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Sample records for quantifying arm activity

  1. Arm-eye coordination test to objectively quantify motor performance and muscles activation in persons after stroke undergoing robot-aided rehabilitation training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Li, Le; Sun, Rui

    2013-09-01

    This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the parameters. Performance was objectively quantified by root mean square error (RMSE), root mean square jerk (RMSJ), range of motion (ROM), and co-contraction index (CI). After 20 sessions, RMSE and ROM improved significantly in both the affected and the unaffected side based on two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05). There was significant lower RMSJ in the affected side at higher velocities (P < 0.05). There was significant negative correlation between average RMSE with different tracking velocities and Fugl-Meyer shoulder-elbow score (P < 0.05). There was also significant negative correlation between average RMSE and average ROM (P < 0.05), and moderate nonsignificant negative correlation with RMSJ, and CI. The characterization of velocity-dependent deficiencies, monitoring of training-induced improvement, and the correlation between quantitative parameters and clinical scales could enable the exploration of effects of different types of treatment and design progress-based training method to accelerate the processes of recovery.

  2. Greater activation of secondary motor areas is related to less arm use after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kokotilo, Kristen J; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A; McKeown, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Background Past studies have identified reorganization of brain activity in relation to motor outcome through standardized laboratory measures, which are quantifiable surrogates for arm use in real-life. In contrast, accelerometers can provide a real-life estimate of arm and hand usage. Methods Ten persons with chronic, subcortical stroke and ten healthy controls of similar age performed a squeeze motor task at 40% maximum voluntary contraction during fMRI. Use of the upper extremity was quantified over 3 consecutive days using wrist accelerometers. Correlations were performed between arm use and peak percent signal change (PSC) during grasp force production in six regions of interest (ROIs): bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and premotor cortex (PM). Results Results demonstrate that in healthy controls, PSC across all ROIs did not show a relationship between arm use and brain activation during force production. In contrast, after stroke, contralesional PM and M1 showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlation between increasing activation and decreasing paretic arm use, while ipsilesional PM showed a significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between increasing activation and decreasing non-paretic arm use. Conclusions The results of this pilot study demonstrate a negative relationship between brain activation and actual arm use after stroke. Larger studies using accelerometers that can detect amount and types of movement may offer further insight into brain reorganization and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:19737873

  3. Characteristics of daily arm activities in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Kenneth; Annegarn, Janneke; Lima Passos, Valéria; Savelberg, Hans H; Schols, Annemie M; Wouters, Emiel F; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Arm activities are required for maintenance of self-care and independent living. This study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent arm activities of daily living (ADL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients differ compared to healthy controls and the extent to which they perform arm ADL at a relatively higher upper limb muscle effort. Daily arm and leg activities were assessed using accelerometers in the home environment (COPD: n=21, healthy: n=24; part 1). The relative efforts of the trapezius, deltoid and biceps muscles were studied using electromyography during domestic arm ADL in a laboratory setting (COPD: n=17, healthy: n=15; part 2). After correction for walking time, the time spent on arm ADL was similar between COPD patients and healthy control subjects (p=0.52), while the intensity of arm activities was lower in COPD patients (p=0.041). In the laboratory setting, arm ADL were performed at a lower intensity by COPD patients, while the trapezius muscle effort was significantly higher during several arm ADL compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.05). COPD patients have a similar duration of arm ADL compared to healthy subjects after correction for walking time, but perform arm activities at a lower intensity. Moreover, patients perform some arm ADL at a relatively higher muscle effort.

  4. Core Muscle Activation in One-Armed and Two-Armed Kettlebell Swing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Gunnarskog, Aril; Jungård, Georg-Andrè; Slåttland, Roy-Andrè; Vraalsen, Øyvind F; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, and lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in 1-armed and 2-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed 10 repetitions of both exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell in randomized order. For the upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during 1-armed swing was 24% greater than that of the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p < 0.001) and 11% greater during 2-armed swing (p = 0.026). Furthermore, the activation in 2-armed swing was 12-16% greater than for the ipsilateral side in 1-armed swing (p < 0.001). For rectus abdominis, however, 42% lower activation of the contralateral side was observed during 1-armed swing compared with ipsilateral sides during 2-armed swing (p = 0.038) and 48% compared with the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p = 0.044). Comparing the different phases of the swing, most differences in the upper erector spinae were found in the lower parts of the movement, whereas for the rectus abdominis, the differences were found during the hip extension. In contrast, similar muscle activity in the lower erector spinae and external oblique between the different conditions was observed (p = 0.055-0.969). In conclusion, performing the kettlebell swing with 1 arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles.

  5. Extravehicular activity translation arm (EVATA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Stammreich, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a deployable Extravehicular Activity Translation Arm (EVATA) assembly which will allow an EVA crewman to perform tasks in the vicinity of the External TNK (ET) umbilical doors and to inspect most of the underside of the shuttle spacecraft is reported. The concept chosen for the boom structure was the Astro Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which formed the main structure for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna System on the SEASAT A spacecraft. This structure is a deployable triangular truss. A comparison of the EVATA and the SEASAT A ESS is shown. The development of status of the ESS is shown. The satellite configuration, the stowed truss load path, and the envelope deployment sequence for the ESS are also shown.

  6. Implementation of a smartphone as a wireless gyroscope platform for quantifying reduced arm swing in hemiplegie gait with machine learning classification by multilayer perceptron neural network.

    PubMed

    LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Natural gait consists of synchronous and rhythmic patterns for both the lower and upper limb. People with hemiplegia can experience reduced arm swing, which can negatively impact the quality of gait. Wearable and wireless sensors, such as through a smartphone, have demonstrated the ability to quantify various features of gait. With a software application the smartphone (iPhone) can function as a wireless gyroscope platform capable of conveying a gyroscope signal recording as an email attachment by wireless connectivity to the Internet. The gyroscope signal recordings of the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm are post-processed into a feature set for machine learning. Using a multilayer perceptron neural network a considerable degree of classification accuracy is attained to distinguish between the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm.

  7. Quantifying ant activity using vibration measurements.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C S; Evans, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult.

  8. Quantifying Ant Activity Using Vibration Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult. PMID:24658467

  9. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  10. The cortical activation pattern during bilateral arm raising movements

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jung Pyo; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin in five regions of interest: the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. During performance of bilateral arm raising movements, oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin values in the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex were similar, but higher in these regions than those in the prefrontal cortex. We observed activation of the arm somatotopic areas of the primary sensorimotor cortex and premotor cortex in both hemispheres during bilateral arm raising movements. According to this result, bilateral arm raising movements appeared to induce large-scale neuronal activation and therefore arm raising movements would be good exercise for recovery of brain functions. PMID:28400816

  11. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B

    1998-08-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm.

  12. Personal Activity Trackers and the Quantified Self.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Personal activity trackers are an inexpensive and easy way for people to record their physical activity and simple biometric data. As these devices have increased in availability and sophistication, their use in daily life and in medicine has grown. This column will briefly explore what these devices are, what types of data they can track, and how that data can be used. It will also discuss potential problems with trackers and how librarians can help patients and physicians manage and protect activity data. A brief list of currently available activity trackers is also included.

  13. Arm and shoulder conditions, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    This analysis estimated the incidence and health care burden of acute and chronic conditions of the arm and shoulder among active component service members of the Armed Forces from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012. There were 196,789 diagnosed incident cases of acute arm and shoulder conditions for a rate of 13.7 cases per 1,000 person-years. The annual incidence rates of sprains, the most common acute condition, nearly doubled during the period. Diagnoses of chronic conditions (overall rate of 28.8 per 1,000 person-years) increased 25 percent during the period, mainly associated with a doubling of the incidence of diagnoses of joint pain. Incidence rates of chronic disorders were progressively higher among successively older age groups of service members. The health care burden of all arm and shoulder conditions together steadily increased during the period, as indicated by numbers of health care encounters, individuals affected, and lost work time. The most commonly documented causes associated with acute and chronic conditions are described.

  14. Modulation of cutaneous reflexes in human upper limb muscles during arm cycling is independent of activity in the contralateral arm.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Timothy J; Zehr, E Paul; Collins, David F

    2005-02-01

    The amplitudes and signs of cutaneous reflexes are modulated during rhythmic movements of the arms and legs (during walking and arm or leg cycling for instance). This reflex modulation is frequently independent of the background muscle activity and may involve central pattern generator (CPG) circuits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the nature and degree of coupling between the upper limbs during arm cycling, with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes. Responses to electrical stimulations of the right, superficial radial nerve (five 1 ms pulses, 300 Hz) were recorded bilaterally in six arm muscles of eight participants during arm cycling involving only the limb ipsilateral to the stimulation, only the limb contralateral to the stimulation, and bilateral movement when the limbs were both in-phase and 180 degrees out of phase. The pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation throughout the arm cycle was independent of the functional state of the limb contralateral to the recording site, irrespective of whether recordings were made ipsilateral or contralateral to the stimulation. Furthermore, cutaneous reflexes were significantly (p<0.05) modulated with arm position in only 8% of cases in which the limb containing the responding muscle was either stationary or being moved passively by the experimenter. The results show that there is relatively weak coupling between the arms with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes during rhythmic, cyclical arm movements. This suggests a loose connection between the CPGs for each arm that regulate muscle activity and reflex amplitude during rhythmic movement.

  15. A common neural element receiving rhythmic arm and leg activity as assessed by reflex modulation in arm muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shinya; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Neural interactions between regulatory systems for rhythmic arm and leg movements are an intriguing issue in locomotor neuroscience. Amplitudes of early latency cutaneous reflexes (ELCRs) in stationary arm muscles are modulated during rhythmic leg or arm cycling but not during limb positioning or voluntary contraction. This suggests that interneurons mediating ELCRs to arm muscles integrate outputs from neural systems controlling rhythmic limb movements. Alternatively, outputs could be integrated at the motoneuron and/or supraspinal levels. We examined whether a separate effect on the ELCR pathways and cortico-motoneuronal excitability during arm and leg cycling is integrated by neural elements common to the lumbo-sacral and cervical spinal cord. The subjects performed bilateral leg cycling (LEG), contralateral arm cycling (ARM), and simultaneous contralateral arm and bilateral leg cycling (A&L), while ELCRs in the wrist flexor and shoulder flexor muscles were evoked by superficial radial (SR) nerve stimulation. ELCR amplitudes were facilitated by cycling tasks and were larger during A&L than during ARM and LEG. A low stimulus intensity during ARM or LEG generated a larger ELCR during A&L than the sum of ELCRs during ARM and LEG. We confirmed this nonlinear increase in single motor unit firing probability following SR nerve stimulation during A&L. Furthermore, motor-evoked potentials following transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation did not show nonlinear potentiation during A&L. These findings suggest the existence of a common neural element of the ELCR reflex pathway that is active only during rhythmic arm and leg movement and receives convergent input from contralateral arms and legs.

  16. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P < 0.0001, I² = 36%), and arm muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70, P = 0.04, I² = 72%), but the quality of the

  17. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving generic activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, Jan; Hädrich, Anja; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Pohl, Marcus

    2012-06-13

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and might help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving generic activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in patients after stroke. We will also assess the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched July 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1950 to July 2011), EMBASE (1980 to July 2011), CINAHL (1982 to July 2011), AMED (1985 to July 2011), SPORTDiscus (1949 to July 2011), PEDro (searched August 2011), COMPENDEX (1972 to July 2011), and INSPEC (1969 to July 2011). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for patients after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 19 trials (involving 666 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training did improve activities of daily living (SMD 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.75, P = 0.009, I(2) = 67%) as well as arm function (SMD 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.69, P = 0.0004, I(2) = 45%), but arm muscle strength did not improve (SMD 0.48, 95% CI -0.06 to 1.03, P = 0.08, I(2) = 79

  18. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving arm function and activities of daily living after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, Jan; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Pohl, Marcus

    2008-10-08

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation and might help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living and arm function and motor strength of patients after stroke, and the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched October 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), MEDLINE (1950 to October 2007), EMBASE (1980 to October 2007), CINAHL (1982 to October 2007), AMED (1985 to October 2007), SPORTDiscus (1949 to October 2007), PEDro (searched October 2007), COMPENDEX (1972 to October 2007) and INSPEC (1969 to October 2007). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts and researchers in our field, and manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation interventions or no treatment for patients after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and relative risk differences (RD) for dichotomous variables. We included 11 trials (328 participants) in this review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training did not improve activities of daily living (SMD = 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.47 to 1.06; P = 0.45; I(2 )= 85%). Arm motor function and arm motor strength improved (SMD = 0.68, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.11; P = 0.002; I(2 )= 56% and SMD = 01.03, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.78; P = 0.007; I(2 )= 79% respectively). Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training

  19. Arm Activity During Daily Life in Individuals With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Mathur, Sunita; Romano, Julia Marie; Goldstein, Roger Samuel; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have decreased arm activity during daily life compared with healthy controls and explore the relationships between arm activity during daily life and arm functional measures in individuals with COPD. This was a prospective cross-sectional study that included 30 people with COPD and 14 healthy controls. Subjects attended a single assessment session in which measurements of arm exercise capacity, arm functional performance, self-perception of performance during activities of daily living (ADL), shoulder and elbow flexion force and biceps and triceps thickness were performed. On completion of this session, participants were issued a wrist actigraph and asked to wear the device on the dominant arm for 24 hours for 7 consecutive days. Compared with healthy controls, patients with COPD presented decreased total activity level in daily life (P = .001). When corrected for walking, the level of arm activity did not differ between individuals with COPD and healthy controls (P = .62). No correlations were found between arm activity and arm exercise capacity, arm functional performance, upper limb muscle strength, and self-perception of performance during ADL (r =-0.20 to 0.14; all P ≥ .10). Arm activity intensity in individuals with COPD did not differ from that of healthy controls when measured by a wrist actigraph. Moreover, arm activity was not associated with other clinical outcomes of arm function. Disability during ADL is multifactorial, and only limited inferences of function can be made from accelerometer data.

  20. Quantifying reflectance anisotropy of photosynthetically active radiation in grasslands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    Quantifying the vegetative surface's reflectance anisotropy was an important part of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment, as its major objectives focused on retrieval of surface parameters from satellite-derived reflectances. The explicit remote measurements for approximating the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of photosynthetically active radiation had not been previously undertaken. In this paper the proper expression of reflectance for BRDFs for retrieval of canopy parameters is assessed.

  1. A novel robotic system for quantifying arm kinematics and kinetics: description and evaluation in therapist-assisted passive arm movements post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Culmer, P R; Jackson, A E; Makower, S G; Cozens, J A; Levesley, M C; Mon-Williams, M; Bhakta, B

    2011-04-30

    We developed a system for quantitatively measuring arm movement. Our approach provides a method to simultaneously capture upper limb kinetic and kinematic data during assisted passive arm movements. Data are analysed with respect to Cartesian and upper limb coordinate systems to obtain upper limb joint angles and torques. We undertook an evaluation of the system in participants with stroke to show the feasibility of this approach. During rehabilitation after stroke, one aspect of treatment includes the physiotherapist applying assistive forces to move the impaired arm of the patient who remains passive. There is a dearth of published data on the relationship between upper limb kinematics and the underlying forces (kinetics) in this mode of physiotherapy treatment. Such quantitative data are crucial in facilitating research into therapy practice, for example by measuring variation in practice and determining dosage. An experienced therapist prescribed passive movements tailored to the needs of 16 participants with stroke (41-81 years) with a range of anthropometric sizes and motor impairments. Our novel measurement tool recorded kinematic and kinetic data at 100 Hz for 6-11 movements per participant. The kinetic data show that the majority of movements fall within upper limits of 36.7 N in shoulder elevation, 22.4N in shoulder protraction, 4.6 Nm in shoulder abduction, 12.8 Nm in shoulder flexion, 2.4 Nm in shoulder rotation and 5.5 Nm in elbow flexion. These data show the potential of this system to better understand arm movement, in particular to objectively evaluate physical therapy treatments and support development of robotic devices to facilitate upper limb rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nematocytes' activation in Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) oral arms.

    PubMed

    Morabito, R; Marino, A; La Spada, G

    2012-06-01

    Nematocytes' discharge is triggered to perform both defense and predation strategies in cnidarians and occurs under chemico-physical stimulation. In this study, different compounds such as amino acids and proteins (mucin, albumin, poly-L: -lysine, trypsin), sugars and N-acetylate sugars (N-acetyl neuraminic acid, N-acetyl galactosamine, sucrose, glucose, agarose and trehalose), nucleotides (ATP and cAMP), were tested as chemosensitizers of nematocyte discharge in the oral arms of the scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca, particularly abundant in the Strait of Messina (Italy). Excised oral arms were submitted to a combined chemico-physical stimulation by treatment with different compounds followed by mechanical stimulation by a non-vibrating test probe. Discharge induced by a chemico-physical stimulation was more significant than that obtained after mechanical stimulation alone. A chemosensitizing mechanism, with a dose-dependent effect, was observed after treatment with sugars, amino compounds such as glutathione, nucleotides and mucin, according to that already seen in sea anemones. Such findings suggest that, though Anthozoa and Scyphozoa exhibit different divergence times during the evolutionary process, the discharge activation exhibits common features, probably derived from their last common ancestor.

  3. Quantifying unsteadiness and dynamics of pulsatory volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, L.; Pioli, L.; Bonadonna, C.; Connor, C. B.; Andronico, D.; Harris, A. J. L.; Ripepe, M.

    2016-06-01

    Pulsatory eruptions are marked by a sequence of explosions which can be separated by time intervals ranging from a few seconds to several hours. The quantification of the periodicities associated with these eruptions is essential not only for the comprehension of the mechanisms controlling explosivity, but also for classification purposes. We focus on the dynamics of pulsatory activity and quantify unsteadiness based on the distribution of the repose time intervals between single explosive events in relation to magma properties and eruptive styles. A broad range of pulsatory eruption styles are considered, including Strombolian, violent Strombolian and Vulcanian explosions. We find a general relationship between the median of the observed repose times in eruptive sequences and the viscosity of magma given by η ≈ 100 ṡtmedian. This relationship applies to the complete range of magma viscosities considered in our study (102 to 109 Pa s) regardless of the eruption length, eruptive style and associated plume heights, suggesting that viscosity is the main magma property controlling eruption periodicity. Furthermore, the analysis of the explosive sequences in terms of failure time through statistical survival analysis provides further information: dynamics of pulsatory activity can be successfully described in terms of frequency and regularity of the explosions, quantified based on the log-logistic distribution. A linear relationship is identified between the log-logistic parameters, μ and s. This relationship is useful for quantifying differences among eruptive styles from very frequent and regular mafic events (Strombolian activity) to more sporadic and irregular Vulcanian explosions in silicic systems. The time scale controlled by the parameter μ, as a function of the median of the distribution, can be therefore correlated with the viscosity of magmas; while the complexity of the erupting system, including magma rise rate, degassing and fragmentation efficiency

  4. Cortical Spectral Activity and Connectivity during Active and Viewed Arm and Leg Movement

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Julia E.; Huang, Helen J.; Snyder, Kristine L.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG) could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: (1) both arms and legs, (2) just legs, and (3) just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and supplementary motor

  5. Quantifying real-world upper limb activity in nondisabled adults and adults with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Klaesner, Joseph W.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor capability is commonly assessed inside the clinic, but motor performance in real-world settings (i.e. outside of the clinic) is seldom assessed because measurement tools are lacking. Objective To quantify real-world bilateral upper limb (UL) activity in nondisabled adults and adults with stroke using a recently-developed accelerometry-based methodology. Methods Nondisabled adults (n=74) and adults with chronic stroke (n=48) wore accelerometers on both wrists for 25-26 hours. Motor capability was assessed using the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Accelerometry-derived variables were calculated to quantify intensity of bilateral UL activity (i.e. Bilateral Magnitude) and the contribution of both ULs to activity (Magnitude Ratio) for each second of activity. Density plots were used to examine each second of bilateral UL activity throughout the day. Results Nondisabled adults demonstrated equivalent use of dominant and nondominant ULs, indicated by symmetrical density plots and a median Magnitude Ratio of -0.1 (Interquartile Range: 0.3) where a value of 0 indicates equal activity between ULs. Bilateral UL activity intensity was lower (p<0.001) and more lateralized in adults with stroke as indicated by asymmetrical density plots and a lower median Magnitude Ratio (-2.2, Interquartile Range: 6.2, p<0.001). Density plots were similar between many stroke participants who had different ARAT scores, indicating that real-world bilateral UL activity was similar despite different motor capabilities. Conclusions Quantification and visualization of real-world bilateral UL activity can be accomplished using this novel accelerometry-based methodology, and complements results obtained from clinical tests of function when assessing recovery of UL activity following neurologic injury. PMID:25896988

  6. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Li, Yue; Liu, An-Min; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jin-Ling; Dai, Ke-Rong; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Arm swing is an essential component in regulating dynamic stability of the whole body during walking, while the contribution of active arm swing to local dynamic stability of different motion segments remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of arm swing under natural arm swing condition and active arm swing condition on local dynamic stability and gait variability of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The local divergence exponents (λs) and mean standard deviation over strides (MeanSD) of 24 young healthy adults were calculated while they were walking on treadmill with two arm swing conditions at their preferred walking speed (PWS). We found that in medial-lateral direction, both λs and MeanSD values of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) in active arm swing condition were significantly lower than those in natural arm swing condition (p<0.05), while no significant difference of λs or MeanSD in lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint) was found between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). In anterior-posterior and vertical direction, neither λs nor MeanSD values of all body segments showed significant difference between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). These findings indicate that active arm swing may help to improve the local dynamic stability of the trunk segments in medial-lateral direction.

  7. Quantifying the contribution of neighborhood parks to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2013-11-01

    To quantify the contribution of U.S. neighborhood parks to the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by the local population. Observational data on the use of 10 parks in five US cities collected during summer and fall 2008 were analyzed by a model-averaging approach. Estimated MVPA time accrued in parks was compared to estimated total MVPA time accrued by the local population, based upon national estimates. On average, parks provided roughly 4000hours of use and 1500 MVPA hours per week. Park use accounted for approximately 50% of the vigorous physical activity (VPA) time of those living within 0.5 miles of the park and 16% of those living within 1.0 miles of the park. Parks accounted for a modest proportion of moderate physical activity (MPA) time, about 14% and 4% for those living within 0.5 miles and 1.0 miles of the park, respectively. Parks have significant roles in supporting vigorous physical activity of the local population. Because they are underutilized and vigorous activity is critical to child development and adult physical fitness, efforts should be made to promote vigorous activity within local parks. © 2013.

  8. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  9. Political Activities by Members of the Armed Forces on Active Duty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    an election day. 13. Solicit or otherwise engage in fundraising activities in Federal offices or facilities, including military reservations, for a...actively promote, political dinners and similar fundraising events. 18. Attend partisan political events as an official representative of the Armed Forces

  10. Quantifying publication scholarly activity of psychiatry residency training directors.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Nathan S; Martinez, Azalia V; Schillerstrom, Jason E; Luber, M Philip; Hamaoka, Derrick A

    2015-02-01

    The authors quantify the number of PubMed-indexed publications by psychiatry program directors during a 5-year observation period. The authors obtained the names of general adult, child and adolescent, and geriatric psychiatry program directors from the ACGME website and entered them into a PubMed.gov database search. Then, they counted the number of indexed publications from July 2008 to June 2013 and categorized them by academic year. The median number of publications was one for adult psychiatry program directors (n=184), one for child and adolescent directors (n=121), and three for geriatric psychiatry directors (n=58). The number of PubMed-indexed publications for program directors of general adult, child and adolescent, and geriatric psychiatry residencies is relatively low. Further research is needed to identify and examine the challenges facing program directors that may limit their ability to participate in this form of scholarly activity.

  11. Quantifying agonist activity at G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Frederick J; Suga, Hinako; Griffin, Michael T

    2011-12-26

    ). The estimate of τK(obs) of one agonist, divided by that of another, is a relative measure of K(b) (RA(i)). For any receptor exhibiting constitutive activity, it is possible to estimate a parameter proportional to the efficacy of the free receptor complex (τ(sys)). In this case, the K(b) value of an agonist is equivalent to τK(obs)/τ(sys). Our method is useful for determining the selectivity of an agonist for receptor subtypes and for quantifying agonist-receptor signaling through different G proteins.

  12. Quantifying the Performance of Individual Players in a Team Activity

    PubMed Central

    Duch, Jordi; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Background Teamwork is a fundamental aspect of many human activities, from business to art and from sports to science. Recent research suggest that team work is of crucial importance to cutting-edge scientific research, but little is known about how teamwork leads to greater creativity. Indeed, for many team activities, it is not even clear how to assign credit to individual team members. Remarkably, at least in the context of sports, there is usually a broad consensus on who are the top performers and on what qualifies as an outstanding performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to determine how individual features can be quantified, and as a test bed for other team-based human activities, we analyze the performance of players in the European Cup 2008 soccer tournament. We develop a network approach that provides a powerful quantification of the contributions of individual players and of overall team performance. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that generalizations of our approach could be useful in other contexts where quantification of the contributions of individual team members is important. PMID:20585387

  13. On quantifying active soil carbon using mid-infrared ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is derived from plant or animal residues deposited to soil and is in various stages of decomposition and mineralization. Total SOM is a common measure of soil quality, although due to its heterogeneous composition SOM can vary dramatically in terms of its biochemical properties and residence times, which ultimately affect soil heath and function. One operationally defined SOM fraction is “active soil carbon” (ASC) which is thought to consist of readily oxidizable SOM that is responsive to management practices and may provide one measure of “soil health” closely associated with soil biological activity. ASC can be a useful indicator to assist farmers and land managers in their selection of soil management practices to maintain ASC or to build total SOM. ASC has generally been measured using permanganate oxidation, a costly and time-intensive procedure. Chemometric modeling using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) has been successfully used to estimate a range of soil properties, including total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). Consequently, we hypothesized that we could use MIR to estimate ASC. Here we report on a method that uses MIR and chemometric signal processing to quantify TOC and ASC on a variety of soils collected serially and seasonally from a maximum of 76 locations across the United States. TOC was measured using high temperature oxidation and ASC was measured as permanganate-oxidizabl

  14. Quantifying the sources of error in measurements of urine activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, P.D.; Kim, H.J.; McElgin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate scintigraphic measurements of radioactivity in the bladder and voided urine specimens can be limited by scatter, attenuation, and variations in the volume of urine that a given dose is distributed in. The purpose of this study was to quantify some of the errors that these problems can introduce. Transmission scans and 41 conjugate images of the bladder were sequentially acquired on a dual headed camera over 24 hours in 6 subjects after the intravenous administration of 100-150 MBq (2.7-3.6 mCi) of a novel I-123 labeled benzamide. Renal excretion fractions were calculated by measuring the counts in conjugate images of 41 sequentially voided urine samples. A correction for scatter was estimated by comparing the count rates in images that were acquired with the photopeak centered an 159 keV and images that were made simultaneously with the photopeak centered on 126 keV. The decay and attenuation corrected, geometric mean activities were compared to images of the net dose injected. Checks of the results were performed by measuring the total volume of each voided urine specimen and determining the activity in a 20 ml aliquot of it with a dose calibrator. Modeling verified the experimental results which showed that 34% of the counts were attenuated when the bladder had been expanded to a volume of 300 ml. Corrections for attenuation that were based solely on the transmission scans were limited by the volume of non-radioactive urine in the bladder before the activity was administered. The attenuation of activity in images of the voided wine samples was dependent on the geometry of the specimen container. The images of urine in standard, 300 ml laboratory specimen cups had 39{plus_minus}5% fewer counts than images of the same samples laid out in 3 liter bedpans. Scatter through the carbon fiber table substantially increased the number of counts in the images by an average of 14%.

  15. Arm strength training improves activities of daily living and occupational performance in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Arikan, Hulya; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Oksuz, Cigdem; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Savci, Sema; Duger, Tulin; Coplu, Lutfi

    2015-12-01

    Arm strength training may improve functional performance for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This trial investigated the effects of arm strength training on arm exercise capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and occupational performance in patients with COPD. These was a randomized controlled trial in an outpatient clinic. Forty-two stable patients with COPD were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The treatment group underwent an 8-week (23 sessions) arm strength training programme. Both groups completed daily breathing exercises at home. Tests included hand grip strength, arm ergometer test, the Glittre-ADL and ADL Simulation tests and measures included the Milliken ADL Scale (MAS) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Statistically significant increases were detected in hand grip strength and %hand grip strength values, peak arm ergometer workload and the number of ADL simulation test cycles for the treatment group (p < 0.05). Significant decreases were also found in dyspnea and arm fatigue perception during arm ergometer test, and heart rate and dyspnea perception during Glittre-ADL test in the treatment group (p < 0.05). The treatment group also showed significant increases in MAS-house cleaning and laundry and MAS-other activities integrated scores and COPM-performance and satisfaction scores (p < 0.05). Arm strength training increases peripheral muscle strength, arm exercise capacity, ADL performance and patients' ADL performance satisfaction. Training decreases dyspnea and arm fatigue perception during supported arm exercises, and dyspnea perception during ADL. Arm strength training is a reliable and feasible treatment for COPD patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension.

  17. Quantifying the impact of human activity on temperatures in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Susanne A.; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Human activity directly influences ambient air, surface and groundwater temperatures. Alterations of surface cover and land use influence the ambient thermal regime causing spatial temperature anomalies, most commonly heat islands. These local temperature anomalies are primarily described within the bounds of large and densely populated urban settlements, where they form so-called urban heat islands (UHI). This study explores the anthropogenic impact not only for selected cities, but for the thermal regime on a countrywide scale, by analyzing mean annual temperature datasets in Germany in three different compartments: measured surface air temperature (SAT), measured groundwater temperature (GWT), and satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST). As a universal parameter to quantify anthropogenic heat anomalies, the anthropogenic heat intensity (AHI) is introduced. It is closely related to the urban heat island intensity, but determined for each pixel (for satellite-derived LST) or measurement point (for SAT and GWT) of a large, even global, dataset individually, regardless of land use and location. Hence, it provides the unique opportunity to a) compare the anthropogenic impact on temperatures in air, surface and subsurface, b) to find main instances of anthropogenic temperature anomalies within the study area, in this case Germany, and c) to study the impact of smaller settlements or industrial sites on temperatures. For all three analyzed temperature datasets, anthropogenic heat intensity grows with increasing nighttime lights and declines with increasing vegetation, whereas population density has only minor effects. While surface anthropogenic heat intensity cannot be linked to specific land cover types in the studied resolution (1 km × 1 km) and classification system, both air and groundwater show increased heat intensities for artificial surfaces. Overall, groundwater temperature appears most vulnerable to human activity; unlike land surface temperature

  18. Arms Control and Nonproliferation Activities: A Catalog of Recent Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-19

    explosive yield of underground nuclear explosions to 150 kilotons ( TNT equivalent ). Both were ratified in 1990. CTBT negotiations began in 1994 in the...warheads. Yield: The amount of energy released by a nuclear explosion. Generally measured in equivalent tons of TNT . CRS-94 Appendix D: Arms Control...control or ban anti-personnel landmines . The fourth section of this report focus on multilateral nonproliferation efforts, such as the Nuclear

  19. A dynamic model for generating actuator specifications for small arms barrel active stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Lavigna, Chris

    2006-03-01

    Due to stresses encountered in combat, it is known that soldier marksmanship noticeably decreases regardless of prior training. Active stabilization systems in small arms have potential to address this problem to increase soldier survivability and mission effectiveness. The key to success is proper actuator design, but this is highly dependent on proper specification which is challenging due to the human/weapon interaction. This paper presents a generic analytical dynamic model which is capable of defining the necessary actuation specifications for a wide range of small arms platforms. The model is unique because it captures the human interface--shoulder and arm--that introduces the jitter disturbance in addition to the geometry, inertial properties and active stabilization stiffness of the small arms platform. Because no data to date is available for actual shooter-induced disturbance in field conditions, a method is given using the model to back-solve from measured shooting range variability data the disturbance amplitude information relative to the input source (arm or shoulder). As examples of the applicability of the model to various small arms systems, two different weapon systems were investigated: the M24 sniper weapon and the M16 assault rifle. In both cases, model based simulations provided valuable insight into impact on the actuation specifications (force, displacement, phase, frequency) due to the interplay of the human-weapon-active stabilization interface including the effect of shooter-disturbance frequency, disturbance location (shoulder vs. arm), and system parameters (stiffness, barrel rotation).

