Science.gov

Sample records for quality worldwide 30-year

  1. Adventures in Citizen Science: Lessons learned engaging volunteer water quality monitors for over 30 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloss, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program was originally designed by faculty at the University of New Hampshire in 1979 to provide the capacity to better monitor for long-term lake water quality changes and trends. As participants became educated, empowered and engaged the program soon evolved to also become a participatory research enterprise. This resulted in not only providing useful information for informed local stewardship and protection at the local level but also for state and region-wide decision-making, state and federal assessments/reporting and advancing our understanding of lake and watershed science. Our successes and failures have been more dependent on understanding the particular human dimensions that influence our volunteers and less to do with the typical project management, quality assurance, and communication concerns we typically deal with in professional based research efforts. Our participants are extremely diverse in terms of their life experiences, interests and motivations so the key to long-term commitment and high quality participation is understanding the difference between a citizen monitor and your archetypical research technician or student. This presentation will highlight some important lessons learned on how to involve various types of volunteers from school groups to retirees, as well as particular approaches and concerns regarding program management, retention, quality control and communications.

  2. Worldwide report: Environmental quality, Number 407

    SciTech Connect

    1983-08-02

    Attention is focused on the following: Government Plan, Conservation Improvements, Soil Salinity, Soil Conservation, Pesticide Study, Erosion, Flood, Reforestation, Endangered Lists, Herbicide Impact, Antipollution, Protect Environment, International Affairs, Pollution Expert, Acid Rain Indicates, Water Purification Systems, Quality Outlined, Agriculture, Fisheries, Inter African affairs, Underground Water, Fight Drought, Water Use, Rainforest, Government Estimates, Salt water, Law Attacked, Air Pollution, Power Cuts, Death, Drains, Environmental Protection, Earthquake, Food Industries.

  3. Treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impact of hemophilia on young adults (aged 18-30 years) with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Forsyth, Angela; Hawk, Sarah; Curtis, Randall; Kelley, Laureen; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Rosu, Gabriela; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    The Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative assessed psychosocial issues reported by people with moderate to severe hemophilia and was led by a multidisciplinary international advisory board. This analysis reports data from young adult respondents (aged 18-30 years), including both US and overall global (including US respondents) results, and investigates treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impacts of hemophilia on relationships. More young adults in HERO received prophylaxis than on-demand treatment, although a majority reported not using factor products exactly as prescribed, and 50% of global respondents and 26% of US respondents reported issues with access to factor replacement therapy in the previous 5 years. Many young adults with hemophilia reported comorbidities, including bone/skeletal arthritis, chronic pain, and viral infections, and nearly half of young adults reported anxiety/depression. Most reported pain interference with daily activities in the past 4 weeks, although a majority reported participating in lower-risk activities and approximately half in intermediate-risk activities. Most young adults were very or quite satisfied with the support of partners/spouses, family, and friends, although roughly one-third reported that hemophilia affected their ability to develop close relationships with a partner. A majority of young adults reported that hemophilia has had a negative impact on employment, and 62% of global respondents and 78% of US respondents were employed at least part-time. Together these data highlight the psychosocial issues experienced by young adults with hemophilia and suggest that increased focus on these issues may improve comprehensive care during the transition to adulthood.

  4. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and health-related quality of life in adults aged 18 to 30 years in a Colombian University: an electronic survey

    PubMed Central

    Cañón, Martín; Ruiz, Alvaro J.; Rondón, Martín; Alvarado, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Background We estimated the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its impact on patient-reported health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in a university-based population aged between 18 and 30 years in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods The study had a cross-sectional design. Students, faculty, and staff aged 18-30 years of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia were randomly selected and invited to complete an electronic survey containing the Rome III IBS diagnostic questionnaire and an IBS-specific HR-QOL instrument (IBS-QOL). Results A total of 1082 individuals participated in this study. The prevalence of IBS was 24.0% (95% CI 21.3-26.6%). IBS-constipation was the most common subtype (41.9%; 95% CI 35.5-48.4%). The overall IBS-QOL score indicated HR-QOL impairment (72.1/100). IBS-unsubtyped patients had the highest overall HR-QOL (constipation: 70.6; diarrhea: 67.2; mixed: 67.0; unsubtyped: 77.8; P=0.003). IBS non-consulters had higher IBS-QOL “Food Avoidance” scores than IBS consulters (60.3 vs. 45.5; P=0.002). Conclusion IBS is a prevalent disorder in a university-based population aged 18-30 years and has a significant impact on HR-QOL. IBS-unsubtyped subjects had the highest HR-QOL compared to other subtypes. Food avoidance appears to be a key factor in seeking consultation. PMID:28042240

  5. In your 20s it's quantity, in your 30s it's quality: the prognostic value of social activity across 30 years of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Cheryl L; Reis, Harry T; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Life span development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003; Baltes, 1997), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age 20 and age 30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age 50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age 20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age 30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow.

  6. In Your 20s it’s Quantity, in Your 30s it’s Quality: The Prognostic Value of Social Activity Across 30 Years of Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Cheryl L.; Reis, Harry T.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Lifespan development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes, 1997; Baltes & Carstensen, 2003), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age-20 and age-30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age-50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age-20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age-30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  7. Quality Control Measures over 30 Years in a Multicenter Clinical Study: Results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Arends, Valerie L.; Danis, Ronald P.; Diminick, Lisa; Klumpp, Kandace A.; Morrison, Anthony D.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steffes, Michael W.; Cleary, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of multicenter and/or longitudinal studies requires an effective quality assurance program to identify trends, data inconsistencies and process variability of results over time. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study represent over 30 years of data collection among a cohort of participants across 27 clinical centers. The quality assurance plan is overseen by the Data Coordinating Center and is implemented across the clinical centers and central reading units. Each central unit incorporates specific DCCT/EDIC quality monitoring activities into their routine quality assurance plan. The results are reviewed by a data quality assurance committee whose function is to identify variances in quality that may impact study results from the central units as well as within and across clinical centers, and to recommend implementation of corrective procedures when necessary. Over the 30-year period, changes to the methods, equipment, or clinical procedures have been required to keep procedures current and ensure continued collection of scientifically valid and clinically relevant results. Pilot testing to compare historic processes with contemporary alternatives is performed and comparability is validated prior to incorporation of new procedures into the study. Details of the quality assurance plan across and within the clinical and central reading units are described, and quality outcomes for core measures analyzed by the central reading units (e.g. biochemical samples, fundus photographs, ECGs) are presented. PMID:26529311

  8. A 30-Year Global Wave Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, Tom; Hemer, Mark; Trenham, Claire; Greenslade, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Many Pacific Islands are vulnerable to impacts of waves through coastal inundation, coastal and beach erosion, wave driven lagoon circulation, disturbances to reef habitats etc. On steep continental shelves like Pacific island coral atolls, surface waves are the dominant contributor to coastal sea-level extremes via wave set-up. A recent review of the availability of modelled and observed wave data in the Pacific region noted the need for a high-quality multi-decadal wave climate data set. The absence of high temporal resolution spectral wave data was noted, with existing hindcast products assessed as being of inadequate spatial and temporal resolution in general. Wave hindcast resolution has historically been limited by the resolution of available winds. The recently completed National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface winds now provide a consistent product at 0.3°, hourly resolution over the past 30 years, providing a valuable source of forcing for wave hindcasting. As part of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Program (PACCSAP), work is being carried out examining recent, existing and projected future ocean wave conditions with a focus on the Pacific region. As part of this work, a 30-year (1979-2009) global wave hindcast has been produced, using CFSR wind forcing. Details of this hindcast will be presented including an assessment of the quality of the data set using in-situ buoy and satellite altimeter data.

  9. Worldwide trends in volume and quality of published protocols of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Alldinger, Ingo; Cieslak, Kasia P.; Wennink, Roos; Clarke, Mike; Ali, Usama Ahmed; Besselink, Marc G. H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Publishing protocols of randomized controlled trials (RCT) facilitates a more detailed description of study rational, design, and related ethical and safety issues, which should promote transparency. Little is known about how the practice of publishing protocols developed over time. Therefore, this study describes the worldwide trends in volume and methodological quality of published RCT protocols. Methods A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE, identifying RCT protocols published over a decade from 1 September 2001. Data were extracted on quality characteristics of RCT protocols. The primary outcome, methodological quality, was assessed by individual methodological characteristics (adequate generation of allocation, concealment of allocation and intention-to-treat analysis). A comparison was made by publication period (First, September 2001- December 2004; Second, January 2005-May 2008; Third, June 2008-September 2011), geographical region and medical specialty. Results The number of published RCT protocols increased from 69 in the first, to 390 in the third period (p<0.0001). Internal medicine and paediatrics were the most common specialty topics. Whereas most published RCT protocols in the first period originated from North America (n = 30, 44%), in the second and third period this was Europe (respectively, n = 65, 47% and n = 190, 48%, p = 0.02). Quality of RCT protocols was higher in Europe and Australasia, compared to North America (OR = 0.63, CI = 0.40–0.99, p = 0.04). Adequate generation of allocation improved with time (44%, 58%, 67%, p = 0.001), as did concealment of allocation (38%, 53%, 55%, p = 0.03). Surgical protocols had the highest quality among the three specialty topics used in this study (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.09–3.45, p = 0.02). Conclusion Publishing RCT protocols has become popular, with a five-fold increase in the past decade. The quality of published RCT protocols also improved, although variation between

  10. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  11. MEDPREP--30 Years of Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Evelyn W.; McGlinn, Shirley; Rainey, Michael; Bardo, Harold R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Medical/Dental Education Preparatory Program (MEDPREP) of Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Over the course of its 30-year history, 68 percent of students have been accepted to professional schools, with 92 percent being accepted to medical schools and attending 90 different medical schools in the country. Of those…

  12. Worldwide floods are changing: Evidence from global high-quality annual maximum streamflow records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Hong; Westra, Seth; Leonard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, floods have led to significant human and economic impacts (in 2014 alone the global cost of floods has been estimated to be US 37.4 billion), and reported flood losses have increased significantly from just US7 billion per year in the 1980s. Recent empirical evidence of significant increasing trends in heavy rainfall has raised the concern of potential changes in flooding magnitude and frequency as a result of large-scale climatic changes. However, other driving forces, including changes in channel capacity and catchment characteristics, also play a large role in rainfall-runoff processes so trends in heavy precipitation cannot be taken as a proxy for trends in flooding. In order to test whether global floods are changing or not, this study analyses a records global discharge time series from 1966 to 2005. Trends in worldwide flood magnitude were analysed using annual maxima daily streamflow obtained from Global Runoff Data Centre database, which holds records of 9,213 stations across the globe, with an average time series length of 42 years per station. High quality records during the reference period (1966 - 2005) with no more than 2 year of missing data were selected as the input of this study (1209 stations in all). To remove streamflow records impacted by large dams, the HydroSHEDS watershed boundaries and Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) databases are used to identify stations with existing dams in theirs upstream drainage basins. The Mann-Kendall test at the 5% significant level is applied on selected time series to identify stations showing significant positive and negative trends. The percentage of significantly increasing or decreasing stations are investigated in different climatic regions and catchment sizes, and compared against a bootstrap-based field significant test to represent the null hypothesis. The results indicate strong evidence against the null hypothesis of no change in flood magnitude at global and regional scales.

  13. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  14. Cognitive Systems Engineering: The Next 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Cognitive Systems Engineering. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the challenges and future directions of Cognitive Systems Engineering for the next 30 years. I intended to present the work we have been doing with the Aviation Safety program and Space Human Factors Engineering project on Work Domain Analysis and some areas of Research Focus. Specifically, I intend to focus on the shift on the need to understand and model attention in mixed-initiative systems, the need for methods which can generate results to be used in trade-off decisions, and the need to account for a range of human behavior in the design.

  15. Test anxiety inventory: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Derek D; Barrera, Terri L; Norton, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Research suggests that test anxiety is associated with a number of maladaptive factors. The majority of test anxiety research includes the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) as a primary outcome variable. However, the TAI was normed on college undergraduates in 1980. The academic landscape has altered in a variety of ways in the past 30 years, which may result in out-of-date norms. This study examined changes in TAI scores in college undergraduates (n =437) as well as convergent validity with measures of trait anxiety and academic performance. Results indicated increases in TAI scores for females while holding constant for males. Additionally, females and males displayed positive correlations between the TAI and state-trait anxiety inventory, while only females displayed a significant negative correlation between the TAI and grade point average. Data provide evidence of changes in TAI scores. As a result, researchers should be careful when drawing conclusions based on original TAI norms, especially in the case of female undergraduates.

  16. Gallstone ileus 30 years status postcholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zens, Tiffany; Liebl, R Scott

    2010-12-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction which occurs in patients with chronic cholecystitis and gallstones who develop a cholecystoenteric fistula. Although gallstone ileus is relatively rare, it has a substantial mortality rate due in part to patient comorbidities and delays in treatment. We describe the case of a 94-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, mild abdominal tenderness, leukocytosis, and a 2.5-cm obstruction in her small bowel. Even though this patient underwent a total cholecystectomy 30 years prior, a 2.5-cm gallstone was surgically removed from her ileum. This case illustrates the importance of including gallstone ileus in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with small bowel obstruction even decades postcholecystectomy.

  17. Preface to volume 1: status and trends of water quality worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Ahuja, Satinder; Eimers, Jo Leslie; Edited by Ahuja, Satinder

    2013-01-01

    Water quality and water quantity are closely linked. In all regions of the world, the quality and quantity of water must be considered together in order to sustain abundant water of the quality needed for drinking, irrigation, environmental health, industry, power generation, and recreation. Protecting and managing water to meet water needs requires comprehensive information and understanding of the impacts of natural settings and anthropogenic activities on water quality.

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Lesur, O; Berthiaume, Y; Blaise, G; Damas, P; Deland, E; Guimond, J G; Michel, R P

    1999-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was first described about 30 years ago. Modern definitions and statements have recently been proposed to describe ARDS accurately, but none is perfect. Diffuse alveolar damage is the basic pathological pattern most commonly observed in ARDS, and the term includes permeability edema. The alveolar epithelium of the alveolar-capillary barrier is clearly a key component requiring repair, given its multipotent functional activity. Lung inflammation and neutrophil accumulation are essential markers of disease in ARDS, and a wide variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been described in the alveolar fluid and blood of patients. These molecules still have to prove their value as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of ARDS. Supportive therapy in ARDS improved in the past decade; mechanical ventilation with lung protective strategies and patient positioning are gaining interest, but the indications for corticosteroids for ARDS are still debated. Nitric oxide may have a place in the treatment of one-third of patients. Novel approaches, such as surfactant replacement and liquid ventilation, may further improve supportive therapy. Innovative interventions may be on the horizon in treatments that help to resolve or modulate common pathways of ARDS, such as inflammation (eg, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) or epithelial repair (eg, keratinocyte growth factor).

  19. Worldwide Status of Fresh Fruits Irradiation and Concerns about Quality, Safety, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2016-08-17

    Development of knowledge-based food preservation techniques have been a major focus of researchers in providing safe and nutritious food. Food irradiation is one of the most thoroughly investigated food preservation techniques, which has been shown to be effective and safe through extensive research. This process involves exposing food to ionizing radiations in order to destroy microorganisms or insects that might be present on and/or in the food. In addition, the effects of irradiation on the enzymatic activity and improvement of functional properties in food have also been well established. In the present review, the potential of food irradiation technology to address major problems, such as short shelf life, high-initial microbial loads, insect pest management (quarantine treatment) in supply chain, and safe consumption of fresh fruits was described. With improved hygienic quality, other uses, such as delayed ripening and enhanced physical appearance by irradiation were also discussed. Available data showed that the irradiation of fruits at the optimum dose can be a safe and cost-effective method, resulting in enhanced shelf life and hygienic quality with the least amount of compromise on the various nutritional attributes, whereas the consumer acceptance of irradiated fruits is a matter of providing the proper scientific information.

  20. Cleft lip and palate surgery: 30 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Cesar A.

    2012-01-01

    Ten cleft lip and palate patients with complete unilateral (five patients) and bilateral (five patients) clefts were treated by a multidisciplinary team integrated by psychologists, surgeons, orthodontists, prosthodontists, pediatric dentists, and speech pathologists, to obtain ideal soft tissue and hard tissue continuity, facial symmetry, functional and esthetic dentitions, excellent nasal architecture, subtle, and hidden lip scars. No hypernasality and adequate social adaptation were found in the 30 years follow-up (20-30 years follow-up with an average of 25.5 years). The patients were treated in a pro-active fashion avoiding complications and related problems, executing the ideal surgical, dental, and speech therapy plan, based on a close follow-up over the entire period. Those patients treated at the right time required less surgeries and less salvaging maneuvers and presented complete dentitions with less dental prosthesis or dental implants and stable occlusions, than those who missed the ideal dental and surgical treatment opportunities. The focus of this article is the need of a close long-term follow-up to ensure an ideal patient's quality of life. PMID:23483117

  1. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Ganga now was not safe from the health point of view due to its increasing pollution, Mr Chowdhry pointed out. Cremation of bodies at the... cremations on the Ganga and the establishment of modern crematoria along the ghat, was recently recommended by scientists attending a seminar on

  2. 30 years of finite-gap integration theory.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Vladimir B

    2008-03-28

    The method of finite-gap integration was created to solve the periodic KdV initial problem. Its development during last 30 years, combining the spectral theory of differential and difference operators with periodic coefficients, the algebraic geometry of compact Riemann surfaces and their Jacobians, the Riemann theta functions and inverse problems, had a strong impact on the evolution of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. This article explains some of the principal historical points in the creation of this method during the period 1973-1976, and briefly comments on its evolution during the last 30 years.

  3. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of...

  4. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of...

  5. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of...

  6. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning

    2015-06-01

    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  7. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of...

  8. Education and HIV/AIDS--30 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment…

  9. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  10. Historical Lassa fever reports and 30-year clinical update.

    PubMed

    Macher, Abe M; Wolfe, Martin S

    2006-05-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years.

  11. 1995 solid waste 30-year container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Patridge, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container category. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU-TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container categories will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1995 through FY 2024. The data presented in this report establish a baseline for solid waste management both in the present and future. With knowledge of the volumes by container type, decisions on the facility handling and storage requirements can be adequately made. It is recognized that the forecast estimates will vary as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined; however, the data presented in this report still provide useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  12. Early Intervention and AAC: What a Difference 30 Years Makes.

    PubMed

    Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.

  13. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on.

  14. A novel protein quality control mechanism contributes to heat shock resistance of worldwide-distributed Pseudomonas aeruginosa clone C strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Wigren, Edvard; Trček, Janja; Peters, Verena; Kim, Jihong; Hasni, Muhammad Sharif; Nimtz, Manfred; Lindqvist, Ylva; Park, Chankyu; Curth, Ute; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Römling, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly successful nosocomial pathogen capable of causing a wide variety of infections with clone C strains most prevalent worldwide. In this study, we initially characterize a molecular mechanism of survival unique to clone C strains. We identified a P. aeruginosa clone C-specific genomic island (PACGI-1) that contains the highly expressed small heat shock protein sHsp20c, the founding member of a novel subclass of class B bacterial small heat shock proteins. sHsp20c and adjacent gene products are involved in resistance against heat shock. Heat stable sHsp20c is unconventionally expressed in stationary phase in a wide temperature range from 20 to 42°C. Purified sHsp20c has characteristic features of small heat shock protein class B as it is monodisperse, forms sphere-like 24-meric oligomers and exhibits significant chaperone activity. As the P. aeruginosa clone C population is significantly more heat shock resistant than genetically unrelated P. aeruginosa strains without sHsp20c, the horizontally acquired shsp20c operon might contribute to the survival of worldwide-distributed clone C strains.

  15. [Pacemaker implantation in dogs: results of the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    François, L; Chetboul, V; Nicolle, A; Carlos, C; Borenstein, N; Pouchelon, J L

    2004-07-01

    Pacemaker implantation in veterinary practice is still not well known and remains uncommon. However, this technique is the only possible way to cure animals suffering from symptomatic bradycardia whose state does not improve with a medical treatment. In most cases, the use of pacemakers in veterinary medicine leads to the disappearance of the clinical and electrocardiographic signs. This retrospective study concerning the last 30 years draws up an evaluation of the improvements, advantages and drawbacks of this method. Moreover, this study allows the understanding of the evolution of pacemakers' use in veterinary cardiology.

  16. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are bioelectronic devices that utilize oxidoreductase enzymes to catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. This review details the advancements in the field of enzymatic biofuel cells over the last 30 years. These advancements include strategies for improving operational stability and electrochemical performance, as well as device fabrication for a variety of applications, including implantable biofuel cells and self-powered sensors. It also discusses the current scientific and engineering challenges in the field that will need to be addressed in the future for commercial viability of the technology.

  17. Structural patterns in Swedish health policy: a 30-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B

    2015-04-01

    This perspective reviews key institutional and organizational patterns in Swedish health care over the last 30 years, probing the roots of several complicated policy questions that concern present-day Swedish decision-makers. It explores in particular the ongoing structural tension between stability, on the one hand, and the necessary levels of innovation and dynamism demanded by the current period of major clinical, technological, economic, social and supranational (EU) change. Where useful, the article compares Swedish developments with those in the other three European Nordic countries as well as other northern European health systems. Sweden's health sector evolution can provide valuable insight for other countries into the complexity involved in re-thinking tradeoffs between policies that emphasize stability as against those that encourage innovation in health sector governance and provision.

  18. Education and HIV/AIDS-30 years on.

    PubMed

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-12-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment education, education for HIV prevention, and education to encourage a positive and supportive community response. It points to a number of priorities for the future. These include analyzing more carefully different forms of HIV-related education, their consequences and effects, and identifying the specific effectivity of education in general and HIV-related education in particular in achieving positive outcomes. The potential of education to enable new ways of seeing, understanding, and hoping is stressed, as is the need to support education processes and systems that "think" faster than the epidemic.

  19. Massive transcranial parotid pleomorphic adenoma: recurrence after 30 years.

    PubMed

    Strub, Graham M; Georgolios, Alexandros; Graham, Robert S; Powers, Celeste N; Coelho, Daniel H

    2012-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor affecting the parotid gland and can reach massive size; however, intracranial invasion is rare. Recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma after excision is a well-known phenomenon and can present decades after resection of the primary tumor. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented to our clinic with ear fullness, otalgia, and hearing loss 30 years after undergoing total parotidectomy and external beam radiotherapy for pleomorphic adenoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive transcranial tumor invading the mastoid cavity, the dura of the posterior fossa, the fallopian and semicircular canals, the jugular foramen, the lateral infratemporal fossa skull base, the sigmoid and transverse sinuses, and the superior parapharyngeal region. Gross examination and histopathological studies confirmed that the mass was a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Here we discuss the features of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and review the current literature.

  20. What Has 30 Years of HIV Vaccine Research Taught Us?

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, José

    2013-01-01

    When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983–1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve that goal, different scientific paradigms have been explored. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. Major lessons learned are: the development of an HIV vaccine is an extremely difficult challenge; the temptation of just following the fashion should be avoided; clinical trials are critical, especially large-scale efficacy trials; HIV vaccine research will require long-term commitment; and sustainable collaborations are needed to accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine. Concrete actions must be implemented with the sense of urgency imposed by the severity of the AIDS epidemic. PMID:26344345

  1. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Newman, David J; Cragg, Gordon M

    2012-03-23

    This review is an updated and expanded version of the three prior reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, and 2007. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 30 years from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2010, for all diseases worldwide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2010 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. We have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a "natural product mimic" or "NM" to join the original primary divisions and have added a new designation, "natural product botanical" or "NB", to cover those botanical "defined mixtures" that have now been recognized as drug entities by the FDA and similar organizations. From the data presented, the utility of natural products as sources of novel structures, but not necessarily the final drug entity, is still alive and well. Thus, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to date, of the 175 small molecules, 131, or 74.8%, are other than "S" (synthetic), with 85, or 48.6%, actually being either natural products or directly derived therefrom. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked, with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures. Although combinatorial chemistry techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures and have been used very successfully in the optimization of many recently approved agents, we are able to identify only one de novo combinatorial compound approved as a drug in this 30-year time frame. We wish to draw the attention of readers to the rapidly evolving recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the "host from whence it was isolated", and therefore we consider that this area of natural product research should be expanded significantly.

  2. Worldwide lubricant trends

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on lubricating oils for internal combustion engines. Topics considered at the conference included worldwide environmental regulations and their impact on lubricant additives, passenger car gasoline engine oils in Japan, valve train wear, the field performance of super premium engine oils, wear resistance, deposits, scale control, oil thickening, low-phosphorus engine oils, bore polishing, the Tornado test, the coordination of international needs for lubricant quality,and the corrosive wear of cast iron under reciprocating lubrication.

  3. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-04

    GMT 4 Jan 87 LD] /9738 CSO: 5200/1128 11 U.S.«-USSR NUCLEAR AND SPACE ARMS TALKS GORBACHEV, REAGAN NEW YEAR MESSAGES ON DISARMAMENT Reagan to...Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 28 Dec 86 First Edition p 4 [Vitaliy Korionov "International Review"] [Excerpts] Only a few days remain until the New Year...105063 JPRS-TAC-87-OlO 4 FEBRUARY 1987 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL ’DUO QUALITY BFSPSSTEP * 19980515 022 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST■1NFORMAtlÖN

  4. Pediatric tinea faciei in southern Spain: a 30-year survey.

    PubMed

    del Boz, Javier; Crespo, Vicente; de Troya, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Tinea faciei (TF) is a common clinical form of tinea in children that is frequently misdiagnosed and treated with corticosteroids. No large case series of TF focusing on children have been published. The aim of this study was to analyze the main epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features of TF in children over a period of 30 years and compare these features with those of other tineas. We undertook a retrospective study of 818 cases of tinea in children at a referral hospital in southern Spain, diagnosed between 1977 and 2006, concentrating for this study on TF. Of the 73 cases of TF diagnosed, 50.7% were in girls. Most children (46.6%) were 4 to 9 years old. At the time of diagnosis, 29.2% of the cases had been treated with topical steroids. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which was isolated significantly more frequently in TF than in the other tineas. Cases of TF in children were not extremely unusual, emphasizing that TF must be considered in children with inflammatory facial eruptions. This consideration and the more-frequent use of mycologic tests can help achieve the correct diagnosis, when present.

  5. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  6. Changes in schoolgirls' body measurements during a 30 year period.

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Säde; Tiit, Ene-Margit

    2003-01-01

    Two data-sets containing the anthropometric measurements of Estonian schoolgirls aged 7-18 were analysed, one (set A) from the late sixties, size 1627 and the other (set K) from the late nineties, size 1546. In all data sets 8 measurements--three height, three breadth measures, chest circumference and mass--were measured using the same methodology, as well as BMI was calculated. The means of all the characteristics in age groups (size 100-150 individuals) were calculated and growth curves of means were approximated using polynomial least squares approximation. The maximal velocity points were found and the growth intensities in different body build groups were compared. It was proved that the usage of cross-sectional data for estimating growth curves is suitable for estimating the velocity of acceleration in different age groups. We found that the height of Estonian girls has increased during the last 30 years by about 4-5%, the breadth measurements--by about 1-2%, chest circumference up to 8% and BMI has decreased by 3-5%. The changes are quite modest in pre-puberty, most significant for girls aged 12-16 and smaller again for girls aged 17 and more. The maximal growth velocity has shifted for all characteristics to the earlier time. Comparison of different body build groups showed that the small girls of the sixties are quite similar to small girls in the nineties, but the differences are greater in the case of large and pycnomorphic girls.

  7. Fatal electrocution in adults--a 30-year study.

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Gilbert, John D; Simpson, Ellie; Byard, Roger W

    2006-04-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of all cases of death in adults (>16 years) due to electrocution which were autopsied at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia, over a 30-year period from 1973 to 2002. A total of 96 cases were identified with 87 males (91%) (mean age=41.6 years; range 17 to 86 years) and nine females (9%) (mean age=49.2 years; range 20 to 76 years). Deaths were due to accidents in 66 cases (69%; M:F = 63:3), suicides in 28 cases (29%; M:F=24:4) and homicides in two cases (2%). Both homicide victims were females, with females accounting for only 5% of the accidents and 14% of suicides. The number of accidental deaths increased until the early 1990s and then declined, whereas suicidal electrocutions were only found in the last 20 years of the study. Most deaths (N = 80; 83%) were due to low voltage circuits (<1000 volts), with deaths due to high voltages occurring in 15 cases (16%). One death was due to lightning (1%). While suicides were evenly distributed throughout the year, most accidental deaths occurred in late spring and summer (N = 42; 64%) with the lowest number of accidental deaths occurring in winter and early spring. This report demonstrates a significantly higher rate of electrocution deaths among males, with a summer predominance of accidental deaths, most likely due to increased outdoor activities in better weather. The reduction in cases over the last decade of the study may be a reflection of the success of workplace and domestic safety campaigns. Female electrocution suicides and electrocution homicides were rare events.

  8. Improving STD services worldwide.

    PubMed

    Frahn, A L

    1998-01-01

    The number of new sexually transmitted disease (STD) cases worldwide continues to rise annually. Many people, however, do not know that they are infected with a STD because STD infection may often remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage. Up to half of STD-infected women either have no symptoms of infection or do not realize that the symptoms they have indicate a need to seek medical care. Many people are uncomfortable discussing STDs. AVSC is helping providers of family planning and other health care services to become more comfortable discussing STDs with their clients and more skilled in diagnosing and treating them. AVSC has been organizing training activities, developing training materials, and conducting research around the world to help improve the quality and availability of STD services. Examples of AVSC work in Bangladesh and the development of training materials to improve STD service providers' counseling and clinical skills are cited. AVSC's STD-related research is designed to help improve the quality and safety of family planning and STD services worldwide. Activities are noted in Russia, South Africa, and some other developing countries.

  9. Mount St. Helens: A 30-year legacy of volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, James W.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Scott, William E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    The spectacular eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 electrified scientists and the public. Photodocumentation of the colossal landslide, directed blast, and ensuing eruption column—which reached as high as 25 kilometers in altitude and lasted for nearly 9 hours—made news worldwide. Reconnaissance of the devastation spurred efforts to understand the power and awe of those moments (Figure 1). The eruption remains a seminal historical event—studying it and its aftermath revolutionized the way scientists approach the field of volcanology. Not only was the eruption spectacular, but also it occurred in daytime, at an accessible volcano, in a country with the resources to transform disaster into scientific opportunity, amid a transformation in digital technology. Lives lost and the impact of the eruption on people and infrastructure downstream and downwind made it imperative for scientists to investigate events and work with communities to lessen losses from future eruptions.

  10. Synthesising 30 Years of Mathematical Modelling of Echinococcus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jo-An M.; Williams, Gail M.; Yakob, Laith; Clements, Archie C. A.; Barnes, Tamsin S.; McManus, Donald P.; Yang, Yu Rong; Gray, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis is a complex zoonosis that has domestic and sylvatic lifecycles, and a range of different intermediate and definitive host species. The complexities of its transmission and the sparse evidence on the effectiveness of control strategies in diverse settings provide significant challenges for the design of effective public health policy against this disease. Mathematical modelling is a useful tool for simulating control packages under locally specific transmission conditions to inform optimal timing and frequency of phased interventions for cost-effective control of echinococcosis. The aims of this review of 30 years of Echinococcus modelling were to discern the epidemiological mechanisms underpinning models of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis transmission and to establish the need to include a human transmission component in such models. Methodology/Principal Findings A search was conducted of all relevant articles published up until July 2012, identified from the PubMED, Web of Knowledge and Medline databases and review of bibliographies of selected papers. Papers eligible for inclusion were those describing the design of a new model, or modification of an existing mathematical model of E. granulosus or E. multilocularis transmission. A total of 13 eligible papers were identified, five of which described mathematical models of E. granulosus and eight that described E. multilocularis transmission. These models varied primarily on the basis of six key mechanisms that all have the capacity to modulate model dynamics, qualitatively affecting projections. These are: 1) the inclusion of a ‘latent’ class and/or time delay from host exposure to infectiousness; 2) an age structure for animal hosts; 3) the presence of density-dependent constraints; 4) accounting for seasonality; 5) stochastic parameters; and 6) inclusion of spatial and risk structures. Conclusions/Significance This review discusses the conditions under which these

  11. TORUS2015: The AGN unification scheme after 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, P.; Hoenig, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    The torus paradigm has proved to be remarkably successful at unifying the observed zoo of active galaxy (AGN) classes, despite having many manifest holes. The field is still data-driven with novel observational results at multiple wavelengths emerging rapidly. We are only now beginning to map out the structure of dusty gas feeding and obscuring AGN, and to model its evolution in galaxy growth. But these have also brought out several apparently contradictory results which must hold the key to future progress. As we celebrate 30 years of the paradigm, this is the perfect time to draw together our current knowledge and reassess the state of the field. This will be an international workshop at the University of Southampton, UK, with the objective of laying out the major challenges to the field and paving future research directions. Our hope is to facilitate plenty of informal discussions between multiwavelength observers and theorists, addressing some key issues: * What is the main driver in the unification scheme? What are the roles of orientation, mass accretion rate and feedback? * What is the nature and structure of gas and dust in the torus? Do we have a self-consistent picture across multiple wavelengths? * How critical is the role of the torus as an interface between small nuclear scales and large galactic scales? Does galaxy evolution necessarily require tori? * How close are we to self-consistently simulating nuclear activity including AGN feeding and nuclear star-formation? Workshop Rationale The three themes of accretion, orientation, and evolution will be covered through invited and solicited contributions. Different to other conferences, we are building each session around some key papers that have shaped the field or those with great future potential to do so. We specifically pit competing ideas against each other to help painting a realistic picture of the state-of-the-art. Each session will end with discussion rounds delving into important future

  12. Paracrinicity: The Story of 30 Years of Cellular Pituitary Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Denef, C

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms represent, in essence, dynamic interactions of high complexity between membrane-separated compartments that cannot exist on their own, but reach behaviour in co-ordination. In multicellular organisms, there must be communication and co-ordination between individual cells and cell groups to achieve appropriate behaviour of the system. Depending on the mode of signal transportation and the target, intercellular communication is neuronal, hormonal, paracrine or juxtacrine. Cell signalling can also be self-targeting or autocrine. Although the notion of paracrine and autocrine signalling was already suggested more than 100 years ago, it is only during the last 30 years that these mechanisms have been characterised. In the anterior pituitary, paracrine communication and autocrine loops that operate during fetal and postnatal development in mammals and lower vertebrates have been shown in all hormonal cell types and in folliculo-stellate cells. More than 100 compounds have been identified that have, or may have, paracrine or autocrine actions. They include the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid, peptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, galanin, endothelins, calcitonin, neuromedin B and melanocortins, growth factors of the epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor and transforming growth factor-β families, cytokines, tissue factors such as annexin-1 and follistatin, hormones, nitric oxide, purines, retinoids and fatty acid derivatives. In addition, connective tissue cells, endothelial cells and vascular pericytes may influence paracrinicity by delivering growth factors, cytokines, heparan sulphate proteoglycans and proteases. Basement membranes may influence paracrine signalling through the binding of signalling molecules to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. Paracrine/autocrine actions are highly context-dependent. They are turned on/off when hormonal outputs need to be adapted to changing demands of

  13. Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs over the 30 Years from 1981 to 2010†

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

    2013-01-01

    This review is an updated and expanded version of the three prior reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003 and 2007. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 30 years from January 1st 1981 to December 31st 2010 for all diseases world-wide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2010 for all approved antitumor drugs world-wide. We have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a “natural product mimic” or “NM” to join the original primary divisions, and have added a new designation “natural product botanical” or “NB” to cover those botanical “defined mixtures” that have now been recognized as drug entities by the FDA and similar organizations. From the data presented, the utility of natural products as sources of novel structures, but not necessarily the final drug entity, is still alive and well. Thus, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to date, of the 175 small molecules, 131 or 74.8% are other than “S” (synthetic), with 85 or 48.6% actually being either natural products or directly derived there from. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures. Although combinatorial chemistry techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures, and have been used very successfully in the optimization of many recently approved agents, we are only able to identify only one de novo combinatorial compound approved as a drug in this 30-year time frame. We wish to draw the attention of readers to the rapidly evolving recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the “host from whence it was isolated”, and therefore we consider that this area of natural product research should be

  14. 30 Years of Extragalactic H II Region Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, D.

    2000-11-01

    The study of extragalactic H II regions has provided key data on ISM abundan ces in star-forming galaxies, and on the properties and physical mechanisms associated with starbursts. Manuel Peimbert and Silvia Torres-Peimbert were early pioneers in obtaining high-quality on physical conditions in extragalactic H II regions. In this review I will highlight their contributions to the field and our present-day understanding of giant H II regions and starbursts.

  15. Evaluation of body contouring surgery today: a 30-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Pitanguy, I

    2000-04-01

    Concepts of beauty have been continuously evolving throughout the history of mankind. The voluptuous figures that were idealized by artists in the past have been substituted by slimmer forms. Medical advances in this century have permitted safe and efficient surgical correction of contour deformities. Until recently, these alterations were mostly hidden under heavy clothing or were accepted reluctantly. Current fashion trends generally promote body-revealing attire. The media frequently encourage the importance of fitness and good health, linking these qualities with youthfulness and beauty. The subliminal and the overt message is that these are necessary and desirable requirements for social acceptance and professional success.

  16. Validation of a 30+ year soil moisture record from multi-satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jeu, R.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Chung, D.; Parinussa, R.; van der Werf, G.; Liu, Y.; Mittelbach, H.; Hirschi, M.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative soil moisture project a 30+ year consistent soil moisture dataset is currently in development by harmonizing retrievals from both passive and active microwave satellite observations. The harmonization of these datasets incorporates the advantage of both microwave techniques and spans the entire period from 1978 onwards. A statistical methodology based on scaling, ranking and blending was developed to address differences in sensor specifications to create one consistent dataset. A soil moisture dataset provided by a land surface model (GLDAS-1-Noah) was used to scale the different satellite-based products to the same range. The blending of the active and passive datasets was based on their respective performance, which is closely related to vegetation cover. While this approach imposes the absolute values of the land surface model dataset to the final product, it preserves the relative dynamics (e.g., seasonality, inter-annual variations) and trends of the original satellite derived retrievals. Different validation methods were performed to quantify the skill of the various soil moisture datasets at different temporal and spatial scales. In situ data from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) were used to calculate the local correlation (both Pearson and Spearman) and Root Mean Square Difference between ground observations and the satellite retrievals for different climate regimes. In addition a triple collocation analysis was applied on the passive and active satellite products in order to analyze the error structures at a global scale for the different sensors. Furthermore, indirect proxies like tree ring width data were used to study the consistency of the inter-annual variability within the 30+ year dataset. The combination of these techniques revealed a strong dynamical behavior in data quality in both time and space. In the future this additional information on error dynamics could be used to further

  17. A Community Runs Through It: 30 Years of Collaboration in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When participants in the 2016 St Louis River Summit identified their roles and described their interactions with the estuary on the 50-year timeline, they were illustrating the community that built and is now implementing the Remedial Action Plan. From its inception, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement required that AOCs be collaborations between technical experts on remediation and restoration and the concerned public. Together, experts and the public form the community that runs through each AOC. Without such a community there is no way to gauge the success of BUI removal or AOC delisting in terms of associated social and health benefits. Community interactions are necessary in all stages of the journey to delisting to foster agreements, resolve conflicts, and to mobilize resources necessary to solve pressing environmental challenges. A social network analysis of the timeline responses was used to describe interactions of the community that runs through the SLRE. Self-identified managers and scientists were less likely than citizens and educators to form social networks. When social networks were present they typically included recreation as a major node. This suggests that while interactions among community members and the resource were diverse and widely distributed, a segment of the community remained professionally cloistered. These people clearly make important contributions to the science or management of the estuary, but constrain their further int

  18. Interim Solar Radiation Data Manual: 30-Year Statistics from the National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The 30-year (1961-1990) statistics contained in this document have been derived from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). They outline solar radiation sources, as well as 30-year monthly and annual means of 5 solar radiation elements (three surface and two extraterrestrial) and 12 meteorological elements for 239 locations.

  19. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  20. Towards the development of a 30 year record of remotely sensed vegetation optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jeu, Richard A. M.; Holmes, Thomas R. H.; van der Werf, Guido

    2009-09-01

    The framework for the development of a 30 year global record of remotely sensed vegetation optical depth is presented. The vegetation data set is derived from passive microwave observations and spans the period from November 1978 through the end of 2008. Different satellite sensor observations (i.e. Nimbus-7 SMMR, DMSP SSM/I, TRMM TMI, and AQUA AMSR-E). are used in a radiative transfer model to derive vegetation optical depth. Vegetation optical depth can directly be related to vegetation water content and is a function of biomass. The retrieval model is described and the quality of the retrieved vegetation optical depth is discussed. The new dataset will be merged into one consistent global product for the entire period of data record. To explore the potential to use this new product for long term vegetation modeling, the product was compared to total biomass from the biogeochemical model CASA. The results indicate that the vegetation optical depth can be an important contribution to the derivation of biophysical properties like biomass. It can also increase the reliability of optical sensor derived vegetation indices, because the microwave vegetation optical depth can be derived under cloudy conditions. This unique feature could create the possibility to improve the temporal resolution of other biophysical data products. The entire vegetation density dataset will be made available for download by the general science community and could give a significant contribution in climate research.

  1. Primary health care development: where is Nepal after 30 years of Alma Ata Declaration?

    PubMed

    Karkee, R; Jha, N

    2010-01-01

    The year 2008 has witnessed the global conversation to return to tenets of Alma-Ata and to review its 30 years of journey. We reviewed Nepal's journey on Primary Health Care development: policy formulation, structure development, progress and constraints. Though Nepal has institutionalised the PHC approach in health policy, strategy and health care delivery system, this has not been effectively translated into actions, and the results are mixed. Nepal has gained impressive achievements in selective primary health care markers: 45.43% maternal mortality and 62.34% child mortality reduction during 1990-2005. But gain in comprehensive health care markers is not impressive: 18.7% Skilled Birth Attendant (4% in poorest quintile and 45% in richest quintile), 39% having access to improved sanitation and 55.7% of females are literate as compared to males. Socio-political environment until recently was not favourable for comprehensive primary health care, allowing limited health sector decentralisation and community empowerment. Health activities were focussed more on selective health care strategy in the form of disease control, immunisation, vitamin A supplementation, oral rehydration solution use and contraceptive use. Nepal's rural hilly geography posed great challenge on logistic supply, communication and retention of health workers rendering public health centres of low quality with negative perceptions of consumers. Nepal is on the pathway to build equitable comprehensive primary health care.

  2. Ciguatera incidence in the US Virgin Islands has not increased over a 30-year time period despite rising seawater temperatures.

    PubMed

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Cook, Robert L; Smith, Tyler B; Anderson, Donald M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature.

  3. Moebius syndrome. Case report was a 30-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Morello, D C; Converse, J M

    1977-09-01

    Moebius syndrome is uncommon, as reported in the literature. A patient with Moebius syndrome is reported, showing a 30-year follow-up after initial surgical treatment by bilateral partial transfers of the Masseter muscles.

  4. Tertiary resurfacing after one of the first free flaps in Europe, a reflection on 30 years of microsurgical progress.

    PubMed

    Hart, A M; Tollan, C J; Dabernig, J; Acland, R; Taggart, I

    2007-01-01

    Free flaps have been used for over 30 years. During this period, improved anatomical understanding has increased donor options and available pedicle lengths, permitting safer, single-stage reconstructions with simpler anastomoses. Refinements, such as perforator flaps in particular, have greatly improved donor morbidity, recipient site cosmesis, and the ability to replace 'like with like' while retaining options for innervation. This case highlights the evolution from one of Europe's first free tissue transfers, effectively a perforator flap, through the advent of free muscle flaps to the current generation of contourable perforator flaps. Free flap transfer has become increasingly sophisticated, safer, and more predictable, yet the potential quality of reconstructive outcome has changed little.

