dyspnoea in COPD patients treated with aclidinium up to 24 weeks. Methods In this prospective non-interventional multicentre study (198 centres in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway), COPD patients (age ≥40 years) who started treatment with aclidinium (initial therapy, change of treatment, or add-on therapy) could be included. Health-related QoL was obtained by COPD assessment test (CAT). Symptoms were evaluated on a 6-point Likert scale. The modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnoea Scale was used as a simple grading system to assess the level of dyspnoea/shortness of breath from0 to 4. Patients on treatment with aclidinium who completed baseline and at least one follow-up visit (week 12 or 24) were included in the study population. Results Overall, 1,093 patients were enrolled (mean 69 years, 54% females), one-third had ≥1 exacerbation the year prior to baseline. At enrolment, 48% were LAMA naïve. Mean (standard deviation, SD) CAT score decreased from 16.9 (7.7) at baseline to 14.3 (7.3) at week 24 (p<0.01) with a decrease in all individual CAT items (p<0.05). Mean difference in morning and night-time symptoms from baseline to week 24 was −0.60 (SD 2.51) and −0.44 (SD 2.48), respectively (both p<0.001). Mean (SD) mMRC Dyspnoea Scale changed from 1.6 (1.0) at baseline to 1.5 (1.0) at week 24 (p<0.001). Conclusion In this observational study of a Nordic real-life COPD population, treatment with aclidinium was associated with a clinically important improvement in QoL and morning and night-time symptoms, most pronounced in the LAMA naïve group. However, there is still room for improvement in the management of symptomatic COPD patients. PMID:27387608

  2. An online intervention for reducing depressive symptoms: secondary benefits for self-esteem, empowerment and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Dimity; Griffiths, Kathleen; Mackinnon, Andrew; Bennett, Kylie; Christensen, Helen

    2014-04-30

    Internet-based interventions are increasingly recognized as effective for the treatment and prevention of depression; however, there is a paucity of research investigating potential secondary benefits. From a consumer perspective, improvements in indicators of wellbeing such as perceived quality of life may represent the most important outcomes for evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention. This study investigated the 'secondary' benefits for self-esteem, empowerment, quality of life and perceived social support of two 12-week online depression interventions when delivered alone and in combination. Participants comprised 298 adults displaying elevated psychological distress. Participants were randomised to receive: an Internet Support Group (ISG); an automated Internet psycho-educational training program for depression; a combination of these conditions; or a control website. Analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Following the automated training program immediate improvements were shown in participants׳ self-esteem and empowerment relative to control participants. Improvements in perceived quality of life were reported 6-months following the completion of the intervention when combined with an ISG. These findings provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of this online intervention for improving individual wellbeing beyond the primary aim of the treatment. However, further research is required to investigate the mechanisms underlying improvement in these secondary outcomes. PMID:24534125

  3. Therapeutics for multiple sclerosis symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zacharia, Aliza Bitton

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms management in multiple sclerosis is an integral part of its care. Accurate assessment and addressing the different symptoms provides increased quality of life among patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis symptoms may be identified as primary, secondary, or tertiary symptoms. Primary symptoms, such as weakness, sensory loss, and ataxia, are directly related to demyelination and axonal loss. Secondary symptoms, such as urinary tract infections as a result of urinary retention, are a result of the primary symptoms. Tertiary symptoms, such as reactive depression or social isolation, are a result of the social and psychological consequences of the disease. Common multiple sclerosis symptoms include fatigue and weakness; decreased balance, spasticity and gait problems; depression and cognitive issues; bladder, bowel, and sexual deficits; visual and sensory loss; and neuropathic pain. Less-common symptoms include dysarthria and dysphagia, vertigo, and tremors. Rare symptoms in multiple sclerosis include seizures, hearing loss, and paralysis. Symptom management includes nonpharmacological methods, such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support, and pharmacological methods, ie, medications and surgical procedures. The keys to symptom management are awareness, knowledge, and coordination of care. Symptoms have to be recognized and management needs to be individualized. Multiple sclerosis therapeutics include nonpharmacological strategies that consist of lifestyle modifications, rehabilitation, social support, counseling, and pharmacological agents or surgical procedures. The goal is vigilant management to improve quality of life and promote realistic expectations and hope.

  4. Uterine Artery Embolization to Treat Uterine Adenomyosis with or without Uterine Leiomyomata: Results of Symptom Control and Health-Related Quality of Life 40 Months after Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Froeling, V. Scheurig-Muenkler, C. Hamm, B. Kroencke, T. J.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome for uterine adenomyosis with or without uterine leiomyomata 40 months after uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods: Forty women aged 39-56 years (median 46 years) with symptomatic uterine adenomyosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings of uterine adenomyosis with or without combined uterine leiomyomata underwent UAE. Self-perceived changes in clinical symptoms were assessed, and residual symptom severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after UAE were evaluated. Clinical failure was defined as no symptomatic improvement or second invasive therapy after UAE. Results were stratified by the extent of uterine adenomyosis at baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Patients were followed for a median of 40 months (range 5-102 months). UAE led to symptomatic control after UAE in 29 (72.5%) of 40 patients while 11 women underwent hysterectomy (n = 10) or dilatation and curettage (n = 1) for therapy failure. No significant difference between women with pure uterine adenoymosis and women with uterine adenomyosis combined with uterine leiomyomata was observed. Best results were shown for UAE in uterine adenomyosis with uterine leiomyomata predominance as opposed to predominant uterine adenomyosis with minor fibroid disease (clinical failure 0% vs. 31.5%, P = 0.058). Throughout the study group, HRQOL score values increased and symptom severity scores decreased after UAE. Least improvement was noted for women with pure adenomyosis. Conclusions: UAE is clinically effective in the long term in most women with uterine adenomyosis. Symptomatic control and HRQOL were highest in patients with combined disease of uterine adenomyosis but leiomyomata predominance.

  5. The effects of multi-strain probiotic compound on symptoms and quality-of-life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shavakhi, Ahmad; Minakari, Mohammad; Farzamnia, Somaye; Peykar, Mohammad Saleh; Taghipour, Golshan; Tayebi, Azadeh; Hashemi, Huriyeh; Shavakhi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence has shown beneficial effects of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, there is still a lack of data in this regard. We evaluated the efficacy of a multi-strain probiotic compound on IBS symptoms and quality-of-life (QOL). Materials and Methods: Adult IBS patients (n = 132) were randomized to receive a probiotic compound containing seven bacteria species including Lactobacillus strains, Bifidobacterium strains and Streptococcus thermophiles or similar placebo, twice daily after a meal for 14 consecutive days. Improvement of IBS symptoms was assessed in categories of abdominal pain and distension and improvement of bowel habit. Improvement in patients QOL was assessed by the IBS-QOL instrument. Patients were evaluated for symptoms and QOL at baseline and then 1 month after completion of the treatment. Results: After treatment, there was a decrease in abdominal pain and distension severity in both probiotic and the placebo groups (P<0.001), but there was no difference between the two groups in this regard (P>0.05). Improvement in bowel habit was observed in 33.3% of the probiotic and 36.5% of the placebo group (P = 0.910). There was no significant difference between the two groups in QOL after the treatment (P >0.05). Conclusions: We found no beneficial effects over placebo for a 2-week treatment with the above mentioned multi-strain probiotic compound in the treatment of IBS. Further, trials are yet required before a clear conclusion in this regards. PMID:25161987

  6. The KMDS-NATION Study: Korean Movement Disorders Society Multicenter Assessment of Non-Motor Symptoms and Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease NATION Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Do-Young; Koh, Seong-Beom; Lee, Jae Hyeok; Park, Hee Kyung; Kim, Han-Joon; Shin, Hae-Won; Youn, Jinyoung; Park, Kun Woo; Choi, Sun-Ah; Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Seong-Min; Park, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Beom S.; Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Sun Ju; Lee, Chong Sik; Park, Jeong-Ho; Ahn, Tae-Beom; Kim, Won Chan; Kim, Hyun Sook; Cheon, Sang Myung; Kim, Hee-Tae; Lee, Jee-Young; Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Kwang Soo; Kim, Joong-Seok; Kim, Min-Jeong; Baik, Jong Sam; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hee Jin; Park, Mee Young; Kang, Ji Hoon; Song, Sook Kun; Kim, Yong Duk; Yun, Ji Young; Lee, Ho-Won; Oh, Hyung Geun; Cho, Jinwhan; Song, In-Uk; Sohn, Young H.; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have multisystem origins with heterogeneous manifestations that develop throughout the course of PD. NMS are increasingly recognized as having a significant impact on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL). We aimed to determine the NMS presentation according to PD status, and the associations of NMS with other clinical variables and the HrQoL of Korean PD patients. Methods We surveyed patients in 37 movement-disorders clinics throughout Korea. In total, 323 PD patients were recruited for assessment of disease severity and duration, NMS, HrQoL, and other clinical variables including demographics, cognition, sleep scale, fatigability, and symptoms. Results In total, 98.1% of enrolled PD subjects suffered from various kinds of NMS. The prevalence of NMS and scores in each NMS domain were significantly higher in the PD group, and the NMS worsened as the disease progressed. Among clinical variables, disease duration and depressive mood showed significant correlations with all NMS domains (p<0.001). NMS status impacted HrQoL in PD (rS=0.329, p<0.01), and the association patterns differed with the disease stage. Conclusions The results of our survey suggest that NMS in PD are not simply isolated symptoms of degenerative disease, but rather exert significant influences throughout the disease course. A novel clinical approach focused on NMS to develop tailored management strategies is warranted to improve the HrQoL in PD patients.

  7. The Structure of the Accretion Disk in the Lensed Quasar SBS 0909+532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, E.; Muñoz, J. A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Guerras, E.; Acosta-Pulido, J.; Falco, E.; Motta, V.; Arribas, S.; Manchado, A.; Mosquera, A.

    2011-03-01

    We derive the size and temperature profile of the accretion disk of the lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 by measuring the wavelength dependence (chromaticity) of the microlensing magnification produced by the stars in the lens galaxy. After correcting for extinction using the flux ratios of 14 emission lines, we observe a marked change in the B-A flux ratio with wavelength, varying from -0.67 ± 0.05 mag at (rest frame) ~1460 Å to -0.24 ± 0.07 mag at ~6560 Å. For λ >~ 7000 Å both effects, extinction and microlensing, look minimal. Simulations indicate that image B rather than A is strongly microlensed. If we model the change in disk size from 1460 Å to 6560 Å using a Gaussian source (I vprop exp(-R 2/2r 2 s )) with a disk size scaling with wavelength as rs vprop λ p , we find rs = 7+5 -3 light-days at 1460 Å and p = 0.9+0.6 -0.3 for uniform priors on rs and p, and rs = 4+3 -3 light-days and p = 1.0+0.6 -0.4 for a logarithmic prior on rs . The disk temperature profile T vprop R -1/p is consistent with thin disk theory (T vprop R -3/4), given the uncertainties. The estimates of rs are also in agreement with the size inferred from thin disk theory using the estimated black hole mass (M BH ~= 2 × 109 M sun) but not with the smaller size estimated from thin disk theory and the optical flux. We also use the flux ratios of the unmicrolensed emission lines to determine the extinction curve of the dust in the lens galaxy, finding that it is similar to that of the LMC2 Supershell.

  8. Effects of illness representation, perceived quality of information provided by the health-care professional, and perceived social support on depressive symptoms of the caregivers of children with leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bozo, Ozlem; Anahar, Selin; Ateş, Gizem; Etel, Evren

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of illness representation, perceived quality of information provided by the health-care professional, and perceived social support on the depressive symptoms of the caregivers of children with leukemia. The sample was composed of 71 caregivers of children with leukemia living in Turkey. The obtained data were analyzed by path analysis. The results show that caregivers of children with leukemia experience higher levels of depressive symptoms when they have negative illness representation and lower levels of depressive symptoms when they perceive higher levels of social support. Moreover, they perceive higher social support when they perceive high quality of information provided by health-care professionals. It can be suggested that intervention programs which aim to increase caregivers' social support and change their illness representation in a positive way would be helpful for the caregivers showing depressive symptoms. PMID:19898925

  9. Influence of health-related quality of life on time from symptom onset to hospital arrival and the risk of readmission in patients with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Catrin; Larsson, Margareta; Herlitz, Johan; Karlsson, Jan-Erik; Wernroth, Lisa; Lindahl, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite increased awareness of the importance of early treatment in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the delay from symptom onset to hospital arrival is still too long and rehospitalisations are frequent. Little is known about how health-related quality of life (HRQL) affects delay time and the frequency of readmissions. Method We used quality registers to investigate whether patients’ HRQL has any impact on delay time with a new AMI, and on the rate of readmissions during the first year. Patients with AMI <75 years, with HRQL assessed with EQ-5D at 1-year follow-up, and who thereafter had a new AMI registered, were evaluated for the correlation between HRQL and delay time (n=454). The association between HRQL and readmissions was evaluated among those who had an additional AMI and a new 1-year follow-up registration (n=216). Results Patients who reported poor total health status (EQ-VAS ≤50), compared to those who reported EQ-VAS 81–100, had tripled risk to delay ≥2 h from symptom onset to hospital arrival (adjusted OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.43 to 6.34). Patients scoring EQ-VAS ≤50 had also a higher risk of readmissions in the univariate analysis (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.53). However, the correlation did not remain significant after adjustment (OR 1.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 4.38). EQ-index was not independently associated with delay time or readmissions. Conclusions Aspects of total health status post-AMI were independently associated with delay time to hospital arrival in case of a new AMI. However, the influence of total health status on the risk of readmissions was less clear. PMID:25525504

  10. Associations between indoor CO2 concentrations and sick building syndrome symptoms in U.S. office buildings: an analysis of the 1994-1996 BASE study data.

    PubMed

    Apte, M G; Fisk, W J; Daisey, J M

    2000-12-01

    Higher indoor concentrations of air pollutants due, in part, to lower ventilation rates are a potential cause of sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms in office workers. The indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is an approximate surrogate for indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated pollutants and for ventilation rate per occupant. Using multivariate logistic regression (MLR) analyses, we evaluated the relationship between indoor CO2 concentrations and SBS symptoms in occupants from a probability sample of 41 U.S. office buildings. Two CO2 metrics were constructed: average workday indoor minus average outdoor CO2 (dCO2, range 6-418 ppm), and maximum indoor 1-h moving average CO2 minus outdoor CO2 concentrations (dCO2MAX). MLR analyses quantified dCO2/SBS symptom associations, adjusting for personal and environmental factors. A dose-response relationship (p < 0.05) with odds ratios per 100 ppm dCO2 ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 for sore throat, nose/sinus, tight chest, and wheezing was observed. The dCO2MAX/SBS regression results were similar. PMID:11089329

  11. Electronic Symptom Reporting Between Patient and Provider for Improved Health Care Service Quality: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Part 1: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander; Schuster, Tibor; Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last two decades, the number of studies on electronic symptom reporting has increased greatly. However, the field is very heterogeneous: the choices of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets seem to involve a broad range of foci. To move the field forward, it is necessary to build on work that has been done and direct further research to the areas holding most promise. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on electronic communication between patient and provider to improve health care service quality, presented in two parts. Part 2 investigates the methodological quality and effects of the RCTs, and demonstrates some promising benefits of electronic symptom reporting. Objective To give a comprehensive overview of the most mature part of this emerging field regarding (1) patient groups, (2) health service innovations, and (3) research targets relevant to electronic symptom reporting. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles published from 1990 to November 2011. Inclusion criteria were RCTs of interventions where patients or parents reported health information electronically to the health care system for health care purposes and were given feedback. Results Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. The included articles were published from 2002, with 24 published during the last 5 years. The following five patient groups were represented: respiratory and lung diseases (12 studies), cancer (6), psychiatry (6), cardiovascular (3), and diabetes (1). In addition to these, 1 study had a mix of three groups. All included studies, except 1, focused on long-term conditions. We identified four categories of health service innovations: consultation support (7 studies), monitoring with clinician support (12), self

  12. Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia--Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Larsson, Lennart

    2016-03-01

    This paper studied associations between ocular symptoms, rhinitis, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue in students by ethnicity and in relation to exposure to chemical microbial markers and fungal DNA in vacuumed dust in schools in Malaysia. A total of 462 students from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated (96% response rate). Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of five types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18 3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol and five sequences of fungal DNA. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 11.9% reported weekly ocular symptoms, 18.8% rhinitis, 15.6% throat and 11.1% dermal symptoms, 20.6% headache and 22.1% tiredness. Totally 21.1% reported pollen or furry pet allergy (atopy) and 22.0% parental asthma or allergy. Chinese students had less headache than Malay and Indian had less rhinitis and less tiredness than Malay. Parental asthma/allergy was a risk factor for ocular (odds ratio=3.79) and rhinitis symptoms (OR=3.48). Atopy was a risk factor for throat symptoms (OR=2.66), headache (OR=2.13) and tiredness (OR=2.02). There were positive associations between amount of fine dust in the dust samples and ocular symptoms (p<0.001) and rhinitis (p=0.006). There were positive associations between C14 3-OH and rhinitis (p<0.001) and between C18 3-OH and dermal symptoms (p=0.007). There were negative (protective) associations between levels of total endotoxin (LPS) (p=0.004) and levels of ergosterol (p=0.03) and rhinitis and between C12 3-OH and throat symptoms (p=0.004). In conclusion, the amount of fine dust in the classroom was associated with rhinitis and other SBS symptoms and improved cleaning of the schools is important. Endotoxin in the school dust seems to be mainly protective for rhinitis and throat symptoms but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. The ethnic differences in symptoms among the students

  13. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health.

    PubMed

    Thormar, Sigridur B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and subjective health complaints in volunteers working in an earthquake setting. At six and eighteen months post disaster, a sample of 506 Indonesian Red Cross volunteers were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory. Factors analyzed in relation to the outcomes included: peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness by the disaster, sleep quality and loss of resources as a consequence of the disaster. At 18 months post-disaster the findings showed high levels of PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints. Quality of sleep was related to both outcomes but resource loss only to PTSD symptoms. Neither peri-traumatic distress nor level of affectedness by the disaster (external versus directly affected volunteers), were predictive of symptoms. This study indicates that characteristics of disaster work e.g. low quality of sleep, may be an important contributor to PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in volunteers.

  14. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health.

    PubMed

    Thormar, Sigridur B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and subjective health complaints in volunteers working in an earthquake setting. At six and eighteen months post disaster, a sample of 506 Indonesian Red Cross volunteers were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory. Factors analyzed in relation to the outcomes included: peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness by the disaster, sleep quality and loss of resources as a consequence of the disaster. At 18 months post-disaster the findings showed high levels of PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints. Quality of sleep was related to both outcomes but resource loss only to PTSD symptoms. Neither peri-traumatic distress nor level of affectedness by the disaster (external versus directly affected volunteers), were predictive of symptoms. This study indicates that characteristics of disaster work e.g. low quality of sleep, may be an important contributor to PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in volunteers. PMID:25445088

  15. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  16. Assessing Symptom Burden in Bladder Cancer: An Overview of Bladder Cancer Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Danna, Bernard J.; Metcalfe, Michael J.; Wood, Erika L.; Shah, Jay B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A key component to monitoring and investigating patient QOL is through patient reported health related quality of life (HRQOL) outcome measures. Many instruments have been used to assess HRQOL in bladder cancer and each instrument varies in its development, validation, the context of its usage in the literature and its applicability to certain disease states. Objective: In this review, we sought to summarize how clinicians and researchers should most appropriately utilize the available HRQOL instruments for bladder cancer. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of each instrument used in bladder cancer, paying particular attention to the outcomes assessed. We used these outcomes to group the available instruments into categories best reflecting their optimal usage by stage of disease. Results: We found 5 instruments specific to bladder cancer, of which 3 are validated. Only one of the instruments (the EORTC-QLQ-NMIBC24) was involved in a randomized, prospective validation study. The most heavily used instruments are the EORTC-QLQ-BLM30 for muscle-invasive disease and the FACT-Bl which is used across all disease states. Of the 5 available instruments, 4 are automatically administered with general instruments, while the BCI lacks modularity, and requires co-administration with a generalized instrument. Conclusion: There are multiple strong instruments for use in gauging HRQOL in bladder cancer patients. We have divided these instruments into three categories which optimize their usage: instruments for use following NMIBC treatments (EORTC-QLQ-NMIBC24), instruments for use following radical cystectomy (FACT-Bl-Cys and EORTC-QLQ-BLM30) and more inclusive instruments not limited by treatment modality (BCI and FACT-Bl). PMID:27500200

  17. SBS-managed high-peak-power nanosecond-pulse fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier.

    PubMed

    Di Teodoro, F; Morais, J; McComb, T S; Hemmat, M K; Cheung, E C; Weber, M; Moyer, R

    2013-07-01

    We report on a compactly packaged Yb-doped fiber-based laser architecture featuring an actively pulse controlled, single-longitudinal-mode seeder and multistage amplifier chain terminated by a "folded" rod-type photonic crystal fiber. In this laser source, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is the power-limiting factor, but is managed by phase modulating the seeder with a pseudo-random noise signal. Pulse energy/peak power of ~2 mJ/1.5 MW at 10 kHz repetition rate are thus obtained within ~1.55 ns pulses of peak spectral brightness >20 kW cm(-2) sr(-1) Hz(-1). PMID:23811864

  18. SBS-managed high-peak-power nanosecond-pulse fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier.

    PubMed

    Di Teodoro, F; Morais, J; McComb, T S; Hemmat, M K; Cheung, E C; Weber, M; Moyer, R

    2013-07-01

    We report on a compactly packaged Yb-doped fiber-based laser architecture featuring an actively pulse controlled, single-longitudinal-mode seeder and multistage amplifier chain terminated by a "folded" rod-type photonic crystal fiber. In this laser source, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is the power-limiting factor, but is managed by phase modulating the seeder with a pseudo-random noise signal. Pulse energy/peak power of ~2 mJ/1.5 MW at 10 kHz repetition rate are thus obtained within ~1.55 ns pulses of peak spectral brightness >20 kW cm(-2) sr(-1) Hz(-1).

  19. Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms Predict Sustained Quality of Life Deficits in HIV-Positive Ugandan Adults Despite Antiretroviral Therapy: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Woolfork, Makhabele N; Guwatudde, David; Bagenda, Danstan; Manabe, Yukari C; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-03-01

    The impact of psychosocial status at onset of antiretroviral therapy on changes in quality of life (QOL) and subjectively rated health (SRH) among adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource-limited settings is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluate the association between stigma, anxiety, depression, and social support and change in QOL and SRH in HIV-infected Ugandan adults during an 18-month period. Psychosocial indicators were assessed at enrollment using structured questionnaires. QOL and SRH measures were assessed at months 0, 6, 12, and 18 using the Medical Outcomes Survey-HIV. Linear mixed models determined risk estimated differences in QOL and SRH in relation to quartiles of each psychosocial status indicator. Repeated measures generalized estimating equations modeling was implemented to assess differences in likelihood of improved versus nonimproved SRH during follow-up.QOL scores and SRH improved significantly for all participants over 18 months (P < 0.0001). The gain in QOL increased dose-dependently as baseline depressive symptoms (time*depression P < 0.001) and anxiety levels (time*anxiety P < 0.001) declined. Lower social support was associated with worse QOL at baseline (P = 0.0005) but QOL improvement during follow-up was not dependent on baseline level of social support (time*social support P = 0.8943) or number of stigmatizing experiences (time*stigma P = 0.8662). Psychosocial determinants did not predict changes in SRH in this study. High levels of depression and anxiety symptoms at HAART initiation predicts lower gains in QOL for HIV-positive patients for as long as 18 months. Long-term QOL improvements in HIV-infected adults may be enhanced by implementation of psychosocial interventions to reduce depression and anxiety in HIV-infected adults.

  20. Parkinson Symptoms and Health Related Quality of Life as Predictors of Costs: A Longitudinal Observational Study with Linear Mixed Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Martín, Pablo; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Paz, Silvia; Forjaz, Maria João; Frades-Payo, Belén; Cubo, Esther; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Lizán, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the magnitude in which Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms and health- related quality of life (HRQoL) determined PD costs over a 4-year period. Materials and Methods Data collected during 3-month, each year, for 4 years, from the ELEP study, included sociodemographic, clinical and use of resources information. Costs were calculated yearly, as mean 3-month costs/patient and updated to Spanish €, 2012. Mixed linear models were performed to analyze total, direct and indirect costs based on symptoms and HRQoL. Results One-hundred and seventy four patients were included. Mean (SD) age: 63 (11) years, mean (SD) disease duration: 8 (6) years. Ninety-three percent were HY I, II or III (mild or moderate disease). Forty-nine percent remained in the same stage during the study period. Clinical evaluation and HRQoL scales showed relatively slight changes over time, demonstrating a stable group overall. Mean (SD) PD total costs augmented 92.5%, from €2,082.17 (€2,889.86) in year 1 to €4,008.6 (€7,757.35) in year 4. Total, direct and indirect cost incremented 45.96%, 35.63%, and 69.69% for mild disease, respectively, whereas increased 166.52% for total, 55.68% for direct and 347.85% for indirect cost in patients with moderate PD. For severe patients, cost remained almost the same throughout the study. For each additional point in the SCOPA-Motor scale total costs increased €75.72 (p = 0.0174); for each additional point on SCOPA-Motor and the SCOPA-COG, direct costs incremented €49.21 (p = 0.0094) and €44.81 (p = 0.0404), respectively; and for each extra point on the pain scale, indirect costs increased €16.31 (p = 0.0228). Conclusions PD is an expensive disease in Spain. Disease progression and severity as well as motor and cognitive dysfunctions are major drivers of costs increments. Therapeutic measures aimed at controlling progression and symptoms could help contain disease expenses. PMID:26698860

  1. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  2. HIV-related stigma and physical symptoms have a persistent influence on health-related quality of life in Australians with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health-related quality of life (HRQL) of people living with HIV infection is an important consideration in HIV management. The PROQOL-HIV psychometric instrument was recently developed internationally as a contemporary, discriminating HIV-HRQL measure incorporating influential emotional dimensions such as stigma. Here we present the first within-country results of PROQOL-HIV using qualitative and quantitative data collected from a West Australian cohort who participated in the development and validation of PROQOL-HIV, and provide a comprehensive picture of HRQL in our setting. Methods We carried out a secondary analysis of data from Australian patients who participated in the international study: 15 in-depth interviews were conducted and 102 HRQL surveys using the PROQOL-HIV instrument and a symptom questionnaire were administered. We employed qualitative methods to extract description from the interview data and linear regression for exploration of the composite and sub-scale scores derived from the survey. Results Interviews revealed the long-standing difficulties of living with HIV, particularly in the domains of intimate relationships, perceived stigma, and chronic ill health. The novel PROQOL-HIV instrument discriminated impact of treatment via symptomatology, pill burden and treatment duration. Patients demonstrated lower HRQL if they were: newly diagnosed (p=0.001); naive to anti-retroviral treatment (p=0.009); reporting depression, unemployment or a high frequency of adverse symptoms, (all p<0.001). Total HRQL was notably reduced by perceived stigma with a third of surveyed patients reporting persistent fears of both disclosing their HIV status and infecting others. Conclusions The analysis showed that psychological distress was a major influence on HRQL in our cohort. This was compounded in people with poor physical health which in turn was associated with unemployment and depression. People with HIV infection are living longer and residual

  3. All-fiberized SBS-based high repetition rate sub-nanosecond Yb fiber laser for supercontinuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Dacheng; Su, Jianjia; Cui, Wei; Yan, Yaxi; Jiang, Peipei

    2014-12-01

    We report an all-fiberized SBS-based high repetition rate sub-nanosecond Yb fiber laser for supercontinuum generation. The high repetition rate ns laser pulses were produced from a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-constructed fiber laser cavity consisting of a piece of double cladding Yb fiber as the gain medium and a short piece of Bi/Cr-doped fiber as a saturable absorber (SA). By optimizing the fiber length of the Bi/Cr-doped fiber and the reflectivity of the FBG, the Q-switching state of the fiber laser can be adjusted so that the energy storing condition within the fiber cavity can assure the start of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and as a result, compress the laser pulse duration. The fiber laser had an average laser power output of 1.2 W at 1064 nm with pulse repetition rate of about 80 kHz, almost four times the reported results. The pulse duration was about 1 ns with peak power of about 15 kW. After one stage of amplification, the laser power was raised to about 3 W and was used to pump a 20 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Supercontiuum (SC) laser output was obtained with average power up to 1.24 W and spectrum spanning from 550 to 2200 nm.