  20. The effect of an active arm action on heart rate and predicted VO(2max) during the Chester step test.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Dave; Abt, Grant; Barry, Tim

    2008-04-01

    This study examined whether the predictive outcomes of the Chester step test (CST) would be influenced by arm dynamics. Participants completed the CST on two separate occasions, once using active arms and once using passive arms. Results revealed that when compared to the passive arm protocol, the use of active arms led to a mean increase in heart rate of approximately 7 beats per minute across all of the incremental stages. However, this increase had little impact upon predicted VO(2max). Consequently, these results indicate that when performing the CST, participants are able to adopt an arm action that is compatible with personal preference.

  1. Integrating arm movement into bridge exercise: Effect on EMG activity of selected trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moung-Jin; Oh, Duck-Won; Park, Hyun-Ju

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether incorporating arm movement into bridge exercise changes the electromyographic (EMG) activity of selected trunk muscles. Twenty healthy young men were recruited for this study. EMG data were collected for the rectus abdominis (RA), internal oblique (IO), erector spinae (ES), and multifidus (MF) muscles of the dominant side. During bridging, an experimental procedure was performed with two options: an intervention factor (with and without arm movement) and a bridging factor (on the floor and on a therapeutic ball). There were significant main effects for the intervention factor in the IO and ES and for the bridging factor in the IO. The RA and IO showed significant interaction between the intervention and bridge factors. Furthermore, IO/RA ratio during bridging on the floor (without arm movement, 2.05±2.61; with arm movement, 3.24±3.42) and bridging on the ball (without arm movement: 2.95±3.87; with arm movement: 5.77±4.85) showed significant main effects for, and significant interaction between the intervention and bridge factors. However, no significant main effects or interaction were found for the MF/ES ratio. These findings suggest that integrating arm movements during bridge exercises may be used to provide preferential loading to certain trunk muscle groups and that these effects may be better derived by performing bridge exercises on a therapeutic ball.

  2. Sensor-enabled RFID system for monitoring arm activity: reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Barman, Joydip; Uswatte, Gitendra; Ghaffari, Touraj; Sokal, Brad; Byrom, Ezekiel; Trinh, Eva; Brewer, Michael; Varghese, Christopher; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2012-11-01

    After stroke, capacity to complete tasks in the treatment setting with the more-affected arm is an unreliable index of actual use of that extremity in daily life. Available objective methods for monitoring real-world arm use rely on placing movement sensors on patients. These methods provide information on amount but not type of arm activity, e.g., functional versus nonfunctional movement. This paper presents an approach that places sensors on patients and household objects, overcoming this limitation. An accelerometer and the transmitter component of a radio-frequency proximity sensor are attached to objects; the receiver component is attached to the arm of interest. The receiver triggers an on-board radio-frequency identification tag to signal proximity when that arm is within 23 cm of an instrumented object. In benchmark testing, this system detected perfectly which arm was used to move the target object on 200 trials. In a laboratory study with 35 undergraduates, increasing the amount of time target objects were moved with the arm of interest resulted in a corresponding increase in system output . Moreover, measurement error was low ( ≤ 2.5%). The results support this system's reliability and validity in individuals with unimpaired movement; testing is now warranted in stroke patients.

  3. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, T.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.; Christenson, P.D.; Zhang, J.X.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism.

  4. Quantifying the impact of human activities on hydrologic signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, T.

    2016-12-01

    The hydrology community widely acknowledges that humans impact hydrologic processes, but there is a bias towards studying hydrologic processes in natural catchments. This leaves a gap in our understanding of surface hydrology in the Anthropocene, when it can be difficult to find an unaltered catchment in many parts of the country. To fill this gap, a new dataset is derived that merges existing, publicly available data to link the degree of human impact in basins with hydrologic processes. This dataset associates USGS streamflow and field measurements with the EPA's StreamCat dataset that contains landscape metrics for 2.6 million stream reaches across the continental US. The latter dataset contains land use, upstream dam capacity, population and other metrics that provide information on the degree to which a basin is affected by humans. The derived dataset then allows for the use of big data techniques across thousands of basins across the US to quantify the characteristics ways we alter a basin's hydrology. This research tests hypotheses of how hydrologic signatures, such as baseflow recession, are affected, and how these effects are (or are not) spatially variable.

  5. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    PubMed

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  6. Sensor-enabled RFID system for monitoring arm activity in daily life.

    PubMed

    Barman, Joydip; Uswatte, Gitendra; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Ghaffari, Touraj; Sokal, Brad

    2011-01-01

    After stroke, capacity to carry out tasks in the treatment setting with the more-affected arm is a poor index of actual use of that extremity in daily life. However, objective methods currently available for monitoring real-world upper-extremity use only provide information on amount of activity. These methods, which rely on movement sensors worn by patients, do not provide information about type of activity (e.g., functional vs. nonfunctional movement). The benchmark testing reported here evaluated an approach that involves placing sensors on patients and objects. An accelerometer and the transmitter component of a prototype radio frequency proximity sensor were attached to household objects. The receiver component was placed on the experimenter's right arm. This device triggered an on-board radio frequency identification tag to signal proximity when that arm was within 23 cm of the objects. The system detected > 99% of 6 cm or greater movements of objects. When handling of objects by the right or left arm was determined randomly, 100% of right arm trials were detected. No signals were recorded when objects were at rest or moved by the left arm. Testing of this approach, which monitors manipulation of objects (i.e., functional movement), is now warranted in stroke patients.

  7. Assessment of habitual physical activity and paretic arm mobility among stroke survivors by accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Green, Liza B

    2007-01-01

    A major goal for many stroke survivors is a return to ambulatory activities, but there is not much known about the physical activity profiles of stroke survivors. Improved function in the paretic arm is also a major goal of rehabilitation, but there are few good measures of daily arm use. Accelerometers are devices that measure body movements in terms of acceleration. Accelerometers have been found to be useful indicators of movement in a number of studies involving different patient populations. They are able to detect habitual physical activity levels in subjects with low levels or activity and altered gait patterns. Different systems of multiple accelerometers have been used successfully to detect arm usage in individuals with hemiparesis from stroke, as well as with other disabilities that affect the upper extremities.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of human IgG4 antibodies by dynamic Fab arm exchange.

    PubMed

    van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn; Schuurman, Janine; Losen, Mario; Bleeker, Wim K; Martínez-Martínez, Pilar; Vermeulen, Ellen; den Bleker, Tamara H; Wiegman, Luus; Vink, Tom; Aarden, Lucien A; De Baets, Marc H; van de Winkel, Jan G J; Aalberse, Rob C; Parren, Paul W H I

    2007-09-14

    Antibodies play a central role in immunity by forming an interface with the innate immune system and, typically, mediate proinflammatory activity. We describe a novel posttranslational modification that leads to anti-inflammatory activity of antibodies of immunoglobulin G, isotype 4 (IgG4). IgG4 antibodies are dynamic molecules that exchange Fab arms by swapping a heavy chain and attached light chain (half-molecule) with a heavy-light chain pair from another molecule, which results in bispecific antibodies. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the third constant domain is critical for this activity. The impact of IgG4 Fab arm exchange was confirmed in vivo in a rhesus monkey model with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. IgG4 Fab arm exchange is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 antibodies.

  9. Muscular Activity in the Arm during Lexical Retrieval: Implications for Gesture-Speech Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The origin and functions of the hand and arm gestures that accompany speech production are poorly understood. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate lexical retrieval, but little is known about when retrieval is accompanied by gestural activity and how this activity is related to the semantics of the word to be retrieved. Electromyographic…

  10. Muscular Activity in the Arm during Lexical Retrieval: Implications for Gesture-Speech Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The origin and functions of the hand and arm gestures that accompany speech production are poorly understood. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate lexical retrieval, but little is known about when retrieval is accompanied by gestural activity and how this activity is related to the semantics of the word to be retrieved. Electromyographic…

  11. Age-related macular degeneration associated polymorphism rs10490924 in ARMS2 results in deficiency of a complement activator.

    PubMed

    Micklisch, Sven; Lin, Yuchen; Jacob, Saskia; Karlstetter, Marcus; Dannhausen, Katharina; Dasari, Prasad; von der Heide, Monika; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Schmölz, Lisa; Grassmann, Felix; Alene, Medhanie; Fauser, Sascha; Neumann, Harald; Lorkowski, Stefan; Pauly, Diana; Weber, Bernhard H; Joussen, Antonia M; Langmann, Thomas; Zipfel, Peter F; Skerka, Christine

    2017-01-05

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The polymorphism rs10490924 in the ARMS2 gene is highly associated with AMD and linked to an indel mutation (del443ins54), the latter inducing mRNA instability. At present, the function of the ARMS2 protein, the exact cellular sources in the retina and the biological consequences of the rs10490924 polymorphism are unclear. Recombinant ARMS2 was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and protein functions were studied regarding cell surface binding and complement activation in human serum using fluoresence-activated cell sorting (FACS) as well as laser scanning microscopy (LSM). Biolayer interferometry defined protein interactions. Furthermore, endogenous ARMS2 gene expression was studied in human blood derived monocytes and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived microglia (iPSdM) by PCR and LSM. The ARMS2 protein was localized in human genotyped retinal sections and in purified monocytes derived from AMD patients without the ARMS2 risk variant by LSM. ARMS2 expression in monocytes under oxidative stress was determined by Western blot analysis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ARMS2 functions as surface complement regulator. Recombinant ARMS2 binds to human apoptotic and necrotic cells and initiates complement activation by recruiting the complement activator properdin. ARMS2-properdin complexes augment C3b surface opsonization for phagocytosis. We also demonstrate for the first time expression of ARMS2 in human monocytes especially under oxidative stress and in microglia cells of the human retina. The ARMS2 protein is absent in monocytes and also in microglia cells, derived from patients homozygous for the ARMS2 AMD risk variant (rs10490924). ARMS2 is likely involved in complement-mediated clearance of cellular debris. As AMD patients present with accumulated proteins and lipids on Bruch's membrane, ARMS2 protein deficiency due to the genetic risk variant

  12. Endurance time, muscular activity and the hand/arm tremor for different exertion forces of holding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exertion force on endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor during holding. Fifteen healthy young males were recruited as participants. The independent variable was exertion force (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity). The dependent variables were endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor. The results showed that endurance time decreased with exertion force while muscular activity and hand/arm tremor increased with exertion force. Hand/arm tremor increased with holding time. Endurance time of 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity was approximately 22.7%, 12.0% and 5.6% of that of 20% maximum holding capacity, respectively. The rms (root mean square) acceleration of hand/arm tremor of the final phase of holding was 2.27-, 1.33-, 1.20- and 1.73-fold of that of the initial phase of holding for 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity, respectively.

  13. Lower arm electromyography (EMG) activity detection using local binary patterns.

    PubMed

    McCool, Paul; Chatlani, Navin; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J; Menon, Radhika; Lakany, Heba

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new electromyography activity detection technique in which 1-D local binary pattern histograms are used to distinguish between periods of activity and inactivity in myoelectric signals. The algorithm is tested on forearm surface myoelectric signals occurring due to hand gestures. The novel features of the presented method are that: 1) activity detection is performed across multiple channels using few parameters and without the need for majority vote mechanisms, 2) there are no per-channel thresholds to be tuned, which makes the process of activity detection easier and simpler to implement and less prone to errors, 3) it is not necessary to measure the properties of the signal during a quiescent period before using the algorithm. The algorithm is compared to other offline single- and double-threshold activity detection methods and, for the data sets tested, it is shown to have a better overall performance with greater tolerance to the noise in the real data set used.

  14. Coordination of outer arm dynein activity along axonemal doublet microtubules.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Satir, Peter

    2008-07-01

    This study considers the mechanism by which ODA based sliding is produced and the relationship of that mechanism to the determination of beat frequency. Two models of activity have been examined: a stochastic model, where ODA activity is random and a metachronal model, where activity is sequentially triggered along a doublet. Inactivation of a few ODAs would have virtually no effect on stochastic activity, but would completely block metachronal activity. We (Seetharam and Satir [2005]: Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 60:96-103) previously demonstrated that ODAs produce high speed sliding of about 200 mum/s, followed by a pause. IDAs produce slow, 5 mum/s, continuous sliding. We have examined the effects of nM concentrations of vanadate on sliding, measuring velocity and extent of high speed sliding and pause distribution or sliding cessation. In 5 nM vanadate, where photocleavage experiments show about 16/270 ODAs per doublet are affected, no differences from control are seen, but at 10 and 25 nM vanadate, high speed velocity is greatly reduced and pause distribution changes. The results support a model, in which high speed sliding is produced by metachronal activity. Blockage of two or more heavy chains of one ODA or a small group of adjacent ODAs produces cessation of sliding, but cessation is only temporary, probably because IDA activity continues, allowing ODA activity re-initiation beyond the block. These conclusions are consistent with Sugino and Naitoh's [1982; Nature 295:609-611] proposal, whereby during each beat, every ODA along a doublet becomes activated in succession, with repetitive activation determining beat frequency. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Syntheses and Characterization of Chiral Arm Liquid Crystals--Containing Active Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ying; Zhang, Fang-Di; He, Xiao-Zhi

    2016-05-01

    A new series of chiral two-arm dopant containg active group were first synthesized. Four precursors of C1~C4 were obtained at first and then were esterized separately with isosorbide and got four two-arm liquid crystals (MC1~MC4). The chemical structures and LC properties of the liquid crystalline molecule were measured by spectrum and thermal analysis techniques. XRD curves of MC1~MC4 samples only showed broad peaks at wide-angle, no sharp peak was seen for all the samples. The results showed that MC1~MC4 appeared cholesteric phase with oily streak texture or lined texture and finger print texture. Cholesteric phase was successfully induced by isosorbide. The different active group of two arm liquid crystal and chiral core had effects on their liquid crystalline properties.

  16. Quantifying promoter activity during the developmental cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yanguang; Gao, Leiqiong; Zhang, Yan; Xian, Yuqi; Hua, Ziyu; Elaasar, Hiba; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that undergoes a characteristic development cycle correlating with stage-specific gene expression profiles. Taking advantage of recent developments in the genetic transformation in C. trachomatis, we constructed a versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to study the development-dependent function of C. trachomatis promoters in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism that controls C. trachomatis adaptability. We validated the use of the GFP reporter system by visualizing the activity of an early euo gene promoter. Additionally, we uncovered a new ompA promoter, which we named P3, utilizing the GFP reporter system combined with 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), in vitro transcription assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), and flow cytometry. Mutagenesis of the P3 region verifies that P3 is a new class of C. trachomatis σ66-dependent promoter, which requires an extended −10 TGn motif for transcription. These results corroborate complex developmentally controlled ompA expression in C. trachomatis. The exploitation of genetically labeled C. trachomatis organisms with P3-driven GFP allows for the observation of changes in ompA expression in response to developmental signals. The results of this study could be used to complement previous findings and to advance understanding of C. trachomatis genetic expression. PMID:27263495

  17. Altered activity of the serratus anterior during unilateral arm elevation in patients with cervical disorders.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, H; Kristjansson, E; Einarsson, E; Karduna, A; Jonsson, H

    2011-12-01

    Altered activity in the axioscapular muscles is considered to be an important feature in patients with neck pain. The activity of the serratus anterior (SA) and trapezius muscles during arm elevation has not been investigated in these patients. The objectives of this study was to investigate whether there is a pattern of altered activity in the SA and trapezius in patients with insidious onset neck pain (IONP) (n=22) and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) (n=27). An asymptomatic group was selected for baseline measurements (n=23). Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity of the SA as well as the upper, middle, and lower trapezius during unilateral arm elevation in the three subject groups. Both arms were tested. With no interaction, the main effect for the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity for serratus anterior was statistically significant among the groups. Post hoc comparison revealed a significantly delayed onset of muscle activation and less duration of muscle activity in the IONP group, and in the WAD group compared to the asymptomatic group. There were no group main effects or interaction effects for upper, middle and lower trapezius. This finding may have implications for scapular stability in these patients because the altered activity in the SA may reflect inconsistent or poorly coordinated muscle activation that may reduce the quality of neuromuscular performance and induce an increased load on the cervical and the thoracic spine.

  18. Muscular activation patterns of the bow arm in recurve archery.

    PubMed

    Ertan, Hayri

    2009-05-01

    In archery shooting, the archer should hold the bow in place using only the pressure produced through drawing back the bowstring. Most coaches discourage the archer from gripping the bow as this is believed to produce a sideways deflecting torque on the bow and arrow during the release. The purpose of this study was to compare the bow hand forearm muscular activation patterns of elite archers with beginners to define the muscular contraction-relaxation strategies in the bow hand forearm muscles during archery shooting and investigate the effects of performance level on these strategies. Electromyographic activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum of 10 elite and 10 beginner archers were recorded together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap. Raw electromyographic records as 1s before and after the clicker pulse were rectified, integrated, and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for both groups of archers. The main difference between the elite and beginner archers was that the elite archers had a greater activation of the M. extensor digitorum, which indicates that they avoid gripping the bow-handle not only relaxing the flexor muscles, but also contracting the extensor muscle groups. This muscular contraction strategy secures the archer to not interfere with the forward movement of the bow, which is the forward acceleration of the bow caused by the pushing power of the bowstring.

  19. Checkout activity on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-02-12

    S82-E-5016 (12 Feb. 1997) --- Astronaut Steven A. Hawley, STS-82 mission specialist, controls Discovery's Remote Manipulation System (RMS), from the aft flight deck. Hawley and his crew mates are preparing for a scheduled Extravehicular Activity (EVA) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which will be pulled into the Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay with the aid of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). A series of EVA's will be required to properly service the giant telescope. Hawley served as a mission specialist on NASA's 1990 mission which was responsible for placing HST in Earth-orbit. This view was taken with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  20. Quantifying Physical Activity Levels and Sleep in Hemodialysis Patients Using a Commercially Available Activity Tracker.

    PubMed

    Han, Maggie; Williams, Schantel; Mendoza, Melissa; Ye, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hanjie; Calice-Silva, Viviane; Thijssen, Stephan; Kotanko, Peter; Meyring-Wösten, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are less active than their healthy counterparts and frequently experience poor sleep. Our aims were to objectively quantify activity and sleep quality in HD patients of an urban population and to determine the effect of providing feedback on activity. Activity parameters and sleep parameters were collected by a commercially available activity tracker in 29 chronic HD patients. Patients in the feedback group were provided with their activity and sleep data during each HD treatment. Questionnaires were administered at the beginning and at the end of the study. On average, patients walked 8,454 steps/day and slept 349 min/night. Only 28% of the patients were sedentary, defined as walking <5,000 steps/day. Providing feedback did not increase the activity in this urban population. Patients walked significantly less on Sundays compared to other days of the week: 7,024 steps on Sundays vs. 8,633 steps on HD days and 8,732 on non-HD days. It was also found that patients experienced poor sleep quality. HD treatments during shift 1 (6 a.m. to 10 a.m.) interfered with sleep patterns. Most patients reported that physical activity became more important to them after the 5-week period. The tracking device was very well accepted. Interventions to increase physical activity on Sundays could improve physical activity levels overall. Prospective studies are necessary to further explore the use of tracking devices to identify patients at risk and to implement targeted interventions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Summary of the ARM activities at ECMWF from 2007-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Maike Ahlgrimm; Anton Beljaars

    2010-07-13

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), as one of the leading centres in numerical weather prediction, has been an active user of observations for model evaluation for many years. Many examples exist where detailed experimental studies have inspired model improvement. To establish a link between the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research and ECMWF's model development, funding was provided for an \\u201cARM fellow\\u201d at ECMWF. Furthermore, ECMWF has been working closely with ARM related projects for many years. ECMWF provides operational analysis data for the ARM stations (permanent and mobile) as background meteorological information and ECMWF has implemented the Rapid Radiative Transport Model long wave and short wave schemes as radiation codes in the operational system. These codes were developed at Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. with ARM support and were extensively evaluated using detailed ARM observations. This short report describes the history of the ARM-fellowship at ECMWF and summarizes the achievements over the last 3 years. The emphasis of the ARM funded work over the last 3 years has been on further development and evaluation of a new shallow convection scheme in the context of ECMWF's Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The shallow convection scheme is based on the DualM approach which combines Eddy Diffusion with a Dual Mass flux concept. One of the mass fluxes describes the dry updraughts, whereas the second updraught saturates at cloud base and penetrates into the cloud. The new scheme was optimized using single column cases from a wide range of climatological regimes. Further evaluation of the 3-dimensional model using Lidar data from space (CALIPSO) clearly indicates that the resulting cloud structures are much more realistic than the ones produced by the control model (Tiedtke mass flux scheme). Additionally, data from the ARM mobile facility in 2006 in Niamey has been used to evaluate the

  2. Enzymatic activities associated with arm regeneration and calcification in the starfish Asterias forbesi

    SciTech Connect

    Donachy, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The enzymes studied include Ka{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase, Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase, Mg{sup 2+}-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase. Each enzyme was examined for change in specific activity during salinity acclimation and arm regeneration. The effect of enzyme inhibition on {sup 45}Ca deposition onto the calcified ossicles was examined and the enzymes were localized at the electron microscopic level. A. forbesi lacks a ouabain sensitive, Mg{sup 2+}-dependent Ka{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase but possesses Mg{sup 2+}-ATPase. Mg{sup 2+}-ATPase was not affected by salinity and did not change during arm regeneration. A high affinity Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase is also lacking in this starfish, but a low affinity form is present. Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase is not involved in salinity acclimation of calcification, but may be involved in the would healing phase of arm regeneration. Alkaline phosphatase activity is not affected by salinity. Inhibition of this enzyme results in a significant increase in {sup 45}Ca deposition onto the ossicles. During the early phase of arm regeneration, alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly but gradually returned to control levels by 60 days post-autotomy.

  3. Human cervical spinal cord circuitry activated by tonic input can generate rhythmic arm movements.

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvansky, D S; Gurfinkel, V S; Ivanenko, Y

    2016-02-01

    The coordination between arms and legs during human locomotion shares many features with that in quadrupeds, yet there is limited evidence for the central pattern generator for the upper limbs in humans. Here we investigated whether different types of tonic stimulation, previously used for eliciting stepping-like leg movements, may evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The subject was lying on the side, the trunk was fixed, and all four limbs were suspended in a gravity neutral position, allowing unrestricted low-friction limb movements in the horizontal plane. The results showed that peripheral sensory stimulation (continuous muscle vibration) and central tonic activation (postcontraction state of neuronal networks following a long-lasting isometric voluntary effort, Kohnstamm phenomenon) could evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements in most subjects. In ∼40% of subjects, tonic stimulation elicited nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements together with rhythmic movements of suspended legs. The fact that not all participants exhibited nonvoluntary limb oscillations may reflect interindividual differences in responsiveness of spinal pattern generation circuitry to its activation. The occurrence and the characteristics of induced movements highlight the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical neuronal circuitries, complementing the growing body of work on the quadrupedal nature of human gait.

  4. Stepping Out of the Shade: Control of Neuronal Activity by the Scaffold Protein Kidins220/ARMS

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Cesca, Fabrizia

    2016-01-01

    The correct functioning of the nervous system depends on the exquisitely fine control of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, which relies on an intricate network of protein-protein interactions and signaling that shapes neuronal homeostasis during development and in adulthood. In this complex scenario, Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa/ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (Kidins220/ARMS) acts as a multi-functional scaffold protein with preferential expression in the nervous system. Engaged in a plethora of interactions with membrane receptors, cytosolic signaling components and cytoskeletal proteins, Kidins220/ARMS is implicated in numerous cellular functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and maturation and neuronal activity, often in the context of neurotrophin (NT) signaling pathways. Recent studies have highlighted a number of cell- and context-specific roles for this protein in the control of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability, which are at present far from being completely understood. In addition, some evidence has began to emerge, linking alterations of Kidins220 expression to the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we present a concise summary of our fragmentary knowledge of Kidins220/ARMS biological functions, focusing on the mechanism(s) by which it controls various aspects of neuronal activity. We have tried, where possible, to discuss the available evidence in the wider context of NT-mediated regulation, and to outline emerging roles of Kidins220/ARMS in human pathologies. PMID:27013979

  5. Quantifying Leisure Physical Activity and Its Relation to Bone Density and Strength

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Compare three published methods of quantifying physical activity (total activity, peak strain, and bone loading exposure [BLE] scores) and identify their associations with areal bone mineral density (aBMD), volumetric BMD (vBMD), and bone strength. Methods: Postmenopausal women (N = 239; me...

  6. Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding

  7. Reducing Disease Activity in Animal Models of MS by Activation of the Protective Arm of the Renin-Angiotensin System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    10 Page 1 of 10  1. INTRODUCTION: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0523 TITLE: Reducing Disease Activity in Animal Models of MS by Activation of the Protective Arm of the Renin...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Reducing Disease Activity in Animal Models of MS by

  8. Probability-based prediction of activity in multiple arm muscles: implications for functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Chad V; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) involves artificial activation of muscles with implanted electrodes to restore motor function in paralyzed individuals. The range of motor behaviors that can be generated by FES, however, is limited to a small set of preprogrammed movements such as hand grasp and release. A broader range of movements has not been implemented because of the substantial difficulty associated with identifying the patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit specified movements. To overcome this limitation in controlling FES systems, we used probabilistic methods to estimate the levels of muscle activity in the human arm during a wide range of free movements based on kinematic information of the upper limb. Conditional probability distributions were generated based on hand kinematics and associated surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from 12 arm muscles recorded during a training task involving random movements of the arm in one subject. These distributions were then used to predict in four other subjects the patterns of muscle activity associated with eight different movement tasks. On average, about 40% of the variance in the actual EMG signals could be accounted for in the predicted EMG signals. These results suggest that probabilistic methods ultimately might be used to predict the patterns of muscle stimulation needed to produce a wide array of desired movements in paralyzed individuals with FES.

  9. Objectively Quantified Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Predicting Visceral Adiposity and Liver Fat

    PubMed Central

    Pavey, Toby G.; Caterson, Ian D.; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1.6) and light (MET 1.6 < 3), moderate (MET 3 < 6), and vigorous (MET 6 < 9) physical activity was quantified. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to quantify visceral and liver fat. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. Results. There were no associations between physical activity or sedentary behavior and liver lipid. Sedentary behavior and moderate and vigorous physical activity accounted for just 3% of variance for VAT (p = 0.14) and 0.003% for liver fat (p = 0.96). Higher levels of VAT were associated with time spent in moderate activity (r = 0.294, p = 0.007), but there was no association with sedentary behavior. Known risk factors for obesity-related NAFLD accounted for 62% and 40% of variance in VAT and liver fat, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Objectively measured levels of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior did not influence VAT or liver fat. PMID:27777796

  10. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  11. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  12. Quantifying Physical Activity in First- through Fourth-Grade Physical Education via Pedometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Watson, Doris L.; Clocksin, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pedometry steps per minute (SPM) cutscores that accurately quantify physical activity (PA) time in first- through fourth-grade physical education. A total of 257 participants were grouped in two data pools, first- and second-grade (n = 126), and third- and fourth-grade (n = 131). Systematic observation was…

  13. A Visual Analytics Approach to Structured Data Analysis to Enhance Nonproliferation and Arms Control Verification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, David S.

    2014-08-07

    Analysis activities for Nonproliferation and Arms Control verification require the use of many types of data. Tabular structured data, such as Excel spreadsheets and relational databases, have traditionally been used for data mining activities, where specific queries are issued against data to look for matching results. The application of visual analytics tools to structured data enables further exploration of datasets to promote discovery of previously unknown results. This paper discusses the application of a specific visual analytics tool to datasets related to the field of Arms Control and Nonproliferation to promote the use of visual analytics more broadly in this domain. Visual analytics focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces (Wong and Thomas 2004). It promotes exploratory analysis of data, and complements data mining technologies where known patterns can be mined for. Also with a human in the loop, they can bring in domain knowledge and subject matter expertise. Visual analytics has not widely been applied to this domain. In this paper, we will focus on one type of data: structured data, and show the results of applying a specific visual analytics tool to answer questions in the Arms Control and Nonproliferation domain. We chose to use the T.Rex tool, a visual analytics tool developed at PNNL, which uses a variety of visual exploration patterns to discover relationships in structured datasets, including a facet view, graph view, matrix view, and timeline view. The facet view enables discovery of relationships between categorical information, such as countries and locations. The graph tool visualizes node-link relationship patterns, such as the flow of materials being shipped between parties. The matrix visualization shows highly correlated categories of information. The timeline view shows temporal patterns in data. In this paper, we will use T.Rex with two different datasets to demonstrate how interactive exploration of

  14. Development of a method to quantify in vitro the synergistic activity of "natural" antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M; Simmonds, R S; Bremer, P J

    2003-08-25

    Despite numerous papers being published on the use of hurdle technology to control food-borne pathogens or spoilage organisms, there is no commonly accepted methodology to quantify the level of synergistic activity. This paper describes a method to quantify in vitro the synergistic activity of antibacterial agents against bacteria. Initially, a microtiter plate growth assay was used to determine the inhibitory concentrations of four "natural" antimicrobials (nisin, lauricidin, totarol, and the lactoperoxidase system (LPS)) against a panel of eight bacteria. Using the same microtiter system, the impact of various combinations of antimicrobials was assessed. The degree of synergy was based on the analysis of three criteria: (1) increase in lag phase, (2) reduction in culture density after 24 h, (3) and residual viability at 24 h. Only the lactoperoxidase system was active against all the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. Nisin, lauricidin, and totarol were only effective against the Gram-positive bacteria. The method successfully identified three combinations (nisin-lauricidin, LPS-nisin, and LPS-lauricidin) previously reported to have synergistic activity and highlighted the synergistic activity of two novel combinations (nisin-totarol and LPS-totarol). The development of a quick and reliable method to identify and quantify synergistic activity is a useful screening tool to establish preservative techniques that could have potential antimicrobial synergy in food-based systems.