  5. Mind the gaps - the epidemiology of poor-quality anti-malarials in the malarious world - analysis of the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality medicines threaten the lives of millions of patients and are alarmingly common in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, the global extent of the problem remains unknown. Accurate estimates of the epidemiology of poor quality medicines are sparse and are influenced by sampling methodology and diverse chemical analysis techniques. In order to understand the existing data, the Antimalarial Quality Scientific Group at WWARN built a comprehensive, open-access, global database and linked Antimalarial Quality Surveyor, an online visualization tool. Analysis of the database is described here, the limitations of the studies and data reported, and their public health implications discussed. Methods The database collates customized summaries of 251 published anti-malarial quality reports in English, French and Spanish by time and location since 1946. It also includes information on assays to determine quality, sampling and medicine regulation. Results No publicly available reports for 60.6% (63) of the 104 malaria-endemic countries were found. Out of 9,348 anti-malarials sampled, 30.1% (2,813) failed chemical/packaging quality tests with 39.3% classified as falsified, 2.3% as substandard and 58.3% as poor quality without evidence available to categorize them as either substandard or falsified. Only 32.3% of the reports explicitly described their definitions of medicine quality and just 9.1% (855) of the samples collected in 4.6% (six) surveys were conducted using random sampling techniques. Packaging analysis was only described in 21.5% of publications and up to twenty wrong active ingredients were found in falsified anti-malarials. Conclusions There are severe neglected problems with anti-malarial quality but there are important caveats to accurately estimate the prevalence and distribution of poor quality anti-malarials. The lack of reports in many malaria-endemic areas, inadequate sampling techniques and inadequate chemical analytical methods and

  6. Children Worldwide, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines…

  7. 30 years of upper air soundings on board of R/V POLARSTERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Loose, Bernd; Grobe, Hannes; Sieger, Rainer; König-Langlo, Gert

    2016-06-01

    The research vessel and supply icebreaker POLARSTERN is the flagship of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut in Bremerhaven (Germany) and one of the infrastructural pillars of German Antarctic research. Since its commissioning in 1982, POLARSTERN has conducted 30 campaigns to Antarctica (157 legs, mostly austral summer), and 29 to the Arctic (94 legs, northern summer). Usually, POLARSTERN is more than 300 days per year in operation and crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a meridional section twice a year. The first radiosonde on POLARSTERN was released on the 29 December 1982, 2 days after POLARSTERN started on its maiden voyage to the Antarctic. And these daily soundings have continued up to the present. Due to the fact that POLARSTERN has reliably and regularly been providing upper air observations from data sparse regions (oceans and polar regions), the radiosonde data are of special value for researchers and weather forecast services alike. In the course of 30 years (29 December 1982 to 25 November 2012) a total of 12 378 radiosonde balloons were started on POLARSTERN. All radiosonde data can now be found at König-Langlo (2015, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810000). Each data set contains the directly measured parameters air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure, and the derived altitude, wind direction and wind speed. 432 data sets additionally contain ozone measurements.Although more sophisticated techniques (meteorological satellites, aircraft observation, remote-sensing systems, etc.) have nowadays become increasingly important, the high vertical resolution and quality of radiosonde data remains paramount for weather forecasts and modelling approaches.

  8. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-023 11 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS Soviet Journal Reviews SIPRI Books on Arms Race in Outer Space (I. Kuznetsova, Yu. Orlov; Moscow INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, No 12, Dec 85) 1...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 8 Feb 86) 59 TASS: INF Accord Possible Without Space Arms Connection (Moscow TASS, 7 Feb 86) 62 TASS: U.S. Officials

  9. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-85-065 16 December 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS French...34U.S.-USSR Geneva Talks" for "European Conferences". JPRS-TAO85-065 16 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS FRENCH PRIME MINISTER DISCUSSES SDI...imbalances in conventional weapons can really be discussed. As far as space is concerned, we want to avoid the emergence of weapons which are highly

  10. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on nuclear and space arms cannot be described as "equitable" even with most unrestrained imagination. ’Gray Hawk’ PM131006 Moscow IZVESTIYA in...WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Effectiveness of U.S. SDI Effort Downplayed ’ (Peter Bretschneider; Karl-Marx-Stadt...MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 7, Jul 85) 53 - b - JPRS-TAO85-064 13 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS EFFECTIVENESS OF U.S. SDI EFFORT

  11. [Worldwide eradication of poliomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Rasch, G; Schreier, E; Kiehl, W; Kurth, R

    2001-10-30

    Poliomyelitis, an infectious disease with acute and persistent flaccid paralysis is caused by poliovirus (types 1, 2 or 3), an enterovirus. The infection is asymptomatic in 95% of infected subjects. Most of the paralytic cases occur in adolescents or adults in the course of polio type 1 infection. In the prevaccination era, in countries with poor hygienic conditions, infection in early childhood was common, mostly asymptomatic, and immunity in the population prevailed. In developed countries polio often struck adolescents and adults taking its toll in paralytic disease. The introduction of vaccination with the Salk vaccine (IPV Inactivated Polio Vaccine) in the USA and in Europe in 1956 and with the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) developed by Sabin worldwide in the early sixties made it possible to control the epidemic in large geographic areas, but it could not eliminate the disease worldwide. Poliomyelitis is still endemic in Central Africa and in the Indian sub-continent. Acts of war led to the reduction in the vaccination rate in different geographic areas, and smaller epidemics with wild virus but also with reverted vaccine strains occurred. In some parts of the world the rate of vaccination also declined due to elimination of poliomyelitis, and it came to small epidemics of paralytic polio mainly caused by reverted vaccine strains circulating in the population. Reverted vaccine strains also remain a central problem in the eradication of poliomyelitis projected for 2005 by the World Health Organisation. A high vaccination rate, preferably with 3 doses of OPV in infancy or early childhood, and exact worldwide monitoring of cases is indispensable for the eradication. For the complete eradication of poliovirus the live vaccine OPV would have to be changed to an inactivated vaccine IPV worldwide. However, this is presently unachieveable, because of logistic problems and high costs.

  12. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

  13. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  14. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    n r JPRS-TAC-85-057 25 November 1985 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL f-—*lf^ S ;.řS », ;r%^V; ,*’ \\i.*? 19980728 ■£*V’:: FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST...why he had decided to extend a programme launched last year of aid to penetration techniques. He had asked the Atomic Energy Commisariat (CEA) for...ICBM s , i.e. for those systems which constitute the basis of the strategic potential of the USSR. No though restrictions are set for the systems in

  15. Obesity Epidemiology Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Mincey, Krista D

    2016-12-01

    Obesity continues to be a public health concern across the globe. Obesity has a demonstrated association with health behaviors and health outcomes, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Over the past 2 decades, obesity has increased worldwide and remains highest in the United States. It is critical to understand the definition of obesity, using body mass index appropriately, recent estimates, and risk factors as a framework within which clinicians should work to help reduce the burden of obesity. This framework, including the Healthy People 2020 place-based approach to social determinants of health, is described in this article.

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-013 1 February 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS LE SOIR on Possible European Space Defense (Pierre Lefevre; Brussels LE SOIR, 12 Dec 85) 1 SALT/START ISSUES USSR Hits U.S. Accusations of...PRS«TAO86*013 1 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS LE SOIR ON POSSIBLE EUROPEAN SPACE DEFENSE Brussels LE SOIR in French 12 Dec 85 p 8 [Article by

  17. Philosophic Thinking in Social Work: An Analysis of 30 Years of "Social Work" Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Zorita, Paz M-B

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at 30 years of editorial perspectives and trends in social work as a profession through the analysis of editorials from the journal "Social Work." It identifies the wax and wane of philosophic (intellectual or scholarly) questions in social work thinking in the past three decades. It defines what philosophic thinking…

  18. Revisiting Public School/University Partnerships for Formal Leadership Development: A Brief 30-Year Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Kansas State University Chair of the Department of Educational Leadership reviews the strong history of his department's university and public school partnerships and the impact these partnerships have had on leadership preparation programs. Almost 30 years ago, Kansas State University foresaw the power of partnerships with…

  19. Educational Co-operation in Asia and the Pacific: 30 Years of NIER's Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Ryo, Ed.; Numano, Taro, Ed.; Nagata, Yoshiyuki, Ed.

    The history of the regional cooperation program of the National Institute for Educational Research (NIER) is recorded in this document. Specifically, the report outlines the past 30 years of the program in Asia and the Pacific. Throughout those years, 93 seminars, workshops, and symposia have been organized. In addition, information about the…

  20. Is 30 Years of Age Over-the-Hill for Outdoor Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Liz

    2012-01-01

    The author is now 30 years old. For more than a decade, she has been paid to facilitate an array of outdoor-based programming with varying groups of participants. With such breadth of experience, she frequently feels like she is a valuable asset to the organizations for which she works. However, at recent staff training and trip preparation days,…

  1. 7 CFR 1467.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. 1467.8 Section 1467.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS...

  2. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  3. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  4. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  5. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  6. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm found after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Elena; Gato, Manuel; Ruiz, José Ramón

    2010-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle (LV) is a rare cardiac disease that occurs after myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery. Because patients frequently present with nonspecific symptoms, a high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis. This report describes an unusual case demonstrating a large LV pseudoaneurysm after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier.

  7. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  8. Physical Performance of Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A 30-Year Follow up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahtinen, Ulla; Rintala, Pauli; Malin, Antero

    2007-01-01

    Physical performance of Finnish adolescents (33 females, 44 males) with moderate intellectual disability (ID) was studied over a 30-year period. This study is an extension of Lahtinen's previous work on documenting the performance of individuals with intellectual disabilities over time. This study consisted of analyzing data from a total of four…

  9. Planting Misinformation in the Human Mind: A 30-Year Investigation of the Malleability of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of…

  10. Family Boundary Ambiguity: A 30-Year Review of Theory, Research, and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Olson, Chad D.; Buckmiller, Nicolle

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction 30 years ago, family boundary ambiguity (BA) has been a widely used construct in family stress research and clinical intervention. In this article, we present a comprehensive and interdisciplinary review of published research studies that have used BA as a primary variable. Our review identified 37 studies investigating BA…

  11. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Hans P

    2002-01-01

    Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as the availability of toxicological data, survey data, knowledge about the distribution of mycotoxins in commodities, and analytical methodology. Economical and political factors such as commercial interests and sufficiency of food supply have their impact as well. International enquiry's on existing mycotoxin legislation in foodstuffs and animal feedstuffs have been carried out several times in the 1980s and 1990s and details about tolerances, legal basis, responsible authorities, official protocols of analysis and sampling have been published. Recently a comprehensive update on worldwide regulations was published as FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64. It appeared that at least 77 countries now have specific regulations for mycotoxins, 13 countries are known to have no specific regulations, whereas no data are available for about 50 countries, many of them in Africa. Over the years, a large diversity in tolerance levels for mycotoxins has remained. Some free trade zones (EU, MERCOSUR) are in the process of harmonizing the limits and regulations for mycotoxins in their respective member states, but it is not likely that worldwide harmonized limits for mycotoxins will soon be within reach.

  12. Predictors of poor outcome after both column acetabular fractures: a 30-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acetabular fractures are often combined with associated injuries to the hip joint. Some of these associated injuries seem to be responsible for poor long-term results and these injuries seem to affect the outcome independent of the quality of the acetabular reduction. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome of both column acetabular fractures and the influence of osseous cofactors such as initial fracture displacement, hip dislocation, femoral head lesions and injuries of the acetabular joint surface. Methods A retrospective cohort study in patients with both column acetabular fractures treated over a 30 year period was performed. Patients with a follow-up of more than two years were invited for a clinical and radiological examination. Displacement was analyzed on initial and postoperative radiographs. Contusion and impaction of the femoral head was grouped. Injuries of the acetabular joint surface consisting of impaction, contusion and comminution were recorded. The Merle d’Aubigné Score was documented and radiographs were analysed for arthritis (Helfet classification), femoral head avascular necrosis (Ficat/Arlet classification) and heterotopic ossifications (Brooker classification). Results 115 patients were included in the follow up examination. Anatomic reduction (malreduction ≤ 1mm) was associated with a significantly better clinical outcome than nonanatomical reduction (p = 0.001). Initial displacement of more than 10mm (p = 0.031) and initial intraarticular fragments (p = 0.041) were associated with worse outcome. Other associated injuries, such as the presence of a femoral head dislocation, femoral head injuries and injuries to the acetabular joint surface showed no significant difference in outcome individually, but in fractures with more than two associated local injuries the risk for joint degeneration was significant higher (p < 0.001) than in cases with less than two of them. In the subgroup of

  13. Microparasites of worldwide mullets.

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, Mykola

    2015-01-01

    The present review is focus on parasitic organisms, previously considered as protozoans. Viral, prokaryotic and fungal parasites caused diseases and disorders of worldwide mullets were also observed. Most of the known viruses associated with a high mortality of mullets were detected in Mugil cephalus. Prokaryotic microparasites were registered in M. cephalus, Moolgarda cunnesiu, Liza ramada and Mugil liza. Fungal pathogens were associated with representatives of the genera Aphanomyces, Achlya, Phialemonium, Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus sp. can be considered as a potential threat for marine fish aquaculture, especially in culture conditions. A new hyperparasitic microsporidium like organism was recorded in myxozoan Myxobolus parvus infecting grey mullet Liza haematocheilus in the Russian coastal zone of the Sea of Japan. The protozoan representatives of the phyla Dinoflagellata, Euglenozoa, Ciliophora and Apicomplexa were reviewed and analyzed. The review of myxosporean parasites from grey mullets includes 64 species belonging to 13 genera and 9 families infecting 16 fish species

  14. IEEE standards worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1995-01-01

    This article presents North American views on the development and use of internationally acceptable standards through strengthened ties with global standards organizations. The key ingredient to enhance the international reputation of IEEE standards is, without doubt, greater participation of members around the world. Standards that will really have force are those that are recognized as preeminent and that are sought after by organizations worldwide. it will be necessary to develop enhanced liaisons with standards organizations around the world, such as the IEC. These are some of the issues that will be addressed by panelists representing standards organizations and users from North America, United States, Canada, and Mexico. Also discussed is the importance of standards in the NAFTA and GATT agreements on trade.

  15. Obesity: the worldwide epidemic.

    PubMed

    James, Philip T

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, the prevalence of obesity in Western and Westernizing countries has more than doubled. A standardized classification of overweight and obesity, based on the body mass index now allows a comparison of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In children, the International Obesity Taskforce age, sex, and BMI specific cut-off points are increasingly being used. BMI data are being evaluated as part of a new analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. Prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are very different in each region with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe and North American having higher prevalence rates. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting.

  16. Worldwide epidemiology of obesity.

    PubMed

    VanItallie, T B

    1994-01-01

    Average body mass index values and prevalence data for overweight show complex patterns varying with sex, age, socioeconomic circumstances, race, geography, and over time. Differences in the predominant lifestyles and developmental status of nations and regions also influence weight patterns. Estimates of the prevalence of obesity in developed countries vary depending on the definitions used. For example, one recent survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity in the US is 15%, while another survey has found it to be 26%. It appears that overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent worldwide, not only in developed nations, but also in the populations of developing countries, possibly as a result of urbanisation, migration, new eating habits and recent affluence. Since modernisation appears to be an inevitable process throughout the world, there is every reason to expect that the epidemic of overweight and obesity will extend globally in the future.

  17. The worldwide obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M

    2001-11-01

    The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  18. Forecasting California's earthquakes: What can we expect in the next 30 years?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; ,

    2008-01-01

    In a new comprehensive study, scientists have determined that the chance of having one or more magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquakes in the California area over the next 30 years is greater than 99%. Such quakes can be deadly, as shown by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta and the 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. The likelihood of at least one even more powerful quake of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the next 30 years is 46%?such a quake is most likely to occur in the southern half of the State. Building codes, earthquake insurance, and emergency planning will be affected by these new results, which highlight the urgency to prepare now for the powerful quakes that are inevitable in California?s future.

  19. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T.; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V.; de la Fuente, Jesus M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  20. Studies using single-subject designs in sport psychology: 30 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Garry L.; Thompson, Kendra; Regehr, Kaleigh

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we summarize that body of research, discuss its strengths and limitations, and identify areas for future research. PMID:22478434

  1. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.

  2. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    States to create mobile ABM radar stations, Minuteman missiles are being tested to give them the qualities of antimissile missiles, multiple warheads...air, in outer space, or ground mobile systems. The objective of all basic stipulations of the treaty on antimissile systems is to forbid the... mobile ABM missiles. Moreover, inter- continental ballistic missiles of the "Minuteman" type are being tested as antimxssxles, and so on. SPIEGEL

  4. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality, No. 400.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AUSTRALIAN, 30 Mar 83) 12 MALAYSIA Antipollution Measures Urged for Rajang River (THE NATIONAL ECHO, 27 Apr 83) 13 LATIN AMERICA BELIZE...THE NATIONAL ECHO in English 27 Apr 83 p 3 MALAYSIA [Text] S1BU, Tues. - The "En- vironment Protection" Society of Malaysia (EPSM) yesterday...pollution problems should not be always associated with Penin- sular Malaysia as the dangers were also pre- sent in East Malaysia . He was

  5. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality No. 404.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    139] Briefs Grain Losses 1° Queensland Development 10 River Salinity Test Case 10 Victorian Environmental Authority 11 2, Ij.-D Link to Animal...Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 6 May 83 p 18] RIVER SALINITY TEST CASE—An appeal against a licence allowing a South Australian company to...the world’s largest, with an area of 6,000 [square] kilometers, and has the lowest salinity among the world’s lakes. It can produce a vast fortune

  6. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality, No. 407.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Bay Dunes (THE WEST AUSTRALIAN, 9 Jun 83) 7 Briefs Soil Conservation 8 Murray Salinity Study 8 Queensland Oil Slick 8 EPA Pesticide Study 9...Flood Soil Erosion 9 Rottnest Reforestation 10 Endangered List for Tasmania 10 Herbicide Impact Study 10 NEW ZEALAND Government Drafting...present rate." [Text] [Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 6 Jun 83 p 10] MURRAY SALINITY STUDY —Sydney: A team of five NSW Government officers has

  7. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality, No. 401

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-14

    sturdy wire to make a barbed hook and a short wade on any reef would reward one with a good size lobster or a couple of crabs which could be roasted ...percent of the country’s cacao, coffee and henequen, meaning that their preservation and development are vitally important. Nevertheless, for...industrial safety . The workers, numbering about 20, are only half protected because they receive the red-hot frames with only tongs. When the

  8. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality, No. 406.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of man-made fertilizers and pesticides as well as dung piles from giant farms and poor methods of land reclamation often consisting only of... PANDA NEWS of the World Wildlife Fund, biologist Mads-Peter Heide-Jorgensen wrote in a similar manner on the seals in Kattegat. "It is easy enough to

  9. Linking Land Surface Phenology and Growth Limiting Factor Shifts over the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; Schenkel, D.; de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study of global vegetation dynamics contributes to a better understanding of global change drivers and how these affect ecosystems and ecological diversity. Land-surface phenology (LSP) is a key response and feedback of vegetation to the climate system, and hence a parameter that needs to be accurately represented in terrestrial biosphere models [1]. However, the effects of climatic changes on LSP depend on the relative importance of climatic constraints in specific regions - which are not well understood at global scale. In this study, we analyzed a Phenology Reanalysis dataset [2] to evaluate shifts in three climatic drivers of phenology at global scale and over the last 30 years (1982-2012): incoming radiation, evaporative demand and minimum temperature. As a first step, we compared LAI as modeled from these three factors (LAIre) to remotely sensed observations of LSP (LAI3g, [3]) over the same time period. As a second step, we examined temporal trends in the climatic constraints at Start- and End- of the Growing Season. There was good agreement between phenology metrics as derived form LAI3g and LAIre over the last 30 years - thus providing confidence in the climatic constraints underlying the modeled data. Our analysis reveals inter-annual variation in the relative importance of the three climatic factors in limiting vegetation growth at Start- and End- of the Growing Season over the last 30 years. High northern latitudes, as well as northern Europe and central Asia, appear to have undergone significant changes in dominance between the three controls. We also find that evaporative demand has become increasingly limiting for growth in many parts of the world, in particular in South America and eastern Asia. [1] Richardson, A.D. et al. Global Change Biology 18, 566-584 (2012). [2] Stöckli, R. et al. J. Geophys. Res 116, G03020 (2011). [3] Zhu, Z. et al. Remote Sensing 5, 927-948 (2013).

  10. Necrotising pneumonia and bronchiectasis in a previously healthy 30-year-old man

    PubMed Central

    Blauvelt, David G; Castellanos, Angela; Stern, Theodore A; Puig, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy 30-year-old man who presented with a necrotising pneumonia and bronchiectasis. His infectious workup revealed a Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Since bronchiectasis and necrotising pneumonia are unusual findings in an otherwise healthy person, further investigation was pursued. His workup revealed non-classic cystic fibrosis (CF) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). This case discusses the differential diagnosis of bronchiectasis, the diagnosis and treatment of ABPA, and the role of CF mutations in the pathogenesis of ABPA. PMID:25608981

  11. 30 years of Physics Education Research at the University of Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, members of the UW Physics Education Group have examined student learning in courses serving a wide range of populations. Most of the focus has been on elementary, middle, and high school teachers and students in introductory university physics courses, but more recently, the effort has expanded to include physics majors in upper-division courses on quantum mechanics and electrodynamics. In general, the group has taken a practical approach that focuses on identifying instructional strategies that are effective at promoting conceptual understanding and student reasoning ability. Examples will be drawn from across these courses to illustrate common themes and connections.

  12. Solvent/detergent-treated plasma: a tale of 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Marano, Giuseppe; Grazzini, Gioia; Capuzzo, Enrico; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Solvent/detergent-treated plasma was licensed >30 years ago. It has several specific characteristics, the most important being the standardized content of clotting factors, the lack of antibodies implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury pathogenesis and the very high level of safety against transfusion-related viral infections. Since 1992, many clinical studies have confirmed its safety and efficacy in a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. After a brief analysis of the pharmaceutical characteristics of solvent/detergent plasma, this review will focus on the clinical experience with this virus-inactivated plasma.

  13. Changes in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Over the Past 30 Years: A Global and Dynamic Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Bin; Braun, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The hurricane season of 2005 was the busiest on record and Hurricane Katrina (2005) is believed to be the costliest hurricane in U. S. history. There are growing concerns regarding whether this increased tropical cyclone activity is a result of global warming, as suggested by Emanuel(2005) and Webster et al. (2005), or just a natural oscillation (Goldenberg et al. 2001). This study examines the changes in tropical cyclone intensity to see what were really responsible for the changes in tropical cyclone activity over the past 30 years. Since the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) warming also leads to the response of atmospheric circulation, which is not solely determined by the local SST warming, this study suggests that it is better to take the tropical cyclone activities in the North Atlantic (NA), western North Pacific (WNP) and eastern North Pacific (ENP) basins as a whole when searching for the influence of the global-scale SST warming on tropical cyclone intensity. Over the past 30 years, as the tropical SST increased by about 0.5 C, the linear trends indicate 6%, 16% and 15% increases in the overall average intensity and lifetime and the annual frequency. Our analysis shows that the increased annual destructiveness of tropical cyclones reported by Emanuel(2005) resulted mainly from the increases in the average lifetime and annual frequency in the NA basin and from the increases in the average intensity and lifetime in the WNP basin, while the annual destructiveness in the ENP basin generally decreased over the past 30 years. The changes in the proportion of intense tropical cyclones reported by Webster et a1 (2005) were due mainly to the fact that increasing tropical cyclones took the tracks that favor for the development of intense tropical cyclones in the NA and WNP basins over the past 30 years. The dynamic influence associated with the tropical SST warming can lead to the impact of global warming on tropical cyclone intensity that may be very

  14. Trends in Stratospheric Water Vapor over Boulder, Colorado: Revelations of the 30-year Boulder Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Oltmans, S. J.; Voemel, H.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Ray, E. A.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.

    2010-12-01

    The NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has made in situ, balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric water vapor over Boulder, Colorado, since 1980. The 30-year data record is divided into four periods of multiple-year water vapor trends, including two that span the well-examined but unattributed 1980-2000 period of stratospheric water vapor growth. Trends are determined for five 2-km stratospheric layers (16-26 km) utilizing weighted, piecewise regression analyses. Over the entire 30-year span stratospheric water vapor increased by an average of 1.0 ± 0.2 ppmv (27 ± 6%) with significant shorter-term variations along the way, including an abrupt decrease starting in mid-2000 followed by a significant increase starting in mid-2005. Water vapor growth during some of the trend periods strengthens with altitude, revealing contributions from at least one mechanism that strengthens with altitude, such as methane oxidation. However, though atmospheric methane abundance increased considerably during 1980-2010, additional methane oxidation in the NH midlatitude stratosphere below 26 km can account for at most 25% of the net stratospheric water vapor increase over the last three decades. Moving averages of water vapor mixing ratios over Boulder, Colorado, averaged in 2-km altitude layers. The averaging window was ±1 yr and the averaging threshold was a minimum of 12 data points. Black markers with colored vertical bars define the four trend periods for each altitude layer.

  15. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic Decadal Sea Ice Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    A 30-year satellite record of sea ice extents derived mostly from satellite microwave radiometer observations reveals that the Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30+0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr from 1972 through 2002, but by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased. Over the full 30-year period, the Antarctic ice extent decreased by 0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent in the early 1970's, an anomaly that apparently began in the late 1960's, as observed in early visible and infrared satellite images.

  16. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour.

  17. Lessons from 30 years' data of Korean end-stage renal disease registry, 1985-2015.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Chan; Yun, Sung Ro; Lee, Seoung Woo; Han, Sang Woong; Kim, Won; Park, Jongha; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-09-01

    The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) launched a nationwide official survey program about dialysis therapy in 1985. Nowadays, the accumulated data for 30 years by this "Insan Prof. Min Memorial end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Registry" program have been providing the essential information for dialysis clinical practice, academic nephrology research, and health management policy. We reviewed 30 years of data to identify important changes and implications for the future improvement of dialysis therapy in Korea. Hemodialysis patients, especially diabetics and elderly patients have increased in number very rapidly during recent years in Korea. The Korean prevalence rate of ESRD patients was about 70% of the United States and about 50% of Japan according to the international comparisons in the annual data report of United States Renal Data System. The blood pressure control, anemia control, and dialysis adequacy have continuously improved year by year. The importance of calcium and phosphorus control has also been increasing because of the increase in long-term dialysis patients. In addition, chronic dialysis complications should be closely monitored and dialysis modifications, such as hemodiafiltration therapy, might be considered. Because of the increase of private clinics and nursing hospitals in dialysis practice, the role of dialysis specialists and continuing education are thought to be essential. For strict cost-effective dialysis control of increasing elderly, diabetic, and long-term dialysis patients, the KSN ESRD patient registration should be run by the KSN and health ministry in cooperation, in which the dialysis fee reimbursement should be accompanied.

  18. Overall decrease in the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to antimicrobials over the past 30 years in France.

    PubMed

    Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Ferré, Séverine; Le Grand, Dominique; Paoli, Agnès; Gay, Emilie; Poumarat, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within contemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978-1979 and in 2010-2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50) was: i) substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii) moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol.

  19. Overall Decrease in the Susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to Antimicrobials over the Past 30 Years in France

    PubMed Central

    Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V.; Ferré, Séverine; Le Grand, Dominique; Paoli, Agnès; Gay, Emilie; Poumarat, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within comtemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978–1979 and in 2010–2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50) was: i) substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii) moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24503775

  20. Status of worldwide Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warriner, Howard W.

    1987-01-01

    In cooperation with the International Landsat community, and through the Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG), NOAA is assembling information about the status of the Worldwide Landsat Archive. During LTWG 9, member nations agreed to participate in a survey of International Landsat data holding and of their archive experiences with Landsat data. The goal of the effort was two-fold; one, to document the Landsat archive to date, and, two, to ensure that specific nations' experience with long-term Landsat archival problems were available to others. The survey requested details such as amount of data held, the format of the archive holdings by Spacecraft/Sensor, and acquisition years; the estimated costs to accumulated process, and replace the data (if necessary); the storage space required, and any member nation's plans that would establish the insurance of continuing quality. As a group, the LTWG nations are concerned about the characteristics and reliability of long-term magnetic media storage. Each nation's experience with older data retrieval is solicited in the survey. This information will allow nations to anticipate and plan for required changes to their archival holdings. Also solicited were reports of any upgrades to a nation's archival system that are currently planned and all results of attempts to reduce archive holdings including methodology, current status, and the planned access rates and product support that are anticipated for responding to future archival usage.

  1. Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide - 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1999-01-01

    The 1990 U.S. Bureau of Mines publication, Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide, has been updated and is now available. The 1998 USGS edition of Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide is published in two parts. Part I—Detail contains information on individual primary smelter capacity, location, ownership, sources of energy, and other miscellaneous information. Part II—Summary summarizes the capacity data by country

  2. A case of lupus vulgaris with rare localization diagnosed 30 years after onset.

    PubMed

    Laudańska, H; Reduta, T; Zalewski, G; Chodynicka, B

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis (tuberculosis cutis) is one of the extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis, which may affect the skin only or co-exist with tuberculosis of other organs, particularly the lungs. We describe a case of lupus vulgaris in a 72-year-old male patient with a single lesion localized on his lower extremity, developing for 30 years before correct diagnosis and previously treated with topical steroids. Bacillus infection in other organs was not detected. Diagnosis of tuberculosis was made based on personal history, clinical picture, hypersensitivity to tuberculin, histopathology and polymerase chain reaction. A multidrug therapy with rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide resulted in regression of the lesion. The common lack of knowledge about the clinical picture of cutaneous tuberculosis causes its late diagnosis and treatment.

  3. End of Life Operations for LEO and GEO Satellites: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremeaux, Claire; Moussi, Aurelie; Vintenat, Lionel; Moulin, Michel

    2013-08-01

    CNES is celebrating in 2013 its 40th year of satellites operations with nearly 40 satellites cared for from Symphony 1 (1973) to Pleiades 1B (2012). Half of them reached its end of mission. Although they were not designed for it, CNES imagined, prepared and executed end-of life operations for geostationary and low earth orbit satellites, in accordance with its strong involvement at international level in favour of space activity sustainability and space debris mitigation. With increasing experience, efficiency and completeness of operations have strongly improved: optimization of resources, precise orbit and eccentricity management, collision risk concern, controlled fluidic and electric passivation, concern for degraded or emergency cases… This paper presents the evolution and improvement of end of life operations handled by CNES for 30 years, with a highlight on the last evolutions in the whole process since the French Space Act came into force.

  4. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Accelerated Arctic Sea Ice Loss, Antarctic Sea Ice Trend Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30 plus or minus 0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1972 through 2002, but decreased by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast to the Arctic, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased, with an overall 30-year trend of -0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent observed in the early 1970's.

  5. Anorexia Nervosa: The Course of 15 Patients Treated From 20 to 30 Years Previously

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, R. F.; Hyland, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    A follow-up study, after 20 to 30 years, of 15 patients with anorexia nervosa, formerly treated by the authors, revealed that only one patient failed to recover from the initial illness, and she ultimately became permanently incapacitated. Three patients have had neurotic symptoms periodically during the years following recovery, and one other became very thin in later life, but these four have been able to carry on fairly adequately for the most part. The remaining 10 patients have lived useful, well-adjusted lives, free of symptoms over the years. This study shows that despite the apparently severe emotional disturbances reflected in the marked physical changes that take place in young people suffering from this syndrome, a deep-rooted psychoneurotic or psychotic predisposition does not necessarily exist; the majority of the patients in this series recovered and remained well after relatively simple treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5902703

  6. Rigid bronchoscopic management of acute respiratory failure in a 30-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Karan; Dhungana, Ashesh; Madan, Neha Kawatra; Mohan, Anant; Hadda, Vijay; Garg, Rakesh; Jain, Deepali; Guleria, Randeep

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a history of progressive shortness of breath, cough, and hoarseness. Stridor was audible on examination. Chest X-ray showed normal lung fields and contrast-enhanced computed tomography thorax showed lower tracheal occlusion with endoluminal growth. Diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy demonstrated multiple whitish glistening nodules over both vocal cords and lower tracheal occlusion by whitish nodular growth. In view of critical central airway obstruction, rigid bronchoscopy and excision of the lower tracheal growth were performed. Histopathological examination of the excised specimen demonstrated features of squamous papillomas. A diagnosis of respiratory papillomatosis was established. On follow-up surveillance bronchoscopy, there was a gradual spontaneous regression of the residual lesions, and the patient remains currently asymptomatic 1 year since the procedure. PMID:27891001

  7. Recurrent diplopia over a 30-year period: natural history of a Lewis and Sumner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Romain; Bouwyn, Jean Paul; Wallon, David; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Ahtoy, Patrick; Perot, Guillaume; Hannequin, Didier; Maltête, David

    2012-06-01

    We described the case of a patient with recurrent episodes of isolated diplopia over the last 30 years. On her last event, neurological examination revealed not only a right third and sixth cranial nerves involvement, but also a right peripheral facial palsy and a motor weakness on the left ulnar territory. Electrophysiological nerves motor conduction study revealed a conduction block on the left ulnar nerve and a less severe on the right ulnar nerve. Asymmetrical upper limb sensorimotor weakness combined with conduction block and cranial nerves palsy led to a diagnosis of Lewis and Sumner syndrome (LSS). This case is unusual by the presentation of the disease and is, to our knowledge the longer natural disease course of LSS reported. Moreover, it suggests that the recurrent diplopia variant may represent a separate entity with a good prognosis even in absence of invasive treatment.

  8. Immunity of patients surviving 20 to 30 years after allogeneic or syngeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Storek, J; Joseph, A; Espino, G; Dawson, M A; Douek, D C; Sullivan, K M; Flowers, M E; Martin, P; Mathioudakis, G; Nash, R A; Storb, R; Appelbaum, F R; Maloney, D G

    2001-12-15

    The duration of immunodeficiency following marrow transplantation is not known. Questionnaires were used to study the infection rates in 72 patients surviving 20 to 30 years after marrow grafting. Furthermore, in 33 of the 72 patients and in 16 donors (siblings who originally donated the marrow) leukocyte subsets were assessed by flow cytometry. T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), markers of T cells generated de novo, were quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunoglobulin G(2) (IgG(2)) and antigen-specific IgG levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infections diagnosed more than [corrected] 15 years after transplantation occurred rarely. The average rate was 0.07 infections per patient-year (one infection every 14 years), excluding respiratory tract infections, gastroenteritis, lip sores, and hepatitis C. The counts of circulating monocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells in the patients were not lower than in the donors. The counts of TREC(+) CD4 T cells in transplant recipients younger than age 18 years (at the time of transplantation) were not different from the counts in their donors. In contrast, the counts of TREC(+) CD4 T cells were lower in transplant recipients age 18 years or older, even in those with no history of clinical extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, compared with their donors. The levels of total IgG(2) and specific IgG against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were similar in patients and donors. Overall, the immunity of patients surviving 20 to 30 years after transplantation is normal or near normal. Patients who received transplants in adulthood have a clinically insignificant deficiency of de novo-generated CD4 T cells, suggesting that in these patients the posttransplantation thymic insufficiency may not be fully reversible.

  9. VIP Data Explorer: A Tool for Exploring 30 years of Vegetation Index and Phenology Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto-munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Rivera-Camacho, J.; Yitayew, M.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of long term data records from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT-VGT and other sensors. These records account for 30+ years, as these archives grow, they become invaluable tools for environmental, resources management, and climate studies dealing with trends and changes from local, regional to global scale. In this project, the Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIPLab) is processing 30 years of daily global surface reflectance data into an Earth Science Data Record of Vegetation Index and Phenology metrics. Data from AVHRR (N07,N09,N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA collection 5) for the periods 1981-1999 and 2000-2010, at CMG resolution were processed into one seamless and sensor independent data record using various filtering, continuity and gap filling techniques (Tsend-Ayush et al., AGU 2011, Rivera-Camacho et al, AGU 2011). An interactive online tool (VIP Data Explorer) was developed to support the visualization, qualitative and quantitative exploration, distribution, and documentation of these records using a simple web 2.0 interface. The VIP Data explorer (http://vip.arizona.edu/viplab_data_explorer) can display any combination of multi temporal and multi source data, enable the quickly exploration and cross comparison of the various levels of processing of this data. It uses the Google Earth (GE) model and was developed using the GE API for images rendering, manipulation and geolocation. These ESDRs records can be quickly animated in this environment and explored for visual trends and anomalies detection. Additionally the tool enables extracting and visualizing any land pixel time series while showing the different levels of processing it went through. User can explore this ESDR database within this data explorer GUI environment, and any desired data can be placed into a dynamic "cart" to be ordered and downloaded later. More functionalities are planned and will be

  10. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km2 in 1981 to 485.0 km2 in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km2 in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km2 in 1981 to 366.5 km2 in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km2. Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km2 in 1981 to 146.2 km2 in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  11. Isotretinoin: dose, duration and relapse. What does 30 years of usage tell us?

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius

    2013-08-01

    With 30 years of clinical use, it is appropriate to review the use of isotretinoin. We now understand that retinoids influence cellular growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and apoptosis, inhibit tumour promotion and malignant cell growth, exert immuno-modulatory actions and alter cellular cohesiveness. This has expanded the indications of isotretinoin from just acne and rosacea to a wide range of inflammatory and malignant skin disorders. While the standard dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg per day for 4 months to a cumulative dose of 120-140 mg/kg per day has served us well in the management of acne vulgaris, there is emerging evidence that much lower dosages (as low as 5 mg/day) are just as effective but have significantly fewer adverse effects. Relapse of acne vulgaris continues to be a problem but we are beginning to recognise that this is related less to the cumulative dose and more to the length of sebaceous gland suppression. Other factors important for relapse include a macrocomedonal pattern of acne, smoking and age, both younger (under 14 years) and older (over 25 years). After 30 years of use, we now understand why isotretinoin is such an effective drug. Not only does it clear acne in almost all patients, long-term remission can be achieved in 70-80% of patients with a single course. Important changes in the use of isotretinoin include using a lower daily dose for a longer period of time. New indications continue to emerge, particularly as a potential treatment for both intrinsic and extrinsic (photo) aging. Teratogenicity however, remains a very significant concern.

  12. Beyond a pedagogical tool: 30 years of Molecular biology of the cell.

    PubMed

    Serpente, Norberto

    2013-02-01

    In 1983, a bulky and profusely illustrated textbook on molecular and cell biology began to inhabit the shelves of university libraries worldwide. The effect of capturing the eyes and souls of biologists was immediate as the book provided them with a new and invigorating outlook on what cells are and what they do.

  13. Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  14. Factors driving mortality and growth at treeline: a 30-year experiment of 92 000 conifers.

    PubMed

    Barbeito, Ignacio; Dawes, Melissa A; Rixen, Christian; Senn, Josef; Bebi, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interplay between environmental factors contributing to treeline formation and how these factors influence different life stages remains a major research challenge. We used an afforestation experiment including 92 000 trees to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of tree mortality and growth at treeline in the Swiss Alps. Seedlings of three high-elevation conifer species (Larix decidua, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, and Pinus cembra) were systematically planted along an altitudinal gradient at and above the current treeline (2075 to 2230 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) in 1975 and closely monitored during the following 30 years. We used decision-tree models and generalized additive models to identify patterns in mortality and growth along gradients in elevation, snow duration, wind speed, and solar radiation, and to quantify interactions between the different variables. For all three species, snowmelt date was always the most important environmental factor influencing mortality, and elevation was always the most important factor for growth over the entire period studied. Individuals of all species survived at the highest point of the afforestation for more than 30 years, although mortality was greater above 2160 m a.s.l., 50-100 m above the current treeline. Optimal conditions for height growth differed from those for survival in all three species: early snowmelt (ca. day of year 125-140 [where day 1 is 1 January]) yielded lowest mortality rates, but relatively later snowmelt (ca. day 145-150) yielded highest growth rates. Although snowmelt and elevation were important throughout all life stages of the trees, the importance of radiation decreased over time and that of wind speed increased. Our findings provide experimental evidence that tree survival and height growth require different environmental conditions and that even small changes in the duration of snow cover, in addition to changes in temperature, can strongly impact tree survival and

  15. Chornobyl 30 years later: Radiation, pregnancies, and developmental anomalies in Rivne, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Chambers, Christina D; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Sosyniuk, Zoriana; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Ievtushok, Bogdana; Akhmedzhanova, Diana; Komov, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    In the 30 years since the Chornobyl nuclear power plant disaster, there is evidence of persistent levels of incorporated ionizing radiation in adults, children and pregnant women in the surrounding area. Measured levels of Cesium-137 vary by region, and may be influenced by dietary and water sources as well as proximity to nuclear power plants. Since 2000, comprehensive, population-based birth defects monitoring has been performed in selected regions of Ukraine to evaluate trends and to generate hypotheses regarding potential causes of unexplained variations in defect rates. Significantly higher rates of microcephaly, neural tube defects, and microphthalmia have been identified in selected regions of Ukraine collectively known as Polissia compared to adjacent regions collectively termed non-Polissia, and these significantly higher rates were evident particularly in the years 2000-2009. The Polissia regions have also demonstrated higher mean whole body counts of Cesium-137 compared to values in individuals residing in other non-Polissia regions. The potential causal relationship between persistent ionizing radiation pollution and selected congenital anomaly rates supports the need for a more thorough, targeted investigation of the sources of persistent ionizing radiation and the biological plausibility of a potential teratogenic effect.

  16. [Spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in Guangdong Province of China in past 30 years].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Xing; Wang, Jing; Chai, Min; Chen, Ze-Peng; Zhan, Zhen-Shou; Zheng, Wu-Ping; Wei, Xiu-Guo

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1980s' soil inventory data and the 2002-2007 soil pH data of Guangdong Province, the spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in the Province in past 30 years was studied. In the study period, the spatial distribution pattern of soil pH in the Province had less change (mainly acidic), except that in Pearl River Delta and parts of Qingyuan and Shaoguan (weak alkaline). The overall variation of soil pH was represented as acidification, with the average pH value changed from 5.70 to 5.44. Among the soil types in the Province, alluvial soil had an increased pH, lateritic red soil, paddy soil, and red soil had a large decrement of pH value, and lime soil was most obvious in the decrease of pH value and its area percentage. The soil acidification was mainly induced by soil characteristics, some natural factors such as acid rain, and human factors such as unreasonable fertilization and urbanization. In addition, industrialization and mining increased the soil pH in some areas.

  17. [Repeat bypass surgery for intracranial hemorrhage 30 years after indirect bypass for moyamoya disease].

    PubMed

    Hori, Satoshi; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Akioka, Naoki; Hamada, Hideo; Kuwayama, Naoya; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    A 39-year-old man had been diagnosed with moyamoya disease and underwent a bilateral encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis(EDAS)intervention at the age of 9 years. During the 30 years after his bilateral EDAS, he experienced no cerebrovascular events. However, at age 39, he suddenly presented with mild consciousness disturbance and vomiting and was transferred to a local hospital. Brain CT showed an intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ventricular hematoma. He was referred to our hospital for further investigation and treatment. Cerebral angiography showed faint collaterals through the site of the bilateral EDAS and development of basal moyamoya vessels. SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow(CBF)and cerebrovascular reactivity(CVR)in the right frontal lobe. We diagnosed him with delayed cerebral hemorrhage due to delayed rupturing of fragile moyamoya vessels after indirect bypass. The patient underwent a repeat bypass surgery(STA-MCA anastomosis and encephalo-duro-myo-arterio-pericranial synangiosis;EDMAPS)on the right side. He showed improvement in cerebral hemodynamics after surgery, and has since remained free from cerebrovascular events. Hemorrhagic events occurring a very long time after indirect bypass surgery in pediatric-onset moyamoya disease are rare. In such cases, a lifelong follow-up strategy may be necessary. Repeat bypass surgery may be a powerful tool to prevent such hemorrhagic events.

  18. No association between mean telomere length and life stress observed in a 30 year birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jodczyk, Sarah; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Pearson, John F; Kennedy, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to young adulthood. Participants were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a New Zealand longitudinal birth cohort which has followed participants from birth until age 30. Telomere length was obtained on DNA from peripheral blood samples collected from consenting participants (n = 677) at age 28-30, using a quantitative PCR assay. These data were assessed for associations with 26 measures of life course adversity or stress which occurred prior to 25 years of age. No associations were found between telomere length measured at age 28-30 years and life course adversity or stress for specific measures and for the summary risk scores for each developmental domain. The correlations were very small ranging from -0.06 to 0.06 with a median of 0.01, and none were statistically significant. Our results in this well-studied birth cohort do not support prior reports of such associations, and underscore the need for more extensive replication of proposed links between stress and telomere biology in larger cohorts with appropriate phenotypic data.

  19. Paraganglioma, neuroblastoma, and a SDHB mutation: Resolution of a 30-year-old mystery.

    PubMed

    Schimke, R Neil; Collins, Debra L; Stolle, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    Familial paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) is genetically heterogenous with mutations in three of the four subunits of the heterotetrameric mitochondrial complex II enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) being causally responsible for the majority of cases. In addition to PGL/PCC an array of non-paraganglial tumors have been described in affected individuals. We present a 30-year follow-up on the family of a deceased patient who synchronously developed malignant neuroblastoma (NBL), PCC, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Other family members with late onset disease have come to our attention, and molecular study revealed a mutation in the SDHB gene. Despite the embryologic relationship, NBL has been seen in only two previous patients with familial PGL/PCC, both with deletions of the SDHB gene. Review of the literature suggests the lack of a reported association between NBL and familial PGL/PCC may be an ascertainment bias. We further suggest that study of the SDH genes in NBL survivors who develop secondary solid tumors, particularly RCC, may correct this bias, and provide for more effective and comprehensive tumor screening in this patient population.