  4. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple

  5. Examination of a multi-factorial model of body-related experiences during pregnancy: the relationships among physical symptoms, sleep quality, depression, self-esteem, and negative body attitudes.

    PubMed

    Kamysheva, Ekaterina; Skouteris, Helen; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate relationships among women's body attitudes, physical symptoms, self-esteem, depression, and sleep quality during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N=215) at 15-25 weeks gestation completed a questionnaire including four body image subscales assessing self-reported feeling fat, attractiveness, strength/fitness, and salience of weight and shape. Women reported on 29 pregnancy-related physical complaints, and completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In regressions, controlling for retrospective reports of body image, more frequent and intense physical symptoms were related to viewing the self as less strong/fit, and to poorer sleep quality and more depressive symptoms. In a multi-factorial model extending previous research, paths were found from sleep quality to depressive symptoms to self-esteem; self-esteem was found to be a mediator associated with lower scores on feeling fat and salience of weight and shape, and on higher perceived attractiveness. PMID:18463009

  6. Recycling Matter in the Universe. X-Ray observations of SBS1150+599A (PN 6135.9+55.9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Tomsick, John; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Yungelson, Lev; Stasinska, Grazyna; Pena, Miriam; Richer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We present X-ray observations of the close binary nucleus of the planetary nebula SBS 1150+599A obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite. Only one component of the binary can be observed in optical-UV. New X-ray observations show that the previously invisible component is a very hot compact star. This finding allows us to deduce rough values for the basic parameters of the binary. With a high probability the total mass of the system exceeds Chandrasekhar limit and makes the SBS1150+599A one of the best candidate for a supernova type Ia progenitor.

  7. How robust are the Dermatology Life Quality Index and other self-reported subjective symptom scores when exposed to a range of experimental biases?

    PubMed

    Murray, Caroline S; Rees, Jonathan L

    2010-01-01

    Subjective-symptom tools used in dermatology have rarely been experimentally tested for cognitive "focus" and "framing" biases. We investigated the effects of affective biases on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Global Health Question and visual analogue scores. Two experiments tested the response to affect-eliciting words and film. We demonstrated no significant difference in median DLQI scores for subjects exposed to negative vs. neutral words (medians 8.5 and 9.5, respectively), or negative vs. positive words (medians 6.0 and 9.0, respectively, overall p = 0.41.) Median DLQI scores were similar for groups who had (8.0), or had not (9.0), seen a video clip about a severe skin condition (p = 0.34). Finally, we compared an Amended DLQI (ADLQI), the DLQI re-worded into neutral "frames", with the standard DLQI. ADLQI median scores were higher (ADLQI 8.25, DLQI 6.75), but not significantly so (p = 0.47). We have been unable to demonstrate any effects of the biases studied, but the statistical power of our study is modest.

  8. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Aarsland, D.; Marsh, L.; Schrag, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest stages, and have important consequences for quality of life and daily functioning, are associated with increased carer burden and increased risk for nursing home admission. In addition to cognitive impairment, a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported. In this paper, the epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and management of some of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD are discussed: depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue and psychotic symptoms. Although much is known regarding the prevalence and course of these symptoms, the empirical evidence for how to manage these symptoms is limited at best. There is thus an urgent need for systematic studies for the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of these symptoms. PMID:19768724

  9. Menopause. How Exercise Mitigates Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargarten, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    During menopause and the climacteric, women experience many changes that can affect nearly every organ system and cause psychological symptoms. This article reviews the specific changes and explains how exercise can address each symptom; outlines a practical approach physicians can use to help menopausal patients improve their quality of life. (SM)

  10. Fibromyalgia Symptoms and Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Wasan, Ajay D.; Szigethy, Eva; Lotrich, Francis; DiMartini, Andrea F.

    2015-01-01

    Background An association between fibromyalgia and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been previously described. However, the relationship between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibromyalgia symptoms has not been assessed, though they share several risk factors. Aim We aimed to assess the factors associated with fibromyalgia symptoms across etiologies of liver disease. Methods Patients with cirrhosis due to HCV, NASH, or alcohol were recruited from an outpatient hepatology clinic and administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. Serum inflammatory markers were measured with standard luminex assays. Results Of 193 participants, 53 (27 %) met criteria for fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with etiology of liver disease (HCV: 35 %, NASH: 30 %, alcohol-related liver disease: 12 %, p < 0.01). Using logistic regression, mood symptoms (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.22), sleep disturbance (OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.16, 1.52), and etiology of liver disease (NASH vs. HCV not different, alcohol vs. HCV OR 0.19, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.63) were associated with fibromyalgia symptoms. If abdominal pain was included in the model, etiology became nonsignificant, indicating that it may be central sensitization due to abdominal pain in patients with chronic liver disease that explains fibromyalgia symptoms rather than the etiology of liver disease or inflammation. Conclusions Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with HCV and NASH cirrhosis and with psychiatric symptoms. Future work should focus on the underlying pathophysiology and management of widespread pain in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:25433921

  11. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Español: SÃntomas Prevent Dehydration Drink plenty of liquids to replace fluids that ...

  12. Rotavirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Refractory to Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Effects of Switching to 20 mg Esomeprazole on Reflux Symptoms and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Fuminao; Hashiguchi, Keiichi; Onitsuka, Yasunori; Tanigawa, Ken; Minami, Hitomi; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Shiozawa, Ken; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Taura, Naota; Ohnita, Ken; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Isomoto, Hajime; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2015-12-31

    BACKGROUND Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may deteriorate patient quality of life (QOL) despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Nineteen Japanese institutions were surveyed to determine the clinical characteristics and QOL of patients with refractory GERD. Those patients treated with a conventional PPI were switched to 20 mg esomeprazole for 4 weeks. Symptoms and QOL were assessed using Global Overall Symptom and Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaires at baseline and at 2 and/or 4 weeks of esomeprazole treatment. RESULTS Of 120 patients who completed the survey, 58 (48.3%) had refractory GERD. Of these, 69.0% were aged ≥ 65 years, 79.3% were prescribed a PPI at a standard or high dose, and 22.4% were prescribed a PPI together with another drug. After switching to esomeprazole, patients reported significant improvements in heartburn, acid regurgitation, and excessive belching at 2 weeks using a symptom diary, as well as the total score, reflux, abdominal pain, and indigestion, which were assessed using the GSRS at 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS About half of Japanese patients with GERD may be refractory to conventional PPIs. Their reflux-related symptoms are often severe and may impair QOL. Switching to esomeprazole could be used to improve their symptoms and QOL.

  14. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Refractory to Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Effects of Switching to 20 mg Esomeprazole on Reflux Symptoms and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Fuminao; Hashiguchi, Keiichi; Onitsuka, Yasunori; Tanigawa, Ken; Minami, Hitomi; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Shiozawa, Ken; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Taura, Naota; Ohnita, Ken; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Isomoto, Hajime; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may deteriorate patient quality of life (QOL) despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Material/Methods Nineteen Japanese institutions were surveyed to determine the clinical characteristics and QOL of patients with refractory GERD. Those patients treated with a conventional PPI were switched to 20 mg esomeprazole for 4 weeks. Symptoms and QOL were assessed using Global Overall Symptom and Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaires at baseline and at 2 and/or 4 weeks of esomeprazole treatment. Results Of 120 patients who completed the survey, 58 (48.3%) had refractory GERD. Of these, 69.0% were aged ≥65 years, 79.3% were prescribed a PPI at a standard or high dose, and 22.4% were prescribed a PPI together with another drug. After switching to esomeprazole, patients reported significant improvements in heartburn, acid regurgitation, and excessive belching at 2 weeks using a symptom diary, as well as the total score, reflux, abdominal pain, and indigestion, which were assessed using the GSRS at 4 weeks. Conclusions About half of Japanese patients with GERD may be refractory to conventional PPIs. Their reflux-related symptoms are often severe and may impair QOL. Switching to esomeprazole could be used to improve their symptoms and QOL. PMID:26719012

  15. PATIENT-REPORTED OUTCOMES OF QUALITY OF LIFE, FUNCTIONING, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOM SEVERITY IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER COMORBID WITH PANIC DISORDER BEFORE AND AFTER SSRI TREATMENT IN THE STAR*D TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    IsHak, Waguih William; Mirocha, James; Christensen, Scott; Wu, Fan; Kwock, Richard; Behjat, Joseph; Pi, Sarah; Akopyan, A.; Peselow, Eric D.; Cohen, Robert M.; Elashoff, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Panic disorder (PD) is highly comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) with potential impact on patient-reported outcomes of quality of life (QOL), functioning, and depressive symptom severity Methods Using data from the sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D) trial, we compared entry and post-SSRI-treatment QOL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity scores in MDD patients with comorbid PD (MDD+PD) to MDD patients without PD (MDDnoPD). We also compared pre- and posttreatment proportions of patients with severe impairments in quality of life and functioning. Results MDD+PD patients experienced significantly lower QOL and functioning and more severe depressive symptoms than MDDnoPD patients at entry. Following treatment with citalopram, both groups showed significant improvements, however, nearly 30–60% of patients still suffered from severe quality of life and functioning impairments. MDD+PD patients exited with lower QOL and functioning than MDDnoPD patients, a difference that became statistically insignificant after adjusting for baseline measures of depressive symptom severity, functioning, and QOL, comorbid anxiety disorders (PTSD, GAD, social, and specific phobias), age, and college education. Conclusions Functional outcomes using QOL and functioning measures should be utilized in treating and researching MDD so that shortfalls in traditional treatment can be identified and additional interventions can be designed to address severe baseline QOL and functioning deficits in MDD comorbid with PD. PMID:23861180

  16. A Single, One-Off Measure of Depression and Anxiety Predicts Future Symptoms, Higher Healthcare Costs, and Lower Quality of Life in Coronary Heart Disease Patients: Analysis from a Multi-Wave, Primary Care Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Jorge E.; Khondoker, Mizanur; Achilla, Evanthia; Tylee, Andre; Hotopf, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a one-off, baseline measure of depression and anxiety in a primary care, coronary heart disease (CHD) population predicts ongoing symptoms, costs, and quality of life across a 3-year follow-up. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting 16 General Practice surgeries across South-East London Participants 803 adults (70% male, mean age 71 years) contributing up to 7 follow-up points. Main outcome measures Ongoing reporting of symptoms, health care costs, and quality of life. Results At baseline, 27% of the sample screened positive for symptoms of depression and anxiety, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The probability of scoring above the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 71.5% (p<0.001) for those screening positive at baseline, and for those screening negative, the probability of scoring below the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 97.6% (p<0.001). Total health care costs were 39% higher during follow-up for those screening positive (p<0.05). Quality of life as measured by the SF-12 was lower on the mental component during follow-up for those screening positive (-0.75, CI -1.53 to 0.03, p = 0.059), and significantly lower on the physical component (-4.99, CI -6.23 to -.376, p<0.001). Conclusions A one-off measure for depression and anxiety symptoms in CHD predicts future symptoms, costs, and quality of life over the subsequent three-years. These findings suggest symptoms of depression and anxiety in CHD persist throughout long periods and are detrimental to a patient’s quality of life, whilst incurring higher health care costs for primary and secondary care services. Screening for these symptoms at the primary care level is important to identify and manage patients at risk of the negative effects of this comorbidity. Implementation of screening, and possible collaborative care strategies and interventions that help mitigate this risk should be the ongoing focus of researchers and policy

  17. The Effect of Recreational Activities on the Elimination of State-Trait Anxiety of the Students Who Will Take the SBS Placement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtürk, Atilay; Karagün, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether recreational activities have an effect on the elimination of state-trait anxiety of the students who will take the "SBS Placement Test" which is an exam for transition from secondary school to high school. For this purpose, as well as an information survey which determined the…

  18. An Air-Stable Na3 SbS4 Superionic Conductor Prepared by a Rapid and Economic Synthetic Procedure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Yan; Hood, Zachary D; Sahu, Gayatri; Pandian, Amaresh Samuthira; Keum, Jong Kahk; An, Ke; Liang, Chengdu

    2016-07-18

    All-solid-state sodium batteries, using solid electrolyte and abundant sodium resources, show great promise for safe, low-cost, and large-scale energy storage applications. The exploration of novel solid electrolytes is critical for the room temperature operation of all-solid-state Na batteries. An ideal solid electrolyte must have high ionic conductivity, hold outstanding chemical and electrochemical stability, and employ low-cost synthetic methods. Achieving the combination of these properties is a grand challenge for the synthesis of sulfide-based solid electrolytes. Design of the solid electrolyte Na3 SbS4 is described, realizing excellent air stability and an economic synthesis based on hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) theory. This new solid electrolyte also exhibits a remarkably high ionic conductivity of 1 mS cm(-1) at 25 °C and ideal compatibility with a metallic sodium anode. PMID:27246874

  19. Patients with unexplained physical symptoms have poorer quality of life and higher costs than other patient groups: a cross-sectional study on burden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine whether healthcare resources are allocated fairly, it is helpful to have information on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS) and on the costs associated with them, and on how these relate to corresponding data in other patient groups. As studies to date have been limited to specific patient populations with UPS, the objective of this study was to assess QoL and costs in a general sample of patients with UPS using generic measures. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 162 patients with UPS reported on their QoL, use of healthcare resources and lost productivity in paid and unpaid work. To assess QoL, the generic SF-36 questionnaire was used, from which multidimensional quality-of-life scores and a one-dimensional score (utility) using the SF-6D scorings algorithm were derived. To assess costs, the TiC-P questionnaire was used. Results Patients with UPS reported a poor QoL. Their QoL was mostly decreased by limitations in functioning due to physical health, and the least by limitations in functioning due to emotional problems. The median of utilities was 0.57, and the mean was 0.58 (SD = .09). The cost for the use of healthcare services was estimated to be €3,123 (SD = €2,952) per patient per year. This cost was enlarged by work-related costs: absence from work (absenteeism), lower on-the-job productivity (presenteeism), and paid substitution of domestic tasks. The resulting mean total cost was estimated to be €6,815 per patient per year. Conclusions These findings suggest that patients with UPS have a high burden of disease and use a considerable amount of healthcare resources. In comparison with other patient groups, the QoL values of patients with UPS were among the poorest and their costs were among the highest of all patient groups. The burden for both patients and society helps to justify the allocation of sufficient resources to effective treatment for patients with UPS. Trial

  20. Prescreening bacterial colonies for bioactive molecules with Janus plates, a SBS standard double-faced microbial culturing system.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Pascual, Javier; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Martín, Jesús; Kath, Gary S; Sigmund, Janet M; Masurekar, Prakash; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Bills, Gerald F

    2012-08-01

    Despite the availability of many culture-based antibiotic screening methods, the lack of sensitive automated methods to identify functional molecules directly from microbial cells still limits the search for new biologically active compounds. The effectiveness of antibiotic detection is influenced by the solubility of the assayed compounds, indicator strain sensitivity, culture media and assay configuration. We describe a qualitative high throughput screening system for detecting cell-perturbing molecules from bacterial colonies employing two opposed agar layers sequentially formed in prototype Society for Biomolecular Screening (SBS) plates, named Janus plates. Direct assay of microbial colonies against target organisms in opposed agar layers overcomes some of the limitations of agar overlay methods. The system enables the rapid detection of extracellular cell-perturbing molecules, e.g., antibiotics, excreted directly from environmental isolates. The source bacterial colonies remain separate from the target organism. The growth layer is prepared and grown independently, so environmental strains can be grown for longer intervals, at temperatures and in media that favor their growth and metabolite expression, while the assay layer with pathogens, usually requiring nutrient-rich medium and elevated temperatures, are added later. Colonies to be tested can be precisely arrayed on the first agar surface, thus avoiding dispersion and disturbance of potential antibiotic-producing colonies by overlaying agar with the target strain. The rectangular SBS configuration facilitates factorial replication of dense microbial colony arrays for testing with multiple assays and assay conditions employing robotic colony pickers and pin tools. Opposed agar layers only slightly reduced the effectiveness for detecting growth inhibition from pure antibiotics compared to single-layer agar diffusion assays. The Janus plate enabled an automation-assisted workflow where a lone operator can

  1. Premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in

  2. Management of Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Most menopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms, with bothersome symptoms often lasting longer than one decade. Hormone therapy (HT) represents the most effective treatment for these symptoms, with oral and transdermal estrogen formulations having comparable efficacy. Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative and other recent randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of combination estrogen-progestin and estrogen-alone therapy. Absolute risks observed with HT tended to be small, especially in younger women. Neither regimen affected all-cause mortality rates. Given the lower rates of adverse events on HT among women close to menopause onset and at lower baseline risk of cardiovascular disease, risk stratification and personalized risk assessment appears to represent a sound strategy for optimizing the benefit: risk profile and safety of hormone therapy. Systemic HT should not be arbitrarily stopped at age 65; instead treatment duration should be individualized based on patients’ risk profiles and personal preferences. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause represents a common condition that adversely impacts the quality of life of many menopausal women. Without treatment, symptoms worsen over time. Low-dose vaginal estrogen represents highly effective treatment for this condition. Because custom-compounded hormones have not been tested for efficacy or safety, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HT is preferred. A low dose formulation of paroxetine mesylate currently represents the only nonhormonal medication FDA-approved to treat vasomotor symptoms. Gynecologists and other clinicians who remain abreast of data addressing the benefit: risk profile of hormonal and nonhormonal treatments can help menopausal women make sound choices regarding management of menopausal symptoms. PMID:26348174

  3. A holistic approach for the assessment of the indoor environmental quality, student productivity, and energy consumption in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Dorizas, Paraskevi Vivian; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Santamouris, Mattheos

    2015-05-01

    The perception of the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) through questionnaires in conjunction with in-field measurements related to the indoor air quality (IAQ), the thermal comfort and the lighting environment were studied in nine naturally ventilated schools of Athens, Greece. Cluster analysis was carried out in order to determine the ranges of indoor air pollutants, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and ventilation rates at which the students were satisfied with the indoor environment. It was found that increased levels of particulate matter did not have a negative effect on students' perception while students seemed to link the degradation of IAQ with temperature variations. Statistically significant correlations were further found between measurement results and students' perception of the IEQ. Students' sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of schoolwork were also investigated as a function of the levels of indoor air pollutants and ventilation, and there were found significant positive correlations between particulate matter (PM) and certain health symptoms. Students' learning performance seemed to be affected by the ventilation rates and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentrations while certain health effects positively correlated to the levels of PM and CO₂. The energy consumption of schools was rather low compared to other national findings, and both the electricity and oil consumption for heating positively correlated to the levels of indoor air pollutants.

  4. Simulations of drastically reduced SBS with laser pulses composed of a Spike Train of Uneven Duration and Delay (STUD pulses)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüller, Stefan; Afeyan, Bedros

    2013-11-01

    By comparing the impact of established laser smoothing techniques like Random Phase Plates (RPP) and Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion (SSD) to the concept of "Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay" (STUD pulses) on the amplification of parametric instabilities in laser-produced plasmas, we show with the help of numerical simulations, that STUD pulses can drastically reduce instability growth by orders of magnitude. The simulation results, obtained with the code Harmony in a nonuniformly flowing mm-size plasma for the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) instability, show that the efficiency of the STUD pulse technique is due to the fact that successive re-amplification in space and time of parametrically excited plasma waves inside laser hot spots is minimized. An overall mean fluctuation level of ion acoustic waves at low amplitude is established because of the frequent change of the speckle pattern in successive spikes. This level stays orders of magnitude below the levels of ion acoustic waves excited in hot spots of RPP and SSD laser beams.

  5. An air-stable Na3SbS4 superionic conductor prepared by a rapid and economic synthetic procedure

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Yan; Hood, Zachary D.; Samuthira Pandian, Amaresh; Keum, Jong Kahk; An, Ke; Sahu, Gayatri; Liang, Chengdu

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state sodium batteries, using abundant sodium resources and solid electrolyte, hold much promise for safe, low cost, large-scale energy storage. To realize the practical applications of all solid Na-ion batteries at ambient temperature, the solid electrolytes are required to have high ionic conductivity, chemical stability, and ideally, easy preparation. Ceramic electrolytes show higher ionic conductivity than polymers, but they often require extremely stringent synthesis conditions, either high sintering temperature above 1000 C or long-time, low-energy ball milling. Herein, we report a new synthesis route for Na3SbS4, a novel Na superionic conductor that needs much lower processing temperature below 200 Cmore » and easy operation. This new solid electrolyte exhibits a remarkable ionic conductivity of 1.05 mS cm-1 at 25 °C and is chemically stable under ambient atmosphere. In conclusion, this synthesis process provides unique insight into the current state-of-the-art solid electrolyte preparation and opens new possibilities for the design of similar materials.« less

  6. Longitudinal mode-filling to cancel SBS in fully-fibered MOPAs dedicated to the production of high-energy nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A.; Gokhan, F. S.; Bello, R.; Dupriez, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental study of the technique of Longitudinal Mode Filling (LMF) applied to the reduction of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS), in Ytterbium Doped Fibre Amplifiers (YDFA) at the wavelength of 1064 nm. Pulse durations and Mode Field Diameters (MFD) lie in the ranges of 10 - 100 ns and 10 - 35 μm, respectively. Input pulse-shaping is implemented by means of direct current modulation in multimode Laser-Diode seeds. This evidences a number of interests in the development of robust and low cost Master Oscillator Power Amplifiers (MOPA). Highly energetic, but properly shaped, nanosecond pulses may be produced this way without any need of additional electro-optical means for in-line phase and amplitude modulation. Seeds consist of Distributed Feed- Back (DFB) and Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBG) with different fibre lengths. We demonstrate the benefit of LMF with properly controlled mode spacing, in combination with chirp effects due to fast current transients in the semiconductors, in order to deal with SBS thresholds in the range of a few to some hundred μJ. The variations of the SBS threshold are discussed versus the number of longitudinal modes, the operating conditions of the selected seed and pulse-shaping conditions.

  7. Na3 SbS4 : A Solution Processable Sodium Superionic Conductor for All-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Abhik; Park, Kern Ho; Heo, Jongwook W; Nam, Young Jin; Moon, Chang Ki; Oh, Seung M; Hong, Seung-Tae; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2016-08-01

    All-solid-state sodium-ion batteries that operate at room temperature are attractive candidates for use in large-scale energy storage systems. However, materials innovation in solid electrolytes is imperative to fulfill multiple requirements, including high conductivity, functional synthesis protocols for achieving intimate ionic contact with active materials, and air stability. A new, highly conductive (1.1 mS cm(-1) at 25 °C, Ea =0.20 eV) and dry air stable sodium superionic conductor, tetragonal Na3 SbS4 , is described. Importantly, Na3 SbS4 can be prepared by scalable solution processes using methanol or water, and it exhibits high conductivities of 0.1-0.3 mS cm(-1) . The solution-processed, highly conductive solidified Na3 SbS4 electrolyte coated on an active material (NaCrO2 ) demonstrates dramatically improved electrochemical performance in all-solid-state batteries.