  15. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  16. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  1. Viral hepatitis A, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    From 2000 to 2010, there were 214 incident diagnoses of acute hepatitis A among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces; the crude overall incidence rate during the period was 1.37 per 100,000 person-years. Rates of incident diagnoses of acute hepatitis A were relatively low throughout the period and much lower than during the pre-vaccine era (1990-1996). There were disproportionate numbers of diagnoses of acute hepatitis A among service members born in countries endemic for the infection. The low rates of acute hepatitis A among U.S. military members overall reflect the widespread use of hepatitis A virus vaccine.

  2. Feedforward activity of the cervical flexor muscles during voluntary arm movements is delayed in chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Falla, D; Jull, G; Hodges, P W

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare onset of deep and superficial cervical flexor muscle activity during rapid, unilateral arm movements between ten patients with chronic neck pain and 12 control subjects. Deep cervical flexor (DCF) electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded with custom electrodes inserted via the nose and fixed by suction to the posterior mucosa of the oropharynx. Surface electrodes were placed over the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and anterior scalene (AS) muscles. While standing, subjects flexed and extended the right arm in response to a visual stimulus. For the control group, activation of DCF, SCM and AS muscles occurred less than 50 ms after the onset of deltoid activity, which is consistent with feedforward control of the neck during arm flexion and extension. When subjects with a history of neck pain flexed the arm, the onsets of DCF and contralateral SCM and AS muscles were significantly delayed ( p<0.05). It is concluded that the delay in neck muscle activity associated with movement of the arm in patients with neck pain indicates a significant deficit in the automatic feedforward control of the cervical spine. As the deep cervical muscles are fundamentally important for support of the cervical lordosis and the cervical joints, change in the feedforward response may leave the cervical spine vulnerable to reactive forces from arm movement.

  3. Immobilization of pectinase on silica-based supports: Impacts of particle size and spacer arm on the activity.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    The pectinase was separately immobilized onto Florisil and nano silica supports through both glutaraldehyde and 3-glyoxypropyltrietoxysilane spacer arms. The effects of spacer arm, particle size of support and ionic liquids on the activities of pectinase preparations were investigated. The immobilization of pectinase onto Florisil and nano silica through 3-glyoxypropyltrietoxysilane spacer arm completely led to inactivation of enzyme; however, 10 and 75% pectinase activity were retained when it was immobilized through glutaraldehyde spacer arm onto Florisil and nano silica, respectively. The pectinase immobilized onto nano silica through glutaraldehyde spacer arm showed 6.3-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that of the pectinase immobilized onto Florisil through same spacer arm. A 2.3-fold increase in thermal stability of pectinase was provided upon immobilization onto nano silica at 35°C. The effects of IL/buffer mixture and volume ratio of IL/buffer mixture on the catalytic activities of free and immobilized pectinase preparations were also tested. All the pectinase preparations showed highest activity in 10% (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate containing medium and their activities significantly affected from the concentration of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate.

  4. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    PubMed

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  6. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor

    PubMed Central

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L.; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature. PMID:27138818

  7. Multi-objective optimization of an active constrained layer damping treatment for vibration control of a rotating flexible arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, L. C.; Fung, E. H. K.; Yau, D. T. W.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the use of the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) to solve an integrated optimization problem of a rotating flexible arm with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment. The arm is rotating in a horizontal plane with triangular velocity profiles. The ACLD patch is placed at the clamped end of the arm. The design objectives are to minimize the total treatment weight, the control voltage and the tip displacement of the arm, as well as to maximize the passive damping characteristic of the arm. Design variables include the control gains, the maximum angular velocity, the shear modulus of the viscoelastic layer, the thickness of the piezoelectric constraining and viscoelastic layers, and the length of the ACLD patch. In order to evaluate the effect of different combinations of design variables on the system, the finite element method, in conjunction with the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method, is employed to model the flexible arm with ACLD treatment to predict its dynamic behavior, in which the effects of centrifugal stiffening due to the rotation of flexible arm are taken into account. As a result of optimization, reasonable Pareto solutions are successfully obtained. It is shown that the MOGA is applicable to the present integrated optimization problem.

  8. Quantifying microbial activity in deep subsurface sediments using a tritium based hydrognease enzyme assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, R.; Nickel, J.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Microbial life is widespread in Earth's subsurface and estimated to represent a significant fraction of Earth's total living biomass. However, very little is known about subsurface microbial activity and its fundamental role in biogeochemical cycles of carbon and other biologically important elements. Hydrogen is one of the most important elements in subsurface anaerobic microbial metabolism. Heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms use hydrogen in their metabolic pathways. They either consume or produce protons for ATP synthesis. Hydrogenase (H2ase) is a ubiquitous intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of molecular hydrogen and/or water into protons and electrons. The protons are used for the synthesis of ATP, thereby coupling energy generating metabolic processes to electron acceptors such as CO2 or sulfate. H2ase enzyme targets a key metabolic compound in cellular metabolism therefore the assay can be used as a measure for total microbial activity without the need to identify any specific metabolic process. Using the highly sensitive tritium assay we measured H2ase enzyme activity in the organic-rich sediments of Lake Van, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern Turkey, in marine sediments of the Barents Sea and in deep subseafloor sediments from the Nankai Trough. H2ase activity could be quantified at all depths of all sites but the activity distribution varied widely with depth and between sites. At the Lake Van sites H2ase activity ranged from ca. 20 mmol H2 cm-3d-1 close to the sediment-water interface to 0.5 mmol H2 cm-3d-1 at a depth of 0.8 m. In samples from the Barents Sea H2ase activity ranged between 0.1 to 2.5 mmol H2 cm-3d-1 down to a depth of 1.60 m. At all sites the sulfate reduction rate profile followed the upper part of the H2ase activity profile until sulfate reduction reached the minimum detection limit (ca. 10 pmol cm-3d-1). H2ase activity could still be quantified after the decline of sulfate reduction, indicating that

  9. Identification of laminin α5 short arm peptides active for endothelial cell attachment and tube formation.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Sugawara, Yumika; Harashima, Nozomi; Fujii, Shogo; Ikari, Kazuki; Kumai, Jun; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2017-02-21

    Laminin-511, a major component of endothelial basement membrane, consists of α5, β1, and γ1 chains. The short arm region of the α5 chain is a structural feature of endothelial laminins. In this study, we identified active sequences for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides. The short arm of the α5 chain contains three globular domains [laminin N-terminal globular domain, laminin 4 domain a, and laminin 4 domain b (LN, L4a, and L4b)] and three rod-like elements [laminin epidermal growth factor-like domain a, b, and c (LEa, LEb, and LEc)]. The cell attachment assay using recombinant proteins showed that RGD-independent cell attachment sites were localized in the α5LN-LEa domain. Further, we synthesized 70 peptides covering the amino acid sequences of the α5LN-LEa domain. Of the 70 peptides, A5-16 (mouse laminin α5 230-243: LENGEIVVSLVNGR) potently exhibited endothelial cell attachment activity. An active sequence analysis using N-terminally and C-terminally truncated A5-16 peptides showed that the nine-amino acid sequence IVVSLVNGR was critical for the endothelial cell attachment activity. Cell adhesion to the peptides was dependent on both cations and heparan sulfate. Further, the A5-16 peptide inhibited the capillary-like tube formation of HUVECs with the cells forming small clumps with short tubes. The eight-amino acid sequence EIVVSLVN in the A5-16 peptide was critical to inhibit HUVEC tube formation. This amino acid sequence could be useful for grafts and thus modulate endothelial cell behavior for vascular surgery. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Human force discrimination during active arm motion for force feedback design.

    PubMed

    Feyzabadi, Seyedshams; Straube, Sirko; Folgheraiter, Michele; Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Kim, Su Kyoung; Albiez, Jan Christian

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the human ability of external force discrimination while actively moving the arm. With the approach presented here, we give an overview for the whole arm of the just-noticeable differences (JNDs) for controlled movements separately executed for the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints. The work was originally motivated in the design phase of the actuation system of a wearable exoskeleton, which is used in a teleoperation scenario where force feedback should be provided to the subject. The amount of this force feedback has to be calibrated according to the human force discrimination abilities. In the experiments presented here, 10 subjects performed a series of movements facing an opposing force from a commercial haptic interface. Force changes had to be detected in a two-alternative forced choice task. For each of the three joints tested, perceptual thresholds were measured as absolute thresholds (no reference force) and three JNDs corresponding to three reference forces chosen. For this, we used the outcome of the QUEST procedure after 70 trials. Using these four measurements we computed the Weber fraction. Our results demonstrate that different Weber fractions can be measured with respect to the joint. These were 0.11, 0.13, and 0.08 for wrist, elbow, and shoulder, respectively. It is discussed that force perception may be affected by the number of muscles involved and the reproducibility of the movement itself. The minimum perceivable force, on average, was 0.04 N for all three joints.

  11. Novel immunoassays to detect methionine adenosyltransferase activity and quantify S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiujuan; Zhou, Min; Li, Huijun; Angres, Isaac A

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel real-time immunoassay to measure methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) activity that integrates the MAT-catalyzed reaction of Met and adenosine triphosphate to produce S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and a highly sensitive immunoassay to specifically quantify SAM simultaneously. The cellular localization of SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine varies with cell proliferation status: in normal cells, they are found mostly in the cytoplasm, but localize to the nucleus in proliferating cells. MAT-I/III activity is stimulated by Met, but inhibited by S-nitrosoglutathione, and the methylation index (MI) increases after Met stimulation of L02 cells. Met and S-nitrosoglutathione inhibit MAT-II activity, and the MI decreases after Met stimulation of HepG2 cells. The method described provides a significant advancement in the field for the measurement of MAT activity under various conditions. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. Quantifying forearm muscle activity during wrist and finger movements by means of multi-channel electromyography.

    PubMed

    Gazzoni, Marco; Celadon, Nicolò; Mastrapasqua, Davide; Paleari, Marco; Margaria, Valentina; Ariano, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of hand and finger movement is an important topic with applications in prosthetics, rehabilitation, and ergonomics. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is the gold standard for the analysis of muscle activation. Previous studies investigated the optimal electrode number and positioning on the forearm to obtain information representative of muscle activation and robust to movements. However, the sEMG spatial distribution on the forearm during hand and finger movements and its changes due to different hand positions has never been quantified. The aim of this work is to quantify 1) the spatial localization of surface EMG activity of distinct forearm muscles during dynamic free movements of wrist and single fingers and 2) the effect of hand position on sEMG activity distribution. The subjects performed cyclic dynamic tasks involving the wrist and the fingers. The wrist tasks and the hand opening/closing task were performed with the hand in prone and neutral positions. A sensorized glove was used for kinematics recording. sEMG signals were acquired from the forearm muscles using a grid of 112 electrodes integrated into a stretchable textile sleeve. The areas of sEMG activity have been identified by a segmentation technique after a data dimensionality reduction step based on Non Negative Matrix Factorization applied to the EMG envelopes. The results show that 1) it is possible to identify distinct areas of sEMG activity on the forearm for different fingers; 2) hand position influences sEMG activity level and spatial distribution. This work gives new quantitative information about sEMG activity distribution on the forearm in healthy subjects and provides a basis for future works on the identification of optimal electrode configuration for sEMG based control of prostheses, exoskeletons, or orthoses. An example of use of this information for the optimization of the detection system for the estimation of joint kinematics from sEMG is reported.

  13. Quantifying Forearm Muscle Activity during Wrist and Finger Movements by Means of Multi-Channel Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Gazzoni, Marco; Celadon, Nicolò; Mastrapasqua, Davide; Paleari, Marco; Margaria, Valentina; Ariano, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of hand and finger movement is an important topic with applications in prosthetics, rehabilitation, and ergonomics. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is the gold standard for the analysis of muscle activation. Previous studies investigated the optimal electrode number and positioning on the forearm to obtain information representative of muscle activation and robust to movements. However, the sEMG spatial distribution on the forearm during hand and finger movements and its changes due to different hand positions has never been quantified. The aim of this work is to quantify 1) the spatial localization of surface EMG activity of distinct forearm muscles during dynamic free movements of wrist and single fingers and 2) the effect of hand position on sEMG activity distribution. The subjects performed cyclic dynamic tasks involving the wrist and the fingers. The wrist tasks and the hand opening/closing task were performed with the hand in prone and neutral positions. A sensorized glove was used for kinematics recording. sEMG signals were acquired from the forearm muscles using a grid of 112 electrodes integrated into a stretchable textile sleeve. The areas of sEMG activity have been identified by a segmentation technique after a data dimensionality reduction step based on Non Negative Matrix Factorization applied to the EMG envelopes. The results show that 1) it is possible to identify distinct areas of sEMG activity on the forearm for different fingers; 2) hand position influences sEMG activity level and spatial distribution. This work gives new quantitative information about sEMG activity distribution on the forearm in healthy subjects and provides a basis for future works on the identification of optimal electrode configuration for sEMG based control of prostheses, exoskeletons, or orthoses. An example of use of this information for the optimization of the detection system for the estimation of joint kinematics from sEMG is reported. PMID:25289669

  14. Quantifying physical activity and the associated barriers for women with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, David; Naumann, Fiona; Broderick, Carolyn; Samara, Juliane; Ryan, Mary; Friedlander, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify physical activity levels and determine the barriers to physical activity for women with ovarian cancer. Women with ovarian cancer from 3 oncology clinics enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Physical activity and barriers to physical activity were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Perceived Physical Activity Barriers scale, respectively. Demographic, medical, and anthropometric data were obtained from medical records. Ninety-five women (response rate, 41%), with a mean (SD) age of 61 (10.6) years, a body mass index of 26.5 (6.8) kg/m², and 36.6 (28.2) months since diagnosis, participated in the study. The majority of the participants had stage III (32%) or IV (32%) ovarian cancer, were undergoing chemotherapy (41%), and had a history of chemotherapy (93%). The majority of the participants reduced their physical activity after diagnosis, with 19% meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The participants undergoing treatment reported lower moderate-vigorous physical activity compared with those not undergoing active treatment (mean [SD], 42 [57] vs 104 [119] min/wk; P < 0.001) and less total physical activity barriers (mean [SD], 49 vs 47; P > 0.4). The greatest barriers to physical activity included fatigue (37.8%), exercise not in routine (34.7%), lack of self-discipline (32.6%), and procrastination (27.4%). Women with ovarian cancer have low levels of physical activity. There are disease-specific general barriers to physical activity participation. The majority of the participants reduced their physical activity after diagnosis, with these patients reporting a higher number of total barriers. Behavioral strategies are required to increase physical activity adherence in this population to ensure that recommended guidelines are met to achieve the emerging known benefits of exercise oncology.

  15. Shoulder muscle activity in Parkinson's disease during multijoint arm movements across a range of speeds.

    PubMed

    Farley, Becky G; Sherman, Scott; Koshland, Gail F

    2004-01-01

    Bradykinesia is one of the primary symptoms of Parkinson disease and leads to significant functional limitations for patients. Single joint movement studies, that have investigated the mechanism of bradykinesia, suggest that several features of muscle activity are disrupted, including modulation of burst amplitude and duration, and the number of bursts. It has been proposed that it is the blending of these different burst deficits that collectively defines bradykinesia. This study adds two new approaches to the study of bradykinesia. First, we examined the features of shoulder muscle activities during multijoint arm movement in bradykinetic and control subjects, such that previously reported single joint hypotheses could be tested for generalized arm movement. Second, we directly manipulated speed while keeping distance constant for a large range of speeds. In this manner, we could compare individual trials of muscle activity between controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) for movements matched for both speed and movement duration. Our results showed that while a multiple burst pattern of shoulder muscles was a common strategy for all subjects (young, elderly controls and PD), subjects with PD showed several burst abnormalities, including deficits in initial agonist burst amplitude and duration at both fast and slow speeds. Subjects with PD also (1) failed to produce a one-burst pattern at fast speeds and, instead, produced a predominance of multiple burst patterns and (2) showed a relationship between the number of burst deficits and the severity of disease. These results extend the findings of single joint studies to multi-joint and similarly indicate that a combination of burst modulation abnormalities correlate with bradykinesia and disease severity.

  16. Comparison of electromyographic activity of the lower trapezius and serratus anterior muscle in different arm-lifting scapular posterior tilt exercises.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung-min; Kwon, Oh-yun; Cynn, Heon-seock; Lee, Won-hwee; Park, Kyue-nam; Kim, Si-hyun; Jung, Do-young

    2012-11-01

    To determine the most effective exercise to specifically activate the scapular posterior tilting muscles by comparing muscle activity generated by different exercises (wall facing arm lift, prone arm lift, backward rocking arm lift, backward rocking diagonal arm lift). Repeated-measure within-subject intervention. The subjects were 20 healthy young men and women. Lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscle activity was measured when subjects performed the four exercises. Muscle activity was significantly different among the four exercise positions (p<0.05). The backward rocking diagonal arm lift elicited significantly greater activity in the LT muscle than did the other exercises (p<0.05). The backward rocking arm lift showed significantly more activity in the SA muscle than did the other exercises (p<0.05). Clinicians can use these results to develop scapular posterior tilting exercises that specifically activate the target muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. APG: an Active Protein-Gene network model to quantify regulatory signals in complex biological systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiguang; Sun, Yidan; Zheng, Si; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Zhou, Huarong; Chen, Luonan

    2013-01-01

    Synergistic interactions among transcription factors (TFs) and their cofactors collectively determine gene expression in complex biological systems. In this work, we develop a novel graphical model, called Active Protein-Gene (APG) network model, to quantify regulatory signals of transcription in complex biomolecular networks through integrating both TF upstream-regulation and downstream-regulation high-throughput data. Firstly, we theoretically and computationally demonstrate the effectiveness of APG by comparing with the traditional strategy based only on TF downstream-regulation information. We then apply this model to study spontaneous type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and Wistar control rats. Our biological experiments validate the theoretical results. In particular, SP1 is found to be a hidden TF with changed regulatory activity, and the loss of SP1 activity contributes to the increased glucose production during diabetes development. APG model provides theoretical basis to quantitatively elucidate transcriptional regulation by modelling TF combinatorial interactions and exploiting multilevel high-throughput information.

  18. Combining Infrasound and Imaging Techniques to Characterize and Quantify Eruptive Activity at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Lopez, T. M.; Rowell, C.; Matoza, R. S.; Szuberla, C.; Prata, F.; Firstov, P.; Makhmudov, E.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in atmospheric pressure at volcanic vents caused by the rapid release and expansion of volcanic material (e.g., gas, ash, lava) produce low frequency sound waves known as infrasound. Because of the direct link between the infrasound source and the eruption and emission of volcanic material, complementary direct and remote observations of gas, ash, and other eruptive phenomena can be combined with infrasound measurements to characterize and quantify volcanic activity. Here we present coincident measurements collected over two 10-day periods at Karymsky Volcano in August 2011 and July 2012 of infrasound, SO2, thermal radiation, ash (2011 only), and visual imagery. Infrasound and audible (up to 250 Hz) acoustic data were recorded using arrays of portable digital microphones. SO2 emissions were measured using both a scanning FLYSPEC ultraviolet spectrometer system as well as a CyClops infrared camera equipped with broadband, 8.6, 10, and 11 micron filters permitting detection and quantification of both SO2 and ash. A FLIR infrared camera was utilized to record high temporal resolution thermal observations of the volcanic emissions and hot eruption deposits. Lastly, visual imagery was taken with an HD camcorder. Correlations between this multiparameter dataset allow a better understanding of both the infrasound data and eruptive activity. Karymsky Volcano is one of the most active and dynamic volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia, with activity during our experiments consisting of vigorous degassing, frequent ash explosions, apparent vent sealing, and intermittent explosive magmatic eruptions. This varied activity produced diverse acoustic and emissions signals. Large explosive eruptions in 2011 are preceded by vent sealing and produce high-amplitude infrasound with occasional visible shock waves. Vigorous gas jetting is also observed and accompanied by elevated SO2 emissions and low infrasound levels. The gas jetting produced clear audible sound (~20-100 Hz) that

  19. Quantifying a dynamic risk landscape: heterogeneous predator activity and implications for prey persistence.

    PubMed

    Schauber, Eric M; Connors, Matthew J; Goodwin, Brett J; Jones, Clive G; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2009-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in predation risk can ameliorate impacts on prey populations, particularly for prey of generalists. Spatially heterogeneous risk implies the existence of refugia, and the spatial scale of those refugia and their persistence over time affect whether prey can avoid predation by aggregating therein. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude, spatial scale, and temporal persistence of heterogeneity in risk of predation by white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), an abundant generalist predator of gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) and songbirds. We used track plates to measure white-footed mouse activity at > 170 trees in each of three forest plots in upstate New York during summers of 2003-2005. We quantified the mean and coefficient of variation of track activity among trees by fitting the beta-binomial distribution to data from each plot and study period. We measured temporal persistence by disattenuated autocorrelation, and spatial scale by fitting exponential variograms. Mice were much less abundant in 2005 than the other two years, leading to lower overall track activity but higher coefficient of variation among trees. Mouse track activity at individual trees was positively autocorrelated between monthly study periods in 2003 and 2004, and even between the two years, whereas temporal autocorrelation in 2005 was much weaker. Track activity showed positive spatial autocorrelation over lag distances from approximately 30 to > 1000 m. These findings indicate that mouse activity, and hence risk to their prey, varies substantially in space at spatial and temporal scales that appear responsive to mouse population dynamics. The spatial scale and temporal persistence of that variation imply that prey may benefit from returning to, or failing to disperse from, refugia.

  20. The Resonating Arm Exerciser: design and pilot testing of a mechanically passive rehabilitation device that mimics robotic active assistance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robotic arm therapy devices that incorporate actuated assistance can enhance arm recovery, motivate patients to practice, and allow therapists to deliver semi-autonomous training. However, because such devices are often complex and actively apply forces, they have not achieved widespread use in rehabilitation clinics or at home. This paper describes the design and pilot testing of a simple, mechanically passive device that provides robot-like assistance for active arm training using the principle of mechanical resonance. Methods The Resonating Arm Exerciser (RAE) consists of a lever that attaches to the push rim of a wheelchair, a forearm support, and an elastic band that stores energy. Patients push and pull on the lever to roll the wheelchair back and forth by about 20 cm around a neutral position. We performed two separate pilot studies of the device. In the first, we tested whether the predicted resonant properties of RAE amplified a user’s arm mobility by comparing his or her active range of motion (AROM) in the device achieved during a single, sustained push and pull to the AROM achieved during rocking. In a second pilot study designed to test the therapeutic potential of the device, eight participants with chronic stroke (35 ± 24 months since injury) and a mean, stable, initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (FM) score of 17 ± 8 / 66 exercised with RAE for eight 45 minute sessions over three weeks. The primary outcome measure was the average AROM measured with a tilt sensor during a one minute test, and the secondary outcome measures were the FM score and the visual analog scale for arm pain. Results In the first pilot study, we found people with a severe motor impairment after stroke intuitively found the resonant frequency of the chair, and the mechanical resonance of RAE amplified their arm AROM by a factor of about 2. In the second pilot study, AROM increased by 66% ± 20% (p = 0.003). The mean FM score increase was 8.5 ± 4 pts (p = 0

  1. The Resonating Arm Exerciser: design and pilot testing of a mechanically passive rehabilitation device that mimics robotic active assistance.

    PubMed

    Zondervan, Daniel K; Palafox, Lorena; Hernandez, Jorge; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-04-18

    Robotic arm therapy devices that incorporate actuated assistance can enhance arm recovery, motivate patients to practice, and allow therapists to deliver semi-autonomous training. However, because such devices are often complex and actively apply forces, they have not achieved widespread use in rehabilitation clinics or at home. This paper describes the design and pilot testing of a simple, mechanically passive device that provides robot-like assistance for active arm training using the principle of mechanical resonance. The Resonating Arm Exerciser (RAE) consists of a lever that attaches to the push rim of a wheelchair, a forearm support, and an elastic band that stores energy. Patients push and pull on the lever to roll the wheelchair back and forth by about 20 cm around a neutral position. We performed two separate pilot studies of the device. In the first, we tested whether the predicted resonant properties of RAE amplified a user's arm mobility by comparing his or her active range of motion (AROM) in the device achieved during a single, sustained push and pull to the AROM achieved during rocking. In a second pilot study designed to test the therapeutic potential of the device, eight participants with chronic stroke (35 ± 24 months since injury) and a mean, stable, initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (FM) score of 17 ± 8 / 66 exercised with RAE for eight 45 minute sessions over three weeks. The primary outcome measure was the average AROM measured with a tilt sensor during a one minute test, and the secondary outcome measures were the FM score and the visual analog scale for arm pain. In the first pilot study, we found people with a severe motor impairment after stroke intuitively found the resonant frequency of the chair, and the mechanical resonance of RAE amplified their arm AROM by a factor of about 2. In the second pilot study, AROM increased by 66% ± 20% (p = 0.003). The mean FM score increase was 8.5 ± 4 pts (p = 0.009). Subjects did not report

  2. Power considerations for trials of two experimental arms versus a standard active control or placebo.

    PubMed

    Hasselblad, Vic

    2016-10-01

    The power of the two-experimental arm trial depends on three choices: (1) when one arm is dropped (if at all); (2) the final testing procedure, assuming no dropping; and (3) the sampling ratio for the three arms. Multiple-arm designs require critical values which were calculated using Mathematica. Power calculations were exact based on probabilities from binomial distributions. The "drop the loser" strategy is optimal for the primary endpoint. The equal sized two treated arm trial gives reasonable power for the primary as well as good power to select the best treated arm. The best power was provided by the 3:3:4 sampling, but it was only marginally better. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Quantifying submarine landslide processes driven by active tectonic forcing: Cook Strait submarine canyon, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Barnes, P. M.; Pettinga, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Cook Strait submarine canyon system is a multi-branched, deeply incised and highly sinuous feature of New Zealand's active margin, covering some 1500km2 of sea floor between the North and South Islands and spanning water depths of between 50 and 2700m. The canyon occurs at the transition from the westward dipping oblique subduction zone adjacent to the SE North Island and the zone of continental transpression in NE South Island. The recent acquisition of high resolution (5-10m) SIMRAD EM300 bathymetric data allows active tectonic and geomorphic processes to be assessed and quantified at a level of detail previously not possible. While multiple active submarine fault traces have been identified in the Cook Strait by previous studies, quantitative information on their activity has been limited. Cook Strait is structurally characterized by westward dipping thrust faults and E-W trending dextral strike slip faults. The multiple large magnitude high frequency earthquake sources define zones of very high ground shaking expected to contribute to triggering of extensive submarine slope failures. Landslide activity within the canyon system is widespread and represents the dominant mass movement process affecting canyon heads and walls, redistributing material into valley fills. Complexes of large (km3) multi-stepped, deep-seated (100m) translational bedding plane failures represented by gently sloping (<3°) evacuated slide-scar areas with associated blocky valley fill deposits are numerous. Steep catchment heads, channel walls and the leading edges of asymmetric thrust-fault driven anticlines are dominated by gulley and rill systems with associated eroded and/or incipient slump features. Large (107m3+) slide blocks are recognized in discrete failures with quantifiable displacement vectors. Tsunamigenic landslides in this environment are inevitable. This study will provide quantification of landslide models including triggering mechanisms, discrete geometries and

  4. Co-activity of the trapezius and upper arm muscles with finger tapping at different rates and trunk postures.

    PubMed

    Schnoz, M; Läubli, T; Krueger, H

    2000-10-01

    In the context of finding a model that describes the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to muscle pain at low-intensity repetitive work, in this study we investigated whether a simplified finger motor task that requires little mental demand can cause increased muscle activity in the upper arms and neck, and examined the impact of the variation of two parameters, finger tapping rate and body posture. Using the 5th and 95th percentiles from the surface electromyogram of six muscles of the fingers, upper arm and neck, we determined the static and dynamic components of the muscle activity. Correlation methods were used to find a component in the muscle activity that originated from the rhythm of the finger tapping. Further investigations included tapping steadiness and finger force. It was found that in many, but not all subjects, low or even high activity was constantly present in the upper arm and trapezius muscles, sometimes even during relaxation. Fast tapping and a forward-leaning body posture caused considerable increases, while a slightly reclined posture helped to reduce co-activity. However, motor control patterns varied strongly between individuals. Since certain subjects showed no co-activity at all we can assume that trapezius and upper-arm activation is not necessarily required for the completion of a task similar to ours. This may explain why some VDU users develop work-related musculoskeletal disorders while others remain healthy.

  5. Physical activity levels as a quantifier in police officers and cadets.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Andrzej; Sawicki, Bogusław

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the physical activity levels of active duty police officers and police academy cadets in different life domains and intensities. These parameters were treated as potential quantifiers that could be used when assessing individuals preparing for work as future police officers. The study recruited 153 active police officers and 176 cadets attending a police academy and administered a diagnostic survey, the long-form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, while in the statistical analysis the Student's t-test for independent groups was applied. It was determined that police officers present high physical activity levels within the work domain, which are developed from initial training at a police academy and then throughout their police career. Such data are important in the light of the role police officers play in public safety as well as the prominence of physical activity within a particular profession and how it can be targeted and tailored to their needs.

  6. Actigraphy quantifies reduced voluntary physical activity in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Chantler, Ingrid; Mitchell, Duncan; Fuller, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether an activity data logger was able to detect and measure the reduced physical activity reported by women with moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea. Twelve young women with a history of primary dysmenorrhea and 12 young women without a history of dysmenorrhea wore an activity data logger on their hip for 3 days when menstruating and for 3 matched days of the week when not menstruating. A visual analog scale was use to assess intensity of pain. When menstruating, the women with a history of primary dysmenorrhea, compared with when they were not menstruating, were significantly less active by about 40% on their day of worst pain (P < .001), day of intermediate pain (P < .001), and day of least pain (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the voluntary physical activity of the group on the 3 menstrual days. The women without a history of dysmenorrhea experienced mild menstrual pain but no significant decrease in physical activity (P = .82). We show that data loggers are able to detect and quantify the decrease in physical activity reported by the women with a history of moderate to severe dysmenorrhea and that menstrual pain but not menstruation itself was associated with decreased voluntary physical activity. We have shown that a miniature activity data logger, when worn on the hip of women with a history of dysmenorrhea, detected a 40% decrease in physical activity when the women were experiencing moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea. Actigraphy is a useful tool for measuring pain-related debilitation and its management.

  7. Oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus during arm reaching in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Joundi, Raed A; Brittain, John-Stuart; Green, Alex L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2012-08-01

    Oscillatory activities in the brain within the beta (15-30 Hz) and gamma (70-90 Hz) ranges have been implicated in the generation of voluntary movement. However, their roles remain unclear. Here, we record local field potential activity from the region of the subthalamic nucleus during movement of the contralateral limb in 11 patients with Parkinson's disease. Patients were on their normal dopaminergic medication and were cued to perform arm-reaching movements after a delay period at three different speeds: 'slow', 'normal', and 'fast'. Beta activity desynchronized earlier in response to the cue indicating an upcoming fast reach than to the cues for slow or normal speed movement. There was no difference in the degree of beta desynchronization between reaching speeds and beta desynchronization was established prior to movement onset in all cases. In contrast, synchronization in the gamma range developed during the reaching movement, and was especially pronounced during fast reaching. Thus the timing of suppression in the beta band depended on task demands, whereas the degree of increase in gamma oscillations depended on movement speed. These findings point to functionally segregated roles for different oscillatory frequencies in motor preparation and performance.