  20. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins.

  1. Development of the psychotherapy supervisor: review of and reflections on 30 years of theory and research.

    PubMed

    Watkins, C Edward

    2012-01-01

    The psychotherapy supervisor's development (i.e., the unfolding process of growth in being and becoming a supervisor) has long been considered a substantive issue in clinical supervision. Theory and clinical wisdom suggest that supervisors' level of development can have a significant and far-reaching impact on the supervision experience, potentially affecting supervisory alliance formation, in-session conceptualization and strategy utilization, and even the outcomes experienced by both supervisees and patients. Consensus seems to be that there is a critical need for empirical study of psychotherapy supervisor development. But with a generation of theory and research on psychotherapy supervisor development behind us, what do we know (or not know); where does this area of inquiry stand today, and what do we need to know about supervisor development going forward? In this paper, I attempt to address those questions. I examine the last 30-year period (approximately) of supervisor development theory, measurement, and quantitative and qualitative study; provide a contemporary status report of sorts on this subject; and identify some important matters for research and practical consideration. Despite a generation of inquiry, the psychotherapy supervisor still remains the largely unknown party in the supervision experience. But that long-standing reality can be changed, some possibilities for doing so are presented, and the promise of supervisor development study is seen to be an ever-inviting hope that awaits realization.

  2. Improved outcomes of renal transplantation from cardiac death donors: a 30-year single center experience.

    PubMed

    Tojimbara, T; Fuchinoue, S; Iwadoh, K; Koyama, I; Sannomiya, A; Kato, Y; Nanmoku, K; Kai, K; Nakajima, I; Toma, H; Teraoka, S

    2007-03-01

    Outcomes of renal transplantation from donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors over 30 years were analyzed. Between 1975 and 2004, 256 renal transplantations from DCD donors were performed. The recipients were divided into four groups according to a time period as follows: 1975-1979 (Group 1; n = 18), 1980-1989 (Group 2; n = 81), 1990-1999 (Group 3; n = 84) and 2000-2004 (Group 4; n = 73). Of the 256 transplanted kidneys from DCD donors, 38 (15%) functioned immediately after transplantation. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was 72%. Warm ischemic time and total ischemic time were 7.4 +/- 9.4 min and 11.9 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. The overall graft survival rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were 80%, 72% and 53%, respectively. Graft survival rates in each group have continually improved over time (5-year graft survival; 23% vs. 64% vs. 74% vs. 91%, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in graft survival rates between the groups of patients who survived with a functioning graft for more than 1 year. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed acute rejection and donor age to be independently associated with graft outcome. DCD donors are a valuable source of kidneys for transplantation with promising long-term outcomes.

  3. Roadmap for Loess/Paleosol Magnetism After 30 Years of Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Taylor, S. N.; Guyodo, Y. J. B.; Till, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, loess and paleosol deposits have provided the scientific community a unique opportunity to study past climate and environmental change of the continents. Fluctuating magnetic susceptibility of glacial loess and interglacial soil deposits in China, and a few places elsewhere, have been correlated with the marine isotope stages and ice core records, illustrating the loess-climate connection. Furthermore, the logarithm of the magnetic susceptibility and other ferrimagnetism dependant concentration parameters in modern topsoil are found to be linearly related to modern rainfall records. But, the transfer function is site specific. Others have suggested that the relationship is more universal if precipitation and evapotranspiration are considered together. This said, major roadblocks remain for loess/paleosol magnetism to reach its full potential as a quantitative tool in climate and environmental studies. Reaching this full potential is impaired primarily because of the difficulty in identifying iron oxides and oxyhydroxides other than magnetite or maghemite in natural samples and (semi-)quantifying their concentration and grain size. This talk will present results obtained recently through research targeting loess and paleosol magnetism emphasising the need to further consider the following scientific questions. Which environmental and climate variables cause the change in magnetism in soils? How does magnetism evolve with time, quantitatively, when soils are buried under newly deposited loess and become paleosols? Can we overcome the imprecision of paleomagnetic dating inherent to our poor understanding of the magnetization acquisition process in loess and soils?

  4. 30 Years of APS Congressional Fellows: Looking Back and Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    In 1973 AAAS launched a Congressional Fellows Program, and APS was one of three founding participants. Since then, APS has funded one or two Fellows annually to work with a Congressional Committee or on the personal staff of a Member of Congress. These fellows individually and collectively have had and continue to have a large impact in Washington. Six Fellows from different periods of the 30-year program, including a current Member of Congress, will present their views and assessments of the Fellowship program. They will address how it affected them, what it has done for the country and how APS should plan for the future. There will be ample time for questions and discussion. Panelists: Ben Cooper, Association of Oil Pipe Lines (Fellow, 1973-74) Rush Holt, Member, House of Representatives (Fellow, 1982-83) Jane Alexander, Office of Naval Research (Fellow, 1986-87) Duncan Moore, University of Rochester (Fellow, 1993-94) Peter Rooney, House Committee on Science (Fellow, 1997-98) Sherri Stephan, Senate Committee on Government Affairs (Fellow, 2000-01)

  5. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

    2009-01-01

    The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

  6. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  7. Is SfM photogrammetry really the tool we've waited 30 years for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jim; Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    SFM photogrammetry has evolved rapidly in the last few years, to the point where it is beginning to surpass terrestrial laser scanning for capturing 3-D models of natural surfaces. The ability to generate high resolution digital terrain models using just a consumer grade digital camera, or even a smart phone, is an important advance. The fact that this can be achieved at a range of scales and resolutions and from a variety of platforms, whilst using software which is freely available, appears almost incredible. This invited presentation seeks to place SfM photogrammetry in its proper historical context, by demonstrating just how rapidly techniques have evolved over the last 30 years. However, it is important to look forward and help ensure that future use is effective, even if spatial measurement expertise is limited. Consequently, the presentation will also demonstrate just how well-established lessons learnt in the past continue to remain important, particularly if accurate spatial data is desired. The application of SfM to a range of case studies will help to demonstrate the importance of scene geometry and accurate camera calibration and modelling. In addition, the establishment of external control remains critical for determining true change and the provision of independent checkpoints provides important verification of accuracies actually achieved. Recognition of these traditional photogrammetric principles and well-established practices should help ensure that expectations are both realistic and can be fulfilled, even for a new generation of non-expert users.

  8. Seasonal spatial heterogeneity of warming rates on the Tibetan Plateau over the past 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jianping; Li, Lun; Fang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Based on temperature data from 79 meteorological stations, we estimate the warming rate by season on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1984–2013. The warming rate was spatially heterogeneous across seasons over the past 30 years. The northern TP (NTP) experienced more warming than the southern TP (STP) (divided near 33°N) in all seasons. The greatest north-south difference in warming was 0.70 ± 0.11 °C for summer (June-August), while the smallest difference was 0.27 ± 0.14 °C for the cold season (November-April). Such seasonal and spatial heterogeneity in the warming rate is consistent with the seasonal precipitation patterns of the NTP and the STP. One possible cause for this phenomenon is that more precipitation occurs in the STP than in the NTP (especially for summer), accompanied by more low cloud cover, which may have slowed the warming rate. Our results imply that dry regions on the TP will possibly experience greater temperature increase than wet regions under future global warming, and this will be more prominent in summer. PMID:26114895

  9. From Energy Audits to Home Performance: 30 Years of Articles in Home Energy Magazine

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Home Energy Magazine has been publishing articles about residential energy efficiency for 30 years. Its goal has been to disseminate technically reliable and neutral information to the practitioners, that is, professionals in the business of home energy efficiency. The articles, editorials, letters, and advertisements are a kind of window on the evolution of energy conservation technologies, policies, and organizations. Initially, the focus was on audits and simple retrofits, such as weatherstripping and insulation. Instrumentation was sparse sometimes limited to a ruler to measure depth of attic insulation and a blower door was exotic. CFLs were heavy, awkward bulbs which might, or might not, fit in a fixture. Saving air conditioning energy was not a priority. Solar energy was only for the most adventurous. Thirty years on, the technologies and business have moved beyond just insulating attics to the larger challenge of delivering home performance and achieving zero net energy. This shift reflects the success in reducing space heating energy and the need to create a profitable industry by providing more services. The leading edge of the residential energy services market is becoming much more sophisticated, offering both efficiency and solar systems. The challenge is to continue providing relevant and reliable information in a transformed industry and a revolutionized media landscape.

  10. International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics - 30 years of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George D.; Gonczy, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties/performance of brittle bodies (e.g., advanced ceramics and glasses) can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. For three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed numerous full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure various properties and performance of a monolithic and composite ceramics and coatings that, in some cases, may be applicable to glasses. These standards give the "what, how, how not, why, why not, etc." for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of advanced ceramics. Use of these standards provides accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Involvement in ASTM Committee C28 has included users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. who write, continually update, and validate through round robin test programmes, more than 45 standards in the 30 years since the Committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the ASTM Committee C28 standards and how to obtain them either as i) individual copies with full details or ii) a complete collection in one volume. A listing of other ASTM committees of interest is included. In addition, some examples of the tangible benefits of standards for advanced ceramics are employed to demonstrate their practical application.

  11. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2016-07-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed.

  12. Blastomycosis in children and adolescents: a 30-year experience from Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Fanella, Sergio; Skinner, Stuart; Trepman, Elly; Embil, John M

    2011-08-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus endemic to areas of North America, causes a granulomatous infection which may affect any organ system. Since limited clinical data exist about pediatric blastomycosis, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of pediatric patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of blastomycosis treated during a 30-year period at a tertiary care center. Thirty-four pediatric patients with blastomycosis were identified (20 [59%] male), with a mean age at diagnosis of 10 ± 5 years. Two patients were immunocompromised. Pulmonary disease was noted in 27 (79%) patients, and extrapulmonary disease was found in 13 (38%) patients (concurrent pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, six patients), including five cases of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Delay in diagnosis was greater with extrapulmonary or central nervous system infections as compared with pulmonary blastomycosis. All patients received antifungal chemotherapy, with 19 (56%) patients receiving amphotericin B as initial therapy for 27.5 ± 17 days. Five patients required treatment in the intensive care unit. One patient died of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Blastomycosis may occur in healthy children, including very young infants. Due to the frequency of extra-pulmonary disease, diagnosis may be difficult and frequently delayed, especially in cases of CNS infection.

  13. A 30 year old man with an acute presentation of a cerebellopontine angle lesion.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Berthelet, France; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2013-03-01

    Schwannomas are slow-growing tumors with symptoms manifesting progressively. We report the case of a patient who manifested a sudden loss of consciousness as clinical presentation of an intracranial schwannoma with no acute hemorrhage or hydrocephalus. A 30-year-old male presented comatose and posturing. Cerebral CT revealed an extra-axial lesion with a heterogeneous enhancement and a cystic component located on the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA), displacing the brain stem. No acute hemorrhage or hydrocephalus was documented. Through a retrosigmoid suboccipital craniotomy, an extended subtotal tumor resection was performed. The patient experienced no functional hearing impairment and resumed his daily-life activities 3 months after surgery. Histopathological examination was compatible with a benign schwannoma. An exuberant lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was found in many areas, signing the presence of an unusual inflammatory reaction with adjacent important intratumoral edema. We propose that the exuberant inflammatory infiltrate and the associated intratumoral edema acted as determining elements in the increase of mass effect and sudden clinical deterioration.

  14. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

  15. A glimpse into 30 years of struggle against prostitution by the women's liberation movement in Norway.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Agnete

    2009-11-01

    The Women's Front of Norway has worked against prostitution for 30 years. In 2008 a law criminalizing the purchase of a sexual act was passed in Norway. This article describes the struggle and the main actors in lobbying for the law. In the 1980s, we raised awareness of prostitution and trafficking in women in a study of the pornography industry, and targeted sex tourist agencies organizing trips to the Philippines and Thailand. In the 1990s, our members in trade unions got their unions to take a stand against prostitution and against legalizing prostitution as "work". In 2006, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions Congress supported a law criminalizing the buyer of a sexual act; this had a strong impact on the centre-left coalition Government. We invited leaders of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women to Norway to meet parliamentarians and trade unionists, and kept up the pressure. From the start, the focus was on ensuring that the situation for women in prostitution was ameliorated. Our demands have been for better social services and job training. Street prostitution, especially in Oslo, has been curbed, and a growth in the indoor market has not been reported. Our next task is participating in the awareness campaign "Buying Sex is not a Sport" in connection with the Soccer World Cup, South Africa, 2010.

  16. How are qualitative methods used in diabetes research? A 30-year systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Sekar, Swathi; Griswold, Emily P; Ali, Mohammed K

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe how qualitative methods are used in global research on diabetes and identify opportunities whereby qualitative methods could further benefit our understanding of the human experience of diabetes and interventions to address it. We conducted a systematic review of National Library of Medicine, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic databases to identify original research articles that used qualitative methods to study diabetes between 1980 and 2011. We identified 554 eligible articles and categorised these by geographic region, year of publication, study population, study design, research question, qualitative data collection methods, and journal type. Results show low use of qualitative methods in diabetes research over the past 30 years. The majority of articles (75%) reported using substantive qualitative research, while mixed-methods research has remained underutilised. Eighty-five per cent of articles reported studies conducted in North America or Europe, with few studies in developing countries. Most articles reported recruiting clinic-based populations (58%). Over half (54%) of research questions focused on patient experience and 24% on diabetes management. Qualitative methods can provide important insights about socio-cultural aspects of disease to improve disease management. However, they remain underutilised for understanding the diabetes experience, especially in Africa and Asia and amongst non-clinic populations.

  17. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983–2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  18. 30 Years on Selected Issues in the Prevention of HIV among Persons Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, D. C.; Pinkerton, S.; Hagan, H.; Guardino, V.; Feelemyer, J.; Cooper, H.; Hatzatkis, A.; Uuskula, A.

    2013-01-01

    After 30 years of extensive research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among persons who inject drugs (PWID), we now have a good understanding of the critical issues involved. Following the discovery of HIV in 1981, epidemics among PWID were noted in many countries, and consensus recommendations for interventions for reducing injection related HIV transmission have been developed. While high-income countries have continued to develop and implement new Harm Reduction programs, most low-/middle-income countries have implemented Harm Reduction at very low levels. Modeling of combined prevention programming including needle exchange (NSP) and antiretroviral therapy (ARV) suggests that NSP be given the highest priority. Future HIV prevention programming should continue to provide Harm Reduction programs for PWID coupled with interventions aimed at reducing sexual transmission. As HIV continues to spread in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to achieve and maintain high coverage of Harm Reduction programs in these locations. As PWID almost always experience multiple health problems, it will be important to address these multiple problems within a comprehensive approach grounded in a human rights perspective. PMID:23840957

  19. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Tippett, Lynette J

    2013-09-13

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements.

  20. Treatment performances of French constructed wetlands: results from a database collected over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Morvannou, A; Forquet, N; Michel, S; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 3,500 constructed wetlands (CWs) provide raw wastewater treatment in France for small communities (<5,000 people equivalent). Built during the past 30 years, most consist of two vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in series (stages). Many configurations exist, with systems associated with horizontal flow filters or waste stabilization ponds, vertical flow with recirculation, partially saturated systems, etc. A database analyzed 10 years earlier on the classical French system summarized the global performances data. This paper provides a similar analysis of performance data from 415 full-scale two-stage VFCWs from an improved database expanded by monitoring data available from Irstea and the French technical department. Trends presented in the first study are confirmed, exhibiting high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal rates (87%, 93% and 84%, respectively). Typical concentrations at the second-stage outlet are 74 mgCOD L(-1), 17 mgTSS L(-1) and 11 mgTKN L(-1). Pollutant removal performances are summarized in relation to the loads applied at the first treatment stage. While COD and TSS removal rates remain stable over the range of applied loads, the spreading of TKN removal rates increases as applied loads increase.

  1. Contrasting population trends of piscivorous seabirds in the Pribilof Islands: A 30-year perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, G.V.; Schmutz, J.A.; Renner, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands provide nesting habitat for one of the largest concentrations of piscivorous seabirds in the North Pacific region. Pribilof breeding populations of black-legged and red-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla and Rissa brevirostris), and common and thick-billed murres (Uria aalge and Uria lomvia) are supported by a highly productive marine food web. Productivity and temperature in this area are influenced by winter sea ice that frequently reaches its maximum extent near the Pribilofs. Although St. George and St. Paul islands, the two largest of the Pribilof group, are situated only 60 km apart, St. George is within 25 km of the shelf break, but St. Paul is approximately 90 km away. In contrast, the local contribution of sea ice-edge productivity in the spring is frequently closer to St. Paul than to St. George. Central place foraging piscivorous seabirds nesting at St. Paul and St. George are likely differentially affected by the relative contributions of the shelf break and ice-edge environments based on juxtaposition. Within the past decade or so, sea ice in the Bering Sea has failed to reach the vicinity of the Pribilofs in some years, and predictions of warming in the future suggest the possibility that direct effects of the ice on the immediate Pribilof environment will be reduced. To evaluate the response of kittiwakes and murres on the two islands to conditions in their foraging environments, we examined population trends over the past 30 years based on data from the seabird monitoring program conducted by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and others. Spatial differences in trends have been more consistent than differences among species, with populations at St. Paul having more enduring declines than those at St. George. At St. George, black-legged kittiwakes and common murres have remained stable. Red-legged kittiwakes and thick-billed murres both declined, but began to rebound in the late 1980s, such that in 2005 population

  2. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%), agility (−1.5%; −1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0.001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. PMID:26298653

  3. Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals*

    PubMed Central

    Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Schmidt, Aurelino Fernandes; Cataneo, Antonio José Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective. PMID:24068262

  4. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  5. CT imaging, then and now: a 30-year review of the economics of computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, Wayne T

    2004-01-01

    The first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the US was installed in June 1973 at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. By the end of 1974, 44 similar systems had been installed at medical facilities around the country. Less than 4 years after the introduction of CT imaging in the US, at least 400 CT systems had been installed. The practice of pneumoencephalography was eliminated. The use of nuclear medicine brain scans significantly diminished. At the time, CT imaging was limited to head studies, but with the introduction of contrast agents and full body CT systems the changes in the practice of medicine became even more significant. CT imaging was hailed by the US medical community as the greatest advance in radiology since the discovery of x-rays. But the rapid spread of CT systems, their frequency of use, and the associated increase in healthcare costs combined to draw the attention of decision-makers within the federal and state governments, specifically to establish policies regarding the acquisition and use of diagnostic technologies. Initially, CT imaging was limited to neurological applications, but in the 30 years since its inception, capabilities and applications have been expanded as a result of the advancements in technology and software development. While neurological disorders are still a common reason for CT imaging, many other medical disciplines (oncology, emergency medicine, orthopedics, etc.) have found CT imaging to be the definitive tool for diagnostic information. As such, the clinical demand for CT imaging has steadily increased. Economically, the development of CT imaging has been one of success, even in the face of governmental action to restrict its acquisition and utilization by healthcare facilities. CTimaging has increased the cost of healthcare, but in turn has added unquantifiable value to the practice of medicine in the US.

  6. Behaviour of the low degree terms of the Earth gravity field over the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Reinquin, F.; Deleflie, F.; Ramillien, G.; Gégout, P.

    2012-04-01

    The GRACE mission has revealed since 2002 the recent evolution of the Earth's gravity field with a resolution down to 400 km, equivalent to degree and order 50 in spherical harmonics. Precise orbit computation for altimetric satellites can obviously gain by applying these variations, which are classically given, as in recent EIGEN models, as drifts and periodic terms (yearly and semi-yearly). However extrapolating these variations to pre-GRACE periods, mainly the drifts, can be problematic for orbit computation performances on former altimetric satellites. One option is to analyse older satellite data, in particular SLR data on geodetic satellites, in order to assess the very low degree variations of the gravity field and compare it to the GRACE determination. This can be done over the last 30 years, using for instance the Lageos and Lageos-2, Starlette and Stella satellites. The spherical harmonic degrees that can be accessed in this way are degrees 2 to 4. Additional information on degree 2 can be derived from the analysis of the Earth orientation parameters, pole coordinates and length of day (LOD), which have been observed over a long period with great accuracy by astrometric, satellite geodetic and extra-galactic means. Once corrected for atmospheric and oceanic load and velocity variations, the pole coordinates will principally bring information on the C(2,1) and S(2,1) coefficients, while the LOD will principally be connected with the C(2,0). Combining these two approaches allows a better observation of the temporal evolution of the gravity field over a long time span and a more realistic modelling of it for the precise orbit computation of past altimeter missions.

  7. Multiscale structure of the MJO revealed from 30-year satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Kiladis, G. N.; Dias, J.; Nasuno, T.

    2015-12-01

    How the intangible convective envelope of the MJO is made up of organized deep convection has been of particular interest, because it is the key to understand the physics and dynamics of the MJO from the viewpoint of multiscale interactions. We explored the multiscale convective structure of the MJO using 30-year (1983.7-2013) high-resolution satellite date taking advantage of the spatio-temporal wavelet transform (STWT), which is able to localize the space-time spectral characteristics of cloudiness in both space and time. Namely, the multiscale structure of the MJO can be interpreted in terms of a sum of a variety of so-called convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs). It is found that a range of CCEWs tend to be enhanced in the MJO convective envelope, whereas the types of CCEWs with characteristic space-time scales vary seasonally, geographically, and even from event to event. It is thus difficult to find a universal multiscale structure of the MJO, although there is a tendency for the MJO to prefer certain types of CCEWs including Kelvin waves and n=1 westward inertio-gravity (WIG) waves. Within the MJO convective envelope, those waves tend to be enhanced by as large as 100 % compared to the climatological values and Kelvin waves tend to have much slower phase speed of about 9 m s-1 or less (i.e., equivalent depth of ~8 m) as opposed to the climatological mean values (equivalent depths of 25-90 m) and n=1 WIG waves tend to have 2 day periodicity. Such strong modulation effect, however, is less pronounced over the Maritime continent. The historical database we created will be useful to place the convective systems of the MJO during the CINDY/DYNAMO and the future YMC field campaigns in the historical context.

  8. [Tubulo-villous rectal tumours. Results of surgical resection in relation to histotype (30 years' experience)].

    PubMed

    Carditello, Antonio; Milone, Antonino; Paparo, Domenica; Anastasi, Giuliana; Mollo, Francesco; Stilo, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Adenomas of the rectum are frequently found during endoscopic examination. We report on our 30 years of experience with the treatment of tubulo-villous adenomas based on histotype. Between 1971 and 2001, 104 villous tumours of the rectum were treated surgically. The patients' average age was 65 years. These were sessile tumours in 69% of cases, pedunculated in 17.5% and flowing tumours in 13.5%. The mean tumour size was 3 cm. They were associated with colon cancer in 15% of cases and with polyadenoma in 10%. They were located in the rectum within 0 to 6 cm of the anal margin in half the cases. These tumours were treated by local excision in 74 cases and by wide excision in 30 cases. The malignant potential of the tumours was 30%, including 10% invasive malignancy. There were no surgical fatalities, but a 6% medical fatality rate was registered. There was a 20% complication rate related to the surgical technique. Twenty patients were lost to follow-up. Out of 84 villous tumours, monitored over a mean survival period of 6.5 years, there were 24 recurrences: 18 underwent endoscopic excision and in 6 cases a wide resection. The various tumour resection techniques and the operative indications of variable difficulty are presented. It would seem, at present, that total resection of the rectum with a colo-anal anastomosis is the best treatment for large flowing villous tumours occupying almost the entire rectum. Thorough preoperative examination and the mastering of various surgical procedures should allow the most suitable choice of treatment for each individual case.

  9. A 30-year history of earthquake crisis communication in California and lessons for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first statement from the US Geological Survey to the California Office of Emergency Services quantifying the probability of a possible future earthquake was made in October 1985 about the probability (approximately 5%) that a M4.7 earthquake located directly beneath the Coronado Bay Bridge in San Diego would be a foreshock to a larger earthquake. In the next 30 years, publication of aftershock advisories have become routine and formal statements about the probability of a larger event have been developed in collaboration with the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) and sent to CalOES more than a dozen times. Most of these were subsequently released to the public. These communications have spanned a variety of approaches, with and without quantification of the probabilities, and using different ways to express the spatial extent and the magnitude distribution of possible future events. The USGS is re-examining its approach to aftershock probability statements and to operational earthquake forecasting with the goal of creating pre-vetted automated statements that can be released quickly after significant earthquakes. All of the previous formal advisories were written during the earthquake crisis. The time to create and release a statement became shorter with experience from the first public advisory (to the 1988 Lake Elsman earthquake) that was released 18 hours after the triggering event, but was never completed in less than 2 hours. As was done for the Parkfield experiment, the process will be reviewed by CEPEC and NEPEC (National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council) so the statements can be sent to the public automatically. This talk will review the advisories, the variations in wording and the public response and compare this with social science research about successful crisis communication, to create recommendations for future advisories

  10. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change.

  11. A survey of health care and disease in geriatric horses aged 30 years or older.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Joanne L; McGowan, Catherine M; Clegg, Peter D; Chandler, Keith J; Pinchbeck, Gina L

    2012-04-01

    This study reports on aspects of preventive health care and on the prevalence of disease in geriatric (≥30 years old) horses and ponies in North-West England and North Wales. Of 128 questionnaires mailed to horse owners, 87 useable responses were received and 69 horses were subject to veterinary examination. Of the animals examined, 16% were underweight with body condition scores (BCS)<2/5, and 10% were overweight (BCS>3/5). This contrasted with the owner responses that reported 23% of the animals surveyed to be underweight and only 3% to be overweight. When assessed at trot, 77% of the horses were lame on at least one limb, with 97% having a reduced range of motion in at least one joint. Only 16% of these animals were reported by owners to have been lame within the previous 12 months. Owner-reported changes to hair coat were significantly associated with hirsutism or abnormal moulting detected at clinical examination (39%). At least one ophthalmic lesion was identified in all of the horses and ponies examined and 17% of owners reported that their animal had experienced visual problems within the previous year. Although dental abnormalities were detected in all animals where an oral examination was performed, only 42% of owners reported that their horse suffered from a known dental disorder. In general, despite a high prevalence of disease detected in these geriatric animals and with the majority having multiple abnormalities at clinical examination, there was under-reporting/under-recognition of these health problems by owners.

  12. Cotton dust, endotoxin and cancer mortality among the Shanghai textile workers cohort: a 30-year analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, S C; Mehta, A J; Hang, J Q; Eisen, E A; Dai, H L; Zhang, H X; Su, L; Christiani, D C

    2013-01-01

    Background Although occupational exposure to cotton dust and endotoxin is associated with adverse respiratory health, associations with cancer are unclear. We investigated cancer mortality in relation to cotton dust and endotoxin exposure in the Shanghai textile workers cohort. Methods We followed 444 cotton textile and a reference group of 467 unexposed silk workers for 30 years (26 777 person-years). HRs for all cancers combined (with and without lung cancer) and gastrointestinal cancer were estimated in Cox regression models as functions of cotton textile work and categories of cumulative exposure (low, medium, high), after adjustment for covariates including pack-years smoked. Different lag years accounted for disease latency. Results Risks of mortality from gastrointestinal cancers and all cancers combined, with the exclusion of lung cancer, were increased in cotton workers relative to silk workers. When stratified by category of cumulative cotton exposure, in general, risks were greatest for 20-year lagged medium exposure (all cancers HR=2.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 5.2); cancer excluding lung cancer HR=3.4 (1.7–7.0); gastrointestinal cancer HR=4.1 (1.8–9.7)). With the exclusion of lung cancer, risks of cancer were more pronounced. When stratified by category of cumulative endotoxin exposure, consistent associations were not observed for all cancers combined. However, excluding lung cancer, medium endotoxin exposure was associated with all cancers and gastrointestinal cancer in almost all lag models. Conclusions Cotton dust may be associated with cancer mortality, especially gastrointestinal cancer, and endotoxin may play a causative role. Findings also indirectly support a protective effect of endotoxin on lung cancer. PMID:23828454

  13. 30-year International Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Partnership: Evolution from the “Third World” Forward

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Skirpan, Jan; Stanek, Beata; Kowalczyk, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Craniofacial diseases constitute an important component of the surgical disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. The consideration to introduce craniofacial surgery into such settings poses different questions, risks, and challenges compared with cleft or other forms of plastic surgery. We report the evolution, innovations, and challenges of a 30-year international craniofacial surgery partnership. Methods: We retrospectively report a partnership between surgeons at the Uniwersytecki Szpital Dzieciecy in Krakow, Poland, and a North American craniofacial surgeon. We studied patient conditions, treatment patterns, and associated complications, as well as program advancements and limitations as perceived by surgeons, patient families, and hospital administrators. Results: Since partnership inception in 1986, the complexity of cases performed increased gradually, with the first intracranial case performed in 1995. In the most recent 10-year period (2006–2015), 85 patients have been evaluated, with most common diagnoses of Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and single-suture craniosynostosis. In the same period, 55 major surgical procedures have been undertaken, with LeFort III midface distraction, posterior vault distraction, and frontoorbital advancement performed most frequently. Key innovations have been the employment of craniofacial distraction osteogenesis, the use of Internet communication and digital photography, and increased understanding of how craniofacial morphology may improve in the absence of surgical intervention. Ongoing challenges include prohibitive training pathways for pediatric plastic surgeons, difficulty in coordinating care with surgeons in other institutions, and limited medical and material resources. Conclusion: Safe craniofacial surgery can be introduced and sustained in a resource-limited setting through an international partnership. PMID:27200233

  14. Alma-Ata 30 years on: revolutionary, relevant, and time to revitalise.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Joy E; Rohde, Jon; Rifkin, Susan; Were, Miriam; Paul, Vinod K; Chopra, Mickey

    2008-09-13

    In this paper, we revisit the revolutionary principles-equity, social justice, and health for all; community participation; health promotion; appropriate use of resources; and intersectoral action-raised by the 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration, a historic event for health and primary health care. Old health challenges remain and new priorities have emerged (eg, HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases, and mental health), ensuring that the tenets of Alma-Ata remain relevant. We examine 30 years of changes in global policy to identify the lessons learned that are of relevance today, particularly for accelerated scale-up of primary health-care services necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, the modern iteration of the "health for all" goals. Health has moved from under-investment, to single disease focus, and now to increased funding and multiple new initiatives. For primary health care, the debate of the past two decades focused on selective (or vertical) versus comprehensive (horizontal) delivery, but is now shifting towards combining the strengths of both approaches in health systems. Debates of community versus facility-based health care are starting to shift towards building integrated health systems. Achievement of high and equitable coverage of integrated primary health-care services requires consistent political and financial commitment, incremental implementation based on local epidemiology, use of data to direct priorities and assess progress, especially at district level, and effective linkages with communities and non-health sectors. Community participation and intersectoral engagement seem to be the weakest strands in primary health care. Burgeoning task lists for primary health-care workers require long-term human resource planning and better training and supportive supervision. Essential drugs policies have made an important contribution to primary health care, but other appropriate technology lags behind. Revitalisng Alma-Ata and learning from three

  15. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  16. Impaired social cognition 30 years after hemispherectomy for intractable epilepsy: the importance of the right hemisphere in complex social functioning.

    PubMed

    Fournier, N M; Calverley, K L; Wagner, J P; Poock, J L; Crossley, M

    2008-04-01

    Clinical research with individuals following hemispherectomy typically quantifies the success of surgical outcomes by focusing primarily on the achievement of seizure control and the preservation of general brain functions, such as movement, sensation, language, and memory. In addition to these outcomes, careful study of individuals following hemispherectomy also has the potential to contribute to our understanding of functional brain asymmetries involving other complex cognitive behaviors. In this study, we report preliminary evidence for the lateralization of social perception. We administered a series of neuropsychological tests that were developed to assess emotional recognition and the formation of social inferences and advanced social cognitive judgments, as they occur in everyday situations, to two adult participants who underwent complete anatomic left- or right-sided hemispherectomy. Our results show that despite a 30-year postsurgical period of recovery and consistent and high levels of family support and social engagement, distinct cognitive profiles are still evident between our right- and left-sided participants. In particular, participant S.M., who underwent an anatomic right hemispherectomy, showed the most severe impairments in identifying negative emotional expressions and conversational exchanges involving lies and sarcasm and in "mentalizing" the intent of others. In contrast, participant J.H., who underwent an anatomic left hemispherectomy was highly skilled interpersonally, despite evident language-related limitations, and showed only mild difficulties when asked to identify emotional expressions involving disgust and anger. These results suggest that the right hemisphere plays a particularly important role in social cognitive functioning and reasoning. Further examination of the extent of social perceptual difficulties prior to and following surgical intervention for epilepsy may guide the development of effective social skills training

  17. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... other ways to control blood pressure, including healthy lifestyle choices and maintaining a normal weight, Roth said. Murray said some of the factors responsible for the worldwide increase in high blood pressure are unhealthy diets and obesity. In addition, in developing countries, more people are ...

  18. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  19. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    PubMed

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  20. Parkinson's disease progression at 30 years: a study of subthalamic deep brain-stimulated patients.

    PubMed

    Merola, Aristide; Zibetti, Maurizio; Angrisano, Serena; Rizzi, Laura; Ricchi, Valeria; Artusi, Carlo A; Lanotte, Michele; Rizzone, Mario G; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2011-07-01

    Clinical findings in Parkinson's disease suggest that most patients progressively develop disabling non-levodopa-responsive symptoms during the course of the disease. Nevertheless, several heterogeneous factors, such as clinical phenotype, age at onset and genetic aspects may influence the long-term clinical picture. In order to investigate the main features of long-term Parkinson's disease progression, we studied a cohort of 19 subjects treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation after >20 years of disease, reporting clinical and neuropsychological data up to a mean of 30 years from disease onset. This group of patients was characterized by an early onset of disease, with a mean age of 38.63 years at Parkinson's disease onset, which was significantly lower than in the other long-term subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation follow-up cohorts reported in the literature. All subjects were regularly evaluated by a complete Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, a battery of neuropsychological tests and a clinical interview, intended to assess the rate of non-levodopa-responsive symptom progression. Clinical data were available for all patients at presurgical baseline and at 1, 3 and 5 years from the subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgical procedure, while follow-up data after >7 years were additionally reported in a subgroup of 14 patients. The clinical and neuropsychological performance progressively worsened during the course of follow-up; 64% of patients gradually developed falls, 86% dysphagia, 57% urinary incontinence and 43% dementia. A progressive worsening of motor symptoms was observed both in 'medication-ON' condition and in 'stimulation-ON' condition, with a parallel reduction in the synergistic effect of 'medication-ON/stimulation-ON' condition. Neuropsychological data also showed a gradual decline in the performances of all main cognitive domains, with an initial involvement of executive functions, followed by the impairment

  1. Pichia anomala J121: a 30-year overnight near success biopreservation story.

    PubMed

    Schnürer, Johan; Jonsson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the ascomycetous yeast Pichia anomala strain J121 was isolated from moist wheat grain stored under conditions of restricted air access. Early observations indicated that an inverse relationship existed between mould and P. anomala colony forming units in grain. This yeast strain was later found to have strong antifungal properties in laboratory, pilot and farm studies with high-moisture wheat under malfunctioning airtight storage. P. anomala had the highest inhibitory activity of 60 yeast species evaluated against the mould Penicillium roqueforti. It also demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against certain Gram-negative bacteria. P. anomala J121 possesses a number of physiological characteristics, i.e. capacity to grow under low pH, low water activity and low oxygen tension and ability to use a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, enabling it to act as an efficient biopreservative agent. The biocontrol effect in grain was enhanced by addition of glucose, mainly through formation of the volatile antimicrobial ethyl acetate. Animal feeding trials with P. anomala J121 inoculated grains, fed to chickens and beef cattle, demonstrated that mould control observed in vitro in small scale laboratory experiments could be extended to large scale farm trials. In addition, no adverse effects on animal weight gain, feed conversion, health or behaviour were observed. We have now studied P. anomala J121 biology, ecology and grain preservation ability for 30 years. Over this period, more than 40 scientific publications and five PhD theses have been written on different aspects of this yeast strain, extending from fundamental research on metabolism, genetics and molecular biology, all the way to practical farm-scale level. In spite of the well documented biopreservative ability of the yeast, it has to date been very difficult to create the right constellation of technical, agricultural and biotechnical industries necessary to reach a commercial launch of a

  2. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  3. 30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Nevzorov, Aleksei V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Savelieva, Ekaterina S.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.

    2017-02-01

    There are only four lidar stations in the world which have almost continuously performed observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) state over the last 30 years. The longest time series of the SAL lidar measurements have been accumulated at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) since 1973, the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia) since 1974, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) since 1976. The fourth lidar station we present started to perform routine observations of the SAL parameters in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) in 1986. In this paper, we mainly focus on and discuss the stratospheric background period from 2000 to 2005 and the causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk in the 2006-2015 period. During the last decade, volcanic aerosol plumes from tropical Mt. Manam, Soufrière Hills, Rabaul, Merapi, Nabro, and Kelut and extratropical (northern) Mt. Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt, Sarychev Peak, Eyjafjallajökull, and Grímsvötn were detected in the stratosphere over Tomsk. When it was possible, we used the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model to assign aerosol layers observed over Tomsk to the corresponding volcanic eruptions. The trajectory analysis highlighted some surprising results. For example, in the cases of the Okmok, Kasatochi, and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, the HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectories, started from altitudes of aerosol layers detected over Tomsk with a lidar, passed over these volcanoes on their eruption days at altitudes higher than the maximum plume altitudes given by the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. An explanation of these facts is suggested. The role of both tropical and northern volcanic eruptions in volcanogenic aerosol loading of the midlatitude stratosphere is also discussed. In addition to volcanoes, we considered other possible causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk, i.e., the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events and smoke plumes from strong forest fires. At least

  4. Terrestrial cosmogenic 3He: where are we 30 years after its discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blard, Pierre-Henri; Pik, Raphaël; Farley, Kenneth A.; Lavé, Jérôme; Marrocchi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    It is now 30 years since cosmogenic 3He has been detected for the first time in a terrestrial sample (Kurz, 1986). 3He is now a widely used geochemical tool in many fields of Earth sciences: volcanology, tectonics, paleoclimatology. 3He has the advantage to have a high "production rate" to "detection limit" ratio, allowing surfaces as young as hundred of years to be dated. Although its nuclear stability implies several limitations, it moreover represents a useful alternative to 10Be in mafic environments. This contribution is a review of the progresses that have been accomplished since this discovery, and discuss strategies to improve both the accuracy and the precision of this geochronometer. 1) Measurement of cosmogenic 3He Correction of magmatic 3He. To estimate the non-cosmogenic magmatic 3He, Kurz (1986) invented a two steps method involving crushing of phenocrysts (to analyze the isotopic ratio of the magmatic component), followed by a subsequent melting of the sample, to extract the remaining components, including the cosmogenic 3He: 3Hec = 3Hemelt -4Hemelt x (3He/4He)magmatic (1) Several studies suggested that the preliminary crushing may induce a loss of cosmogenic 3He (Hilton et al., 1993; Yokochi et al., 2005; Blard et al., 2006), implying an underestimate of the cosmogenic 3He measurement. However, subsequent work did not replicate these observations (Blard et al., 2008; Goerhing et al., 2010), suggesting an influence of the used apparatus. An isochron method (by directly melting several phenocrysts aliquots) is an alternative to avoid the preliminary crushing step (Blard and Pik, 2008). Atmospheric contamination. Protin et al. (in press) provides robust evidences for a large and irreversible contamination of atmospheric helium on silicate surfaces. This unexpected behavior may reconcile the contrasted observations about the amplitude of crushing loss. This undesirable atmospheric contamination is negligible if grain fractions smaller than 150 mm are

  5. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  6. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  7. Examining the Factors That Influence Students' Science Learning Processes and Their Learning Outcomes: 30 Years of Conceptual Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Yen, Miao-Hsuan; Liang, Jia-Chi; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Guo, Chorng-Jee

    2016-01-01

    This study used content analysis to examine the most studied conceptual change factors that influence students' science learning processes and their learning outcomes. The reviewed research included empirical studies published since Posner et al. proposed their conceptual change model 30 years ago (from 1982 to 2011). One hundred sixteen SSCI…

  8. Using Conference Submission Data to Uncover Broad Trends in Language Teaching: A Case Study of One Conference over 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Submissions to conferences can provide rich material for analysing characteristics and trends within a conference's history and that of similar conferences, as well as the associated field at large. The present study uses data gathered over 30 years from a language teachers' conference in Japan (JALT National) to expound upon patterns related to…

  9. The Public Acceptance of Voluntary Childlessness in the Netherlands: From 20 to 90 Per Cent in 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordhuizen, Suzanne; de Graaf, Paul; Sieben, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Within a relatively short period of 30 years, public acceptance of voluntary childlessness has increased enormously in the Netherlands. In this paper, we address two research questions, which we answer with data from 13 waves of the repeated cross-sectional survey Cultural Change in the Netherlands (CCN, 1965-1996). First, we investigate to what…

  10. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  11. Cleft lip and Palate: A 30-year Epidemiologic Study in North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kianifar, Hamidreza; Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Ezzati, Atefeh; Kianifar, Homa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are among the most common congenital anomalies worldwide. This study was conducted in order to explore the incidence and related factors of cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) among live births in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, records of 28,519 infants born between March 1982 and March 2011 at three major hospitals in Mashhad were screened for oral clefts. Clinical and demographic factors relating to diagnosed cases, including birth date, gender, birth weight, maternal age, number of pregnancies, type and side of cleft and presence of other congenital anomalies were recorded for analysis. Results: The overall incidence of CL/P was 1.9 per 1,000 live births. Cleft lip associated with cleft palate (CLP) was the most prevalent type of cleft (50%), followed by isolated cleft lip (35.2%) and isolated cleft palate (14.8%). A total of 92.6% of oral clefts were bilateral and 5.5% were located on the right side. In addition, clefts were found to be more common in male than female births (male/female ratio=2.3). The rate of associated congenital anomalies in CL/P newborns was 37%. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of oral clefts across three decades of study; except for CLP which was significantly more prevalent between 2002–2011 (P=0.027). There were no significant differences with regard to season of birth, associated anomalies or maternal age of affected newborns in the three time periods of the study. Furthermore, maternal age and number of pregnancies were not significantly different among the three types of cleft (P=0.43 and P=0.91, respectively). Although the mean birth weight of patients affected with isolated cleft palate was considerably lower than that of the other two types of cleft, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.05). Conclusion: This study indicates a frequency of CL/P close to the findings in East Asian countries and higher than

  12. Space Research Fortifies Nutrition Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems program attempted to address basic needs of crews, meet stringent payload and power usage restrictions, and minimize space occupancy, by developing living, regenerative ecosystems that would take care of themselves and their inhabitants. An experiment from this program evolved into one of the most widespread NASA spinoffs of all time-a method for manufacturing an algae-based food supplement that provides the nutrients previously only available in breast milk. Martek Biosciences Corporation, in Columbia, Maryland, now manufactures this supplement, and it can be found in over 90 percent of the infant formulas sold in the United States, as well as those sold in over 65 other countries. With such widespread use, the company estimates that over 24 million babies worldwide have consumed its nutritional additives.

  13. Working on binaries at the R. M. Aller Observatory. The last 30 years (and the near future)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docobo, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    We performed exhaustive work during the past 30 years in the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Santiago de Compostela (called Ramón María Aller since 1981). In this communication, I explain all the necessary efforts made to obtain the current high level status of investigation (particularly on double and multiple stars), teaching, and scientific dissemination. The projects for the near future are also mentioned.

  14. A 30+ Year AVHRR LAI and FAPAR Climate Data Record: Algorithm Description, Validation, and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claverie, Martin; Matthews, Jessica L.; Vermote, Eric F.; Justice, Christopher O.

    2016-01-01

    In- land surface models, which are used to evaluate the role of vegetation in the context ofglobal climate change and variability, LAI and FAPAR play a key role, specifically with respect to thecarbon and water cycles. The AVHRR-based LAIFAPAR dataset offers daily temporal resolution,an improvement over previous products. This climate data record is based on a carefully calibratedand corrected land surface reflectance dataset to provide a high-quality, consistent time-series suitablefor climate studies. It spans from mid-1981 to the present. Further, this operational dataset is availablein near real-time allowing use for monitoring purposes. The algorithm relies on artificial neuralnetworks calibrated using the MODIS LAI/FAPAR dataset. Evaluation based on cross-comparisonwith MODIS products and in situ data show the dataset is consistent and reliable with overalluncertainties of 1.03 and 0.15 for LAI and FAPAR, respectively. However, a clear saturation effect isobserved in the broadleaf forest biomes with high LAI (greater than 4.5) and FAPAR (greater than 0.8) values.