  8. Na3 SbS4 : A Solution Processable Sodium Superionic Conductor for All-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Abhik; Park, Kern Ho; Heo, Jongwook W; Nam, Young Jin; Moon, Chang Ki; Oh, Seung M; Hong, Seung-Tae; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2016-08-01

    All-solid-state sodium-ion batteries that operate at room temperature are attractive candidates for use in large-scale energy storage systems. However, materials innovation in solid electrolytes is imperative to fulfill multiple requirements, including high conductivity, functional synthesis protocols for achieving intimate ionic contact with active materials, and air stability. A new, highly conductive (1.1 mS cm(-1) at 25 °C, Ea =0.20 eV) and dry air stable sodium superionic conductor, tetragonal Na3 SbS4 , is described. Importantly, Na3 SbS4 can be prepared by scalable solution processes using methanol or water, and it exhibits high conductivities of 0.1-0.3 mS cm(-1) . The solution-processed, highly conductive solidified Na3 SbS4 electrolyte coated on an active material (NaCrO2 ) demonstrates dramatically improved electrochemical performance in all-solid-state batteries. PMID:27378653

  9. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions like Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  10. Development and testing of the Dementia Symptom Management at Home (DSM-H) program: An interprofessional home health care intervention to improve the quality of life for persons with dementia and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Brody, Abraham A; Guan, Carrie; Cortes, Tara; Galvin, James E

    2016-01-01

    Home health care agencies are increasingly taking care of sicker, older patients with greater comorbidities. However, they are unequipped to appropriately manage these older adults, particular persons living with dementia (PLWD). We therefore developed the Dementia Symptom Management at Home (DSM-H) Program, a bundled interprofessional intervention, to improve the care confidence of providers, and quality of care delivered to PLWD and their caregivers. We implemented the DSM-H with 83 registered nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Overall, there was significant improvement in pain knowledge (5.9%) and confidence (26.5%), depression knowledge (14.8%) and confidence (36.1%), and neuropsychiatric symptom general knowledge (16.8%), intervention knowledge (20.9%), attitudes (3.4%) and confidence (27.1%) at a statistical significance of (P < .0001). We also found significant differences between disciplines. Overall, this disseminable program proved to be implementable and improve clinician's knowledge and confidence in caring for PLWD, with the potential to improve quality of care and quality of life, and decrease costs. PMID:26922312

  11. Morphological development in solvent-cast polystyrene(PS)-polybutadiene(PB)-polystyrene (SBS) triblock copolymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ginam

    The morphological characteristics of block copolymers have been under intensive research, because of the rich polymer-physics questions they raise and because of the need for better understanding required by adhesive, compatibilizer, and template applications. In this research, the morphological transformations in solvent-cast polystyrene (PS)/polybutadiene (PB)/polystyrene (SBS)(30 wt% PS, Mw = 112,000) triblock copolymer thin films have been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as a function of solvent evaporation rate and post-evaporation annealing. Evaporation at: (i) ˜200 nl/sec produces a microphase-separated microstructure with no long-range order; (ii) ˜5 nl/sec generates hexagonally packed PS cylinders in a PB matrix with the cylinder axis perpendicular to the film plane; (iii) ˜1.5 nl/sec leads to a duplex microstructure of PS cylinders with domains of either vertical or in-plane cylinders; (iv) ˜0.2 nl/sec produces a fully in-plane cylinder microstructure. Post-evaporation annealing converts the duplex morphology into one with only in-plane PS cylinders. The equilibrium morphology of in-plane cylinders with PB-rich surface layers is generated when films are given relatively long exposure to high solvent concentration or elevated temperature. However, alternate and metastable morphologies are generated including ones with two-phase surface structure under kinetically constrained conditions. Cross-sectional TEM indicates that the surface microstructures vary with evaporation and annealing treatment. These results are interpreted in terms of the kinetics and thermodynamics of microphase separation.

  12. TIME DELAY AND ACCRETION DISK SIZE MEASUREMENTS IN THE LENSED QUASAR SBS 0909+532 FROM MULTIWAVELENGTH MICROLENSING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.

    2013-09-01

    We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to {Delta}t{sub AB} = 50{sub -4}{sup +2} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1{sigma} confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {l_brace}(r{sub s,r}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 15.3 {+-} 0.3 and log {l_brace}(r{sub s,g}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 14.8 {+-} 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

  13. Rhinitis, Ocular, Throat and Dermal Symptoms, Headache and Tiredness among Students in Schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with Fungal DNA and Mycotoxins in Classroom Dust

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Bloom, Erica; Larsson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    There are few studies on rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) among students in tropical countries. We studied associations between levels of five fungal DNA sequences, two mycotoxins (sterigmatocystin and verrucarol) and cat allergen (Fel d 1) levels in schools and rhinitis and other weekly SBS symptoms in the students. Fungal DNA was measured by quantitative PCR and cat allergen by ELISA. Pupils (N = 462) from eight randomly selected schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia participated (96%). Dust samples were collected by cotton swabs and Petri dishes exposed for one week. None of the schools had a mechanical ventilation system, but all classrooms had openable windows that were kept open during lectures and indoor CO2 levels were low (mean 492 ppm; range 380–690 ppm). Weekly nasal symptoms (rhinitis) (18.8%), ocular (11.6%), throat (11.1%), dermal symptoms, headache (20.6%) and tiredness (22.1%) were common. Total fungal DNA in swab samples was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.02), ocular symptoms (p = 0.009) and tiredness (p = 0.001). There were positive associations between Aspergillus versicolor DNA in Petri dish samples, ocular symptoms (p = 0.02) and tiredness (p = 0.001). The level of the mycotoxin verrucarol (produced by Stachybotrys chartarum) in swab samples was positively associated with tiredness (p = 0.04). Streptomyces DNA in swab samples (p = 0.03) and Petri dish samples (p = 0.03) were negatively associated with tiredness. In conclusion, total fungal contamination, measured as total fungal DNA) in the classrooms, Aspergillus versicolor and verrucarol can be risk factors for rhinitis and SBS symptoms among students in the tropical country Malaysia. PMID:26829324

  14. Rhinitis, Ocular, Throat and Dermal Symptoms, Headache and Tiredness among Students in Schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with Fungal DNA and Mycotoxins in Classroom Dust.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Bloom, Erica; Larsson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    There are few studies on rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) among students in tropical countries. We studied associations between levels of five fungal DNA sequences, two mycotoxins (sterigmatocystin and verrucarol) and cat allergen (Fel d 1) levels in schools and rhinitis and other weekly SBS symptoms in the students. Fungal DNA was measured by quantitative PCR and cat allergen by ELISA. Pupils (N = 462) from eight randomly selected schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia participated (96%). Dust samples were collected by cotton swabs and Petri dishes exposed for one week. None of the schools had a mechanical ventilation system, but all classrooms had openable windows that were kept open during lectures and indoor CO2 levels were low (mean 492 ppm; range 380-690 ppm). Weekly nasal symptoms (rhinitis) (18.8%), ocular (11.6%), throat (11.1%), dermal symptoms, headache (20.6%) and tiredness (22.1%) were common. Total fungal DNA in swab samples was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.02), ocular symptoms (p = 0.009) and tiredness (p = 0.001). There were positive associations between Aspergillus versicolor DNA in Petri dish samples, ocular symptoms (p = 0.02) and tiredness (p = 0.001). The level of the mycotoxin verrucarol (produced by Stachybotrys chartarum) in swab samples was positively associated with tiredness (p = 0.04). Streptomyces DNA in swab samples (p = 0.03) and Petri dish samples (p = 0.03) were negatively associated with tiredness. In conclusion, total fungal contamination, measured as total fungal DNA) in the classrooms, Aspergillus versicolor and verrucarol can be risk factors for rhinitis and SBS symptoms among students in the tropical country Malaysia.

  15. Rhinitis, Ocular, Throat and Dermal Symptoms, Headache and Tiredness among Students in Schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with Fungal DNA and Mycotoxins in Classroom Dust.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Bloom, Erica; Larsson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    There are few studies on rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) among students in tropical countries. We studied associations between levels of five fungal DNA sequences, two mycotoxins (sterigmatocystin and verrucarol) and cat allergen (Fel d 1) levels in schools and rhinitis and other weekly SBS symptoms in the students. Fungal DNA was measured by quantitative PCR and cat allergen by ELISA. Pupils (N = 462) from eight randomly selected schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia participated (96%). Dust samples were collected by cotton swabs and Petri dishes exposed for one week. None of the schools had a mechanical ventilation system, but all classrooms had openable windows that were kept open during lectures and indoor CO2 levels were low (mean 492 ppm; range 380-690 ppm). Weekly nasal symptoms (rhinitis) (18.8%), ocular (11.6%), throat (11.1%), dermal symptoms, headache (20.6%) and tiredness (22.1%) were common. Total fungal DNA in swab samples was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.02), ocular symptoms (p = 0.009) and tiredness (p = 0.001). There were positive associations between Aspergillus versicolor DNA in Petri dish samples, ocular symptoms (p = 0.02) and tiredness (p = 0.001). The level of the mycotoxin verrucarol (produced by Stachybotrys chartarum) in swab samples was positively associated with tiredness (p = 0.04). Streptomyces DNA in swab samples (p = 0.03) and Petri dish samples (p = 0.03) were negatively associated with tiredness. In conclusion, total fungal contamination, measured as total fungal DNA) in the classrooms, Aspergillus versicolor and verrucarol can be risk factors for rhinitis and SBS symptoms among students in the tropical country Malaysia. PMID:26829324

  16. Health-related quality-of-life scores, spine-related symptoms, and reoperations in young adults 7 to 17 years after surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Spanyer, Jonathan M; Crawford, Charles H; Canan, Chelsea E; Burke, Lauren O; Heintzman, Sara E; Carreon, Leah Y

    2015-01-01

    The goal of surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is to prevent disability associated with curve progression. Few investigators have considered whether the function of patients with AIS becomes adversely affected by major spine fusion surgery. Tertiary referral center patients (age, 10-17 years) who underwent spinal deformity correction a minimum of 5 years earlier were identified. Scoliosis Research Society-22R (SRS-22R) and Short Form-12 (SF-12) were administered. Data were available for 118 patients. Mean age was 14.1 years at surgery and 26.8 years at follow-up. Mean outcome scores were 50.9 (SF-12 physical composite summary), 49.4 (SF-12 mental composite summary), and 4.0 (SRS-22R total). One hundred patients (85%) were working. Common symptoms included occasional back pain (90, 76%), limited range of motion (52, 44%), activity limitations (54, 46%), waistline imbalance (41, 35%), rib prominence (28, 24%), wound/scar problems (18, 15%), and shortness of breath (18, 15%). Prominent implants were reported by 11 patients (9%). Seven of 14 reoperations were for instrumentation removal. There was a high incidence of occasional back pain and activity complaints after surgery for AIS in our cohort. However, normal SF-12 scores suggested that these symptoms did not lower the patients' general health.

  17. Effect of the Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSanTM, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, Geir; Lyberg, Torstein; Lygren, Idar; Johnson, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingestion of AndoSanTM, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). In this randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSanTM also resulted in clinical effects. Methods and Findings 50 patients with symptomatic CD were randomized for oral daily consumption of AndoSanTM or placebo for a 21-day experimental period, in this per-protocol study. Patients reported validated scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL) at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSanTM group (n = 25) symptoms improved from baseline (day 0) to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI) of 5.52 (4.64–6.40), 4.48 (3.69–5.27) and 4.08 (3.22–4.94) (p<0,001). We found significant improvements in symptom score for both genders in the AndoSanTM group, and no significant changes in the placebo (n = 25) group. There were however no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.106), although a marginal effect in symptom score for men (p = 0.054). There were comparable improvements in physical, mental and total fatigue for both groups. HRQoL versus baseline were at day 21 improved for bodily pain and vitality in the AndoSanTM group and for vitality and social functioning in the placebo group. No crucial changes in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin were detected. Conclusions The results from this single-blinded randomized clinical trial shows significant improvement on symptoms, for both genders, in the AndoSanTM group, but no significant differences between the study groups. The results on fatigue, HRQoL, fecal calprotectin and blood samples were quite similar compared with placebo. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSanTM. CD patients with

  18. Symptom Control at the End of Life.

    PubMed

    Kreher, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Symptom control at the end of life is an identified ongoing gap in end-of-life care. Increased demand for high-quality symptom control; limited supply of specialty trained clinicians; lack of consistent high-quality evidence-based interventions; and education deficits among clinicians, patients, and families in end-of-life processes contribute to this gap. High-value end-of-life care is centered on high-quality communication about goals of care. This article reviews primary palliative care concepts of communication and symptom control to provide a framework for primary care physicians to use in the care of patients at the end of life. PMID:27542430

  19. Impact of Major Depression and Subsyndromal Symptoms on Quality of Life and Attitudes toward Aging in an International Sample of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chachamovich, Eduardo; Fleck, Marcelo; Laidlaw, Ken; Power, Mick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of major depression on quality of life (QOL) and aging experiences in older adults has been reported. Studies have demonstrated that the clinical diagnosis of major depression is the strongest predictor for QOL. We postulate that some findings are biased because of the use of inadequate instruments. Although subsyndromal…

  20. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools. IEQ Strategies[TM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Joan M.; Angell, William J.

    This report presents detailed results from a survey and critical review of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, particularly California schools. The findings: (1) identify the most commonly reported building-related health symtoms involving…

  1. Symptom burden, Metabolic profile, Ultrasound findings, Rhythm, neurohormonal activation, haemodynamics and health-related quality of life in patients with atrial Fibrillation (SMURF): a protocol for an observational study with a randomised interventional component

    PubMed Central

    Charitakis, Emmanouil; Walfridsson, Ulla; Nyström, Fredrik; Nylander, Eva; Strömberg, Anna; Alehagen, Urban; Walfridsson, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5–2%. It is an independent risk factor for ischaemic stroke and is estimated to cause about 20–25% of all stroke cases. AF has a great impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, one unresolved issue related to AF is the wide variation in its symptoms. Methods and analysis The symptom burden, metabolic profile, ultrasound findings, rhythm, neurohormonal activation, haemodynamics and HRQoL in patients with AF (Symptom burden, Metabolic profile, Ultrasound findings, Rhythm, neurohormonal activation, haemodynamics and health-related quality of life in patients with atrial Fibrillation, SMURF) study is a prospective observational, cohort study, with a randomised interventional part. The aim of the study is to investigate, in patients with AF, the relationship between symptom burden and metabolic aspects, atrial function and different neurohormones, and the effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The interventional part of the study will give an insight into the neurohormonal and intracardiac pressure changes directly after initiation of AF. Consecutive patients with symptomatic AF accepted for treatment with RFA for the first time at Linköping University Hospital are eligible for participation. The enrolment started in January 2012, and a total of 200 patients are to be included into the study, with 45 of them being enrolled into the interventional study with initiation of AF. The sample size of the interventional study is based on a small pilot study with 5 patients induced to AF while 2 served as controls. The results indicated that, in order to find a statistically significant difference, there was a need to include 28 patients; for safety reasons, 45 patients will be included. Ethics and dissemination The SMURF study is approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden. The results will

  2. The Optimizing Patient Transfers, Impacting Medical Quality, andImproving Symptoms:Transforming Institutional Care approach: preliminary data from the implementation of a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services nursing facility demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Unroe, Kathleen T; Nazir, Arif; Holtz, Laura R; Maurer, Helen; Miller, Ellen; Hickman, Susan E; La Mantia, Michael A; Bennett, Merih; Arling, Greg; Sachs, Greg A

    2015-01-01

    The Optimizing Patient Transfers, Impacting Medical Quality, and Improving Symptoms: Transforming Institutional Care (OPTIMISTIC) project aims to reduce avoidable hospitalizations of long-stay residents enrolled in 19 central Indiana nursing facilities. This clinical demonstration project, funded by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Innovations Center, places a registered nurse in each nursing facility to implement an evidence-based quality improvement program with clinical support from nurse practitioners. A description of the model is presented, and early implementation experiences during the first year of the project are reported. Important elements include better medical care through implementation of Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers tools and chronic care management, enhanced transitional care, and better palliative care with a focus on systematic advance care planning. There were 4,035 long-stay residents in 19 facilities enrolled in OPTIMISTIC between February 2013 and January 2014. Root-cause analyses were performed for all 910 acute transfers of these long stay residents. Of these transfers, the project RN evaluated 29% as avoidable (57% were not avoidable and 15% were missing), and opportunities for quality improvement were identified in 54% of transfers. Lessons learned in early implementation included defining new clinical roles, integrating into nursing facility culture, managing competing facility priorities, communicating with multiple stakeholders, and developing a system for collecting and managing data. The success of the overall initiative will be measured primarily according to reduction in avoidable hospitalizations of long-stay nursing facility residents. PMID:25537789

  3. A longitudinal analysis of the efficacy of environmental interventions on asthma-related quality of life and symptoms among children in urban public housing.

    PubMed

    Clougherty, J E; Levy, J I; Hynes, H P; Spengler, J D

    2006-01-01

    In an environmental intervention study in public housing, we examined monthly Juniper Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life (QOL) Questionnaires for 51 children. Longitudinal analysis and spline models were used to identify time periods with significant improvements in QOL to inform judgments about causality. We found significant improvements in QOL, with moderate improvements before environmental interventions, increased rates of improvement immediately after, and reduced rates more than 5 months post-intervention. Effect modification analyses identified high-risk subpopulations and emphasized the importance of environmental, social, and economic conditions. Our results demonstrate the value of longitudinal techniques in evaluating the benefits of environmental interventions for asthma. PMID:16801137

  4. To be or not to be a blazar. The case of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 SBS 0846+513

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.; Finke, J.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The presence of a relativistic jet in some radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1s (NLSy1) galaxies, first suggested by their variable radio emission and the flat radio spectra, is now confirmed by the Fermi-LAT detection of five NLSy1s in γ rays. In particular, a strong γ-ray flare from SBS 0846+513 was observed in 2011 June by Fermi-LAT reaching a γ-ray luminosity (0.1-300 GeV) of ~1048 erg s-1, comparable to that of bright flat spectrum radio quasars. Apparent superluminal velocity in the jet was inferred from 2011-2012 VLBA images, suggesting the presence of a highly relativistic jet. Both the power released by this object during the flaring activity and the apparent superluminal velocity are strong indicators of the presence of a relativistic jet as powerful as those in blazars. In addition, variability and spectral properties in radio and γ-ray bands indicate a blazar-like behaviour, suggesting that, except for some distinct optical characteristics, SBS 0846+513 could be considered as a young blazar at the low end of the blazar's black hole mass distribution.

  5. A reliability study of the Spanish version of the social behaviour schedule (SBS) in a population of adults with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Carulla, L; Garcia-Mellado, M J; Velazquez, R; Romero, C; Alonso, F

    1998-02-01

    The reliability of the Spanish version of the Social Behaviour Schedule (SBS) was tested in a vocational setting on a sample of 64 subjects with learning disabilities. Test-retest assessment showed a good percentage of agreement (80%) and adequate kappa values for most SBS items. The overall percentage of agreement of inter-rater reliability was 85% and kappa values were moderate to nearly perfect for 52% of items. Inter-informant analyses produced poorer results, with an average agreement of 43% and inadequate kappa values on 42% of items. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.64 for test-retest, 0.76 for inter-rater assessment and 0.94 for inter-informant assessment. The Spearman correlation coefficient was adequate on the test-retest and inter-rater analyses, but not on inter-informant analysis. This low inter-informant agreement could be attributed to environmental factors which alter the reliability of reports from different informants in community settings with high levels of normalization. In such environments, an interview with a key informant may not suffice, and both a careful review of the clinical record and a direct interview with subjects may enhance the reliability of the information attained.

  6. Effect of a Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSan™, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Therkelsen, Stig Palm; Hetland, Geir; Lyberg, Torstein; Lygren, Idar; Johnson, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingestion of AndoSan™, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects because of reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with ulcerative colitis. In this randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSan™ also resulted in clinical effects. Methods and Findings 50 patients with symptomatic ulcerative colitis were block-randomized and blinded for oral daily intake of AndoSan™ or placebo for the 21 days’ experimental period. The patients reported scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL) at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSan™ group (n = 24) symptoms improved from baseline (day 0) to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI) of 5.88 (4.92–6.83), 4.71 (3.90–5.52) (p = 0.002) and 4.50 (3.70–5.30) (p = 0.001). Corresponding improved mean scores (±SD) for total fatigue were 16.6 (5.59), 14.1 (4.50) (p = 0.001) and 15.1 (4.09) (p = 0.023). These scores in the placebo group (n = 26) were not improved. When comparing the two study groups using mixed model statistics, we found significant better scores for the AndoSan™-patients. HRQoL for dimensions bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health improved in the AndoSan™ group. There were no alterations in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin. Conclusions Beneficiary effects on symptoms, fatigue and HRQoL from AndoSan™ consumption were demonstrated in this per-protocol study, supporting its use as a supplement to conventional medication for patients with mild to moderate symptoms from ulcerative colitis. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSan™ in this study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496053 PMID:26933886

  7. Opportunities for targeting the fatigue-anorexia-cachexia symptom cluster.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Erin R; del Fabbro, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    Cancer patients experience multiple symptoms throughout their illness trajectory. Symptoms consistently occurring together, known as symptom clusters, share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. Understanding and targeting such symptom clusters may allow for more effective and efficient use of treatments for a variety of symptoms. Fatigue-anorexia-cachexia is one of the most prevalent symptom clusters and significantly impairs quality of life. In this review, we explore the fatigue-anorexia-cachexia symptom cluster and focus on current and emerging therapies with an emphasis on pharmacologic management.

  8. Connecting the solubility and CCN activation of complex organic aerosols: A theoretical study using the Solubility Basis Set (SBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastak, Narges; Riipinen, Ilona; Pandis, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Organic aerosol particles often consist of thousands of compounds with different properties. One of these properties is solubility, which affects the hygroscopic growth and CCN activation of the organic particles. Here we investigate the CCN activation behavior of complex organic aerosols accounting for the distribution of solubilities present in these mixtures. METHODS We considered a monodisperse population of spherical aerosol particles consisting of an internal mixture of organic compounds. When exposed to water vapor, these particles were assumed to grow reaching a thermodynamic equilibrium between the water vapor and the particle phase. The composition of the organic and aqueous phases was determined on one hand by the equilibrium between the aqueous phase and water vapor, and on the other hand by the equilibrium of the aqueous phase with the organic insoluble phase. We modelled the mixtures with the help of a solubility basis set (SBS, analogous to the volatility basis set VBS, Donahue et al. 2006, 2011, 2012), describing the mixture with n surrogate compounds with varying solubilities. We varied the range and shape of the solubility distribution, and the number of components n in the distribution, we also assumed two different kinds of interactions between the organic compounds in the insoluble phase 1) ideal mixture, where organics limit each other's dissolution; 2) unity activity, where organics behave as pure compounds and do not influence each other's dissolution. Critical supersaturations and the dissolution behavior at the point of CCN activation were calculated utilizing the Köhler theory for all organic mixtures (denoted here as the "full model"). The full model predictions were compared with the three simplified models: 1) assuming complete dissolution of all compounds; 2) treating the organic mixture solubility with the hygroscopicity parameter κ and 3) assuming a fixed soluble fraction ɛ for each mixture. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

  9. Symptoms of Aspergillosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Types of Fungal Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Healthcare Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes ...

  10. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these signs ...

  11. Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Signs and Symptoms Partly because there are different types ... This section presents a general picture of CMT signs and symptoms. Contractures and bone deformities Many people ...

  12. Dermatomyositis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Signs and Symptoms What happens to someone with dermatomyositis? ... be damaged as a result. About Dermatomyositis (DM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research ...

  13. Bell's Palsy Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Symptoms Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS ...

  14. The cumulative effect of different childhood trauma types on self-reported symptoms of adult male depression and PTSD, substance abuse and health-related quality of life in a large active-duty military cohort.

    PubMed

    Agorastos, Agorastos; Pittman, James O E; Angkaw, Abigail C; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hansen, Christian J; Aversa, Laura H; Parisi, Sarah A; Barkauskas, Donald A; Baker, Dewleen G

    2014-11-01

    History of childhood trauma (CT) is highly prevalent and may lead to long-term consequences on physical and mental health. This study investigated the independent association of CT with symptoms of adult depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as well as current tobacco consumption and alcohol abuse in a large homogenous cohort of 1254 never-deployed, young male Marines enrolled in the Marine Resiliency Study. Independent effects of CT history, number and type of CT on outcomes were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models. Our results suggested dose-dependent negative effect of an increasing number of trauma types of CT on depression, PTSD and HRQoL. Experience of single CT type demonstrated overall weak effects, while history of multiple CT types distinctively increased the likelihood of adult PTSD symptomology (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.2), poor mental (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and physical HRQoL (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Risk for depression symptoms was similar for both single and multiple CT (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8 and OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.5 respectively). CT history had no effects on current tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Our study thus provides evidence for substantial additive effect of different CT types on adult mental and physical health with increasing levels of exposure.

  15. Indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study revisited: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Steiner, Kate C.; Apte, Michael G.

    2002-02-01

    In previously published analyses of the 41-building 1994-1996 USEPA Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) dataset, higher workday time-averaged indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) were associated with increased prevalence of certain mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, even at peak dCO{sub 2} concentrations below 1,000 ppm. For this paper, similar analyses were performed using the larger 100-building 1994-1998 BASE dataset. Multivariate logistic regression analyses quantified the associations between dCO{sub 2} and the SBS symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Adjusted dCO{sub 2} prevalence odds ratios for sore throat and wheeze were 1.17 and 1.20 per 100-ppm increase in dCO{sub 2} (p <0.05), respectively. These new analyses generally support our prior findings. Regional differences in climate, building design, and operation may account for some of the differences observed in analyses of the two datasets.

  16. Fibromyalgia Syndrome Symptoms and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Alice; Bernard, Amy L.; Edsall, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed fibromyalgia syndrome support group members about characteristics of the disease and how it affected their lives. Respondents had symptoms for many years before being diagnosed. Symptoms varied tremendously on a daily and yearly basis, so disease management was in a constant state of flux. Most symptoms significantly impacted quality of…

  17. Measurement and assessment of somatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Santosh K; Desai, Geetha

    2013-02-01

    Somatic symptoms are common presentations in health settings. They can manifest as symptoms of another underlying mental disorder or be termed as medically unexplained. When they are medically unexplained they are invariably subsumed under the diagnostic categories of somatoform disorders. They are associated with interference in functioning, poor quality of life and are burdensome on health resources. The measurement of these symptoms is essential for understanding the individual and planning treatment. There are various instruments that have somatic symptoms measurement in their items. The tools have included somatic symptoms measurement in measuring general psychopathology, somatic symptoms as part of anxiety and depression, somatic symptoms specifically, and as a screening instrument for somatoform disorders. The advantages and disadvantages of common measures have been discussed. It appears that no one measure fulfils the essential criteria of an ideal measure for somatic symptoms. The measures of somatic symptoms should also be culturally sensitive and serve diagnostic, prognostic and heuristic purposes. These aspects are highlighted in the review.

  18. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lemke, M R

    2008-04-01

    Depression occurs in approximately 45% of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), does not correlate with the stage of motor deficits, reduces quality of life independently of motor symptoms and appears to be underrated and undertreated. Anxiety and depression are the risk factors for the development of PD and may be present many years before the appearance of motor symptoms. Studies using functional imaging techniques indicate a primary relationship between depression and PD. Because of overlapping clinical symptoms, the diagnosis is mainly based on subjectively experienced anhedonia and feelings of emptiness. Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic mechanisms play key roles in the aetiology of depression in PD. Tricyclic and newer selective antidepressants including serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors appear to be effective in treating depression in PD. Selective reuptake inhibitors seem to be better tolerated because of their favourable side-effect profile. Experimental and clinical investigations indicate antidepressive effects for pramipexole. Placebo-controlled studies showed antidepressant effects of pramipexole in patients with different forms of depression. Various studies show that pramipexole improves depression in addition to motor symptoms in patients with PD. Because of the data available as well as clinical reasoning, pramipexole may be used as a first-line treatment in patients with PD and depression.