  8. Update: Exertional hyponatremia, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1999-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    From 1999 through 2013, there were 1,406 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 to 2010 but decreased by 59 percent from 2010 to 2013. In 2013, there were fewer incident cases (n=73) than in any of the previous 9 years. The recent decrease in overall rates reflects sharply declining rates in the Marine Corps and slight decreases in the other Services. Relative to their respective counterparts, crude incidence rates of exertional hyponatremia for the entire 15-year surveillance period were higher among females, those in the youngest age group, Marines, recruit trainees, and "other" military occupations. Service members (particularly recruit trainees) and their supervisors must be vigilant for early signs of heat-related illnesses and must be knowledgeable of the dangers of excessive water consumption and the prescribed limits for water intake during prolonged physical activity (e.g., field training exercises, personal fitness training, recreational activities) in hot, humid weather.

  9. Wear rate quantifying in real-time using the charged particle surface activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.

    1997-02-01

    Surface activation, commonly known as Thin Layer Activation (TLA), is currently employed in over 30 accelerator laboratories around the world for wear and/or corrosion monitoring in industrial plants [1-6]. TLA was primarily designed and developed to meet requirements of potential industrial partners, in order to transfer this technique from research to industry. The method consists of accelerated ion bombardment of a surface of interest, e.g., a machine part subjected to wear. Loss of material owing to wear, erosive corrosion or abrasion is characterized by monitoring the resultant changes in radioactivity. In principle, depending upon the case at hand, one may choose to measure either the remnant activity of the component of interest or to monitor the activity of the debris. For applications of the second type, especially when a lubricating agent is involved, dedicated installations have been constructed and adapted to an engine or a tribological testing stand in order to assure oil circulation around an externally placed detection gauge. This way, the wear particles suspended in the lubricant can be detected and the material loss rates quantified in real time. Moreover, in specific cases, such as the one presented in this paper, remnant activity measurements prove to be useful tools for complementary results. This paper provides a detailed presentation of such a case: in situ resistance-to-wear testing of two types of piston rings.

  10. Discovering a one-dimensional active subspace to quantify multidisciplinary uncertainty in satellite system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingzhi; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Chen, Xiaoqian; Seshadri, Pranay

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification has recently been receiving much attention from aerospace engineering community. With ever-increasing requirements for robustness and reliability, it is crucial to quantify multidisciplinary uncertainty in satellite system design which dominates overall design direction and cost. However, coupled multi-disciplines and cross propagation hamper the efficiency and accuracy of high-dimensional uncertainty analysis. In this study, an uncertainty quantification methodology based on active subspaces is established for satellite conceptual design. The active subspace effectively reduces the dimension and measures the contributions of input uncertainties. A comprehensive characterization of associated uncertain factors is made and all subsystem models are built for uncertainty propagation. By integrating a system decoupling strategy, the multidisciplinary uncertainty effect is efficiently represented by a one-dimensional active subspace for each design. The identified active subspace is checked by bootstrap resampling for confidence intervals and verified by Monte Carlo propagation for the accuracy. To show the performance of active subspaces, 18 uncertainty parameters of an Earth observation small satellite are exemplified and then another 5 design uncertainties are incorporated. The uncertainties that contribute the most to satellite mass and total cost are ranked, and the quantification of high-dimensional uncertainty is achieved by a relatively small number of support samples. The methodology with considerably less cost exhibits high accuracy and strong adaptability, which provides a potential template to tackle multidisciplinary uncertainty in practical satellite systems.

  11. Quantifying Time-Varying Multiunit Neural Activity Using Entropy-Based Measures

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Seok; Koenig, Matthew A.; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Modern microelectrode arrays make it possible to simultaneously record population neural activity. However, methods to analyze multiunit activity (MUA), which reflects the aggregate spiking activity of a population of neurons, have remained underdeveloped in comparison to those used for studying single unit activity (SUA). In scenarios where SUA is hard to record and maintain or is not representative of brain’s response, MUA is informative in deciphering the brain’s complex time-varying response to stimuli or to clinical insults. Here, we present two quantitative methods of analysis of the time-varying dynamics of MUA without spike detection. These methods are based on the multiresolution discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of an envelope of MUA (eMUA) followed by information theoretic measures: multiresolution entropy (MRE) and the multiresolution Kullback–Leibler distance (MRKLD).We test the proposed quantifiers on both simulated and experimental MUA recorded from rodent cortex in an experimental model of global hypoxic–ischemic brain injury. First, our results validate the use of the eMUA as an alternative to detecting and analyzing transient and complex spike activity. Second, the MRE and MRKLD are shown to respond to dynamic changes due to the brain’s response to global injury and to identify the transient changes in the MUA. PMID:20460201

  12. Clinical Activity Monitoring System (CATS): An automatic system to quantify bedside clinical activities in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Shao, Lei; Green, Richard; Clark, Adrian; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring clinical activity at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU) can provide useful information to evaluate nursing care and patient recovery. However, it is labour intensive to quantify these activities and there is a need for an automated method to record and quantify these activities. This paper presents an automated system, Clinical Activity Tracking System (CATS), to monitor and evaluate clinical activity at the patient's bedside. The CATS uses four Microsoft Kinect infrared sensors to track bedside nursing interventions. The system was tested in a simulated environment where test candidates performed different motion paths in the detection area. Two metrics, 'Distance' and 'Dwell time', were developed to evaluate interventions or workload in the detection area. Results showed that the system can accurately track the intervention performed by individual or multiple subjects. The results of a 30-day, 24-hour preliminary study in an ICU bed space matched clinical expectations. It was found that the average 24-hour intervention is 22.0minutes/hour. The average intervention during the day time (7am-11pm) is 23.6minutes/hour, 1.4 times higher than 11pm-7am, 16.8minutes/hour. This system provides a unique approach to automatically collect and evaluate nursing interventions that can be used to evaluate patient acuity and workload demand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortical activation changes in patients suffering from post-stroke arm spasticity and treated with botulinum toxin a.

    PubMed

    Tomášová, Zuzana; Hluštík, Petr; Král, Michal; Otruba, Pavel; Herzig, Roman; Krobot, Alois; Kaňovský, Petr

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum toxin (BoNT) treatment relieves focal arm spasticity after stroke, likely acting at several hierarchical levels of the motor system. The central correlate of BoNT-induced spasticity relief may be detected using repeated functional MRI (fMRI) during motor task. Five patients (4 males, 1 female, mean age 67 years) with hemiparesis and distal arm spasticity after chronic ischemic stroke were studied. FMRI was performed while moving the paretic hand in three sessions: before and 4 and 11 weeks after BoNT treatment. Arm spasticity significantly decreased following BoNT treatment across the group (mean modified Ashworth scale change .6). FMRI prior to BoNT treatment showed extensive bilateral active networks, whereas post-BoNT activation was limited to midline and contralateral sensorimotor cortices, and the third examination, when the toxin effect has worn off, again showed extensive activation similar to pre-BoNT examination. Post-BoNT session 2 compared to sessions 1 and 3 demonstrated a significantly less activation in contralateral frontoparietal areas including inferior frontal, postcentral, and middle frontal gyri as well as transient crossed cerebellar activation. Relief of post-stroke arm spasticity may be associated with changes at several hierarchical levels of the cortical sensorimotor system, including the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  14. Introducing co-activation pattern metrics to quantify spontaneous brain network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyuan E; Chang, Catie; Greicius, Michael D; Glover, Gary H

    2015-05-01

    Recently, fMRI researchers have begun to realize that the brain's intrinsic network patterns may undergo substantial changes during a single resting state (RS) scan. However, despite the growing interest in brain dynamics, metrics that can quantify the variability of network patterns are still quite limited. Here, we first introduce various quantification metrics based on the extension of co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis, a recently proposed point-process analysis that tracks state alternations at each individual time frame and relies on very few assumptions; then apply these proposed metrics to quantify changes of brain dynamics during a sustained 2-back working memory (WM) task compared to rest. We focus on the functional connectivity of two prominent RS networks, the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN). We first demonstrate less variability of global Pearson correlations with respect to the two chosen networks using a sliding-window approach during WM task compared to rest; then we show that the macroscopic decrease in variations in correlations during a WM task is also well characterized by the combined effect of a reduced number of dominant CAPs, increased spatial consistency across CAPs, and increased fractional contributions of a few dominant CAPs. These CAP metrics may provide alternative and more straightforward quantitative means of characterizing brain network dynamics than time-windowed correlation analyses.

  15. Quantifying the fingerprint descriptor dependence of structure-activity relationship information on a large scale.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-09-23

    It is well-known that different molecular representations, e.g., graphs, numerical descriptors, fingerprints, or 3D models, change the numerical results of molecular similarity calculations. Because the assessment of structure-activity relationships (SARs) requires similarity and potency comparisons of active compounds, this representation dependence inevitably also affects SAR analysis. But to what extent? How exactly does SAR information change when alternative fingerprints are used as descriptors? What is the proportion of active compounds with substantial changes in SAR information induced by different fingerprints? To provide answers to these questions, we have quantified changes in SAR information across many different compound classes using six different fingerprints. SAR profiling was carried out on 128 target-based data sets comprising more than 60,000 compounds with high-confidence activity annotations. A numerical measure of SAR discontinuity was applied to assess SAR information on a per compound basis. For ~70% of all test compounds, changes in SAR characteristics were detected when different fingerprints were used as molecular representations. Moreover, the SAR phenotype of ~30% of the compounds changed, and distinct fingerprint-dependent local SAR environments were detected. The fingerprints we compared were found to generate SAR models that were essentially not comparable. Atom environment and pharmacophore fingerprints produced the largest differences in compound-associated SAR information. Taken together, the results of our systematic analysis reveal larger fingerprint-dependent changes in compound-associated SAR information than would have been anticipated.

  16. Tuberculosis trends in the U.S. Armed Forces, active component, 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, James D; Aaron, Christopher L

    2013-05-01

    Members of the Armed Forces represent a segment of the U.S. population that may be at increased risk for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and transmission due to overseas service in endemic areas and residence in congregate settings. The purpose of this study was to examine recent surveillance trends and risk factors associated with TB disease in the active component U.S. military. The rate of TB in the U.S. military -0.6 per 100,000 population (n=128) over the interval from 1998 to 2012 - was lower than the age-adjusted rate among the U.S. population (adjusted rate ratio=0.20) over the same time interval. During the last five years of the surveillance period, the most common factor associated with the diagnosis of TB disease during military service was latent infection at time of accession; also, as many as nine (24%) cases of TB were associated with deployment to Iraq or other military exposures. TB control activities should continue to mitigate unique military exposures such as crowding during recruit training and deployments to TB endemic areas.

  17. An Active-Distributed Temperature Sensing method to quantify groundwater - surface water exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Nataline; Bour, Olivier; Lavenant, Nicolas; Faucheux, Mickaël; Fovet, Ophélie; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and quantifying groundwater and surface water interactions are key elements for the management of water quality and quantity, but also for the preservation of groundwater dependent ecosystems and riparian habitat. We developed a methodology to quantify groundwater and surface water interactions, by setting up an active heat tracer experiment using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS). The experimental setup consists in heating an armoured fiber-optic cable that has been previously deployed along the streambed within the sediments. Then, the increase in temperature along the heated cable is a function of the thermal properties of the sediments and of the fluid flow velocity within the sediments. The cable is heated electrically through the steel armouring of the cable while the elevations in temperature are continuously monitored. We tested this methodology on the Kerbernez catchment, located in south-western Brittany (France) and which is part of the AgrHys hydrological observatory. We deploy the cable in a first-order stream within this small agricultural catchment (0.12 km2). Temperature was monitored along 60 meters of stream with a spatial and temporal resolution respectively equal to 29 cm and 30 s. To interpret the data, we used an analytical solution developed for geothermal energy that considers advection and conduction of temperature in porous media. To validate the use of the analytical solution and to define the limits of the method, a 2D numerical model has been developed. This model simulates heat transport and conduction with steady state fluid flow using the Conjugate Heat Transfer module of COMSOL Multiphysics ®. During heating and cooling, the measured temperature was particularly variable along the section with temperature increases that range between 16 to 36°C. This variability can directly be associated with local variations of water fluxes by applying the appropriate analytical solution. Henceforth, it is

  18. ARM review, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Flatte, S.; Koonin, S.; MacDonald, G.; Nierenberg, W.; Rothaus, O.; Zachariasen, F.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is a major component of the US research program in global change. ARMs goals of quantifying the effect of clouds on the earth`s radiation budget is a key element in improving general circulation models (GCM) through enhancing understanding of the fast physics of the atmosphere. ARM is a well organized and managed program. A major concern for the programs future is the availability of adequate resources to establish and maintain observation sites in the Western tropical Pacific and on the north slope of Alaska.

  19. ARM review, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Flatte, S.; Koonin, S.; MacDonald, G.; Nierenberg, W.; Rothaus, O.; Zachariasen, F.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is a major component of the US research program in global change. ARMs goals of quantifying the effect of clouds on the earth's radiation budget is a key element in improving general circulation models (GCM) through enhancing understanding of the fast physics of the atmosphere. ARM is a well organized and managed program. A major concern for the programs future is the availability of adequate resources to establish and maintain observation sites in the Western tropical Pacific and on the north slope of Alaska.

  20. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group.

  1. Evaluation of Quantified Social Perception Circuit Activity as a Neurobiological Marker of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Björnsdotter, Malin; Wang, Nancy; Pelphrey, Kevin; Kaiser, Martha D

    2016-06-01

    . Additionally, brain responses were associated with social behavior in boys but not in girls. Quantified social perception circuit activity is a promising individual-level candidate neural marker of the male ASD behavioral phenotype. Our findings highlight the need to better understand effects of sex on social perception processing in relation to ASD phenotype manifestations.

  2. A regression model predicting isometric shoulder muscle activities from arm postures and shoulder joint moments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; McGorry, Raymond W; Lin, Jia-Hua

    2014-06-01

    Tissue overloading is a major contributor to shoulder musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies attempted to use regression-based methods to predict muscle activities from shoulder kinematics and shoulder kinetics. While a regression-based method can address co-contraction of the antagonist muscles as opposed to the optimization method, most of these regression models were based on limited shoulder postures. The purpose of this study was to develop a set of regression equations to predict the 10th percentile, the median, and the 90th percentile of normalized electromyography (nEMG) activities from shoulder postures and net shoulder moments. Forty participants generated various 3-D shoulder moments at 96 static postures. The nEMG of 16 shoulder muscles was measured and the 3-D net shoulder moment was calculated using a static biomechanical model. A stepwise regression was used to derive the regression equations. The results indicated the measured range of the 3-D shoulder moment in this study was similar to those observed during work requiring light physical capacity. The r(2) of all the regression equations ranged between 0.228 and 0.818. For the median of the nEMG, the average r(2) among all 16 muscles was 0.645, and the five muscles with the greatest r(2) were the three deltoids, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus. The results can be used by practitioners to estimate the range of the shoulder muscle activities given a specific arm posture and net shoulder moment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Should Air Bubble Detectors Be Used to Quantify Microbubble Activity during Cardiopulmonary Bypass?

    PubMed

    Newland, Richard F; Baker, Robert A; Mazzone, Annette L; Valiyapurayil, Vijaykumar N

    2015-09-01

    Air bubble detectors (ABDs) are utilized during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to protect against massive air embolism. Stockert (Munich, Germany) ABD quantify microbubbles >300 μm; however, their reliability has not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the microbubble data from the ABD with the SIII and S5 heart-lung machines. Microbubble counts from the ABD with the SIII (SIII ABD) and S5 (S5 ABD) were measured simultaneously with the emboli detection and classification (EDAC) quantifier in 12 CPB procedures using two EDAC detectors and two ABDs in series in the arterial line. Reliability was assessed by the Spearman correlation co-efficient (r) between measurements for each detector type, and between each ABD and EDAC detector for counts >300 μm. No correlation was found between the SIII ABD (r = .008, p = .793). A weak negative correlation was found with the S5 ABD (r = -.16, p < .001). A strong correlation was found between the EDAC detectors (SIII; r = .958, p < .001), (S5; r = .908, p < .001). With counts >300 μm, the SIII ABDs showed a correlation of small-medium effect size between EDAC detectors and ABD1 (r = .286, p < .001 [EDAC1], r = .347, p < .001 [EDAC2]). There was no correlation found between ABD2 and either EDAC detector (r = .003, p = .925 (EDAC1), r = .003, p = .929 [EDAC2]). A correlation between EDAC and the S5 ABD, was not able to be determined due to the low bubble count detected by the EDAC >300 μm. Both SIII ABD and S5 ABD were found to be unreliable for quantification of microbubble activity during CPB in comparison with the EDAC. These results highlight the importance of ensuring that data included in the CPB report is accurate and clinically relevant, and suggests that microbubble counts from devices such as the SIII ABD and S5 ABD should not be reported.

  4. Making music after stroke: using musical activities to enhance arm function.

    PubMed

    van Wijck, Frederike; Knox, Don; Dodds, Colin; Cassidy, Gianna; Alexander, Gillian; MacDonald, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    A common long-term consequence of stroke is impaired arm function, which affects independence and quality of life in a considerable proportion of stroke survivors. There is a growing need for self-management strategies that enable stroke survivors to continue their recovery after rehabilitation has ceased. Interventions with high-intensity, repetitive task training and feedback are most likely to improve function. Achieving the required amount of self-practice is challenging, however. Innovative approaches are required to translate therapies into rewarding activities that can be undertaken independently. This paper describes the key principles and development of a novel intervention that integrates individuals' preferred music with game technology in upper limb rehabilitation. The "tap tempo" paradigm, which uses rhythmic auditory cueing, provides repetitive upper limb task training, which can be tailored to individual goals and progress (e.g., in terms of movement range and complexity), while providing sensitive quantitative feedback to promote skill acquisition and enhance self-management. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Bacterial skin infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    From 2000 through 2012, health care records of the Military Health System documented 998,671 incident cases of bacterial skin infections among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Most cases (97.3%) were identified from records of outpatient medical encounters rather than hospitalizations. Cellulitis accounted for half (50.9%) of all cases of bacterial skin infection but 96 percent of associated hospital bed days. Of all cases, 42.3 percent were "other" skin infections (i.e., folliculitis, impetigo, pyoderma, pyogenic granuloma, other and unspecified infections). The remainder were attributable to carbuncles/furuncles (6.6%) and erysipelas (0.1%). Rates of infection were higher among female service members except for "other" skin infections. In general, the highest rates were associated with youth, recruit trainee status, and junior enlisted rank; however, rates of erysipelas were highest among those 50 years and older. Annual incidence rates of all bacterial skin infections have increased greatly since 2000. During the entire period, such infections required more than 1.4 million health care encounters and 94,000 hospital bed-days (equivalent to 257 years of lost duty time). The prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of bacterial skin infections, particularly in high risk settings, deserve continued emphasis.

  6. Gastrointestinal infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis and other infectious disorders of the gastrointestinal system are common in civilian and military populations. During the years 2002 through 2012, there were 286,305 cases of gastrointestinal infection (GI) diagnosed among members of the active component of the U.S. Armed Forces. The distribution of presumed causes of these illnesses (as reported in administrative medical records) was bacterial (29%), viral (68%), and parasitic (3%). Most recorded diagnoses did not specify an etiologic agent. In addition, there were 379,509 other healthcare encounters in which the recorded diagnosis was simply "diarrhea." During the period, rates of hospitalization for Clostridium difficile and "ill-defined intestinal infection" increased greatly. In the outpatient setting, rates of GI diagnoses remained stable or declined, but rates of non-specific "diarrhea" increased steadily. Among reportable infectious causes of GI, rates of both campylobacteriosis and norovirus diagnoses increased steadily since 2009. Among deployed service members with GI during the period 2005 through 2012, viral agents were most often recorded as the underlying etiology (60%). Salmonellosis was the most frequent specific bacterial etiology diagnosed among deployed service members. Countermeasures against GI among service member should be emphasized in military education programs at all levels, during field training exercises, and particularly in deployment settings.

  7. Incident diagnoses of leishmaniasis, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2016.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Williams, Valerie F; Taubman, Stephen B

    2017-02-01

    During the surveillance period, there were 2,040 incident diagnoses/reports of leishmaniasis among members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Cutaneous leishmaniasis accounted for more than three-fifths (61.0%) of the total diagnoses/ reports among active component service members and for less than half (48.0%) of the total cases among reserve component members. The visceral form of leishmaniasis represented 1.2% of the total cases. Approximately two-fifths (40.6%) of the total diagnoses/reports were classified as "unspecified" with respect to the type of leishmaniasis. The lowest annual numbers of diagnoses/reports in the past decade were seen in 2011-2016 and reached a nadir of 11 cases in 2015. During the entire surveillance period, 71.7% of the total leishmaniasis cases were diagnosed or reported during the 7 months from early autumn to the beginning of spring (September-March) in the northern hemisphere. The majority of cases acquired in the Middle East (73.6%), South/Central America (87.5%), and other or unknown locations (64.5%) were diagnosed or reported during this 7-month interval.

  8. Pectoralis muscle uptake of thallium-201 after arm exercise ergometry. Possible confusion with lung thallium-201 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, R.J.; Garcia, O.M.; Correa, O.A.; Mace, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Pectoralis muscle uptake of thallium-201 was noted in 8 (73%) out of 11 patients after exercise arm ergometry. Uptake varied from mild to marked and potentially could be confused with pulmonary Tl-201 activity with a resulting false-positive diagnosis of exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction. The three patients exhibiting negative or trace Tl-201 uptake had suboptimal exercise efforts. The characteristics of pectoralis muscle Tl-201 uptake are illustrated, and differentiation from true lung Tl-201 activity is discussed.

  9. The Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised: Assessing Real-world Arm Use in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Vogtle, Laura; Rowe, Jan; Barman, Joydip

    2012-01-01

    Objective Widely accepted models of disability suggest that actual use of an impaired upper-extremity in everyday life frequently deviates from its motor capacity, as measured by laboratory tests. Yet, direct measures of real-world use of an impaired upper-extremity are rare in pediatric neurorehabilitation. This paper examines how well the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised (PMAL-R) measures this parameter, when the PMAL-R is administered as a structured interview as originally designed. Design Parents of sixty children between 2–8 years with upper-extremity hemiparesis due to cerebral palsy (CP) completed the PMAL-R twice. Additionally, the children were videotaped during play structured to elicit spontaneous arm use. More-affected arm use was scored by masked raters; it was thought to reflect everyday activity since no cues were given about which arm to employ. Testing sessions were separated by 3 weeks, during which 29 children received upper-extremity rehabilitation and 31 did not. Results The PMAL-R had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .93) and test-retest reliability (r = .89). Convergent validity was supported by a strong correlation between changes in PMAL-R scores and more-affected arm use during play, r(53) = .5, p < .001. Conclusions The PMAL-R interview is a reliable and valid measure of upper-extremity pediatric neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:22686553

  10. A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.

  11. A method to qualitatively assess arm use in stroke survivors in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Kaspar; Gonzenbach, Roman; Wachter, Susanne; Luft, Andreas; Gassert, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Wearable sensor technology has enabled unobtrusive monitoring of arm movements of stroke survivors in the home environment. However, the most widely established method, based on activity counts, provides quantitative rather than qualitative information on arm without functional insights, and is sensitive to passive arm movements during ambulatory activities. We propose a method to quantify functionally relevant arm use in stroke survivors relying on a single wrist-worn inertial measurement unit. Orientation of the forearm during movements is measured in order identify gross arm movements. The method is validated in 10 subacute/chronic stroke survivors wearing inertial sensors at 5 anatomical locations for 48 h. Measurements are compared to conventional activity counts and to a test for gross manual dexterity. Duration of gross arm movements of the paretic arm correlated significantly better with the Box and Block Test ([Formula: see text]) than conventional activity counts when walking phases were included ([Formula: see text]), and similar results were found when comparing ratios of paretic and non-paretic arms for gross movements and activity counts. The proposed gross arm movement metric is robust against passive arm movements during ambulatory activities and requires only a single-sensor module placed at the paretic wrist for the assessment of functionally relevant arm use.

  12. [Evaluation of interest in research among surgically active medical officers in the German Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Back, D A; Palm, H G; Willms, A; Westerfeld, A; Hinck, D; Schulze, C; Brodauf, L; Bieler, D; Küper, M A

    2015-10-01

    Research in military medicine and in particular combat surgery is a broad field that has gained international importance during the last decade. In the context of increased NATO missions, this also holds true for the Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces); however, medical officers in surgery must balance research between their clinical work load, missions, civilian and family obligation. To evaluate engagement with and interest in research, a questionnaire was distributed among the doctors of the surgical departments of the Bundeswehr hospitals by the newly founded working group Chirurgische Forschung der Bundeswehr (surgical research of the Bundeswehr). Returned data were recorded from October 2013 to January 2014 and descriptive statistics were performed. Answers were received from 87 out of 193 military surgeons (45 %). Of these 81 % announced a general interest in research with a predominance on clinical research in preference to experimental settings. At the time of the evaluation 32 % of the participants were actively involved in research and 53 % regarded it as difficult to invest time in research activities parallel to clinical work. Potential keys to increase the interest and engagement in research were seen in the implementation of research coordinators and also in a higher amount of free time, for example by research rotation. Research can be regarded as having a firm place in the daily work of medical officers in the surgical departments of the Bundeswehr; however, the engagement is limited by time and structural factors. At the departmental level and in the command structures of the military medical service, more efforts are recommended in the future in order to enhance the engagement with surgical research. This evaluation should be repeated in the coming years as a measuring instrument and data should be compared in an international context.

  13. Quantifying the 3D Odorant Concentration Field Used by Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.

    2007-11-01

    Blue crabs and other aquatic organisms locate food and mates by tracking turbulent odorant plumes. The odorant concentration fluctuates unpredictably due to turbulent transport, and many characteristics of the fluctuation pattern have been hypothesized as useful cues for orienting to the odorant source. To make a direct linkage between tracking behavior and the odorant concentration signal, we developed a measurement system based the laser induced fluorescence technique to quantify the instantaneous 3D concentration field surrounding actively tracking blue crabs. The data suggest a correlation between upstream walking speed and the concentration of the odorant signal arriving at the antennule chemosensors, which are located near the mouth region. More specifically, we note an increase in upstream walking speed when high concentration bursts arrive at the antennules location. We also test hypotheses regarding the ability of blue crabs to steer relative to the plume centerline based on the signal contrast between the chemosensors located on their leg appendages. These chemosensors are located much closer to the substrate compared to the antennules and are separated by the width of the blue crab. In this case, it appears that blue crabs use the bilateral signal comparison to track along the edge of the plume.

  14. Quantifying microstructural dynamics and electrochemical activity of graphite and silicon-graphite lithium ion battery anodes

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Patrick; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Eller, Jens; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Schmidt, Volker; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous studies presenting advances in tomographic imaging and analysis of lithium ion batteries, graphite-based anodes have received little attention. Weak X-ray attenuation of graphite and, as a result, poor contrast between graphite and the other carbon-based components in an electrode pore space renders data analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate operando tomography of weakly attenuating electrodes during electrochemical (de)lithiation. We use propagation-based phase contrast tomography to facilitate the differentiation between weakly attenuating materials and apply digital volume correlation to capture the dynamics of the electrodes during operation. After validating that we can quantify the local electrochemical activity and microstructural changes throughout graphite electrodes, we apply our technique to graphite-silicon composite electrodes. We show that microstructural changes that occur during (de)lithiation of a pure graphite electrode are of the same order of magnitude as spatial inhomogeneities within it, while strain in composite electrodes is locally pronounced and introduces significant microstructural changes. PMID:27671269

  15. Quantifying microstructural dynamics and electrochemical activity of graphite and silicon-graphite lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Patrick; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Eller, Jens; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Schmidt, Volker; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-09-27

    Despite numerous studies presenting advances in tomographic imaging and analysis of lithium ion batteries, graphite-based anodes have received little attention. Weak X-ray attenuation of graphite and, as a result, poor contrast between graphite and the other carbon-based components in an electrode pore space renders data analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate operando tomography of weakly attenuating electrodes during electrochemical (de)lithiation. We use propagation-based phase contrast tomography to facilitate the differentiation between weakly attenuating materials and apply digital volume correlation to capture the dynamics of the electrodes during operation. After validating that we can quantify the local electrochemical activity and microstructural changes throughout graphite electrodes, we apply our technique to graphite-silicon composite electrodes. We show that microstructural changes that occur during (de)lithiation of a pure graphite electrode are of the same order of magnitude as spatial inhomogeneities within it, while strain in composite electrodes is locally pronounced and introduces significant microstructural changes.

  16. Quantifying microstructural dynamics and electrochemical activity of graphite and silicon-graphite lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Patrick; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Eller, Jens; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Schmidt, Volker; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Despite numerous studies presenting advances in tomographic imaging and analysis of lithium ion batteries, graphite-based anodes have received little attention. Weak X-ray attenuation of graphite and, as a result, poor contrast between graphite and the other carbon-based components in an electrode pore space renders data analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate operando tomography of weakly attenuating electrodes during electrochemical (de)lithiation. We use propagation-based phase contrast tomography to facilitate the differentiation between weakly attenuating materials and apply digital volume correlation to capture the dynamics of the electrodes during operation. After validating that we can quantify the local electrochemical activity and microstructural changes throughout graphite electrodes, we apply our technique to graphite-silicon composite electrodes. We show that microstructural changes that occur during (de)lithiation of a pure graphite electrode are of the same order of magnitude as spatial inhomogeneities within it, while strain in composite electrodes is locally pronounced and introduces significant microstructural changes.

  17. Automated recording of rat activity in a 6-arm radial maze for routine evaluation of behaviour in subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R E; Oettinger, R

    1987-10-01

    Using the 6-arm radial maze constructed by Bättig et al. and FitzGerald at el., the spatial locomotor activity of rats can be characterized during five-minute-sessions. Due to the complexity of the maze the rats keep patrolling the gangways without being rewarded for it. The optimal behaviour is reached by visiting all six arms successively until a visit is repeated. Hippocampal lesioned rats, with the according behavioural disturbances, show more reenterings than the control animals. Each arm of the maze is provided with a short blind alley and a long main gangway. After several trials, blind alley entries reach a low and stable level: the rat enters the main arm rather than the blind alley. The decision of entering the main alley depends on the "reference memory", of entering the alleys in the proper sequence, depends on the "working memory". Thus, correlates of long- and short-term memory can be studied. Rats learn to achieve the proper maze behaviour during five successive daily sessions each of a five minute term. By then they have reached a stable behaviour. The monitoring by photobeams of the rat-behaviour is reconstructed by a microprocessor and automatically evaluated.