  15. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of spring dust emissions in northern China over the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongquan; Zhang, Kesheng; Piao, Shilong; Wan, Shiqiang

    2016-02-01

    Dust emissions caused by wind erosion have significant impacts on land degradation, air quality, and climate change. Dust from the arid and semiarid regions of China is a main contributor to atmospheric dust aerosols in East Asia, and their impacts can stretch far beyond the territory of China. Spatial-temporal patterns of dust emissions in China over the last several decades, however, are still lacking, especially during the spring season. In this study, we simulated the spatial-temporal dynamics of spring dust emissions from 1982 to 2011 in arid and semi-arid areas of China using the Integrated Wind Erosion Modeling System. Results showed that the most severe dust emission events occurred in the Taklimakan Desert, Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert, and Ulan Buh Desert. Over the last three decades, the magnitude of spring dust emissions generally decreased at the regional scale, with an annual spring dust emission of ˜401.10 Tg. Among different vegetation types, the highest annual spring dust emission occurred in the desert steppes (˜163.95 Tg), followed by the deserts (˜103.26 Tg). The dust emission intensity in the desert steppes and the deserts was ˜150.83 kg km-2·yr-1 and ˜205.46 kg km-2·yr-1, respectively. The spatial patterns of the inter-decadal variation are related to climate change and human activities. Mitigation strategies such as returning farmland to grassland, fenced grazing, and adequate grass harvesting, must be taken to prevent further soil losses and grassland degradation in northern China.

  17. Economic growth and health progress in Italy: 30 years of National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Vannelli, Alberto; Buongiorno, Massimo; Zanardo, Michele; Basilico, Valerio; Capriata, Giulio; Rossi, Fabrizio; Pruiti, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    On December 23 of 1978, during first Italian recession since the end of World War II, Parliament voted for Law 833 that gives birth to the Italian National Public Health Services (SSN) as the new and alternative model of health care system. It was the beginning of the match of Italian health care with the world class level of the public health care. Each crisis requires solidarity and actions. Maintaining levels of health and other social expenditures is critical to protect life and livelihood and to boost productivity. The purpose of the present study is to establish an alternative point of view to demonstrate that Gross Domestic Product, is a function of health care expenditure. The chronology of the events was created by using the laws published on "Gazzetta Ufficiale" (GU). In order to analyze the corporate effectiveness and efficiency, we have divided the SSN into its three main components, namely resources (input), services (output) and performances (outcome). Health services have certainly been pioneers and are still today standard-bearers of a challenge which has borne its fruits. According to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development", SSN ranks second in the world classification of the return on the health care services in 2000. The World Health Organization has published in 2005 the same result: SSN ranks second in the world for ability and quality of the health care in relationship to the resources invested The continuous reforms of health care system introduced stability to the Italian system more than others countries. Success of SSN function rooted in the ability of system to adapt assuring mechanism of positive feed-back correction. In the future SSN, will required new set of reforms, such as redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, strategic plans, clinical administrations.

  18. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  19. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  20. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  1. Worldwide Status of EUV Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The bulk of radiation from million-degree plasmas is emitted at EUV wavelengths, which include critical spectral features containing diagnostic information often not available at other wavelengths (e.g., He II Ly series 228-304 Å). Thus, EUV astrophysics (Barstow & Holberg 2003) presents opportunities for intriguing results obtainable with sensitive high-resolution spectroscopy and particularly applicable to hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the interstellar medium. The US-built J-PEX spectrometer has flown twice on sounding rockets, observing and publishing results on two white dwarf targets (Cruddace et al. 2002, Barstow et al. 2005, Kowalski et al. 2011). Using multilayer-grating technology, J-PEX delivers both high effective area and the world's highest resolution in EUV, greater than Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach. However, the US program has been stalled by inability to obtain further NASA sounding rocket flights. A high level of technology readiness, plus important questions answerable solely with that technology, does not seem sufficient to win support. Nor is the substantial amount of resources invested into technology development over two decades, supported by NASA, DoD, and European partners. Proposals to turn the instrument or its technology into small satellite-based surveys have been made (results to be described) in the US and Europe, but the overall situation is precarious. The entire EUV astrophysics field is losing out on an opportunity, and is at risk of fading away, with forced discard of established assets. Only mobilization of the international EUV community -- unifying European, US, and perhaps others -- can reverse this situation. Our poster summarizes science quests within reach of proven technology, gives a current snapshot of that technology, and provides a summary of worldwide efforts to obtain necessary space access in NASA, ESA, and elsewhere. A process for building and maintaining

  2. Trends in the annual incidence rates of narcotics felons arrested over the last 30 years in metropolitan Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akgoz, Semra; Akkaya, Cengiz; Berkay, Fugen; Turkmen, Nursel; Kan, Ismet; Kirli, Selcuk

    2007-07-01

    Illegal substance use is a serious problem all over the world. In order to effectively combat substance abuse it is important that both the particular features of drug users and the culture-specific risk factors that go along with drug abuse be identified. The present study was carried out in Bursa, Turkey, in order to document annual changes in the frequency of felons arrested of narcotics offenses and to establish the socio-demographics of these narcotics felons. Among the 2,230 narcotics felons reviewed, 24.3% had been charged with drug dealing but not consumption (profit-driven felons [PDFs]), 19.0% were narcotics felons charged with both dealing and consumption ([hard core drug users HCDUs]), and 56.7% were narcotics felons charged only with consumption and possession (not so hard core drug users [NHCDUs]). The NHCDUs were younger (< 30 years) than both the HCDUs and PDFs, while most of the PDFs and HCDUs were married. Despite the fact that the male/female ratio of the Bursa population was nearly 1:1 for the past 30 years, 93.0%, 95.0% and 96.0% of the PDFs, HCDUs, and NHCDUs, respectively, were male. It was also found that the most commonly used illicit substance in Bursa over this period of time was cannabis. Over the course of the 30-year period examined, the annual incidence rate of narcotics felons arrested increased from 0.4257 per 10,000 to 1.2389 per 10,000. Determining the socio-demographic characteristics of HCDUs and NHCDUs would be useful in preventing substance use before substance users become addicted.

  3. CMS centres worldwide: A new collaborative infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Lucas; Gottschalk, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC is establishing a global network of inter-connected 'CMS Centres' for controls, operations and monitoring. These support: (1) CMS data quality monitoring, detector calibrations, and analysis; and (2) computing operations for the processing, storage and distribution of CMS data. We describe the infrastructure, computing, software, and communications systems required to create an effective and affordable CMS Centre. We present our highly successful operations experiences with the major CMS Centres at CERN, Fermilab, and DESY during the LHC first beam data-taking and cosmic ray commissioning work. The status of the various centres already operating or under construction in Asia, Europe, Russia, South America, and the USA is also described. We emphasise the collaborative communications aspects. For example, virtual co-location of experts in CMS Centres Worldwide is achieved using high-quality permanently-running 'telepresence' video links. Generic Web-based tools have been developed and deployed for monitoring, control, display management and outreach.

  4. Debates to personal conclusion in peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction: A 30-year experience at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chuang, David Chwei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the science and management of peripheral nerve injuries over the past 40 years. Yet there are many questions and few answers. The author, with 30 years of experience in treating them at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, addresses debates on various issues with personal conclusions. These include: (1) Degree of peripheral nerve injury, (2) Timing of nerve repair, (3)Technique of nerve repair, (4) Level of brachial plexus injury,(5) Level of radial nerve injury,(6) Traction avulsion amputation of major limb, (7) Proximal Vs distal nerve transfers in brachial plexus injuries and (8) Post paralysis facial synkinesis.

  5. Cockcroft--30 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Barbara; Cross, Kath; Knights, George

    2012-01-01

    The report "Mathematics Counts" or, in what became common parlance, the "Cockcroft" report was an unusual government report on a significant aspect of the school curriculum. Unusual because the author, William Cockcroft produced a set of ideas to which teachers of mathematics could relate and respond. It was said by one…

  6. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  7. A perspective on 30 years of progress in ambient noise: Source mechanisms and the characteristics of the sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cato, Douglas H.

    2012-11-01

    The last 30 years has seen substantial progress in ocean ambient noise research, particularly in understanding the mechanisms of sound generation by the sources of ambient noise, the way in which the noise field is affected by sound propagation, and improvements in quantifying the relationship between noise and environmental parameters. This has led to significant improvements in noise prediction. Activity was probably strongest in the 1980s and 1990s, as evident, for example, in the Sea Surface Sound conferences and their published proceedings (four over 10 years). Although much of the application has been to sonar, there has also been interest in using ambient noise to measure properties of the environment and in its significance to marine life. There have been significant changes in the ambient noise itself over the last 30 years. The contribution from human activities appears to have increased, particularly that due to increases in shipping numbers. Biological noise has also increased with the significant increases in populations of some whale species following the cessation of broad scale whaling in the 1960s and early 1970s. Concern about the effects of noise on marine animals as well as the way they exploit the noise has led to renewed interest in ambient noise.

  8. Changes in greening in the high Arctic: insights from a 30 year AVHRR max NDVI dataset for Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, Hannah; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Solbø, Stian; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Tømmervik, Hans; Aanes, Ronny; Hansen, Brage B.

    2016-10-01

    Satellite-aided studies of vegetation cover, biomass and productivity are becoming increasingly important for monitoring the effects of a changing climate on the biosphere. With their large spatial coverage and good temporal resolution, space-borne instruments are ideal to observe remote areas over extended time periods. However, long time series datasets with global coverage have in many cases too low spatial resolution for sparsely vegetated high latitude areas. This study has made use of a newly developed 30 year 1 km spatial resolution dataset from 1986 to 2015, provided by the NOAA AVHRR series of satellites, in order to calculate the annual maximum NDVI over parts of Svalbard (78°N). This parameter is indicative of vegetation productivity and has therefore enabled us to study long-term changes in greening within the Inner Fjord Zone on Svalbard. In addition, local meteorological data are available to link maximum NDVI values to the temporal behavior of the mean growing season (summer) temperature for the study area. Over the 30 year period, we find positive trends in both maximum NDVI (average increase of 29%) and mean summer temperature (59%), which were significantly positively correlated with each other. This suggests a temporal greening trend mediated by summer warming. However, as also recently reported for lower latitudes, the strength of the year-to-year correlation between maximum NDVI and mean summer temperature decreased, suggesting that the response of vegetation to summer warming has not remained the same over the entire study period.

  9. NASA Worldwide Emergency Medical Assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, George A.; Tipton, David A.; Long, Irene D.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to maintain employee health and welfare, ensure customer satisfaction, and to deliver high quality emergency medical care when necessary to employees located overseas, NASA has instituted a new contract with International SOS Assistance INC. International SOS Assistance INC. will provide civil servants and contractors engaged in official NASA business with many services upon request during a medical or personal emergency. Through the years, International SOS Assistance INC. has developed the expertise necessary to provide medical service in all remote areas of the world. One phone call connects you to the SOS network of multilingual staff trained to help resolve travel, medical, legal, and security problems. The SOS network of critical care and aeromedical specialists operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year from SOS Alarm Centers around the world. This exhibit illustrates the details of the NASA-International SOS Assistance INC. agreement.

  10. 1987 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates an ever-varying aspect of the industry. Personnel names, plant sites, home office locations, sales and relocations - all have been compiled in this book. Inactive refineries have been updated and listed in a special section as well as active major refining and gas processing and construction projects worldwide. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry. It discusses the worldwide Construction Survey, U.S. Refining Survey, Worldwide Gas Processing Plant Survey, Worldwide Refining Survey, Worldwide Survey of Petroleum Derived Sulfur Production, and Worldwide Catalyst Report. Also included in the directory is the National Petroleum Refiners Association's U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Study.

  11. Suggestive eyewitness identification procedures and the Supreme Court's reliability test in light of eyewitness science: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary L; Quinlivan, Deah S

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's ruling concerning suggestive eyewitness identification procedures (Manson v. Braithwaite, 1977, 432 U.S. 98) has not been revisited by the Court in the intervening 30+ years. Meanwhile, scientific studies of eyewitnesses have progressed and DNA exonerations show that mistaken identification is the primary cause of convictions of the innocent. We analyzed the two-inquiry logic in Manson in light of eyewitness science. Several problems are discussed. Ironically, we note that suggestive identification procedures (determined in the first inquiry) boost the eyewitnesses' standing on three of the five criteria (used in the second inquiry) that are used to decide whether the suggestive procedures were a problem. The net effect undermines safeguards intended by the Court and destroys incentives to avoid suggestive procedures.

  12. [Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adolescents: lessons learned in 30 years of the epidemic].

    PubMed

    Bazin, Gabriela Ricordi; Gaspar, Mariza Curto Saavedra; Silva, Nicole Carvalho Xavier Micheloni da; Mendes, Carolina da Costa; Oliveira, Cora Pichler de; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate antiretroviral therapy in children and adolescents with AIDS. We selected 247 abstracts published from 1983 to 2013, collected from the PubMed and LILACS databases. Sixty-nine articles were selected. Attention to research in the pediatric age bracket in 30 years of the epidemic is explained by the age group's immunological characteristics, since AIDS progresses faster in children than in adults. Recent studies focus on the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy before the onset of symptoms. Early introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has been implemented effectively and safely in populations with limited resources, leading to significantly improved survival. The current challenge is to manage a chronic disease with acute complications. New studies should focus on population specificities and identify the individual needs of pediatric patients.

  13. Factors controlling peat chemistry and vegetation composition in Sudbury peatlands after 30 years of pollution emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sophie E; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this research was to assess factors controlling peat and plant chemistry, and vegetation composition in 18 peatlands surrounding Sudbury after more than 30 years of large (>95%) pollution emission reductions. Sites closer to the main Copper Cliff smelter had more humified peat and the surface horizons were greatly enriched in copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper and Ni concentrations in peat were significantly correlated with that in the plant tissue of Chamaedaphne calyculata. The pH of peat was the strongest determining factor for species richness, diversity, and community composition, although percent vascular plant cover was strongly negatively correlated with surface Cu and Ni concentrations in peat. Sphagnum frequency was also negatively related to peat Cu and Ni concentrations indicating sites close to Copper Cliff smelter remain adversely impacted by industrial activities.

  14. Biodiversity conservation in Swedish forests: ways forward for a 30-year-old multi-scaled approach.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lena; Perhans, Karin

    2010-12-01

    A multi-scaled model for biodiversity conservation in forests was introduced in Sweden 30 years ago, which makes it a pioneer example of an integrated ecosystem approach. Trees are set aside for biodiversity purposes at multiple scale levels varying from individual trees to areas of thousands of hectares, with landowner responsibility at the lowest level and with increasing state involvement at higher levels. Ecological theory supports the multi-scaled approach, and retention efforts at every harvest occasion stimulate landowners' interest in conservation. We argue that the model has large advantages but that in a future with intensified forestry and global warming, development based on more progressive thinking is necessary to maintain and increase biodiversity. Suggestions for the future include joint planning for several forest owners, consideration of cost-effectiveness, accepting opportunistic work models, adjusting retention levels to stand and landscape composition, introduction of temporary reserves, creation of "receiver habitats" for species escaping climate change, and protection of young forests.

  15. Worldwide research productivity in critical care medicine

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Argyris; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Rizos, Michael; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The number of publications and the impact factor of journals are accepted estimates of the quantity and quality of research productivity. The objective of the present study was to assess the worldwide scientific contribution in the field of critical care medicine. Method All research studies published between 1995 and 2003 in medical journals that were listed in the 2003 Science Citation Index (SCI®) of Journal Citation Reports under the subheading 'critical care' and also indexed in the PubMed database were reviewed in order to identify their geographical origin. Results Of 22,976 critical care publications in 14 medical journals, 17,630 originated from Western Europe and the USA (76.7%). A significant increase in the number of publications originated from Western European countries during the last 5 years of the study period was noticed. Scientific publications in critical care medicine increased significantly (25%) from 1995 to 2003, which was accompanied by an increase in the impact factor of the corresponding journals (47.4%). Canada and Japan had the better performance, based on the impact factor of journals. Conclusion Significant scientific progress in critical care research took place during the period of study (1995–2003). Leaders of research productivity (in terms of absolute numbers) were Western Europe and the USA. Publications originating from Western European countries increased significantly in quantity and quality over the study period. Articles originating from Canada, Japan, and the USA had the highest mean impact factor.. Canada was the leader in productivity when adjustments for gross domestic product and population were made. PMID:15987399

  16. Interannual and long-term climate variability over the Zaire River Basin during the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadi, Sanga-Ngoie; Kaoru, Fukuyama

    1996-09-01

    Climatological data records of temperature, rainfall, and number of rainy days provided by the Zaire Meteorological Agency (METTELSAT) at seven Zairian stations for the 1960-1992 period are analyzed for the first time since the 1970s. Our investigations focus on climate variability as related with environmental changes over the Zaire River Basin, which is climatologically and biogenetically one of the most important regions in the world. On the basis of the 30-year monthly mean climatologies, it is shown that the solar annual cycle dominates the seasonal changes of both the temperature and rainfall over this region. On the interannual time-scales, the variability of these climatic variables is characterized by (1) a 2-to 5-year oscillation strongly correlated to the southern oscillation index, thus to the ENSO phenomenon, and (2) a nearly 10-year oscillation (called here the quasi-decadal oscillation, QDO) with a very remarkable correlationship with the solar activity (sunspots number). On the long-term timescale, a remarkable decreasing trend in rainfall and number of rainy days, as well as increasing temperatures over the 30-year period, has been detected as the most dominant climatological features all over the basin. The magnitudes of temperature increase are by far larger than those reported in previous works for both the global mean and hemispherical mean warmings. We postulate that this trend of regional warming and desiccation from within the heart of the African rainforests is due to the increase in surface albedo, itself triggered by uncontrolled land-use policies and forests development over this area (logging, slash and burn, bushfire, fuelwood, farming, ranching, urbanization, etc.).

  17. On Quality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Geoffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss some key aspects of quality in education in the light of over 30 years practical experience of doing quality assurance (QA). Design/methodology/approach: Reflection on three concepts, which are still the subject of debate, namely: "quality"; "total quality management (TQM)"; and…

  18. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  19. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Precipitation, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; J.W. Brakebill, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  20. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  1. Worldwide gas-processing growth slows

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R. )

    1990-07-02

    Continued worldwide growth is evident in this report on natural -gas processing and sulfur recovery. But the pace was slower in 1989. Canada and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region were the best performers. U.S. figures were flat, while Canadian NGL production was again up markedly. Canada's lead in worldwide sulfur-recovery capacity and production increased slightly.

  2. The Sea of Japan and Its Unique Chemistry Revealed by Time-Series Observations over the Last 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamo, T.; Nakayama, N.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yamazaki, E.; Taniyasu, S.; Yamashita, N.

    2014-02-01

    Chemical tracers in seawater, as well as physical parameters such as temperature and salinity, have been measured to better characterize the dynamics of water convection and its spatiotemporal changes in the Sea of Japan (also called the Japan Sea), a semi-closed, hyperoxic marginal sea (maximum depth: ˜3,800 m) in the northwestern corner of the Pacific Ocean. Repeated conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) observations and measurements of dissolved oxygen, for more than 30 years, have confirmed that the bottom layer of the Japan Sea, with a thickness of ˜1 km below the boundary at a depth of ˜2,500 m, is characterized by vertical homogeneity with fluctuations of potential temperature and dissolved oxygen of <0.001°C and <0.5 μmol kg-1, respectively. The timescale of the abyssal circulation in the Japan Sea has been estimated to be 100-300 years, using 14C and other chemical tracers. Stable isotope analyses for dissolved He, O2 and CH4 have given us information on their unique geochemical cycles in the Japan Sea. Profiles of the short-lived radioisotope 222Rn just above the sea bottom have brought new insights into the short-term lateral water movement with a timescale of several days in the Japan Sea bottom water. It is of special concern that the gradual deoxygenation and warming of the bottom water over the last 30 years have resulted in an ˜10% decrease in dissolved oxygen and ˜0.04°C increase in potential temperature, suggesting a change of the deep convection system in the Japan Sea. The temporal changes in the vertical profiles of tritium from 1984 to 1998 have suggested a shift of the abyssal circulation pattern from a ``total (overall) convection mode" to a ``shallow (partial) convection mode". It is likely that the global warming since the last century has hindered the formation of dense surface seawater and its ability to sink down to the bottom, isolating the bottom layer from the deep convection loop that is indispensable as the source of

  3. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  4. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  5. 1988 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Innumerable revisions in names, addresses, phone numbers, telex numbers, and cable numbers have been made since the publication of the previous edition. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry including the U.S. Refining Survey, The Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Eax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association.

  6. A 30-Year-Old Female Found to Have a Couvelaire Uterus With Placenta Accreta During Planned Cesarean Delivery.

    PubMed

    Uwagbai, Omici N; Wittich, Arthur C

    2017-03-01

    A case of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta found during scheduled repeat low transverse Cesarean section will be discussed within this article. First described in the 1900s, Couvelaire syndrome, also known as uteroplacental apoplexy, is a rare form of nonfatal placenta abruption complication. The case involves a 30-year-old gravida 3 para 2 otherwise healthy female with an uncomplicated pregnancy and two previous cesarean deliveries without complication. She received routine prenatal care. During her pregnancy, she did not experience any symptoms such as vaginal bleeding or abdominal pain. After delivering a healthy female, there were several unsuccessful attempts to remove the placenta from the uterus. Upon inspection, the uterus was found have dark purple patches with ecchymosis and indurations, diagnostic of Couvelaire uterus. Furthermore, there was high clinical suspicion for placenta accreta as the 30-minute mark approached without placenta detachment. A telephonic emergency review with the wet desk radiologist of the 18-week ultrasound revealed high suspicion for placenta accreta. A Cesarean hysterectomy was performed for prevention of significant hemorrhage. This case report may be the first documented association of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta. Providers should be vigilant in monitoring for antenatal bleeding, timing of placenta separation, and postpartum hemorrhage.

  7. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region.

  8. Proximity to food establishments and body mass index in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Block, Jason P; Christakis, Nicholas A; O'Malley, A James; Subramanian, S V

    2011-11-15

    Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in 4 Massachusetts towns during 1971-2001. The authors used novel data that included repeated measures of BMI and accounted for residential mobility and the appearance and disappearance of food establishments. They calculated proximity to food establishments as the driving distance between each subject's residence and nearby food establishments, divided into 6 categories. The authors used cross-classified linear mixed models to account for time-varying attributes of individuals and residential neighborhoods. Each 1-km increase in distance to the closest fast-food restaurant was associated with a 0.11-unit decrease in BMI (95% credible interval: -0.20, -0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, this association was present only for women. Other aspects of the food environment were either inconsistently associated or not at all associated with BMI. Contrary to much prior research, the authors did not find a consistent relation between access to fast-food restaurants and individual BMI, necessitating a reevaluation of policy discussions on the anticipated impact of the food environment on weight gain.

  9. Lower incidence of plasma cell neoplasm is maintained in migrant Chinese to British Columbia: findings from a 30-year survey.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vicky; Song, Kevin; Mang, Oscar; Ip, Dennis K M; Au, Wing Y

    2011-12-01

    The etiology of plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is largely unknown. Its incidence varies widely in different ethnic groups. Migrant study may help determine the relative contributions of genetic versus environmental factors to PCM pathogenesis. We performed a retrospective review of the computerized records of all patients diagnosed with PCM between 1975 and 2004 in British Columbia (BC), and identified patients of Chinese ethnicity. This was compared with PCM incidence in Hong Kong (HK) Chinese. Age distributions of HK, BC and BC Chinese populations were obtained from the census departments to calculate world age-standardized rates (WASRs). The WASR of PCM over the 30-year period in BC Chinese was 1.64/100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-1.93). This was similar to the WASR observed in HK (1.78, 95% CI 1.73-1.83), with a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.74-1.10). The rate was much lower than that in the BC non-Chinese background population (WASR 3.59, 95% CI 3.50-3.68; SIR 0.46, 95% CI 0.38-0.56). The lower rates in BC Chinese were maintained across all years, both genders and in all age groups above 45 years. Our observations suggest a strong genetic component as the cause of differences in the ethnic predisposition to PCM.

  10. Recovery and reproduction of an Antarctic tardigrade retrieved from a moss sample frozen for over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Megumu; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Long-term survival has been one of the most studied of the extraordinary physiological characteristics of cryptobiosis in micrometazoans such as nematodes, tardigrades and rotifers. In the available studies of long-term survival of micrometazoans, instances of survival have been the primary observation, and recovery conditions of animals or subsequent reproduction are generally not reported. We therefore documented recovery conditions and reproduction immediately following revival of tardigrades retrieved from a frozen moss sample collected in Antarctica in 1983 and stored at -20 °C for 30.5 years. We recorded recovery of two individuals and development of a separate egg of the Antarctic tardigrade, Acutuncus antarcticus, providing the longest records of survival for tardigrades as animals or eggs. One of the two resuscitated individuals and the hatchling successfully reproduced repeatedly after their recovery from long-term cryptobiosis. This considerable extension of the known length of long-term survival of tardigrades recorded in our study is interpreted as being associated with the minimum oxidative damage likely to have resulted from storage under stable frozen conditions. The long recovery times of the revived tardigrades observed is suggestive of the requirement for repair of damage accrued over 30 years of cryptobiosis. Further more detailed studies will improve understanding of mechanisms and conditions underlying the long-term survival of cryptobiotic organisms.

  11. Organizing Principles of Human Cortical Development--Thickness and Area from 4 to 30 Years: Insights from Comparative Primate Neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Amlien, Inge K; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Chaplin, Tristan A; Rosa, Marcello G P; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex undergoes a protracted, regionally heterogeneous development well into young adulthood. Cortical areas that expand the most during human development correspond to those that differ most markedly when the brains of macaque monkeys and humans are compared. However, it remains unclear to what extent this relationship derives from allometric scaling laws that apply to primate brains in general, or represents unique evolutionary adaptations. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the relationship only applies to surface area (SA), or also holds for cortical thickness (CT). In 331 participants aged 4 to 30, we calculated age functions of SA and CT, and examined the correspondence of human cortical development with macaque to human expansion, and with expansion across nonhuman primates. CT followed a linear negative age function from 4 to 30 years, while SA showed positive age functions until 12 years with little further development. Differential cortical expansion across primates was related to regional maturation of SA and CT, with age trajectories differing between high- and low-expanding cortical regions. This relationship adhered to allometric scaling laws rather than representing uniquely macaque-human differences: regional correspondence with human development was as large for expansion across nonhuman primates as between humans and macaque.

  12. Childhood family income and life outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to use data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study to examine the linkages between economic circumstances in childhood and subsequent developmental outcomes spanning educational achievement; economic circumstances; crime; mental health; and teenage pregnancy. All of these outcomes have been linked with childhood economic conditions and it is frequently argued that reducing income inequalities will mitigate psychosocial risks of children reared in families facing economic hardship. Alternatively it may be suggested that the associations between childhood family economic circumstances and later outcomes are mediated by individual, family and social factors that are correlated with low family income and contribute to later outcomes. To examine these issues, data were drawn from a birth cohort of New Zealand children born in 1977 and followed to age 30. Declining childhood family income was associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including: lower educational achievement; poorer economic circumstances; higher rates of criminal offending; higher rates of mental health problems; and higher rates of teenage pregnancy. After covariate adjustment, childhood family income remained significantly associated with educational achievement and economic circumstances, but was no longer significantly associated with the mental health, offending and teenage pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that, after due allowance has been made for social, family and individual contextual factors, low family income during childhood is associated with a range of educational and economic disadvantages in adulthood but is not directly related to increased risks of crime, mental health problems or teen pregnancy.

  13. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bucher, Enrique H; Stein, Ariel F

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic "fluffy" surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons.

  14. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. Materials and Methods We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982–1996 (256 patients), 1999–2006 (248 patients), and 2007–2011 (196 patients). Results Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Conclusion Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis. PMID:26904492

  15. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Ariel F.

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic “fluffy” surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons. PMID:27258088

  16. A 30-year follow-up of the effects of child abuse and neglect on obesity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tyrone; Widom, Cathy S

    2009-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been implicated as a risk factor for adult obesity. We describe the first prospective assessment of adult obesity in individuals with documented histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and a matched comparison group in a 30-year follow-up. Using a prospective cohort design, children with court substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11 years) from a Midwest county during 1967-1971 (n=410) were matched with children without histories of abuse or neglect on age, sex, race/ethnicity and approximate family social class (n=303) and followed up and assessed at mean age 41. Outcome measures include BMI and obesity assessed in 2003-2004 as part of a medical status examination and interview. Childhood physical abuse predicted significantly higher BMI scores in adulthood (beta=0.14, P<0.05), even controlling for demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (beta=0.16, P<0.01). Childhood sexual abuse (beta=0.07, not significant) and neglect (beta=0.02, not significant) were not significant predictors of adult BMI scores. These results demonstrate the long-term impact of childhood physical abuse on weight into adulthood and suggest that physically abused children may be at risk for other adverse health outcomes associated with increased weight. Health professionals need to understand this risk for physically abused children and researchers should identify and evaluate strategies for effective interventions.

  17. Beware of the B(e)all valve: mistaken valve identity, 30-year survival, and valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Topaz, On; Rutherford, Molly S; Mackey-Bojack, Shannon; Polkampally, Pritam R; Topaz, Allyne; Prinz, Andreas; Szentpetery, Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    Effective management of patients after the implantation of mechanical cardiac valves includes correct recognition of each valve and its related complications. Herein, we present the case of a patient who had undergone implantation of a floating-disc Beall-Surgitool mitral valve in 1976 and developed multiple valve-related complications. Over 30 years and in multiple medical centers, the device was mistakenly assumed to be a "ball" valve. The correct identification of the prosthesis led to the recognition of valvular failure, and the patient underwent its replacement with an On-X bileaflet carbon valve. Pathologic and microscopic examination of the explanted Beall valve showed massive pannus formation that extended over the sewing cuff on the atrial and ventricular side, preventing complete disc closure; disrupted fabric coating of the sewing ring, with exposure of the underlying metal; and a marked inflammatory reaction. We report one of the longest intervals on record between the implantation and replacement of a Beall-Surgitool valve.

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder moderates the relation between documented childhood victimization and pain 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Karen G; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional designs and self-reports of maltreatment characterize nearly all the literature on childhood abuse or neglect and pain in adulthood, limiting potential for causal inference. The current study describes a prospective follow up of a large cohort of individuals with court-documented early childhood abuse or neglect (n=458) and a demographically matched control sample (n=349) into middle adulthood (mean age 41), nearly 30 years later, comparing the groups for risk of adult pain complaints. We examine whether Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) mediates or moderates risk of pain. Assessed prospectively across multiple pain measures, physically and sexually abused and neglected individuals generally showed a significant (p<.05) but notably small (η(2)=.01) increased risk of pain symptoms in middle adulthood. Although PTSD was associated with both childhood victimization (p<.01) and risk of middle adulthood pain (p<.001), it did not appear to mediate the relationship between victimization and pain. However, across all pain outcomes other than medically unexplained pain, PTSD robustly interacted with documented childhood victimization to predict adult pain risk: Individuals with both childhood abuse/neglect and PTSD were at significantly increased risk (p<.001, η(2) generally=.05-.06) of pain. After accounting for the combined effect of the two factors, neither childhood victimization nor PTSD alone predicted pain risk. Findings support a view that clinical pain assessments should focus on PTSD rather than make broad inquiries into past history of childhood abuse or neglect.

  19. Women's Literacy in World-Wide Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the special issue includes worldwide statistics on women's literacy, women's role in international decision making, and the role of international aid in increasing or decreasing sex bias. (SK)

  20. Worldwide Report. Telecommunications Policy, Research, and Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    044110 JPRS-TTP-85-027 6 November 1985 Worldwide Report TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY , RESEARCH , AND DEVELOPMENT * DISTRIBUTION STATEl^TT A...Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TTP-85-027 6 November 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY , RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS ASIA...into an expenditure of 3.25 bil- lion in current lire on research and development —a period that corresponds on the average to 11.5 percent of

  1. Adult neurobehavioral outcome of hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates-a 30 year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hokkanen, Laura; Launes, Jyrki; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB) may cause severe neurological damage, but serious consequences are effectively controlled by phototherapy and blood exchange transfusion. HB is still a serious health problem in economically compromised parts of the world. The long term outcome has been regarded favorable based on epidemiological data, but has not been confirmed in prospective follow-up studies extending to adulthood. Methods. We studied the long term consequences of HB in a prospective birth cohort of 128 HB cases and 82 controls. The cases are part of a neonatal at-risk cohort (n = 1196) that has been followed up to 30 years of age. HB cases were newborns ≥ 2500 g birth weight and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation who had bilirubin concentrations > 340 µmol/l or required blood exchange transfusion. Subjects with HB were divided into subgroups based on the presence (affected HB) or absence (unaffected HB) of diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders in childhood, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects were seen at discharge, 5, 9 and 16 years of life and parent's and teacher's assessments were recorded. At 30 years they filled a questionnaire about academic and occupational achievement, life satisfaction, somatic and psychiatric symptoms including a ADHD self-rating score. Cognitive functioning was tested using ITPA, WISC, and reading and writing tests at 9 years of life. Results. Compared to controls, the odds for a child with HB having neurobehavioral symptoms at 9 years was elevated (OR = 4.68). Forty-five per cent of the HB group were affected by cognitive abnormalities in childhood and continued to experience problems in adulthood. This was apparent in academic achievement (p < 0.0001) and the ability to complete secondary (p < 0.0001) and tertiary (p < 0.004) education. Also, the subgroup of affected HB reported persisting cognitive complaints e.g., problems with reading, writing and mathematics. Childhood symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (p < 0

  2. The Impact of the Evolving Satellite Data Record on Reanalysis Water and Energy Fluxes During the Past 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Miller, T. L.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective analyses (reanalyses) use a fixed assimilation model to take diverse observations and synthesize consistent, time-dependent fields of state variables and fluxes (e.g. temperature, moisture, momentum, turbulent and radiative fluxes). Because they offer data sets of these quantities at regular space / time intervals, atmospheric reanalyses have become a mainstay of the climate community for diagnostic purposes and for driving offline ocean and land models. Of course, one weakness of these data sets is the susceptibility of the flux products to uncertainties because of shortcomings in parameterized model physics. Another issue, perhaps less appreciated, is the fact that the discreet changes in the evolving observational system, particularly from satellite sensors, may also introduce artifacts in the time series of quantities. In this paper we examine the ability of the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) and other recent reanalyses to determine variability in the climate system over the satellite record ( the last 30 years). In particular we highlight the effect on reanalyses of discontinuities at the junctures of the onset of passive microwave imaging (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in late 1987 as well as improved sounding and imaging with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, in 1998. We examine these data sets from two perspectives. The first is the ability to capture modes of variability that have coherent spatial structure (e.g. ENSO events and near-decadal coupling to SST changes) and how these modes are contained within trends in near global averages of key quantities. Secondly, we consider diagnostics that measure the consistency in energetic scaling in the hydrologic cycle, particularly the fractional changes in column-integrated water vapor versus precipitation as they are coupled to radiative flux constraints. These results will be discussed in the context of implications for science

  3. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity.

  4. 30 years of change in understory plant communities along the Tanana River, Alaska: Revisiting the concept of turning points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Lloyd, A. H.; Ruess, R. W.; Viereck, L. A.; Charlton, B. A.

    2008-12-01

    In interior Alaska, the most productive forests occur along the floodplain of the glacially fed Tanana River. The Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (BCEF) is located approximately 20 km southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska and was established in 1963 to include representative floodplain forests along the Tanana River. Both the sequence and the mechanisms of succession have been relatively well studied along the Tanana River, where biological and physical "turning points" are hypothesized to be the main proponents of plant community succession. However, prior research has concentrated almost exclusively on four dominant woody taxa: willows, thin-leaf alder, balsam poplar, and white spruce. Comparatively little is known about successional changes in the understory taxa, including shrubs, herbaceous vascular plants, and nonvascular mosses and lichens. Long-term monitoring in BCEF not only provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between vegetation and climate over a 30-year period, but also increases our knowledge and understanding about floodplain successional dynamics. Here, we analyze vegetation and climate data collected since 1977 located in the BCEF at the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research (BNZ- LTER) site in order to address the following questions: 1) Are there identifiable understory turning points that mirror the overstory changes in succession? 2) Have changes in climate been manifested in unexpected understory vegetation changes? When examining understory vegetation, we found that the sites established in the 1970s rarely follow the traditional succesional paradigm. In addition, we found changes in functional abundance and diversity in late succesional stands that could indicate vegetation patterns related to associated changes in climate.

  5. Parent material and vegetation influence soil microbial community structure following 30-years of rock weathering and pedogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, Stephanie; Wick, Abbey; Williams, Mark; Daniels, W Lee

    2015-02-01

    The process of pedogenesis and the development of biological communities during primary succession begin on recently exposed mineral surfaces. Following 30 years of surface exposure of reclaimed surface mining sites (Appalachian Mountains, USA), it was hypothesized that microbial communities would differ between sandstone and siltstone parent materials and to a lesser extent between vegetation types. Microbial community composition was examined by targeting bacterial and archaeal (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) genes and analyzed using Illumina sequencing. Microbial community composition significantly differed between parent materials and between plots established with tall fescue grass or pitch x loblolly pine vegetation types, suggesting that both factors are important in shaping community assembly during early pedogenesis. At the phylum level, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria differed in relative abundance between sandstone and siltstone. The amount of the heavy fraction carbon (C) was significantly different between sandstone (2.0 mg g(-1)) and siltstone (5.2 mg g(-1)) and correlated with microbial community composition. Soil nitrogen (N) cycling was examined by determining gene copy numbers of ureC, archaeal amoA, and bacterial amoA. Gene quantities tended to be higher in siltstone compared to sandstone but did not differ by vegetation type. This was consistent with differences in extractable ammonium (NH4 (+)) concentrations between sandstone and siltstone (16.4 vs 8.5 μg NH4 (+)-N g(-1) soil), suggesting that nitrification rates may be higher in siltstone. Parent material and early vegetation are important determinants of early microbial community assembly and could be drivers for the trajectory of ecosystem development over longer time scales.

  6. Early stages of pedogenesis at the bottom of a 30-year-old artificial depression under semidesert conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, T. A.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sizemskaya, M. L.; Sapanov, M. K.; Kolesnikov, A. V.

    2013-08-01

    Initial soils that developed at the bottom of an artificial hollow 30 × 40 m in size and 3 m in depth have been studied. The hollow was dug on a plot with a predominance of solonetzic complexes in the soil cover on the territory of the Dzhanybek Research Station in 1979. A soil with a shallow but clearly differentiated profile composed of a litter, a humus-accumulative W horizon leached from carbonates, and an underlying C1ca horizon with a high content of dispersed carbonates formed in the hollow over 30 years. The total thickness of these horizons is 7-10 cm. The morphology of the profile corresponds to the slightly alkaline humus-accumulative calcareous soil type of the order of immature soils in the current classification of Russian soils. The soil-sediment layer to a depth of >80 cm contains little soluble salts, predominantly sulfates; the content of exchangeable Na does not exceed 1 meq/100 g. Groundwater of calcium sulfate composition occurs at a depth of ˜3.8 m. These features, together with additional moistening by low-saline melt water, ensure favorable conditions for the spontaneous propagation and development of herbaceous, shrubby, and woody plants in the bottoms of artificial hollows. The development of a soil profile is accompanied by the depletion of the clay fraction from the upper W horizon, presumably due to the predominant removal of smectite minerals. In the upper W horizon, transformations of layered aluminosilicates takes place: it involves the formation of illites from smectites and from smectitic layers in illite-smectite mixed-layered minerals and partial vermiculitization of chlorites. The technology used upon the excavation of the hollow can be recommended for growing woody-shrubby plants on soils of the solonetzic complex in the clay semidesert during a relatively short time period.

  7. Carbon Sources and Sinks of North America as Affected by Major Drought Events During the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Z. A.; Grant, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    The North American (NA) terrestrial biosphere has been a long-term carbon sink but impacts of climate extremes such as drought on ecosystem carbon exchange remained largely uncertain. Here, changes in biospheric carbon fluxes with recent climate change and impacts of the major droughts of the past 30 years on continental carbon cycle across NA were studied using a comprehensive mathematical process model, ecosys. In test of these model responses at continental scale, the spatial anomalies from long-term (1980 - 2010) means in modeled leaf area indices (LAI), fully prognostic in the model, during major drought events in 1988 and 2002 agreed well with those in AVHRR NDVI (geographically weighted regression, R2 = 0.84 in 1988, 0.71 in 2002). NA modeled net ecosystem productivity (NEP) declined by 92% (0.50 Pg C yr-1) and 90% (0.49 Pg C yr-1) from the long-term mean (+0.54 Pg C yr-1), in 1988 and 2002 respectively. These significant drops in NEP offset 28% of the long-term carbon gains from the long-term mean over the last three decades. Although, the long-term average modeled terrestrial carbon sink was estimated to offset ~30% of the fossil fuel emissions of NA, only 0.03 and 3.2% were offset in 1988 and 2002 leaving almost all fossil fuel emissions to the atmosphere. These major drought events that may be associated to frequent occurrences of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, controlled much of the continental scale interannual variability and mainly occurred in parts of the Great Plains, southwest US and northern Mexico. Although stronger carbon sinks were modeled in northern ecosystems as a result of greater gross primary productivity with longer growing season, projected increases in frequency and intensity of drought could enhance carbon release hence may reduce net carbon sink of the continent.

  8. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  9. Software Facilitates Sharing of Water Quality Data Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    John Freighery was an environmental engineer at Johnson Space Center when a new, simplified version of the coliform bacteria test was developed for astronaut use on the International Space Station. Through his New York City-based mWater Foundation, Freighery is using the test to help rural communities monitor their water supplies for contamination. The organization has also developed a mobile phone app to make the information publicly available.

  10. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  11. Evaluating the demographic buffering hypothesis with vital rates estimated for Weddell seals from 30years of mark-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Link, W.A.; Chambert, T.; Stauffer, G.E.; Garrott, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    1.Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2.We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3.We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4.Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life

  12. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11 505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30 years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (−27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public

  13. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12??C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1??C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1??C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  14. High genetic diversity and absence of founder effects in a worldwide aquatic invader.

    PubMed

    Lejeusne, Christophe; Saunier, Alice; Petit, Nicolas; Béguer, Mélanie; Otani, Michio; Carlton, James T; Rico, Ciro; Green, Andy J

    2014-07-24

    The introduced oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus has recently become widespread in temperate estuaries worldwide. However, this recent worldwide spread outside of its native range arises after a previous introduction to the US Pacific coast, where it was restricted for more than 30 years. Using a phylogeographic approach, the present work investigates the genetic history of the invasion of this decapod worldwide. Japan acted as the main native source area for worldwide introduced populations, but other native areas (likely South Korea and China) may act as source populations as well. The recently introduced European and NW Atlantic populations result from colonization from both Japan and an unknown area of the native range, although colonization from the NE Pacific could not be ruled out. Most introduced populations had higher haplotypic diversity than most native populations. P. macrodactylus has a strong potential to become one of the most widespread introduced species and may become the dominant estuarine shrimp in Europe. The ecological and economic consequences of this invasion remain to be thoroughly evaluated.

  15. High genetic diversity and absence of founder effects in a worldwide aquatic invader

    PubMed Central

    Lejeusne, Christophe; Saunier, Alice; Petit, Nicolas; Béguer, Mélanie; Otani, Michio; Carlton, James T.; Rico, Ciro; Green, Andy J.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus has recently become widespread in temperate estuaries worldwide. However, this recent worldwide spread outside of its native range arises after a previous introduction to the US Pacific coast, where it was restricted for more than 30 years. Using a phylogeographic approach, the present work investigates the genetic history of the invasion of this decapod worldwide. Japan acted as the main native source area for worldwide introduced populations, but other native areas (likely South Korea and China) may act as source populations as well. The recently introduced European and NW Atlantic populations result from colonization from both Japan and an unknown area of the native range, although colonization from the NE Pacific could not be ruled out. Most introduced populations had higher haplotypic diversity than most native populations. P. macrodactylus has a strong potential to become one of the most widespread introduced species and may become the dominant estuarine shrimp in Europe. The ecological and economic consequences of this invasion remain to be thoroughly evaluated. PMID:25060780

  16. Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The report presents a digest of geothermal energy technology. The worldwide distribution of geothermal resources is described, and the degree to which various countries are exploiting their resources estimated. Detailed information about US technologies is presented, from exploration through applications to cost factors. (ACR)

  17. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  18. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop genetic diversity is concentrated within specific geographic regions worldwide. While access to this diversity is critical to continued increases in agricultural productivity, the geopolitical significance of the geography of crop diversity has not been quantified. We assess the degree to which...