  19. Vestibular symptoms and history taking.

    PubMed

    Bisdorff, A

    2016-01-01

    History taking is an essential part in the diagnostic process of vestibular disorders. The approach to focus strongly on the quality of symptoms, like vertigo, dizziness, or unsteadiness, is not that useful as these symptoms often coexist and are all nonspecific, as each of them may arise from vestibular and nonvestibular diseases (like cardiovascular disease) and do not permit to distinguish potentially dangerous from benign causes. Instead, patients should be categorized if they have an acute, episodic, or chronic vestibular syndrome (AVS, EVS, or CVS) to narrow down the spectrum of differential diagnosis. Typical examples of disorders provoking an AVS would be vestibular neuritis or stroke of peripheral or central vestibular structures, of an EVS Menière's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or vestibular migraine and of a CVS long-standing uni- or bilateral vestibular failure or cerebellar degeneration. The presence of triggers should be established with a main distinction between positional (change of head orientation with respect to gravity), head motion-induced (time-locked to head motion regardless of direction) and orthostatic position change as the underlying disorders are quite different. Accompanying symptoms also help to orient to the underlying cause, like aural or neurologic symptoms, but also chest pain or dyspnea. PMID:27638064

  20. Medications for Ataxia Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ropinirole (Requip) Rigidity : Pramipexole (Mirapex), Ropinirole (Requip) Sleep Disorders/Parasomnias (vivid dreams, nightmares, acting out dreams, sleepwalking) : Clonazepam. Sleep apnea symptoms must be evaluated with ...

  1. Development of a symptom assessment instrument for chronic hemodialysis patients: the Dialysis Symptom Index.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D; Fried, Linda F; Arnold, Robert M; Rotondi, Armando J; Fine, Michael J; Levenson, David J; Switzer, Galen E

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence, severity, or impact of symptoms in hemodialysis patients because of the lack of a validated symptom assessment instrument. We systematically developed an index to assess physical and emotional symptom burden in this patient population. We employed four steps in the generation of this index: a review of dialysis quality-of-life instruments, three focus groups, experts' content validity assessment, and test-retest reliability measurement. Seventy-five symptoms were identified. Of these, 46 appeared in > or = 4 of the instruments/focus groups and were considered for inclusion. Twelve were grouped into other symptom constructs and experts judged four of the remaining items not to be pertinent, leaving 30 items in the new index. Overall kappa statistic was 0.48+/-0.22. These steps allowed the systematic development of a 30-item symptom assessment index for hemodialysis patients. Additional reliability and validity testing is needed prior to its widespread use.

  2. Quality of life, symptoms and pulmonary function in asthma: long-term treatment with nedocromil sodium examined in a controlled multicentre trial. Nedocromil Sodium Quality of Life Study Group.

    PubMed

    Jones, P W

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to measure improvement in quality of life of patients with asthma, using a standardized disease-specific questionnaire, the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, in a year long double-blind, placebo-controlled, group comparative study with nedocromil sodium. Two other questionnaires were used: the Sickness Impact Profile (a measure of general health) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Measurements were made at baseline and following 24 and 48 weeks of treatment. Response to therapy was also evaluated using daily diary card and peak flow measurements, clinic assessments and spirometry. Following a 4 week baseline, 719 adult asthmatics were randomized to treatment with 4 mg nedocromil sodium or placebo. Patients currently maintained on inhaled corticosteroids received treatments four times daily, those on bronchodilator alone received treatments twice daily. The Impacts component of the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire was significantly improved in patients receiving nedocromil sodium, as were night-time asthma, asthma severity at clinic, and daytime inhaled bronchodilator use. In patients receiving placebo, most of the traditional variables improved, and all three questionnaires recorded significant improvements in health. Patients and clinicians judged nedocromil sodium more effective than placebo. The improvement in St George's Questionnaire score in the nedocromil sodium treated patients was approximately double the change considered to be clinically significant. The study has shown that improvements in health with prophylactic therapy for asthma may be quantified by the use of a standardized disease-specific questionnaire.

  3. Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: Association with Smoking, Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109

  4. Depressive symptoms amongst asthmatic children's caregivers.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Alexandra; Mezei, Györgyi; Kovári, Eva; Cserháti, Endre

    2010-06-01

    We wanted to find out, whether the number of depressive symptoms is higher amongst asthmatic children's caregivers, compared to international data, to the Hungarian population average, and to parents of children with chronic renal disease. Are these depressive symptoms connected to the children's psychological status, asthma severity or current asthma symptoms? One-hundred and eight, 7- to 17-yr-old asthmatic children were enrolled, who have been treated at the Semmelweis University, First Department of Pediatrics. Children were suffering from asthma for at least 1 yr, with a median of 8 yr (1-16 yr), they started to develop asthmatic symptoms between the age of 0.5-14 yr (median: 3 yr). We also identified 27 children with chronic renal diseases and their caregivers, who functioned as a control group. Children were asked to complete the Hungarian-validated versions of the Child Depression Inventory, the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Asthma severity and current symptoms were also documented, 56% had no symptoms on the preceding week. Caregivers were asked to complete the Hungarian versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) short form, the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory and the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Caregivers' Quality of Life Questionnaire. Caregivers of asthmatic children had significantly more depressive symptoms (7.73 +/- 6.69 s.d.) than the age-specific normal population (p < 0.01). Caregivers of renal patients also experience more depressive symptoms (9.61 +/- 7.43 s.d.) than their healthy peers, but difference between the two chronic diseases' group did not prove to be significant. Asthmatic children's caregivers who scored more points on the BDI than the population average suffer from more anxiety symptoms, but their quality of life is not worse than the caregivers' with less depressive points. Depressive symptoms were neither connected to the children's psychological

  5. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCs ({Sigma}VOC{sub i})). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m{sup {minus}3}) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  6. Pathophysiology of Clinical Symptoms in Acute Viral Respiratory Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, E; Miśkiewicz, K; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Szenborn, L

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the pathophysiology of common symptoms of acute viral respiratory infections (e.g., sneezing, nasal discharge, sore throat, cough, muscle pains, malaise, and mood changes). Since clinical symptoms are not sufficient to determine the etiology of viral respiratory tract infections, we believe that the host defense mechanisms are critical for the symptomatology. Consequently, this review of literature is focused on the pathophysiology of respiratory symptoms regardless of their etiology. We assume that despite a high prevalence of symptoms of respiratory infection, their pathogenesis is not widely known. A better understanding of the symptoms' pathogenesis could improve the quality of care for patients with respiratory tract infections.

  7. [Treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms and exacerbations].

    PubMed

    Prieto González, José María

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, there has been an explosion of new drugs acting on the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) but less attention has been paid to better knowledge of the symptoms of this disease and their pathogenesis and treatment, which is essential to improve patients' quality of life. Because many patients have numerous concurrent symptoms during their clinical course, their management is complex and consequently it is important to know which symptoms are a direct result of the degenerative lesions of MS. The present article describes all the therapeutic options available for spasticity and its associated pain, paroxystic symptoms, fatigue, genitourinary disorders and sexual dysfunction, tremor, ataxia, gait disorder and cognitive impairment, with special emphasis on novel treatments. The article also defines exacerbations, how to recognize them and the available treatments, mainly oral administration of high-dose methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis. PMID:25732949

  8. Pain Management and Symptom-Oriented Drug Therapy in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Carsten; Lang, Ute; Bükki, Johannes; Sittl, Reinhard; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Summary Patients with advanced life-limiting disease often suffer from symptoms that considerably impair their quality of life and that of their families. Palliative care aims to alleviate these symptoms by a multidimensional approach. Pharmacotherapy is an essential component. The objective of this review is to give an overview of symptom-oriented drug therapy for the most important symptoms in palliative care. Leading symptoms that affect quality of life include pain, dyspnea, nausea and emesis, weakness and disorientation. Careful examination and history taking help to understand the individual mechanisms underlying these symptoms. Specific pharmacotherapy provides an efficient way to achieve symptom control in the context of palliative care. PMID:21547023

  9. [Neuropsychiatric non motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Peralta, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed substantial progress towards the understanding of Parkinson's disease. According to pathological and neuroimaging studies, the traditional view of Parkinson's disease that begins with the development of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor, has begun to change. It is now understood that there would be a "premotor" or "preclinical" period in which the alphasynuclein pathology begins outside of the substantia nigra in the lower brainstem and autonomic nervous system. Although the pathophysiology of this phase is still unclear, it is currently thought that its symptoms would correspond to the so-called "non-motor symptoms". Hyposmia, depression, constipation and REM sleep disorders are one of the most relevant non-motor symptoms at this "premotor" stage. The spectrum of non-motor symptoms is very broad and covers the domains of neuropsychiatric, dysautonomic, gastrointestinal and sensory symptoms as well as sleep disorders. Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, impulse control disorder, psychosis and dementia, are a major cause of disability as they are directly related to quality of life. PMID:23979552

  10. [Neuropsychiatric non motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Peralta, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed substantial progress towards the understanding of Parkinson's disease. According to pathological and neuroimaging studies, the traditional view of Parkinson's disease that begins with the development of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor, has begun to change. It is now understood that there would be a "premotor" or "preclinical" period in which the alphasynuclein pathology begins outside of the substantia nigra in the lower brainstem and autonomic nervous system. Although the pathophysiology of this phase is still unclear, it is currently thought that its symptoms would correspond to the so-called "non-motor symptoms". Hyposmia, depression, constipation and REM sleep disorders are one of the most relevant non-motor symptoms at this "premotor" stage. The spectrum of non-motor symptoms is very broad and covers the domains of neuropsychiatric, dysautonomic, gastrointestinal and sensory symptoms as well as sleep disorders. Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, impulse control disorder, psychosis and dementia, are a major cause of disability as they are directly related to quality of life.

  11. Listeriosis: Definition and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Listeria (Listeriosis) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Listeria (Listeriosis) Definition & Symptoms Outbreaks Listeriosis Linked to Frozen ...

  12. Medically Unexplained Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    WRIISC War Related Illness and Injury Study Center Office of Public Health Department of Veterans Affairs MEDICALLY UNEXPLAINED SYMPTOMS ... showed that CFS was more common in Gulf War Veterans than non- Gulf War Veterans ( Kang et ...

  13. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) , ehrlichiosis , and tularemia can result ... or neurologic symptoms. The rash seen with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) varies greatly from person to ...

  14. Symptoms and Warning Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas Other symptoms that may develop over ... with self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives and diuretics, fasting, and excessive exercise binging and purging in ...

  15. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  16. Identifying assembly-inhibiting and assembly-tolerant sites in the SbsB S-layer protein from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Kinns, Helen; Badelt-Lichtblau, Helga; Egelseer, Eva Maria; Sleytr, Uwe B; Howorka, Stefan

    2010-01-29

    Surface layer (S-layer) proteins self-assemble into two-dimensional crystalline lattices that cover the cell wall of all archaea and many bacteria. We have generated assembly-negative protein variants of high solubility that will facilitate high-resolution structure determination. Assembly-negative versions of the S-layer protein SbsB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 were obtained using an insertion mutagenesis screen. The haemagglutinin epitope tag was inserted at 23 amino acid positions known to be located on the monomer protein surface from a previous cysteine accessibility screen. Limited proteolysis, circular dichroism, and fluorescence were used to probe whether the epitope insertion affected the secondary and tertiary structures of the monomer, while electron microscopy and size-exclusion chromatography were employed to examine proteins' ability to self-assemble. The screen not only identified assembly-compromised mutants with native fold but also yielded correctly folded, self-assembling mutants suitable for displaying epitopes for biomedical and biophysical applications, as well as cryo-electron microscopy imaging. Our study marks an important step in the analysis of the S-layer structure. In addition, the approach of concerted insertion and cysteine mutagenesis can likely be applied for other supramolecular assemblies. PMID:19836402

  17. Identifying assembly-inhibiting and assembly-tolerant sites in the SbsB S-layer protein from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Kinns, Helen; Badelt-Lichtblau, Helga; Egelseer, Eva Maria; Sleytr, Uwe B; Howorka, Stefan

    2010-01-29

    Surface layer (S-layer) proteins self-assemble into two-dimensional crystalline lattices that cover the cell wall of all archaea and many bacteria. We have generated assembly-negative protein variants of high solubility that will facilitate high-resolution structure determination. Assembly-negative versions of the S-layer protein SbsB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 were obtained using an insertion mutagenesis screen. The haemagglutinin epitope tag was inserted at 23 amino acid positions known to be located on the monomer protein surface from a previous cysteine accessibility screen. Limited proteolysis, circular dichroism, and fluorescence were used to probe whether the epitope insertion affected the secondary and tertiary structures of the monomer, while electron microscopy and size-exclusion chromatography were employed to examine proteins' ability to self-assemble. The screen not only identified assembly-compromised mutants with native fold but also yielded correctly folded, self-assembling mutants suitable for displaying epitopes for biomedical and biophysical applications, as well as cryo-electron microscopy imaging. Our study marks an important step in the analysis of the S-layer structure. In addition, the approach of concerted insertion and cysteine mutagenesis can likely be applied for other supramolecular assemblies.

  18. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  19. Prevalence, severity, and importance of physical and emotional symptoms in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D; Fried, Linda F; Arnold, Robert M; Fine, Michael J; Levenson, David J; Peterson, Rolf A; Switzer, Galen E

    2005-08-01

    The prevalence, severity, and clinical significance of physical and emotional symptoms in patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis remain incompletely characterized. This study sought to assess symptoms and their relationship to quality of life and depression. The recently developed Dialysis Symptom Index was used to assess the presence and the severity of 30 symptoms. The Illness Effects Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were used to evaluate quality of life and depression, respectively. Correlations among symptom burden, symptom severity, quality of life, and depression were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficient. A total of 162 patients from three dialysis units were enrolled. Mean age was 62 y, 48% were black, 62% were men, and 48% had diabetes. The median number of symptoms was 9.0 (interquartile range 6 to 13). Dry skin, fatigue, itching, and bone/joint pain each were reported by > or =50% of patients. Seven additional symptoms were reported by >33% of patients. Sixteen individual symptoms were described as being more than "somewhat bothersome." Overall symptom burden and severity each were correlated directly with impaired quality of life and depression. In multivariable analyses adjusting for demographic and clinical variables including depression, associations between symptoms and quality of life remained robust. Physical and emotional symptoms are prevalent, can be severe, and are correlated directly with impaired quality of life and depression in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Incorporating a standard assessment of symptoms into the care provided to maintenance hemodialysis patients may provide a means to improve quality of life in this patient population.

  20. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News Make a Difference Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy Print This Page Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms usually start ... slowly over many years. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include: A sensation of wearing an invisible “ ...

  1. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  2. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  3. Symptoms of gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Diehl, A K

    1992-11-01

    The most certain symptomatic manifestation of gallstones is episodic upper abdominal pain. Characteristically, this pain is severe and located in the epigastrium and/or the right upper quadrant. The onset is relatively abrupt and often awakens the patient from sleep. The pain is steady in intensity, may radiate to the upper back, be associated with nausea and lasts for hours to up to a day. Dyspeptic symptoms of indigestion, belching, bloating, abdominal discomfort, heartburn and specific food intolerance are common in persons with gallstones, but are probably unrelated to the stones themselves and frequently persist after surgery. Many, if not most, persons with gallstones have no history of pain attacks. Persons discovered to have gallstones in the absence of typical symptoms appear to have an annual incidence of biliary pain of 2-5% during the initial years of follow-up, with perhaps a declining rate thereafter. Gallstone-related complications occur at a rate of less than 1% annually. Those whose stones are symptomatic at discovery have a more severe course, with approximately 6-10% suffering recurrent symptoms each year and 2% biliary complications. The far higher rates of symptom development reported in a few studies raise the possibility that these incidence estimates may be too low. The best predictors of future biliary pain are a history of pain at the time of diagnosis, female gender and possibly obesity. The risk of acute cholecystitis appears to be greater in those with large solitary stones, that of biliary pancreatitis in those with multiple small stones, and that of gallbladder cancer in those with large stones of any number. Drugs that inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins may now be the treatment of choice in patients with gallstones who are suffering acute pain attacks. Persistent dyspeptic symptoms occur frequently following cholecystectomy. A prolonged history of such symptoms prior to surgery and evidence of significant psychological distress

  4. Symptom management in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2011-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex disease associated with a wide variety of different symptoms that can affect the ability of multiple sclerosis patients to carry out normal activities of daily living. Although a myriad of symptoms can afflict these patients, the most commonly reported include fatigue, mood disorders, changes in cognitive function or memory, sensory changes (numbness, pain, vibrations), motor changes (loss of balance, poor coordination, muscle weakness or stiffness), vision changes (double vision, blurred vision, loss of vision) and bladder or bowel dysfunction. Treatments are available that can help minimise some of these symptoms and relieve patient distress. After the diagnosis has been established and a decision taken regarding initiation of immunomodulatory treatments, the majority of management decisions with which the physician will be confronted will concern symptom management. Whereas some symptoms are relatively easily treated, others are more difficult to manage. Management involves rehabilitation, pharmacological treatments and surgical procedures. Successful symptom management is a key determinant of quality of life for the patient and is the basis for improving physical and psychological function.

  5. Base Rates of Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: An Individual Symptom Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmann, Sebastian; Gierk, Benjamin; Murray, Alexandra M.; Scholl, Arne; Lehmann, Marco; Löwe, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression is common in coronary heart disease (CHD) but challenging to diagnose. Instead of focusing on the overall diagnosis of depression, base rates of depressive symptoms could facilitate screening and management of psychopathology in CHD. The present study investigates the frequency of individual depressive symptoms in CHD and their impact on cardiac and subjective health. Methods In total, 1337 in- and outpatients with CHD were screened for depressive symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at three different cardiac treatment sites. Tables stratified by age and gender were designed to illustrate base rates of depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical data were conducted to test associations between individual depressive symptoms and quality of life as well impairment caused angina pectoris and dyspnea. Results During the last 14 days, more than half of patients reported a loss of energy (74.9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 70.6–79.2), sleeping problems (69.4%, 95% CI: 64.9–74.0), loss of interest (55.7%, 95% CI: 50.8–60.7). In contrast, psychomotor change (25.6%, 95%CI: 21.3–30.0), feelings of failure (21.9%, 95%CI: 17.7–26.0), suicidal ideations (14.1%, 95%CI: 10.7–17.6) were less frequently reported. Depending on the outcome, only particular depressive symptoms were highly associated with low quality of life and impairment caused by angina pectoris and dyspnea. Loss of energy was the only depressive symptom that reliably predicted all three outcomes. Conclusions Depressive symptoms in CHD are frequent but vary widely in terms of frequency. Findings underline the differential effects of individual depressive symptoms on cardiac health. Presented base rates of depressive symptoms offer clinicians a new way to judge the severity of individual depressive symptoms and to communicate individual PHQ-9 profiles with patients with respect to gender, age, cardiac

  6. Symptoms of ADHD and Close Friendships in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship of ADHD symptoms to different aspects of close friendship quality as rated by both adolescents (target adolescent and a close friend) within a friendship dyad. Method: Participants were 41 same-sex friendship dyads who completed questionnaires about their friendship. Separate symptom dimensions of…

  7. Managing systemic symptoms in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Newton, Julia L; Jones, David E J

    2012-01-01

    Improved medical management and the changing disease demographic mean that the majority of patients with chronic liver disease are living with the disease rather than dying from it. Historically, the perception has been that the impact of chronic liver disease is related entirely to the consequences of endstage liver disease; however, more recently a number of systemic symptoms have been recognised that can occur at any point in the natural history of chronic liver disease and which can be associated with functional impairment and reduced quality of life. The most characteristic of these systemic symptoms is fatigue, which frequently associates with sleep disturbance and autonomic dysfunction, particularly manifest as abnormality of blood pressure regulation. Cognitive symptoms can occur even in non-cirrhotic patients. Falls can present in patients with autonomic dysfunction, complicated by the presence of peripheral muscle strength problems. Importantly for clinicians managing chronic liver disease, the severity of these systemic symptoms is typically not related to liver disease severity, and therefore despite optimal liver disease management, patients can often continue to experience debilitating symptoms. The similarity in systemic symptoms between different chronic liver diseases (and indeed chronic inflammatory conditions affecting other organs) suggests the possibility of shared pathogenetic processes and raises the possibility of common management strategies, although further research is urgently needed to confirm this. In primary biliary cirrhosis, where our understanding of systemic symptoms is arguably most developed, structured management strategies have been shown to improve the quality of life of patients. It is highly likely that similar approaches will have comparable benefits for other chronic liver disease groups. Here, we review the current understanding of systemic symptoms in chronic liver disease and offer recommendations regarding the

  8. Symptom Management of Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a treatment approach for the symptom management of bulimia that is a synthesis of various techniques, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, response prevention, relapse training, and psychodynamic therapy. The model has been a useful teaching tool for staff and patients in both group and individual formats. Addresses the challenges of…

  9. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  10. Teacher Testing: A Symptom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    Current teacher testing is a symptom of what is wrong with American public education, rooted in invalid generalizations of method from one discipline to another. America's top educational policymakers are rarely educators, instead tending to be political leaders. The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) has produced a…

  11. The Autonomic Symptom Profile: a new instrument to assess autonomic symptoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, G. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Offord, K. P.; Atkinson, E. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a new specific instrument called the Autonomic Symptom Profile to measure autonomic symptoms and test its validity. BACKGROUND: Measuring symptoms is important in the evaluation of quality of life outcomes. There is no validated, self-completed questionnaire on the symptoms of patients with autonomic disorders. METHODS: The questionnaire is 169 items concerning different aspects of autonomic symptoms. The Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) with item-weighting was established; higher scores indicate more or worse symptoms. Autonomic function tests were performed to generate the Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS) and to quantify autonomic deficits. We compared the results of the COMPASS with the CASS derived from the Autonomic Reflex Screen to evaluate validity. RESULTS: The instrument was tested in 41 healthy controls (mean age 46.6 years), 33 patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies (mean age 59.5 years), and 39 patients with autonomic failure (mean age 61.1 years). COMPASS scores correlated well with the CASS, demonstrating an acceptable level of content and criterion validity. The mean (+/-SD) overall COMPASS score was 9.8 (+/-9) in controls, 25.9 (+/-17.9) in the patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies, and 52.3 (+/-24.2) in the autonomic failure group. Scores of symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and secretomotor dysfunction best predicted the CASS on multiple stepwise regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a questionnaire that measures autonomic symptoms and present evidence for its validity. The instrument shows promise in assessing autonomic symptoms in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.

  12. Distinct symptom experiences in subgroups of patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Vivi L; Rustøen, Tone; Cooper, Bruce A; Miaskowski, Christine; Henriksen, Anne H; Bentsen, Signe B; Holm, Are M

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to their respiratory symptoms, patients with COPD experience multiple, co-occurring symptoms. Objectives The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of COPD patients based on their distinct experiences with 14 symptoms and to determine how these subgroups differed in demographic and clinical characteristics and disease-specific quality of life. Patients and methods Patients with moderate, severe, and very severe COPD (n=267) completed a number of self-report questionnaires. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of patients with distinct symptom experiences based on the occurrence of self-reported symptoms using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Results Based on the probability of occurrence of a number of physical and psychological symptoms, three subgroups of patients (ie, latent classes) were identified and named “high”, “intermediate”, and “low”. Across the three latent classes, the pairwise comparisons for the classification of airflow limitation in COPD were not significantly different, which suggests that measurements of respiratory function are not associated with COPD patients’ symptom burden and their specific needs for symptom management. While patients in both the “high” and “intermediate” classes had high occurrence rates for respiratory symptoms, patients in the “high” class had the highest occurrence rates for psychological symptoms. Compared with the “intermediate” class, patients in the “high” class were younger, more likely to be women, had significantly more acute exacerbations in the past year, and reported significantly worse disease-specific quality of life scores. Conclusion These findings suggest that subgroups of COPD patients with distinct symptom experiences can be identified. Patients with a higher symptom burden warrant more detailed assessments and may have therapeutic needs that would not be identified using current classifications based only on

  13. Therapies to improve the cosmetic symptoms of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Rosacea is a commonly encountered chronic inflammatory skin disease with a predilection for highly visible areas of the skin such as the face. The cosmetic symptoms of rosacea can be substantial and may greatly reduce a patient's quality of life. Although there is no definitive cure for rosacea, effective treatment of symptoms can mitigate the deleterious effects of this condition and improve quality of life. In this article, we review both existing and emerging cosmetic treatments for rosacea, including topical medications, systemic pharmacologic therapies, light-based modalities, and procedural interventions, and assess their ability to improve the cosmetic symptoms of rosacea.

  14. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Tiara Santos; Borja, Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%), auricular fullness (30.5%) and humming (27.5), being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p = 0,000) and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young. PMID:25991931

  15. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  16. Neurobiology Underlying Fibromyalgia Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ceko, Marta; Bushnell, M. Catherine; Gracely, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, clinical symptoms that include cognitive and sleep disturbances, and other abnormalities such as increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, increased sensitivity to multiple sensory modalities, and altered pain modulatory mechanisms. Here we relate experimental findings of fibromyalgia symptoms to anatomical and functional brain changes. Neuroimaging studies show augmented sensory processing in pain-related areas, which, together with gray matter decreases and neurochemical abnormalities in areas related to pain modulation, supports the psychophysical evidence of altered pain perception and inhibition. Gray matter decreases in areas related to emotional decision making and working memory suggest that cognitive disturbances could be related to brain alterations. Altered levels of neurotransmitters involved in sleep regulation link disordered sleep to neurochemical abnormalities. Thus, current evidence supports the view that at least some fibromyalgia symptoms are associated with brain dysfunctions or alterations, giving the long-held “it is all in your head” view of the disorder a new meaning. PMID:22135739

  17. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  18. Centrosymmetry vs noncentrosymmetry in La2Ga0.33SbS5 and Ce4GaSbS9 based on the interesting size effects of lanthanides: Syntheses, crystal structures, and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hua-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Two new quaternary sulfides La2Ga0.33SbS5 and Ce4GaSbS9 have been prepared from stoichiometric elements at 1223 K in an evacuated silica tube. Interestingly, La2Ga0.33SbS5 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric structure, while Ce4GaSbS9 crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric structure, which show obvious size effects of lanthanides on the crystal structures of these two compounds. Ce4GaSbS9 belongs to RE4GaSbS9 (RE=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Ho) structure type with a=13.8834(9) Å, b=14.3004(11) Å, c=14.4102(13) Å, V=2861.0(4) Å3. The structure features infinite chains of [Ga2Sb2S1110-]∞ propagating along a direction separated by Ce3+ cations and S2- anions. La2Ga0.33SbS5 adopts the family of La4FeSb2S10-related structure with a=7.5193(6) Å, c=13.4126(17) Å, V=758.35(13) Å3. Its structure is built up from the alternate stacking of La/Sb/S and La/Ga/S 2D building blocks. The La/Sb/S slabs consist of teeter-totter chains of Sb1S4 seesaws, which are connected via sharing the apexes of μ4-S1. Moreover, La1 is positionally disordered with Sb1 and stabilized in a bicapped trigonal prismatic coordination sphere. Between these La/Sb/S slabs, La2S8 square antiprisms are connected via edge-sharing into 2D building blocks, creating tetrahedral sites partially occupied by the Ga1 atoms. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy study shows that the optical gap of La2Ga0.33SbS5 is about 1.76 eV.