  18. A study of predictive validity, responsiveness, and minimal clinically important difference of arm accelerometer in real-world activity of patients with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-Ling; Lin, Keh-Chung; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Wu, Ching-Yi; Liing, Rong-Jiuan; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the predictive validity, responsiveness, and minimal clinically important difference of arm accelerometer in real-world activity of patients with chronic stroke. Validation and psychometric study. Three medical centers. Patients with chronic stroke came from three separated randomized controlled trials. Patients with stroke received upper extremity rehabilitation programs for four weeks. Real-world arm movements were measured by an arm accelerometer and three clinical measurement tools-the Motor Activity Log, Stroke Impact Scale, and Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living-administered before and after treatment. A total of 82 subjects were recruited in the study (mean age: 55.32 years; mean score of Fugl-Meyer Assessment: 39.91). Correlations between the arm accelerometer and three clinical measurement tools were fair to moderate (Pearson's r = 0.47, 0.42, and 0.34, respectively). The correlation between the arm accelerometer and the quality of use of Motor Activity Log subscale was moderate to good (Pearson's r = 0.57). The responsiveness of the arm accelerometer from pretreatment to posttreatment was medium (standardized response mean = 0.72). The minimal clinically important difference range for the arm accelerometer was 547-751 mean counts. The arm accelerometer demonstrated acceptable predictive validity and responsiveness in patients with chronic stroke. The affected arm activity measured by the arm accelerometer was sensitive to change. The change score of a patient with chronic stroke on the arm accelerometer should reach 574-751 mean counts to be regarded as a minimal clinically important difference.

  19. Quantifying surface albedo and other direct biogeophysical climate forcings of forestry activities.

    PubMed

    Bright, Ryan M; Zhao, Kaiguang; Jackson, Robert B; Cherubini, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    By altering fluxes of heat, momentum, and moisture exchanges between the land surface and atmosphere, forestry and other land-use activities affect climate. Although long recognized scientifically as being important, these so-called biogeophysical forcings are rarely included in climate policies for forestry and other land management projects due to the many challenges associated with their quantification. Here, we review the scientific literature in the fields of atmospheric science and terrestrial ecology in light of three main objectives: (i) to elucidate the challenges associated with quantifying biogeophysical climate forcings connected to land use and land management, with a focus on the forestry sector; (ii) to identify and describe scientific approaches and/or metrics facilitating the quantification and interpretation of direct biogeophysical climate forcings; and (iii) to identify and recommend research priorities that can help overcome the challenges of their attribution to specific land-use activities, bridging the knowledge gap between the climate modeling, forest ecology, and resource management communities. We find that ignoring surface biogeophysics may mislead climate mitigation policies, yet existing metrics are unlikely to be sufficient. Successful metrics ought to (i) include both radiative and nonradiative climate forcings; (ii) reconcile disparities between biogeophysical and biogeochemical forcings, and (iii) acknowledge trade-offs between global and local climate benefits. We call for more coordinated research among terrestrial ecologists, resource managers, and coupled climate modelers to harmonize datasets, refine analytical techniques, and corroborate and validate metrics that are more amenable to analyses at the scale of an individual site or region. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quantifying colocalization of a conditionally active transcription factor FOXP3 in three-dimensional cellular space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Thomas; Allan, Sarah E.; Levings, Megan K.

    2009-02-01

    Biological macromolecular interactions between proteins, transcription factors, DNA and other types of biomolecules, are fundamentally important to several cellular and biological processes. 3D Multi-channel confocal microscopy and colocalization analysis of fluorescent signals have proven to be invaluable tools for detecting such molecular interactions. The aim of this work was to quantify colocalization of the FOXP3 transcription factor in 3D cellular space generated from the confocal 3D image sets. 293T cells transfected with a conditionally active form of FOXP3 were stained for nuclei with Hoechst, for FOXP3 with anti-FOXP3 conjugated to PE, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen used as protein translocation and activation agent. Since the protein signal was weak and nonspecific intensity contributions were strong, it was difficult to perform colocalization analysis and estimate colocalization quantities. We performed 3D restoration by deconvolution method on the confocal images using experimentally measured point spread functions (PSFs) and subsequently a color shift correction. The deconvolution method eliminated nonspecific intensity contributions originating from PSF imposed by optical microscopy diffraction resolution limits and noise since these factors significantly affected colocalization analysis and quantification. Visual inspection of the deconvolved 3D image suggested that the FOXP3 molecules are predominantly colocalized within the nuclei although the fluorescent signals from FOXP3 molecules were also present in the cytoplasm. A close inspection of the scatter plot (colocalization map) and correlation quantities such as the Pearsons and colocalization coefficients showed that the fluorescent signals from the FOXP3 molecules and DNA are strongly correlated. In conclusion, our colocalization quantification approach confirms the preferential association of the FOXP3 molecules with the DNA despite the presence of fluorescent signals from the former one both in the

  1. [Medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: results of activity and tasks for 2016].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya

    2016-01-01

    The author gives an analysis of activity of the medical service of the Armed Forces in 2015 concerning development of normative legal basis for the military health care, improvement of the level of operational and mobilization readiness of subunits of army group, and military-medical institutions, improvement of effectiveness of treatment and evacuation measures, health resort treatment, medical stuff training optimization, sanitary-and-epidemiologic support, material and technical support improvement, adoption of advanced scientific achievements focusing on medical care delivery to army group, active development and increase in medical information systems, telehealth. system. The author gives data characterizing state and level of development of medical service of the Armed Forces and its dynamics. Main tasks and parameters of development of the service in 2016 and up to 2020 are formulated.

  2. Cortical activation during robotic therapy for a severely affected arm in a chronic stroke patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Satoru; Matsushima, Yasuyuki; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    The use of robotic-aided therapy in a patient with residual damage from a previous stroke was an attempt to improve function in a moderate to severe hemiparetic arm. Cortical activities associated with motor recovery are not well documented and require investigation. A chronic stroke patient with a severely affected arm underwent a robotic-training program for 12 weeks. The robotic-aided therapy improved motor control and spasticity in the proximal upper-limb. An increased oxygenated hemoglobin level was observed at the motor-related area in the affected hemisphere. A 12-week robotic-aided training program used in a chronic stroke patient demonstrated elements of motor recovery, and was also associated with direct activation of the affected hemisphere.

  3. Single-molecule catalysis mapping quantifies site-specific activity and uncovers radial activity gradient on single 2D nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Andoy, Nesha May; Zhou, Xiaochun; Choudhary, Eric; Shen, Hao; Liu, Guokun; Chen, Peng

    2013-02-06

    Shape-controlled metal nanocrystals are a new generation of nanoscale catalysts. Depending on their shapes, these nanocrystals exhibit various surface facets, and the assignments of their surface facets have routinely been used to rationalize or predict their catalytic activity in a variety of chemical transformations. Recently we discovered that for 1-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals (Au nanorods), the catalytic activity is not constant along the same side facets of single nanorods but rather differs significantly and further shows a gradient along its length, which we attributed to an underlying gradient of surface defect density resulting from their linear decay in growth rate during synthesis (Nat. Nanotechnol.2012, 7, 237-241). Here we report that this behavior also extends to 2D nanocrystals, even for a different catalytic reaction. By using super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to map out the locations of catalytic events within individual triangular and hexagonal Au nanoplates in correlation with scanning electron microscopy, we find that the catalytic activity within the flat {111} surface facet of a Au nanoplate exhibits a 2D radial gradient from the center toward the edges. We propose that this activity gradient results from a growth-dependent surface defect distribution. We also quantify the site-specific activity at different regions within a nanoplate: The corner regions have the highest activity, followed by the edge regions and then the flat surface facets. These discoveries highlight the spatial complexity of catalytic activity at the nanoscale as well as the interplay amid nanocrystal growth, morphology, and surface defects in determining nanocatalyst properties.

  4. Dose of arm activity training during acute and subacute rehabilitation post stroke: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Brauer, Sandra G

    2015-12-01

    To determine the dose of activity-related arm training undertaken by stroke survivors during acute and subacute rehabilitation. A systematic review of PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE up to December 2014 was completed. Studies were eligible if they defined the dose (time or repetitions) of activity-related arm training using observational methods for a cohort of adult stroke survivors receiving acute or subacute rehabilitation. All studies were quality appraised using an evidence-based learning critical appraisal checklist. Data was analysed by method of documented dose per session (minutes, repetitions), environment (acute or subacute rehabilitation) and therapy discipline (physiotherapy, occupational therapy). Ten studies were included: two observed stroke survivors during acute rehabilitation and eight during subacute rehabilitation. During acute rehabilitation, one study reported 4.1 minutes per session during physiotherapy and 11.2 minutes during occupational therapy, while another study reported 5.7 minutes per session during physiotherapy only. During inpatient rehabilitation, activity-related arm training was on average undertaken for 4 minutes per session (range 0.9 to 7.9, n = 4 studies) during physiotherapy and 17 minutes per session (range 9.3 to 28.9, n = 3 studies) during occupational therapy. Repetitions per session were reported by two studies only during subacute rehabilitation. One study reported 23 repetitions per session during physiotherapy and occupational therapy, while another reported 32 repetitions per session across both disciplines. The dose of activity-related arm training during acute and subacute rehabilitation after stroke is limited. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Evaluation of EMG, force and joystick as control interfaces for active arm supports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    findings we concluded that all the control interfaces considered in this study can be regarded as a candidate interface for the control of an active arm support. PMID:24746015

  6. Quantifying, Analysing and Modeling Rockfall Activity in two Different Alpine Catchments using Terrestrial Laserscanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, F.; Heckmann, T.; Wichmann, V.; Becht, M.

    2011-12-01

    Rockfall processes play a major role as a natural hazard, especially if the rock faces are located close to infrastructure. However these processes cause also the retreat of the steep rock faces by weathering and the growth of the corresponding talus cones by routing debris down the talus cones. That's why this process plays also an important role for the geomorphic system and the sediment budget of high mountain catchments. The presented investigation deals with the use of TLS for quantification and for analysis of rockfall activity in two study areas located in the Alps. The rockfaces of both catchments and the corresponding talus cones were scanned twice a year from different distances. Figure 1 shows an example for the spatial distribution of surface changes at a rockface in the Northern Dolomites between 2008 and 2010. The measured surface changes at this location yields to a mean rockwall retreat of 0.04 cm/a. But high resolution TLS data are not only applicable to quantify rockfall activity they can also be used to characterize the surface properties of the corresponding talus cones and the runout distances of bigger boulders and this can lead to a better process understanding. Therefore the surface roughness of talus cones in both catchments was characterized from the TLS point clouds by a GIS approach. The resulting detailed maps of the surface conditions on the talus cones were used to improve an existing process model which is able to model runout distances on the talus cones using distributed friction parameters. Beside this the investigations showed, that also the shape of the boulders has an influence on the runout distance. That's why the interrelationships between rock fragment morphology and runout distance of over 600 single boulders were analysed at the site of a large rockfall event. The submitted poster will show the results of the quantification of the rockfall activity and additionally it will show the results of the analyses of the talus

  7. Quantifying the effect of biomass and its change on landslide activity at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Stefan; Glade, Thomas; Hollaus, Markus; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Bogaard, Thom; van Beek, Rens; Bell, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Landslides of the slide-type movement represent potentially damaging phenomena for residents, their properties and infrastructure all over the world. The causes of these geomorphic processes are manifold as multiple interacting natural and anthropogenic factors influence their occurrence. Numerous studies reveal that human induced land cover changes, such as deforestation or afforestation, highly influence the stability of a slope. As forest stands can be managed directly by humans, an in-depth evaluation of the processes that define stability under forested and non-forested conditions appear crucial in order to develop sustainable avoidance strategies for large areas. The main objective of this research is to simulate and quantify the effects of forest related biomass and biomass changes on slope stability at regional scale. The procedure consist of combining vegetation related parameters derived from 3D airborne laser scanning (ALS) point clouds with a spatially distributed physically based hydro-mechanical slope stability model. The study area (~15km²) is located in Vorarlberg (Austria) where highly detailed geocoded ALS point cloud data is available for the years 2004 and 2011. Furthermore, an additional ALS flight is planned for the year 2015/2016. Forest related information (e.g. biomass, stem volume, vertical layer structure, understory) will be directly computed on the basis of the 3D cloud data. In-situ assessments of vegetation related parameters will be carried out to establish empirical linkages between ALS derived information and stability influencing parameters (tree allometry). Partial deforestation and/or afforestation will be simulated by gradually adapting the respective point cloud data densities. Subsequently, all this information will be implemented into the dynamic hydro-mechanical slope stability model Starwars/Probstab that allows to quantitatively assess geomechanical and hydrological effects on landslide activity. The results of this

  8. Mapping Activity Patterns to Quantify Risk of Violent Assault in Urban Environments.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Douglas J; Richmond, Therese S; Guo, Wensheng; Allison, Paul D; Hollander, Judd E; Nance, Michael L; Branas, Charles C

    2016-01-01

    We collected detailed activity paths of urban youth to investigate the dynamic interplay between their lived experiences, time spent in different environments, and risk of violent assault. We mapped activity paths of 10- to 24-year-olds, including 143 assault patients shot with a firearm, 206 assault patients injured with other types of weapons, and 283 community controls, creating a step-by-step mapped record of how, when, where, and with whom they spent time over a full day from waking up until going to bed or being assaulted. Case-control analyses compared cases with time-matched controls to identify risk factors for assault. Case-crossover analyses compared cases at the time of assault with themselves earlier in the day to investigate whether exposure increases acted to the trigger assault. Gunshot assault risks included being alone (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 1.9) and were lower in areas with high neighbor connectedness (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8). Acquiring a gun (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.6) and entering areas with more vacancy, violence, and vandalism (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.7) appeared to trigger the risk of getting shot shortly thereafter. Nongunshot assault risks included being in areas with recreation centers (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.4). Entering an area with higher truancy (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.5) and more vacancy, violence, and vandalism appeared to trigger the risk of nongunshot assault. Risks varied by age group. We achieved a large-scale study of the activities of many boys, adolescents, and young men that systematically documented their experiences and empirically quantified risks for violence. Working at a temporal and spatial scale that is relevant to the dynamics of this phenomenon gave novel insights into triggers for violent assault.

  9. Mapping Activity Patterns to Quantify Risk of Violent Assault in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Therese S.; Guo, Wensheng; Allison, Paul D.; Hollander, Judd E.; Nance, Michael L.; Branas, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We collected detailed activity paths of urban youth to investigate the dynamic interplay between their lived experiences, time spent in different environments, and risk of violent assault. Methods: We mapped activity paths of 10- to 24-year-olds, including 143 assault patients shot with a firearm, 206 assault patients injured with other types of weapons, and 283 community controls, creating a step-by-step mapped record of how, when, where, and with whom they spent time over a full day from waking up until going to bed or being assaulted. Case–control analyses compared cases with time-matched controls to identify risk factors for assault. Case-crossover analyses compared cases at the time of assault with themselves earlier in the day to investigate whether exposure increases acted to the trigger assault. Results: Gunshot assault risks included being alone (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 1.9) and were lower in areas with high neighbor connectedness (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8). Acquiring a gun (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.6) and entering areas with more vacancy, violence, and vandalism (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.7) appeared to trigger the risk of getting shot shortly thereafter. Nongunshot assault risks included being in areas with recreation centers (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.4). Entering an area with higher truancy (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.5) and more vacancy, violence, and vandalism appeared to trigger the risk of nongunshot assault. Risks varied by age group. Conclusions: We achieved a large-scale study of the activities of many boys, adolescents, and young men that systematically documented their experiences and empirically quantified risks for violence. Working at a temporal and spatial scale that is relevant to the dynamics of this phenomenon gave novel insights into triggers for violent assault. PMID:26414941

  10. In vivo antioxidative activity of a quantified Pueraria lobata root extract.

    PubMed

    Bebrevska, Lidiya; Foubert, Kenne; Hermans, Nina; Chatterjee, Shyama; Van Marck, Eric; De Meyer, Guido; Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2010-01-08

    Oxidative stress has been associated with many pathological disorders such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. Supplementation with exogenous antioxidants, including phenolic compounds from plant sources, may help to restore the pro-oxidative/antioxidative balance. To take into account effects of absorption, metabolisation, plasma protein binding, distribution, and elimination, antioxidative research should not be limited to in vitro assays but be extended to in vivo models. In the present work a quantified 50% EtOH root extract of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi (Fabaceae) was selected to determine its in vivo antioxidative activity in a diabetic rat model, where diabetes and the accompanying oxidative stress were induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. This root extract was found to contain 10.42+/-0.15% puerarin as the main constituent and smaller amounts of the related isoflavonoids 3'-hydroxypuerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, 6''-xylosylpuerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein and genistein, as determined by a validated HPLC method. This extract was administered orally at a daily dose of 500 mg/kg root extract, corresponding to 50mg/kg puerarin, during 3 weeks. In addition the effect on the plasma concentration of some fat-soluble antioxidants (co-enzyme Q(9), alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) was evaluated. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, used as a marker of oxidative damage to lipids, was reduced to the same level as in healthy control animals, and as in the positive control group treated daily with 50mg/kg alpha-tocopherol acetate. No obvious signs of toxicity were observed by administration of 10x the treatment dose. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A New Technique For Quantifying Effusive Volcanic Activity at Tolbachik Volcano Using Multiple Remote Sensing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpin, D. B.; Meyer, F. J.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    quantify effusive volcanic activity in terms of flow temperature, lava volume, and area on a basis coeval to the eruption, and has important implications for scientific and hazard analyses of future volcanic episodes.

  12. Inspiratory muscle fatigue affects latissimus dorsi but not pectoralis major activity during arms only front crawl sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch; Tasker, Louise; Bostanci, Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) affects the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during maximal arms only front crawl swimming. Eight collegiate swimmers were recruited to perform 2 maximal 20-second arms only front crawl sprints in a swimming flume. Both sprints were performed on the same day, and IMF was induced 30 minutes after the first (control) sprint. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax, respectively) were measured before and after each sprint. The median frequency (MDF) of the electromyographic signal burst was recorded from the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during each 20-second sprint along with stroke rate and breathing frequency. Median frequency was assessed in absolute units (Hz) and then referenced to the start of the control sprint for normalization. After IMF inducement, stroke rate increased from 56 ± 4 to 59 ± 5 cycles per minute, and latissimus dorsi MDF fell from 67 ± 11 Hz at the start of the sprint to 61 ± 9 Hz at the end. No change was observed in the MDF of the latissimus dorsi during the control sprint. Conversely, the MDF of the pectoralis major shifted to lower frequencies during both sprints but was unaffected by IMF. As the latter induced fatigue in the latissimus dorsi, which was not otherwise apparent during maximal arms only control sprinting, the presence of IMF affects the activity of the latissimus dorsi during front crawl sprinting.

  13. Using low-temperature thermochronology and numerical models to quantify the history of hydrothermal activity in Beowawe, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Sarah; Luijendijk, Elco; Dunkl, István; Person, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The history of hydrothermal systems and hot springs is difficult to quantify because hydrothermal mineral deposits are often difficult to date at sufficient resolution. Quantifying hydrothermal activity is important for gaining insights on how geological processes such as earth quakes and faulting mechanisms interact with fluid flow. Here we combine high-density apatite (U-Th)/He data with numerical models of heat flow to determine the history of an active hydrothermal system. We determined Apatite-Helium (AHe) ages of surface rock samples collected around a hydrothermally active normal fault in Beowawe (Nevada,USA). AHe ages in the vicinity of the hot springs along the fault showed significant thermal overprint. Samples located at a distance of 50m were unaffected by hydrothermal activity and showed AHe ages that were equal to the U-Pb age of the volcanic host rock of 15.2 M.y. The observed thermal overprint is caused by high temperatures ( 95 C) of the hydrothermal fluids along the Malpais fault that have heated the adjacent rocks over long timescales. The size of the thermally affected area depends on the duration of hydrothermal activity; the longer the system is active the larger the thermal aureole around the fault. We used a numerical model of advective and conductive heat flow to calibrate the duration of hydrothermal activity using the AHe data. Combining low-temperature thermochronology with a thermal model can therefore be used as a tool to quantify hydrothermal activity over geological time scales.

  14. Quantifying Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in High School Physical Education: A Pedometer Steps/Minute Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to quantify the recommended minimum level (i.e., 50% of the class time) of moderate to vigorous physical activity within high school physical education via pedometry steps/min. A secondary objective was to explore the influence of lesson duration (i.e., traditional vs. block schedules) on quantifying…

  15. Bycatch, bait, anglers, and roads: quantifying vector activity and propagule introduction risk across lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Drake, D Andrew R; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2014-06-01

    Long implicated in the invasion process, live-bait anglers are highly mobile species vectors with frequent overland transport of fishes. To test hypotheses about the role of anglers in propagule transport, we developed a social-ecological model quantifying the opportunity for species transport beyond the invaded range resulting from bycatch during commercial bait operations, incidental transport, and release to lake ecosystems by anglers. We combined a gravity model with a stochastic, agent-based simulation, representing a 1-yr iteration of live-bait angling and the dynamics of propagule transport at fine spatiotemporal scales (i.e., probability of introducing n propagules per lake per year). A baseline scenario involving round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) indicated that most angling trips were benign; irrespective of lake visitation, anglers failed to purchase and transport propagules (benign trips, median probability P = 0.99912). However, given the large number of probability trials (4.2 million live-bait angling events per year), even the rarest sequence of events (uptake, movement, and deposition of propagules) is anticipated to occur. Risky trips (modal P = 0.00088 trips per year; approximately 1 in 1136) were sufficient to introduce a substantial number of propagules (modal values, Poisson model = 3715 propagules among 1288 lakes per year; zero-inflated negative binomial model = 6722 propagules among 1292 lakes per year). Two patterns of lake-specific introduction risk emerged. Large lakes supporting substantial angling activity experienced propagule pressure likely to surpass demographic barriers to establishment (top 2.5% of lakes with modal outcomes of five to 76 propagules per year; 303 high-risk lakes with three or more propagules, per year). Small or remote lakes were less likely to receive propagules; however, most risk distributions were leptokurtic with a long right tail, indicating the rare occurrence of high propagule loads to most waterbodies

  16. Quantifying antiviral activity optimizes drug combinations against hepatitis C virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, Yoshiki; Nakajim, Syo; Ohash, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Wakita, Takaji; Perelson, Alan S.; Iwami, Shingo; Watashi, Koichi

    2016-03-21

    Cell culture study combing a mathematical model and computer simulation quantifies the anti-hepatitis C virus drug efficacy at any concentrations and any combinations in preclinical settings, and can obtain rich basic evidences for selecting optimal treatments prior to costly clinical trials.

  17. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  18. The effects of horseback riding simulator exercises on the muscle activity of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on the muscle activities of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 normal adult males and females. [Methods] The horseback riding simulator exercise used a horseback riding simulator device; two arm postures were used, posture 1 (holding the handle of the device) and posture 2 (crossing both arms, with both hands on the shoulders). Electromyography was used to compare the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and hip adductors in the lower extremities. [Results] Posture 2 had significantly higher muscle activity than posture 1. [Conclusion] Posture 2, which entailed crossing both arms with both hands on the shoulders, was an effective intervention for improved muscle activity in the hip adductors. PMID:26504280

  19. The influence of induced shoulder muscle pain on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle activity during elevation of the arm.

    PubMed

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Parlevliet, Thierry; Cagnie, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Altered recruitment of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles has been identified in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. To date, however, the cause-consequence relationship between pain and altered muscle recruitment has not been fully unraveled. The effect of experimental shoulder pain induced by injection of hypertonic saline in the supraspinatus on the activity of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, trapezius, and serratus anterior activity was investigated during the performance of an elevation task by use of muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging in 25 healthy individuals. Measurements were taken at 4 levels (C6-C7, T2-T3, T3-T4, and T6-T7) at rest and after the elevation task performed without and with experimental shoulder pain. During arm elevation, experimentally induced pain caused a significant activity reduction, expressed as reduction in T2 shift of the IS (P = .029). No significant changes in T2 shift values were found for the other rotator cuff muscles or the scapulothoracic muscles. This study demonstrates that acute experimental shoulder pain has an inhibitory effect on the activity of the IS during arm elevation. Acute experimental shoulder pain did not seem to influence the scapulothoracic muscle activity significantly. The findings suggest that rotator cuff muscle function (infraspinatus) should be a consideration in the early management of patients with shoulder pain. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Valid and reliable instruments for arm-hand assessment at ICF activity level in persons with hemiplegia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of arm-hand performance due to a hemiparesis as a result of stroke or cerebral palsy (CP), leads to large problems in daily life of these patients. Assessment of arm-hand performance is important in both clinical practice and research. To gain more insight in e.g. effectiveness of common therapies for different patient populations with similar clinical characteristics, consensus regarding the choice and use of outcome measures is paramount. To guide this choice, an overview of available instruments is necessary. The aim of this systematic review is to identify, evaluate and categorize instruments, reported to be valid and reliable, assessing arm-hand performance at the ICF activity level in patients with stroke or cerebral palsy. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify articles containing instruments assessing arm-hand skilled performance in patients with stroke or cerebral palsy. Instruments were identified and divided into the categories capacity, perceived performance and actual performance. A second search was performed to obtain information on their content and psychometrics. Results Regarding capacity, perceived performance and actual performance, 18, 9 and 3 instruments were included respectively. Only 3 of all included instruments were used and tested in both patient populations. The content of the instruments differed widely regarding the ICF levels measured, assessment of the amount of use versus the quality of use, the inclusion of unimanual and/or bimanual tasks and the inclusion of basic and/or extended tasks. Conclusions Although many instruments assess capacity and perceived performance, a dearth exists of instruments assessing actual performance. In addition, instruments appropriate for more than one patient population are sparse. For actual performance, new instruments have to be developed, with specific focus on the usability in different patient populations and the assessment of quality of use as well as

  1. Usefulness of Three-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Strain to Quantify Dyssynchrony and the Site of Latest Mechanical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hara, Hideyuki; Saba, Samir; Gorcsan, John

    2009-01-01

    Previous methods to quantify dyssynchrony could not determine regional 3-dimensional (3-D)strain. We hypothesized that a novel 3-D speckle tracking strain imaging system can quantify left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and site of latest mechanical activation. We studied 64 subjects; 54 heart failure patients referred for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with ejection fraction 25±6% and QRS 165±29ms and 10 normal controls. The 3-D speckle tracking system determined radial strain using a 16-segment model from a pyramidal 3-D data set. Dyssynchrony was quantified as maximal opposing wall delay and standard deviation in time-to-peak strain. 3-D analysis was compared with standard 2-dimensional (2-D) strain data sets and site of 3-D latest mechanical activation, not possible by 2D was quantified. As expected, dyssynchrony in CRT patients was significantly greater than normal controls (maximal opposing wall delay 316±112* ms vs. 59±12 ms and standard deviation 124±48* ms vs. 28±11 ms, *p<0.001 vs. normal). 3-D opposing wall delay was closely correlated with 3-D 16-segment standard deviation (r = 0.95), and 2-D mid-LV strain: r=0.83 and r=0.85 for standard deviation (all p<0.001). The 3-D site of the latest mechanical activation was most commonly mid-posterior (26%), basal-posterior (22%), mid-lateral (20%), and basal-lateral (17%). Eleven patients studied after CRT demonstrated improvements in 3D synchrony (300±124 ms to 94±37 ms*) and EF (24 ± 6% to 31 ± 7%*), *p<0.05. In conclusion, 3-D speckle tracking can successfully quantify 3-D dyssynchrony and site the latest mechanical activation. This approach may play a clinical role in management of CRT patients. PMID:20102925

  2. Usefulness of three-dimensional speckle tracking strain to quantify dyssynchrony and the site of latest mechanical activation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hara, Hideyuki; Saba, Samir; Gorcsan, John

    2010-01-15

    Previous methods to quantify dyssynchrony could not determine regional 3-dimensional (3-D) strain. We hypothesized that a novel 3-D speckle tracking strain imaging system can quantify left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and site of latest mechanical activation. We studied 64 subjects; 54 patients with heart failure were referred for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with an ejection fraction 25 +/- 6% and QRS interval 165 +/- 29 ms and 10 healthy volunteer controls. The 3-D speckle tracking system determined radial strain using a 16-segment model from a pyramidal 3-D dataset. Dyssynchrony was quantified as maximal opposing wall delay and SD in time to peak strain. The 3-D analysis was compared to standard 2-dimensional (2-D) strain datasets and site of 3-D latest mechanical activation, not possible by 2D was quantified. As expected, dyssynchrony in patients on CRT was significantly greater than in controls (maximal opposing wall delay 316 +/- 112 vs 59 +/- 12 ms and SD 124 +/- 48 vs 28 +/- 11 ms, p <0.001 vs normal). The 3-D opposing wall delay was closely correlated with 3-D 16-segment SD (r = 0.95) and 2-D mid-LV strain (r = 0.83) and SD (r = 0.85, all p values <0.001). The 3-D site of the latest mechanical activation was most commonly midposterior (26%), basal posterior (22%), midlateral (20%), and basal lateral (17%). Eleven patients studied after CRT demonstrated improvements in 3-D synchrony (300 +/- 124 to 94 +/- 37 ms) and ejection fraction (24 +/- 6% to 31 +/- 7%, p <0.05). In conclusion, 3-D speckle tracking can successfully quantify 3-D dyssynchrony and site the latest mechanical activation. This approach may play a clinical role in management of patients on CRT. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How to quantify the mission. Software to define and report community benefit activity.

    PubMed

    Corteville, D L; Lyon, D W

    1997-01-01

    More and more health care organizations are being approached to participate in efforts to report and financially quantify community services and charity care provided in their respective communities. It is apparent that a consistent format and more concise definitions are needed if data are to be useful in presenting a clear, industry-wide picture of the magnitude of contributions made to communities by health care organizations.

  4. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring Biologically Active Cortisol in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Quantifying Stress in Marine Mammals: Measuring...boonstra/ LONG-TERM GOALS This research will improve our ability to measure stress in marine mammals. Stress hormones (glucocorticoids...are best estimated by measuring “free glucocorticoid” levels (i.e. that hormone not bound by CBG). This project will improve the capacity of marine

  5. Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Schiebler, Philipp; Piesbergen, Christoph; Hagl, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower than during holding it up voluntarily (p < .01); the activity in the deltoid was 27% lower (p < .001). Without hypnosis, the muscle activity showed a positive correlation with strain. However, there was no such correlation in the hypnotic condition. Apparently, it is possible to reduce strain and to objectively measure muscle activity in an uplifted arm through hypnotic arm levitation.

  6. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  7. Quantifying activation of perfluorocarbon-based phase-change contrast agents using simultaneous acoustic and optical observation.