  19. 1979 Worldwide Adventure TravelGuide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Guidebook descriptions of the 3000 worldwide adventure trips open to public participation include highlights, itinerary, level of experience necessary, requirements, location, duration, dates, cost, and addresses and telephone numbers of the operating organizations. The guidebook is organized in four major sections and, within each section, into…

  20. Bulletin Board Ideas: Worldwide Scientific Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Maurice K.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a bulletin board activity that identifies scientific phenomena occurring worldwide during the school year. A map of the world is marked with colored pins as students find news information of places and kind of event (e.g.; volcanoes, floods, crop failures, human epidemics). (CS)

  1. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  2. Tropical Moored Buoy Arrays To Advance Climate Science: A 30-Year Progress Report (Fridtjof Nansen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2010-05-01

    Coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropics lead to significant climate fluctuations such as El Niño and the Southern Oscillation in the Pacific, the Indian Ocean Dipole, and the Atlantic meridional gradient mode. These and other prominent climate phenomena originating in the tropics on seasonal to decadal time scales affect regional and global patterns of weather variability. Associated floods, droughts, heat waves and other extreme weather events have significant socio-economic consequences that affect millions of people worldwide. This presentation describes a coordinated multi-national effort to develop tropical moored buoy arrays in support of climate research and forecasting. Basin specific components include the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) in the Pacific, the Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA), and the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) in the Indian Ocean. These arrays, the origins of which date back to the early 1980s, complement other satellite and in situ elements of the Global Ocean Observing System by providing high temporal resolution time series of key environmental parameters in real time. This presentation will feature a discussion of historical perspectives, recent scientific advances, and future directions in the development of the arrays.

  3. Progress toward polio eradication - worldwide, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Hagan, José E; Wassilak, Steven G F; Craig, Allen S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Quddus, Arshad

    2015-05-22

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has been interrupted in all but three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). No WPV type 2 cases have been detected worldwide since 1999, and the last WPV type 3 case was detected in Nigeria in November 2012; since 2012, only WPV type 1 has been detected. Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), usually type 2, continues to cause cases of paralytic polio in communities with low population immunity. In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared global polio eradication "a programmatic emergency for global public health", and in 2014, WHO declared the international spread of WPV to previously polio-free countries to be "a public health emergency of international concern". This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2014-2015 and updates previous reports. In 2014, a total of 359 WPV cases were reported in nine countries worldwide. Although reported WPV cases increased in Pakistan and Afghanistan, cases in Nigeria decreased substantially in 2014, and encouraging progress toward global WPV transmission interruption has occurred. Overcoming ongoing challenges to interruption of WPV transmission globally will require sustained programmatic enhancements, including improving the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to interrupt transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan and to prevent WPV exportation to polio-free countries.

  4. Protection of Military Personnel Against Vector-Borne Diseases: A Review of Collaborative Work of the Australian and US Military Over the Last 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Frances, Stephen P; Edstein, Michael D; Debboun, Mustapha; Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Australian and US military medical services have collaborated since World War II to minimize vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and scrub typhus. In this review, collaboration over the last 30 years is discussed. The collaborative projects and exchange scientist programs have resulted in mutually beneficial outcomes in the fields of drug development and personal protection measures against vector-borne diseases.

  5. Mississippi Earnings: After a 30-Year Battle over the Ayers Case, Attorney Alvin Chambliss Fights for His Own Settlement: A Salute to Black History Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2005-01-01

    After shepherding more than a dozen Black Mississippi plaintiffs in the landmark Ayers v. Fordice case for nearly 30 years, Alvin O. Chambliss Jr. says he never would have agreed to a $503 million settlement agreement as restitution for the state's three historically Black universities or a portion of the $2.5 million the court allocated for…

  6. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As...

  7. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As...

  8. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As...

  9. Prevalence of blindness and low vision of people over 30 years in the Wenchi district, Ghana, in relation to eye care programmes.

    PubMed

    Moll, A C; van der Linden, A J; Hogeweg, M; Schader, W E; Hermans, J; de Keizer, R J

    1994-04-01

    A population based survey on the prevalence of major blinding disorders was conducted in the Wenchi district in central Ghana between March and May 1991. In 10 villages, 1425 people of 30 years and older were screened, using the WHO eye examination record. The prevalence of bilateral blindness above 30 years proved to be 1.7% (best acuity < 3/60): the prevalence of low vision above 30 years was 2.0% (best visual acuity 6/18 to 3/60). The causes of blindness were determined as cataract (62.5%), onchocerciasis (12.5%), corneal opacity (non-trachomatous) (8.2%), refraction anomalies (4.2%), phthisis bulbi (4.2%), optic atrophy (4.2%), and vascular retinopathy (4.2%). In the Wenchi district, 1.0% of the population over the age of 30 years was found to need a cataract extraction because of blindness of both eyes. Another potential 1.0% needs a cataract extraction because of low vision. A minor second study (n = 149) was undertaken in the same district, but in a village in an area near the Black Volta river in which onchocerciasis is endemic. The prevalence of blindness (8.1%) and low vision (3.4%) caused by onchocerciasis and cataract both proved to be higher. The survey provided the basis for a preventive and curative eye care programme.

  10. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  11. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the "United States Average Monthly or Annual Precipitation, 1971 - 2000" raster dataset produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains

  12. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the "United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000" raster dataset produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins

  13. Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: 30-year average annual maximum temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual maximum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster dataset produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins

  14. Exploring the Universe with the Worldwide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Microsoft Research WorldWide Telescope is a software platform for exploring the universe. Whether you are a researcher, student or just a casual explorer WorldWide Telescope uses cutting edge technology to take you anywhere in the universe and visualize data collected by science programs from across the globe, including NASA great observatories and planetary probes. WWT leverages technologies such as Virtual reality headsets, multi-channel full dome projection and HTML5/WebGL to bring the WWT experience to any device and any scale. We will discuss how to use WWT to browse previously curated data, as well as how to process and visualize your own data, using examples from NASA Mars missions.

  15. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  16. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today's science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  17. Campaigning for women's health rights worldwide.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    In this paper, the author takes a look at the women's health movement worldwide and lists some of its many achievements. The information provided is set in the context of reproductive rights, the most common issue that affects women in both the developed and the developing world. The author discusses access to birth control and the role of the consumer movement in achieving rights for women in childbirth.

  18. Traditional herbal medicines worldwide, from reappraisal to assessment in Europe.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Emiel

    2014-12-02

    Since 2004 the regulatory framework within the European Union has a specific assessment procedure for herbal medicinal products, with a medicinal use based on traditional practice. The main requirement concerning the traditional use is focussed on the period of time for medical use: at least 30 years, including 15 years in the EU. In addition to requirements for quality and safety, an evaluation of pharmacological effects or efficacy based on long-standing use, is a main objective. "Traditional Use" however encompasses European, and non-European traditional use. Outside the EU, the medicinal use of herbal substances, preparations, and combinations is well-known, with a long history, which is well-documented in the different systems of medical practice. This has been addressed by WHO, but it has been acknowledged also by European Commission that herbal products from other systems of medicine, can be subject to the procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products. This paper will focus on the possibilities, restraints, and challenges of regulatory practice in the European Union regarding these category of medicinal products.

  19. Water quality changes in the world's first special economic zone, Shenzhen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Zhao; Du, Shiqiang; Shi, Peijun; Tao, Fulu; Doyle, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Shenzhen, as the first special economic zone in the world, has been in the process of rapid urbanization for 30 years. Many special economic zones have been established in China and other nations following Shenzhen's experience. However, Shenzhen has attained significant economic development with an attendant cost of environmental degradation, and similar results may be seen in other zones in the future. Here we use a pollution index method to evaluate the effect of such rapid urban development on the surface water quality in Shenzhen from 1991 to 2008. Rapid urbanization has affected surface water quality, but environmental policies can mitigate some of these effects, although such policy-induced improvements required some time before showing efficacy. As their use of special economic zones proliferates worldwide, greater consideration of the potential effects on water quality, and their overall sustainability, must receive greater attention.

  20. A conversation with the Richmonds on their 30 years of service with the American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion. Interview by David A. Palmer and Linda B. Mongero.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Beth A; Richmond, Mark G

    2009-09-01

    Beth A. Richmond, PhD, and Mark G. Richmond, EdD, Co-Executive Directors serving for the ABCP, have assumed this role for the past 30 years. Their experience working with a variety of perfusionists in the field influenced the profession and some of the professionals we view as perfusion leaders. Anyone with time working as a clinical perfusionist acknowledges the role they have had establishing the certification process and influencing perfusion education. The goal of this article is simply to highlight the Board's history through the words of both Co-Directors. Our profession, young in years, has a unique history. The names have not been changed and many of the stories have yet to be told. During the winter of 2009, we sat down with Beth and Mark Richmond to talk about their experience working with different Boards over the past 30 years. The following article is their story in their words.

  1. Two Maps and Worldwide Ipod Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machete, Reason L.

    2011-11-01

    There is often a desire to determine if the dynamics of interest are chaotic or not. Since positive Lyapunov exponents are a signature for chaos, they are often used to determine this. Reliable estimates of Lyapunov exponents should demonstrate evidence of convergence; but literature abounds in which this evidence lacks. This paper presents two maps through which it highlights the importance of providing evidence of convergence of Lyapunov exponent estimates. Worldwide ipod interest is then used as a practical example and the results bear semblance to both maps.

  2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and risk of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies: 728 cases followed up to 30 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Drayson, Mark T.; Landgren, Ola

    2014-01-01

    In 728 Swedish cases of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), followed up to 30 years (median, 10 years), we estimated the cumulative risk of hematologic disorders originating from lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Using Cox regression models, we examined associations of demographic and laboratory factors with progression and determined the discriminatory power of 3 prediction models for progression. Eighty-four MGUS cases developed a lymphoid disorder, representing a cumulative risk of 15.4%. Multiple myeloma (MM) occurred in 53 patients, and the 30-year cumulative risk was 10.6%; an ∼0.5% annual risk. Three factors were significantly associated with progression: abnormal free light-chain (FLC) ratio (<0.26 or >1.65), M-protein concentration (≥1.5 g/dL), and reduction of 1 or 2 noninvolved immunoglobulin isotype levels (immunoparesis). A prediction model with separate effects for these 3 factors and the M-protein isotype had higher discriminatory power than other models, although the differences were not statistically significant. The 30-year cumulative risk for myeloid malignancies was <2%. Our study confirms that abnormal FLC ratio and M-protein concentration >1.5 g/dL, factors previously considered by Mayo Clinic researchers, are predictors for MM progression and suggests that separate consideration of immunoparesis and the Mayo Clinic risk factors could improve identification of MGUS patients at high risk for progression. PMID:24222331

  3. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and risk of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies: 728 cases followed up to 30 years in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Turesson, Ingemar; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Goldin, Lynn R; Drayson, Mark T; Landgren, Ola

    2014-01-16

    In 728 Swedish cases of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), followed up to 30 years (median, 10 years), we estimated the cumulative risk of hematologic disorders originating from lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Using Cox regression models, we examined associations of demographic and laboratory factors with progression and determined the discriminatory power of 3 prediction models for progression. Eighty-four MGUS cases developed a lymphoid disorder, representing a cumulative risk of 15.4%. Multiple myeloma (MM) occurred in 53 patients, and the 30-year cumulative risk was 10.6%; an ∼0.5% annual risk. Three factors were significantly associated with progression: abnormal free light-chain (FLC) ratio (<0.26 or >1.65), M-protein concentration (≥1.5 g/dL), and reduction of 1 or 2 noninvolved immunoglobulin isotype levels (immunoparesis). A prediction model with separate effects for these 3 factors and the M-protein isotype had higher discriminatory power than other models, although the differences were not statistically significant. The 30-year cumulative risk for myeloid malignancies was <2%. Our study confirms that abnormal FLC ratio and M-protein concentration >1.5 g/dL, factors previously considered by Mayo Clinic researchers, are predictors for MM progression and suggests that separate consideration of immunoparesis and the Mayo Clinic risk factors could improve identification of MGUS patients at high risk for progression.

  4. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  5. Tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer control worldwide.

    PubMed Central

    Love, R. R.; Koroltchouk, V.

    1993-01-01

    In most developed and many developing countries, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. At least 50% of all breast cancer patients worldwide would survive longer, however, if public awareness about and early detection of the condition were increased and greater use were made of efficient treatment of proven value. With early-stage, localized breast cancer, local treatment combined with adjuvant hormonal therapy with tamoxifen, a synthetic estrogen, could save the lives of 6 women out of 100 compared with local treatment alone. Tamoxifen has anti-estrogenic effects not only on breast cancer cells but also on liver metabolism and bone, with concomitant decreases in risk factors for chronic skeletal and vascular system diseases. Long-term tamoxifen treatment causes major adverse clinical effects in < 5% of women; menopausal and vasomotor symptoms occur in the majority of treated women, but their severity lessens over time. Tamoxifen is being considered as a standard therapy and is included in the WHO list of essential drugs for the treatment of breast cancer patients in both developing and developed countries. For the control of breast cancer more successfully worldwide, one challenge is to make tamoxifen therapy available to greater numbers of women. PMID:8313498

  6. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  7. Worldwide gas processing enjoys solid 1991

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R. )

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that worldwide gas-processing operations exhibited growth across the board last year as demand for NGLs, primarily as petrochemical feedstock and gasoline blendstock, pushed operators to increases in capacities, throughput, and production. Most evident were the gains in the U.S., Canada, and Latin America. As has been true for several years, the U.S. continued to lead the rest of the world in gas-processing capacity and NGL production. Outside the U.S., the rest of the world continued to grow, although not as markedly. Canada and the countries of Latin America led others with solid gains in capacities, gas processed, and NGLs produced. These developments are reflected in the exclusive, plant-by-plant, world-wide gas-processing survey along with an international survey of petroleum-derived sulfur recovery. Last year, one major plant in the Caribbean came on stream adding 650 MMcfd of capacity and producing almost 10,000 b/d of product. By the time the next year's report, a major Canadian sour-gas plant near Calgary will be running.

  8. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  9. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  10. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20–30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Veena G.; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. Objective To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Design Community based cross sectional study Setting 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. Sample 1,152 young adults (age group: 20–30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India Method A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Main Outcome Measures Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Results The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4–48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25–30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99–6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08–4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64–6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22–4.95), using refined cooking oil

  11. [Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The worldwide situation].

    PubMed

    Pigeot, I; Buck, C; Herrmann, D; Ahrens, W

    2010-07-01

    There is a worldwide increase of overweight and obesity not only in adults, but also in children. Data used to estimate prevalence are, however, collected in differing age groups using nonstandardized measurements and instruments and refer to differing time periods. Moreover, various reference systems to classify overweight and obesity exist, thus, adding to the difficulty in comparing countries. In this paper, these problems are discussed in detail. The most common reference systems are introduced, and their impact on the estimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity is demonstrated. Based on available data of the global situation, maps that depict the worldwide distribution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are presented. Finally, these maps will be discussed critically. Although it may be assumed that these data are collected according to the best quality standards available, the lack of a unified protocol to conduct studies on childhood obesity hampers the comparability of data between countries. Obvious limitations in that respect are the use of different reference systems, differing sampling schemes, and differing age groups. More subtle limitations result from, e.g., different measurement methods, including self-reported weight and height.

  12. Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D Kirk

    2002-01-01

    Numerous aquifers worldwide carry soluble arsenic at concentrations greater than the World Health Organization--and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--recommended drinking water standard of 10 mg per liter. Sources include both natural (black shales, young sediments with low flushing rates, gold mineralization, and geothermal environments) and anthropogenic (mining activities, livestock feed additives, pesticides, and arsenic trioxide wastes and stockpiles). Increased solubility and mobility of arsenic is promoted by high pH (>8.5), competing oxyanions, and reducing conditions. In this Policy Forum, Nordstrom argues that human health risks from arsenic in ground water can be minimized by incorporating hydrogeochemical knowledge into water management decisions and by more careful monitoring for arsenic in geologically high-risk areas.

  13. Visually Exploring Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chhatwal, Shree D.; Rose, Stuart J.

    2008-01-27

    This paper presents refinements of an existing analytic tool, Juxter, which was developed for the visualization of multi-dimensional categorical data, and explores its application to support exploration and interaction with open source Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) data. The volume and complexity of data available on terrorism makes it hard to analyze. Information systems that can efficiently and effectively collect, access, analyze, and report terrorist incidents can help in further studies focused on preventing, detecting, and responding to terrorist attacks. Existing interfaces to the WITS data support advanced search capabilities, and geolocation but lack functionality for identifying patterns and trends. To better support efficient browsing we have refined Juxter’s existing capabilities for filtering, selecting, and sorting elements and categories within the visualization.

  14. World-wide aeronautical satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter; Smith, Keith

    1988-01-01

    INMARSAT decided to expand the spectrum covered by its new generation of satellites, INMARSAT-2, to include 1 MHz (subsequently increased to 3 MHz) of the spectrum designed for aeronautical use. It began a design study that led to the specifications for the system that is now being implemented. Subsequently, INMARSAT awarded contracts for the design of avionics and high gain antennas to a number of manufactures, while several of the signatories that provide ground equipment for communicating with the INMARSAT satellites are modifying their earth stations to work with the avionic equipment. As a resullt of these activities, a world-wide aeronautical satellite system supporting both voice and data will become operational in 1989.

  15. The worldwide epidemic of female obesity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheona; Shaw, Dorothy

    2015-04-01

    The rapidly rising number of individuals who are overweight and obese has been called a worldwide epidemic of obesity with >35% of adults today considered to be overweight or obese. Women are more likely to be overweight and obese than their male counterparts, which has far-reaching effects on reproductive health and specifically pregnancy, with obese women facing an increased risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, operative delivery, fetal macrosomia, and neonatal morbidity. The etiology of obesity is highly complex encompassing genetic, environmental, physiologic, cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors, making it challenging to develop effective interventions on both a local and global scale. This article describes the extent and the cost of the obesity epidemic, which, although historically seen as a disease of high-income countries, is now clearly a global epidemic that impacts low- and middle-income countries and indigenous groups who bear an ever-increasing burden of this disease.

  16. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  17. Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands.

    PubMed

    Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Renoult, Julien P; Grégoire, Arnaud; Crochet, Pierre-André; Covas, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Island environments share distinctive characteristics that offer unique opportunities to investigate parallel evolution. Previous research has produced evidence of an island syndrome for morphological traits, life-history strategies and ecological niches, but little is known about the response to insularity of other important traits such as animal signals. Here, we tested whether birds' plumage colouration is part of the island syndrome. We analysed with spectrophotometry the colouration of 116 species endemic to islands and their 116 closest mainland relatives. We found a pattern of reduced brightness and colour intensity for both sexes on islands. In addition, we found a decrease in the number of colour patches on islands that, in males, was associated with a decrease in the number of same-family sympatric species. These results demonstrate a worldwide pattern of parallel colour changes on islands and suggest that a relaxation of selection on species recognition may be one of the mechanisms involved.

  18. Cell therapy worldwide: an incipient revolution.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mahendra; Mason, Chris; Solomon, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The regenerative medicine field is large, diverse and active worldwide. A variety of different organizational and product models have been successful, and pioneering entrepreneurs have shown both what can work and, critically, what does not. Evolving regulations, novel funding mechanisms combined with new technological breakthroughs are keeping the field in a state of flux. The field struggles to cope with the lack of infrastructure and investment, it nevertheless has evolved from its roots in human stem cell therapy and tissue and organ transplants to a field composed of a variety of products from multiple cell sources with approval for use in numerous countries. Currently, tens of thousands of patients have been treated with some kind of cell therapy.

  19. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  20. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    PubMed

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  1. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  2. Overview and forecast on forestry productions worldwide.

    PubMed

    Wenjun, Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions.

  3. Metabolic/bariatric surgery Worldwide 2008.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Henry; Oien, Danette M

    2009-12-01

    Periodically, the state of bariatric surgery worldwide should be assessed; the most recent prior evaluation was in 2003. An email survey was sent to the leadership of the 36 International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders nations or national groupings, as well as Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Responses were tabulated; calculation of relative prevalence of specific procedures was done by weighted averages. Out of a potential 39, 36 nations or national groupings responded. In 2008, 344,221 bariatric surgery operations were performed by 4,680 bariatric surgeons; 220,000 of these operations were performed in USA/Canada by 1,625 surgeons. The most commonly performed procedures were laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (AGB; 42.3%), laparoscopic standard Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 39.7%), and total sleeve gastrectomies 4.5%. Over 90% of procedures were performed laparoscopically. Comparing the 5-year trend from 2003 to 2008, all categories of procedures, with the exception of biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch, increased in absolute numbers performed. However, the relative percent of all RYGBs decreased from 65.1% to 49.0%; whereas, AGB increased from 24.4% to 42.3%. Markedly, different trends were found for Europe and USA/Canada: in Europe, AGB decreased from 63.7% to 43.2% and RYGB increased from 11.1% to 39.0%; whereas, in USA/Canada, AGB increased from 9.0% to 44.0% and RYGB decreased from 85.0% to 51.0%. The absolute growth rate of bariatric surgery decreased over the past 5 years (135% increase), in comparison to the preceding 5 years (266% increase). Bariatric surgery continues to grow worldwide, but less so than in the past. The types of procedures are in flux; trends in Europe vs USA/Canada are diametrically opposed.

  4. WWT Ambassadors: Worldwide Telescope For Interactive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2012-01-01

    WorldWide Telescope (WWT) offers an unparalleled view of the world's store of online astronomical data. This free software weaves astronomical images from all wavelengths into an interface that resembles their natural context-the Sky-while offering deep opportunities to teach and learn the science behind the images. The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program (WWTA) is an outreach initiative run by researchers at Harvard University and Microsoft Research. WWT Ambassadors are experts on Astronomy and Physics who use WWT to educate the public about astronomy and science. Ambassadors and learners alike use WWT to create dynamic, interactive Tours of the Universe, which are shared in schools, public venues, and online. Ambassador-created Tours are being made freely available and will ultimately form a comprehensive learning resource for Astronomy and Astrophysics. In this poster, we present summary results of WWTA's work in 6th-grade classrooms, reaching 400 students over the past 2 years. The WWTA Pilot compared learning outcomes for 80 students who participated in WWTA and 70 students at the same school and grade who only used traditional learning materials. After the six-week unit, twice as many "WWT” as "non-WWT” students understand complex three dimensional orbital relationships; and tremendous gains are seen in student interest in science overall, and astronomy in particular. In anonymous written surveys, 90% of the 6th-graders described WWT as "awesome,” "cool,” or "a fun way to learn science,” and said they would recommend WWT to their best friend. We outline new plans to develop and field-test WWT-based interactive visualization labs that teach students standards-based middle school space science topics, and we describe the development of an online community that serves as a resource for Ambassadors, teachers, and students across the US and beyond. Learn more about WWTA at: wwtambassadors.org

  5. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  6. A long-term forecast analysis on worldwide land uses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Qi, Yanhong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2006-08-01

    More and more lands worldwide are being cultivated for food production while forests are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. This paper aims to make a long-term forecast on land uses worldwide and provide the public, researchers, and government officials with a clear profile for land uses in the future. Data of land uses since 1961 were used to fit historical trajectories and make the forecast. The results show that trajectories of land areas can be well fitted with univariate linear regressions. The forecasts of land uses during the coming 25 years were given in detail. Areas of agricultural land, arable land, and permanent pasture land worldwide would increase by 6.6%, 7.2%, and 6.3% respectively in the year 2030 as compared to the current areas. Permanent crops land area all over the world is forecasted to increase 0.64% by 2030. By the year 2030 the areas of forests and woodland, nonarable and nonpermanent land worldwide would decrease by 2.4% and 0.9% against the current areas. All other land area in the world would dramatically decline by 6.4% by the year 2030. Overall the land area related to agriculture would tend to decrease in developed countries, industrialized countries, Europe, and North and Central America. The agriculture related land area would considerably increase in developing countries, least developed countries, low-income countries, Asia, Africa, South America, etc. Developing countries hold larger total land area than developed countries. Dramatic and continuous growth in agricultural land area of developing countries would largely contribute to the expected growth of world agricultural land area in the coming years. Population explosion, food shortage and poverty in the world, especially in developing countries, together caused the excessive cultivation of land for agricultural uses in the past years. Increasing agricultural land area exacerbates the climate changes and degradation of environment. How to limit the growth of human

  7. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations.

    PubMed

    Francer, Jeffrey; Izquierdo, Jose Zamarriego; Music, Tamara; Narsai, Kirti; Nikidis, Chrisoula; Simmonds, Heather; Woods, Paul

    2014-03-29

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice.Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines.

  8. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice. Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines. PMID:24679064

  9. Trends analyses of 30 years of ambient 8 hour ozone and precursor monitoring data in the South Central U.S.: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Cavender, Kevin

    2016-07-13

    In the last 30 years ambient ozone concentrations have notably decreased in the South Central U.S. Yet, current ambient ozone concentrations measured over the past three years 2013-2015 in this area of the U.S. are not meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb). This paper provides an update on long-term trends analyses of ambient 8 hour ozone and ozone precursor monitoring data collected over the past 30 years (1986-2015) in four South Central U.S. cities, following up on two previously published reviews of 20 and 25 year trends for these cities. All four cities have benefitted from national ozone precursor controls put in place during the 1990s and 2000s involving cleaner vehicles (vehicle fleet turnover/replacement over time), cleaner fuels, cleaner gasoline and diesel engines, and improved inspection/maintenance programs for existing vehicles. Additional ozone precursor emission controls specific to each city are detailed in this paper. The controls have resulted in impressive ambient ozone and ambient ozone precursor concentration reductions in the four South Central U.S. cities over the past 30 years, including 31-70% ambient nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, 43-72% volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, a related 45-76% VOC reactivity decline for a subset of VOC species from historical peaks to the present, and an 18-38 ppb reduction in city 8 hour ozone design value concentrations. A new challenge for each of the four South Central U.S. cities will be meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 ppb.

  10. Silicone Granuloma in the Buttocks Incidentally Detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT 30 Years After Free Liquid Silicone Injections.

    PubMed

    Ohnona, Jessica; Durand, Pauline; Amegnizin, Jean-Louis; Kerrou, Khaldoun

    2016-06-01

    A 59-year-old transexual (male to female) patient presented with a squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. She underwent an F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging. The examination showed high F-FDG uptake of the primary lesion and a homolateral lymphadenopathy. Incidental heterogeneous uptake of round hyperdense lesions in the gluteal muscles and subcutaneous fat was visualized. The medical history revealed secondly that the patient had had free liquid silicone injections 30 years before the examination. Although the injection of free silicone is not practised since the 1980s, this incidental finding should prompt to check the patient's medical history over several decades.

  11. World-wide projections for hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, B; Johnell, O; Kanis, J A

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the present and future incidence of hip fracture world-wide. From a survey of available data on current incidence, population trends and the secular changes in hip fracture risk, the numbers of hip fractures expected in 2025 and 2050 were computed. The total number of hip fractures in men and women in 1990 was estimated to be 338,000 and 917,000 respectively, a total of 1.26 million. Assuming no change in the age- and sex-specific incidence, the number of hip fractures is estimated to approximately double to 2.6 million by the year 2025, and 4.5 million by the year 2050. The percentage increase will be greater in men (310%) than in women (240%). With modest assumptions concerning secular trends, the number of hip fractures could range between 7.3 and 21.3 million by 2050. The major demographic changes will occur in Asia. In 1990, 26% of all hip fractures occurred in Asia, whereas this figure could rise to 37% in 2025 and to 45% in 2050. We conclude that the socioeconomic impact of hip fractures will increase markedly throughout the world, particularly in Asia, and that there is an urgent need to develop preventive strategies, particularly in the developing countries.

  12. Worldwide Phylogenetic Relationship of Avian Poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy. PMID:23408635

  13. Worldwide burden of colorectal cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Favoriti, Pasqualino; Carbone, Gabriele; Greco, Marco; Pirozzi, Felice; Pirozzi, Raffaele Emmanuele Maria; Corcione, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem, being the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth cause of cancer death worldwide. There is wide variation over time among the different geographic areas due to variable exposure to risk factors, introduction and uptake of screening as well as access to appropriate treatment services. Indeed, a large proportion of the disparities may be attributed to socioeconomic status. Although colorectal cancer continues to be a disease of the developed world, incidence rates have been rising in developing countries. Moreover, the global burden is expected to further increase due to the growth and aging of the population and because of the adoption of westernized behaviors and lifestyle. Colorectal cancer screening has been proven to greatly reduce mortality rates that have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries. Statistics on colorectal cancer occurrence are essential to develop targeted strategies that could alleviate the burden of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of incidence, mortality and survival rates for colorectal cancer as well as their geographic variations and temporal trends.

  14. Small world picture of worldwide seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Douglas S. R.; Papa, Andrés R. R.; Menezes, Ronaldo

    2014-08-01

    The understanding of long-distance relations between seismic activities has for long been of interest to seismologists and geologists. In this paper we have used data from the worldwide earthquake catalog for the period between 1972 and 2011 to generate a network of sites around the world for earthquakes with magnitude m≥4.5 in the Richter scale. After the network construction, we have analyzed the results under two viewpoints. First, in contrast to previous works, which have considered just small areas, we showed that the best fitting for networks of seismic events is not a pure power law, but a power law with exponential cutoff; we also have found that the global network presents small-world properties. Second, we have found that the time intervals between successive earthquakes have a cumulative probability distribution well fitted by nontraditional functional forms. The implications of our results are significant because they seem to indicate that seisms around the world are not independent. In this paper we provide evidence to support this argument.

  15. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  16. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Balmford, Andrew; Gravestock, Pippa; Hockley, Neal; McClean, Colin J; Roberts, Callum M

    2004-06-29

    Declines in marine harvests, wildlife, and habitats have prompted calls at both the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and the 2003 World Parks Congress for the establishment of a global system of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs that restrict fishing and other human activities conserve habitats and populations and, by exporting biomass, may sustain or increase yields of nearby fisheries. Here we provide an estimate of the costs of a global MPA network, based on a survey of the running costs of 83 MPAs worldwide. Annual running costs per unit area spanned six orders of magnitude, and were higher in MPAs that were smaller, closer to coasts, and in high-cost, developed countries. Models extrapolating these findings suggest that a global MPA network meeting the World Parks Congress target of conserving 20-30% of the world's seas might cost between 5 billion and 19 billion US dollars annually to run and would probably create around one million jobs. Although substantial, gross network costs are less than current government expenditures on harmful subsidies to industrial fisheries. They also ignore potential private gains from improved fisheries and tourism and are dwarfed by likely social gains from increasing the sustainability of fisheries and securing vital ecosystem services.

  17. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kuss, J.

    2011-05-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  18. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kuss, J.

    2011-01-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentration have decreased by about 20 to 38% since 1996 as indicated by long term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 yrs is unprecedented among most of atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant emissions over the period. It suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  19. WWT Ambassadors: Worldwide Telescope For Interactive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Strom, S. E.; Udomprasert, P.; Valva, A.; Wong, C.

    2011-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program (WWTA) is new outreach initiative run by researchers at Harvard University, WGBH, and Microsoft Research. WWT Ambassadors are astrophysically-literate volunteers who are trained to be experts in using WWT as teaching tool. Ambassadors and learners alike use WWT to create dynamic, interactive Tours of the Universe, which are shared in schools, public venues, and online. Ambassador-created Tours are being made freely available and will ultimately form a comprehensive learning resource for Astronomy and Astrophysics. In this short talk, we will describe the results of a Pilot Study where volunteer Ambassadors helped sixth-graders use WWT during their six-week Astronomy unit. The results of the study compare learning outcomes for 80 students who participated in WWTA and 80 students who only used traditional learning materials. In the comparison, we find that, after the six-week unit: twice as many "WWT” as "non-WWT” students understand complex three dimensional orbital relationships; and tremendous gains are seen in student interest in science overall, astronomy in particular, and even in using "real” telescopes. Plans for WWTA include expansion to five US sites within the coming year, and ultimately to an International Program. Online materials will ultimately be available through several sites (at WGBH, Harvard and Microsoft), and will be integrated with existing online curriculum programs such as WGBH's Teachers’ Domain and Microsoft's Partners in Learning. More inormation is presently available at www.cfa.harvard.edu/WWTAmbassadors/.

  20. The worldwide epidemic of obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Michael; Booth, Michael

    2003-02-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity affecting adolescents worldwide. Both in developing and in developed countries, adolescents are increasingly becoming more obese. The number of adolescents exceeding previously identified cut-points as well as the weight and fatness of the most obese individuals is increasing at a progressive rate. Despite their benign appearance, epidemics of noncommunicable disease (or their risk factors) are no less devastating to the health of populations. The two key responses to any epidemic are to discover the causes of the epidemic disease and to characterize the epidemic. The latter needs to occur in relation to prevalence, distribution across the populations (are some population groups more likely to be affected than others?), and secular trends. This chapter reviews what is currently known about the epidemiology of overweight and obesity among adolescents throughout the world. To clarify terms of epidemiology, this chapter first identifies what are considered the most appropriate measures of adiposity and defines how much fat is too much fat.

  1. Neuropathology training worldwide-evolution and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Del Bigio, Marc R; Hainfellner, Johannes A; McLean, Catriona A; Powell, Suzanne Z; Sikorska, Beata; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Weis, Joachim; Xuereb, John H

    2014-04-01

    Training of neuropathologists varies worldwide. Systems range from highly organized specialist and subspecialist education with national certification, to regulated training with diploma recognition, to informal apprenticeships in neurological hospitals and no formal recognition. This overview compiles and summarizes the history of regulated training systems, the status of neuropathology within various countries' medical systems and the manner in which neuropathologists are trained. Anecdotal evidence suggests that countries with regulated systems of neuropathology training and an active professional organization are more likely to have an adequate supply of diagnostic specialists and a vibrant research community. The different training systems reflect the style of medical services delivery in the respective countries. In general, the existence of formal neuropathology training systems occurs only in countries with relatively high levels of per capita health expenditures, reflecting the development of medical specialization overall. Evolving diagnostic technologies and major international research endeavors, whose goals are to understand structure and function of the human brain, demand that neuropathology training is more than simply diagnostic histopathology.

  2. Current Trends of HIV Recombination Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Katherine A.; Wong, Justin J.L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major characteristics of HIV-1 is its high genetic variability and extensive heterogeneity. This characteristic is due to its molecular traits, which in turn allows it to vary, recombine, and diversify at a high frequency. As such, it generates complex molecular forms, termed recombinants, which evade the human immune system and so survive. There is no sequence constraint to the recombination pattern as it appears to occur at inter-group (between groups M and O), as well as interand intra-subtype within group M. Rapid emergence and active global transmission of HIV-1 recombinants, known as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs), requires urgent attention. To date, 55 CRFs have been reported around the world. The first CRF01_AE originated from Central Africa but spread widely in Asia. The most recent CRF; CRF55_01B is a recombinant form of CRF01_AE and subtype B, although its origin is yet to be publicly disclosed. HIV-1 recombination is an ongoing event and plays an indispensable role in HIV epidemics in different regions. Africa, Asia and South America are identified as recombination hot-spots. They are affected by continual emergence and cocirculation of newly emerging CRFs and URFs, which are now responsible for almost 20% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. Better understanding of recombinants is necessary to determine their biological and molecular attributes. PMID:24470968

  3. Worldwide Genetic Analysis of the CFTR Region

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Eva; Calafell, Francesc; Lao, Oscar; Bonné-Tamir, Batsheva; Kidd, Judith R.; Pakstis, Andrew; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2001-01-01

    Mutations at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis, the most prevalent severe genetic disorder in individuals of European descent. We have analyzed normal allele and haplotype variation at four short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CFTR in 18 worldwide population samples, comprising a total of 1,944 chromosomes. The rooted phylogeny of the SNP haplotypes was established by typing ape samples. STRP variation within SNP haplotype backgrounds was highest in most ancestral haplotypes—although, when STRP allele sizes were taken into account, differences among haplotypes became smaller. Haplotype background determines STRP diversity to a greater extent than populations do, which indicates that haplotype backgrounds are older than populations. Heterogeneity among STRPs can be understood as the outcome of differences in mutation rate and pattern. STRP sites had higher heterozygosities in Africans, although, when whole haplotypes were considered, no significant differences remained. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) shows a complex pattern not easily related to physical distance. The analysis of the fraction of possible different haplotypes not found may circumvent some of the methodological difficulties of LD measure. LD analysis showed a positive correlation with locus polymorphism, which could partly explain the unusual pattern of similar LD between Africans and non-Africans. The low values found in non-Africans may imply that the size of the modern human population that emerged “Out of Africa” may be larger than what previous LD studies suggested. PMID:11104661

  4. 30 years of cosmic fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berné, O.; Montillaud, J.; Mulas, G.; Joblin, C.

    2015-12-01

    In 1985, ``During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells'', Harry Kroto and his collaborators serendipitously discovered a new form of carbon: fullerenes. The most emblematic fullerene (i.e. C_{60} ``buckminsterfullerene''), contains exactly 60 carbon atoms organized in a cage-like structure similar to a soccer ball. Since their discovery impacted the field of nanotechnologies, Kroto and colleagues received the Nobel prize in 1996. The cage-like structure, common to all fullerene molecules, gives them unique properties, in particular an extraordinary stability. For this reason and since they were discovered in experiments aimed to reproduce conditions in space, fullerenes were sought after by astronomers for over two decades, and it is only recently that they have been firmly identified by spectroscopy, in evolved stars and in the interstellar medium. This identification offered the opportunity to study the molecular physics of fullerenes in the unique physical conditions provided by space, and to make the link with other large carbonaceous molecules thought to be present in space : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  5. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibody in a population aged 0-30 years in Shanghai, China: implications for hepatitis A immunization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Yuan, Z; Zhao, Q; Chen, G; Xu, B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine current seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody in subjects aged 0-30 years in Shanghai. A total of 5515 subjects were recruited through random clustering sampling in 2009. Basic clinical and demographic information and records of HAV vaccination were acquired by questionnaire interviews and review of immunization records. Serum samples were collected and tested for anti-HAV IgM and total anti-HAV. The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV was 52·9%. Subjects aged 20-24 years had the lowest (34·4%) anti-HAV seropositivity and subjects aged 5-9 years had the highest (74·6%) positivity. Seroprevalence was significantly greater in subjects from suburban areas than in subjects from urban areas. Subjects who had HAV immunizations had significantly greater seropositivity for total anti-HAV. Previous hepatitis A immunization policies had a significant impact on the presence of anti-HAV seroprevalence in a population aged 0-30 years from Shanghai.

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of alkaloid variation in the poison frog Oophaga pumilio in Costa Rica and Panama over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Saporito, Ralph A; Donnelly, Maureen A; Jain, Poonam; Martin Garraffo, H; Spande, Thomas F; Daly, John W

    2007-11-01

    A total of 232 alkaloids, representing 21 structural classes were detected in skin extracts from the dendrobatid poison frog Oophaga pumilio, collected from 53 different populations from over 30 years of research. The highly toxic pumiliotoxins and allopumiliotoxins, along with 5,8-disubstitiuted and 5,6,8-trisubstituted indolizidines, all of which are proposed to be of dietary mite origin, were common constituents in most extracts. One decahydroquinoline (DHQ), previously shown be of ant origin, occurred in many extracts often as a major alkaloid, while other DHQs occurred rather infrequently. Histrionicotoxins, thought to be of ant origin, did not appear to possess a specific pattern of occurrence among the populations, but when present, were usually found as major components. Certain 3,5-disubstituted pyrrolizidines and indolizidines, known to be of ant origin, did occur in extracts, but infrequently. Alkaloid composition differed with regard to geographic location of frog populations, and for populations that were sampled two or more times during the 30-year period significant changes in alkaloid profiles sometimes occurred. The results of this study indicate that chemical defense in a dendrobatid poison frog is dependent on geographic location and habitat type, which presumably controls the abundance and nature of alkaloid-containing arthropods.

  7. Trends in the association of obesity and self-reported overall health in 30 years of the Integrated Health Interview Series.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Ross; Duke, Naomi; Oakes, J Michael; Liao, Wenjie

    2011-05-01

    This research examines trends in the relationship between obesity based on self-report height and weight and self-perceived health over a 30-year period. Importantly, this period included the articulation of comprehensive public health campaigns on excess weight and thus provides opportunities for assessment of the efficacy of the campaign, as well as the broader psycho-social impact of excess weight. Using novel data from the Integrated Health Interview Series, odds ratios for the association between obesity and self-perceived health were estimated for repeated cross-sectional samples that are nationally representative of noninstitutionalized American adults aged 18-85 and older spanning 1976-2006. Our findings show that (i) there are weak associations between obesity and self-perceived poor health; (ii) these associations are particularly small among men, often to the point of being nonexistent; and (iii) weak relationships for both men and women have remained virtually unchanged over the past 30 years. Several reasons why the public health campaign around excess weight has had limited traction are discussed including the collective problem of excess weight in America and how this undermines current approaches in public health efforts addressing excess weight.

  8. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and...

  9. Early neonatal death: A challenge worldwide.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Liisa; Gimeno, Ana; Parra-Llorca, Anna; Vento, Máximo

    2017-02-23

    Early neonatal death (ENND), defined as the death of a newborn between zero and seven days after birth, represents 73% of all postnatal deaths worldwide. Despite a 50% reduction in childhood mortality, reduction of ENND has significantly lagged behind other Millennium Developmental Goal achievements and is a growing contributor to overall mortality in children aged <5 years. The etiology of ENND is closely related to the level of a country's industrialization. Hence, prematurity and congenital anomalies are the leading causes in high-income countries. Furthermore, sudden unexpected early neonatal deaths (SUEND) and collapse have only recently been identified as relevant and often preventable causes of death. Concomitantly, perinatal-related events such as asphyxia and infections are extremely relevant in Africa, South East Asia, and Latin America and, together with prematurity, are the principal contributors to ENND. In high-income countries, according to current research evidence, survival may be improved by applying antenatal and perinatal therapies and immediate newborn resuscitation, as well as by centralizing at-risk deliveries to centers with appropriate expertise available around the clock. In addition, resources should be allocated to the close surveillance of newborn infants, especially during the first hours of life. Many of the conditions leading to ENND in low-income countries are preventable with relatively easy and cost-effective interventions such as contraception, vaccination of pregnant women, hygienic delivery at a hospital, training health care workers in resuscitation practices, simplified algorithms that allow for early detection of perinatal infections, and early initiation of breastfeeding and skin-to-skin care. The future is promising. As initiatives undertaken in previous decades have led to substantial reduction in childhood mortality, it is expected that new initiatives targeting the perinatal/neonatal periods are bound to reduce ENND and

  10. The worldwide use of steroidal contraception.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, E

    1989-01-01

    Historically, concerns about rapidly growing populations and resources that could not support them persuaded governments of developing countries to initiate family planning programs. Between the early 1960s and the early 1980s, the number of governments supporting these programs increased from 7 to approximately 120. Today, 52 governments in developing countries provide support to family planning programs because of the demographic rationale, and 65 governments do so because of human rights and health considerations: The effective use of family planning significantly diminishes infant, child, and maternal mortality and morbidity. Forty-five percent of married women of reproductive age worldwide are practicing contraception today; however, 69% do so in East Asia and only 11% in Africa. Female sterilization and use of intrauterine devices are the most popular methods in developing countries, and oral contraceptives and condoms, in developed countries. Of the 400 million women of reproductive age, 140 million (35%) are relying on family planning methods requiring male cooperation and less than 60 million (15%) are using oral contraceptives. More than half of these oral contraceptive users live in four countries: the United States, Brazil, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. On the other hand, the percentage of currently married women, aged 15 to 19 years, who have never used any form of contraception is as high as 85% to 90% in Bangladesh, Sudan, and Pakistan. In many developing countries, there is a statistically significant correlation between women's use of contraception and years of education. Other important factors influencing contraceptive prevalence include the established or perceived side effects of currently available methods, the status of women, the political climate, and a number of behavioral and social determinants.

  11. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    such as erosion, biodiversity, or water quality impacts worldwide and thereby complement existing metrics assessing global EIs such as GHG emissions.

  12. Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen; Hasholt, Bent; Steffen, Konrad; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Mcgrath, Daniel; Yde, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation

  13. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes

  14. Association of Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Carnivora, a Venus Flytrap Extract, in a 30-Year-Old Man with Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ziolkowski, Susan; Moore, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and has been associated with a variety of medications. This is the case of 30-year-old man with Hodgkin's lymphoma who on routine labs before chemotherapy was found to have acute nonoliguric renal failure. A kidney biopsy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. The patient had taken several medications including a higher dose of Carnivora, a Venus flytrap extract, composed of numerous amino acids. The medication was discontinued and kidney function improved towards the patient's baseline indicating that this may be the possible cause of his AIN. Proximal tubular cell uptake of amino acids increasing transcription of nuclear factor-kappaB is a proposed mechanism of AIN from this compound. PMID:24839571

  15. Flood Dynamics in the Sacramento Valley over the Last 30 Years: When and Where Were the Rest Stops for Shorebirds during Spring Migration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer-Smith, D.; Swenson, J. J.; Reiter, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dependent migratory shorebirds continue to suffer population declines, largely due to loss of habitat. A better understanding of the variability of flooded resting and feeding sites is needed over the large areas traveled by these birds, particularly in inland areas subject to cyclical droughts. We analyzed habitat availability patterns in the Sacramento Valley, an internationally important shorebird stopover site, using low cloud cover scenes during spring migration (February - June) from the 30-year Landsat Climate Data Record. We found that a simple band 5 threshold efficiently delineated open water over the past thirty years of surface reflectance data (Landsat 4-8). A random forest model for flooded and non-flooded regions (AUC = 0.9997444) and ROC optimization were used to determine the best threshold for the analysis. Using the time series of classifications, we assessed historical flooded habitat availability within each two week period during spring over the past 30 years. Flood irrigated agriculture on private lands represents the largest potential habitat area and consistently provides habitat at the early and late stages of migration. Rice alone represents five times the area of herbaceous wetlands and has a comparable probability of inundation as this wetland type in early spring (0.3). Flood extent is most restricted during the peak of spring migration when birds most need the habitat, which is limited primarily to federal and state managed lands (average 0.78 probability of inundation). The timing of drying and reflooding in agricultural fields could strongly influence habitat availability in the valley during the spring.