  19. Workplace Training at SBS Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Lynette

    2001-01-01

    Notes that at Australia's Special Broadcasting Services Radio, workplace training is an essential requirement for on-air staff but a degree in journalism or communications is an enormous advantage. Describes several in-house accredited competency-based modules in journalism and broadcasting. (RS)

  20. Symptoms of Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Types of Fungal Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Healthcare Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes ...

  1. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms a person feels are related to psychological factors. These symptoms can't be traced to a specific physical cause. In people who have a somatic symptom and related disorder, medical test results are either normal or don't explain ...

  2. Medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Margaret L; Paauw, Douglas S

    2014-05-01

    In summary, caring for patients with MUS is challenging for health care providers. Even defining somatization syndromes is complex and controversial, reflecting the medical community’s limited understanding of the pathophysiology for this group of disorders. Although risk factors for MUS have been described and are well understood, little is known about how MUS can be prevented. Uncertainty in medicine, as in any human enterprise, is a given, but the difficulties in identification and treatment of patients with MUS highlight the limitations in understanding the intersection between physical and mental health. Patients come to their physician looking for clarity, understanding, and relief of debilitating symptoms. The understanding of MUS will evolve, and perhaps an organic cause not yet understood or described may emerge to lend clarity and therapeutic opportunities to some patients with somatic disorders. In the meantime, the most powerful tools available are the ability to communicate the limits of current understanding, acknowledge the difficulties faced by patients with this disorder, and reinforce the willingness and desire of clinicians to partner with patients as the focus shifts from diagnosis to symptom management. Thus, the physician-patient relationship, still in its rightful place at the heart of the practice of medicine, lies at the center of effective treatment of patients with MUS.

  3. Medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Margaret L; Paauw, Douglas S

    2014-05-01

    In summary, caring for patients with MUS is challenging for health care providers. Even defining somatization syndromes is complex and controversial, reflecting the medical community’s limited understanding of the pathophysiology for this group of disorders. Although risk factors for MUS have been described and are well understood, little is known about how MUS can be prevented. Uncertainty in medicine, as in any human enterprise, is a given, but the difficulties in identification and treatment of patients with MUS highlight the limitations in understanding the intersection between physical and mental health. Patients come to their physician looking for clarity, understanding, and relief of debilitating symptoms. The understanding of MUS will evolve, and perhaps an organic cause not yet understood or described may emerge to lend clarity and therapeutic opportunities to some patients with somatic disorders. In the meantime, the most powerful tools available are the ability to communicate the limits of current understanding, acknowledge the difficulties faced by patients with this disorder, and reinforce the willingness and desire of clinicians to partner with patients as the focus shifts from diagnosis to symptom management. Thus, the physician-patient relationship, still in its rightful place at the heart of the practice of medicine, lies at the center of effective treatment of patients with MUS. PMID:24758967

  4. Rheumatoid symptoms following breast cancer treatment: a controlled comparison.

    PubMed

    Andrykowski, M A; Curran, S L; Carpenter, J S; Studts, J L; Cunningham, L; McGrath, P C; Sloan, D A; Kenady, D E

    1999-08-01

    The prevalence of rheumatoid symptoms following breast cancer (BC) treatment was examined. Breast cancer patients (n = 111) who were a mean of 27.6 months postcompletion of BC treatment and 99 otherwise healthy women with benign breast problems (BBP) completed a self-report measure that assessed current joint pain, swelling, and stiffness, as well as measures of quality of life. Results supported a hypothesized link between BC and rheumatoid symptoms: (1) the BC group was more likely to report joint stiffness lasting more than 60 min following morning waking; (2) the prevalence of unilateral or bilateral joint point or swelling was greater (P < 0.10) in the BC group for four of 10 joint-symptom combinations examined, with differences between the BC and BBP groups in upper extremity joint swelling particularly pronounced; and (3) 41% of the BC group reported that current rheumatoid symptoms exceeded those experienced prior to diagnosis. Within the BC group, the data did not support postchemotherapy rheumatism as an explanation for rheumatoid symptoms. Rather, data suggested that symptoms were associated with surgical management of BC. Finally, among women in the BC group with the most severe joint pain, only a minority were receiving medication for these symptoms. Given the relationship between rheumatoid symptoms and quality of life, more systematic research examining potential contributing factors such as menopausal status, concurrent lymphedema, and weight gain is warranted.

  5. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  6. Cryptorchidism --disease or symptom?

    PubMed

    Toppari, Jorma; Rodprasert, Wiwat; Virtanen, Helena E

    2014-05-01

    Testes descend to the scrotum normally before birth. When they fail to do so, the boy is cryptorchid and has an increased risk for testicular germ cell cancer and subfertility later in life. Early correction of maldescent by orchiopexy operation improves the spermatogenetic capacity of the testis but does not return the testicular cancer risk to the control level. Testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3. Cryptorchidism can therefore be considered a symptom of impaired testicular function that may also be linked to other testicular diseases, such as germ cell cancer and subfertility. Early orchiopexy can alleviate the effects of cryptorchidism on spermatogenesis, but alertness for testicular cancer should be maintained. In searching the genetic and environmental reasons for these diseases, it is useful to consider their connection with each other. PMID:24786701

  7. Therapy-resistant symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vorovenci, Ruxandra Julia; Biundo, Roberta; Antonini, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has come a long way, leading to an increase in therapeutic options that now include oral and transdermal drug delivery, infusion as well as surgical treatments. Nonetheless, in the evolution of this complex neurodegenerative disorder, several symptoms remain refractory to dopaminergic therapy. It is our aim to review the literature to date and to bring them into focus, as well as emphasizing on pathophysiological mechanisms, profile of risk factors in their development, and therapeutic options. We will focus on freezing of gait, camptocormia, dysphagia and dysphonia, as well as cognitive impairment and dementia because they represent the far end of therapy-resistant symptoms, encompassing poor health-related quality of life and often a more reserved prognosis with either a rapid evolution of the disease, and/or merely a more severe clinical picture. Pathophysiological mechanisms and brain neurotransmitter abnormalities behind these symptoms seem to overlap to some extent, and a better understanding of these correlations is desirable. We believe that further research is paramount to expand our knowledge of the dopamine-resistant symptoms and, consequently, to develop specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:26410626

  8. Longitudinal modelling of respiratory symptoms in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlink, Uwe; Fritz, Gisela; Herbarth, Olf; Richter, Matthias

    2002-08-01

    A panel of 277 children, aged 3-7 years, was used to study the association between air pollution (O3, SO2, NO2, and total suspended particles), meteorological factors (global radiation, maximum daytime temperature, daily averages of vapour pressure and air humidity) and respiratory symptoms. For 759 days the symptoms were recorded in a diary and modelling was based on a modification of the method proposed by Korn and Whittemore (Biometrics 35: 795-798, 1979). This approach (1) comprises an extension using environmental parameters at different time scales, (2) addresses the suitability of using the daily fraction of symptomatic individuals to account for inter-individual interactions and (3) enables the most significant weather effects to be identified. The resulting model consisted of (1) an individual specific intercept that takes account of the population's heterogeneity, (2) the individual's health status the day before, (3) a long-term meteorological effect, which may be either the squared temperature or global radiation in interaction with temperature, (4) the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide, and (5) the short-term effect of an 8-h ozone concentration above 60 µg/m3. Using the estimated parameters as input to a simulation study, we checked the quality of the model and demonstrate that the annual cycle of the prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated to atmospheric covariates. Individuals suffering from allergy have been identified as a group of a particular susceptibility to ozone. The duration of respiratory symptoms appears to be free of scale and follows an exponential distribution function, which confirms that the symptom record of each individual follows a Poisson point-process. This supports the assumption that not only respiratory diseases, but also respiratory symptoms can be considered an independent measure for the health status of a population sample. Since a point process is described by only one parameter (namely the intensity of the

  9. Symptoms and their correlates in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D

    2007-10-01

    While there is a significant body of literature documenting the impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) experienced by patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), recent work has helped to elucidate the mediators of impaired well-being in this patient group. Physical and emotional symptoms have been shown to be common, frequently severe, and directly linked with impaired HRQOL. The following review explores the process of symptom assessment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), presents an overview of the composite burden and importance of symptoms in patients with ESRD, highlights particularly common and distressing symptoms for which existing treatment strategies may be applicable, and discusses future directions for efforts to address and alleviate symptoms in the growing population of patients who suffer from CKD.

  10. Reciprocal, Longitudinal Associations among Adolescents' Negative Feedback-Seeking, Depressive Symptoms, and Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations among adolescents' negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, perceptions of friendship quality, and peer-reported social preference over an 11-month period. A total of 478 adolescents in grades 6-8 completed measures of negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, friendship quality,…

  11. An Open-Label Study of Risperidone in the Improvement of Quality of Life and Treatment of Symptoms of Violent and Self-Injurious Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Stephen G.; Rendall, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    Background: We examined the benefits of risperidone, including quality of life (QoL), in the treatment of violent and self-injurious behaviour in adults with moderate, severe or profound intellectual disability. Methods: Twenty-four participants received open-label, oral, flexible-dose risperidone of 0.5-6 mg/day for 12 weeks. Efficacy was…

  12. [Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms].

    PubMed

    Timonen, Kaisa; Nuutinen, Pauliina; Raili, Kauppinen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms Cutaneous symptoms of porphyrias are initiated from a phototoxic reaction caused by sunlight and circulating porphyrins in the vascular walls of the skin. This leads in fragility, blistering and scarring of the skin on light-exposed areas. There are approximately 200 patients having hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms in Finland. Cutaneous symptoms of variegate porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda are indistinguishable, but an effective treatment is available only for the latter. Differential diagnosis is important due to acute episodes occurring in variegate porphyria.

  13. Indoor environmental exposures and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Michael

    2002-08-01

    The label "sick building syndrome" is often used to imply the absence of a physiologic basis for symptoms in the built environment. Although building-related illness is widely recognized but considered rare, several well-studied mechanisms may be responsible for many symptoms in buildings. These mechanisms do not explain why some individuals perceive disability. Until researchers distinguish physiologic mechanisms from other aspects of disease and study them systematically, poorly defined symptoms will remain poorly understood. The disability associated with such symptoms and syndromes, not the physiology, is the primary interest and generates controversy.

  14. Relationships Among Premenstrual Symptom Reports, Menstrual Attitudes, and Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Lustyk, M. Kathleen B.; Gerrish, Winslow G.; Douglas, Haley; Bowen, Sarah; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2016-01-01

    The physical and affective symptoms of a broad range of conditions are improved following mindfulness-based practices. One set of symptoms that has yet to be explored through the lens of mindfulness, however, is that associated with the premenstruum. Also, given the relationships among negative attitudes towards menstruation and amplified symptom reporting, it is reasonable to expect that mindfulness qualities cultivated through practices aimed at dispelling negative anticipatory and judgmental thinking will moderate these relationships. Thus, in this study we examined interrelationships among premenstrual symptom severity reports (PMSR), menstrual attitudes, and mindfulness qualities in a sample of 127 women (age range 18–26 years). Results revealed several statistically significant positive relationships between menstrual attitudes and PMSR. Also, higher scores on measures of mindfulness were significantly associated with lower PMSR. Moderating effects revealed that mindfulness significantly buffered the relationships between menstrual attitudes and PMSR, specifically between: anticipation of menses onset and PMSR as well as anticipation of menses onset and premenstrual water retention. These results may offer the first empirical evidence of relationships among menstrual attitudes, PMSR, and mindfulness qualities. Results from this study align with the body of research showing that mindfulness is predictive of improved symptomatology and well-being across varied conditions. We conclude with discussion supporting the development of a mindfulness-based intervention aimed at reducing symptom severity in premenstrual symptom sufferers. PMID:27162560

  15. Initial symptom burden predicts duration of symptoms after concussion★

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, William P.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Geminiani, Ellen; Mannix, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine which variables predict prolonged (>28 days) duration of symptoms after a concussion. Design We conducted a prospective cohort study of adult (>18yo) patients cared for in a specialty concussion clinic. Methods Symptoms were assessed using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) developed at the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sports. Possible predictors including age, sex, loss of consciousness, amnesia, history of prior concussion, prior treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussions, were measured by self-report. We recorded a PCSS score at each clinical visit and defined time to symptom resolution as the number of days between the date of injury and date of last symptoms. Results Of 64 adult patients included in the study, 53.3% were male; 20.3% reported experiencing a loss of consciousness at the time of injury while 23.4% reported amnesia. Patients ranged in age from 18 to 27 years (mean 21 ± 2 years). Most concussions (92.2%) occurred during sports. The mean initial PCSS score for those suffering symptoms for longer than 28 days was significantly higher than those who symptoms resolved within 28 days (42.5 vs. 19.2, p < 0.01). Of all potential predictor variables, only the initial PCSS score was independently associated with the odds of symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (aOR 1.037; 95% CI 1.011, 1.063). Conclusions Among adult patients with concussions, those with a higher symptom burden after injury have an increased odds of suffering from prolonged symptoms. Other potential predictor variables are not associated with the risk of prolonged recovery. PMID:26718812

  16. Depressive symptoms induce paranoid symptoms in narcissistic personalities (but not narcissistic symptoms in paranoid personalities).

    PubMed

    Joiner, Thomas E; Petty, Scharles; Perez, Marisol; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Rudd, M David

    2008-05-30

    Based on clinical experience, anecdotal reports, and past empirical and conceptual work, we predicted that when people with narcissistic tendencies experience depressive symptoms, they are prone to develop paranoid attitudes. Moreover, we expected that this process was unidirectional, and that the combination of paranoid tendencies and depressive symptoms would not be associated with an increase in narcissistic symptoms. In both cases, results from our 6-month longitudinal study of 71 previously suicidal adults conformed to our expectations.

  17. Nonmotor Symptoms and Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beom S; Paek, Sun Ha

    2015-05-01

    Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is an established treatment for the motor symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition to improvements in motor symptoms, many studies have reported changes in various nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) after STN DBS in patients with PD. Psychiatric symptoms, including depression, apathy, anxiety, and impulsivity, can worsen or improve depending on the electrical stimulation parameters, the locations of the stimulating contacts within the STN, and changes in medications after surgery. Global cognitive function is not affected by STN DBS, and there is no increase in the incidence of dementia after STN DBS compared to that after medical treatment, although clinically insignificant declines in verbal fluency have been consistently reported. Pain, especially PD-related pain, improves with STN DBS. Evidence regarding the effects of STN DBS on autonomic symptoms and sleep-related problems is limited and remains conflicting. Many symptoms of nonmotor fluctuations, which are occasionally more troublesome than motor fluctuations, improve with STN DBS. Although it is clear that NMSs are not target symptoms for STN DBS, NMSs have a strong influence on the quality of life of patients with PD, and clinicians should thus be aware of these NMSs when deciding whether to perform surgery and should pay attention to changes in these symptoms after STN DBS to ensure the optimal care for patients. PMID:26090080

  18. Symptom Burden in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Kuehn, Carrie M.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Cardenas, Diane D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine (1) the frequency, severity, and reported course of 7 symptoms in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (2) the association between these symptoms and patient functioning. Design Postal survey. Setting Community. Intervention A survey that included measures of the frequency, severity, and recalled course of pain, fatigue, numbness, weakness, shortness of breath, vision loss, and memory loss, as well as a measure of community integration and psychologic functioning was mailed to a sample of persons with SCI. One hundred forty-seven usable surveys were returned (response rate, 43% of surveys mailed). Main Outcome Measures The frequency and average severity of each symptom was computed, and the frequencies of each type of reported course were noted. Analyses estimated the associations among the symptoms, and between symptom severity and measures of patient functioning. Results The most common symptoms were pain, weakness, fatigue, and numbness. All symptoms were reported to remain the same or to get worse more often than they were reported to improve once they began. Pain, weakness, fatigue, and memory loss were the symptoms most closely associated with patient functioning. Conclusions Patients with SCI must deal with a number of secondary complications in addition to any disability caused by the injury itself. Of 7 symptoms studied, pain, weakness, and fatigue appeared to be most common and most closely linked to patient social and mental health functioning. Research is needed to identify the causal relationships between perceived symptoms and quality of life in patients with SCI and to identify effective treatments for those symptoms shown to impact patient functioning. PMID:17466734

  19. Late-life Depressive Symptoms: Prediction Models of Change

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Carmen; Wagner, Fernando A.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Espinel-Bermúdez, Claudia; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario; Arango-Lopera, Victoria; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Ramírez-Aldana, Ricardo; Gallo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a well-recognised problem in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with predictors of change in depressive symptoms, both in subjects with and without baseline significant depressive symptoms. Methods Longitudinal study of community-dwelling elderly people (>60 years or older), baseline evaluations, and two additional evaluations were reported. Depressive symptoms were measured using a 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale, and a score of 11 was used as cutoff point for significant depressive symptoms in order to stratify the analyses in two groups: with significant depressive symptoms and without significant depressive symptoms. Sociodemographic data, social support, anxiety, cognition, positive affect, control locus, activities of daily living, recent traumatic life events, physical activity, comorbidities, and quality of life were evaluated. Multi-level generalised estimating equation model was used to assess the impact on the trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results 7,882 subjects were assessed, with 29.42% attrition. At baseline assessment, mean age was 70.96 years, 61.15% were women. Trajectories of depressive symptoms had a decreasing trend. Stronger associations in those with significant depressive symptoms, were social support (OR .971, p<.001), chronic pain (OR 2.277, p<.001) and higher locus of control (OR .581, p<.001). In contrast for those without baseline significant depressive symptoms anxiety and a higher locus of control were the strongest associations. Conclusions New insights into late-life depression are provided, with special emphasis in differentiated factors influencing the trajectory when stratifying regarding basal status of significant depressive symptoms. Limitations The study has not included clinical evaluations and nutritional assessments PMID:23731940

  20. Pneumococcal Disease: Symptoms and Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacteremia and sepsis are blood infections. Symptoms include: Fever Chills Low alertness Pneumococcus bacteria causes up to half of middle ear infections (otitis media). Symptoms include: Ear pain A red, swollen ear drum Fever Sleepiness  Top of Page Complications Some pneumococcal ...

  1. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  2. New classification scheme for atrial fibrillation symptom severity and burden.

    PubMed

    Koci, Florian; Forbes, Peter; Mansour, Moussa C; Heist, E Kevin; Singh, Jagmeet P; Ellinor, Patrick T; Ruskin, Jeremy N

    2014-07-15

    Although atrial fibrillation (AF) symptom severity is used to guide clinical care, a simple, standardized assessment tool is not available for routine clinical use. We sought to develop and validate a patient-generated score and classification scheme for AF-related symptom severity and burden. Atrial Fibrillation Symptom and Burden, a simple 2-part questionnaire, was designed to assess (1) AF symptom severity using 8 questions to determine how symptoms affect daily life and (2) AF burden using 6 questions to measure AF frequency, duration, and health-care utilization. The resulting score was used to classify patients into 4 classes of symptom and burden severity. Patients were asked to complete the questionnaire, a survey evaluating the questionnaire, and an Short Form-12v2 generic health-related quality-of-life form. Validation of the questionnaire included assessments of its reliability and construct and known groups validity. The strength of interrater agreement between patient-generated and blinded provider-generated classifications of AF symptom severity was also assessed. The survey had good internal consistency (Cronbach α>0.82) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.93). There was a good linear correlation with health-related quality-of-life aggregates measured by Pearson correlation coefficient (r=0.62 and 0.42 vs physical component summary and mental component summary, respectively). Compared with physical and mental component summary scores, the patient-generated symptom severity classification scheme showed robust discrimination between mild and moderate severity (p<0.0001 and p=0.0009) and between moderate and severe groups (p=0.0001 and p=0.012). In conclusion, this simple patient-generated AF classification scheme is robust, internally consistent, reproducible, and highly correlated with standardized quality-of-life measures. PMID:24878121

  3. Edifice complex

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H. )

    1988-01-01

    Sick building syndrome (SBS) may affect as many as 20% of the office workers in the United States. In a survey of U.S. office workers, symptoms associated by respondents with poor air quality included a tired, sleepy feeling (56%), a congested nose (45%), eye irritations (41%), difficulty in breathing (40%), and headaches (39%). Efforts to control and abate the causes of SBS in buildings are potentially important to the economy and to public health. The paper reviews selected published reports related to SBS. A discussion of some of the problems limiting our understanding of it is presented.

  4. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Huseini, Mustafa; Wood, G. Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Argyropoulos, George; Irving, Brian A.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Benotti, Peter; Still, Christopher; Rolston, David D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several reports have shown an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in obese subjects in community-based studies. To better understand the role of the GI tract in obesity, and because there are limited clinic-based studies, we documented the prevalence of upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a clinic setting. Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a weight management clinic with non-obese individuals with similar comorbidities as morbidly obese individuals in an Internal Medicine clinic. Methods: Class II and III obese patients BMI >35 kg/m2 (N = 114) and 182 non-obese patients (BMI <25 kg/m2) completed the GI symptoms survey between August 2011 and April 2012 were included in this study. The survey included 24 items pertaining to upper and lower GI symptoms. The participants rated the frequency of symptoms as absent (never, rarely) or present (occasionally, frequently). The symptoms were clustered into five categories: oral symptoms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and bowel habits. Responses to each symptom cluster were compared between obese group and normal weight groups using logistic regression. Results: Of the 24 items, 18 had a higher frequency in the obese group (p < 0.005 for each). After adjusting for age and gender, the obese patients were more likely to have upper GI symptoms: any oral symptom (OR = 2.3, p = 0.0013), dysphagia (OR 2.9, p = 0.0006), and any gastroesophageal reflux (OR 3.8, p < 0.0001). Similarly, the obese patients were more likely to have lower GI symptoms: any abdominal pain (OR = 1.7, p = 0.042) and altered bowel habits (OR = 2.8, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: These observations suggest a statistically significant increase in frequency of both upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese patients when compared to non-obese subjects. PMID:25593922

  5. Conversational conduct and the symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Frith, R C

    1996-11-01

    In an attempt to refine further the argument that certain patients with schizophrenia have problems understanding the mental states of other people, appreciation of the Gricean maxims of quantity, quality, and relation, and the more contextually specific need to be polite was examined amongst patients differing in their current symptom profiles. Five sets of five stories were given to the subjects who had to choose the likely final piece of speech of one of the characters. Subjects chose from two alternatives, one adhered to the rule under question whereas the other flouted that rule. Patients with negative symptoms were inclined to flout all maxims with the exception of the maxim of relation which was adhered to by all groups. It is argued that these patients have a severe ''theory of mind'' deficit that encompasses knowledge of conversational rules. The performance of patients with paranoid delusions was more selective in that they often failed to respond in a polite fashion when this was indicated by the context but performed at a level with controls on the stories involving the original Gricean maxims. These effects were largely independent of current intellectual level. The results suggest that although patients with negative behavioural signs suffer a ''theory of mind'' deficit similar to that seen in autism, those with paranoid symptoms have a more specific ''online'' mentalising deficit which becomes evident only when the skill is challenged by situations where context-dependent behaviour is determined by an appreciation of another's mental state.

  6. Symptoms: Menopause, Infertility, and Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Barton, Debra L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    By 2022, the number of survivors is expected to grow to nearly 18 million. Therefore, addressing acute and chronic negative sequelae of a cancer diagnosis and its treatments becomes a health imperative. For women with a history of breast cancer, one of the common goals of treatment and prevention of recurrence is to reduce circulating concentrations of estradiol, especially in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Hormone deprivation after a diagnosis of breast cancer impacts physiological targets other than in the breast tissue and can result in unwanted side effects, all of which can negatively impact quality of life and function and cause distress. Symptoms that are most strongly linked by evidence to hormone changes after cancer diagnosis and treatment include hot flashes, night sweats, sleep changes, fatigue, mood changes, and diminishing sexual function, including vaginal atrophy (decreased arousal, dryness and dyspareunia), infertility, decreased desire and negative self-image. Weight gain and resulting body image changes are often concomitants of the abrupt onset of treatment-induced menopause. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly review what is known about the advent of premature menopause in women treated for breast cancer, menopausal symptoms that are exacerbated by endocrine treatments for breast cancer, and the associated concerns of hot flashes and related menopausal symptoms, sexual health and fertility issues. We will discuss limitations in the current research and propose strategies that address current limitations in order to move the science forward. PMID:26059933

  7. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, John M

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that α adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5α reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an α adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery. PMID:25125424

  8. Turning symptoms into allies: utilization approaches with posttraumatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M

    1993-01-01

    Adult patients with symptoms connected to the trauma of childhood sexual abuse often present in therapy with multiple symptoms and life difficulties and offer a challenge to even the most experienced clinician. In this paper, I describe my work with three such patients who were crippled in different ways by symptoms that had proved resistant to years of various therapeutic interventions. In every case, I accepted and utilized these symptoms as positive resources for successful and rapid change. Patients were then taught self-utilization approaches which allowed them to sustain and extend initial improvements. I conclude that the indirect utilization principle introduced by Milton Erickson provides an effective method to use in approaching some of the more persistent patterns of posttraumatic symptomatology related to childhood sexual abuse.