    PubMed

    Li, Sinan; Lin, Shengtao; Cheng, Yi; Matsunaga, Terry O; Eckersley, Robert J; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-05-01

    Phase-change contrast agents in the form of nanoscale droplets can be activated into microbubbles by ultrasound, extending the contrast beyond the vasculature. This article describes simultaneous optical and acoustical measurements for quantifying the ultrasound activation of phase-change contrast agents over a range of concentrations. In experiments, decafluorobutane-based nanodroplets of different dilutions were sonicated with a high-pressure activation pulse and two low-pressure interrogation pulses immediately before and after the activation pulse. The differences between the pre- and post-interrogation signals were calculated to quantify the acoustic power scattered by the microbubbles activated over a range of droplet concentrations. Optical observation occurred simultaneously with the acoustic measurement, and the pre- and post-microscopy images were processed to generate an independent quantitative indicator of the activated microbubble concentration. Both optical and acoustic measurements revealed linear relationships to the droplet concentration at a low concentration range <10(8)/mL when measured at body temperature. Further increases in droplet concentration resulted in saturation of the acoustic interrogation signal. Compared with body temperature, room temperature was found to produce much fewer and larger bubbles after ultrasound droplet activation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Metrics to quantify the importance of mixing state for CCN activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, Joseph; Fast, Jerome; West, Matthew; Riemer, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that models are more prone to errors in predicted cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations when the aerosol populations are externally mixed. In this work we investigate this assumption by using the mixing state index (χ) proposed by Riemer and West (2013) to quantify the degree of external and internal mixing of aerosol populations. We combine this metric with particle-resolved model simulations to quantify error in CCN predictions when mixing state information is neglected, exploring a range of scenarios that cover different conditions of aerosol aging. We show that mixing state information does indeed become unimportant for more internally mixed populations, more precisely for populations with χ larger than 75 %. For more externally mixed populations (χ below 20 %) the relationship of χ and the error in CCN predictions is not unique and ranges from lower than -40 % to about 150 %, depending on the underlying aerosol population and the environmental supersaturation. We explain the reasons for this behavior with detailed process analyses.

  9. Metrics to quantify the importance of mixing state for CCN activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Joseph; Fast, Jerome; West, Matthew; Riemer, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    It is commonly assumed that models are more prone to errors in predicted cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations when the aerosol populations are externally mixed. In this work we investigate this assumption by using the mixing state index (χ) proposed by Riemer and West (2013) to quantify the degree of external and internal mixing of aerosol populations. We combine this metric with particle-resolved model simulations to quantify error in CCN predictions when mixing state information is neglected, exploring a range of scenarios that cover different conditions of aerosol aging. We show that mixing state information does indeed become unimportant for more internally mixed populations, more precisely for populations with χ larger than 75 %. For more externally mixed populations (χ below 20 %) the relationship of χ and the error in CCN predictions is not unique and ranges from lower than -40 % to about 150 %, depending on the underlying aerosol population and the environmental supersaturation. We explain the reasons for this behavior with detailed process analyses.

  10. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG).

  11. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. Methods: In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. Results: There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG). PMID:26913258

  12. A fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay for quantifying toxic effects of Roundup® to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, Michael; Roslev, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Daphnia magna is a widely used model organism for aquatic toxicity testing. In the present study, the authors investigated the hydrolytic enzyme activity of D. magna after exposure to toxicant stress. In vivo enzyme activity was quantified using 15 fluorogenic enzyme probes based on 4-methylumbelliferyl or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. Probing D. magna enzyme activity was evaluated using short-term exposure (24-48 h) to the reference chemical K2 Cr2 O7 or the herbicide formulation Roundup®. Toxicant-induced changes in hydrolytic enzyme activity were compared with changes in mobility (International Organization for Standardization standard 6341). The results showed that hydrolytic enzyme activity was quantifiable as a combination of whole body fluorescence of D. magna and the fluorescence of the surrounding water. Exposure of D. magna to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Roundup resulted in loss of whole body enzyme activity and release of cell constituents, including enzymes and DNA. Roundup caused comparable inhibition of mobility and alkaline phosphatase activity with median effective concentration values at 20 °C of 8.7 mg active ingredient (a.i.)/L to 11.7 mg a.i./L. Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity by Roundup was lowest at 14 °C and greater at 20 °C and 26 °C. The results suggest that the fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay (FLEA assay) can be used as an index of D. magna stress. Combining enzyme activity with fluorescence measurements may be applied as a simple and quantitative supplement for toxicity testing with D. magna.

  13. A rapid and simple method for estimating sulfate reduction activity and quantifying inorganic sulfides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, G.A.; Krumholz, L.R.; Suflita, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simplified passive extraction procedure for quantifying reduced inorganic sulfur compounds from sediments and water is presented. This method may also be used for the estimation of sulfate reduction rates. Efficient extraction of FeS, FeS(inf2), and S(sup2-) was obtained with this procedure; however, the efficiency for S(sup0) depended on the form that was tested. Passive extraction can be used with samples containing up to 20 mg of reduced sulfur. We demonstrated the utility of this technique in a determination of both sulfate reduction rates and reduced inorganic sulfur pools in marine and freshwater sediments. A side-by-side comparison of the passive extraction method with the established single-step distillation technique yielded comparable results with a fraction of the effort.

  14. Quantifying the Relationship between Organic Aerosol Composition and Hygroscopicity/CCN Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, Paul J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Petters, Markus D.

    2013-06-30

    The overall objective for this project was to provide the data and underlying process level understanding necessary to facilitate the dynamic treatment of organic aerosol CCN activity in future climate models. The specific objectives were as follows: (1) employ novel approaches to link organic aerosol composition and CCN activity, (2) evaluate the effects of temperature and relative humidity on organic aerosol CCN activity, and (3) develop parameterizations to link organic aerosol composition and CCN activity.

  15. New functional assays to selectively quantify the activated protein C- and tissue factor pathway inhibitor-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma.

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, N A; Rosing, J; Thomassen, M C L G D; Castoldi, E; Simioni, P; Hackeng, T M

    2017-02-17

    Essentials Protein S is a cofactor of activated protein C (APC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). There are no assays to quantify separate APC and TFPI cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. We developed assays to measure the APC- and TFPI-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. The assays were sensitive to protein S deficiency, and not affected by the Factor V Leiden mutation.

  16. Arm in Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low and (MS) Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs), simulate handling of large components in space. Above Endeavour's Payload Bay (PLB), Low, anchored by a Portable Foot Restraint (PFR) Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) end effector, maneuvers Wisoff, representing the mass of a large space component. This particular task was rehearsed with eyes toward the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the assembly and maintenance of Space Station. This Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Detailed Test Objective (DTO) was conducted both with and without intentional disturbances from Endeavour's thrusters and movements of the RMS. The SPACEHAB-01 Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) is visible in the foreground with the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) payload liquid helium dewar assembly and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) only partially visible in the aft PLB shadows. The vertical stabilizer and Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods are silhouetted against the Earth's surface.

  17. Quantifying the density and utilization of active sites in non-precious metal oxygen electroreduction catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Kramm, Ulrike I.; Steinberg, Julian; Zhang, Yuanjian; Thomas, Arne; Reier, Tobias; Paraknowitsch, Jens-Peter; Strasser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Carbon materials doped with transition metal and nitrogen are highly active, non-precious metal catalysts for the electrochemical conversion of molecular oxygen in fuel cells, metal air batteries, and electrolytic processes. However, accurate measurement of their intrinsic turn-over frequency and active-site density based on metal centres in bulk and surface has remained difficult to date, which has hampered a more rational catalyst design. Here we report a successful quantification of bulk and surface-based active-site density and associated turn-over frequency values of mono- and bimetallic Fe/N-doped carbons using a combination of chemisorption, desorption and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. Our general approach yields an experimental descriptor for the intrinsic activity and the active-site utilization, aiding in the catalyst development process and enabling a previously unachieved level of understanding of reactivity trends owing to a deconvolution of site density and intrinsic activity. PMID:26486465

  18. Three-dimensional eye position signals shape both peripersonal space and arm movement activity in the medial posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hadjidimitrakis, K; Breveglieri, R; Bosco, A; Fattori, P

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted over the last decades has established that the medial part of posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is crucial for controlling visually guided actions in human and non-human primates. Within this cortical sector there is area V6A, a crucial node of the parietofrontal network involved in arm movement control in both monkeys and humans. However, the encoding of action-in-depth by V6A cells had been not studied till recently. Recent neurophysiological studies show the existence in V6A neurons of signals related to the distance of targets from the eyes. These signals are integrated, often at the level of single cells, with information about the direction of gaze, thus encoding spatial location in 3D space. Moreover, 3D eye position signals seem to be further exploited at two additional levels of neural processing: (a) in determining whether targets are located in the peripersonal space or not, and (b) in shaping the spatial tuning of arm movement related activity toward reachable targets. These findings are in line with studies in putative homolog regions in humans and together point to a role of medial PPC in encoding both the vergence angle of the eyes and peripersonal space. Besides its role in spatial encoding also in depth, several findings demonstrate the involvement of this cortical sector in non-spatial processes.

  19. Quantifying the Modern City: Emerging Technologies and Big Data for Active Living Research.

    PubMed

    Adlakha, Deepti

    2017-01-01

    Opportunities and infrastructure for active living are an important aspect of a community's design, livability, and health. Features of the built environment influence active living and population levels of physical activity, but objective study of the built environment influence on active living behaviors is challenging. The use of emerging technologies for active living research affords new and promising means to obtain objective data on physical activity behaviors and improve the precision and accuracy of measurements. This is significant for physical activity promotion because precise measurements can enable detailed examinations of where, when, and how physical activity behaviors actually occur, thus enabling more effective targeting of particular behavior settings and environments. The aim of this focused review is to provide an overview of trends in emerging technologies that can profoundly change our ability to understand environmental determinants of active living. It discusses novel technological approaches and big data applications to measure and track human behaviors that may have broad applications across the fields of urban planning, public health, and spatial epidemiology.

  20. The Impact of Arms Limitation Agreements and Export Control Regulations of International Commercial Launch Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The commercial launch industry is by its very nature a global sector dominated by multinationals that operate across national boundaries. Since the end of the Cold War, new launch operators have become increasingly reliant on existing space and propulsion technology from Russia and other former constituent republics of the Soviet Union. With this in mind, the impact of export controls imposed by various countries under various internationally agreements, especially those of Australia, Russia and the United States, has become an increasingly important factor in the day-to-day operation of commercial launch operators. This is particularly true for launch operators utilising converted ballistic missiles as launch vehicles, as they have to consider also the impact of arms reduction treaties, such as START, on their launch operations. This paper explores the legal and administrative operations of the START and export control regimes operated by Russia and the United States, as well as emerging launching States such as Australia, and how they impact on the logistical operations of domestic or multinational commercial launch operators.

  1. Bimanual coordination: A missing piece of arm rehabilitation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kantak, Shailesh; Jax, Steven; Wittenberg, George

    2017-01-01

    Inability to use the arm in daily actions significantly lowers quality of life after stroke. Most contemporary post-stroke arm rehabilitation strategies that aspire to re-engage the weaker arm in functional activities have been greatly limited in their effectiveness. Most actions of daily life engage the two arms in a highly coordinated manner. In contrast, most rehabilitation approaches predominantly focus on restitution of the impairments and unilateral practice of the weaker hand alone. We present a perspective that this misalignment between real world requirements and intervention strategies may limit the transfer of unimanual capability to spontaneous arm use and functional recovery. We propose that if improving spontaneous engagement and use of the weaker arm in real life is the goal, arm rehabilitation research and treatment need to address the coordinated interaction between arms in targeted theory-guided interventions. Current narrow focus on unimanual deficits alone, difficulty in quantifying bimanual coordination in real-world actions and limited theory-guided focus on control and remediation of different coordination modes are some of the biggest obstacles to successful implementation of effective interventions to improve bimanual coordination in the real world. We present a theory-guided taxonomy of bimanual actions that will facilitate quantification of coordination for different real-world tasks and provide treatment targets for addressing coordination deficits. We then present evidence in the literature that points to bimanual coordination deficits in stroke survivors and demonstrate how current rehabilitation approaches are limited in their impact on bimanual coordination. Importantly, we suggest theory-based areas of future investigation that may assist quantification, identification of neural mechanisms and scientifically-based training/remediation approaches for bimanual coordination deficits post-stroke. Advancing the science and practice of

  2. Experimental methods for quantifying the activity of platinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Garsany, Yannick; Baturina, Olga A; Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Kocha, Shyam S

    2010-08-01

    A tutorial is provided for methods to accurately and reproducibly determine the activity of Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells and other applications. The impact of various experimental parameters on electrocatalyst activity is demonstrated, and explicit experimental procedures and measurement protocols are given for comparison of electrocatalyst activity to fuel cell standards. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  3. Star Formation Activity Beyond the Outer Arm. I. WISE-selected Candidate Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Yasui, Chikako; Saito, Masao; Hamano, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    The outer Galaxy beyond the Outer Arm provides a good opportunity to study star formation in an environment significantly different from that in the solar neighborhood. However, star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy have never been comprehensively studied or cataloged because of the difficulties in detecting them at such large distances. We studied 33 known young star-forming regions associated with 13 molecular clouds at R G ≥ 13.5 kpc in the outer Galaxy with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mid-infrared all-sky survey. From their color distribution, we developed a simple identification criterion of star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy with the WISE color. We applied the criterion to all the WISE sources in the molecular clouds in the outer Galaxy at R G ≥ 13.5 kpc detected with the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) 12CO survey of the outer Galaxy, of which the survey region is 102.°49 ≤ l ≤ 141.°54, ‑3.°03 ≤ b ≤ 5.°41, and successfully identified 711 new candidate star-forming regions in 240 molecular clouds. The large number of samples enables us to perform the statistical study of star formation properties in the outer Galaxy for the first time. This study is crucial to investigate the fundamental star formation properties, including star formation rate, star formation efficiency, and initial mass function, in a primordial environment such as the early phase of the Galaxy formation.

  4. Ileal Crohn disease: mural microvascularity quantified with contrast-enhanced US correlates with disease activity.

    PubMed

    De Franco, Antonio; Di Veronica, Alessandra; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Roberto, Italia; Marzo, Manuela; De Pascalis, Barbara; De Vitis, Italo; Papa, Alfredo; Bock, Enrico; Danza, Francesco M; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Guidi, Luisa

    2012-02-01

    To quantitatively assess microvascular activation in the thickened ileal walls of patients with Crohn disease (CD) by using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) and evaluate its correlation with widely used indexes of CD activity. This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The authors examined 54 consecutively enrolled patients (mean age, 35.29 years; age range, 18-69 years; 39 men, 15 women) with endoscopically confirmed CD of the terminal ileum. Ileal wall segments thicker than 3 mm were examined with low-mechanical-index contrast-enhanced US and a second-generation US contrast agent. The authors analyzed software-plotted time-enhancement intensity curves to determine the maximum peak intensity (MPI) and wash-in slope coefficient (β) and evaluated their correlation with (a) the composite index of CD activity (CICDA), (b) the CD activity index (CDAI), and (c) the simplified endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD, evaluated in 37 patients) for the terminal ileum. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman rank test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MPI and β coefficients were significantly increased in the 36 patients with a CICDA indicative of active disease (P<.0001 for both), the 33 patients with a CDAI of at least 150 (P<.032 and P<.0074, respectively), and the 26 patients with an SES-CD of at least 1 (P<.0001 and P<.002, respectively). ROC analysis revealed accurate identification (compared with CICDA) of active CD with an MPI threshold of 24 video intensity (VI) (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 83%) and a β coefficient of 4.5 VI/sec (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 83%). Contrast-enhanced US of the ileal wall is a promising method for objective, reproducible assessment of disease activity in patients with ileal CD. © RSNA, 2011

  5. [The main ways in performing analysis of the activities of medical supply organizations of the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Stavila, A G; Krasavin, K D; Levchenko, V N; Lemeshko, A L

    2015-06-01

    Without a complex comprehensive analysis of the activities of medical supply organizations is impossible to effectively manage the processes of provision of medical equipment and property, and provide a quality control of finished products and magistral formulas, technical and metrological provision of medical services and to render better decisions. In this regard, the article provides a list of pharmaceutical services (works) provided by medical supply organizations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and proposes indicators in assessing their effectiveness. Examples of analysis and assessment of the main indicators of provided services (works) in absolute values are given. At the same time, the authors give the ways of solutions aimed at increasing the motivation of various specialists to improve the quality of performance indicators in the medical equipment and property support centres of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.

  6. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  7. Quantifying cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities using principal dynamic modes analysis of heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuru; Jan, Kung-Ming; Ju, Ki Hwan; Chon, Ki H

    2006-09-01

    The ratio between low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) spectral power of heart rate has been used as an approximate index for determining the autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance. An accurate assessment of the ANS balance can only be achieved if clear separation of the dynamics of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities can be obtained, which is a daunting task because they are nonlinear and have overlapping dynamics. In this study, a promising nonlinear method, termed the principal dynamic mode (PDM) method, is used to separate dynamic components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities on the basis of ECG signal, and the results are compared with the power spectral approach to assessing the ANS balance. The PDM analysis based on the 28 subjects consistently resulted in a clear separation of the two nervous systems, which have similar frequency characteristics for parasympathetic and sympathetic activities as those reported in the literature. With the application of atropine, in 13 of 15 supine subjects there was an increase in the sympathetic-to-parasympathetic ratio (SPR) due to a greater decrease of parasympathetic than sympathetic activity (P=0.003), and all 13 subjects in the upright position had a decrease in SPR due to a greater decrease of sympathetic than parasympathetic activity (P<0.001) with the application of propranolol. The LF-to-HF ratio calculated by the power spectral density is less accurate than the PDM because it is not able to separate the dynamics of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. The culprit is equivalent decreases in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities irrespective of the pharmacological blockades. These findings suggest that the PDM shows promise as a noninvasive and quantitative marker of ANS imbalance, which has been shown to be a factor in many cardiac and stress-related diseases.

  8. Correlation between quantified promoter methylation and enzymatic activity of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Yugo; Natsume, Atsushi; Toda, Hiroshi; Toi, Yuki; Motomura, Kazuya; Koyama, Hiroko; Matsuda, Keiji; Nakayama, Osamu; Sato, Makoto; Suzuki, Masaaki; Kondo, Yutaka; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2012-04-01

    The DNA repair protein O (6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT, AGT) is a determinant of the resistance of tumor cells to alkylating anticancer agents that target the O(6) position of guanine. MGMT promoter methylation in tumors is regarded as the most common predictor of the responsiveness of glioblastoma to alkylating agents. However, MGMT promoter methylation status has been investigated mainly by methylation-specific PCR, which is a qualitative and subjective assay. In addition, the actual enzymatic activities associated with the methylation status of MGMT have not been explored. In the present study, MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastomas was quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and its correlation with enzymatic activity was determined using a novel quantitative assay for studying the functional activity of MGMT. MGMT enzymatic activity was assessed using fluorometrically labeled oligonucleotide substrates containing MGMT-specific DNA lesions and capillary electrophoresis to detect and quantify these lesions. In comparison with existing traditional assays, this assay was equally sensitive but less time consuming and easier to perform. MGMT promoter methylation was assessed in 41 glioblastomas by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and five samples with different values were chosen for comparison with enzymatic assays. Bisulfite pyrosequencing using primers designed to work in the upstream promoter regions of MGMT demonstrated high quantitative capability and reproducibility in triplicate measurements. In comparative studies, MGMT promoter methylation values obtained by bisulfite pyrosequencing were inversely proportional to the measured enzymatic activity. The present results indicate that the quantification of MGMT methylation by bisulfite pyrosequencing represents its enzymatic activity and thus, its therapeutic responsiveness to alkylating agents.

  9. Activation and intermuscular coherence of distal arm muscles during proximal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Wook; Landers, Katlin; Harris-Love, Michelle L

    2014-03-01

    In the human upper extremity (UE), unintended effects of proximal muscle activation on muscles controlling the hand could be an important aspect of motor control due to the necessary coordination of distal and proximal segments during functional activities. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of concurrent activation of elbow muscles on the coordination between hand muscles performing a grip task. Eleven healthy subjects performed precision grip tasks while a constant extension or flexion moment was applied to their elbow joints, inducing a sustained submaximal contraction of elbow muscles to counter the applied torque. Activation of four hand muscles was measured during each task condition using surface electromyography (EMG). When concurrent activation of elbow muscles was induced, significant changes in the activation levels of the hand muscles were observed, with greater effects on the extrinsic finger extensor (23.2 % increase under 30 % elbow extensor activation; p = 0.003) than extrinsic finger flexor (14.2 % increase under 30 % elbow flexor activation; p = 0.130). Elbow muscle activation also induced involuntary changes in the intrinsic thumb flexor activation (44.6 % increase under 30 % elbow extensor activation; p = 0.005). EMG-EMG coherence analyses revealed that elbow muscle activation significantly reduced intermuscular coherence between distal muscle pairs, with its greatest effects on coherence in the β-band (13-25 Hz) (average of 17 % decrease under 30 % elbow flexor activation). The results of this study provide evidence for involuntary, muscle-specific interactions between distal and proximal UE muscles, which may contribute to UE motor performance in health and disease.

  10. Activation and intermuscular coherence of distal arm muscles during proximal muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Wook; Landers, Katlin

    2014-01-01

    In the human upper extremity (UE), unintended effects of proximal muscle activation on muscles controlling the hand could be an important aspect of motor control due to the necessary coordination of distal and proximal segments during functional activities. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of concurrent activation of elbow muscles on the coordination between hand muscles performing a grip task. Eleven healthy subjects performed precision grip tasks while a constant extension or flexion moment was applied to their elbow joints, inducing a sustained submaximal contraction of elbow muscles to counter the applied torque. Activation of four hand muscles was measured during each task condition using surface electromyography (EMG). When concurrent activation of elbow muscles was induced, significant changes in the activation levels of the hand muscles were observed, with greater effects on the extrinsic finger extensor (23.2 % increase under 30 % elbow extensor activation; p = 0.003) than extrinsic finger flexor (14.2 % increase under 30 % elbow flexor activation; p = 0.130). Elbow muscle activation also induced involuntary changes in the intrinsic thumb flexor activation (44.6 % increase under 30 % elbow extensor activation; p = 0.005). EMG–EMG coherence analyses revealed that elbow muscle activation significantly reduced intermuscular coherence between distal muscle pairs, with its greatest effects on coherence in the β-band (13–25 Hz) (average of 17 % decrease under 30 % elbow flexor activation). The results of this study provide evidence for involuntary, muscle-specific interactions between distal and proximal UE muscles, which may contribute to UE motor performance in health and disease. PMID:24317552

  11. Use of the forest vegetation simulator to quantify disturbance activities in state and transition models

    Treesearch

    Reuben Weisz; Don Vandendriesche

    2012-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) has been used to provide rates of natural growth transitions under endemic conditions for use in State and Transition Models (STMs). This process has previously been presented. This paper expands on that work by citing the methods used to capture resultant vegetation states following disturbance activities; be it of natural causes...

  12. Quantifying Aluminum Crystal Size Part 1: The Model-Eliciting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Hjalmarson, Margret; Zawojewski, Judith S.; Bowman, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Model-eliciting activities (MEA), specially designed client-drive, open-ended problems, have been implemented in a first-year engineering course and in secondary schools. The educational goals and settings are different, but the design of an MEA enables it to be versatile. This paper will introduce the reader to the principles that guide MEA…

  13. Quantifying Aluminum Crystal Size Part 1: The Model-Eliciting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Hjalmarson, Margret; Zawojewski, Judith S.; Bowman, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Model-eliciting activities (MEA), specially designed client-drive, open-ended problems, have been implemented in a first-year engineering course and in secondary schools. The educational goals and settings are different, but the design of an MEA enables it to be versatile. This paper will introduce the reader to the principles that guide MEA…

  14. A compact in vivo neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in human hand bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingzi

    As an urgent issue of correlating cumulative manganese (Mn) exposure to neurotoxicity, bone has emerged as an attractive biomarker for long-term Mn deposition and storage. A novel Deuterium-Deuterium (DD) neutron generator irradiation system has been simulated and constructed, incorporating moderator, reflector and shielding. This neutron activation analysis (NAA) irradiation assembly presents several desirable features, including high neutron flux, improved detection limit and acceptable neutron & photon dose, which would allow it be ready for clinical measurement. Key steps include simulation modeling and verifying, irradiation system design, detector characterization, and neutron flux and dose assessment. Activation foils were also analyzed to reveal the accurate neutron spectrum in the irradiation cave. The detection limit with this system is 0.428 ppm with 36 mSv equivalent hand dose and 52 microSv whole body effective dose.

  15. Quantifying the effects of co-expressing EGFR and HER2 on HER activation and trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Zhang, Yi; Opresko, Lee; Resat, Haluk

    2008-06-27

    The integration of experimental measurements and computational predictions is a powerful means to understand the molecular mechanisms of complex biological systems. The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) system is an intricately regulated system that plays critical roles in development and tumorigenesis. Here, we apply integrated experimentation and modeling to analyze HER receptor activation in a panel of cell lines expressing different levels of HER1 and HER2. A mathematical model that includes the fundamental biochemical/biophysical processes involved in receptor activation was used to fit the experimental data, and 19 independent parameters including receptor dimerization affinities, trafficking rates and relative phosphorylation levels were estimated. The parameter values quantitatively support existing ideas on the effect of HER2 on HER1 phosphorylation dynamics, and enable us to predict receptor dimerization patterns in the cell lines. The integrated approach described here can be applied to obtain a predictive understanding of other biomolecular systems.

  16. Reporter cell activity within hydrogel constructs quantified from oxygen-independent bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, Dennis; Roeffaers, Maarten; Kerckhofs, Greet; Hofkens, Johan; Van de Putte, Tom; Schrooten, Jan; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2014-09-01

    By providing a three-dimensional (3D) support to cells, hydrogels offer a more relevant in vivo tissue-like environment as compared to two-dimensional cell cultures. Hydrogels can be applied as screening platforms to investigate in 3D the role of biochemical and biophysical cues on cell behaviour using bioluminescent reporter cells. Gradients in oxygen concentration that result from the interplay between molecular transport and cell metabolism can however cause substantial variability in the observed bioluminescent reporter cell activity. To assess the influence of these oxygen gradients on the emitted bioluminescence for various hydrogel geometries, a combined experimental and modelling approach was implemented. We show that the applied model is able to predict oxygen gradient independent bioluminescent intensities which correlate better to the experimentally determined viable cell numbers, as compared to the experimentally measured bioluminescent intensities. By analysis of the bioluminescence reaction dynamics we obtained a quantitative description of cellular oxygen metabolism within the hydrogel, which was validated by direct measurements of oxygen concentration within the hydrogel. Bioluminescence peak intensities can therefore be used as a quantitative measurement of reporter cell activity within a hydrogel, but an unambiguous interpretation of these intensities requires a compensation for the influence of cell-induced oxygen gradients on the luciferase activity.

  17. Quantifying the Topology and Evolution of a Magnetic Flux Rope Associated with Multi-flare Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Yang; Ding, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) play an important role in solar activities. The quantitative assessment of the topology of an MFR and its evolution is crucial for a better understanding of the relationship between the MFR and associated activities. In this paper, we investigate the magnetic field of active region (AR) 12017 from 2014 March 28-29, during which time 12 flares were triggered by intermittent eruptions of a filament (either successful or confined). Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we calculate the magnetic energy and helicity injection in the AR, and extrapolate the 3D magnetic field with a nonlinear force-free field model. From the extrapolations, we find an MFR that is cospatial with the filament. We further determine the configuration of this MFR from the closed quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) around it. Then, we calculate the twist number and the magnetic helicity for the field lines composing the MFR. The results show that the closed QSL structure surrounding the MFR becomes smaller as a consequence of flare occurrence. We also find that the flares in our sample are mainly triggered by kink instability. Moreover, the twist number varies more sensitively than other parameters with the occurrence of flares.

  18. Prediction of arm trajectory from the neural activities of the primary motor cortex with modular connectionist architecture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuwan; Hirose, Hideaki; Sakurai, Yoshio; Iijima, Toshio; Koike, Yasuharu

    2009-11-01

    In our previous study [Koike, Y., Hirose, H., Sakurai, Y., Iijima T., (2006). Prediction of arm trajectory from a small number of neuron activities in the primary motor cortex. Neuroscience Research, 55, 146-153], we succeeded in reconstructing muscle activities from the offline combination of single neuron activities recorded in a serial manner in the primary motor cortex of a monkey and in reconstructing the joint angles from the reconstructed muscle activities during a movement condition using an artificial neural network. However, the joint angles during a static condition were not reconstructed. The difficulties of reconstruction under both static and movement conditions mainly arise due to muscle properties such as the velocity-tension relationship and the length-tension relationship. In this study, in order to overcome the limitations due to these muscle properties, we divided an artificial neural network into two networks: one for movement control and the other for posture control. We also trained the gating network to switch between the two neural networks. As a result, the gating network switched the modules properly, and the accuracy of the estimated angles improved compared to the case of using only one artificial neural network.

  19. Is Two Better than One? Limb Activation Treatment Combined with Contralesional Arm Vibration to Ameliorate Signs of Left Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Pitteri, Marco; Arcara, Giorgio; Passarini, Laura; Meneghello, Francesca; Priftis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the Limb Activation Treatment (LAT) alone and in combination with the Contralateral Arm Vibration (CAV) on left neglect (LN) rehabilitation. We conceived them as techniques that both prompt the activation of the lesioned right hemisphere because of the activation (with the LAT as an active technique) and the stimulation (with the CAV as a passive technique) of the left hemibody. To test the effect of the simultaneous use of these two techniques (i.e., LAT and CAV) on visuo-spatial aspects of LN, we described the case of an LN patient (GR), who showed high intra-individual variability (IIV) in performance. Given the high IIV of GR, we used an ABAB repeated-measures design to better define the effectiveness of the combined application of LAT and CAV, as a function of time. The results showed an improvement of GR’s performance on the Bells test following the combined application of LAT and CAV, with respect to the application of LAT alone. We did not find, however, significant effects of treatment on two other LN tests (i.e., Line bisection and Picture scanning). We propose that the combined application of LAT and CAV can be beneficial for some aspects of LN. PMID:23966926

  20. Quantifying protein adsorption and function at nanostructured materials: enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase at GLAD structured electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Uffe B; Ferapontova, Elena E; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2012-07-31

    Nanostructured materials strongly modulate the behavior of adsorbed proteins; however, the characterization of such interactions is challenging. Here we present a novel method combining protein adsorption studies at nanostructured quartz crystal microbalance sensor surfaces (QCM-D) with optical (surface plasmon resonance SPR) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry CV) allowing quantification of both bound protein amount and activity. The redox enzyme glucose oxidase is studied as a model system to explore alterations in protein functional behavior caused by adsorption onto flat and nanostructured surfaces. This enzyme and such materials interactions are relevant for biosensor applications. Novel nanostructured gold electrode surfaces with controlled curvature were fabricated using colloidal lithography and glancing angle deposition (GLAD). The adsorption of enzyme to nanostructured interfaces was found to be significantly larger compared to flat interfaces even after normalization for the increased surface area, and no substantial desorption was observed within 24 h. A decreased enzymatic activity was observed over the same period of time, which indicates a slow conformational change of the adsorbed enzyme induced by the materials interface. Additionally, we make use of inherent localized surface plasmon resonances in these nanostructured materials to directly quantify the protein binding. We hereby demonstrate a QCM-D-based methodology to quantify protein binding at complex nanostructured materials. Our approach allows label free quantification of protein binding at nanostructured interfaces.