  16. Social Mobility and Mental Disorders at 30 Years of Age in Participants of the 1982 Cohort, Pelotas, Rio Grande Do Sul – RS

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Lenice de Castro Muniz; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Carraro, André; Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mental disorders at 30 years of age and social mobility by formally testing three hypotheses: Risk Accumulation; Critical Period; and Social Mobility. The study was performed using data from the 30-year follow-up of the Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, conducted in 1982, and data from previous follow-ups. The tool used to evaluate mental health was the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20). For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test with the Yates correction was used to estimate the prevalence of mental disorder, and the Poisson regression with robust variance was used to formally test the hypotheses according to the Risk Accumulation, Critical Period and Social Mobility Models. The analyses were stratified by gender. The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) was 24.3% (95% CI 22.9–25.7) when the whole sample was considered. The highest prevalence, 27.1% (95% CI 25.1–29.2), was found in women, and the difference between genders was significant (p < 0.001). CMDs were more frequent in participants who remained “poor” in the three follow-ups. In both men and women, the best fit was obtained with the Risk Accumulation Model, with p = 0.6348 and p = 0.2105, respectively. The results indicate the need to rethink public income maintenance policies. Finally, we suggest further studies to investigate the role of different public policies in decreasing the prevalence of mental disorders and thus contribute proposals of new policies that may contribute to the prevention of these disorders. PMID:26448480

  17. Digit ratio (2D:4D), sex differences, allometry, and finger length of 12-30-year olds: evidence from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Internet study.

    PubMed

    Manning, John T

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have reported digit ratio (2D:4D) to be sexually dimorphic, (males lower 2D:4D than females). However, Kratochvíl and Flegr ([2009]: Biol Lett 5:643-646) have suggested that 2D regressed on 4D has an allometric regression line with nonzero Y-intercept that is shared by males and females. Thus, 2D is shorter than expected when 4D is long, and males have lower 2D:4D than females because they have longer fingers. In this study, it is shown that this suggestion may be incorrect because sex differences in slope were not considered. Participants were recruited in an Internet study and had an age range of 12-30 years. The expected sex difference in 2D:4D was found, and the regression of 2D on 4D showed a significant sex difference in slope (males lower than females). A comparison of 10 age groups (12 years, 13 years..., 21-30 years) showed that sexual dimorphism for fingers was age dependent, varying from monomorphic to very dimorphic. Changes in sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D were much less marked, but there was a significant reduction in mean 2D:4D with age. The tendency for slopes of 2D regressed on 4D to be lower in males compared with females was significant in eight age groups. Sex difference in 2D:4D varied across the age groups and was positively related to the magnitude of the difference in female and male slopes. In contrast to the report of Kratochvíl and Flegr, it was found that the regression of 2D on 4D showed sex differences in slope, and such differences gave rise to the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D.

  18. 30 Years Retrospective Review of Tuberculosis Cases in a Tuberculosis Dispensary in Bursa/Nilufer, Turkey (1985–2014): Changes of Epidemics*

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Kayıhan; Gerçek, Harika; Taş, Tuncay Aydin; Çakir, Rukiye; Özgüç, Sedef; Yildiz, Timur

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients who applied to the Bursa Nilufer Tuberculosis Dispensary by investigating the trends in epidemics over three decades. Method In this retrospective observational study, the records of all tuberculosis cases (1630 patients) treated in the last 30 years (1985–2014) at the Bursa Nilufer Tuberculosis Dispensary were examined and statistically analyzed. Results Males comprised 65.2% of the patients. The ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 87 years, and the mean age was 37.4 (95% CI: 36.6–38.2). Among the cases, 86.7% were new infections and 74.1% were pulmonary tuberculosis. In the last decade, the education level, the percentage of patients who had received a BCG vaccination, the proportion of women and active employees among them increased (p<0.05), while it decreased among men (p<0.05). Clinical symptoms accompanying TB such as weakness, anorexia, weight loss, and cough, decreased to a statistically significant degree (p<0.05). In the last decade, the mortality rate was 3.6% and increased compared with previous decades (p<0.05). Mortality was higher among patients who were elderly, male, did not have a BCG scar or had a chronic disease (p<0.05). Conclusion This study adds information about the change of TB epidemics in Turkey in the last 30 years. Further studies are needed to determine the risk factors associated with tuberculosis mortality and to evaluate the effectiveness control programs of this disease. PMID:27872739

  19. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention.

    PubMed

    Atungulu, Griffiths G; Pan, Zhongli

    2014-09-01

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention, depending on rice variety and original nutritional quality. In this article, modern and traditional premilling, milling, and postmilling processing methods of different rice types are comprehensively reviewed. The implications of industrial rice processing methods, especially milling, as well as techniques for nutrient extraction, transfer, and enhancement, such as rice parboiling, sprouting, and fortification, for macro- and micronutrient content and consumer acceptance of the products, are documented. Socioeconomic constraints facing various aspects of rice processing methods are also discussed. This article reviews up-to-date research on rice industrial processing worldwide and aims to benefit engineers dealing with food processing, nutritionists and dieticians, food companies, education and research institutions, and quality-control and safety managers.

  20. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  1. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of urticaria and angioedema: a worldwide perspective.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Asero, Riccardo; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Baiardini, Ilaria; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Canonica, G Walter; Gower, Richard; Kahn, David A; Kaplan, Allen P; Katelaris, Connie; Maurer, Marcus; Park, Hae Sim; Potter, Paul; Saini, Sarbjit; Tassinari, Paolo; Tedeschi, Alberto; Ye, Young Min; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2012-11-01

    : Urticaria and angioedema are common clinical conditions representing a major concern for physicians and patients alike. The World Allergy Organization (WAO), recognizing the importance of these diseases, has contributed to previous guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urticaria. The Scientific and Clinical Issues Council of WAO proposed the development of this global Position Paper to further enhance the clinical management of these disorders through the participation of renowned experts from all WAO regions of the world. Sections on definition and classification, prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis are based on the best scientific evidence presently available. Additional sections devoted to urticaria and angioedema in children and pregnant women, quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, and physical urticarias have been incorporated into this document. It is expected that this article will supplement recent international guidelines with the contribution of an expert panel designated by the WAO, increasing awareness of the importance of urticaria and angioedema in medical practice and will become a useful source of information for optimum patient management worldwide.

  3. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden.

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Urticaria and Angioedema: A Worldwide Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Urticaria and angioedema are common clinical conditions representing a major concern for physicians and patients alike. The World Allergy Organization (WAO), recognizing the importance of these diseases, has contributed to previous guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urticaria. The Scientific and Clinical Issues Council of WAO proposed the development of this global Position Paper to further enhance the clinical management of these disorders through the participation of renowned experts from all WAO regions of the world. Sections on definition and classification, prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis are based on the best scientific evidence presently available. Additional sections devoted to urticaria and angioedema in children and pregnant women, quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, and physical urticarias have been incorporated into this document. It is expected that this article will supplement recent international guidelines with the contribution of an expert panel designated by the WAO, increasing awareness of the importance of urticaria and angioedema in medical practice and will become a useful source of information for optimum patient management worldwide. PMID:23282382

  5. Allogeneic unrelated cord blood banking worldwide: an update.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J

    2010-06-01

    Today Cord Blood (CB) Transplants are accepted as a therapeutic resource for the treatment of a variety of disorders, comparing in some cases, with transplants performed with other sources of progenitors. Unrelated Cord Blood Banks (CBBs) have significantly contributed to this improvement by the improvement on the knowledge of the CB biology and technical developments. Today, there are more than 100 active Cord Blood Banks (CBB), with an inventory of more than 400,000 units, which have generated more than 10000 cord blood transplants all around the world. Access to the world-wide CB inventory, as well as the hemopoietic progenitors inventory from adult donors, is a rather complex task which is continuously subject to improvements and consolidations. The growing numbers of CBBs and the search for efficiency has driven them to constitute or adapt consolidated data bases and access systems, and to develop a number of registries or networks to improved the access to inventories. The purpose of the present article is to provide a general overview on the number of CB units stored around the word, the quality accreditation systems and how the CB networks and their national and international inventories and registries are organized in order to support the, every time more efficient search for suitable CB units for patients lacking family donors.

  6. Therapeutic patient education in atopic dermatitis: worldwide experiences.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Jean-Francois; Bernier, Claire; Ball, Alan; De Raeve, Linda; Gieler, Uwe; Deleuran, Mette; Marcoux, Danielle; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Lio, Peter; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Gelmetti, Carlo; Takaoka, Roberto; Chiaverini, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has proven effective in increasing treatment adherence and improving quality of life (QoL) for patients with numerous chronic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis (AD). This study was undertaken to identify worldwide TPE experiences in AD treatment. Experts from 23 hospitals, located in 11 countries, responded to a questionnaire on 10 major items. Patients in TPE programs were mainly children and adolescents with moderate to severe AD or markedly affected QoL. Individual and collective approaches were used. Depending on the center, the number of sessions varied from one to six (corresponding to 2 to 12 hours of education), and 20 to 200 patients were followed each year. Each center's education team comprised multidisciplinary professionals (e.g., doctors, nurses, psychologists). Evaluations were based on clinical assessment, QoL, a satisfaction index, or some combination of the three. When funding was obtained, it came from regional health authorities (France), insurance companies (Germany), donations (United States), or pharmaceutical firms (Japan, Italy). The role of patient associations was always highlighted, but their involvement in the TPE process varied from one country to another. Despite the nonexhaustive approach, our findings demonstrate the increasing interest in TPE for managing individuals with AD. In spite of the cultural and financial differences between countries, there is a consensus among experts to integrate education into the treatment of eczema.

  7. Worldwide site comparison for submillimetre astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblin, P.; Schneider, N.; Minier, V.; Durand, G. Al.; Urban, J.

    2012-12-01

    Aims: The most important limitation for ground-based submillimetre (submm) astronomy is the broad-band absorption of the total water vapour in the atmosphere above an observation site, often expressed as the precipitable water vapour (PWV). A long-term statistic on the PWV is thus mandatory to characterize the quality of an existing or potential site for observational submm-astronomy. In this study we present a three-year statistic (2008-2010) of the PWV for ground-based telescope sites all around the world and for stratospheric altitudes relevant for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Far-Infrared Astronomy). The submm-transmission is calculated for typical PWVs using an atmospheric model. Methods: We used data from IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) on the Metop-A satellite to retrieve water vapour profiles for each site (11 in total, comprising Antarctica, Chile, Mauna Kea, Greenland, Tibet). The use of a single instrument to make the comparison provides unbiased data with a common calibration method. The profiles are integrated above the mountain/stratospheric altitude to get an estimation of the PWV. We then applied the atmospheric model MOLIERE (Microwave Observation and LIne Estimation and REtrieval) to compute the corresponding atmospheric absorption for wavelengths between 150 μm and 3 mm. Results: We present the absolute PWV values for each site sorted by year and time percentage. The PWV corresponding to the first decile (10%) and the quartiles (25%, 50%, 75%) are calculated and transmission curves between 150 μm and 3 mm for these values are shown. The Antarctic and South-American sites present very good conditions for submillimetre astronomy. The 350 μm and 450 μm atmospheric windows are open all year long, whereas the 200 μm atmospheric window opens reasonably for 25% of the time in Antarctica and the extremely high-altitude sites in Chile. Potential interesting new facilities are Macon in Argentina and Summit in Greenland

  8. An Assessment of Actual and Potential Building Climate Zone Change and Variability From the Last 30 Years Through 2100 Using NASA's MERRA and CMIP5 Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the US, residential and commercial building infrastructure combined consumes about 40% of total energy usage and emits about 39% of total CO2 emission (DOE/EIA "Annual Energy Outlook 2013"). Building codes, as used by local and state enforcement entities are typically tied to the dominant climate within an enforcement jurisdiction classified according to various climate zones. These climate zones are based upon a 30-year average of local surface observations and are developed by DOE and ASHRAE. Establishing the current variability and potential changes to future building climate zones is very important for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings and reducing energy costs and emissions in the future. Objectives: This paper demonstrates the usefulness of using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric data assimilation to derive the DOE/ASHRAE building climate zone maps and then using MERRA to define the last 30 years of variability in climate zones for the Continental US. An atmospheric assimilation is a global atmospheric model optimized to satellite, atmospheric and surface in situ measurements. Using MERRA as a baseline, we then evaluate the latest Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) climate model Version 5 runs to assess potential variability in future climate zones under various assumptions. Methods: We derive DOE/ASHRAE building climate zones using surface and temperature data products from MERRA. We assess these zones using the uncertainties derived by comparison to surface measurements. Using statistical tests, we evaluate variability of the climate zones in time and assess areas in the continental US for statistically significant trends by region. CMIP 5 produced a data base of over two dozen detailed climate model runs under various greenhouse gas forcing assumptions. We evaluate the variation in building climate zones for 3 different decades using an ensemble and quartile

  9. Using MERRA, AMIP II, CMIP5 Outputs to Assess Actual and Potential Building Climate Zone Change and Variability From the Last 30 Years Through 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Westberg, D. J.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Zhang, T.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, residential and commercial building infrastructure combined consumes about 40% of total energy usage and emits about 39% of total CO2emission (DOE/EIA "Annual Energy Outlook 2013"). Thus, increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is paramount to reducing energy costs and emissions. Building codes, as used by local and state enforcement entities are typically tied to the dominant climate within an enforcement jurisdiction classified according to various climate zones. These climates zones are based upon a 30-year average of local surface observations and are developed by DOE and ASHRAE (formerly known as the American Society of Hearting, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers). A significant shortcoming of the methodology used in constructing such maps is the use of surface observations (located mainly near airports) that are unequally distributed and frequently have periods of missing data that need to be filled by various approximation schemes. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric data assimilation to derive the ASHRAE climate zone maps and then using MERRA to define the last 30 years of variability in climate zones. These results show that there is a statistically significant increase in the area covered by warmer climate zones and some tendency for a reduction of area in colder climate zones that require longer time series to confirm. Using the uncertainties of the basic surface temperature and precipitation parameters from MERRA as determined by comparison to surface measurements, we first compare patterns and variability of ASHRAE climate zones from MERRA relative to present day climate model runs from AMIP simulations to establish baseline sensitivity. Based upon these results, we assess the variability of the ASHRAE climate zones according to CMIP runs through 2100 using an ensemble analysis that classifies model output changes by

  10. Global Impressions: Inside UNESCO's First Worldwide Arts Education Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The many worlds of arts education began to grow into one worldwide community in March 2006. Twelve hundred arts education leaders, in delegations from 97 countries, attended the United Nation's Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO's) first-ever worldwide arts education conference, held for four days in Lisbon, Portugal. The…

  11. MHC-I-restricted epitopes conserved among variola and other related orthopoxviruses are recognized by T cells 30 years after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tang, S T; Wang, M; Lamberth, K; Harndahl, M; Dziegiel, M H; Claesson, M H; Buus, S; Lund, O

    2008-01-01

    It is many years since the general population has been vaccinated against smallpox virus. Here, we report that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted T cell epitopes can be recognized more than 30 years after vaccination. Using bioinformatic methods, we predicted 177 potential cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes. Eight epitopes were confirmed to stimulate IFN-gamma release by T cells in smallpox-vaccinated subjects. The epitopes were restricted by five supertypes (HLA-A1, -A2, -A24 -A26 and -B44). Significant T cell responses were detected against 8 of 45 peptides with an HLA class I affinity of K(D) less than or equal to 5 nM, whereas no T cell responses were detected against 60 peptides with an HLA affinity of K(D) more than 5 nM. All epitopes were fully conserved in seven variola, vaccinia and cowpox strains. Knowledge of the long-term response to smallpox vaccination may lead to a better understanding of poxvirus immunity and may aid in the development of new improved vaccines and diagnostic tools.

  12. Dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) re-emerges after 30 years in Brazil: cocirculation of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 in Bahia.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Pinho, Aryane Cruz Oliveira; Brandão, Claudio Jose de Freitas; Bandeira, Antonio Carlos; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease of great concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One important cause of the increase in DF is rapid development and urbanization has led to proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector responsible for transmission of the illness. Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Brazil shows the predominance of DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 until 2010. This study reports the reappearance of DENV-4 in Brazil for the first time in 30 years. Serum samples were collected from individuals (n = 214) exhibiting fever and muscular pain in Bahia, Brazil, during 2011-2012. These samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/nested PCR, which revealed that 82% of samples were positive for DENV-4; most were older age groups and exhibited a serological pattern consistent with a primary infection. The cocirculation of multiple DENV serotypes within the same city places the population at risk for a fatal form of the disease. Therefore, with the increasing incidence of severe DF cases, early diagnosis will be a priority for public health efforts in Brazil.

  13. Climate Change in the Next 30 Years: What Can a Convection-Permitting Model Tell Us that We Did Not Already Know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosser, G.; Khodayar, S.; Berg, P.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the climate change in the next 30 years over a complex terrain in southwestern Germany, simulations performed with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at convection-permitting resolution are compared to simulations at 7 km resolution with parameterised convection. An earlier study has shown the main benefits of convection-permitting resolution in hourly statistics and the diurnal cycle of precipitation intensities. Here, we investigate whether the improved simulation of precipitation in the convection-permitting model is affecting future climate projections. Overall, the future scenario (ECHAM5 with A1B forcing) brings weak changes in mean precipitation, but stronger hourly intensities in the morning and less frequent and more intense daily precipitation. The two model simulations produce similar changes in climate, despite differences in their physical characteristics linked to the formation of convective precipitation. A significant increase in the morning precipitation probably due to convection forced by large-scale processes is found when considering only the most extreme events (above 50 mm/day). In this case, even the diurnal cycles of precipitation and convection-related indices are similar between resolutions, leading to the conclusion that the 7 km model sufficiently resolves the most extreme convective events. In this region and time periods, the 7 km resolution is deemed sufficient for most assessments of near future precipitation change. However, conclusions could be dependent on the characteristics of the region of investigation.

  14. Finger Fractures as an Early Manifestation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism Among Young Patients: A Case Report of a 30-Year-Old Male With Recurrent Osteoporotic Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Yamagishi, Eiki; Sato, Shunsuke; Tsukada, Manabu; Sawano, Toyoaki; Leppold, Claire; Tsuda, Kenji; Asakura, Takanori; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro; Ohira, Hiromichi

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures represent a substantial health burden, and predominantly affect the elderly. Younger generations may also develop these conditions because of various predisposing conditions, including primary hyperparathyroidism. However, little information is available regarding early skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism.A 30-year-old Japanese male presented with pain in his left wrist, and was diagnosed with a distal radius fracture. During surgery, we noticed decreased bone strength of the fracture site. Further investigation found osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism owing to a solitary parathyroid adenoma, which was resected without significant complications. History revealed that the patient suffered a metacarpal bone fracture of his right fifth bone 6 months earlier. Although serial x-rays at that time had shown rapidly developed cortical bone erosion around the fractured finger, the possibility of primary hyperparathyroidism was overlooked because of poor awareness of the condition, leading to a 6-month delay in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.Clinicians should be aware that finger fractures may be an early skeletal manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism that can help achieve a prompt diagnosis of the condition, especially when they occur in young adults in the absence of major trauma.

  15. High-risk HPV testing in women 30 years or older with negative Papanicolaou tests: initial clinical experience with 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Thrall, Michael J; Russell, Donna K; Facik, Michael S; Yao, Jorge L; Warner, JulieAnn N; Bonfiglio, Thomas A; Giampoli, Ellen J

    2010-06-01

    Cervical screening with combined cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detection has been approved for women 30 years or older. We investigated the clinical use of cotesting for women with negative Papanicolaou tests. Follow-up cytology, HR-HPV test, and biopsy findings were identified during an 18-month period. In 1 year, 2,719 cotests from 2,686 women were identified; 146 were positive for HR-HPV. Among women with positive HR-HPV testing, 120 had follow-up, including 70 with repeated cotesting, and 3 had high-grade dysplasia identified (2.5% of women with follow-up). In 1,334 women with initial double-negative cotest results who had repeated cytologic testing within 18 months, 2 high-grade dysplasias were found (0.1%). The vast majority of cotest results are double-negative. Among tests that show HR-HPV positivity, the prevalence of underlying high-grade dysplasia is low. About half of all women who undergo cotesting receive follow-up that is not in accord with published guidelines.

  16. Climate change in the next 30 years: What can a convection-permitting model tell us that we did not already know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosser, G.; Khodayar, S.; Berg, P.

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the climate change in the next 30 years over a complex terrain in southwestern Germany, simulations performed with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at convection-permitting resolution are compared to simulations at 7 km resolution with parameterised convection. An earlier study has shown the main benefits of convection-permitting resolution in the hourly statistics and the diurnal cycle of precipitation intensities. Here, we investigate whether the improved simulation of precipitation in the convection-permitting model is affecting future climate projections in summer. Overall, the future scenario (ECHAM5 with A1B forcing) brings weak changes in mean precipitation, but stronger hourly intensities in the morning and less frequent but more intense daily precipitation. The two model simulations produce similar changes in climate, despite differences in their physical characteristics linked to the formation of convective precipitation. A significant increase in the morning precipitation probably due to large-scale forced convection is found when considering only the most extreme events (above 50 mm/day). In this case, even the diurnal cycles of precipitation and convection-related indices are similar between resolutions, leading to the conclusion that the 7 km model sufficiently resolves the most extreme convective events. In this region and time periods, the 7 km resolution is deemed sufficient for most assessments of near future precipitation change. However, conclusions could be dependent on the characteristics of the region of investigation.

  17. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Marion, J.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate baseline exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will at least somewhat uncertain.

  18. [Epidemiology of influenza A (H1N1) worldwide and in Spain].

    PubMed

    Vaqué, Josep

    2010-03-01

    On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared an established pandemic due to a new influenza virus A (H1N1) of swine origin. Initial cases were detected in Mexico in March and within 6 weeks the virus had spread worldwide. The transmissibility of influenza A (H1NA) is slightly higher than that of the seasonal virus, but its pathogenicity and virulence are low. The main target groups of this new virus have been children and young adults under 30 years old. Mortality has affected mainly persons aged between 20 and 50 years old. In areas with temperate climates, two epidemic waves have occurred. The first one, from mid-April to mid-August, affected Mexico, the United States and, consecutively, Spain, England, Japan, and other countries in the northern hemisphere. A few weeks later, coinciding with the beginning of the influenza season, the H1N1 epidemic started in the southern hemisphere countries, especially Argentina, Chile, Australia and New Zealand; in these countries, the epidemic finished at the end of September or October. The second wave affected the northern hemisphere, starting in the United States and Mexico at the beginning of September, and a few weeks later in European countries. In mid-December, this wave was considered to have ended, although some influenza activity persists. The intensity of this second wave was higher compared to the first one.

  19. NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource High Resolution Meteorology Data For Sustainable Building Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project is to adapt and infuse NASA's solar and meteorological data into the energy, agricultural, and architectural industries. Improvements are continuously incorporated when higher resolution and longer-term data inputs become available. Climatological data previously provided via POWER web applications were three-hourly and 1x1 degree latitude/longitude. The NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data set provides higher resolution data products (hourly and 1/2x1/2 degree) covering the entire globe. Currently POWER solar and meteorological data are available for more than 30 years on hourly (meteorological only), daily, monthly and annual time scales. These data may be useful to several renewable energy sectors: solar and wind power generation, agricultural crop modeling, and sustainable buildings. A recent focus has been working with ASHRAE to assess complementing weather station data with MERRA data. ASHRAE building design parameters being investigated include heating/cooling degree days and climate zones.

  20. Inter-decadal variations in the linkages between ENSO, the IOD and south-eastern Australian springtime rainfall in the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Zhao, Mei; Yin, Yonghong

    2016-08-01

    The 30 year period 1985-2014 experienced a swing of the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) from the warm phase to the cold phase. Here we investigate variation of the relation between El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole mode (IOD) and resultant changes in the predictability of the IOD and south-eastern Australian (SEA) springtime rainfall associated with this swing in the IPO. Using observational analyses, we show that during the warm phase of the IPO in the 1980s-1990s, the amplitudes of ENSO and the IOD were large, and the correlation between them was high; thus predictability of the IOD was high. Nevertheless, during these decades SEA spring rainfall was only weakly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore predictability of SEA rainfall was low. In contrast, during the cold phase of the IPO in the 2000s, the opposite was found: the IOD occurred more independently from ENSO, so the IOD was less predictable. Nonetheless, SEA spring rainfall was more strongly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore, SEA rainfall was more predictable in the 2000s than in the 1980s-1990s. The cause of this decadal variation in the relationship of SEA rainfall with ENSO and the IOD between the recent warm and cold states of the IPO appears to be a systematic zonal variation of the rainfall anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific associated with the IOD and ENSO and related changes in the Rossby wave train path over Australia.

  1. The North Water Polynya and Velocity, Calving Front and Mass Change in Surrounding Glaciers in Greenland and Canada Over the Last 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, L.

    2015-12-01

    Major uncertainties surround future estimates of sea level rise attributable to mass loss from Greenland and the surrounding ice caps in Canada. Understanding changes across these regions is vital as their glaciers have experienced dramatic changes in recent times. Attention has focused on the periphery of these regions where land ice meets the ocean and where ice acceleration, thinning and increased calving have been observed. Polynyas are areas of open water within sea ice which remain unfrozen for much of the year. They vary significantly in size (~3 km2 to > ~85,000 km2 in the Arctic), recurrence rates and duration. Despite their relatively small size, polynyas strongly impact regional oceanography and play a vital role in heat and moisture exchange between the polar oceans and atmosphere. Where polynyas are present adjacent to tidewater glaciers their influence on ocean circulation and water temperatures has the potential to play a major part in controlling subsurface ice melt rates by impacting on the water masses reaching the calving front. They also have the potential to influence air masses reaching nearby glaciers and ice caps by creating a maritime climate which may impact on the glaciers' accumulation and surface melt and hence their thickness and mass balance. Polynya presence and size also have implications for sea ice extent and therefore may influence the buttressing effect on neighbouring tidewater glaciers. The work presented uses remote sensing and mass balance model data to study changes in the North Water polynya (extent, ice concentration, duration) and neighbouring glaciers and ice caps (velocities, calving front positions and mass balance) in Canada and Greenland over a period of approximately 30 years from the mid-1980s through to 2015.

  2. A 30-year-old female Behçet’s disease patient with recurrent pleural and pericardial effusion and elevated adenosine deaminase levels: case report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Jung, Jung Im; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Behçet’s disease is a systemic disease which may involve various organs. We describe a case of a patient diagnosed as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease. A 30-year-old woman visited our clinic presented with left pleuritic chest pain for s days. She had been diagnosed as Behçet’s disease and admitted to our clinic due to pericardial and pleural effusion repeatedly in past two years. In the previous studies, effusion analysis revealed to be lympho-dominant exudate with high adenosine deaminase level. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mycobacterial tuberculosis (M.TB) were negative in the pericardial tissue, and pathologic finding showed mild endothelitis with micro-thrombi formation in the lumen. The patient had been treated with antituberculous medication for a year. In the current admission, chest computed tomography (CT) again showed left pleural effusion without other significant lesion. Pleural fluid analysis was similar with the previous study. Video-assisted thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was performed to obtain the definite diagnosis. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease, and we treated the patient with oral steroid in the out-patient department. Pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease may mimic TB pleurisy or pericarditis due to high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in effusion analysis. Clinicians should keep in mind that Behçet’s disease may manifest as pleural or pericardial effusion, and pathologic confirmation could be helpful for the definite diagnosis. PMID:27499994

  3. Measurement and Classification of Long-Term Seasonal Trends: Procedures and Results using a 30-Year Monthly Series of Global NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, R.

    2014-12-01

    With the advent of long image time series as a part of the emerging earth observing system, it is now possible to examine the geographic distribution of trends in seasonal change. However, image time series of earth phenomena exhibit many forms of variability that detract from the signal of interest including cloud contamination, path radiance and short term inter- and intra-annual variability. To accommodate this, a special procedure called Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) was developed that uses a combination of harmonic analysis and robust statistical trend measurement to reduce the effects of noise and short-term variability. A Contextual Mann-Kendall test is then used to test the trends associated with each of five harmonic shape parameters developed by STA. A three-class categorization of significance then leads to 243 possible classes of seasonal trend. In a study of a 30-year series of global monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index imagery (GIMMS NDVI3g, 1982-2011), it was found that over half (56.30%) of vegetated land surfaces exhibited significant trends in seasonality. Further, almost half (46.10%) of these significant trends belonged to just three classes of seasonal trends. Class 1 consisted of areas that experienced a uniform increase in NDVI throughout the year, and was primarily associated with forest biomes. Class 2 was predominantly associated with grassland and shrubland biomes and exhibited increases in the amplitude of the annual seasonal signal without a net annual change. Class 3 exhibited increases in the annual summer peak in NDVI and was found primarily in the Taiga and Tundra biomes. While no single attribution could be established for each of these classes, they point to a widespread greening of vegetated surfaces associated with climate-related ameliorations of growing conditions.

  4. Climate warming alters effects of management on population viability of threatened species: results from a 30-year experimental study on a rare orchid.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Dahlgren, Johan P; Oien, Dag-Inge; Moen, Asbjørn; Ehrlén, Johan

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to influence the viability of populations both directly and indirectly, via species interactions. The effects of large-scale climate change are also likely to interact with local habitat conditions. Management actions designed to preserve threatened species therefore need to adapt both to the prevailing climate and local conditions. Yet, few studies have separated the direct and indirect effects of climatic variables on the viability of local populations and discussed the implications for optimal management. We used 30 years of demographic data to estimate the simultaneous effects of management practice and among-year variation in four climatic variables on individual survival, growth and fecundity in one coastal and one inland population of the perennial orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in Norway. Current management, mowing, is expected to reduce competitive interactions. Statistical models of how climate and management practice influenced vital rates were incorporated into matrix population models to quantify effects on population growth rate. Effects of climate differed between mown and control plots in both populations. In particular, population growth rate increased more strongly with summer temperature in mown plots than in control plots. Population growth rate declined with spring temperature in the inland population, and with precipitation in the coastal population, and the decline was stronger in control plots in both populations. These results illustrate that both direct and indirect effects of climate change are important for population viability and that net effects depend both on local abiotic conditions and on biotic conditions in terms of management practice and intensity of competition. The results also show that effects of management practices influencing competitive interactions can strongly depend on climatic factors. We conclude that interactions between climate and management should be considered to reliably predict

  5. Health hazards and medical treatment of volunteers aged 18-30 years working in international social projects of non-governmental organizations (NGO).

    PubMed

    Küpper, T; Rieke, B; Neppach, K; Morrison, A; Martin, J

    2014-01-01

    The specific health risk profile and diversity of treatments sought by young volunteers participating in international social projects should differ from those of their older colleagues. In the absence of any data to identify whether this was correct, a retrospective analysis was performed using a standardized questionnaire. Questions included what diseases occurred, and details of the frequency and types of treatment sought during their stay - (e.g. self-treatment, medical/dental intervention, or local healer). The 153 participants were aged 18-30 years and worked in a non-governmental organization for >6 months. The participants were: 53% female, mean age 20 years, and mean duration of stay was 11.2 months. Their NGO placement abroad was in Latin America 65.4%, 14.4% in Africa, and 9.8% in Asia. 83% of the young volunteers had received some advice regarding travel medicine before their departure. However, they suffered from more injuries compared to private travellers, and febrile infections were more common when compared to older studies. 21.2% suffered from dental problems and 50% of them sought medical treatment. This study highlights a previously unreported higher risk profile of specific health problems occurring in young NGO volunteers, including some potentially life-threatening diagnoses that differed from their older colleagues and normal travellers. It is recommended that young volunteers should receive age specific, comprehensive pre-departure training in health and safety, first aid, and management of common health problems. A medical check-up upon returning home should be mandatory. The provision of a basic first aid kit to each volunteer before departure is also recommended.

  6. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model.

  7. Are female monarch butterflies declining in eastern North America? Evidence of a 30-year change in sex ratios at Mexican overwintering sites.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew K; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2010-02-23

    Every autumn the entire eastern North American population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergoes a spectacular migration to overwintering sites in the mountains of central Mexico, where they form massive clusters and can number in the millions. Since their discovery, these sites have been extensively studied, and in many of these studies, monarchs were captured and sexes recorded. In a recent effort to compile the sex ratio data from these published records, a surprising trend was found, which appears to show a gradual decline in proportion of females over time. Sex ratio data from 14 collections of monarchs, all spanning 30 years and totaling 69 113 individuals, showed a significant negative correlation between proportion of females and year (r = -0.69, p = 0.007). Between 1976 and 1985, 53 per cent of overwintering monarchs were female, whereas in the last decade, 43 per cent were female. The relationship was significant with and without weighting the analyses by sampling effort. Moreover, analysis of a recent three-year dataset of sex ratios revealed no variation among nine separate colonies, so differences in sampling location did not influence the trend. Additional evidence from autumn migration collections appears to confirm that proportions of females are declining, and also suggests the sex ratio is shifting on breeding grounds. While breeding monarchs face a number of threats, one possibility is an increase in prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, which recent evidence shows affects females more so than males. Further study will be needed to determine the exact cause of this trend, but for now it should be monitored closely.

  8. Recent trends in global methane emissions inferred from 30-years of surface CH4 and δ13C-CH4 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, S.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.; Lofdahl, D. B.; Khalil, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Quantitative understanding of the global CH4 budget is important in order to predict future contributions of global warming and to develop effective strategies for its mitigation. After a decade-long period of decreasing growth rates, atmospheric CH4 concentrations have risen in recent years raising concerns about its long-term stability. Despite much study there is no clear consensus about the causes of this increase. Some bottom-up inventories suggest that fugitive emissions from the fossil fuel industry may be increasing though there are considerable uncertainties in these estimates due in part to the variable nature of this source. To better understand the changing budget of atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of CH4 fluxes spanning nearly 30 years using global surface and isotopic CH4 measurements. An earlier inversion from our group suggested that fugitive fossil fuel emissions increased from 2000-2008, contributing to the recent rise. Here we extend this study to year 2015 using the most recent NOAA Global Monitoring Division (GMD) CH4 measurements and available δ13C -CH4 data along with a higher resolution version of the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem (2ox2.5o). The higher resolution grid allowed us to extract more information from the observations due to the improved ability of the model to simulate CH4 at each station and the decreased need to aggregate neighboring stations. This in turn increased the error reduction between the a priori and posterior emissions leading to more accurate estimates of the retrieved fluxes and improved understanding of the drivers underlying the current atmospheric record.

  9. Interannual control of plankton communities by deep winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean: Results from a 30-year 3D modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, P. A.; Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Stemmann, L.; Somot, S.; Diaz, F.

    2014-05-01

    A realistic modeling approach is designed to address the role of winter mixing on the interannual variability of plankton dynamics in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean basin. For the first time, a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (Eco3m-S) covering a 30-year period (1976-2005) is validated on available in situ and satellite data for the NW Mediterranean. In this region, cold, dry winds in winter often lead to deep convection and strong upwelling of nutrients into the euphotic layer. High nutrient contents at the end of winter then support the development of a strong spring bloom of phytoplankton. Model results indicate that annual primary production is not affected by winter mixing due to seasonal balance (minimum in winter and maximum in spring). However, the total annual water column-integrated phytoplankton biomass appears to be favored by winter mixing because zooplankton grazing activity is low in winter and early spring. This reduced grazing is explained here by the rarefaction of prey due to both light limitation and the effect of mixing-induced dilution on prey/predator interactions. A negative impact of winter mixing on winter zooplankton biomass is generally simulated except for mesozooplankton. This difference is assumed to stem from the lower parameterized mortality, top trophic position and detritivorous diet of mesozooplankton in the model. Moreover, model suggests that the variability of annual mesozooplankton biomass is principally modulated by the effects of winter mixing on winter biomass. Thus, interannual variability of winter nutrient contents in the euphotic layer, resulting from winter mixing, would control spring primary production and thus annual mesozooplankton biomass. Our results show a bottom-up control of mesozooplankton communities, as observed at a coastal location of the Ligurian Sea.

  10. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Cross, Benjamin D; Kohfeld, Karen E; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.

  11. Use of drugs of abuse in less than 30-year-old drivers killed in a road crash in France: a spectacular increase for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Mura, P; Chatelain, C; Dumestre, V; Gaulier, J M; Ghysel, M H; Lacroix, C; Kergueris, M F; Lhermitte, M; Moulsma, M; Pépin, G; Vincent, F; Kintz, P

    2006-07-13

    A collaborative study was conducted in France in order to determine the prevalence of cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine metabolites and amphetamines in blood samples from drivers killed in road accidents in 2003 and 2004 and to compare these values with those of a previous study performed during the period 2000-2001 involving 900 drivers. Blood samples were provided from 2003 under 30-year-old drivers, killed in a traffic accident. Drugs of abuse were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same analytical procedures in all the 12 laboratories. The most frequently observed compounds were by far cannabinoids, that tested positive in 39.6% of the total number of samples. Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most active of the principle constituents in marijuana (cannabis sativa), was detected in the blood of 28.9% drivers and was the single drug of abuse in 80.2% of the positive cases. It was associated with amphetamines in 7.4% and with opiates and cocaine in 1.9 and 4.8%, respectively. Amphetamines were present in 3.1% of the total number of samples, cocaine metabolites in 3.0% and opiates in 3.5%. When comparing these results with those of a previous study performed 3 years before, a significant increase is observed for THC (28.9% versus 16.9%), cocaine metabolites (3.0% versus 0.2%) and amphetamines (3.1% versus 1.4%). This study demonstrates the critical necessity of implementing in France as soon as possible systematical roadside testing for drugs of abuse.

  12. Are female monarch butterflies declining in eastern North America? Evidence of a 30-year change in sex ratios at Mexican overwintering sites

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Andrew K.; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Every autumn the entire eastern North American population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergoes a spectacular migration to overwintering sites in the mountains of central Mexico, where they form massive clusters and can number in the millions. Since their discovery, these sites have been extensively studied, and in many of these studies, monarchs were captured and sexes recorded. In a recent effort to compile the sex ratio data from these published records, a surprising trend was found, which appears to show a gradual decline in proportion of females over time. Sex ratio data from 14 collections of monarchs, all spanning 30 years and totaling 69 113 individuals, showed a significant negative correlation between proportion of females and year (r = −0.69, p = 0.007). Between 1976 and 1985, 53 per cent of overwintering monarchs were female, whereas in the last decade, 43 per cent were female. The relationship was significant with and without weighting the analyses by sampling effort. Moreover, analysis of a recent three-year dataset of sex ratios revealed no variation among nine separate colonies, so differences in sampling location did not influence the trend. Additional evidence from autumn migration collections appears to confirm that proportions of females are declining, and also suggests the sex ratio is shifting on breeding grounds. While breeding monarchs face a number of threats, one possibility is an increase in prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, which recent evidence shows affects females more so than males. Further study will be needed to determine the exact cause of this trend, but for now it should be monitored closely. PMID:19776062

  13. Tillage and crop residue management methods had minor effects on the stock and stabilization of topsoil carbon in a 30-year field experiment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Heikkinen, Jaakko; Ketoja, Elise; Nuutinen, Visa; Palojärvi, Ansa; Sheehy, Jatta; Esala, Martti; Mitra, Sudip; Alakukku, Laura; Regina, Kristiina

    2015-06-15

    We studied the effects of tillage and straw management on soil aggregation and soil carbon sequestration in a 30-year split-plot experiment on clay soil in southern Finland. The experimental plots were under conventional or reduced tillage with straw retained, removed or burnt. Wet sieving was done to study organic carbon and soil composition divided in four fractions: 1) large macroaggregates, 2) small macroaggregates, 3) microaggregates and 4) silt and clay. To further estimate the stability of carbon in the soil, coarse particulate organic matter, microaggregates and silt and clay were isolated from the macroaggregates. Total carbon stock in the topsoil (equivalent to 200 kg m(-2)) was slightly lower under reduced tillage (5.0 kg m(-2)) than under conventional tillage (5.2 kg m(-2)). Reduced tillage changed the soil composition by increasing the percentage of macroaggregates and decreasing the percentage of microaggregates. There was no evidence of differences in the composition of the macroaggregates or carbon content in the macroaggregate-occluded fractions. However, due to the higher total amount of macroaggregates in the soil, more carbon was bound to the macroaggregate-occluded microaggregates in reduced tillage. Compared with plowed soil, the density of deep burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was considerably higher under reduced tillage and positively associated with the percentage of large macroaggregates. The total amount of microbial biomass carbon did not differ between the treatments. Straw management did not have discernible effects either on soil aggregation or soil carbon stock. We conclude that although reduced tillage can improve clay soil structure, generally the chances to increase topsoil carbon sequestration by reduced tillage or straw management practices appear limited in cereal monoculture systems of the boreal region. This may be related to the already high C content of soils, the precipitation level favoring decomposition and

  14. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Benjamin D.; Kohfeld, Karen E.; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979–2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC’s North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast. PMID:26271035

  15. 30-year trends in overweight, obesity and waist-to-height ratio by socioeconomic status in Australian children, 1985 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, L L; Mihrshahi, S; Gale, J; Drayton, B A; Bauman, A; Mitchell, J

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective: To report 30-year (1985–2015) prevalence trends in overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among children by school level and socioeconomic status (SES). Subjects/Methods: Five cross-sectional, population child surveys (age 4–18 years; n=27 808) conducted in 1985–1997–2004–2010–2015 in New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes were prevalence of measured overweight, obesity and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR⩾0.5) by sex, school level (children (primary) and adolescents (high)) and SES tertile. Results: In 2015, the prevalences of overweight, obesity and WHtR⩾0.5 in children were 16.4%, 7.0% and 14.6%, respectively, and in adolescents 21.9%, 17.2% and 4.6%, respectively. Obesity prevalence has not significantly changed in children or adolescents since 1997, nor since 2010 (children, P=0.681; adolescents, P=0.21). Overweight has not significantly changed in children since 1997, but has in adolescents since 1985, with a relative increase of 16 percentage points (P<0.001) between 2010 and 2015. WHtR⩾0.5 prevalence has significantly changed since 1985, except in adolescent girls between 2010 and 2015. Between 2010 and 2015 the relative increase in WHtR⩾0.5 was 17 and 40 percentage points in children and adolescent boys, respectively. Significant disparities in prevalence rates between children and adolescents from low and high SES backgrounds began in 2010 for overweight, since 1997 for obesity and since 2004 for WHtR⩾0.5. Differences between SES groups have become larger over the past 18 years. Conclusions: Since 1997, obesity has remained stable, and overweight has stabilized in children, not in adolescents. WHtR⩾0.5 significantly increased between 1985 and 2015, with prevalence rates at each survey around twice the obesity prevalence. Compared with high SES children and adolescents, the risk of overweight, obesity and WHtR⩾0.5 was significantly higher for low SES children and adolescents. The findings are highly relevant to

  16. Oxygen Isotopes for Lavas from Kilauea's Ongoing, 30-year old Puu Oo Eruption: Evidence for the Nature of the Mantle Source and Crustal Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Eiler, J. M.; Pietruszka, A. J.; Lynn, K.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18O, SMOW) of Puu Oo lavas erupted during the last 30 years show a greater range than those for Kilauea summit lavas over the last ~380 years (1.1 vs. 0.7‰; Garcia et al. 2008; J. Petrology). Overall, δ18O values of Puu Oo lavas have increased with time. Early lavas (before mid-1986, when eruptions were episodic) have lower δ18O values (4.6-4.9‰) than subsequent lavas (5.0-5.6‰). The early and most subsequent lavas show evidence of oxygen exchange and/or crustal contamination with hydrothermally altered Kilauea lavas. This is indicated by the oxygen isotope disequilibrium between matrix and co-existing olivine, the relatively low δ18O values for these lavas (4.7-5.2‰) and the lack of correlation between δ18O values and other geochemical parameters. The highest O isotope ratio (5.6‰) is for a 2007 lava, which was erupted ~6 km uprift of the primary vent. The magma that fed this eruption was related to a new dike intrusion from Kilauea's upper rift zone and not from the shallow magma reservoir under the Puu Oo cone (Montgomery-Brown et al., 2010; J. Geophys. Res.). Thus, the higher δ18O value is probably representative of the magma feeding the Puu Oo eruption. It is identical to the highest values observed among Kilauea summit lavas (5.6‰; Garcia et al. 2008) suggesting that the volcano's primary magmas have δ18O values identical to those of MORB (5.4-5.8‰; Eiler, 2001; Rev. Mineral. Geochem.). The magnitude of oxygen isotope exchange experienced by lower δ18O Puu Oo lavas can be estimated assuming bulk assimilation between a parental magma (as reflected by the 2007 uprift sample) and a hydrothermally altered Kilauea rift zone lava (1.9‰; Garcia et al., 2008) as a contaminant. Puu Oo lavas erupted just before and after the 2007 uprift event have average δ18O values of 5.4‰, indicating 5% bulk contamination, whereas earlier lavas (1986-2006) with average δ18O values of 5.25‰, might have experienced 10

  17. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small

  18. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    PubMed Central

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-01

    aged 20–30 years, possibly due to the intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs. PMID:26950480

  19. An evaluation of the International Diabetes Federation definition of metabolic syndrome in Chinese patients older than 30 years and diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yehong; Song, Xiaoyan; Dong, Xuehong; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Zhou, Linuo; Li, Yiming; Zhao, Naiqing; Zhu, XiXing; Hu, Renming

    2006-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the most accurate metabolic syndrome (MS) definition among the definitions proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III [ATPIII]), and the World Health Organization (WHO) and to evaluate the cutoff point of waist circumference using the IDF definition for optimally defining MS in the Chinese population. One thousand thirty-nine Chinese patients older than 30 years and diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were investigated by randomized cluster sampling in the Shanghai downtown, and 1008 patients were analyzed in this study. Body mass measurements, resting blood pressure, fasting blood measures, and carotid atherosclerotic measurements including common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid plaque were investigated. The IDF definition was compared with the other 2 definitions, and the carotid atherosclerosis was evaluated among the patients according to these definitions. (1) The MS prevalence was 50.0%, 55.7%, and 70.0% under the IDF, ATPIII, and WHO definitions, respectively. (2) The percentage of all the participants categorized as either having or not having the MS was 69.9% (under the IDF and ATPIII definitions) and 70.2% (under the IDF and WHO definitions). (3) Common carotid artery IMT of patients with MS determined by the IDF definition was thicker than those determined by the WHO and ATPIII definitions, and the percentage of carotid plaque of patients with MS determined by the IDF definition was greater than those determined by the WHO and ATPIII definitions. (4) When the cutoff point of waist circumference in men determined by the IDF definition was modified from 90 to 85 cm, common carotid artery IMT of the emerging male patients with MS was thicker than that of the male patients with MS determined by the

  20. Care of the injured worldwide: trauma still the neglected disease of modern society.

    PubMed

    Sakran, Joseph V; Greer, Sarah E; Werlin, Evan; McCunn, Maureen

    2012-09-15

    Traditionally, surgical diseases including emergency and injury care have garnered less attention and support internationally when compared to other medical specialties. Over the past decade however, healthcare professionals have increasingly advocated for the need to address the global burden of non-communicable diseases. Surgical disease, including traumatic injury, is among the top causes of death and disability worldwide and the subsequent economic burden is substantial, falling disproportionately on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The future of global health in these regions depends on a redirection of attention to diseases managed within surgical, anesthesia and emergency specialties. Increasing awareness of these disparities, as well as increasing focus in the realms of policy and advocacy, is crucial. While the barriers to providing quality trauma and emergency care worldwide are not insurmountable, we must work together across disciplines and across boundaries in order to negotiate change and reduce the global burden of surgical disease.