  9. Psychotic symptoms in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Devin; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2015-07-01

    Although psychotic features have long been recognized in association with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), recent genetic discoveries enabling further subtyping of FTD have revealed that psychotic symptoms are frequent in some forms of FTD. Hallucinations and delusions can even precede onset of other cognitive or behavioural symptoms in patients with FTD. In this review, we explore the frequency and types of psychotic symptoms reported in patients with FTD, as well as in other neuropsychiatric disorders, to aid practitioners' consideration of these features in the diagnosis of FTD and related disorders.

  10. Application of Text Mining in Cancer Symptom Management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ji; Donovan, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue continues to be one of the main symptoms that afflict ovarian cancer patients and negatively affects their functional status and quality of life. To manage fatigue effectively, the symptom must be understood from the perspective of patients. We utilized text mining to understand the symptom experiences and strategies that were associated with fatigue among ovarian cancer patients. Through text analysis, we determined that descriptors such as energetic, challenging, frustrating, struggling, unmanageable, and agony were associated with fatigue. Descriptors such as decadron, encourager, grocery, massage, relaxing, shower, sleep, zoloft, and church were associated with strategies to ameliorate fatigue. This study demonstrates the potential of applying text mining in cancer research to understand patients' perspective on symptom management. Future study will consider various factors to refine the results. PMID:27332415

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine and physical activity for menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Taya L; Mark, Saralyn

    2004-01-01

    Forty percent of all menopausal women seek medical attention to alleviate symptoms of menopause, a natural physiologic process. Severe symptoms and an overall decrease in quality of life have prompted many women to demand additional information and treatment. Although menopausal hormone therapy has been the standard, increasing evidence suggests that women are looking to complementary and alternative therapies for management and treatment of menopausal symptoms. Modalities such as physical activity, diet supplements, body work, and mind-body techniques are often used without evaluation or treatment by conventional health care providers. Many of these treatments may present varying risks and contraindications. Consequently, there is a great need for ongoing education and research to ensure alternative therapy use is not only effective, but also safe. This paper provides a systematic review of current complementary and alternative modalities and of physical activity used in the management and treatment of menopausal symptoms.

  12. Psychological and physical correlates of musculoskeletal symptoms in male professional divers and offshore workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Underwater divers are more likely to complain of musculoskeletal symptoms than a control population. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine whether musculoskeletal symptoms reflected observable physical disorder, to ascertain the relationship between symptoms and measures of mood, memory and executive function and to assess any need for future screening. Methods A 10% random sample of responders to a prior postal health questionnaire was examined (151 divers, 120 non-diving offshore workers). Participants underwent physical examination and a neuropsychological test battery for memory and executive function. Participants also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for anxiety (HADSa) and depression (HADSd), and questionnaires for physical health-related quality of life (SF36 PCS), mental health-related quality of life (SF36 MCS), memory (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ)), executive function (dysexecutive syndrome questionnaire (DEX)), musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and general unrelated symptom reporting. Results Of participants with moderate/severe musculoskeletal symptoms, 52% had physical signs, and of participants with no symptoms, 73% had no physical signs. There was no difference in the prevalence of signs or symptoms between groups. Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with lower SF36 PCS for both groups. In divers, musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with higher general unrelated symptom reporting and poorer scoring for HADSa, PRMQ, CFQ and DEX with scores remaining within the normative range. A positive physical examination was associated with general unrelated symptom reporting in divers. There were no differences in neuropsychological test scores attributable to either group or musculoskeletal symptoms. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with physical signs, but this was not a strong effect. Reporting of musculoskeletal symptoms by

  13. COPD symptoms in the morning: impact, evaluation and management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms in the morning, including dyspnea and sputum production, affect patients’ quality of life and limit their ability to carry out even simple morning activities. It is now emerging that these symptoms are associated with increased risk of exacerbations and work absenteeism, suggesting that they have a more profound impact on patients than previously thought. The development of validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires to capture patients’ experience of COPD symptoms in the morning is, therefore, vital for establishing effective and comprehensive management strategies. Although it is well established that long-acting bronchodilators are effective in improving COPD symptoms, the limited available data on their impact on morning symptoms and activities have been obtained with non-validated PRO questionnaires. In this review, we discuss the impact of COPD symptoms in the morning and available tools used to evaluate them, and highlight specific gaps that need to be addressed to develop standardized instruments able to meet regulatory requirement. We also present available evidence on the effect of pharmacological therapies on morning symptoms. PMID:24143997

  14. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

  15. Measles (Rubeola): Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Initiative World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Signs and Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... of a patient with Koplik spots, an early sign of measles infection. Three to five days after ...

  16. The Liver Disease Symptom Index 2.0; validation of a disease-specific questionnaire.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Simone M; Hansen, Bettina E; de Boer, Josien B; Stijnen, Theo; Passchier, Jan; de Man, Rob A; Schalm, Solko W

    2004-10-01

    The available liver disease-specific questionnaires do address severity of symptoms but hardly evaluate how patients experience these specific symptoms during daily activities. The Liver Disease Symptom Index 2.0 (LDSI) includes 18 items that measure symptom severity and symptom hindrance in the past week. In a large survey (n = 1175) conducted in collaboration with the Dutch liver patient association, convergent and divergent construct validity and the surplus value of including symptom severity and symptom hindrance items in the LDSI were examined. The LDSI items showed expected convergent and divergent correlations with Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Multidimensional Fatigue Index-20 (MFI-20) scales. Correlations revealed only a slight to moderate overlap between LDSI items and SF-36 and MFI-20 scales. The impact of symptom severity and symptom hindrance on generic health related quality of life (HRQoL) varied in a different way across liver patients, which indicated that symptom severity items and the symptom hindrance items measure different aspects of HRQoL. We conclude that the LDSI provides information complementary to the information given by the SF-36 and the MFI-20 and that it is psychometrically sound to include both symptom severity items and symptom hindrance items in the LDSI. PMID:15503842

  17. Fatigue in cholestatic liver disease—a perplexing symptom

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, D; Tandon, R

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue is an important symptom and a quality of life determinant in patients with cholestatic liver disease. The pathogenesis of fatigue is obscure, although alterations in central neurotransmission and peripheral muscle dysfunction have been incriminated. No effective treatment is available at present. The available literature on fatigue in cholestatic liver disease is reviewed. PMID:12151655

  18. PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms module feasibility reliability and validity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to report on the measurement properties of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Module for patients with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders (FGIDs) and organic GI diseases, hereafter referred to as "GI disorders," for pati...

  19. Fibromyalgia: patient perspectives on symptoms, symptom management, and provider utilization.

    PubMed

    Wassem, Rebecca; McDonald, Marie; Racine, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Two surveys of individuals with fibromyalgia were conducted to assess the frequency and prevalence of symptoms (N = 99) as well as healthcare providers, medications, and self-care activities used to manage one's fibromyalgia (N = 54). The pervasiveness of symptoms was striking, with 24 various symptoms ranging from cognitive to intestinal problems occurring in at least 75% of the respondents. Significant correlations were present between health status and both physical (P = .002) and psychological (P =.008) symptoms. There was also a significant correlation between the total number of symptoms and the degree of life disruption attributed to fibromyalgia (P =.015). A variety of healthcare professionals were seen, with internists, family physicians, and rheumatologist most frequently used. Although at least 80% of the respondents reported difficulty with anxiety, confusion, irritability, depression, and cognitive difficulties, less than 10% of the respondents reported seeing a psychiatrist. Most frequently used medications were: amitriptyline, (fluoxetine HCl) Prozac, ibuprofen (Motrin), sertraline HCI (Zoloft), and zolpidem (Ambein). Self-care activities used with the most success were walking, stretching, and exercising. These studies indicate the need for more research and support for healthcare providers as well as patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:11839925

  20. What Are the Symptoms of Endometriosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of endometriosis? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... symptoms, may cause these endometriosis symptoms to continue. Endometriosis-Related Pain Researchers know that pain is a ...

  1. Should Unexplained Painful Physical Symptoms be Considered within the Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Aguado, Jaume; Dueñas, Héctor; Peng, Xiaomei; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether painful physical symptoms (PPS) can be considered within the spectrum of depressive symptoms. Methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month observational study mostly conducted in East Asia, Mexico, and the Middle East of 1,549 depressed patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline. Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) were performed on the combined items of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and the Somatic Symptom Inventory (seven pain-related items only). An additional second-order CFA was also conducted to examine an association between retained factors and the overall “depressive symptoms” factor. In addition, Spearman’s correlation was used to assess levels of correlation between retained factors and depression severity as well as quality of life. Results: Both EFA and CFA suggested and validated a four-factor solution, which included a pain factor. The other three factors identified were a mood/cognitive factor, a sleep disturbance factor, and an appetite/weight disturbance factor. All four factors were significantly associated with the overall factor of depression. They were also highly correlated to depression severity and quality of life (p<0.001 for all). The levels of correlations with the pain factor were generally greater than those with the appetite/weight factor and similar to those with the sleep factor. Conclusion: It may be reasonable to consider PPS within a broad spectrum of depressive symptoms. At least, they should be routinely assessed in patients with depression. Further research is warranted to validate these preliminary findings. PMID:25870649

  2. Gallstone symptoms. Myth and reality.

    PubMed

    Egbert, A M

    1991-10-01

    Gallstones are very common, but at least two thirds of detected stones are asymptomatic and a large number undoubtedly go undetected. The presence of symptoms or complications is the indication for surgery. It is important to accurately identify which symptoms are caused by gallstones, because removing the gallbladder will relieve only these symptoms. Making this determination is a challenge, however, because the classic picture of biliary colic may be inaccurate and the connection between gallstone disease and flatulent dyspepsia is questionable at best. Descriptions of both these conditions are based on anecdotal evidence or reports of uncontrolled surgical series. A review of recent controlled trials suggests that the pain of biliary colic is constant and infrequent, comes in episodes lasting 1 to 5 hours, is located in the epigastrium or right upper quadrant of the abdomen, and characteristically occurs at night. There are few additional symptoms other than nausea or vomiting, and colic is not induced by eating fatty meals. Flatulent dyspepsia--a symptom complex of vague pain in the right upper quadrant, fatty-food intolerance, and bloating--is probably not related to the presence of gallstones in the majority of patients.

  3. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    PubMed

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. PMID:26776387

  4. Inaccurate perception of asthma symptoms: a cognitive-affective framework and implications for asthma treatment.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Thomas; Verleden, Geert; De Peuter, Steven; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2009-06-01

    Inaccurate perception of respiratory symptoms is often found in asthma patients. Typically, patients who inaccurately perceive asthma symptoms are divided into underperceivers and overperceivers. In this paper we point out that this division is problematic. We argue that little evidence exists for a trait-like stability of under- and overperception and that accuracy of respiratory symptom perception is highly variable within persons and strongly influenced by contextual information. Particularly, expectancy and affective cues appear to have a powerful influence on symptom accuracy. Based on these findings and incorporating recent work on associative learning, attention and mental representations in anxiety and symptom perception, we propose a cognitive-affective model of symptom perception in asthma. The model can act as a framework to understand both normal perception as well as under- and overperception of asthma symptoms and can guide the development of affect-related interventions to improve perceptual accuracy, asthma control and quality of life in asthma patients. PMID:19285771

  5. [Alexithymia in negative symptom and non-negative symptom schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Nkam, I; Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Coined by Sifneos in 1972, alexithymia refers to a relative narrowing in emotional functioning, an inability to find appropriate words to describe their emotions and, a poverty of fantasy life. Although initially described in the context of psychosomatic illness, alexithymic characteristics may be observed in patients with a wide range of medical and psychiatric disorders: Parkinson disease, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and eating disorders. Flattening of affect and poverty of speech, major negative symptoms, referred to chronic schizophrenia: there is a lack of outward display of emotion. Accordingly, some disturbances of alexithymia's scores would be expected in schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of alexithymia in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. The term "deficit symptoms" may be used as Carpenter, to refer specifically to those negative symptoms that are not considered secondary. The influence of patients' symptoms has also been studied on alexithymia scores: negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, anhedonia and effects of neuroleptics. Twenty-five patients, meeting DSM III-R criteria for schizophrenia have been studied. All of them treated by neuroleptics, were in a stable clinical status for at least one month. The patients have been categorized into deficit (n = 12) and non-deficit (n = 13) subgroups by one trained psychiatrist (SD), using the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. The subjects have been assessed by the same rater (IN), blind to deficit status, using six rating scales: Beth Israel Questionnaire (BIQ) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) for alexithymia, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and finally, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). Using TAS, alexithymic characteristics were more prevalent in the deficit subgroup as compared to

  6. Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…

  7. Frequency and Correlates of Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder-Like Symptoms after Treatment for Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Matthew J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed Quality Of Life (QOL) and symptoms similar to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women posttreatment for breast cancer. Negatively related PTSD symptomatology to QOL, income, and age. Time since treatment, type of cytotoxic treatment, and stage of disease were unrelated to PTSD symptoms. Suggests that in breast cancer survivors,…

  8. Impact of Nonmotor Symptoms on Disability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Carella, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease have nonmotor symptoms (NMS) that, although poorly considered, have an impact on their quality of life. In contrast, the effect on disability is not systematically evaluated. Adult patients were consecutively enrolled and administered the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule.…

  9. Depressive symptoms associated with dabigatran: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Gul; Enez Darcin, Asli; Saglam, Esra; Gogcegoz Gul, Isil

    2015-09-01

    Several studies have reported that depression and anxiety are very common in atrial fibrillation due to impaired quality of life. Dabigatran is an anti-aggregation agent used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. In terms of drug interactions during treatment with dabigatran, patients suffering from minor depression are reported to be a population at risk. This report is about a 68-year-old man whose depressive symptoms were aggravated after taking dabigatran for atrial fibrillation. The case is discussed in terms of his aggravated depressive symptoms and the interaction between his prescription medications.

  10. Depressive symptoms associated with dabigatran: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Gul; Enez Darcin, Asli; Saglam, Esra; Gogcegoz Gul, Isil

    2015-09-01

    Several studies have reported that depression and anxiety are very common in atrial fibrillation due to impaired quality of life. Dabigatran is an anti-aggregation agent used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. In terms of drug interactions during treatment with dabigatran, patients suffering from minor depression are reported to be a population at risk. This report is about a 68-year-old man whose depressive symptoms were aggravated after taking dabigatran for atrial fibrillation. The case is discussed in terms of his aggravated depressive symptoms and the interaction between his prescription medications. PMID:25515766

  11. Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease in 2012: Relevant Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Jutras, Marie France; Czernecki, Virginie; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Vidailhet, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are common, but they are often underrecognized in clinical practice, because of the lack of spontaneous complaints by the patients, and partly because of the absence of systematic questioning by the consulting physician. However, valid specific instruments for identification and assessment of these symptoms are available in 2012. The administration of the self-completed screening tool, NMSQuest, associated with questioning during the consultation, improves the diagnosis of NMSs. NMSs play a large role in degradation of quality of life. More relevant NMSs are described in this review, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, cognitive deficits, hallucinations, pain, sleep disorders, and dysautonomia. PMID:22888466

  12. Symptoms and Symptom Clusters Identified by Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer Using a Symptom Heuristics App.

    PubMed

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Erickson, Jeanne M; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Stegenga, Kristin; Linder, Lauri A

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer experience multiple distressing symptoms during treatment. Because the typical approach to symptom assessment does not easily reflect the symptom experience of individuals, alternative approaches to enhancing communication between the patient and provider are needed. We developed an iPad-based application that uses a heuristic approach to explore AYAs' cancer symptom experiences. In this mixed-methods descriptive study, 72 AYAs (13-29 years old) with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy used the Computerized Symptom Capture Tool (C-SCAT) to create images of the symptoms and symptom clusters they experienced from a list of 30 symptoms. They answered open-ended questions within the C-SCAT about the causes of their symptoms and symptom clusters. The images generated through the C-SCAT and accompanying free-text data were analyzed using descriptive, content, and visual analyses. Most participants (n = 70) reported multiple symptoms (M = 8.14). The most frequently reported symptoms were nausea (65.3%), feeling drowsy (55.6%), lack of appetite (55.6%), and lack of energy (55.6%). Forty-six grouped their symptoms into one or more clusters. The most common symptom cluster was nausea/eating problems/appetite problems. Nausea was most frequently named as the priority symptom in a cluster and as a cause of other symptoms. Although common threads were present in the symptoms experienced by AYAs, the graphic images revealed unique perspectives and a range of complexity of symptom relationships, clusters, and causes. Results highlight the need for a tailored approach to symptom management based on how the AYA with cancer perceives his or her symptom experience. PMID:26455729

  13. Impact of cabin ozone concentrations on passenger reported symptoms in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G; Weschler, Charles J; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry.

  14. Impact of cabin ozone concentrations on passenger reported symptoms in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G; Weschler, Charles J; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  15. Impact of Cabin Ozone Concentrations on Passenger Reported Symptoms in Commercial Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G.; Weschler, Charles J.; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  16. Subclinical Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Relationships with Blood Pressure, Hostility, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, James A; Zinzow, Heidi M; Hibdon, Melissa A; Nathan, Aaron W; Morrison, Anastasia V; Hayden, Gregg W; Lindberg, Caitlyn; Switzer, Fred S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among subclinical PTSD symptoms, blood pressure, and several variables linked to both frank PTSD and the basic psychobiological adaptation to stress. The authors recruited a sample of 91 healthy, young men and women between 18 and 35 years. We examined links among subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, blood pressure, sleep quality, and hostility. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with poorer sleep quality and higher hostility scores in both women and men. In men, PTSD symptoms were also associated with elevated resting diastolic blood pressure, and sex was an important moderator of that relationship. Moreover, sleep quality and hostility are substantive mediators of the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and PTSD. Behavioral interventions designed to increase sleep quality and restructure hostile attitudes could potentially serve as preventive interventions for PTSD and the underlying cardiovascular comorbidities in young adults. PMID:27403340

  17. Subclinical Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Relationships with Blood Pressure, Hostility, and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Hibdon, Melissa A.; Nathan, Aaron W.; Morrison, Anastasia V.; Hayden, Gregg W.; Lindberg, Caitlyn; Switzer, Fred S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among subclinical PTSD symptoms, blood pressure, and several variables linked to both frank PTSD and the basic psychobiological adaptation to stress. The authors recruited a sample of 91 healthy, young men and women between 18 and 35 years. We examined links among subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, blood pressure, sleep quality, and hostility. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with poorer sleep quality and higher hostility scores in both women and men. In men, PTSD symptoms were also associated with elevated resting diastolic blood pressure, and sex was an important moderator of that relationship. Moreover, sleep quality and hostility are substantive mediators of the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and PTSD. Behavioral interventions designed to increase sleep quality and restructure hostile attitudes could potentially serve as preventive interventions for PTSD and the underlying cardiovascular comorbidities in young adults. PMID:27403340

  18. Prevent the cause, not just the symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lands, Bill

    2011-11-01

    If people stay healthy, less health care treatments need to be paid. Alternatively, health care treatments are uneconomical and unethical when they only remove signs and symptoms and leave the primary cause neglected and unchanged to cause future harm. Neglected preventable causes continue to cause massive health-related financial loss in the US. Monitoring imbalances of omega-3 and omega-6 hormone precursors in individuals can increase awareness and motivation for making efforts to prevent this pervasive diet-related cause of dysfunction, disease and financial loss. We now have low-cost tools for individuals to monitor their balance of omega-3 and omega-6 hormone precursors and to identify and choose foods that will maintain a desired balance and a desired quality of life. PMID:21827870

  19. Massage therapy for fibromyalgia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid

    2010-07-01

    Massage therapy is widely used by patients with fibromyalgia seeking symptom relief. We performed a review of all available studies with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials to determine whether massage therapy can be a viable treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. Extensive narrative review. PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, PEDro, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (inception-December 2009) were searched for the key words "massage", "massotherapy", "self-massage", "soft tissue manipulation", "soft tissue mobilization", "complementary medicine", "fibromyalgia" "fibrositis", and "myofascial pain". No language restrictions were imposed. The reference lists of all articles retrieved in full were also searched. The effects of massage on fibromyalgia symptoms have been examined in two single-arm studies and six randomized controlled trials. All reviewed studies showed short-term benefits of massage, and only one single-arm study demonstrated long-term benefits. All reviewed studies had methodological problems. The existing literature provides modest support for use of massage therapy in treating fibromyalgia. Additional rigorous research is needed in order to establish massage therapy as a safe and effective intervention for fibromyalgia. In massage therapy of fibromyalgia, we suggest that massage will be painless, its intensity should be increased gradually from session to session, in accordance with patient's symptoms; and the sessions should be performed at least 1-2 times a week.

  20. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  1. Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ...

  2. Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    > Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  3. Correlates of urinary symptom scores in men.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B E; Klein, R; Lee, K E; Bruskewitz, R C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the prevalence of urinary symptoms and their relationship to characteristics of a cohort of men in Beaver Dam, Wis, from 1993 to 1995. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire concerning urinary symptoms (the American Urological Association Urinary Symptom Questionnaire) was administered. RESULTS: All outcomes were associated with age and history of enlarged prostate. Urinary frequency (57%) and nocturia (65%) were the most common individual symptoms. Diuretic usage, diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, and smoking were related to specific symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: While urinary symptoms are associated with age and history of enlarged prostate, symptoms may also be attributable to other diseases and exposures. PMID:10553401

  4. Psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Current practices and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Elis, Ori; Caponigro, Janelle M.; Kring, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia can be a chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Though advancements have been made in the psychosocial treatment of some symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience some level of symptoms, particularly negative symptoms, throughout their lives. Because negative symptoms are associated with poor functioning and quality of life, the treatment of negative symptoms is a high priority for intervention development. However, current psychosocial treatments primarily focus on the reduction of positive symptoms with comparatively few studies investigating the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms. In this article, we review and evaluate the existing literature on three categories of psychosocial treatments – cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), social skills training (SST), and combined treatment interventions – and their impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Of the interventions reviewed, CBT and SST appear to have the most empirical support, with some evidence suggesting that CBT is associated with maintenance of negative symptom improvement beyond six months after treatment. It remains unclear if a combined treatment approach provides improvements above and beyond those associated with each individual treatment modality. Although psychosocial treatments show promise for the treatment of negative symptoms, there are many unanswered questions about how best to intervene. We conclude with a general discussion of these unanswered questions, future directions and methodological considerations, and suggestions for the further development of negative symptom interventions. PMID:23988452

  5. Symptom cluster, healthcare use and mortality in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Kyung; Larson, Janet L

    2014-01-01

    Aims and objectives To examine how subgroups of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, identified by ratings of symptoms (dyspnoea, anxiety, depression and fatigue), affect healthcare use and mortality. Background People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often experience multiple symptoms. The importance of multiple symptoms and symptom clusters has received increased attention. However, little is known about symptom clusters and their effect on healthcare use and mortality in this population. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods This secondary data analysis used data from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. Participants (n = 597) had severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data that were drawn from structured interviews, questionnaires and clinical measures. Results Three subgroup clusters emerged based on four symptom ratings. Mean age, proportion with higher education, proportion using oxygen, disease severity, exercise capacity and quality of life differed significantly between subgroups. Participants with high levels of symptoms used healthcare services more and were more likely to have died at the five-year follow-up than those with low levels of symptoms. Symptom cluster subgroups had more significant relationship with mortality than single symptoms. Conclusion Patients with high levels of symptoms require greater clinical attention. Relevance to clinical practice Understanding subgroups of patients, based on symptom ratings and their adverse effect on outcomes, may enable healthcare providers to assess multiple symptoms and identify subgroups of patients at risk of increased healthcare use and mortality. Targeting modifiable symptoms within the cluster may be more beneficial than focusing on a single symptom for certain health-related outcome. PMID:24460846

  6. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  7. [Gender differences in cardiac symptoms].

    PubMed

    Maas, Angela H E M

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion as to whether there are gender differences in symptom presentation in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Although the burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the underlying mechanisms involved in ACS differ significantly between the genders during various stages of life, researchers seem to persist in comparing women against the standard for male patients. This clouds the discussion, and may be potentially harmful to women. The female pattern of CAD, with fewer obstructive coronary lesions and relatively more vascular dysfunction than in men, translates into a different combination of symptoms and relatively more type II ACS. Greater knowledge of gender-sensitive cardiology in daily practice would improve recognition and reduce poorer ACS outcomes in women. In 2015 the www.eugenmed.eu programme will present a gender-sensitive 'Roadmap' for cardiology practitioners within the EU.

  8. SU-E-T-581: On the Value of LET as a Radiation Quality Descriptor for RBE

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, P; Backstrom, G; Enger, S; Seuntjens, J; Naqa, I El; Villegas, F; Ahnesjo, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for protons and light ions, and the corresponding role of LET as a descriptor of radiation quality of hadron therapy. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) proton and light ion (He, Li, C) tracks with LET < 30 eV nm{sup -1} were generated in an event-by-event mode. They were overlaid on a cell nucleus model containing 6×10{sup 9} nucleotide base pairs using an isotropic irradiation procedure that provides electronic equilibrium. Strand breaks (sbs) were scored in the DNA sugar-phosphate groups and further sub-classified into single or double sbs (ssbs or dsbs). Distributions of ssbs and dsbs for 2 Gy fractions were calculated to estimate RBE for the induction of initial dsbs with reference to {sup 60}Co. Additionally, sbs were classified based on their complexity (i.e. the number of sbs in each cluster). Results: An increase in LET for light ions of the same atomic number or a decrease in atomic number for ions of the same LET resulted in a lower kinetic energy of emitted secondary electrons. The clustering of DNA damage was more pronounced as reflected by the increase in proton RBE from ∼ 1.75 to 4 for LET values of 7 to 28 eV nm{sup -1}. A significant RBE decrease between protons, He, Li and C ions of the same LET was also noticed as function of the atomic number. Significant differences in ssbs and dsbs complexities were also seen for particles with the same LET, potentially supporting a clustering-based radiation quality descriptor. Conclusion: The LET-RBE relationships were simulated for proton and light ions and exhibited expected trends, including different RBEs for particles with the same LET but different atomic numbers. A complexity based radiation quality descriptor may allow better differentiation of RBE between radiation fields of similar LET. We would like to acknowledge support from the Fonds de recherche du Quebec Sante (FRQS), from the

  9. [Clinical symptoms of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Tariska, P; Urbanics, K; Knolmayer, J; Mészáros, A

    1995-04-23

    Data of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease and checked out in the special unit named Memory Clinic functioning from 1992 in the National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology are summarized. Age average of the 60 patients was 63 years, the first symptoms of the disease had appeared in 57 p.c. before the age of 65, so the classical presenile form of the ailment is represented too in the material. Predominance of multifocal cortical function disturbances in the symptomatology is characteristic, association of the depression is outstandingly frequent. The atypical features, or those characteristic in diseases of cerebrovascular origin are not infrequently seen (headache, dizziness, slight symptoms of pyramidal lesions). The absence of epileptic seizures It was interesting even in considering the data of the literature too. The main points of clinical diagnostics and differential diagnostics are demonstrated with the aid of case reports. The author's material is the first Hungarian publication in the topics of clinical symptoms of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease that had been investigated with up-to-date methods. Occurrence of the disease of very great frequency could be supposed to occur at general practitioners, the importance of differential diagnostics and planning of the complex longlasting therapy is extremely great.