  1. Quantify neuromagnetic network changes from pre-ictal to ictal activities in absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Caiyun; Xiang, Jing; Sun, Jintao; Huang, Shuyang; Tang, Lu; Miao, Ailiang; Zhou, Yuchen; Chen, Qiqi; Hu, Zheng; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2017-08-15

    The cortico-thalamo-cortical network plays a key role in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). However, the exact interaction between the cortex and the thalamus remains incompletely understood. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes of frequency-dependent neural networks during the initialization of absence seizures. Magnetoencephalography data from 14 patients with CAE were recorded during and between seizures at a sampling rate of 6000Hz and analyzed in seven frequency bands. Neuromagnetic sources were volumetrically scanned with accumulated source imaging. Effective connectivity networks of the entire brain, including the cortico-thalamo-cortical network, were evaluated at the source level through Granger causality analysis. The low-frequency (1-80Hz) activities showed significant frontal cortical and parieto-occipito-temporal junction source localization around seizures. The high-frequency (80-250Hz) oscillations showed predominant activities consistently localized in deep brain areas and medial frontal cortex. The increased cortico-thalamic effective connectivity was observed around seizures in both low- and high-frequency ranges. The direction was predominantly from the cortex to the thalamus at the early time, although the cortex that drove connectivity varied among subjects. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in driving the cortico-thalamic connections at the early portion of the initialization of absence seizures. The oscillatory activities in the thalamus could be triggered by networks from various regions in the cortex. The dynamic changes of neural network provide evidences that absence seizures are probably resulted from cortical initialized cortico-thalamic network. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. StrigoQuant: A genetically encoded biosensor for quantifying strigolactone activity and specificity

    PubMed Central

    Samodelov, Sophia L.; Beyer, Hannes M.; Guo, Xiujie; Augustin, Maximilian; Jia, Kun-Peng; Baz, Lina; Ebenhöh, Oliver; Beyer, Peter; Weber, Wilfried; Al-Babili, Salim; Zurbriggen, Matias D.

    2016-01-01

    Strigolactones are key regulators of plant development and interaction with symbiotic fungi; however, quantitative tools for strigolactone signaling analysis are lacking. We introduce a genetically encoded hormone biosensor used to analyze strigolactone-mediated processes, including the study of the components involved in the hormone perception/signaling complex and the structural specificity and sensitivity of natural and synthetic strigolactones in Arabidopsis, providing quantitative insights into the stereoselectivity of strigolactone perception. Given the high specificity, sensitivity, dynamic range of activity, modular construction, ease of implementation, and wide applicability, the biosensor StrigoQuant will be useful in unraveling multiple levels of strigolactone metabolic and signaling networks. PMID:27847871

  3. Combined geochemical and electrochemical methodology to quantify corrosion of carbon steel by bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marta K; Moreira, Rebeca; Bildstein, Olivier; Lartigue, Jean-Eric; Schlegel, Michel L; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent; Libert, Marie

    2014-06-01

    The availability of respiratory substrates, such as H2 and Fe(II,III) solid corrosion products within nuclear waste repository, will sustain the activities of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). This may have a direct effect on the rate of carbon steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of Shewanella oneidensis (an HOB and IRB model organism) on the corrosion rate by looking at carbon steel dissolution in the presence of H2 as the sole electron donor. Bacterial effect is evaluated by means of geochemical and electrochemical techniques. Both showed that the corrosion rate is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in the presence of bacteria. The geochemical experiments indicated that the composition and crystallinity of the solid corrosion products (magnetite and vivianite) are modified by bacteria. Moreover, the electrochemical experiments evidenced that the bacterial activity can be stimulated when H2 is generated in a small confinement volume. In this case, a higher corrosion rate and mineralization (vivianite) on the carbon steel surface were observed. The results suggest that the mechanism likely to influence the corrosion rate is the bioreduction of Fe(III) from magnetite coupled to the H2 oxidation.

  4. Validation of a new image analysis procedure for quantifying filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Bizukojc, Marcin; Andrzejczak, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems can be made by manual counting under a microscope or by the application of various automated image analysis procedures. The latter has been significantly developed in the last two decades. In this work a new method based upon automated image analysis techniques was elaborated and presented. It consisted of three stages: (a) Neisser staining, (b) grabbing of microscopic images, and (c) digital image processing and analysis. This automated image analysis procedure possessed the features of novelty. It simultaneously delivered data about aggregates and filaments in an individual calculation routine, which is seldom met in the procedures described in the literature so far. What is more important, the macroprogram performing image processing and calculation of morphological parameters was written in the same software which was used for grabbing of images. Previously published procedures required using two different types of software, one for image grabbing and another one for image processing and analysis. Application of this new procedure for the quantification of filamentous bacteria in the full-scale as well as laboratory activated sludge systems proved that it was simple, fast and delivered reliable results.

  5. Hello to Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red.

    As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  6. Hello to Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red.

    As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  7. Look at my Arms!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows the hidden spiral arms that were discovered around the galaxy called NGC 4625 (top) by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. An armless companion galaxy called NGC 4618 is pictured below.

    Though the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light, they glow brightly in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    Astronomers do not know why NGC 4618 lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  8. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Gian M; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads.

  9. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Migliaccio, Gian M.; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  10. A non-destructive in ovo assay to quantify EROD activity in embryo-larval Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Nacci, D.; Kuhn-Hines, A.; Coiro, L.; Munns, W.R. Jr.; Cooper, K.

    1995-12-31

    Sensitive embryo-larval estuarine fish exposed to organic contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) have been shown to demonstrate characteristic biochemical responses, and impaired development and reduced survival. One of the best studied of these biochemical responses is induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, e.g., CYP1A, frequently assessed as ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Standard methods to measure EROD activity in embryo-larval fish require destructive samples, composited from many embryos, precluding information on individual variation in EROD activity or concurrent observation of health effects. A novel method has been developed that employs the non-destructive observation in individual embryos of EROD activity, demonstrated by the production and accumulation in the embryonic bladder of the fluorescent product, resorufin. EROD activity in a living embryo is quantified by bladder fluorescence using microfluorometric instrumentation. Using this technique, the authors were able to follow individual fish throughout embryonic and early larval development making temporal observations of EROD activity as well as developmental progress, lesion characterization, hatch rate and success, and post-hatch growth and survival. Results were used to examine differential responsiveness to EROD-inducing organic contaminants of embryo-larval fish from parental populations inhabiting PHAH-contaminated or uncontaminated environments.

  11. Effect of vibration frequency on agonist and antagonist arm muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Jiménez, Sergio; Benítez, Adolfo; García González, Miguel A; Moras Feliu, Gerard; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of vibration frequency (f out) on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the biceps brachii (BB) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles when acting as agonist and antagonist during static exercises with different loads. Fourteen healthy men were asked to hold a vibratory bar as steadily as possible for 10 s during lying row (pulling) and bench press (pushing) exercise at f out of 0 (non-vibration condition), 18, 31 and 42 Hz with loads of 20, 50, and 80 % of the maximum sustainable load (MSL). The root mean square of the EMG activity (EMGRMS) of the BB and TB muscles was expressed as a function of the maximal EMGRMS for respective muscles to characterize agonist activation and antagonist coactivation. We found that (1) agonist activation was greater during vibration (42 Hz) compared to non-vibration exercise for the TB but not for the BB muscle (p < 0.05); (2) antagonist activation was greater during vibration compared to non-vibration exercise for both BB (p < 0.01) and TB (p < 0.05) muscles; (3) the vibration-induced increase in antagonist coactivation was proportional to vibration f out in the range 18-42 Hz and (4) the vibration-induced increase in TB agonist activation and antagonist coactivation occurred at all loading conditions in the range 20-80 % MSL. The use of high vibration frequencies within the range of 18-42 Hz can maximize TB agonist activation and antagonist activation of both BB and TB muscles during upper limb vibration exercise.

  12. Motor Asymmetry Attenuation in Older Adults during Imagined Arm Movements.

    PubMed

    Paizis, Christos; Skoura, Xanthi; Personnier, Pascaline; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Laterality is an important feature of motor behavior. Several studies have shown that lateralization in right-handed young adults (i.e., right versus left arm superiority) emerges also during imagined actions, that is when an action is internally simulated without any motor output. Such information, however, is lacking for elderly people and it could be valuable to further comprehend the evolution of mental states of action in normal aging. Here, we evaluated the influence of age on motor laterality during mental actions. Twenty-four young (mean age: 24.7 ± 4.4 years) and 24 elderly (mean age: 72.4 ± 3.6 years) participants mentally simulated and actually executed pointing movements with either their dominant-right or non-dominant-left arm in the horizontal plane. We recorded and analyzed the time of actual and mental movements and looked for differences between groups and arms. In addition, electromyographic activity from arm muscle was recorded to quantify any enhancement in muscle activation during mental actions. Our findings indicated that both groups mentally simulated arm movements without activating the muscles of the right or the left arm above the baseline level. This finding suggests that young and, notably, elderly adults are able to generate covert actions without any motor output. We found that manual asymmetries (i.e., faster movements with the right arm) were preserved in young adults for both actual and mental movements. In elderly adults, manual asymmetries were observed for actual but not for mental movements (i.e., equal movement times for both arms). These findings clearly indicate an age-related reduction of motor laterality during mental actions.

  13. Incidence of Ankle Sprains Among Active-Duty Members of the United States Armed Services From 1998 Through 2006

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Owens, Brett D.; DeBerardino, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Ankle sprains have been reported as one of the most common injuries sustained by members of the US Armed Services. However, little is known about the incidence rate and injury patterns associated with ankle sprains in this population. Objective: To examine the incidence of ankle sprains among active-duty members of the US Armed Services from 1998 through 2006. A secondary objective was to describe the sex, age, and service-specific injury patterns in this young, physically active population. Design: Cohort study. Patients or Other Participants: All active-duty service members from the day they enter military service until the day they leave military service and US Army Reserve and National Guard service members during periods of active duty and mobilization. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury data were extracted from the Defense Medical Epidemiological Database from 1998 through 2006. All data for ankle sprains, coded according to the International Classification of Diseases (9th revision), were included. Cases were limited to those injuries reported as first occurrences. Incidence rates (IRs) were calculated per 1000 person-years by sex, age, and service. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the strength of association between the incidence of ankle sprain and the independent variables of sex, age, and service. Results: From 1998 through 2006, 423 581 service members sustained ankle sprains and 12 118 863 person-years at risk to injury were documented in this population. The incidence rate was 34.95 (95% CI  =  34.85, 35.06) per 1000 person-years at risk. Females were 21% more likely (IRR  =  1.21, 95% CI  =  1.21, 1.23) to sustain an ankle sprain than males. Sex-specific IR varied by age and service. Differences in the rate of ankle sprains were also noted by age and service. Conclusions: The incidence of ankle sprains among US service members was 5 times greater than that

  14. Coupling between muscle activities and muscle torques during horizontal-planar arm movements with direction reversal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, G L; Freitas, S M S F; Marconi, N F

    2006-06-01

    In this study we investigated the hypothesis that the simple set of rules used to explain the modulation of muscle activities during single-joint movements could also be applied for reversal movements of the shoulder and elbow joints. The muscle torques of both joints were characterized by a triphasic impulse. The first impulse of each joint accelerated the limb to the target and was generated by an initial burst of the muscles activated first (primary mover). The second impulse decelerated the limb to the target, reversed movement direction and accelerated the limb back to the initial position, and was generated by an initial burst of the muscles activated second (secondary movers). A third impulse, in each joint, decelerated the limb to the initial position due to the generation of a second burst of the primary movers. The first burst of the primary mover decreased abruptly, and the latency between the activation of the primary and secondary movers varied in proportion with target distances for the elbow, but not for the shoulder muscles. All impulses and bursts increased with target distances and were well coupled. Therefore, as predicted, the bursts of muscle activities were modulated to generate the appropriate level of muscle torque.

  15. Acid base activity of live bacteria: Implications for quantifying cell wall charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, Jacqueline; van Lith, Yvonne; Laverman, Anniet M.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    To distinguish the buffering capacity associated with functional groups in the cell wall from that resulting from metabolic processes, base or acid consumption by live and dead cells of the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens was measured in a pH stat system. Live cells exhibited fast consumption of acid (pH 4) or base (pH 7, 8, 9, and 10) during the first few minutes of the experiments. At pH 5.5, no acid or base was required to maintain the initial pH constant. The initial amounts of acid or base consumed by the live cells at pH 4, 8, and 10 were of comparable magnitudes as those neutralized at the same pHs by intact cells killed by exposure to gamma radiation or ethanol. Cells disrupted in a French press required higher amounts of acid or base, due to additional buffering by intracellular constituents. At pH 4, acid neutralization by suspensions of live cells stopped after 50 min, because of loss of viability. In contrast, under neutral and alkaline conditions, base consumption continued for the entire duration of the experiments (5 h). This long-term base neutralization was, at least partly, due to active respiration by the cells, as indicated by the build-up of succinate in solution. Qualitatively, the acid-base activity of live cells of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis resembled that of S. putrefaciens. The pH-dependent charging of ionizable functional groups in the cell walls of the live bacteria was estimated from the initial amounts of acid or base consumed in the pH stat experiments. From pH 4 to 10, the cell wall charge increased from near-zero values to about -4 × 10 -16 mol cell -1 and -6.5 × 10 -16 mol cell -1 for S. putrefaciens and B. subtilis, respectively. The similar cell wall charging of the two bacterial strains is consistent with the inferred low contribution of lipopolysaccharides to the buffering capacity of the Gram-negative cell wall (of the order of 10%).

  16. 75 FR 54599 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the Knik Arm Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... construction of a bridge across Knik Arm, named the Knik Arm Crossing, Alaska, over the course of five construction seasons; approximately spring 2013 through autumn 2017. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection... requesting authorization to take of three species of marine mammals incidental to construction of a bridge...

  17. Anticipatory control of center of mass and joint stability during voluntary arm movement from a standing posture: interplay between active and passive control.

    PubMed

    Patla, Aftab E; Ishac, Milad G; Winter, David A

    2002-04-01

    Anticipatory control of upright posture is the focus of this study that combines experimental and modeling work. Individuals were asked to raise or lower their arms from two initial postures such that the final posture of the arm was at 90 degrees with respect to the body. Holding different weights in the hand varied the magnitude of perturbation to postural stability generated by the arm movement. Whole body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured. Inverse dynamic analysis was used to determine the internal joint moments at the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle, and reaction forces at the shoulder. Center of mass (COM) of the arm, posture (rest of the body without the arms) and whole body (net COM) were also determined. Changes in joint moment at the hip, knee and ankle revealed a significant effect of the direction of movement. The polarities of the joint moment response were appropriate for joint stabilization. Net COM change showed a systematic effect of the direction of movement even though the arm COM was displaced by the same amount and in the same direction for both arm raising and lowering conditions. In order to determine the effects of the passive forces and moments on the posture COM, the body was modeled as an inverted pendulum. The model was customized for each participant; the relevant model parameters were estimated from data obtained from each trial. The ankle joint stiffness and viscosity were adjusted to ensure postural equilibrium prior to arm movement. Joint reactive forces and moments generated by the arm movements were applied at the shoulder level of this inverted pendulum; these were the only inputs and no active control was included. The posture COM profile from the model simulation was calculated. Results show that simulated posture COM profile and measured posture COM profile are identical for about 200 ms following the onset of arm movement and then they deviate. Therefore, the initial control of COM is passive in nature and the

  18. Effects of different lifting and lowering heights on upper arm, shoulder and back muscle activity during a manual material handling task.

    PubMed

    Yoo, In-gyu; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested eliminating certain types of manual material handling (MMH) work by recommending specific arm angles and postures to avoid, such as arm flexion or abduction over 90°. MMH with arm flexion over 90° can require lifting objects as well as lowering objects. However, few studies have evaluated MMH work while lowering objects in detail. This study investigated the effects of different lifting and lowering heights on upper arm, shoulder, and back muscle activity during a MMH task. The participants performed a MMH task that involved stoop lowering and lifting. The participants transferred the box to shelves positioned 30  cm in front of them under various conditions. Conditions 1 to 4 involved transferring the box to 1) ankle-, 2) knee-, 3) waist-, and 4) shoulder-high shelves, respectively. Surface electrodes were attached to the biceps brachii, upper trapezius, rhomboid minor, and L4 erector spinae. The activity of the biceps brachii was decreased significantly in Conditions 1 and 2 compared to Conditions 3 and 4. The upper trapezius activity was increased significantly in Conditions 1 and 4 compared to Conditions 2 and 3. The rhomboid minor activity increased significantly in Condition 1 compared to Conditions 2 to 4. The L4 erector spinae activity decreased significantly in Condition 1 compared to Conditions 2 to 4 CONCLUSIONS:A low-lowering MMH work could contribute to neck, shoulder, and back pain. Therefore, further studies must examine a height below-knee MMH work in detail.

  19. Anticipatory postural muscle activity associated with bilateral arm flexion while standing in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hidehito; Fukaya, Yoshiki; Honma, Shota; Ueda, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Yoshiji; Shionoya, Katsuyoshi

    2010-07-26

    Compared to automatic postural responses to external perturbation, little is known about anticipatory postural adjustments in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. In this study, we examined whether anticipatory activation of postural muscles would be observed before voluntary arm movement while standing in individuals with spastic diplegia. Seven individuals with spastic diplegia (SDCP(group), 12-22 years) and 7 age- and gender-matched individuals without disability (Control(group)) participated in this study. Participants performed bilateral arm flexion at maximum speed at their own timing while standing, during which electromyographic (EMG) activities of focal and postural muscles were recorded. In both groups, the erector spinae (ES) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles were activated in advance of the anterior deltoid muscle (AD), which is a focal muscle of arm flexion. Although start times of ES and MH with respect to AD were similar in the 2 groups, increases in EMG amplitudes of ES and MH in the anticipatory range from -150ms to +50ms, with respect to burst onset of AD, were significantly smaller in the SDCP(group) than in the Control(group). These findings suggest that individuals with spastic diplegia have the ability to anticipate the effects of disturbance of posture and equilibrium caused by arm movement and to activate postural muscles in advance of focal muscles. However, it is likely that the anticipatory increase in postural muscle activity is insufficient in individuals with spastic diplegia.

  20. Quantifying the effects of research band resighting activities on staging terns in comparison to other disturbances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Althouse, Melissa; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Davis, Kayla L.; Parsons, Katharine C.; Luttazi, Cristin F.

    2016-01-01

    Avian research that involves potential disturbance to the study species may have unintended fitness consequences and could lead to biases in measurements of interest. The effects of band resighting on the behavior of mixed-species flocks of staging waterbirds were evaluated against recreational pedestrian activity that was expected to cause flushing. We found a model with additive effects of distance (near, 0-50 m, or far, 50-200 m) and disturbance type (researcher or pedestrian) best explained flock behaviors. The proportion of staging flocks that flushed in response to pedestrians was greatest when pedestrians were within 50 m of the flock. Virtually no flushes were observed in response to researchers, regardless of distance. These results could assist in alleviating concerns that accepted protocols used for intensive band resighting studies on staging seabirds of special conservation status, such as Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) terns, may have adverse effects. Our framework could be used by others to test the effects of similar research on sensitive species.

  1. Quantifying the Neural Elements Activated and Inhibited by Globus Pallidus Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew D.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2008-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is an effective therapy option for controlling the motor symptoms of medication-refractory Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Despite the clinical successes of GPi DBS, the precise therapeutic mechanisms are unclear and questions remain on the optimal electrode placement and stimulation parameter selection strategies. In this study, we developed a three-dimensional computational model of GPi-DBS in nonhuman primates to investigate how membrane channel dynamics, synaptic inputs, and axonal collateralization contribute to the neural responses generated during stimulation. We focused our analysis on three general neural elements that surround GPi-DBS electrodes: GPi somatodendritic segments, GPi efferent axons, and globus pallidus pars externa (GPe) fibers of passage. During high-frequency electrical stimulation (136 Hz), somatic activity in the GPi showed interpulse excitatory phases at 1–3 and 4–5.5 ms. When including stimulation-induced GABAA and AMPA receptor dynamics into the model, the somatic firing patterns continued to be entrained to the stimulation, but the overall firing rate was reduced (78.7 to 25.0 Hz, P < 0.001). In contrast, axonal output from GPi neurons remained largely time-locked to each pulse of the stimulation train. Similar entrainment was also observed in GPe efferents, a majority of which have been shown to project through GPi en route to the subthalamic nucleus. The models suggest that pallidal DBS may have broader network effects than previously realized and the modes of therapy may depend on the relative proportion of GPi and/or GPe efferents that are directly affected by the stimulation. PMID:18768645

  2. Quantifying the contribution of dyes to the mutagenicity of waters under the influence of textile activities.

    PubMed

    Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida de Souza; da Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão

    2017-12-01

    The combination of chemical analyses and bioassays allows the identification of potentially mutagenic compounds in different types of samples. Dyes can be considered as emergent contaminants and were detected in waters, under the influence of textile activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of 9 azo dyes to the mutagenicity of representative environmental samples. Samples were collected along one year in the largest conglomerate of textile industries of Brazil. We analyzed water samples from an important water body, Piracicaba River, upstream and downstream two main discharges, the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the tributary Quilombo River, which receives untreated effluent from local industries. Samples were analyzed using a LC-MS/MS and tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay with TA98 and YG1041. Six dyes were detected in the collected samples, Disperse Blue 291, Disperse Blue 373, Disperse Orange 30, Disperse Red 1, Disperse Violet 93, and Disperse Yellow 3. The most sensitive condition for the detection of the mutagenicity was the strain YG1041 with S9. The concentration of dyes and mutagenicity levels varied along time and the dry season represented the worst condition. Disperse Blue 373 and Disperse Violet 93 were the major contributors to the mutagenicity. We conclude that dyes are contributing for the mutagenicity of Piracicaba River water; and both discharges, WWTP effluent and Quilombo River, increase the mutagenicity of Piracicaba River waters in about 10-fold. The combination of chemical analysis and bioassays were key in the identification the main drivers of the water mutagenicity and allows the selection of priority compounds to be included in monitoring programs as well for the enforcing actions required to protect the water quality for multiple uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Arm Chair Activism: Serious Games Usage by INGOs for Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Payal; Itu, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    The battle between educators and entertainers continues when it comes to gaming. While this is so, the edutainment battleground has expanded to include actors outside formal schooling agencies, namely International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs). These actors employ digital games with the aim to educate and activate towards specific social…

  4. Arm Chair Activism: Serious Games Usage by INGOs for Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Payal; Itu, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    The battle between educators and entertainers continues when it comes to gaming. While this is so, the edutainment battleground has expanded to include actors outside formal schooling agencies, namely International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs). These actors employ digital games with the aim to educate and activate towards specific social…

  5. Quantifying the impacts of climate and human activities on water and sediment discharge in a karst region of southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenwei; Xu, Xianli; Yu, Bofu; Xu, Chaohao; Liu, Meixian; Wang, Kelin

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying the impacts of climate and human activities on water and sediment discharge has become a central topic in climate and hydrologic research. This issue, however, has so far received little attention in karst regions around the world. Seven karst catchments located in southwest China were chosen to explore water and sediment discharge responses to different driving factors during the period from the 1950s to 2011. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to detect both the trends and abrupt changes in water and sediment discharge. The double mass curve method was used to quantify the effects of climate and human activities on water and sediment discharge. Results indicated that the annual water discharge showed a decreasing trend in all catchments (-0.21 to -3.68 × 108 m3 yr-1), and the sediment discharge exhibited a significant decreasing trend (-7 to -101 × 104 t yr-1) for six out of the seven catchments. A rapid decline (abrupt change) in sediment discharge occurred since 2000 for all except Liujiang catchment where the sediment discharge has a slight increase since 1983 as no large dams were constructed in this catchment. Specifically, the magnitude of reduction in sediment discharge (%) significantly increases with the extent of flow regulation as measured by the ratio of the area upstream the dam to the total catchment area for the seven catchments (R2 = 0.98, P < 0.01). This study demonstrated that water discharge was mainly influenced by precipitation, while sediment discharge was mainly influenced by human activities (relative contribution 70-111%, regardless of whether the effect is negative or positive). Ecological restoration played somehow important roles in the decrease in sediment discharge (negative relationships of sediment discharge with the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI)), but dam construction was likely to be the principal cause of the significant decrease in sediment discharge. This study is of use for better

  6. Methodology for quantifying the behavioral activity of dairy cows in freestall barns.

    PubMed

    Mattachini, G; Riva, E; Bisaglia, C; Pompe, J C A M; Provolo, G

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the validity of automated monitoring systems as assessment method for the behavioral activity of dairy cows compared with video recording, and 2) determine the sampling intervals required to obtain reliable estimates of the daily behavior. To determine lying, standing, and walking, 12 cows were equipped with automatic recording devices (IceTag = 12 cows, HOBO Pendant G = 5 cows), and their behavior was simultaneously recorded using a video recording system. The correspondence between the IceTag, HOBO logger, and video recording data was analyzed using 2 × 2 contingency tables, and we determined the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value (positive and negative). Both types of loggers demonstrated high sensitivity (Sen ≥ 0.961) and specificity (Sp ≥ 0.951) for lying and standing behaviors with predictive values near 1.00. The HOBO logger can accurately describe the laterality of lying behavior, whereas the IceTag device inadequately recorded walking, with probability predictive values ≤ 0.303. Daily behaviors of the dairy cows were compared for 10 different sampling intervals (1 s, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min) collected by the IceTag, using linear regression. A strong relationship (R(2) ≥ 0.978) was found between the total lying times from data on a per-second basis and estimates obtained by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 15 min sampling intervals. The sampling intervals of 1 and 2 min were comparable for all aspects of lying behavior (R(2) ≥ 0.813; P > 0.05 for slope = 1, intercept = 0). Long sampling intervals (30 and 60 min) showed positive relationship for estimating time spent lying and standing (R(2) ≥ 0.774), but were inappropriate for predicting these behaviors, because they lacked accuracy and precision. Both the IceTag and HOBO logger accurately measured all aspects of lying and standing behavior. Reliable estimates of lying and standing time can be generated using relatively short

  7. Quantifying cambial activity of high-elevation conifers in the Great Basin, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaco, E.; Biondi, F.; Rossi, S.; Deslauriers, A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the physiological mechanisms that control the formation of tree rings provides the necessary biological basis for developing dendroclimatic reconstructions and dendroecological histories. Studies of wood formation in the Great Basin are now being conducted in connection with the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN), a recently established transect of valley-to-mountaintop instrumented stations in the Snake and Sheep Ranges of the Great Basin. Automated sensors record meteorological, soil, and vegetational variables at these sites, providing unique opportunities for ecosystem science, and are being used to investigate the ecological implications of xylogenesis. We present here an initial study based on microcores collected during summer 2013 from mountain and subalpine conifers (including Great Basin bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva) growing on the west slope of Mt. Washington. Samples were taken from the mountain west (SM; 2810 m elevation) and the subalpine west (SS, 3355 m elevation) NevCAN sites on June 16th and 27th, 2013. The SS site was further subdivided in a high (SSH) and a low (SSL) group of trees, separated by about 10 m in elevation. Microscopic analyses showed the effect of elevation on cambial activity, as annual ring formation was more advanced at the lower (mountain) site compared to the higher (subalpine) one. At all sites cambium size showed little variations between the two sampling dates. The number of xylem cells in the radial enlargement phase decreased between the two sampling dates at the mountain site but increased at the subalpine site, confirming a delayed formation of wood at the higher elevations. Despite relatively high within-site variability, a general trend of increasing number of cells in the lignification phase was found at all sites. Mature cells were present only at the mountain site on June 27th. Spatial differences in the xylem formation process emerged at the species level and, within

  8. Effects of task-oriented robot training on arm function, activity, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Annick A A; Lemmens, Ryanne J M; Monfrance, Maurice; Geers, Richard P J; Bakx, Wilbert; Smeets, Rob J E M; Seelen, Henk A M

    2014-03-31

    Over fifty percent of stroke patients experience chronic arm hand performance problems, compromising independence in daily life activities and quality of life. Task-oriented training may improve arm hand performance after stroke, whereby augmented therapy may lead to a better treatment outcome. Technology-supported training holds opportunities for increasing training intensity. However, the effects of robot-supported task-oriented training with real life objects in stroke patients are not known to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and added value of the Haptic Master robot combined with task-oriented arm hand training in chronic stroke patients. In a single-blind randomized controlled trial, 22 chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated to receive either task-oriented robot-assisted arm-hand training (experimental group) or task-oriented non-robotic arm-hand training (control group). For training, the T-TOAT (Technology-supported Task-Oriented Arm Training) method was applied. Training was provided during 8 weeks, 4 times/week, 2 × 30 min/day. A significant improvement after training on the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) was demonstrated in the experimental group (p = 0.008). Results were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. On the perceived performance measure (Motor Activity Log (MAL)), both, the experimental and control group improved significantly after training (control group p = 0.008; experimental group p = 0.013). The improvements on MAL in both groups were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. With regard to quality of life, only in the control group a significant improvement after training was found (EuroQol-5D p = 0.015, SF-36 physical p = 0.01). However, the improvement on SF-36 in the control group was not maintained (p = 0.012). No between-group differences could be demonstrated on any of the outcome measures. Arm hand performance improved in chronic stroke

  9. Acetaminophen overdoses, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie L; Taubman, Stephen B

    2016-11-01

    Acetaminophen, a drug commonly used to relieve pain and fever, is generally safe and effective when used as directed. However, acetaminophen overdose can cause serious adverse events, including liver damage and death. From 2006 through 2015, a total of 2,588 cases of acetaminophen overdose were identified in active component military members. Rates of acetaminophen overdose declined during this 10-year surveillance period, from 2.2 cases per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs) in 2006 to 1.2 cases per 10,000 p-yrs in 2015. Rates of overdose were higher among females, members of the Army, and service members younger than 25 years of age. Despite the apparent decline in acetaminophen overdose in the active component, continued surveillance is warranted to monitor this trend.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Armed Thiophene Derivatives and Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration (POM) Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Alatibi, Fatima; El-Sayed, Nahed Nasser E; Al-Showiman, Salim; Kheder, Nabila Abdelshafy; Wadood, Abdul; Rauf, Abdur; Bawazeer, Saud; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2016-02-17

    Tetrasubstituted 2-acetylthiophene derivative 5 was synthesized and then condensed with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 2-aminobenzimidazole, aniline or p-chloroaniline to afford the corresponding iminothiophene derivatives 6-8a,b. Condensation of thiophene 5 with malononitrile as carbon nucleophile afforded compound 9, which underwent nucleophilic addition with DMF-DMA to afford compound 10. The newly synthesized products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS, ¹H-(13)C-NMR and CHN analysis and then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Results of the in vitro antibacterial activity showed that thiophene derivative 7 was found to be more potent than the standard drug gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of these compounds showed potential antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking and Osiris/Molinspiration analyses show the crucial role and impact of substituents on bioactivity and indicate the unfavorable structural parameters in actual drug design: more substitution with electronic donor group doesn't guarantee more effective bioactivity. This study should greatly help in an intelligent and a controlled pharmacomodulation of antibiotics.