  1. Petrologic testament to changes in shallow magma storage and transport during 30+ years of recharge and eruption at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i: Chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornber, Carl R.; Orr, Tim R.; Heliker, Christina; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael; Weis, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic monitoring of Kīlauea Volcano from January 1983 to October 2013 has yielded an extensive record of glass, phenocryst, melt inclusion, and bulk-lava chemistry from well-quenched lava. When correlated with 30+ years of geophysical and geologic monitoring, petrologic details testify to physical maturation of summit-to-rift magma plumbing associated with sporadic intrusion and prolonged magmatic overpressurization. Changes through time in bulk-lava major- and trace-element compositions, along with glass thermometry, record shifts in the dynamic balance of fractionation, mixing, and assimilation processes inherent to magma storage and transport during near-continuous recharge and eruption. Phenocryst composition, morphology, and texture, along with the sulfur content of melt inclusions, constrain coupled changes in eruption behavior and geochemistry to processes occurring in the shallow magmatic system. For the first 17 years of eruption, magma was steadily tapped from a summit reservoir at 1–4 km depth and circulating between 1180 and 1200°C. Furthermore, magma cooled another 30°C while flowing through the 18 km long rift conduit, before erupting olivine-spinel-phyric lava at temperatures of 1150–1170°C in a pattern linked with edifice deformation, vent formation, eruptive vigor, and presumably the flux of magma into and out of the summit reservoir. During 2000–2001, a fundamental change in steady state eruption petrology to that of relatively low-temperature, low-MgO, olivine(-spinel)-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-phryic lava points to a physical transformation of the shallow volcano plumbing uprift of the vent. Preeruptive comagmatic mixing between hotter and cooler magma is documented by resorption, overgrowth, and compositional zonation in a mixed population of phenocrysts grown at higher and lower temperatures. Large variations of sulfur (50 to >1000 ppm) in melt inclusions within individual phenocrysts and among phenocrysts in most samples

  2. Satellite derived 30-year trends in terrestrial frozen and non-frozen seasons and associated impacts to vegetation and atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; McDonald, K. C.; Glassy, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Approximately 66 million km2 (52.5 %) of the global vegetated land area experiences seasonally frozen temperatures as a major constraint to ecosystem processes. The freeze-thaw (F/T) status of the landscape as derived from satellite microwave remote sensing is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrological activity, vegetation phenology, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. We utilized a seasonal threshold algorithm based temporal change classification of 37GHz frequency, vertically polarized brightness temperatures (Tb) from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) pathfinder and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to classify daily F/T status for all global land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures are a major constraint to ecosystem processes. A temporally consistent, long-term (30 year) daily F/T record was created by pixel-wise correction of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements acquired during 1987. The resulting combined F/T record was validated against in situ temperature measurements from the global weather station network and applied to quantify regional patterns and trends in timing and length of frozen and non-frozen seasons. The F/T results were compared against other surrogate measures of biosphere activity including satellite AVHRR (GIMMS) based vegetation greenness (NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations over northern (>50N) land areas. The resulting F/T record showed mean annual classification accuracies of 91 (+/-1.0) and 84 (+/- 0.9) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to in situ weather station records. The F/T record showed significant (P=0.008) long-term trends in non-frozen period (0.207 days/yr) that were largely driven by earlier onset of spring thaw (-0.121 days/yr) and a small, delayed trend the arrival of the frozen period (0.107 days/yr). These results coincide with 0.025 C/yr warming trends in

  3. [Consideration of the concepts of "remission" and "cured" in schizophrenia: a male case who experienced schizophrenia with psycho-motoric excitation 30 years ago].

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    Since the era of Kraepelin and Bleuler, schizophrenia has been considered to be very difficult to cure. Even if all symptoms of its acute phase have disappeared completely, it is customary to use the terms say "remission" instead of "cured". The chief reason why they have been unwilling to say "cured" is that, even if the present state seems to be "cured", there will be surely another attack in near future, so, the non-symptomatic state should not be understood as "cured". Whether schizophrenic patients can be cured or not is one of the great problems of modern psychiatry. Is there no probability for them to be cured? Recently, after a 30 years gap, I came to meet a man who had had a schizophrenic attack of the psychomotoric type when he was 25 years old and had been sent to the mental hospital where I had been at work and, by chance, had engaged in his treatment. After about 5 months' of acute state, he came at, so to speak, "Residualzustand" (Conrad) for about 1 year and then got insight into his psychosis. After the discharge, he had visited me as an outpatient once a month regularly. About one year thereafter, the change of my work place made us separate from each other. Since then, he stopped visiting the doctor and also stopped taking anti-psychotic drugs. He married at 29 years old and had 2 daughters and a son. In addition, he had started to work for his father's business. After his father's death, he became the owner of 5 shops and the supervisor of 50 workers. Is he not yet "cured"? Is he only in the state of "remission" even now? According to the principle of Kraepelin and Bleuler, he is not "cured" yet, because he will surely have a psychotic exacerbation in future. I wonder then, what is the difference of the two concepts of "remission" and "cured", and how is it possible to change "remission" to "cured"? Even Bleuler, E. has written in his world-famous textbook that the longer the duration of remission after the last attack, the smaller the

  4. 30 Years Later - a New Approach to Sol Spiegelman's and Leslie Orgel's in vitro EVOLUTIONARY STUDIES Dedicated to Leslie Orgel on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlenschläger, Frank; Eigen, Manfred

    1997-12-01

    comprises the in vivo primer binding site (PBS) for the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. It could be shown that after only two serial transfers two RNA species (EP1 and EP2) emerged that were much shorter. EP1 (48b) and EP2 (54b) were formed by deletion mutations within the original 220b RNA template in the very beginning of the serial transfer experiment; due to their higher replication rate (calculated from the growth curves derived on-line) these two deletion mutants displaced the original 220b RNA template in the course of the following thirty transfers. We assume that these two RNA species evolved independently of each other. Their formation was probably induced by a strand-transfer reaction of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Sequence analyses of these two evolution products seem to confirm such a presented pathway. 30 years after Spiegelman's experiment, the study described here is another answer to the question he posed: `How do molecules evolve if the only demand is the biblical injunction: multiply?'. The answer, derived from a modified 3SR amplification system (mimicking a part of the HIV-1 replication cycle in vitro), is the same as thirty years ago: The RNA molecules adapt to the new conditions by throwing away any ballast not needed for fast replication. Clearly, this is only one aspect of molecular evolution; however, it shows that we should be careful in designating unidentified genetic material as `junk DNA'.

  5. The Application of Positive Psychology and Self-Determination to Research in Intellectual Disability: A Content Analysis of 30 Years of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Buchanan, Cindy L.; Lopez, Shane J

    2006-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been shifts in the conceptualization of intellectual disability and increased attention has been directed toward the importance of identifying and capitalizing on the strengths and capabilities of people with intellectual disabilities as a means to promote meaningful participation, community inclusion, and quality of…

  6. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-09-25

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

  7. Architecting next 30 years of climate monitoring from space with instructive examples from NPOESS and GCOS plus new rule-based decision tools: suggesting and promoting global collaborative paths forward (Part V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmuth, Douglas B.; Bell, Raymond M.; Lentz, Christopher A.

    2013-10-01

    Collecting the earth's critical climate signatures over the next 30 years is an obvious priority for many world governments and international organizations. Implementing a solution requires bridging from today's scientific missions to `operational' constellations that are adequate to support the future demands of decision makers, scientific investigators and global users for trusted data.

  8. Evolution and virulence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive ST30 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the past 30 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hirokazu; Takano, Tomomi; Nishiyama, Akihito; Hung, Wei-Chun; Kuniyuki, Shuichi; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Reva, Ivan; Yabe, Shizuka; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Wataru; Khokhlova, Olga E; Okubo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2012-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) includes hospital-acquired MRSA (HAMRSA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive multilocus sequence type 30 (ST30) MRSA is one of worldwide CA-MRSA, which has also persisted in Japan since the 1980s. However, unexpectedly, it was not the same ST30 clone throughout. Before 2000, it was HA-MRSA with spa43 and ψSa3sea (phage Sa3 carrying the sea gene) and only one PVL-positive MRSA in Japan; in the 1980s, ST30 MRSA accounted for 23.5% of HA-MRSA, showed multidrug resistance, had high MICs for oxacillin and imipenem, and caused decubitus and pneumonia in hospitalized patients. A dynamic clonal change (spa43/ψSa3sea→ spa19) occurred around 2000-2002. A rare spa43/ψSa3sea/SCCmecI-IE25923 genotype also emerged. After 2002, the prevalent spa19 clone was CA-MRSA; it accounted for only 0.3% (or less) of MRSA in hospitals but 7.6% of CA-MRSA. Since 2007, PVL-positive CA-MRSA with other ST types (such as ST8, ST22, and ST59) also emerged in Japan, albeit at a low frequency. ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA occasionally caused severe invasive infections and a novel ST1335/spa19 genotype emerged. These ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA and variants were identified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Further analysis revealed that PVL-positive ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA is a highlyvirulent, successful clone, having a potential of clonal expansion.

  9. Trends in the genomic epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated worldwide since 1961.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Sarkar, Sounak; Das, Parijat; Nandy, Suman; Koley, Hemanta; Sarkar, Banwarilal

    2015-10-01

    Here we describe the international scenario of Vibrio cholerae with a comparative analysis of different aspects of typing. Representative V. cholerae strains (n=108) associated with endemic cholera regions from 29 states of India and worldwide were subjected to microbiological, molecular and phylogenetic study. All of the strains were V. cholerae serogroup O1 biotype El Tor and were typed according to both the new phage (NP) type and Basu & Mukherjee (BM) typing schemes. The predominant phage type was T-27 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (65.7%; n=71), followed by phage type T-27 (NP)/T-2 (BM) (14.8%; n=16), T-26 (NP)/T4 (BM) (12.0%; n=13), T-13 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (2.8%; n=3), T-20 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (1.9%; n=2), T-3 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (0.9%; n=1), T-23 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (0.9%; n=1) and T-24 (NP)/T-2 (BM) (0.9%; n=1). Mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR (MAMA-PCR) findings showed the dominance of ctxB El Tor genotype (77.1%; 54/70) from 1961-1991, whilst the next two epochs showed the supremacy of ctxB classical genotype. Multidrug-resistant strains showed resistance to erythromycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin and ampicillin. The regional resistance of epidemic clones in India draws a layout of the rapid dissemination of resistance in the past 30 years and the necessity of proper treatment to protect populations at risk.

  10. Structures of School Systems Worldwide: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    In the past 20 years I have been examining the structures of school systems worldwide. This ongoing research has been enriched by the findings obtained from the lecture course on Comparative Education I have been delivering to students in the Bachelor and Master's Education Programs at Sofia University, Bulgaria. This paper presents some results…

  11. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  12. Worldwide Educational Broadcasting: Diversity and Challenge in a New Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes the state of the world's educational broadcasting community following the rapid changes in the 1980s. The future prospects of educational television and radio broadcasting are discussed based on a summary of the Worldwide Survey of 48 foreign countries which was conducted in 1989, and a review of the presentations given by…

  13. Fluidized-bed boilers achieve commercial status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1985-02-01

    The author reviews the current status of commercial fluidized-bed boilers worldwide. Particular attention is given to circulating fluidised-bed systems. A number of detailed tables are presented providing details of manufacturers of afb boilers, and information on 88 installed boilers, their fuels, combustion systems and operational data. Less detailed information is given of a further 140 installations.

  14. Worldwide Behavioral Research on Major Global Causes of Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal-Re, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Researchers willing to publish their interventional studies' results must register their studies before starting enrollment. This study aimed to describe all "open" (i.e., recruiting or not yet recruiting) behavioral studies in 16 of 20 top worldwide leading causes of death. Method: Search on Clinicaltrials.gov database (March 2010).…

  15. Essays on the Future of Continuing Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Warren L., Ed.

    Topics chosen for these eight seminar papers divide basically into three categories: discussions on processes and methods for planning for the future of adult education; attempts to project into the future such worldwide problems as urbanism, conflict, the population explosion, and specific adult education trends; and discussion of the current…

  16. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Youcheng; Yan, Shuang; Poh, Karen; Liu, Suyang; Iyioriobhe, Emanehi; Sterling, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. Objective This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. Methods PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study’s focus. Search terms included “COPD exacerbation”, “air pollution”, “air quality guidelines”, “air quality standards”, “COPD morbidity and mortality”, “chronic bronchitis”, and “air pollution control” separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Results Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. Conclusion There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries’ socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden. PMID:27143874

  17. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-09-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  18. World-wide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques used to assess methane concentration in the troposphere are described, and data obtained during the period from 1978 to 1983 are presented in detail. Tropospheric methane concentrations in remote locations averaged a yearly world-wide increase of 0.018 + or - 0.002 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Average world-wide tropospheric concentration of methane in dry air was 1.625 ppmv at the end of 1983 measured against an NBS standard certified as 0.97 ppmv. Contributing to this steady increase in methane concentration are increases in the source strengths from cattle and rice fields, which in turn result from CO, CH4 and HO coupling. Among the physical and chemical effects is an increase in greenhouse warming of about 0.04 C per decade.

  19. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  20. Global Ionosphere Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Manucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) worldwide network are employed to study the global ionospheric total electron content(TEC) changes during a magnetic storm (November 26, 1994). These measurements are obtained from more than 60 world-wide GPS stations which continuously receive dual-frequency signals. Based on the delays of the signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric maps (GIM) of TEC at 15 minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that significant TEC increases (the positive effect ) are the major feature in the winter hemisphere during this storm (the maximum percent change relative to quiet times is about 150 percent).

  1. Searching for the corner seismic moment in worldwide data

    SciTech Connect

    Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui; Martins, João Paulo

    2015-12-31

    In this paper the existence of the corner frequency value for the seismic moment distribution is investigated, analysing worldwide data. Pareto based distributions, usually considered as the most suitable to this type of data, are fitted to the most recent data, available in a global earthquake catalog. Despite the undeniable finite nature of the seismic moment data, we conclude that no corner frequency can be established considering the available data set.

  2. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 273.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    catering to different forms of appraisal. The system, which is customised for specific companies, has a cost effective spin-off: Efficient...worldwide scale, and the mass media — especially TV —are being used for this purpose with increasing sophistication. You know how often the misuse of...technically, more advanced countries to developing, nations; Furthermore, "the existence of privately owned mass media in some countries such as the

  3. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Leiknes, Kari Ann; Jarosh-von Schweder, Lindy; Høie, Bjørg

    2012-01-01

    To explore contemporary (from 1990) utilization and practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) worldwide. Systematic search (limited to studies published 1990 and after) was undertaken in the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, SveMed, and EBSCO/Cinahl. Primary data-based studies/surveys with reported ECT utilization and practice in psychiatric institutions internationally, nationally, and regionally; city were included. Two reviewers independently checked study titles and abstracts according to inclusion criteria, and extracted ECT utilization and practice data from those retrieved in full text. Seventy studies were included, seven from Australia and New Zealand, three Africa, 12 North and Latin America, 33 Europe, and 15 Asia. Worldwide ECT differences and trends were evident, average number ECTs administered per patient were eight; unmodified (without anesthesia) was used in Asia (over 90%), Africa, Latin America, Russia, Turkey, Spain. Worldwide preferred electrode placement was bilateral, except unilateral at some places (Europe and Australia/New Zealand). Although mainstream was brief-pulse wave, sine-wave devices were still used. Majority ECT treated were older women with depression in Western countries, versus younger men with schizophrenia in Asian countries. ECT under involuntary conditions (admissions), use of ambulatory-ECT, acute first line of treatment, as well as administered by other professions (geriatricians, nurses) were noted by some sites. General trends were only some institutions within the same country providing ECT, training inadequate, and guidelines not followed. Mandatory reporting and overall country ECT register data were sparse. Many patients are still treated with unmodified ECT today. Large global variation in ECT utilization, administration, and practice advocates a need for worldwide sharing of knowledge about ECT, reflection, and learning from each other's experiences. PMID:22741102

  4. Iridium{reg_sign} worldwide personal communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.

    1997-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a personal worldwide communication system designed to support portable, low power subscriber units through the use of a constellation of satellites in low earth polar orbit. The satellites are networked together to form a system which provides continuous line-of-sight communications between the IRIDIUM system and any point within 30 km of the earth{close_quote}s surface. The system architecture and operation are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Department of Defense, General/Flag Officer, Worldwide Roster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    USN 9707 970627 3 GENERAL/FLAG OFFICER WORLDWIDE ROSTER DATE DATE OF DUTY TITLE NAME RANK SERVICE ASSIGNED RANK DEP DIR J-8 CARTWRIGHT JAMES E BG* USMC...SIGNAL BRIGADE - SPARTANBURG,SC COMMANDER (RC) SIMPSON DARWIN H BG ARNG 9603 970303 263RD AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY BRIGADE - ANDERSON,SC COMMANDER (RC...N ................. 27 CARSKADON BRUCE M ................. 28 CARTWRIGHT JAMES E ................ 04 CASCIANO JOHN P ................... 27 CASE

  6. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review.

    PubMed

    McLean, Joanne L; Lobetti, Remo G; Schoeman, Johan P

    2014-11-14

    Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  7. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  8. Dental Health Services Research Unit celebrates 30 years: Report of conference to mark the 30th anniversary of the Dental Health Services Research Unit (DHSRU) at Dundee, held on 1st December 2008.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Pitts, Nigel B

    2009-04-01

    Over the years, several members of the staff of the Dental Health Services Research Unit (DHSRU) at Dundee have published papers in Primary Dental Care. Furthermore, its Director, Professor Nigel Pitts, together with Drs Jan Clarkson and Gail Topping have co-edited a number of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK)'s standards manuals and contributed to others. It had been suggested to the Unit by several parties that, having been in funded existence for some 30 years, it would be appropriate to mark this anniversary with a conference to explore 'Dental Health Services Research: After 30 years, what was the impact, what have we learned and where are we going?' So, following a range of consultations, the conference was convened at the West Park Conference Centre in Dundee with a mixed audience representing both dental research and dental practice.

  9. Overview of integrative tools and methods in assessing ecological integrity in estuarine and coastal systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B; Dauer, Daniel M; Demetriades, Nicolette T; Ferreira, João G; Forbes, Anthony T; Hutchings, Pat; Jia, Xiaoping; Kenchington, Richard; Carlos Marques, João; Zhu, Changbo

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, several sets of legislation worldwide (Oceans Act in USA, Australia or Canada; Water Framework Directive or Marine Strategy in Europe, National Water Act in South Africa, etc.) have been developed in order to address ecological quality or integrity, within estuarine and coastal systems. Most such legislation seeks to define quality in an integrative way, by using several biological elements, together with physico-chemical and pollution elements. Such an approach allows assessment of ecological status at the ecosystem level ('ecosystem approach' or 'holistic approach' methodologies), rather than at species level (e.g. mussel biomonitoring or Mussel Watch) or just at chemical level (i.e. quality objectives) alone. Increasing attention has been paid to the development of tools for different physico-chemical or biological (phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, algae, phanerogams, fishes) elements of the ecosystems. However, few methodologies integrate all the elements into a single evaluation of a water body. The need for such integrative tools to assess ecosystem quality is very important, both from a scientific and stakeholder point of view. Politicians and managers need information from simple and pragmatic, but scientifically sound methodologies, in order to show to society the evolution of a zone (estuary, coastal area, etc.), taking into account human pressures or recovery processes. These approaches include: (i) multidisciplinarity, inherent in the teams involved in their implementation; (ii) integration of biotic and abiotic factors; (iii) accurate and validated methods in determining ecological integrity; and (iv) adequate indicators to follow the evolution of the monitored ecosystems. While some countries increasingly use the establishment of marine parks to conserve marine biodiversity and ecological integrity, there is awareness (e.g. in Australia) that conservation and management of marine ecosystems cannot be restricted to Marine Protected

  10. Improving survival of children with cancer worldwide: the St. Jude International Outreach Program approach.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the St. Jude International Outreach Program (IOP) is to improve the survival rate of children with cancer and other catastrophic diseases worldwide, through the sharing of knowledge, technology, and organizational skills. There are an estimated 160,000 newly diagnosed cases of childhood cancer worldwide each year, and cancer is emerging as a major cause of childhood death in the developing regions of Asia, South and Central America, northwest Africa, and the Middle East. Over the past 30 years improved therapy has dramatically increased survival rates for children with cancer, but still more than 70% of the world's children with cancer lack access to modern treatment. Although sick children from around the world have traveled to our hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, since its inception, treating children in their own countries is more efficient and less disruptive for them and their families. In the context of St. Jude's culture of sharing knowledge about the management of children with cancer, we now use modern technology to reach far more children than would ever be able to come to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. St. Jude strives to address the needs of those children in countries that lack sufficient resources and to help them manage their own burden of cases effectively. By sharing knowledge and technology with the local governments, health care providers, and the private sector in these countries, St. Jude is improving diagnoses and treatments to increase the survival rates of children all across the globe. In addition to training medical teams locally, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital hosts many visiting fellows at our campus in Memphis. St. Jude helps partner medical institutions develop tailored evidence-based protocols for treating children with cancer and other catastrophic diseases. St. Jude physicians serve as mentors to physicians at our partner sites and consult on difficult cases. Nurses are trained on best practices in

  11. Science and technology of cuprate-based high temperature superconductor thin films, heterostructures and superlattices—the first 30 years (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2016-10-01

    During the three decades after the discovery of superconductivity at high temperatures in copper oxides, intense research activities generated a tremendous progress in both, mastering the scientific challenges underpinning the understanding of the properties of these chemically and structurally complex materials as well as achieving a mature technology in preparing single phase bulk specimens—including single crystals—and epitaxially grown single crystalline thin films. This review covers in addition to more basic physics oriented developments mainly technological aspects of complex oxide thin film deposition as an enabling technology to explore the physics of these materials. It consists of two parts: after a brief introduction to the materials development prior to the discovery of superconducting copper oxides, a description of the relevant properties of copper oxide superconductors with focus on YBa2Cu3O7-δ is given, followed by the coverage of essentials of complex oxide thin film deposition technology with the copper oxides at its core. Here, the major physical vapor deposition technologies (evaporation and oxide molecular beam technology, sputtering and pulsed laser deposition) are described followed by an overview of substrate requirements to deposit high quality thin films. Opportunities by choosing special substrates with unique properties far beyond the usual mechanical support for a film are introduced with examples aside from usual lattice mismatch induced strain effects. One is the continuous modification of the strain state by poling ferroelectric oxide substrates linked to a piezoelectric effect, the other is the nanoscale tailoring of substrate step-and-terrace structures resulting in a controllable generation of planar defects in complex oxides, thus contributing to the physics of flux-line pinning in cuprate superconductors. In the second part of this review, first some highlights of single layer thin film research are given such as to tailor

  12. Establishing a Long-term 30 Year Global Solar Resource at 10 km Resolution: Preliminary Results From Test Processing and Continuing Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.; Perez, R.; Schlemmer, J.; Sengupta, M.; Knapp, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    As renewable energy system become more prevalent, improved global long-term, up-to-date records are needed to better understand and quantify the solar resource and variability. Toward this end, a project involving NASA, DOE NREL, SUNY-Albany and the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) was initiated to provide NREL with a solar resource mapping production system for improved depiction of global long-term solar resources that provides the capacity for continual updates. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NOAA and NASA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 3-hourly basis beginning from July 1983 at an effective 10 km resolution. Thus, working with SUNY and NCDC, NASA will develop and test an improved production system that will yield an operational production system for NREL to continually update the Earth's solar resource. In this presentation, we provide a general overview of this project together with samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products and comparisons to surface measurements at various locations across the world. Here, a three-year prototype of the anticipated ISCCP data set called GridSat is used to assess the algorithms and demonstrate the production system. GridSat maps together cross-calibrated visible and IR reflectances from all the world's geosynchronous satellites at 10 km and 3-hourly respectively. The results are shown and discussed in comparison to existing solar data products. Additionally, the solar irradiance values are compared to various Baseline Surface Radiation Network surface site measurements and other high quality surface measurements. The statistics of the agreement between the measurements and new satellite estimates are also reviewed. The team is now testing a beta release of the revised ISCCP data set through the NOAA

  13. Ultraviolet B and Incidence Rates of Leukemia Worldwide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    basics. Gaithersburg MD: Aspen, 2000:141–5. 49. DeanHT, Arnold FA Jr, Jay P, Knutson JW. Studies onmass control of dental caries through fluoridation...Journal of Preventive Medicine.z D m s v t o Introduction Approximately 300,500 new cases and 225,500deaths from leukemia occur annually world-wide.1 In...expo- sure to tobacco smoke,3 electromagnetic fıelds,4 ben- From the Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University

  14. Mapping world-wide science at the paper level.

    SciTech Connect

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.

  15. Worldwide status of energy standards for buildings: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Janda, K.B.; Busch, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    This informal survey was designed to gain information about the worldwide status of energy efficiency standards for buildings, particularly non-residential buildings such as offices, schools, and hotels. The project has three goals: 1. To understand and learn from the experience of countries with existing building energy standards; 2. To locate areas where these lessons might be applied and energy standards might be effectively proposed and developed; and 3. To share the information gathered with all participating countries. These appendices include the survey cover letter, the survey, and the details of selected energy standards in 35 countries, thus providing supporting material for the authors` article of the same title.

  16. Development of a worldwide model for Flayer-produced scintillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fremouw, E. J.; Rino, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    An empirical approach to modeling the electron-density irregularities in the F layer of the earth's ionosphere that are primarily responsible for scintillation of transatmospheric VHF-UHF signals has been devised and tested. The work was directed toward two major goals: first, development of a worldwide model for describing the rms fluctuation in signal strength to be expected on an arbitrary satellite-to-earth communication link under average ionospheric conditions; and, second, investigation of the feasibility of similar modeling for description of the complete first-order distribution of signal strength.

  17. Crystallography Open Databases and Preservation: a World-wide Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chateigner, Daniel

    In 2003, an international team of crystallographers proposed the Crystallography Open Database (COD), a fully-free collection of crystal structure data, in the aim of ensuring their preservation. With nearly 250000 entries, this database represents a large open set of data for crystallographers, academics and industrials, located at five different places world-wide, and included in Thomson-Reuters’ ISI. As a large step towards data preservation, raw data can now be uploaded along with «digested» structure files, and COD can be questioned by most of the crystallography-linked industrial software. The COD initiative work deserves several other open developments.

  18. Arteriovenous Fistula Creation by Nephrologist Access Surgeons Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Mishler, Rick; Yang, Zhongguang; Mishler, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Several years ago, we published an article in this journal entitled "Autologous Arteriovenous Fistula Creation by Nephrologists." The goal of that effort was to review outcomes published by nephrologist access surgeons from around the world. An attempt was also made to define the elements that were necessary for successful autologous fistula creation in hopes that they might be used by others in an effort to increase the number of and durability of autologous fistulas in the dialysis population. Our goal, here, is to update the previous information based on recently published literature to better understand the role that nephrologist access surgeons play in the care of our dialysis patients worldwide.

  19. Introduction: Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility: meeting worldwide needs.

    PubMed

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Training in reproductive endocrinology (REI) and its male variant, andrology, has been profoundly influenced by the central role captured by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The marked differences in financial, regulatory, and societal/ethical restrictions on ART in different countries of the world also prominently influence the clinical management of infertility. Training should strive for comprehensive teaching of all medically indicated procedures, even if only to optimize cross-border care. Better international standardization of infertility practices and training would benefit worldwide infertility care and should be promoted by international societies.

  20. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management System Program (ECAMP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    distribution in time and space. (NOIE: The form and contents of the report, the date by which it must be submitted, and the methods to be used in measuring...A USACERL Special Report E(;o9,/11AD A 7 54" September ;1993 US Army Corps DTIC *;a0 of Engineers 4 Constvuction Engineering . -EB, 9 09 Resach La...management practices for an overall environrmiental review. The Tur.ey manual supplements Worldwide ECAMP using existing • , Turkish laws and regulations

  1. Black Carbon Concentration from Worldwide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Gregory L.; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent N.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2006-01-01

    The carbon emissions inventories used to initialize transport models and general circulation models are highly parameterized, and created on the basis of multiple sparse datasets (such as fuel use inventories and emission factors). The resulting inventories are uncertain by at least a factor of 2, and this uncertainty is carried forward to the model output. [Bond et al., 1998, Bond et al., 2004, Cooke et al., 1999, Streets et al., 2001] Worldwide black carbon concentration measurements are needed to assess the efficacy of the carbon emissions inventory and transport model output on a continuous basis.

  2. Popigai Impact Structure Modeling: Morphology and Worldwide Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Artemieva, N. A.; Pierazzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    The approx. 100 km in diameter, 35.7 0.2 Ma old Popigai structure [1], northern Siberia (Russia), is the best-preserved of the large terrestrial complex crater structures containing a central-peak ring [2- 4]. Although remotely located, the excellent outcrops, large number of drill cores, and wealth of geochemical data make Popigai ideal for the general study of the cratering processes. It is most famous for its impact-diamonds [2,5]. Popigai is the best candidate for the source crater of the worldwide late Eocene ejecta [6,7].

  3. The accelerated growth of the worldwide air transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, Mark; Klingauf, Uwe; Zock, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Mobility by means of air transportation has a critical impact on the global economy. Especially against the backdrop of further growth and an aggravation of the energy crisis, it is crucial to design a sustainable air transportation system. Current approaches focus on air traffic management. Nevertheless, also the historically evolved network offers great potential for an optimized redesign. But the understanding of its complex structure and development is limited, although modern network science supplies a great set of new methods and tools. So far studies analyzing air transportation as a complex network are based on divers and poor data, which are either merely regional or strongly bounded time-wise. As a result, the current state of research is rather inconsistent regarding topological coefficients and incomplete regarding network evolution. Therefore, we use the historical, worldwide OAG flight schedules data between 1979 and 2007 for our study. Through analyzing by far the most comprehensive data base so far, a better understanding of the network, its evolution and further implications is being provided. To our knowledge we present the first study to determine that the degree distribution of the worldwide air transportation network is non-stationary and is subject to densification and accelerated growth, respectively.

  4. Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-09-24

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

  5. Worldwide variance in the potential utilization of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Travis; Dade Lunsford, L

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has expanded worldwide during the past 3 decades. The authors sought to evaluate whether experienced users vary in their estimate of its potential use. METHODS Sixty-six current Gamma Knife users from 24 countries responded to an electronic survey. They estimated the potential role of GKRS for benign and malignant tumors, vascular malformations, and functional disorders. These estimates were compared with published disease epidemiological statistics and the 2014 use reports provided by the Leksell Gamma Knife Society (16,750 cases). RESULTS Respondents reported no significant variation in the estimated use in many conditions for which GKRS is performed: meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, and arteriovenous malformations. Significant variance in the estimated use of GKRS was noted for pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, and cavernous malformations. For many current indications, the authors found significant variance in GKRS users based in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. Experts estimated that GKRS was used in only 8.5% of the 196,000 eligible cases in 2014. CONCLUSIONS Although there was a general worldwide consensus regarding many major indications for GKRS, significant variability was noted for several more controversial roles. This expert opinion survey also suggested that GKRS is significantly underutilized for many current diagnoses, especially in the Americas. Future studies should be conducted to investigate health care barriers to GKRS for many patients.

  6. Implementation of newborn hepatitis B vaccination--worldwide, 2006.

    PubMed

    2008-11-21

    Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer and result in an estimated 620,000 deaths annually. In 1992, the World Health Organization (WHO) set a goal for all countries to introduce hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine into national routine infant immunization programs by 1997. In countries where a high percentage of HBV infections are acquired perinatally (where general population prevalence of chronic HBV infection is >/=8%), WHO recommends administering the first HepB vaccine dose <24 hours after birth to prevent perinatal HBV transmission. To assess implementation of newborn HepB vaccination, the most recently available data were examined from the Joint Reporting Form used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to track worldwide vaccine coverage for WHO-recommended infant immunizations. In 2006, a total of 162 (84%) of 193 countries had introduced HepB vaccine into their national infant immunization schedules. Among the 193 countries, 81 (42%) reported using a schedule with a HepB vaccine birth dose (defined as a dose administered within 24 hours of birth). Worldwide, 27% of newborns received a HepB vaccine birth dose in 2006. In the 87 countries with >/=8% chronic HBV infection prevalence, HepB vaccine birth dose coverage was 36%. These findings highlight the global need to implement this key hepatitis B prevention strategy more widely.

  7. FINDbase: a worldwide database for genetic variation allele frequencies updated

    PubMed Central

    Georgitsi, Marianthi; Viennas, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Dimitris I.; Gkantouna, Vassiliki; van Baal, Sjozef; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Poulas, Konstantinos; Tzimas, Giannis; Patrinos, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of INherited Disorders database (FIND base; http://www.findbase.org) records frequencies of causative genetic variations worldwide. Database records include the population and ethnic group or geographical region, the disorder name and the related gene, accompanied by links to any related external resources and the genetic variation together with its frequency in that population. In addition to the regular data content updates, we report the following significant advances: (i) the systematic collection and thorough documentation of population/ethnic group-specific pharmacogenomic markers allele frequencies for 144 markers in 14 genes of pharmacogenomic interest from different classes of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, representing 150 populations and ethnic groups worldwide; (ii) the development of new data querying and visualization tools in the expanded FINDbase data collection, built around Microsoft’s PivotViewer software (http://www.getpivot.com), based on Microsoft Silverlight technology (http://www.silverlight.net) that facilitates querying of large data sets and visualizing the results; and (iii) the establishment of the first database journal, by affiliating FINDbase with Human Genomics and Proteomics, a new open-access scientific journal, which would serve as a prime example of a non-profit model for sustainable database funding. PMID:21113021

  8. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  9. The organization, function, and outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction networks worldwide: current state, unmet needs and future directions.

    PubMed

    Huber, Kurt; Gersh, Bernard J; Goldstein, Patrick; Granger, Christopher B; Armstrong, Paul W

    2014-06-14

    The organization of networks in order to better coordinate and to faster offer reperfusion strategies for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is an important recommendation of recent versions of international guidelines. This article focusses on similarities and dissimilarities of world-wide networks, highlights essential network components, offers insights into still unmet needs and discusses potential measures to further improve quality of STEMI treatment.

  10. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality, No. 388, China Addresses Environmental Issues -- IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    period of national economic readjustment" promulgated by the State Council, and actively propose suggestions . Environmental protection is a...did not follow a routine. In March 1981, the State Planning Commission included the suggestions of the environmental protection departments in its...industrial waste residue (%) To better control environmental pollution, some comrades suggested adding several more planned goals, such as: the amounts of

  11. Quality, Social Justice and Accountability in Education Worldwide. BCES Conference Books, Volume 13, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigisheva, Oksana, Ed.; Popov, Nikolay, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings is divided into two parts. Volume 13, Number 1 contains papers presented at the thirteenth annual international conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society (BCES) held in Sofia, Bulgaria June 10-13, 2015. Volume 13, Number 2 contains papers presented at the third International Partner Conference, organised by the…

  12. Quality, Social Justice and Accountability in Education Worldwide. BCES Conference Books, Volume 13. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, Nikolay, Ed.; Wolhuter, Charl, Ed.; Ermenc, Klara Skubic, Ed.; Hilton, Gillian, Ed.; Ogunleye, James, Ed.; Niemczyk, Ewelina, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The Annual International Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society is now running in its thirteenth year. From its modest beginnings thirteen years ago, to its impressive size today, a tradition has been the production of a conference book, consistently launched on the first day of the conference each year. This year, Volume 13 of…

  13. Students' Perspectives on Worldwide ``Greening'' of Tertiary Education Curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aighewi, Isoken T.; Osaigbovo, Ulamen A.

    2010-11-01

    Several scholars have suggested the introduction of an environmental literacy requirement into the curricula of Non-Environmental Science disciplines in tertiary institutions of the world as a “greening” strategy for fostering global environmental stewardship necessary for enhancing understanding and collaboration in tackling the major environmental risks facing our global village today. However, there is no study on students’ opinion on this issue. This study was therefore initiated to 1) evaluate the opinion of undergraduate students on the introduction of a worldwide environmental literacy into the curricula of Non-Environmental science majors as a graduation requirement; and 2) identify any possible demographic differences in opinions among the student subjects polled. We sought the opinion of 800 undergraduates from African, North American and European universities on the subject and 99% responded. The result showed that a majority (67%) of them supported the worldwide environmental literacy requirement and those already trained were significantly ( P < 0.0001) more likely to support it than those untrained. Students from developing countries were significantly ( P < 0.0001) more likely to support it than those from developed countries; similarly students in the Arts’ disciplines were more likely to support it than Non-Arts’ students as a group. However, no significant differences were observed between students from Francophone versus Anglophone countries; Social Sciences versus Non-Social Sciences majors and between Education versus Non-Education majors. Some similarities were observed between the opinion of university-age students in this study and 15-year old secondary school students from two major international surveys (Research on Science Education-ROSE, and Program for International Student Assessment-PISA) on science education; further studies comparing these two categories of students is suggested. The need for all professionals to be

  14. Scientific publications in pediatrics over the last ten years in Turkey and worldwide.

    PubMed

    Altun, Demet; Dabak, Orçun; Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu Övünç

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the large area of interest comprised within the field of pediatrics, the number and diversity of publications in this field has gradually increased over the last ten years in our country as well as worldwide. The objective of this paper is to offer an analysis of the status of pediatrics publications during those ten years. The publications analyzed were listed in the Thomson Reuters Web of Science and/or published in journals included in the Science Citation Index, the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index. All of these publications appeared in journals in which at least one pediatrics specialist published between the years 2004 and 2013. It may be seen that Turkey is in fifth place worldwide in terms of the number of studies published in these journals, with 6,134 such publications. The conclusion is that it is necessary for more Turkish studies to be multicenter, to involve international participation and to receive more citations; importance must be attached to the objective of transforming of the knowledge produced by Turkish researchers into a greater number of publications of increased quality.

  15. Results from the Prototype GLOBE at Night Worldwide Light Pollution Observation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.; Orellana, D.; Blurton, C.; Henderson, S.

    2006-06-01

    Students, families, and educators worldwide participated in GLOBE at Night - an international event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Participation was open to anyone - anywhere in the world - who could get outside and look skyward during the week of March 22-29, 2006. Our goal was 5000 observations from around the world in this prototype program.The hands-on learning activities associated with the program were designed to extend the traditional classroom and school day with a week of nighttime observations involving teachers, students and their families. By locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution. Students explored the different light sources in their community learning the relationship between science, technology and society, and they reported their observations online through a central database allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis. The observations made during GLOBE at Night helped students and scientists together assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world as well as the level of energy wastage associated with poorly-shielded lights.For more information, visit http://www.globe.gov/globeatnight.GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Chile , Windows to the Universe, and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).

  16. Ten years' work on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System.

    PubMed

    Jebara, Karim Ben; Cáceres, Paula; Berlingieri, Francesco; Weber-Vintzel, Laure

    2012-12-01

    This article gives an overview of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System and highlights the major achievements during the past decade. It describes the different types of disease notification reports received and processed by the OIE. It also evaluates the three strategies implemented by the OIE in the recent years aimed at improving disease notification: introduction and use of a secure online notification system World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) and its database interface World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID); implementation of active search and verification procedures for non-official information; and enhanced building of capacity for animal disease notification to the OIE by Members Countries. The improvements are evidenced by the increasing number of reports submitted on an annual basis and the reduction in submission time together with an improvement in the quality and quantity of the immediate notifications and follow-up reports, six-monthly and annual reports submitted by Veterinary Authorities. In the recent years, the OIE's notification system provides an early warning system more sensitive and global. Consequently, there is a greater knowledge of animal diseases' distribution worldwide. As a result, it is possible to ensure better prevention, more accurate risk assessment and evaluation by diminishing the spread of known or newly emerging pathogens.

  17. Has upwelling strengthened along worldwide coasts over 1982-2010?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, R.; Álvarez, I.; Santos, F.; Decastro, M.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

    2015-05-01

    Changes in coastal upwelling strength have been widely studied since 1990 when Bakun proposed that global warming can induce the intensification of upwelling in coastal areas. Whether present wind trends support this hypothesis remains controversial, as results of previous studies seem to depend on the study area, the length of the time series, the season, and even the database used. In this study, temporal and spatial trends in the coastal upwelling regime worldwide were investigated during upwelling seasons from 1982 to 2010 using a single wind database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with high spatial resolution (0.3°). Of the major upwelling systems, increasing trends were only observed in the coastal areas of Benguela, Peru, Canary, and northern California. A tendency for an increase in upwelling-favourable winds was also identified along several less studied regions, such as the western Australian and southern Caribbean coasts.

  18. Has upwelling strengthened along worldwide coasts over 1982-2010?

    PubMed

    Varela, R; Álvarez, I; Santos, F; deCastro, M; Gómez-Gesteira, M

    2015-05-08

    Changes in coastal upwelling strength have been widely studied since 1990 when Bakun proposed that global warming can induce the intensification of upwelling in coastal areas. Whether present wind trends support this hypothesis remains controversial, as results of previous studies seem to depend on the study area, the length of the time series, the season, and even the database used. In this study, temporal and spatial trends in the coastal upwelling regime worldwide were investigated during upwelling seasons from 1982 to 2010 using a single wind database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with high spatial resolution (0.3°). Of the major upwelling systems, increasing trends were only observed in the coastal areas of Benguela, Peru, Canary, and northern California. A tendency for an increase in upwelling-favourable winds was also identified along several less studied regions, such as the western Australian and southern Caribbean coasts.