  10. Borderline personality disorder symptoms and newlyweds' observed communication, partner characteristics, and longitudinal marital outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-11-01

    Given borderline personality disorder's (BPD) relation with interpersonal dysfunction, there is substantial interest in understanding BPD's effect on marriage. The current study used data from a community sample of 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' BPD symptoms in relation to their observed communication, partner BPD symptoms, 4-year marital quality trajectories, and 10-year divorce rates. BPD symptoms were correlated cross-sectionally with more negative skills during observational problem-solving and social support tasks, and spouses reporting more BPD symptoms were married to partners reporting more BPD symptoms. Longitudinally, hierarchical linear modeling of newlyweds' 4-year marital trajectories indicated that BPD symptoms predicted the intercept of marital quality for spouses and their partners, reflecting lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of marital problems. BPD symptoms did not predict 10-year divorce rates. These findings highlight the chronic relationship impairment associated with BPD symptoms, indicate that distress begins early in marriage, and suggest that partners with higher levels of BPD symptoms remain in more troubled marriages. PMID:26348097

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in youth with vs without chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melanie; Wilson, Anna C; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Durkin, Lindsay; Patton, Michaela; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been found to co-occur in adults; however, research has not examined this co-occurrence in adolescence, when pediatric chronic pain often first emerges. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms and stressful life events in cohorts of youth with (n = 95) and without (n = 100) chronic pain and their parents and to determine the association between PTSD symptoms, health-related quality of life, and pain symptoms within the chronic pain sample. All participants completed questionnaire measures through an online survey. Findings revealed that youth with chronic pain and their parents had significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms as compared with pain-free peers. More youth with chronic pain (32%) and their parents (20%) reported clinically significant elevations in PTSD symptoms than youth without chronic pain (8%) and their parents (1%). Youth with chronic pain also reported a greater number of stressful life events than those without chronic pain, and this was associated with higher PTSD symptoms. Among the chronic pain cohort, higher levels of PTSD symptoms were predictive of worse health-related quality of life and were associated with higher pain intensity, unpleasantness, and interference. Results suggest that elevated PTSD symptoms are common and linked to reduced functioning among youth with chronic pain. Future research is needed to examine PTSD at the diagnostic level and the underlying mechanisms that may explain why this co-occurrence exists.

  12. Impact and factors associated with nighttime and early morning symptoms among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Judith J; Cai, Qian; Mocarski, Michelle; Tan, Hiangkiat; Doshi, Jalpa A; Sullivan, Sean D

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit poor sleep quality and consider morning as the worst time of day for their symptoms. While work has been done to characterize nighttime (NT) and early morning (EM) symptoms in various populations, the impact and factors associated with NT/EM symptoms among patients with COPD in the United States is not well understood. Commercially insured patients aged ≥40 years with one or more medical claim for COPD and one or more pharmacy claim for COPD maintenance medication were identified from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Consenting respondents were asked whether they had COPD symptoms on at least three nights or at least three mornings during the past week. Respondents were then either assigned to one of three symptom groups to complete the survey or excluded if their predefined group quota limit had been met. Survey completers completed the survey with questions about COPD symptoms and other commonly used patient-reported outcome measures. Respondents with NT/EM symptoms were asked about the frequency, severity, and impact of the symptoms on sleep, morning activities, and anxiety levels. Among respondents with symptoms, 73.1% of respondents with NT symptoms (N=376) and 83% of respondents with EM symptoms (N=506) experienced at least three distinct types of symptoms over the past week, with cough being the most frequently reported symptom. Approximately half of respondents with NT or EM symptoms perceived their symptoms as moderate to very severe, with a majority reporting their symptoms affected their NT sleep and morning activities, and more than half felt anxious due to their symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression showed COPD patients with both or either NT/EM symptoms were associated with poorer health status compared to those without. Improved disease management may reduce NT/EM symptoms and improve health status in patients with COPD

  13. Research Priorities in Geriatric Palliative Care: Nonpain Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Sara; Kluger, Benzi M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research addressing the burden, assessment, and management of nonpain symptoms associated with advanced illness in older adults is limited. While nonpain symptoms such as fatigue, sleep, dyspnea, anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment, nausea, and anorexia-cachexia are commonly noted by patients and clinicians, research quantifying their effects on quality of life, function, and other outcomes are lacking and there is scant evidence regarding management. Most available studies have focused on relatively narrow conditions (e.g., chemotherapy-induced nausea) and there are almost no data relevant to patients with multiple morbidities or multiple concurrent symptoms. Assessment and treatment of nonpain symptoms in older adults with serious illness and multiple comorbidities is compromised by the lack of data relevant to their care. Recommended research priorities address the documented high prevalence of distressing symptoms in older adults with serious illness, the unique needs of this population due to coexistence of multiple chronic conditions along with physiologic changes related to aging, the lack of evidence for effective pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, and the need for validated measures that are relevant across multiple care settings. PMID:23888305

  14. Effects of Calci Soya Balance and Vitagnus on Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Golian Tehrani, Shahnaz; Bazzazian, Shahin; Bakhtiarian, Azam; Ghobadzadeh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Menopause is a period of women’s lives with changes and symptoms that affect their work, sleep and quality of life. Therefore, it is important to overcome these symptoms. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Calci soya balance and Vitagnus on menopausal symptoms. Patients and Methods: This double-blinded controlled trial study was performed in public health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2011-2012). Seventy postmenopausal women with menopausal symptoms were randomly divided into two groups of treatments with Vitagnus and Calci soya balance. Data were collected using interviews, answering Cooperman’s index questionnaires before four and eight weeks after the treatment. Descriptive and analytic statistics were used for analyzing the data. Results: In both groups, Wilcoxon test showed a significant decrease in the mean of Cooperman’s menopausal index as well as after four and eight weeks of treatment (P = 0.000). Mann-Whitney test did not show any significant differences between the two groups, before and after four and eight weeks of treatment. Conclusions: The results showed that both Vitagnus and Calci soya balance were effective on reduction of menopausal symptoms to a similar extent and medical community can administer each of these two drugs based on patients’ conditions and costs. PMID:25763190

  15. Gastrointestinal symptoms after pelvic radiotherapy: Role for the gastroenterologist?

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, H. Jervoise N. . E-mail: j.andreyev@ic.ac.uk; Vlavianos, Panagiotis; Blake, Peter; Dearnaley, David; Norman, Andrew R.; Tait, Diana

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze the cause of GI symptoms after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in a consecutive series of patients with symptoms beginning after RT. A striking lack of evidence is available concerning the optimal treatment for the 50% of patients who develop permanent changes in bowel habits affecting their quality of life after pelvic RT. As a result, in the UK, most such patients are never referred to a gastroenterologist. Methods and Materials: All diagnoses were prospectively recorded from a consecutive series of patients with symptoms that started after RT and who were referred during a 32-month period to a gastroenterology clinic. Patients either underwent direct access flexible sigmoidoscopy or were investigated in a standard manner by one gastroenterologist after first being seen in the clinic. Results: A total of 265 patients referred from 15 institutions were investigated. They included 90 women (median age, 61.5 years; range, 22-84 years) and 175 men (median age, 70 years; range, 31-85 years). RT had been completed a median of 3 years (range, 0.1-34 years) before the study in the women and 2 years (range, 0-21 years) before in the men. Of the 265 patients, 171 had primary urologic, 78 gynecologic, and 16 GI tumors. The GI symptoms included rectal bleeding in 171, urgency in 82, frequency in 80, tenesmus, discomfort, or pain in 79, fecal incontinence in 79, change in bowel habit in 42, weight loss in 19, vomiting without other obstructive symptoms in 18, steatorrhea in 7, nocturnal defecation in 8, obstructive symptoms in 4, and other in 24. After investigation, significant neoplasia was found in 12%. One-third of all diagnoses were unrelated to the previous RT. More than one-half of the patients had at least two diagnoses. Many of the abnormalities diagnosed were readily treatable. The symptoms were generally unhelpful in predicting the diagnosis, with the exception of pain, which was associated with neoplasia (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of our

  16. Assessment of menopausal symptoms among women attending various outreach clinics in South Canara District of India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nitin; Nagaraj, Kondagunta; Saralaya, Vittal; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rao, PP Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopausal symptoms experienced by women are known to affect their quality-of-life. The symptoms experienced at menopause are quite variable and their etiology is found to be multifactorial. This study was hence done to assess the pattern and severity of menopausal symptoms and to find out the factors associated with these symptoms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in various outreach clinics of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Women in the age group of 40-65 years were included in the study by convenient sampling method. Data regarding menopausal symptom was obtained by interviewing each participant using the menopause rating scale questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the participants were 54.2 ± 7.2 years and mean age of attainment of menopause was 48.4 ± 4.5 years. Mean duration of menopause was found to be 7.5 ± 5.3 years. Commonest symptom reported was joint and muscular discomfort and physical and mental exhaustion seen in 94 (85.4%) participants. The mean number of symptoms reported by participants was 7.6 ± 2.8. Educated women reported significantly more symptoms (F = 2.218, P = 0.047). Somatic and urogenital symptoms were more among perimenopausal women and somatic symptoms were more among postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight (52.7%) participants had one or more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms were most among premenopausal women. Conclusion: The high proportion and severity of menopausal symptoms observed in this study group proves that menopausal symptoms are common and cannot be ignored. More of menopausal clinics are needed for awareness generation, early recognition and treatment of related morbidities. PMID:24970987

  17. Nightmares in Patients With Psychosis: The Relation With Sleep, Psychotic, Affective, and Cognitive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sheaves, Bryony; Onwumere, Juliana; Keen, Nadine; Stahl, Daniel; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of nightmares in people with psychosis and to describe the link between nightmares and sleep quality, psychotic, affective, and cognitive symptoms. Methods: Forty participants with psychotic symptoms completed an assessment of nightmares, sleep quality, positive symptoms of psychosis, affect, posttraumatic stress, social functioning, and working memory. Results: Among the patients, 55% reported weekly distressing nightmares. Experience of more frequent nightmares was related to poorer sleep quality and sleep efficiency. More distressing nightmares were positively associated with greater delusional severity, depression, anxiety, stress, and difficulties with working memory. Conclusions: Nightmares might be common in those with psychosis and are associated with increased day- and nighttime impairment. Future research should investigate treatments for nightmares, for people presenting with psychotic symptoms. PMID:26454557

  18. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Vasculitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Vasculitis? The signs and symptoms ... symptoms develop quickly, over days or weeks. Systemic Signs and Symptoms Systemic signs and symptoms are those ...

  19. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  20. Online chemotherapy symptom care and patient management system: an evaluative study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai; Ang, Neo Kim Emily; Cho, Aye Aye; Chow, Ying Leng; Taylor, Beverly

    2014-02-01

    Health delivery practices are shifting toward home care, because of better possibilities for managing chronic care, controlling health delivery costs, and increasing the quality of life and quality of health services, and the distinct possibility of predicting and thus avoiding serious complications. The study aimed to explore the benefits of an online Symptom Care and Management System in the home for patients receiving chemotherapy. A single-group experimental design was used. Thirty patients aged between 37 and 77 years undergoing their first or commencing a new course of chemotherapy treatment were recruited from November 2010 and December 2012 at a cancer center in Singapore. All patients used the Symptom Care and Management System to send daily symptom reports to the cancer center and received symptom management advice from the oncology nurse via teleconferencing during the first four chemotherapy treatment cycles. Patients' perceptions of the use of the Symptom Care and Management System were evaluated. All participants perceived the Symptom Care and Management System as a user-friendly interface and believed that they felt more involved in their care, and the system made it easier to understand some of the problems they experienced and helped them manage the symptoms more easily during the treatment. In addition, 29 participants (96.7%) felt that the nurse could contact them better via the Symptom Care and Management System, the Symptom Care and Management System helped them explain their symptoms to the nurse, and that it was simple to understand. The results presented in this study suggested that the Symptom Care and Management System has the potential to enhance remote monitoring and provides a feasible and acceptable way for a specific group of cancer patients to manage their symptoms at home.

  1. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Symptoms and Diagnosis Glaucoma can develop in one or both eyes. Often ...

  2. What Are the Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Publications What are the symptoms of uterine fibroids? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content ​Uterine fibroids can cause uncomfortable or sometimes painful symptoms, such ...

  3. Signs and Symptoms of Untreated Lyme Disease

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    ... occurs . Early Signs and Symptoms (3 to 30 days after tick bite) Fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle ... examples of EM rashes Later Signs and Symptoms (days to months after tick bite) Severe headaches and ...

  4. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

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    ... is considered invasive. Symptoms of pneumonia usually include: Fever and chills Cough Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Sweating ... the blood. It can cause symptoms such as: Fever and chills Excessive tiredness Pain in the belly Nausea with ...

  5. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

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    ... Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Print to PDF Head and Neck Cancer - Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  6. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

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    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  7. Warning signs and symptoms of heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000775.htm Warning signs and symptoms of heart disease To use the ... often develops over time. You may have early signs or symptoms long before you have serious heart ...

  8. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your family's history. Signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder differs significantly from clinical depression, although ... or restlessness. Symptoms of mania - the "highs" of bipolar disorder Increased physical and mental activity and energy Heightened ...

  9. Green light induces shade avoidance symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Maruhnich, Stefanie A; Folta, Kevin M

    2011-11-01

    Light quality and quantity affect plant adaptation to changing light conditions. Certain wavelengths in the visible and near-visible spectrum are known to have discrete effects on plant growth and development, and the effects of red, far-red, blue, and ultraviolet light have been well described. In this report, an effect of green light on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosette architecture is demonstrated using a narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode-based lighting system. When green light was added to a background of constant red and blue light, plants exhibited elongation of petioles and upward leaf reorientation, symptoms consistent with those observed in a shaded light environment. The same green light-induced phenotypes were also observed in phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry) mutant backgrounds. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the green light-induced response, the accumulation of shade-induced transcripts was measured in response to enriched green light environments. Transcripts that have been demonstrated to increase in abundance under far-red-induced shade avoidance conditions either decrease or exhibit no change when green light is added. However, normal far-red light-associated transcript accumulation patterns are observed in cryptochrome mutants grown with supplemental green light, indicating that the green-absorbing form of cryptochrome is the photoreceptor active in limiting the green light induction of shade-associated transcripts. These results indicate that shade symptoms can be induced by the addition of green light and that cryptochrome receptors and an unknown light sensor participate in acclimation to the enriched green environment.

  10. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... there is some evidence to indicate that patients benefit when accompanying conditions are identified and treated and ... of All Medicines and Supplements Managing Activities and Exercise Improving Health and Quality of Life Pediatric Definition ...

  11. Does oseltamivir shorten flu symptom duration?

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Richard; Mounsey, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of influenza virus infection with oral oseltamivir reduces time to alleviation of symptoms in adults and children by approximately one day compared with placebo. It reduces symptom duration even when initiated more than 2 days after symptom onset. PMID:27660842

  12. Exercise-Associated Symptoms in Triathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Stephen N.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 110 triathletes was made to identify symptoms experienced during triathlon activities, to determine factors affecting the symptoms, and to find out if symptoms were specific to the athlete or to the event. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  13. Nocturnal symptoms and sleep disturbances in clinically stable asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Inder Mohan; Khanna, Puneet; Shah, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    Presence of nocturnal symptoms is related to asthma severity. Clinically stable asthmatic children, too, report frequent nocturnal symptoms and sleep disturbances. The study determined these parameters in stable, asthmatic children, in their home environment. This case-control, questionnaire-based study in 70 school-going children comprised 40 asthmatics (Group 1) and 30, age/gender matched, healthy children (Group 2). Parents maintained peak expiratory flow (PEF) and sleep diaries for one week. Group 1 had significantly lower mean morning (250.3 vs. 289.1 I/minute) and mean evening PEF values (261.7 vs. 291.3 I/minute). Group 1 (38.95%), reported frequent nocturnal symptoms like cough (36.90%), breathlessness (32.80%), wheeze (27.68%) and chest tightness (14.35%). Sleep disturbances, significant in Group 1 (38, 95% vs. 14.35%), included daytime sleepiness (24.60%), daytime tiredness (20.50%), difficulty in maintaining sleep (15.38%), early morning awakening (14.35%), struggle against sleep during daytime (12.30%), and involuntarily falling asleep (17.43%). On a scale of 1-6, Group 1 scored significant sleep disturbances/patient (3 vs. 0.8); lethargy/tiredness in morning (2.9 vs. 2.2), poorer sleep quality (4.7 vs. 5.4), less parents' satisfaction with child's sleep (4.5 vs. 5.5) and daytime fitness (4.1 vs. 5.3). Group 1, when exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (22, 55%), reported significant nocturnal symptoms (18/22, 81%) and reduced mean morning and evening PEF values (17/22, 77%). It is concluded that clinically stable, asthmatic children reported increased nocturnal symptoms, sleep disturbances and poorer sleep quality. Lack of awareness of asthma-sleep association and its clinical implications could lead to poor asthma control and impaired daytime activity.

  14. Nocturnal symptoms and sleep disturbances in clinically stable asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Inder Mohan; Khanna, Puneet; Shah, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    Presence of nocturnal symptoms is related to asthma severity. Clinically stable asthmatic children, too, report frequent nocturnal symptoms and sleep disturbances. The study determined these parameters in stable, asthmatic children, in their home environment. This case-control, questionnaire-based study in 70 school-going children comprised 40 asthmatics (Group 1) and 30, age/gender matched, healthy children (Group 2). Parents maintained peak expiratory flow (PEF) and sleep diaries for one week. Group 1 had significantly lower mean morning (250.3 vs. 289.1 I/minute) and mean evening PEF values (261.7 vs. 291.3 I/minute). Group 1 (38.95%), reported frequent nocturnal symptoms like cough (36.90%), breathlessness (32.80%), wheeze (27.68%) and chest tightness (14.35%). Sleep disturbances, significant in Group 1 (38, 95% vs. 14.35%), included daytime sleepiness (24.60%), daytime tiredness (20.50%), difficulty in maintaining sleep (15.38%), early morning awakening (14.35%), struggle against sleep during daytime (12.30%), and involuntarily falling asleep (17.43%). On a scale of 1-6, Group 1 scored significant sleep disturbances/patient (3 vs. 0.8); lethargy/tiredness in morning (2.9 vs. 2.2), poorer sleep quality (4.7 vs. 5.4), less parents' satisfaction with child's sleep (4.5 vs. 5.5) and daytime fitness (4.1 vs. 5.3). Group 1, when exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (22, 55%), reported significant nocturnal symptoms (18/22, 81%) and reduced mean morning and evening PEF values (17/22, 77%). It is concluded that clinically stable, asthmatic children reported increased nocturnal symptoms, sleep disturbances and poorer sleep quality. Lack of awareness of asthma-sleep association and its clinical implications could lead to poor asthma control and impaired daytime activity. PMID:17136879

  15. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders.

  16. Negative Generalization and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Daniel; Rosen, Rebecca K.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Carver, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    The tendency to generalize from a single failure to one's entire self-worth is an important correlate and predictor of depression. Despite conceptual overlap between cognitive biases in anxiety and depression, little research has examined whether negative generalization relates to anxiety symptoms. We examined associations of negative generalization with symptoms of several anxiety disorders, above and beyond its association with lifetime symptoms of depression, among 248 undergraduates. After controlling for lifetime symptoms of major depression, negative generalization was significantly correlated with symptoms of each anxiety disorder tested, most notably generalized anxiety and social phobia. PMID:24340170

  17. Depressive Symptoms Among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R.; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Results Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States. PMID:23985187

  18. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  19. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes. PMID:26869196

  20. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes.

  1. Evolution of the Dynamic Symptoms Model.

    PubMed

    Brant, Jeannine M; Dudley, William N; Beck, Susan; Miaskowski, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Theories and conceptual models can be thought of as broad nets that attempt to rationalize, explain, and master a phenomenon within clinical nursing and interdisciplinary care. They can be used to guide a review of the literature and to formulate and organize research variables and relationships. Gaps in the literature can be identified and opportunities for additional research revealed (Fawcett, 2005). A variety of symptom models or theories exist, including the Theory of Symptom Management (Dodd et al., 2001), Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms (Lenz, Pugh, Milligan, Gift, & Suppe, 1997), Symptoms Experience Model (Armstrong, 2003), and Symptom Experiences in Time Theory (Henly, Kallas, Klatt, & Swenson, 2003). Most recently, the National Institute of Nursing Research identified a new National Institutes of Health Symptom Science Model to guide symptom science research (Cashion & Grady, 2015).
. PMID:27541557

  2. A continuum of misidentification symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sno, H N

    1994-01-01

    A case study of a schizophrenic patient with differing forms of experiences of inappropriate familiarity is described. Reduplicative paramnesia is redefined as a delusion of familiarity related to a reduplication of time, place or person. The author proposes the concept of a continuum of positive and negative misidentification symptoms. The positive pole of the continuum ranges from the minor form of déjà vu experience to reduplicative paramnesia. The negative pole ranges from depersonalisation to nihilistic delusions. Differentiation is based on the severity of the disturbance of reality testing. The argumentation is based on the fact that both déjà vu experiences and depersonalisation occurring in pathological as well as non-pathological conditions are phenomenologically uniform.

  3. Myocardial Infarction: Symptoms and Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Liu, Min; Sun, RongRong; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a term used for an event of heart attack which is due to formation of plaques in the interior walls of the arteries resulting in reduced blood flow to the heart and injuring heart muscles because of lack of oxygen supply. The symptoms of MI include chest pain, which travels from left arm to neck, shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, abnormal heart beating, anxiety, fatigue, weakness, stress, depression, and other factors. The immediate treatment of MI include, taking aspirin, which prevents blood from clotting, and nitro-glycerin to treat chest pain and oxygen. The heart attack can be prevented by taking an earlier action to lower those risks by controlling diet, fat, cholesterol, salt, smoking, nicotine, alcohol, drugs, monitoring of blood pressure every week, doing exercise every day, and loosing body weight. The treatment of MI includes, aspirin tablets, and to dissolve arterial blockage injection of thrombolytic or clot dissolving drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase or urokinase in blood within 3 h of the onset of a heart attack. The painkillers such as morphine or meperidine can be administered to relieve pain. Nitroglycerin and antihypertensive drugs such as beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors or calcium channel blockers may also be used to lower blood pressure and to improve the oxygen demand of heart. The ECG, coronary angiography and X-ray of heart and blood vessels can be performed to observe the narrowing of coronary arteries. In this article the causes, symptoms and treatments of MI are described. PMID:25638347

  4. Myocardial Infarction: Symptoms and Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Liu, Min; Sun, RongRong; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a term used for an event of heart attack which is due to formation of plaques in the interior walls of the arteries resulting in reduced blood flow to the heart and injuring heart muscles because of lack of oxygen supply. The symptoms of MI include chest pain, which travels from left arm to neck, shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, abnormal heart beating, anxiety, fatigue, weakness, stress, depression, and other factors. The immediate treatment of MI include, taking aspirin, which prevents blood from clotting, and nitro-glycerin to treat chest pain and oxygen. The heart attack can be prevented by taking an earlier action to lower those risks by controlling diet, fat, cholesterol, salt, smoking, nicotine, alcohol, drugs, monitoring of blood pressure every week, doing exercise every day, and loosing body weight. The treatment of MI includes, aspirin tablets, and to dissolve arterial blockage injection of thrombolytic or clot dissolving drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase or urokinase in blood within 3 h of the onset of a heart attack. The painkillers such as morphine or meperidine can be administered to relieve pain. Nitroglycerin and antihypertensive drugs such as beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors or calcium channel blockers may also be used to lower blood pressure and to improve the oxygen demand of heart. The ECG, coronary angiography and X-ray of heart and blood vessels can be performed to observe the narrowing of coronary arteries. In this article the causes, symptoms and treatments of MI are described.