  19. Hubble's Universe and the WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Frank; Kakadelis, S.; Godfrey, C.

    2008-05-01

    Hubble's Universe is an astronomy podcast that not only explains the science behind the magnificent Hubble images, but also places the specific and cutting-edge results within the larger context of understanding the broad themes of the universe. Going further, we have partnered with Microsoft's soon to be released WorldWide Telescope (WWT) software to enable browsing, exploring, and experiencing the cosmos in a way never before seen. We can now zoom from the backyard wide-angle view down to see every last pixel in the highest resolution images, while at the same time presenting the breakthrough science and amazing visuals of Hubble within the intuitive interface of viewing the sky. We will discuss the research and production aspects, as well as the oppotunities and limitations, of both the podcast and the WWT avenues for astronomy outreach.

  20. Worldwide growth market forecast for re-entry drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Operators worldwide hail re-entry drilling as the fastest growing development technique in the business. With re-entry technology advancing on a number of fronts, the only question seems to be which re-entry technique is best to get optimum well productivity. Discussions now address how best to proceed: traditional re-entry (RED), coiled tubing drilling (CTD) or short radius (SRD). New technology is definitely fueling a methodology shift in favor of coiled tubing drilling and short radius drilling. Petroleum Engineer International explored the booming re-entry business with operators from the North Sea and North American markets. The paper contains the operators` thoughts on re-entry drilling.

  1. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide.

    PubMed

    Seebens, Hanno; Blackburn, Tim M; Dyer, Ellie E; Genovesi, Piero; Hulme, Philip E; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Pagad, Shyama; Pyšek, Petr; Winter, Marten; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bacher, Sven; Blasius, Bernd; Brundu, Giuseppe; Capinha, César; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Dawson, Wayne; Dullinger, Stefan; Fuentes, Nicol; Jäger, Heinke; Kartesz, John; Kenis, Marc; Kreft, Holger; Kühn, Ingolf; Lenzner, Bernd; Liebhold, Andrew; Mosena, Alexander; Moser, Dietmar; Nishino, Misako; Pearman, David; Pergl, Jan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Roques, Alain; Rorke, Stephanie; Rossinelli, Silvia; Roy, Helen E; Scalera, Riccardo; Schindler, Stefan; Štajerová, Kateřina; Tokarska-Guzik, Barbara; van Kleunen, Mark; Walker, Kevin; Weigelt, Patrick; Yamanaka, Takehiko; Essl, Franz

    2017-02-15

    Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970-2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of European settlers in the nineteenth century and to the acceleration in trade in the twentieth century. For all taxonomic groups, the increase in numbers of alien species does not show any sign of saturation and most taxa even show increases in the rate of first records over time. This highlights that past efforts to mitigate invasions have not been effective enough to keep up with increasing globalization.

  2. Noroviruses: The Principal Cause of Foodborne Disease Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hoonmo L.; Ajami, Nadim; Atmar, Robert L.; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and may soon eclipse rotaviruses as the most common cause of severe pediatric gastroenteritis, as the use of rotavirus vaccines becomes more widespread. Genetic mutations and recombinations contribute to the broad heterogeneity of noroviruses and the emergence of new epidemic strains. Although typically a self-limited disease, norovirus gastroenteritis can cause significant morbidity and mortality among children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. The lack of a cell culture or small animal model has hindered norovirus research and the development of novel therapeutic and preventative interventions. However, vaccines based on norovirus capsid protein virus-like particles are promising and may one day become widely available through transgenic expression in plants. PMID:20670600

  3. Acanthamoeba keratitis: an emerging disease gathering importance worldwide?

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-04-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is increasingly being recognized as a severe sight-threatening ocular infection worldwide. Although contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for AK, Acanthamoeba parasites are also an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. Diagnosis of AK is challenging, and the available treatments are lengthy and not fully effective against all strains. The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is still under study, and the identification of the key factors involved in this process should be useful for the development of fully effective therapies. This review focuses on recent developments on AK pathogenesis and diagnosis as well as novel strategies for the evaluation of anti-amoebic agents that could be applied in the near future against these pathogens.

  4. Has upwelling strengthened along worldwide coasts over 1982-2010?

    PubMed Central

    Varela, R.; Álvarez, I.; Santos, F.;  deCastro, M.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in coastal upwelling strength have been widely studied since 1990 when Bakun proposed that global warming can induce the intensification of upwelling in coastal areas. Whether present wind trends support this hypothesis remains controversial, as results of previous studies seem to depend on the study area, the length of the time series, the season, and even the database used. In this study, temporal and spatial trends in the coastal upwelling regime worldwide were investigated during upwelling seasons from 1982 to 2010 using a single wind database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with high spatial resolution (0.3°). Of the major upwelling systems, increasing trends were only observed in the coastal areas of Benguela, Peru, Canary, and northern California. A tendency for an increase in upwelling-favourable winds was also identified along several less studied regions, such as the western Australian and southern Caribbean coasts. PMID:25952477

  5. [Worldwide access to surgery: a necessity, not a luxury].

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Thom C C; Botman, Matthijs; Voorhoeve, Roeland

    2015-01-01

    Many people in developing countries lack access to basic surgical care. This lack of access leads to preventable mortality and disability. Mortality due to surgically treatable conditions currently exceeds that due to HIV, TB and malaria combined. However, efforts by global healthcare organisations to address this problem remain limited. Essential surgery consist of basic surgical interventions that can save lives and prevent disability. It involves a limited number of interventions, is cost-effective and can be implemented sustainably in national healthcare systems. Essential surgery should therefore be accessible to everyone worldwide. In this article we discuss why it has received insufficient attention as a component of global healthcare. We also look at initiatives that aim to change this status quo.

  6. Worldwide offshore effort at record level--will it continue

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Worldwide offshore exxloration levels reached new highs during the past year. A large gas find was made off northern Norway at 72/sup 0/N lat. Oil was discovered off Abu Dhabi in the Persian Gulf, and off South Yemen and southeastern India. North Sea activity slowed because of increased taxes. Off the U.S., new frontier zones were leased, at water depths up to 7,000 feet. A large oil discovery was made off southern California. The Chinese continental shelf was opened for bidding. The world oil surplus and lower crude prices have resulted in budget trimming for offshore development and there will probably be a decline in overall exploration expenditures in 1982-1983.

  7. Estimating dew yield worldwide from a few meteo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a general need to determine dew yield in any place of the world. However, its determination requires systematic measurements that are not available everywhere. In addition, it depends on the particularities of the dew collector. A simple analytical formula valid for planar dew collectors is elaborated here. It is based on laboratory experiments where it is established that heat loss with surrounding air is the dominant parameter that limits dew condensation. A simple analytical formulation is then derived, which only needs cloud coverage, wind velocity, air and dew point temperature data to be collected, at least once in a day before sunrise. The formulation is tested in several places in the world with different climates. Agreement within typically 30% is found with dew measurements. Such an analytical relationship can thus provide a useful tool to obtain a worldwide estimation of the dew potential.

  8. Could viruses contribute to the worldwide epidemic of obesity?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children increased rapidly starting about 1980 in both developed and developing countries. Studies of changes in diet and physical activity, television watching, and food advertisements on television suggest that these are not sufficient to explain the epidemic. The pattern of rapid spread is suggestive of an infectious origin. The concept of virus-induced obesity is not new. Eight viruses have been shown to cause obesity in animals and there is evidence for virus-induced obesity in humans. Recent evidence on animal and human adenoviruses suggests that these adenoviruses may infect adipocytes to alter enzymes and transcription factors resulting in accumulation of triglycerides and differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. The E4orf1 gene of Ad-36 has been shown to be responsible for the adipogenic effect. It appears that a portion of the worldwide epidemic of obesity since 1980 could be due to infections with human adenoviruses.

  9. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Seebens, Hanno; Blackburn, Tim M.; Dyer, Ellie E.; Genovesi, Piero; Hulme, Philip E.; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Pagad, Shyama; Pyšek, Petr; Winter, Marten; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bacher, Sven; Blasius, Bernd; Brundu, Giuseppe; Capinha, César; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Dawson, Wayne; Dullinger, Stefan; Fuentes, Nicol; Jäger, Heinke; Kartesz, John; Kenis, Marc; Kreft, Holger; Kühn, Ingolf; Lenzner, Bernd; Liebhold, Andrew; Mosena, Alexander; Moser, Dietmar; Nishino, Misako; Pearman, David; Pergl, Jan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Roques, Alain; Rorke, Stephanie; Rossinelli, Silvia; Roy, Helen E.; Scalera, Riccardo; Schindler, Stefan; Štajerová, Kateřina; Tokarska-Guzik, Barbara; van Kleunen, Mark; Walker, Kevin; Weigelt, Patrick; Yamanaka, Takehiko; Essl, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970–2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of European settlers in the nineteenth century and to the acceleration in trade in the twentieth century. For all taxonomic groups, the increase in numbers of alien species does not show any sign of saturation and most taxa even show increases in the rate of first records over time. This highlights that past efforts to mitigate invasions have not been effective enough to keep up with increasing globalization. PMID:28198420

  10. Health surveillance mechanisms used by armed forces worldwide.

    PubMed

    Capleton, Alexander C; Wickramatillake, Hemantha; Rushton, Lesley

    2004-12-01

    Health surveillance is an essential tool in monitoring health in an armed force and in helping to protect the health of service personnel. This study used a literature search and direct contacts with individual countries to identify and evaluate health surveillance mechanisms used by armed forces worldwide. The study identified several health surveillance mechanisms ranging from periodic health assessments of personnel to complex databases of medical data linked to demographic and other supporting data. Essential elements of an effective health surveillance system are outlined, including the requirement that systems are adequately supported and allow the routine monitoring of health at the population level consistently throughout an armed force and consistently during times of peace and during operations. Areas for further research and development include linking of data on hazardous exposures, jobs and the locations of personnel with medical data, and the follow-up of personnel beyond their military service.

  11. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Antle, John; Elliott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a warming Earth and an increasing population will likely strain the world's food systems in the coming decades. Experts involved with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) focus on quantifying the changes through time. AgMIP, a program begun in 2010, involves about 800 climate scientists, economists, nutritionists, information technology specialists, and crop and livestock experts. In mid-September 2015, the Aspen Global Change Institute convened an AgMIP workshop to draft plans and protocols for assessing global- and regional-scale modeling of crops, livestock, economics, and nutrition across major agricultural regions worldwide. The goal of this Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments (CGRA) project is to characterize climate effects on large- and small-scale farming systems.

  12. Taeniasis/cysticercosis trend worldwide and rationale for control.

    PubMed

    Montresor, Antonio; Palmer, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Pig production has increased significantly worldwide in recent years. Small-scale pig husbandry has become a popular source of income in rural and resource-poor communities in most of developing countries. A parallel increase of human Taenia carrier and human cysticercosis is expected but detailed data are not available. However, Taenia solium is considered responsible for over 10% of acute case admission to the neurological ward of countries where it is endemic. The control strategy that seems at the moment more promising is a combination of the different tools available and includes the identification of areas at high risk and the presumptive treatment of the suspected cases and their families. This active finding and treatment of probable tapeworm carriers should be accompanied by health education and control swine cysticercosis. WHO invites all endemic countries to recognize the importance of taeniasis/cysticercosis control and to collect epidemiological data and to adopt policies and strategies for its control.

  13. The epidemiology of blood pressure and its worldwide management.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Kazem; Emdin, Connor A; MacMahon, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    Despite the vast amount of evidence on the benefits of blood pressure lowering accumulated to date, elevated blood pressure is still the leading risk factor for disease and disability worldwide. The purpose of this review is to summarize the epidemiological evidence underpinning the association between blood pressure and a range of conditions. This review focuses on the association between systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Evidence for and against the existence of a J-shaped curve association between blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, and differences in the predictive power of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure, are described. In addition, global and regional trends in blood pressure levels and management of hypertension are reviewed.

  14. [Epidemiological overview of antibiotic resistance in France and worldwide].

    PubMed

    Arlet, Guillaume

    2012-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance appeared early after the introduction of these molecules in therapeutic. But, this resistance has long been confined to care facilities. Twenty years ago, resistance emerged in community with the methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and also with the reduced susceptibility to penicillin in pneumococci, which are good examples. Fortunately, for these two species, in France, the situation appears to be controlled. The most worrying now is the emergence of resistance to major antimicrobial agents in Escherichia coli both in community and in hospitals. The third-generation cephalosporins and the fluoroquinolones are concerned. This situation is currently not well controlled here and worldwide. The only recourse remaining carbapenems, antibiotics reserved for hospital use. Unfortunately, new mechanisms of resistance to these molecules are emerging.

  15. Estimating worldwide solar radiation resources on a 40km grid

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; George, R.L.; Brady, E.H.

    1996-11-01

    During 1995, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the Data Grid Task under the auspices of DOE`s Resource Assessment Program. A data grid is a framework of uniformly spaced locations (grid points) for which data are available. Estimates of monthly averages of direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and global horizontal daily-total solar radiation energy (kWh/m{sup 2}) are being made for each point on a grid covering the US, Mexico, the Caribbean, and southern Canada. The grid points are separated by approximately 40 km. Using interpolation methods, the digital data grid can be used to estimate solar resources at any location. The most encouraging result to date has been the location of sources providing worldwide data for most of the input parameters required for modeling daily total solar radiation. This is a multiyear task expected to continue through the rest of this century.

  16. Histoplasmosis infections worldwide: thinking outside of the Ohio River valley

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Nathan C; Antinori, Spinello; Wheat, L. Joseph; Sarosi, George A.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, histoplasmosis is generally thought to occur mainly in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, and the classic map of histoplasmosis distribution reflecting this is second nature to many U.S. physicians. With the advent of the HIV pandemic reports of patients with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS came from regions of known endemicity, as well as from regions not thought to be endemic for histoplasmosis throughout the world. In addition, our expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive medications and biologics has increased the diagnosis of histoplasmosis worldwide. While our knowledge of areas in which histoplasmosis is endemic has improved, it is still incomplete. Our contention is that physicians should consider histoplasmosis with the right constellations of symptoms in any febrile patient with immune suppression, regardless of geographic location or travel history. PMID:26279969

  17. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  18. Satellite nighttime lights reveal increasing human exposure to floods worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Laio, Francesco; Montanari, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    River floods claim thousands of lives every year, but effective and high-resolution methods to map human exposure to floods at the global scale are still lacking. We use satellite nightlight data to prove that nocturnal lights close to rivers are consistently related to flood damages. We correlate global data of economic losses caused by flooding events with nighttime lights and find that increasing nightlights are associated to flood damage intensification. Then, we analyze the temporal evolution of nightlights along the river network all over the world from 1992 to 2012 and obtain a global map of nightlight trends, which we associate with increasing human exposure to floods, at 1 km2 resolution. An enhancement of exposure to floods worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia, is revealed, which may exacerbate the projected effects of climate change on flood-related losses and therefore argues for the development of valuable flood preparedness and mitigation strategies.

  19. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide.

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic.

  20. Progress toward polio eradication--Worldwide, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Moturi, Edna K; Porter, Kimberly A; Wassilak, Steven G F; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Jafari, Hamid

    2014-05-30

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide, and in 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of global polio eradication a programmatic emergency for public health. By 2013, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by >99% since 1988, and only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2013-2014 and updates previous reports. In 2013, a total of 416 WPV cases were reported globally from eight countries, an 86% increase from the 223 WPV cases reported from five countries in 2012. This upsurge in 2013 was caused by a 60% increase in WPV cases detected in Pakistan, and by outbreaks in five previously polio-free countries resulting from international spread of WPV. In 2014, as of May 20, a total of 82 WPV cases had been reported worldwide, compared with 34 cases during the same period in 2013. Polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) were detected in eight countries in 2013 and in two countries so far in 2014. To achieve polio eradication in the near future, further efforts are needed to 1) address health worker safety concerns in areas of armed conflict in priority countries, 2) to prevent further spread of WPV and new outbreaks after importation into polio-free countries, and 3) to strengthen surveillance globally. Based on the international spread of WPV to date in 2014, the WHO Director General has issued temporary recommendations to reduce further international exportation of WPV through vaccination of persons traveling from currently polio-affected countries.

  1. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  2. Human Papillomavirus 18 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alyce A.; Gheit, Tarik; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) is the second most carcinogenic HPV type, after HPV16, and it accounts for approximately 12% of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as well as 37% of adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the cervix worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the worldwide diversity and carcinogenicity of HPV18 genetic variants by sequencing the entire long control region (LCR) and the E6 open reading frame of 711 HPV18-positive cervical samples from 39 countries, taking advantage of the International Agency for Research on Cancer biobank. A total of 209 unique HPV18 sequence variants were identified that formed three phylogenetic lineages (A, B, and C). A and B lineages each divided into four sublineages, including a newly identified candidate B4 sublineage. The distribution of lineages varied by geographical region, with B and C lineages found principally in Africa. HPV18 (sub)lineages were compared between 453 cancer cases and 236 controls, as well as between 81 ADC and 160 matched SCC cases. In region-stratified analyses, there were no significant differences in the distribution of HPV18 variant lineages between cervical cancer cases and controls or between ADC and SCC. In conclusion, our findings do not support the role of HPV18 (sub)lineages for discriminating cancer risk or explaining why HPV18 is more strongly linked with ADC than SCC. IMPORTANCE This is the largest and most geographically/ethnically diverse study of the genetic variation of HPV18 to date, providing a comprehensive reference for phylogenetic classification of HPV18 sublineages for epidemiological and biological studies. PMID:26269181

  3. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic. PMID:27195268

  4. Psoriasiform lupus vulgaris with 30 years duration.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adam; Kobierzycka, Monika; Cisło, Maria; Schwartz, Robert A; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2006-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a progressive form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in a person with a moderate to high degree of immunity. It is the most common type of cutaneous tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris can be mimicked by several other skin conditions, and a 69-y-old female is described with an extremely long history of extensive infiltrative skin lesions with abundant scaling. The lesions were localized on the right arm and forearm, and on the right lateral surface of the chest. The diascopic test was positive. Moreover, a large atrophic scar was seen in the region of right cubital fossa resulting in contracture of the right elbow joint. The histopathology strongly suggested the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by PCR examination. A polychemotherapeutic regimen (ethambutol 1250 mg/d, rifampicin 600 mg/d and isoniazid 300 mg/d) was successfully employed for the treatment of skin lesions.

  5. Power Generation: The Next 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Robert W.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems associated with power production. Estimates power consumption in the 1980's and the availability of fossil and nuclear fuel resources. Emphasizes needed research on air pollution, nuclear pollution, and thermal pollution. (EB)

  6. Nars: Over 30 Years of Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulssen, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is fair to say that modern seismology steadily evolved from a handful key initiatives and innovations dating back to the early 1980s. (1) The transition from non-mobile, narrow band sensors with analogue recording (pre-1980s) to portable, broadband sensors with digital recorders paved the way to flexible deployments, enabling various array and regional studies with the same instrumentation. Here I mention just two initiatives: NARS, which was the first digital, mobile network of broadband stations deployed in western Europe (1983-1987), and USarray (2003- ), which is the biggest program of recent times. Presently, innovative data acquisition systems for the oceans are underway and they will allow future imaging of the "inaccessible" parts of the Earth. (2) In the 1980s seismological data centers were set up to facilitate data archiving and distribution. Since then, open data exchange (not a matter of course) and easy data retrieval have become standard. The impact of this has been phenomenal: most observational studies efficiently retrieve data from these main seismological data centers and the archived seismograms are used for various types of studies, carried out by different persons and groups. (3) Seismic tomography changed the face of seismological research. From travel time to waveform tomography, from ray theory to finite frequency tomography: new and improved tomographic techniques greatly enhanced our images (and understanding) of the Earth's interior. (4) Many of these developments would not have been possible without young, motivated, seismologists that were educated and stimulated by insightful supervisors. One person has had a major impact on all these fields. NARS in the title stands for Nolet greatly Advanced Research in Seismology.

  7. Space Flight: The First 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A history of space flight from Project Mercury to the Space Shuttle is told from the perspective of NASA flight programs. Details are given on Mercury missions, Gemini missions, Apollo missions, Skylab missions, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and the Space Shuttle missions.

  8. Cuban Libraries: 30 Years after the Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the Cuban library system includes comments from interviews with leading librarians in that country. Effects of the Castro regime and the U.S. embargo on Cuba and its libraries are considered. (MES)

  9. Antiphospholipid syndrome: 30 years and our contribution.

    PubMed

    Koike, Takao

    2015-02-01

    In 1983, Graham Hughes first described the concept of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In 1984, we described the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system which directly detected circulating aCL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who revealed biological false positive serological test for syphilis. In 1990, three groups, including our group, independently reported the necessity of a cofactor for the binding of autoimmune anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) to the solid phase phospholipids. β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) was identified as this cofactor. In 1994,the epitope for aCL was shown to develop when β2GPI is adsorbed on polyoxygenated polystyrene plates. In 2000, we described antiprothrombin antibodies bind to prothrombin exposed to immobilized phosphatidylserine and established a phosphatidylserine dependent monoclonal antiprothrombin antibody. In 2004, a novel role of nicked β2GPI was identified in the negative feedback pathway of extrinsic fibrinolysis. Nicked β2GPI was found to bind angiostatin 4.5 and to attenuate its antiangiogenic property. In 2004, we demonstrated that the p38 MAPK pathway mediates induction of the TF gene in stimulated with human monoclonal anti- β2GPI antibodies. Very recently, β2GPI was identified as a complement regulator. The cross-link between complement activation and prothrombotic status in patients with APS has been drawn much attention. Genetic factors are hypothesized to play a role in the susceptibility to APS based on several family studies in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and/or clinical manifestations of APS. The genetics of β2GPI has been extensively studied. 247 Val/Leu polymorphism can affect the conformational change of β2-GPI and the exposure of the epitopes for aCL. We found that 247 Val was correlated with anti-β2-GPI production in patients with primary APS, and 247 Val may be important for β2-GPI antigenicity. STAT4 SNP in Japanese patients with SLE and/or APS. T allele frequencies in SLE and APS were significantly elevated compared with that in healthy controls. When analyzed only in primary APS patients, T allele frequency was further higher. BANK1, BLK and SNP in 1q25.1 region were associated with not only SLE but also APS in Japanese population. These results suggest that APS and SLE, in part, share a common genetic background.

  10. "The Intimate Machine"--30 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frude, Neil; Jandric, Petar

    2015-01-01

    This conversation focuses on a book published in 1983 that examined "animism," the tendency to regard non-living entities as living and sentient. "The Intimate Machine" suggested that animism will be fully exploited by artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, generating artefacts that will engage the user in…

  11. Groundwater remediation: the next 30 years.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Paul W; Newell, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater remediation technologies are designed, installed, and operated based on the conceptual models of contaminant hydrogeology that are accepted at that time. However, conceptual models of remediation can change as new research, new technologies, and new performance data become available. Over the past few years, results from multiple-site remediation performance studies have shown that achieving drinking water standards (i.e., Maximum Contaminant Levels, MCLs) at contaminated groundwater sites is very difficult. Recent groundwater research has shown that the process of matrix diffusion is one key constraint. New developments, such as mass discharge, orders of magnitude (OoMs), and SMART objectives are now being discussed more frequently by the groundwater remediation community. In this paper, the authors provide their perspectives on the existing "reach MCLs" approach that has historically guided groundwater remediation projects, and advocate a new approach built around the concepts of OoMs and mass discharge.

  12. Congenital fiber type disproportion--30 years on.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nigel F; North, Kathryn N

    2003-10-01

    Thirty years ago, M. H. Brooke coined the term "congenital fiber type disproportion" (CFTD) to describe 12 children who had clinical features of a congenital myopathy and relative type 1 fiber hypotrophy on muscle biopsy. It is now clear that this histological pattern can accompany a wide range of neurological disorders, leading to disillusionment with CFTD as a distinct nosological entity. To determine whether the CFTD has clinical utility as a diagnostic entity, we have reviewed the literature for cases of type 1 fiber hypotrophy and have used strict exclusion criteria to identify 67 cases of CFTD. Most patients presented at birth with weakness and hypotonia, had normal intelligence, and followed a static or improving clinical course. In 43% of families, more than 1 individual was affected. Failure to thrive was common and 25% of patients had contractures or spinal deformities. Bulbar weakness and ophthalmoplegia were less common and cardiac involvement was rare. Twenty-five percent followed a severe course and 10% had died at the time of reporting, all from respiratory failure. Ophthalmoplegia and facial and bulbar weakness were significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. The relatively homogeneous phenotype supports the retention of CFTD as a distinct diagnostic entity and familial occurrence suggests a genetic basis. Regarding the diagnosis of CFTD, we found no strong evidence that the minimum difference between type 1 and type 2 fiber sizes should be increased from 12% to 25%. We also list the other reported causes of relative type 1 fiber hypotrophy to aid their exclusion from CFTD.

  13. TARDEC 30-Year Strategy Value Stream Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    integrating advanced components and state of the art reverse osmosis iv. Draft detailed specification and drawing package c. Payoff: i. Fills the...Robust, and Simple Pretreatment to Reverse Osmosis . Opportunities FY 16-19 o Procurement and evaluation of COTS and emerging:  Pretreatment

  14. CRREL, 30 Years Retrospective 1986-1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    commercially. A patent was awarded to Charles J. Korhonen and Frederick C. Gernhard, for a Blister Pressure Relief Valve. This valve, now in commercial...Andrew Assur Michael A. Bilello W. Keith Boyd GilbertA. Currier Francis C. Gagnon Robert W. Gerdel Arnold R. Goerke B. Lyle Hansen James R... Frederick Crory receives Army Research & Development Award. 20 Rodney Poland receives Meritorious Civilian Service Award. 1979 CRREL receives U.S. Army

  15. Reflections on 30 Years of AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Harold W.; Curran, James W.

    2011-01-01

    June 2011 marks the 30th anniversary of the first description of what became known as HIV/AIDS, now one of history’s worst pandemics. The basic public health tools of surveillance and epidemiologic investigation helped define the epidemic and led to initial prevention recommendations. Features of the epidemic, including the zoonotic origin of HIV and its spread through global travel, are central to the concept of emerging infectious diseases. As the epidemic expanded into developing countries, new models of global health and new global partnerships developed. Advocacy groups played a major role in mobilizing the response to the epidemic, having human rights as a central theme. Through the commitments of governments and private donors, modern HIV treatment has become available throughout the developing world. Although the end of the epidemic is not yet in sight and many challenges remain, the response has been remarkable and global health has changed for the better. PMID:21749766

  16. Repeat mitral valve replacement: 30-years' experience.

    PubMed

    Expósito, Víctor; García-Camarero, Tamara; Bernal, José M; Arnáiz, Elena; Sarralde, Aurelio; García, Iván; Berrazueta, José R; Revuelta, José M

    2009-08-01

    Prosthetic heart valve dysfunction is an acquired condition that carries a significant risk of emergency surgery. However, the long-term natural history of the condition is not well understood. Between 1974 and 2006, 1535 isolated mitral valve replacements were performed at our hospital (in-hospital mortality 5%). In total, 369 patients needed a second operation (in-hospital mortality 8.1%), while 80 (age 59.8+/-11.4 years) needed a third. The reasons for the third intervention were structural deterioration (67.5%), paravalvular leak (20%) and endocarditis (6.3%). Some 15 patients died in hospital (18.8%). After a mean follow-up period of 17.8 years, 21 patients needed another intervention (i.e., a fourth intervention). The actuarial reoperation-free rate at 20 years was 40.1+/-13.8%. The late mortality rate was 58.5% (18-year survival rate 15.4+/-5.4%). Indications for repeat mitral valve replacement must be judged on an individual basis given the high risk associated with surgery.

  17. The Evolving Scale and Profile of Cancer Worldwide: Much Ado About Everything.

    PubMed

    Bray, Freddie

    2016-01-01

    Today, cancer is responsible for one in three premature deaths from noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and the number of annual cancer diagnoses will rise to well over 20 million by the year 2030. That cancer is of profound importance to future global health reflects both recent gains in human development as well as mortality transitions that are centuries old. Still, cancer is complex, and the extensive geographical and temporal heterogeneity alerts us to the need for targeted, local approaches to cancer control. The study of trends in specific cancer types remains essential in monitoring and evaluating such strategies and as a descriptive tool for hypothesizing possible contributory factors. Of greatest necessity is an expansion of the availability of high-quality data. To improve the limited cancer incidence data available in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development (http://gicr.iarc.fr) is an international partnership supporting countries to redraw the surveillance map.

  18. Subjective well-being and national satisfaction: findings from a worldwide survey.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Mike; Tay, Louis; Diener, Ed

    2011-02-01

    We examined the relationship between satisfaction with one's country (national satisfaction) and subjective well-being utilizing data from a representative worldwide poll. National satisfaction was a strong positive predictor of individual-level life satisfaction, and this relationship was moderated by household income, household conveniences, residential mobility, country gross domestic product per capita, and region (Western vs. non-Western country). When individuals are impoverished or more bound to their culture and surroundings, national satisfaction more strongly predicts life satisfaction. In contrast, reverse trends were found in analyses predicting life satisfaction from satisfaction in other domains (health, standard of living, and job). These patterns suggest that people are more likely to use proximate factors to judge life satisfaction where conditions are salutary, or individualism is salient, but are more likely to use perceived societal success to judge life satisfaction where life conditions are difficult, or collectivism predominates. Our findings invite new research directions and can inform quality-of-life therapies.

  19. Changes in the soils of solonetzic associations in 30 years after their reclamation with the use of moldboard plowing, deep tillage with a three-tier plow, and deep rotary tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, V. P.; Sharshak, V. K.; Bezuglova, O. S.; Ladan, E. P.; Genev, E. D.; Illarionov, V. V.; Zinchenko, V. E.; Morkovskoi, N. A.; Chernenko, V. V.; Il'Ina, L. P.

    2011-08-01

    Changes in the properties of solonetzic soil associations (chestnut solonetzic soils and chestnut solonetzes) in the dry steppe after their reclamation have been studied for 30 years. The reclamation included the deep three-tier plowing and the approach of rotary tillage. A single rotary tillage operation resulted in the formation of fine aggregates of equal sizes in the plow layer; any morphological features of the restoration of solonetzic pedogenesis are absent. The atmospheric moisture easily penetrates into the soil, and soluble salts are leached off to a great depth. In 30 years since the soil amelioration with the use of a PMS-70 rotary tiller, the humus content has increased up to 3.3% in the upper 20-cm-thick layer and up to 2.4% in the layer of 20-40 cm. The content of adsorbed Na+ in the 20- to 30-cm-thick layer has decreased to 10.6% of the cation exchange capacity (in comparison with 19.8% in the nonreclaimed soil). The spatial heterogeneity of the soil cover has decreased in comparison with that prior to the reclamation. During the entire observation period, crop yields gained from the fields reclaimed with the use of the rotary tiller have been by 25-60% higher in comparison with those on the fields with traditional treatments.

  20. Worldwide seismicity in view of non-extensive statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chochlaki, Kaliopi; Vallianatos, Filippos; Michas, George

    2014-05-01

    In the present work we study the distribution of worldwide shallow seismic events occurred from 1981 to 2011 extracted from the CMT catalog, with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.0. Our analysis based on the subdivision of the Earth surface into seismic zones that are homogeneous with regards to seismic activity and orientation of the predominant stress field. To this direction we use the Flinn-Engdahl regionalization (Flinn and Engdahl, 1965), which consists of 50 seismic zones as modified by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), where grouped the 50 FE zones into larger tectonically homogeneous ones, utilizing the cumulative moment tensor method. As a result Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), limit the initial 50 regions to 39 ones, in which we apply the non- extensive statistical physics approach. The non-extensive statistical physics seems to be the most adequate and promising methodological tool for analyzing complex systems, such as the Earth's interior. In this frame, we introduce the q-exponential formulation as the expression of probability distribution function that maximizes the Sq entropy as defined by Tsallis, (1988). In the present work we analyze the interevent time distribution between successive earthquakes by a q-exponential function in each of the seismic zones defined by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007).confirming the importance of long-range interactions and the existence of a power-law approximation in the distribution of the interevent times. Our findings supports the ideas of universality within the Tsallis approach to describe Earth's seismicity and present strong evidence on temporal clustering of seismic activity in each of the tectonic zones analyzed. Our analysis as applied in worldwide seismicity with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.5 and 6.) is presented and the dependence of our result on the cut-off magnitude is discussed. This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the

  1. A model for enhancing worldwide personal health and wellness.

    PubMed

    Marine, S; Guard, R; Morris, T; Haag, D; Kaya, B; Riep, J; Schick, L; Tsipis, G; Shoemaker, S

    1998-01-01

    Individuals must increasingly take control of managing their own health affairs. This requires access to quality information that is not easily obtained from traditional social institutions. NetWellness is an electronic consumer health information service that provides a model for reaching the goal of enhancing personal health and quality of life. [1] We present a vision of consumer health information delivery in the 21st century, and a model for reaching that vision. Our experience to date, progressing through a five-phase model, is aimed at providing the best health information possible to the widest population possible.

  2. Curriculum and Course Design: A New Approach Using Quality Function Deployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, James W.; Kleist, Virginia Franke; Surendra, Nanda

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a method for assuring the quality of curriculum design based on techniques that have been used in industrial settings for over 30 years. Quality Function Deployment assures that the needs of the customer are considered at all levels of product design and a graphical matrix called the House of Quality serves as…

  3. The Dutch Review Process for Evaluating the Quality of Psychological Tests: History, Procedure, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arne; Sijtsma, Klaas; Lucassen, Wouter; Meijer, Rob R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the 2009 revision of the Dutch Rating System for Test Quality and presents the results of test ratings from almost 30 years. The rating system evaluates the quality of a test on seven criteria: theoretical basis, quality of the testing materials, comprehensiveness of the manual, norms, reliability, construct validity, and…

  4. Potential radioactive scrap metal quantities from nuclear power plants worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Tilbrook, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 12 million tons of scrap metals are likely to be generated worldwide during the next 50 years from decommissioning and dismantling nuclear power plants. A large portion of this material will be only slightly contaminated it at all, and, it it is releasable, it would have a scrap value of billions of dollars. Disposition of the metal is complicated because criteria for release of the metal vary among countries depending on whether the metal is surface of volumetrically contaminated. At present, there is no internationally accepted standard for release of low-level contaminated materials, though both the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Commission of European Communities are in the process of developing recommendations. If the metals are not releasable, they will most likely be disposed of as low-level waste. However, currently available low-level waste repository capacity is limited and costly. Using repositories to dispose of metals that could potentially be decontaminated and recycled is probably not good resource management. This article presents estimates of metal quantities by metal type and contamination that will be come available as nuclear power plants are retired. Topics discussed are major issues related to inventory estimates, methods used to estimate metal masses; and metal masses summarized by reference plant category and total for world region by metal type and activity category. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied. PMID:27886128

  6. The heartmate left ventricular assist system: worldwide clinical results.

    PubMed

    Poirier, V L

    1997-04-01

    To date 482 patients have been treated with TCI's HeartMate left ventricular assist system (LVAS) at 70 clinical centers worldwide. Of those, 433 patients have undergone treatment with the HeartMate IP (implantable pneumatic) LVAS, while 49 patients were treated with the HeartMate VE (vented electric) LVAS. Currently 65 patients are on the HeartMate LVAS: 51 on the pneumatic version and 14 on the electric version. Of the 482 patients, 64% were transplanted after being supported for an average duration of 72 days (range 1-503 days) to arrive at a cumulative experience of greater than 100 patient years. Neural incidents occurred in 19% of the patients as a result of a variety of complications, including but not limited to air emboli, seizures, drug reactions, as well as thromboembolic complications whether device-related or not. Device-related complications remain quite low at the 2-3% range with minimal or no anticoagulant therapy. Fourteen patients on the electric version have been discharged to live at home for periods ranging from 1 to 7 months. Patients while being supported have successfully gone back to work or to school.

  7. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  8. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  9. Progress report on the Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Algermissen, S.T.; Hays, Walter W.; Krumpe, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program since its initiation in late 1989 as a cooperative program of the Agency for International Development (AID), Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), and the U.S. Geological Survey. Probabilistic peak acceleration and peak Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) maps have been prepared for Chile and for Sulawesi province in Indonesia. Earthquake risk (loss) studies for dwellings in Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, have been completed and risk studies for dwellings in selected areas of central Chile are underway. A special study of the effect of site response on earthquake ground motion estimation in central Chile has also been completed and indicates that site response may modify the ground shaking by as much as plus or minus two units of MMI. A program for the development of national probabilistic ground motion maps for the Philippines is now underway and pilot studies of earthquake ground motion and risk are being planned for Morocco.

  10. Multicore job scheduling in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forti, A.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Hartmann, T.; Alef, M.; Lahiff, A.; Templon, J.; Dal Pra, S.; Gila, M.; Skipsey, S.; Acosta-Silva, C.; Filipcic, A.; Walker, R.; Walker, C. J.; Traynor, D.; Gadrat, S.

    2015-12-01

    After the successful first run of the LHC, data taking is scheduled to restart in Summer 2015 with experimental conditions leading to increased data volumes and event complexity. In order to process the data generated in such scenario and exploit the multicore architectures of current CPUs, the LHC experiments have developed parallelized software for data reconstruction and simulation. However, a good fraction of their computing effort is still expected to be executed as single-core tasks. Therefore, jobs with diverse resources requirements will be distributed across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), making workload scheduling a complex problem in itself. In response to this challenge, the WLCG Multicore Deployment Task Force has been created in order to coordinate the joint effort from experiments and WLCG sites. The main objective is to ensure the convergence of approaches from the different LHC Virtual Organizations (VOs) to make the best use of the shared resources in order to satisfy their new computing needs, minimizing any inefficiency originated from the scheduling mechanisms, and without imposing unnecessary complexities in the way sites manage their resources. This paper describes the activities and progress of the Task Force related to the aforementioned topics, including experiences from key sites on how to best use different batch system technologies, the evolution of workload submission tools by the experiments and the knowledge gained from scale tests of the different proposed job submission strategies.

  11. Transform continental margins - Part 2: A worldwide review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Roest, Walter R.; Patriat, Martin; Maillard, Agnès; De Clarens, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    We present a global inventory of transform continental margins, based on both a worldwide comparison of continent-ocean boundary identifications with oceanic fracture zones traces, and a compilation of published regional studies. This inventory increases the number of identified transform margins from 29 to 78. These margins represent 16% of continental margins in cumulative length and 31% of non-convergent margins. We include morphological data, published upper crustal sections, continent to ocean transition locations and published Moho shape data in the new database. This review confirms that continent to ocean transitions are sharper at transform margins than at divergent margins. It also emphasizes the structural diversity of transform margins. Associated with one third of transform margins, we define marginal plateaus as a new type of relief that corresponds to a flat but deep surface inside the continental slope, and that may be inherited from crustal thinning prior to transform faulting. Transform margin initiation appears to be favoured along propagating oceans and within cold and thick lithospheres.

  12. Carbonate reservoir plays in the South Atlantic and worldwide analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohriak, Webster

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a summary of the geological, geophysical and petrophysical challenges for interpretation of post-salt and presalt carbonate rocks that constitute one of the main reservoirs in the hydrocarbon accumulations in the South Atlantic, particularly in the Campos and Santos basins offshore Brazil and in the Angola -Gabon conjugate margins. Carbonate rocks associated with salt tectonics constitute one of the main exploratory plays in several basins worldwide, and recently have yielded large petroleum discoveries in the southeastern Brazilian continental margin (Santos Basin) and also in Angola (Kwanza Basin) . The presalt microbialite reservoirs are sealed by evaporites and the origin of these rocks is still controversial. One current of interpretation assumes they are associated with reefs and carbonate buildups formed during periods of sea-level rises in a desiccating basin. Other currents of interpretation assume that these rocks might be associated with hydrothermal fluids and chemical precipitation of carbonates in a basin affected by volcanic episodes, resulting in travertine deposits with secondary biogenic growth. We present examples of post-salt oil fields involving Albian carbonates in the South Atlantic, and also discuss the presalt plays recently drilled in ultradeep waters. The presalt carbonate reservoirs are compared with possible microbialite analogs in the sedimentary basins of Brazil dating from Neoproterozoic to Recent, and their similarities and differences in terms of depositional setting and petrophysical parameters from the Late Aptian presalt carbonate rocks that have been sampled in the Santos and Kwanza basins.

  13. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Amy C; McDowell, Nathan G; Allen, Craig D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J

    2015-09-28

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change(1-3). Droughts alter the structure and function of forests(4,5). Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests(6) and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage(7) and hydrology(8), exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees(4,5,9,10). Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress(11-14), the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns(4,15), and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees(16). We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  14. WorldWide Telescope in Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A.; Fay, J.; Muench, A.; Pepe, A.; Udompraseret, P.; Wong, C.

    2012-09-01

    The WorldWide Telescope computer program, released to researchers and the public as a free resource in 2008 by Microsoft Research, has changed the way the ever-growing Universe of online astronomical data is viewed and understood. The WWT program can be thought of as a scriptable, interactive, richly visual browser of the multi-wavelength Sky as we see it from Earth, and of the Universe as we would travel within it. In its web API format, WWT is being used as a service to display professional research data. In its desktop format, WWT works in concert (thanks to SAMP and other IVOA standards) with more traditional research applications such as ds9, Aladin and TOPCAT. The WWT Ambassadors Program (founded in 2009) recruits and trains astrophysically-literate volunteers (including retirees) who use WWT as a teaching tool in online, classroom, and informal educational settings. Early quantitative studies of WWTA indicate that student experiences with WWT enhance science learning dramatically. Thanks to the wealth of data it can access, and the growing number of services to which it connects, WWT is now a key linking technology in the Seamless Astronomy environment we seek to offer researchers, teachers, and students alike.

  15. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  16. Worldwide Telescope as an earth and planetary science educational platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, D. R.; Rush, K.; van Ingen, C.; Wong, C.; Fay, J.; Xu, Y.; Fay, D.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide Telescope (WWT) -available at no cost from Microsoft Research as both Windows desktop and web browser applications - enables personal computers to function as virtual telescopes for viewing the earth, the solar system and the cosmos across many wavelengths. Bringing together imagery from ground and space-based telescopes as well as photography from Mars rovers and Apollo astronauts, WWT is designed to work as both a research tool and a platform for educational exploration. Central to the latter purpose is the Tour authoring facility which enables a student or educator to create narrative stories with dynamic perspective, voice-over narrative, background sound and superimposed content. We describe here the application of recent developments in WWT, particularly the 2009 updates, towards planetary science education with particular emphasis on WWT earth models. Two core themes informing this development are the notions of enabling social networking through WWT Communities and including the earth as part of the bigger picture, in effect swinging the telescope around from the deep sky to look back at our observatory. moon, earth (WWT solar system view)

  17. Development of contact lenses and their worldwide use.

    PubMed

    Key, James E

    2007-11-01

    The concept of applying a lens to the cornea as a refractive appliance was first proposed in the early 19th century. By 1888, glass scleral lenses for the correction of optical defects and irregularities were manufactured and used. New materials, especially soft hydrogel lenses and rigid gas-permeable lenses, became available in the 20th century and allowed comfortable contact lenses to be made in any design needed. By the 21st century, the increasing use of silicone hydrogel lenses to address the oxygen need of the cornea has led to increased worldwide use. Of the 125 million global contact lens wearers, most are female and relatively young. Soft lenses are by far the dominant modality used, with silicone hydrogel lenses taking an increasing share of new fittings, particularly for overnight wear. Microbial keratitis, although relatively uncommon, remains the most serious potential complication for these lens wearers. Ongoing basic research, more powerful antimicrobial agents, and the development of safer lens materials are helping to alleviate this problem.

  18. Ten great public health achievements--worldwide, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-06-24

    Worldwide, a child born in 1955 had an average life expectancy at birth of only 48 years. By 2000, the average life expectancy at birth had increased to 66 years and, if past trends continue, is projected to rise to 73 years by 2025. These improvements in longevity have resulted from improved living conditions overall, advances in medical science, and a number of population-level interventions. However, major disparities persist. During the past decade, in low-income countries, average life expectancy at birth increased from 55 to 57 years (3.6%), while increasing from 78 to 80 years (2.6%) in high-income countries. Analogous to the recent MMWR report highlighting 10 public health achievements that occurred in the United States over the first 10 years of the new century, this report describes global public health achievements during the same period. Experts in global public health were asked to nominate noteworthy public health achievements that occurred outside of the United States during 2001-2010. From them, 10 have been summarized in this report. As with the previous report, the 10 global public health achievements are not ranked in any order. Additional information regarding these achievements is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6019a5_addinfo.htm.

  19. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  20. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.