  5. Managing lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Kenneth R; Aning, Jonathan J

    2016-04-01

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common and increase in prevalence with age. Up to 90% of men aged 50 to 80 may suffer from troublesome LUTS. Men may attend expressing direct concern about micturition, describing one or more LUTS and the related impact on their quality of life. Frequently men may present for other medical or urological reasons such as concern regarding their risk of having prostate cancer or erectile dysfunction but on taking a history bothersome LUTS are identified. Men may present late in the community with urinary retention: the inability to pass urine. A thorough urological history is essential to inform management. It is important to determine whether men have storage or voiding LUTS or both. All patients must have a systematic comprehensive examination including genitalia and a digital rectal examination. Investigations performed in primary care should be guided by the history and examination findings, taking into account the impact of the LUTS on the individual's quality of life. Current NICE guidelines recommend the following to be performed at initial assessment: frequency volume chart (FVC); urine dipstick to detect blood, glucose, protein, leucocytes and nitrites; and prostate specific antigen. Men should be referred for urological review if they have: bothersome LUTS which have not responded to conservative management or medical therapy; LUTS in association with recurrent or persistent UTIs; urinary retention; renal impairment suspected to be secondary to lower urinary tract dysfunction; or suspected urological malignancy. All patients not meeting criteria for immediate referral to urology can be managed initially in primary care. Based on history, examination and investigation findings an individualised management plan should be formulated. Basic lifestyle advice should be given regarding reduction or avoidance of caffeinated products and alcohol. The FVC should guide advice regarding fluid intake management and all

  6. Tetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Amir I.A.; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Kramers, Cees; Feuth, Ton; Rosenberg, Paul B.; van der Marck, Marjolein A.; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the treatment of dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients with dementia and clinically relevant NPS were randomly assigned to receive THC 1.5 mg or matched placebo (1:1) 3 times daily for 3 weeks. Primary outcome was change in Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), assessed at baseline and after 14 and 21 days. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. Results: Twenty-four patients received THC and 26 received placebo. NPS were reduced during both treatment conditions. The difference in reduction from baseline between THC and placebo was not significant (mean difference NPItotal: 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] −3.6 to 10.0), nor were changes in scores for agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory 4.6, 95% CI −3.0 to 12.2), quality of life (Quality of Life–Alzheimer's Disease −0.5, 95% CI −2.6 to 1.6), or activities of daily living (Barthel Index 0.6, 95% CI −0.8 to 1.9). The number of patients experiencing mild or moderate adverse events was similar (THC, n = 16; placebo, n = 14, p = 0.36). No effects on vital signs, weight, or episodic memory were observed. Conclusions: Oral THC of 4.5 mg daily showed no benefit in NPS, but was well-tolerated, which adds valuable knowledge to the scarce evidence on THC in dementia. The benign adverse event profile of this dosage allows study of whether higher doses are efficacious and equally well-tolerated. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with dementia-related NPS, low-dose THC does not significantly reduce NPS at 21 days, though it is well-tolerated. PMID:25972490

  7. Management of Influenza Symptoms in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Michael B; He, Shunian; Rose, David N

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostic testing and empiric antiviral therapy for healthy adults with symptoms of influenza. DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision model based on previously published data. Outcome measures included costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy. SETTING Physician's office. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS Hypothetically healthy, working adults < 65 years of age presenting with cough and fever during the influenza season. INTERVENTIONS Rapid testing or clinical diagnosis followed by treatment with amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir, or zanamivir compared with no antiviral therapy. RESULTS Base-case analysis: not giving antiviral therapy is the most expensive and least effective strategy, costing $471 per patient, mostly owing to time lost from work. Amantadine treatment increases life expectancy by 0.0014 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) while saving $108 per patient relative to no antiviral therapy. Zanamivir is slightly more effective than amantadine, adding 0.0002 QALYs at an incremental cost of $31, or $133,000 per QALY saved. All other strategies, including testing strategies, are both less effective and more expensive. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS The model is sensitive to the probability of influenza infection, proportion of influenza caused by type B, the relative efficacy of the various drugs, and the value of a workday. At a clinical probability of influenza infection > 20%, antiviral therapy is favored. As the proportion of influenza B increases, zanamivir is favored over amantadine. Testing is rarely indicated. Ignoring the costs of lost workdays, amantadine treatment costs $1,200/QALY saved. CONCLUSIONS Antiviral therapy with either amantadine or zanamivir is cost-effective for healthy, young patients with influenza-like illness during the influenza season, depending on the prevalence of influenza B. PMID:14521643

  8. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Estonian medical students with sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Eller, Triin; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko; Veldi, Marlit

    2006-01-01

    High emotional stress in medical students has been observed in many studies. Our aim in this article was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among Estonian medical students and to find relationships between sleep complaints and emotional symptoms. The study group consisted of 413 medical students, ages 19-33 years, at the University of Tartu. Each was asked to complete two questionnaires: the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q), containing 28 questions, and the Questionnaire on Sleep and Daytime Habits, with 25 questions. The anxiety and depression subscales from the EST-Q were applied. From the study group, 21.9% students had symptoms of anxiety, and 30.6% had symptoms of depression. The frequency of anxiety and depressive symptoms was higher in females. In regression and multiple regression analysis, we determined which sleep problems were related to emotional symptoms. The associations were different for men and women. In women, anxiety remained significantly related to waking up because of nightmares and feeling tired in the morning; depressive symptoms were related to difficulties in getting to sleep at night, waking up because of nightmares and nocturnal eating habits, daytime sleepiness, and sleepiness during school lessons. In men, significant relations were clear only for depression: difficulties in falling asleep at night before an exam and subjective sleep quality. The study demonstrated that a high percentage of medical students had emotional symptoms. We found that some sleep problems indicated underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  9. Gastrointestinal symptoms after pelvic radiotherapy: a new understanding to improve management of symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, Jervoise

    2007-11-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms after pelvic radiotherapy, which affect quality of life, are substantially more common than generally recognised and are frequently poorly managed. These symptoms develop because radiation can induce change in one or more specific physiological functions in widely separated parts of the gastrointestinal tract that lie in the path of the radiotherapy beam. Radiation-induced changes are not confined by normal anatomical boundaries. Furthermore, pre-existing subclinical disease might be destabilised because of minor gastrointestinal changes induced by radiotherapy. New diseases might manifest after radiotherapy and be confused with symptoms induced by radiotherapy. Different functional deficits might cause the same symptoms. Many patients have more than one cause for their symptoms, which sometimes need very different treatments. Simple diagnostic tests that are used in other contexts, if applied appropriately to patients with new gastrointestinal symptoms after radiotherapy, can identify the underlying causes of new-onset symptoms. Starting treatment without knowing the cause of the symptom is commonly ineffective because prediction of the combination of treatments needed is difficult. Evidence suggests that many patients have unusual but highly treatable malfunctions of gastrointestinal physiology, which if correctly diagnosed may enable a patient with difficult symptoms to be helped.

  10. Hops for Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms: Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Mobedi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Menopause is a critical stage of women's life associated with various complaints and distresses. Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flushes, night sweats, sleep disturbances, and fatigue, are the most common menopause symptoms affecting about 50% to 80% of middle-aged women. Obviously, these symptoms, resulting from estrogen deficiency during menopause, can exert negative effects on women's health and quality of life and thus require to be managed through approaches such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Many herbal treatments for menopause symptoms contain and its components such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-PN, isoxanthohumol and xanthohumol. Recent in-vivo studies have highlighted the ability of 8-prenylnaringenin to reduce serum-luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), to increase serum prolactin levels and uterine weight, and to induce vaginal hyperplastic epithelium. Previous research has shown that hops extract can strongly bind to both estrogen receptors, stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in Ishikawa cells, and upregulate presenelin-2 and progesterone receptor mRNA in Ishikawa cells. Numerous clinical trials have documented significant reductions in the frequency of hot flushes following the administration of hop-containing preparations. Nevertheless, further clinical trials with larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted to confirm such benefits.

  11. Transactional processes in the development of adult personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Elizabeth A; Ruiz, Sarah K

    2016-08-01

    The development of adult personality disorder symptoms, including transactional processes of relationship representational and behavioral experience from infancy to early adolescence, was examined using longitudinal data from a risk sample (N = 162). Significant preliminary correlations were found between early caregiving experience and adult personality disorder symptoms and between representational and behavioral indices across time and adult symptomatology. Significant correlations were also found among diverse representational assessments (e.g., interview, drawing, and projective narrative) and between concurrent representational and observational measures of relationship functioning. Path models were analyzed to investigate the combined relations of caregiving experience in infancy; relationship representation and experience in early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence; and personality disorder symptoms in adulthood. The hypothesized model representing interactive contributions of representational and behavioral experience represented the data significantly better than competing models representing noninteractive contributions. Representational and behavioral indicators mediated the link between early caregiving quality and personality disorder symptoms. The findings extend previous studies of normative development and support an organizational developmental view that early relationship experiences contribute to socioemotional maladaptation as well as adaptation through the progressive transaction of mutually informing expectations and experience. PMID:27427797

  12. Hops for Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms: Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Mobedi, Hamid; Roozbeh, Nasibeh

    2016-08-01

    Menopause is a critical stage of women's life associated with various complaints and distresses. Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flushes, night sweats, sleep disturbances, and fatigue, are the most common menopause symptoms affecting about 50% to 80% of middle-aged women. Obviously, these symptoms, resulting from estrogen deficiency during menopause, can exert negative effects on women's health and quality of life and thus require to be managed through approaches such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Many herbal treatments for menopause symptoms contain and its components such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-PN, isoxanthohumol and xanthohumol. Recent in-vivo studies have highlighted the ability of 8-prenylnaringenin to reduce serum-luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), to increase serum prolactin levels and uterine weight, and to induce vaginal hyperplastic epithelium. Previous research has shown that hops extract can strongly bind to both estrogen receptors, stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in Ishikawa cells, and upregulate presenelin-2 and progesterone receptor mRNA in Ishikawa cells. Numerous clinical trials have documented significant reductions in the frequency of hot flushes following the administration of hop-containing preparations. Nevertheless, further clinical trials with larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted to confirm such benefits. PMID:27617238

  13. Hops for Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms: Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Mobedi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Menopause is a critical stage of women's life associated with various complaints and distresses. Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flushes, night sweats, sleep disturbances, and fatigue, are the most common menopause symptoms affecting about 50% to 80% of middle-aged women. Obviously, these symptoms, resulting from estrogen deficiency during menopause, can exert negative effects on women's health and quality of life and thus require to be managed through approaches such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Many herbal treatments for menopause symptoms contain and its components such as 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-PN, isoxanthohumol and xanthohumol. Recent in-vivo studies have highlighted the ability of 8-prenylnaringenin to reduce serum-luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), to increase serum prolactin levels and uterine weight, and to induce vaginal hyperplastic epithelium. Previous research has shown that hops extract can strongly bind to both estrogen receptors, stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in Ishikawa cells, and upregulate presenelin-2 and progesterone receptor mRNA in Ishikawa cells. Numerous clinical trials have documented significant reductions in the frequency of hot flushes following the administration of hop-containing preparations. Nevertheless, further clinical trials with larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted to confirm such benefits. PMID:27617238

  14. Case Management: Service or Symptom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, F. Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Provides overview of case management, its history, and contemporary models. Examines challenges that case management poses for social work profession: covering up issue that health and human services delivery system is nonsystem; maintaining client-centered perspective in cost-obsessed environment; dealing with quality control; coping with…

  15. Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosen, W G; Mohs, R C; Johns, C A; Small, N S; Kendler, K S; Horvath, T B; Davis, K L

    1984-12-01

    Negative and positive symptoms were determined for 46 drug-free patients who met Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and/or Feighner criteria for schizophrenia. A modified version of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) was completed for each patient based on items from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) and other scales. Positive symptoms were scored from the SADS as well as from the following four diagnostic systems: RDC, Schneider's first-rank symptoms, the 12-point Flexible system, and Langfeldt's criteria for poor prognosis schizophrenia. For all patients, there was no correlation of negative symptoms and positive symptoms defined by any diagnostic system. Within the paranoid and undifferentiated subtypes, there was a positive correlation of positive and negative symptoms. Patients moving from stable to exacerbated states had an increase in both positive and negative symptoms, and patients with a poor history of treatment response had both more positive and more negative symptoms than responsive patients in a stable state. These results do not support the view that subgroups of patients have predominantly either negative or positive symptoms.

  16. Personalized symptoms forecasting for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis sufferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voukantsis, D.; Berger, U.; Tzima, F.; Karatzas, K.; Jaeger, S.; Bergmann, K. C.

    2015-07-01

    Hay fever is a pollen-induced allergic reaction that strongly affects the overall quality of life of many individuals. The disorder may vary in severity and symptoms depending on patient-specific factors such as genetic disposition, individual threshold of pollen concentration levels, medication, former immunotherapy, and others. Thus, information services that improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers must address the needs of each individual separately. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of information services that offer personalized pollen-induced symptoms forecasts. The backbone of these services consists of data of allergic symptoms reported by the users of the Personal Hay Fever Diary system and pollen concentration levels (European Aeroallergen Network) in several sampling sites. Data were analyzed using computational intelligence methods, resulting in highly customizable forecasting models that offer personalized warnings to users of the Patient Hay Fever Diary system. The overall system performance for the pilot area (Vienna and Lower Austria) reached a correlation coefficient of r = 0.71 ± 0.17 (average ± standard deviation) in a sample of 219 users with major contribution to the Pollen Hay Fever Diary system and an overall performance of r = 0.66 ± 0.18 in a second sample of 393 users, with minor contribution to the system. These findings provide an example of combining data from different sources using advanced data engineering in order to develop innovative e-health services with the capacity to provide more direct and personalized information to allergic rhinitis sufferers.

  17. Depressive symptoms and sleep: a population-based polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Laura Siqueira; Castro, Juliana; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Quarantini, Lucas Castro; Kauati, Adriana; Mello, Luiz Eugenio; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2013-12-30

    The goals of the present study were to determine the prevalence of depression in the adult population of Sao Paulo, Brazil and to explore the relationship among sociodemographic, physical and psychological factors, sleep-related symptoms and polysomnography parameters. Participants of a cross-sectional study (N = 1101) were administered questionnaires and submitted to polysomnography. A score > 20 in the Beck Depression Inventory was used to describe depression. Results revealed that the prevalence of depression was 10.9%. Estimates were higher in women and were significantly higher among housewives, non-workers and individuals with lower education and income. A combination of sleep-related symptoms and impaired quality of life was 2.5 times more frequent among depressed than non-depressed. Co-morbid insomnia and anxiety were positively associated to depressive symptomatology. There were no alterations in the polysomnography parameters, in either group. The occurrence of sleep apnea with values on the apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 was similar and frequent in both groups (around 30%). The findings suggest that depressive symptoms were associated with low education, low income, severe comorbid symptomatology, and impaired quality of life. Considering the high prevalence of sleep apnea, these results point to potential social and financial burdens associated with the depressive symptomatology and various sleep diagnoses.

  18. Symptom Management Strategies for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Patient Education Program (PCPEP)

    PubMed Central

    Vij, Alok; Kowalkowski, Marc A.; Hart, Tae; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Hoffman, David J.; Knight, Sara J.; Caroll, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    While the literature on prostate cancer health-related quality of life has grown extensively, little is known about symptom management strategies used by men to manage treatment-related side effects and the effectiveness of those strategies. We collected 628 symptom management reports from 98 men treated for localized prostate cancer. Participants were recruited from email lists and a prostate cancer clinic in Northern California. Data were collected using the Critical Incident Technique. Symptom management reports were assigned to categories of urinary, sexual, bowel, mental health, systemic, or “other.” We calculated descriptive statistics by symptom type and management strategy effectiveness. The most common symptoms were urinary (26 %) and sexual (23 %). Participants’ symptom management strategies varied widely, from medical and surgical interventions (20 %) to behavioral strategies (11 %) to diet and lifestyle interventions (12 %). The effectiveness of symptom management strategies varied, with sexual symptoms being managed effectively only 47 % of the time to mental health symptom management strategies considered effective 89 % of the time. Doing nothing was a commonly reported (15 %) response to symptoms and was effective only 14 % of the time. Men report the least effectiveness in symptom management for sexual dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment. Including men’s experience with managing treatment side effects may be an important way to improve survivorship programs and make them more acceptable to men. More work is needed to find out why men frequently do nothing in response to symptoms when effective solutions exist and how providers can successfully engage such men. PMID:23996206

  19. Effect of Sativex on spasticity-associated symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meuth, Sven G; Vila, Carlos; Dechant, Kerry L

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity may experience a range of symptoms, such as bladder dysfunction, pain, impaired sleep quality and mobility restrictions that worsen as spasticity severity increases. In this review, the effects of Sativex(®) oromucosal spray on symptoms and functional impairment associated with MS-related spasticity were examined. Across Sativex studies, there was a clear trend for improvement in spasticity-associated symptoms that was more pronounced and sustained over time in Sativex responders. Meaningful symptomatic improvement was achieved within the recommended dosage limit of ≤12 sprays per day. In appropriate patients, Sativex has the potential to minimize the consequences of spasticity-related symptoms on quality of life and reduce the economic burden on healthcare systems. PMID:26166264

  20. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome–like Symptoms in Japanese Patients with Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Toshihiko; Kato, Yu; Takimoto, Mayu; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Yoko; Ikehara, Hisatomo; Ohda, Yoshio; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Shigemi; Shima, Masayuki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Few studies are available that have investigated the risk factors for overlapping irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The present study has 3 objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of IBS-like symptoms in Japanese patients with inactive IBD using Rome III criteria, (2) to examine the relationship of IBS-like symptoms to health related quality of life (HR-QOL), and (3) to investigate associations for developing IBS-like symptoms in patients with inactive IBD. Methods IBS-like symptoms were evaluated using the Rome III questionnaire for functional gastrointestinal disorders. HR-QOL and hospital anxiety and depression scale were evaluated. Results IBS-like symptoms were found in 17.5% (7/40) of patients with inactive ulcerative colitis, 27.1% (29/107) of patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD), and 5.3% (23/438) of healthy control subjects. The QOL level was significantly lower and anxiety score was significantly higher in inactive CD patients with IBS-like symptoms than in those without such symptoms (P = 0.003, P = 0.009). Use of anti-anxiety drugs was associated with the presence of IBS symptoms (P = 0.045). HR-QOL score was lower and anxiety score was higher in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The prevalence of IBS-like symptoms in inactive IBD patients was significantly higher than in healthy controls. Inactive CD patients with IBS-like symptoms has low QOL and anxiety; suggesting that anxiety may be associated with symptom development in such patients. PMID:27193973

  1. The Symptom Cluster of Sleep, Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients: Severity of the Problem and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Lavinia; Rissling, Michelle; Liu, Lianqi; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Insomnia is a significant problem in breast cancer patients, affecting between 20% to 70% of newly diagnosed or recently treated cancer patients. Pain, fatigue, anxiety, and depression are also common conditions in breast cancer and often co-occur with insomnia in symptom clusters, exacerbating one another, and decreasing quality of life (QOL). There have been no clinical trials of drugs for sleep in cancer. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapies on the other hand, have shown some of the most positive results in alleviating the distressing symptoms that often accompany the breast cancer experience, but even these studies have not targeted the symptom cluster. Pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological treatments need to be explored. It might be that a combined pharmacological and behavioral treatment is most efficacious. In short, substantially more research is needed to fully understand and treat the symptom cluster of insomnia, fatigue, pain, depression and anxiety in breast cancer. PMID:22140397

  2. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. Results: We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Conclusions: Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. Citation: Kim LJ, Coelho FM, Hirotsu C, Araujo P, Bittencourt L, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Frequencies and associations of narcolepsy-related symptoms: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1377–1384. PMID:26235160

  3. Associations between psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence and mental health symptoms in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Pirjo; Laukkanen, Eila; Kylmä, Jari

    2010-02-01

    This longitudinal study explored associations between psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence and mental health symptoms in early adulthood. The baseline data were collected in 1996 from 14-year-old pupils (n = 235; 116 girls, 119 boys) at schools using a structured questionnaire that included a 14-item scale of psychosomatic symptoms. The follow-up data were collected in 2006 from the same persons at the age of 24 using the Symptom Checklist-90. Follow-up questionnaires were returned by 149 (63.4%) young adults (88 women and 61 men). Young adults who had many psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence suffered more often than the others from somatization and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. In addition, women had more symptoms of depression and paranoid ideation, and men had more interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms. Psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence might be important signals of mental health and this should be taken seriously in school health and in general primary care. PMID:20158547

  4. SYMPTOM DIMENSIONS OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND NICOTINE WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

    PubMed Central

    Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and nicotine withdrawal symptoms are related; however, it is unknown how this relationship extends across ADHD symptom gradations, differs between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptom types, and generalizes to a national sample. This study examined cross-sectional associations between childhood ADHD symptom indexes (total, inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity) and lifetime DSM-IV nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Results showed that each ADHD symptom index associated with almost every withdrawal symptom (Ps < .01). After controlling for hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptom overlap, inattention (but not hyperactivity-impulsivity) retained incremental associations with most withdrawal symptoms. These findings are relevant for understanding mechanisms of ADHD and smoking comorbidity. PMID:23244555

  5. Managing behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Stephen; O’Connor, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Most patients with dementia have some behavioural and psychological symptoms. While aggression and agitation are easily recognised, symptoms such as apathy may be overlooked. Behavioural and psychological symptoms should be managed without drugs whenever possible. Although there is little evidence to support their use, antipsychotic drugs are often prescribed to people with dementia. Before prescribing it is important to exclude other causes of altered behaviour, such as pain or infection. Some symptoms may be artefacts of memory loss rather than psychosis. Patients with dementia who are prescribed antipsychotic drugs have an increased risk of falls, hospitalisation and death. They should be regularly monitored for adverse effects. If the patient’s symptoms resolve with drug treatment, reduce the dose after two or three months. Stop the drug if the symptoms do not return. PMID:27756974

  6. Symptom Patterns Among Gulf War Registry Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Diefenbach, Michael; Boyd, Kendal; Kang, Han; Leventhal, Howard; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We identify symptom patterns among veterans who believe they suffer from Gulf War–related illnesses and characterize groups of individuals with similar patterns. Methods. A mail survey was completed by 1161 veterans drawn from the Gulf War Health Registry. Results. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 symptom factors. A K-means cluster analysis revealed 2 groups: (1) veterans reporting good health and few moderate/severe symptoms, and (2) veterans reporting fair/poor health and endorsing an average of 37 symptoms, 75% as moderate/severe. Those in Cluster 2 were more likely to report having 1 or more of 24 medical conditions. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with previous investigations of symptom patterns in Gulf War veterans. This multisymptom illness may be more fully characterized by the extent, breadth, and severity of symptoms reported. PMID:12660208

  7. Menopausal symptoms among Thai women in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Sukwatana, P; Meekhangvan, J; Tamrongterakul, T; Tanapat, Y; Asavarait, S; Boonjitrpimon, P

    1991-09-01

    A random probability cluster area sampling of 614 women living in Bangkok was conducted to determine the prevalence of abnormal symptoms related to the menopause. Women interviewed were aged 40 and above currently registered as living in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed experienced abnormal symptoms. Eighty-two percent of those with abnormal symptoms reported having hot flushes. Palpitation, increased heat intolerance and emotional liability were common symptoms. Minor abnormalities included insomnia, weakness, anxiety and urinary symptoms. Changes related to sexual function were difficult to elicit due to cultural limitations. Economic and cultural factors might play important roles in the way these women perceived symptoms related to the menopause and sought medical assistance.

  8. Trial design innovations: Clinical trials for treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, K

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Recent progress has been made with clinical trials, advancing new therapies for psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD), agitation in AD, and apathy in AD. Definitions have emerged for agitation and apathy in patients with cognitive impairment, facilitating recruitment of clinical trial populations. Progress in clinical trial design and the agents being assessed promise to advance therapies for disabling symptoms and improve quality of life for patients and caregivers. PMID:26206713

  9. Symptom management in palliative care and end of life care.

    PubMed

    Bookbinder, Marilyn; McHugh, Marlene E

    2010-09-01

    There is a need for generalist- and specialist-level palliative care clinicians proficient in symptom management and care coordination. Major factors contributing to this need include changed disease processes and trajectories, improved medical techniques and diagnostic testing, successful screening for chronic conditions, and drugs that often prolong life. The rapid progressive illnesses and deaths that plagued the first half of the twentieth century have been replaced in the twenty-first century by increased survival rates. Conditions that require ongoing medical care beyond a year define the current chronic illness population. Long years of survival are often accompanied by a reduced quality of life that requires more medical and nursing care and longer home care. This article reviews the management of selected symptoms in palliative and end of life care.

  10. Treatment of Non Pain-Related Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    von Gunten, Charles F.; Gafford, Ellin

    2013-01-01

    Relieving the suffering associated with cancer and its treatment in the physical, emotional, practical and spiritual domains is impossible without impeccable symptom control. This review summarizes key features essential to the management of: anorexia/cachexia, bowel obstruction, diarrhea, fatigue, mucositis, and nausea/vomiting. Taken together, these are some of the most vexing symptoms for cancer patients. Well-managed symptoms enable the course of overall cancer care to be unimpeded. PMID:24051612

  11. Systemic symptoms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Newton, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in the Western world and the incidence of the disease is constantly increasing. Most patients with NAFLD do not present with symptoms directly attributable to their underlying liver disease. It is increasingly recognized, however, that those with NAFLD describe a range of non-specific symptoms, which include fatigue and daytime sleepiness, may be the presenting problem and can impact dramatically upon quality of life in this patient group. The recognition of systemic symptoms in NAFLD has important implications for patients as many are potentially modifiable with targeted interventions. Fatigue appears to be a significant problem in NAFLD and the severity of fatigue is not associated with severity of NAFLD or any parameters of liver damage. Instead, fatigue in these patients shows a strong relationship with the symptom of daytime sleepiness and autonomic dysfunction. Daytime sleepiness can frequently be associated with obstructive sleep apnoea in those with NAFLD and is therefore treatable with evidence-based interventions. Recent studies have confirmed the presence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in those with early stages of NAFLD. The presence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction leads to symptoms such as postural dizziness and syncope and is also associated with a number of clinical consequences in hepatic and non-hepatic diseases such as cognitive dysfunction, falls and fall-related injuries. On direct questioning, problems with memory and concentration are frequently described by those with NAFLD, with our studies confirming that 50% of NAFLD patients experience mild cognitive symptoms and up to 46% moderate or severe cognitive impairment. There were no positive correlations between cognitive symptoms and biochemical or histological markers of liver damage severity, confirming that cognitive impairment in early-stage NAFLD is not related to hepatic encephalopathy. Falls are

  12. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Peripheral Arterial Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease? Many people ... flow, so the symptoms will go away. Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms of P. ...

  13. Delayed bedtimes and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Coles, Meredith E; Schubert, Jessica R; Sharkey, Katherine M

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing recognition of an important interplay between psychiatric disorders and sleep. Clinical observations and several empirical studies have shown that later bedtimes are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study examined the relation of delayed bedtimes (DBs) and symptoms of OCD. Two hundred and sixty-six undergraduates completed a battery of questionnaires assessing sleep patterns, mood, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Results showed that participants with DBs reported increased rates of OC symptoms, as compared with non-DB participants. Further, this relation remained significant when controlling for negative affect. Additional work examining the interplay between sleep and OC symptoms is warranted. PMID:22946735

  14. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale: Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Strauss, Gregory P.; Nguyen, Linh; Fischer, Bernard A.; Daniel, David G.; Cienfuegos, Angel; Marder, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    The participants in the NIMH-MATRICS Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms recommended that an instrument be developed that measured blunted affect, alogia, asociality, anhedonia, and avolition. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) is a 13-item instrument designed for clinical trials and other studies that measures these 5 domains. The interrater, test–retest, and internal consistency of the instrument were strong, with respective intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.93 for the BNSS total score and values of 0.89–0.95 for individual subscales. Comparisons with positive symptoms and other negative symptom instruments supported the discriminant and concurrent validity of the instrument. PMID:20558531

  15. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Symptoms and Biomarkers