  11. Corneal endothelial cells activate innate and acquired arm of anti-viral responses after cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Dai; Uotani, Ryu; Inoue, Michiko; Haruki, Tomoko; Shimizu, Yumiko; Yakura, Keiko; Yamagami, Satoru; Suzutani, Tatsuo; Hosogai, Mayumi; Isomura, Hiroki; Inoue, Yoshitsugu

    2017-08-01

    Infection of the corneal endothelial cells by human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of corneal endotheliitis. CMV endotheliitis is difficult to completely cure and relapses are frequent. This can cause blinding corneal bullous keratopathy. However, the pathogenesis of CMV endotheliitis remains undetermined. To understand the immunopathology of endotheliitis, we examined how corneal endothelial cells prime the anti-viral immunity after CMV infection based on global transcriptional responses. To accomplish this, human corneal endothelial (HCEn) cells were infected with CMV, and the global transcriptional responses were determined by microarray analyses for primary anti-viral responses using network analysis. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein array analyses were used to examine whether anti-viral cytokines were induced, i.e., to determine whether innate immune responses were activated. To examine whether priming of acquired immune response was activated, CMV-infected HCEn cells were co-cultured with allogeneic CD8(+) T cells from CMV seropositive donors and tested for priming activity for the CD8(+) effector T cells by measuring interferon-γ secretion. The CMV-induced responses of HCEn cells were characterized by type I interferon and pattern recognition receptor pathways which represent innate immune priming. The global transcriptional activation was specifically associated with antigen presentation with the antimicrobial response functions. Protein array analyses indicated a significant increase in the secretion of anti-viral inflammatory cytokines including CXCL10 as innate immune responses. When HCEn cells were examined to determine whether CMV infection activated anti-viral acquired immunity, CMV-infected HCEn cells directly stimulated the proliferation of CD8(+) T cells from CMV-seropositive donors, and pp65 viral epitope induced interferon-γ secretion from the CD8(+) T cells. We conclude that CMV

  12. Incidence of syphilis, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1 January 2010 through 31 August 2015.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie L; Hunt, Devin J

    2015-09-01

    In 2014,the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported significant increases in cases of primary and secondary syphilis in the U.S.; among beneficiaries of the Military Health System, monthly surveillance reports tracking reportable medical events of syphilis have reflected similar increases. This analysis reports on incident cases and rates of syphilis among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces from 1 January 2010 through 31 August 2015. During the surveillance period, 2,976 cases of syphilis were diagnosed. Crude incidence rates increased from 30.9 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs) in 2010 to 47.4 cases per 100,000 p-yrs in 2015. Males accounted for 88.7% of cases. Incidence rates of syphilis were highest among service members who were black, non-Hispanic or who were aged 20-29 years. About one-quarter of syphilis cases (24.4%; 727 cases) were diagnosed as HIV infected. Primary and secondary syphilis cases comprised 42% of all syphilis cases. Increasing rates of primary and secondary syphilis in active component service members reflect similar trends reported in the U.S. civilian population.

  13. Incidence and prevalence of select cardiovascular risk factors and conditions, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    This report provides estimates of the incidence of select risk factors for cardiovascular disease among members of the active component of the Armed Forces. The definitions of incident cases of each risk factor were based upon the documentation of relevant diagnostic codes in the electronic health records of service members. Numbers of service members with diagnoses of each of the factors were: hyperlipidemia (n=300,340), obesity (n=235,407), hypertension (n=230,564), abnormal blood glucose level (n=47,009), and diabetes (n=13,901). Incidence rates of all the risk factors of interest increased with advancing age. Rates of diagnoses of hypertension and obesity were higher among black, non-Hispanic service members than among other racial/ethnic groups. Asian/Pacific Islanders had the highest rates of hyperlipidemia, abnormal blood glucose level, and diabetes. Male service members had higher rates of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, but females had higher rates of obesity and abnormal blood glucose level. Of all active component service members included in this analysis (n=3,297,786), 18.5 percent (n=611,185) were diagnosed with at least one of the risk factors during the ten-year surveillance period.

  14. Update: Motor vehicle-related deaths, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    From 1999 to 2012, there were 4,479 motor vehicle accident (MVA)-related deaths among members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Of these, the single most common underlying cause of death was motorcycle accidents (n=1,134; 25.6%). Among active component service members during the 14-year surveillance period, the annual number (n=355) and rate (25.1 per 100,000 person-years[p-yrs]) of MVA-related deaths peaked in 2004. Since then, a steady downward trend followed and the 2012 number (n=184) and rate (13.2 per 100,000 p-yrs) were the lowest of the entire period. For members of the reserve component, the annual number of deaths peaked in 2005 (n=86), but the number in 2012 (n=22) was the lowest of the period. In 2012, the number (n=90) and rate of deaths (6.5 per 100,000 p-yrs) related to motorcycle accidents among active component service members almost equaled the number (n=94) and rate of deaths (6.7 per 100,000 p-yrs) from all other types of motor vehicle accidents combined. During the entire period, numbers of fatal motor vehicle accidents tended to be higher in the warmer months of the year. After 2009, motor vehicle accidents were no longer the leading, non-war- related cause of death among U.S. service members.

  15. Kidins220/ARMS binds to the B cell antigen receptor and regulates B cell development and activation

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Gina J.; Janowska, Iga; Prutek, Fabiola; Hobeika, Elias; Satapathy, Annyesha; Sprenger, Adrian; Plum, Thomas; Seidl, Maximilian; Dengjel, Jörn; Reth, Michael; Cesca, Fabrizia; Brummer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is critical for B cell development and activation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified a protein kinase D–interacting substrate of 220 kD (Kidins220)/ankyrin repeat–rich membrane-spanning protein (ARMS) as a novel interaction partner of resting and stimulated BCR. Upon BCR stimulation, the interaction increases in a Src kinase–independent manner. By knocking down Kidins220 in a B cell line and generating a conditional B cell–specific Kidins220 knockout (B-KO) mouse strain, we show that Kidins220 couples the BCR to PLCγ2, Ca2+, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling. Consequently, BCR-mediated B cell activation was reduced in vitro and in vivo upon Kidins220 deletion. Furthermore, B cell development was impaired at stages where pre-BCR or BCR signaling is required. Most strikingly, λ light chain–positive B cells were reduced sixfold in the B-KO mice, genetically placing Kidins220 in the PLCγ2 pathway. Thus, our data indicate that Kidins220 positively regulates pre-BCR and BCR functioning. PMID:26324445

  16. Quantifying resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Several frameworks to operationalize resilience have been proposed. A decade ago, a special feature focused on quantifying resilience was published in the journal Ecosystems (Carpenter, Westley & Turner 2005). The approach there was towards identifying surrogates of resilience, but few of the papers proposed quantifiable metrics. Consequently, many ecological resilience frameworks remain vague and difficult to quantify, a problem that this special feature aims to address. However, considerable progress has been made during the last decade (e.g. Pope, Allen & Angeler 2014). Although some argue that resilience is best kept as an unquantifiable, vague concept (Quinlan et al. 2016), to be useful for managers, there must be concrete guidance regarding how and what to manage and how to measure success (Garmestani, Allen & Benson 2013; Spears et al. 2015). Ideas such as ‘resilience thinking’ have utility in helping stakeholders conceptualize their systems, but provide little guidance on how to make resilience useful for ecosystem management, other than suggesting an ambiguous, Goldilocks approach of being just right (e.g. diverse, but not too diverse; connected, but not too connected). Here, we clarify some prominent resilience terms and concepts, introduce and synthesize the papers in this special feature on quantifying resilience and identify core unanswered questions related to resilience.

  17. Validity and responsiveness of the German version of the Motor Activity Log for the assessment of self-perceived arm use in hemiplegia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Meier Khan, Christine; Oesch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients after stroke requires valid and responsive assessments for arm and hand function to determine the effectiveness of rehabilitative interventions. The Motor Activity Log (MAL) aims to assess self-perceived arm and hand use after stroke. Its clinimetric properties are incomplete and contradictory. To investigate internal consistency, concurrent validity and responsiveness of the German MAL-30 in patients after stroke with minimal to moderate arm and hand function. 42 patients were included in this longitudinal prospective cohort study. Internal consistency was determined in a complete-case analysis with Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity was assessed with Spearman' rho by comparing the German MAL-30 with Wolf Motor Function Test, Chedoke McMaster Stroke Assessment, isometric elbow, shoulder and grip strength at baseline, post-treatment and 6 month follow-up. Responsiveness was determined separately for lower and higher arm and hand function by calculating the standardized response mean. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.94-0.99), concurrent validity good to excellent (Spearman's rho = 0.64-0.99). Responsiveness was high for both functional levels from baseline to discharge (SRM = 0.93-1.43) and to follow-up (SRM = 0.95-1.34). The German MAL-30 is a valid and responsive assessment for self-perceived arm and hand use after stroke even when function is low.

  18. Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the Colombian armed conflict has continued for almost five decades there is still very little information on how it affects the mental health of civilians. Although it is well established in post-conflict populations that experience of organised violence has a negative impact on mental health, little research has been done on those living in active conflict zones. Médecins Sans Frontières provides mental health services in areas of active conflict in Colombia and using data from these services we aimed to establish which characteristics of the conflict are most associated with specific symptoms of mental ill health. Methods An analysis of clinical data from patients (N = 6,353), 16 years and over, from 2010–2011, who consulted in the Colombian departments (equivalent to states) of Nariño, Cauca, Putumayo and Caquetá. Risk factors were grouped using a hierarchical cluster analysis and the clusters were included with demographic information as predictors in logistic regressions to discern which risk factor clusters best predicted specific symptoms. Results Three clear risk factor clusters emerged which were interpreted as ‘direct conflict related violence’, ‘personal violence not directly conflict-related’ and ‘general hardship’. The regression analyses indicated that conflict related violence was more highly related to anxiety-related psychopathology than other risk factor groupings while non-conflict violence was more related to aggression and substance abuse, which was more common in males. Depression and suicide risk were represented equally across risk factor clusters. Conclusions As the largest study of its kind in Colombia it demonstrates a clear impact of the conflict on mental health. Among those who consulted with mental health professionals, specific conflict characteristics could predict symptom profiles. However, some of the highest risk outcomes, like depression, suicide risk and aggression, were more

  19. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries.

  20. An active contour method for bone cement reconstruction from C-arm x-ray images.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Blake C; Otake, Yoshito; Armand, Mehran; Taylor, Russell H

    2012-04-01

    A novel algorithm is presented to segment and reconstruct injected bone cement from a sparse set of X-ray images acquired at arbitrary poses. The sparse X-ray multi-view active contour (SxMAC-pronounced "smack") can 1) reconstruct objects for which the background partially occludes the object in X-ray images, 2) use X-ray images acquired on a noncircular trajectory, and 3) incorporate prior computed tomography (CT) information. The algorithm's inputs are preprocessed X-ray images, their associated pose information, and prior CT, if available. The algorithm initiates automated reconstruction using visual hull computation from a sparse number of X-ray images. It then improves the accuracy of the reconstruction by optimizing a geodesic active contour. Experiments with mathematical phantoms demonstrate improvements over a conventional silhouette based approach, and a cadaver experiment demonstrates SxMAC's ability to reconstruct high contrast bone cement that has been injected into a femur and achieve sub-millimeter accuracy with four images.

  1. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Oh, Gi-Taik; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition among adults that can cause symptoms such as frequent heartburn, substernal chest pain, and regurgitation of food. During 2005-2014, a total of 137,081 active component service members had an incident (first-ever) diagnosis of GERD (incidence rate: 101.3 per 10,000 person-years). Incidence rates were higher than their respective counterparts among females, black and white non-Hispanics, service members in the Coast Guard and Air Force, officers, and those in healthcare occupations. Rates increased monotonically with increasing age groups. Most GERD cases (79.2%) were uncomplicated GERD; however, 20.8% were identified as having a symptom or complication linked to their GERD diagnosis. Lifestyle changes, medication, and prevention of serious complications should be emphasized among individuals diagnosed with GERD, particularly those at risk for severe disease.

  2. Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2008-June 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    From July 2012 through June 2013, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=479) was the lowest of the last five cold seasons (2008-2013). Over the last five years hypothermia was the most common cold injury among service members in the Marine Corps and Coast Guard, while frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in the other three Services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Among service members overall, Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries.

  3. Skin and soft tissue infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Williams, Valerie F; Oh, Gi-Taik; Millar, Eugene V; Bennett, Jason W

    2017-07-01

    During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 282,571 incident cases of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) among active component U.S. military members diagnosed in inpatient or outpatient settings, corresponding to an overall incidence of 558.2 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). An additional 10,904 cases occurred in theater of operations (460.0 per 10,000 p-yrs). Approximately half (49.4%) were classified as "other SSTI" (e.g., folliculitis, impetigo); 45.9% were cellulitis/abscess; 4.6% were carbuncles/furuncles; and 0.1% were erysipelas. Annual incidence rates declined by 46.6% over the surveillance period. In general, higher rates of SSTIs were associated with younger age, recruit trainee status, and junior enlisted rank. During the surveillance period, 238,924 service members were treated for SSTIs in outpatient or inpatient settings, which accounted for 395,361 medical encounters and 19,213 hospital bed days. The history of operational significance of skin infections in the military, the high healthcare costs associated with evaluating and treating skin infections, and the risk of infections by antibiotic-resistant organisms highlight the importance of prevention, early diagnosis, and definitive treatment of skin infections, particularly in high-risk settings such as new recruit/basic training populations.

  4. Syncope, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    During the period of 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2012, the health care records of 153,172 active component service members documented at least one health care encounter with a diagnosis of "syncope and collapse" (overall incidence rate of 7.2 cases per 1,000 person-years). The annual incidence rates rose by 89 percent during the period. During the 15-year surveillance period, there were 4,954 instances of a documented health care encounter with a diagnosis of syncope on the same day that the service member had received an immunization by injection. Annual rates of syncope associated with immunization ranged from a low of 4.4 events per 100,000 immunization episodes in 1998 to a maximum of 14.1 events per 100,000 episodes in 2006. For both syncope diagnoses in general and syncope associated with immunization, rates were higher among women than men and were highest among those under age 20. Nearly ten percent of syncopal events associated with immunization occurred during the first two weeks of military service. Rates of syncope increased with the number of injections received per immunization episode. Diagnoses of physical injury were documented in the records of health care encounters for syncope for 4.0 percent of all syncopal events and 6.9 percent of episodes of syncope linked to immunizations.

  5. Septicemia diagnosed during hospitalizations, active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    During the period 2000 through 2012, the records of 3,360 hospitalized active component service members contained a diagnosis of septicemia. Most of these cases were identified via diagnoses recorded in the first and second diagnostic positions and the numbers and rates of such cases increased dramatically during the period. Rates were higher among women than men and in the oldest and youngest age groups. The most frequent co-occurring diagnoses were pneumonia and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. For the majority of cases of septicemia, no specific etiologic agent was indicated by ICD-9 codes in the record. The most commonly specified agents were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Most service members were returned to duty after discharge. The overall mortality associated with hospitalized septicemia cases was 4 percent, but was 5.1 percent for septicemia attributed to gram negative bacteria. Possible reasons why the mortality rate in service members was lower than the rates associated with septicemia in the general population are discussed.

  6. Glaucoma, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998-2013.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Lee

    2014-12-01

    Glaucoma is an eye disease that involves progressive optic nerve damage and vision loss, leading to blindness if undetected or untreated. This report describes an analysis using the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) to identify all active component service members with an incident diagnosis of glaucoma during 1998-2013. The analysis identified 117,075 incident cases of glaucoma and an overall incidence rate of 5.3 per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs). The majority of cases (94.5%) were diagnosed at an early stage as borderline glaucoma. Over the study period, 5.9% of incident case service members were eventually diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma. There were 26 cases of absolute glaucoma, or total blindness. Rates of glaucoma were higher among black, non-Hispanic (8.8 per 1,000 p-yrs), Asian (6.6), and Hispanic (5.4) service members, compared with white, non-Hispanic (4.2) service members. Rates among female service members (6.0 per 1,000 p-yrs) were higher than those among male service members (5.1). Between 1998 and 2013, incidence rates of glaucoma declined by 48% among service members older than 44 years of age, while rates increased slightly among service members younger than 30 years of age.

  7. Urinary tract infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among young adults, especially women. During the 14-year surveillance period, 30.4 percent of females and 3.5 percent of males who served in the active component had a least one UTI diagnosed during a medical encounter. The incidence rate of first-time UTIs was 70.4 per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs) among females and 7.2 per 1,000 p-yrs among males. Among those who received a diagnosis of UTI, 41.3 percent of females and 13.0 percent of males had recurrences. Rates of UTIs were highest among the youngest age group among females and the youngest and oldest age groups among males. Service members in armor/motor transport occupations in both genders had the greatest incidence rates of UTI compared to other occupations while pilots and air crew had the lowest incidence rates. The rates of UTIs overall were 130.9 per 1,000 p-yrs among females and 8.5 per 1,000 p-yrs among males. The occurrence of a first-ever urinary tract infection may be an opportunity for a healthcare provider to educate the patient about the risk factors for UTI, strategies to prevent recurrent infection, and the appropriate response to the new onset of typical symptoms of UTI.

  8. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... your provider should weigh this risk against the benefits of getting a correct diagnosis for a medical ...

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  10. Quantifying Transmission.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  11. Comparison between active sensor and radiosonde cloud boundaries over the ARM Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2003-02-01

    In order to test the strengths and limitations of cloud boundary retrievals from radiosonde profiles, 4 years of radar, lidar, and ceilometer data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Southern Great Plains site from November 1996 through October 2000 are used to assess the retrievals of [1995] and [1996]. The lidar and ceilometer data yield lowest-level cloud base heights that are, on average, within approximately 125 m of each other when both systems detect a cloud. These quantities are used to assess the accuracy of coincident cloud base heights obtained from radar and the two radiosonde-based methods applied to 200 m resolution profiles obtained at the same site. The lidar/ceilometer and radar cloud base heights agree by 0.156 ± 0.423 km for 85.27% of the observations, while the agreement between the lidar/ceilometer and radiosonde-derived heights is at best -0.044 ± 0.559 km for 74.60% of all cases. Agreement between radar- and radiosonde-derived cloud boundaries is better for cloud base height than for cloud top height, being at best 0.018 ± 0.641 km for 70.91% of the cloud base heights and 0.348 ± 0.729 km for 68.27% of the cloud top heights. The disagreements between radar- and radiosonde-derived boundaries are mainly caused by broken cloud situations when it is difficult to verify that drifting radiosondes and fixed active sensors are observing the same clouds. In the case of the radar the presence of clutter (e.g., vegetal particles or insects) can affect the measurements from the surface up to approximately 3-5 km, preventing comparisons with radiosonde-derived boundaries. Overall, [1995] tend to classify moist layers that are not clouds as clouds and both radiosonde techniques report high cloud top heights that are higher than the corresponding heights from radar.

  12. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; ...

    2016-06-10

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty informationmore » on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. As a result, this is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.« less

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea and associated attrition, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, January 2004-May 2016.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Amy E; Stahlman, Shauna; Hunt, Devin J; Oh, Gi-Taik; Clark, Leslie L

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a growing health concern in both civilian and military populations. Individuals who suffer from OSA have increased rates of cardiovascular disease, chronic fatigue, motor vehicle accidents, cognitive impairment, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) were utilized to examine the incidence of OSA and associated attrition from service in active component military members from 1 January 2004 through 31 May 2016. The study identified 223,731 incident cases of OSA with an overall incidence rate of 139.2 per 10,000 person-years, between 2004 and 2015. Rates increased more than 3-fold between 2004 and 2015. In 2015, 48.1% of all incident cases of OSA were diagnosed in the last year of service. The high percentage of cases diagnosed prior to separation from service is concerning because OSA is a treatable and partially preventable disease. OSA represents a large health and economic burden for the armed services and yet there are persistent research gaps in appropriate screening and prevention strategies to improve both individual health and mission performance.

  14. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  15. A preliminary study of using active vision guided robotic arm for bone drilling in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohd Zaid; Awang, Mohamed Saufi; Tan, Yew Chin; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2014-03-01

    The study assesses the capability and accuracy of a robotic arm to perform burr holes. The robotic systems are instructed to recognize targets on artificial skull models placed in different positions and to make burr holes. The accuracy ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mm. Robotic arms are capable to perform basic surgical tasks. However, further improvement needs to be done to refine its accuracy and capability. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Development of a transportable neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in bone in vivo: feasibility and methodology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingzi; Koltick, David; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a transportable neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone using a portable deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator as the neutron source. Since a DD neutron generator was not available in our laboratory, a deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator was used to obtain experimental data and validate the results from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. After validation, MC simulations using a DD generator as the neutron source were then conducted. Different types of moderators and reflectors were simulated, and the optimal thicknesses for the moderator and reflector were determined. To estimate the detection limit (DL) of the system, and to observe the interference of the magnesium (Mg) γ line at 844 keV to the Mn γ line at 847 keV, three hand phantoms with Mn concentrations of 30 parts per million (ppm), 150 ppm, and 500 ppm were made and irradiated by the DT generator system. The Mn signals in these phantoms were then measured using a 50% high-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The DL was calculated to be about 4.4 ppm for the chosen irradiation, decay, and measurement time. This was calculated to be equivalent to a DL of about 3.3 ppm for the DD generator system. To achieve this DL with one 50% high-efficiency HPGe detector, the dose to the hand was simulated to be about 37 mSv, with the total body equivalent dose being about 23µSv. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop a transportable NAA system to quantify Mn in bone in vivo with an acceptable radiation exposure to the subject.

  17. Development of a transportable neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in bone in vivo: feasibility and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingzi; Koltick, David; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a transportable neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone using a portable deuterium–deuterium (DD) neutron generator as the neutron source. Since a DD neutron generator was not available in our laboratory, a deuterium–tritium (DT) neutron generator was used to obtain experimental data and validate the results from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. After validation, MC simulations using a DD generator as the neutron source were then conducted. Different types of moderators and reflectors were simulated, and the optimal thicknesses for the moderator and reflector were determined. To estimate the detection limit (DL) of the system, and to observe the interference of the magnesium (Mg) γ line at 844 keV to the Mn γ line at 847 keV, three hand phantoms with Mn concentrations of 30 parts per million (ppm), 150 ppm, and 500 ppm were made and irradiated by the DT generator system. The Mn signals in these phantoms were then measured using a 50% high-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The DL was calculated to be about 4.4 ppm for the chosen irradiation, decay, and measurement time. This was calculated to be equivalent to a DL of about 3.3 ppm for the DD generator system. To achieve this DL with one 50% high-efficiency HPGe detector, the dose to the hand was simulated to be about 37 mSv, with the total body equivalent dose being about 23μSv. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop a transportable NAA system to quantify Mn in bone in vivo with an acceptable radiation exposure to the subject. PMID:24165395

  18. The effects of a home-based arm ergometry exercise programme on physical fitness, fatigue and activity in polio survivors: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many Polio survivors have reduced mobility, pain and fatigue, which make access to conventional forms of aerobic exercise difficult. Inactivity leads to increased risk of health problems, many of which are prevalent among Polio survivors. Aerobic exercise programmes in Polio survivors should utilise stable muscle groups and should be designed to minimise exacerbation of pain and fatigue. A home-based arm ergometry aerobic exercise programme may represent an affordable and accessible exercise modality, incorporating exercise prescription principles in this group. Methods/design This is a prospective, single blinded, randomised controlled trial. There are two arms; exercise intervention using arm ergometers and control. Polio survivors meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Participants allocated to the intervention group will receive a small arm ergometer and a polar heart rate monitor. They will carry out a home-based moderate intensity (50-70% HRMax) aerobic exercise programme for eight weeks, following instruction by the treating physiotherapist. Assessments will occur at baseline and after eight weeks and will include tests of physical fitness, activity, energy cost of walking, fatigue and quality of life. Clinically feasible assessment tools including the Six Minute Arm Test, the Physical Activity Scale for People with Physical Disabilities questionnaire, the Physiological Cost Index, Fatigue Severity Scale and the SF-36v2 will be utilised. Discussion The efficacy of a home-based arm ergometry programme in Polio survivors will be examined. No previous trial has examined such a programme using a wide range of outcome measures pertinent to Polio survivors. This study will provide new information on the impact of arm ergometry on physical fitness, activity, body composition, fatigue, pain, muscle strength, and health related quality of life. Also, the study will provide information, which

  19. Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles

    DOE PAGES

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; ...

    2015-01-13

    Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop an empirical parameterization for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) are taken as a measure of the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterizationmore » developed follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A calibration factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RHw of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RHw. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RHw in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this calibration factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization, including calibration

  20. Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles

    DOE PAGES

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; ...

    2014-06-27

    Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop a simple parametric description for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) are taken to approximate the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterization developedmore » follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A correction factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RHw of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RHw. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RHw in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this correction factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization to the immersion

  1. Entropy Production in Field Theories without Time-Reversal Symmetry: Quantifying the Non-Equilibrium Character of Active Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, Cesare; Fodor, Étienne; Tjhung, Elsen; van Wijland, Frédéric; Tailleur, Julien; Cates, Michael E.

    2017-04-01

    Active-matter systems operate far from equilibrium because of the continuous energy injection at the scale of constituent particles. At larger scales, described by coarse-grained models, the global entropy production rate S quantifies the probability ratio of forward and reversed dynamics and hence the importance of irreversibility at such scales: It vanishes whenever the coarse-grained dynamics of the active system reduces to that of an effective equilibrium model. We evaluate S for a class of scalar stochastic field theories describing the coarse-grained density of self-propelled particles without alignment interactions, capturing such key phenomena as motility-induced phase separation. We show how the entropy production can be decomposed locally (in real space) or spectrally (in Fourier space), allowing detailed examination of the spatial structure and correlations that underly departures from equilibrium. For phase-separated systems, the local entropy production is concentrated mainly on interfaces, with a bulk contribution that tends to zero in the weak-noise limit. In homogeneous states, we find a generalized Harada-Sasa relation that directly expresses the entropy production in terms of the wave-vector-dependent deviation from the fluctuation-dissipation relation between response functions and correlators. We discuss extensions to the case where the particle density is coupled to a momentum-conserving solvent and to situations where the particle current, rather than the density, should be chosen as the dynamical field. We expect the new conceptual tools developed here to be broadly useful in the context of active matter, allowing one to distinguish when and where activity plays an essential role in the dynamics.

  2. Modulation of motor unit activity in biceps brachii by neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied to the contralateral arm.

    PubMed

    Amiridis, Ioannis G; Mani, Diba; Almuklass, Awad; Matkowski, Boris; Gould, Jeffrey R; Enoka, Roger M

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) current intensity and pulse width applied to the right elbow flexors on the discharge characteristics of motor units in the left biceps brachii. Three NMES current intensities were applied for 5 s with either narrow (0.2 ms) or wide (1 ms) stimulus pulses: one at 80% of motor threshold and two that evoked contractions at either ∼10% or ∼20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. The discharge times of 28 low-threshold (0.4-21.6% MVC force) and 16 high-threshold (31.7-56.3% MVC force) motor units in the short head of biceps brachii were determined before, during, and after NMES. NMES elicited two main effects: one involved transient deflections in the left-arm force at the onset and offset of NMES and the other consisted of nonuniform modulation of motor unit activity. The force deflections, which were influenced by NMES current intensity and pulse width, were observed only when low-threshold motor units were tracked. NMES did not significantly influence the discharge characteristics of tracked single-threshold motor units. However, a qualitative analysis indicated that there was an increase in the number of unique waveforms detected during and after NMES. The findings indicate that activity of motor units in the left elbow flexors can be modulated by NMES current and pulse width applied to right elbow flexors, but the effects are not distributed uniformly to the involved motor units.

  3. Maintained physical activity and physiotherapy in the management of distal upper limb pain - a protocol for a randomised controlled trial (the arm pain trial).

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth T; Mertens, Kathrin; Macfarlane, Gary J; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David; Walker-Bone, Karen; Burton, Kim; Heine, Peter J; McCabe, Candy; McNamee, Paul; McConnachie, Alex

    2014-03-10

    Distal upper limb pain (pain affecting the elbow, forearm, wrist, or hand) can be non-specific, or can arise from specific musculoskeletal disorders. It is clinically important and costly, the best approach to clinical management is unclear. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment and, while awaiting treatment, advice is often given to rest and avoid strenuous activities, but there is no evidence base to support these strategies. This paper describes the protocol of a randomised controlled trial to determine, among patients awaiting physiotherapy for distal arm pain, (a) whether advice to remain active and maintain usual activities results in a long-term reduction in arm pain and disability, compared with advice to rest; and (b) whether immediate physiotherapy results in a long-term reduction in arm pain and disability, compared with physiotherapy delivered after a seven week waiting list period. Between January 2012 and January 2014, new referrals to 14 out-patient physiotherapy departments were screened for potential eligibility. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated to one of the following three groups in equal numbers: 1) advice to remain active, 2) advice to rest, 3) immediate physiotherapy. Patients were and followed up at 6, 13, and 26 weeks post-randomisation by self-complete postal questionnaire and, at six weeks, patients who had not received physiotherapy were offered it at this time. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients free of disability at 26 weeks, as determined by the modified DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) questionnaire.We hypothesise (a) that advice to maintain usual activities while awaiting physiotherapy will be superior than advice to rest the arm; and (b) that fast-track physiotherapy will be superior to normal (waiting list) physiotherapy. These hypotheses will be examined using an intention-to-treat analysis. Results from this trial will contribute to the evidence base underpinning the

  4. A comparison of cloud layers from ground and satellite active remote sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Xia, Xiang'ao; Chen, Hongbin

    2017-03-01

    Using the data collected over the Southern Great Plains ARM site from 2006 to 2010, the surface Active Remote Sensing of Cloud (ARSCL) and CloudSat-CALIPSO satellite (CC) retrievals of total cloud and six specified cloud types [low, mid-low (ML), high-mid-low (HML), mid, high-mid (HM) and high] were compared in terms of cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), cloud-top height (CTH) and cloud thickness (CT), on different temporal scales, to identify their respective advantages and limitations. Good agreement between the two methods was exhibited in the total CF. However, large discrepancies were found between the cloud distributions of the two methods at a high (240-m) vertical grid spacing. Compared to the satellites, ARSCL retrievals detected more boundary layer clouds, while they underestimated high clouds. In terms of the six specific cloud types, more low- and mid-level clouds but less HML- and high-level clouds were detected by ARSCL than by CC. In contrast, the ARSCL retrievals of ML- and HM-level clouds agreed more closely with the estimations from the CC product. Lower CBHs tended to be reported by the surface data for low-, ML- and HML-level clouds; however, higher CTHs were often recorded by the satellite product for HML-, HM- and high-level clouds. The mean CTs for low- and ML-level cloud were similar between the two products; however, the mean CTs for HML-, mid-, HM- and high-level clouds from ARSCL were smaller than those from CC.

  5. Para-aminobenzamidine linked regenerated cellulose membranes for plasminogen activator purification: Effect of spacer arm length and ligand density

    PubMed Central

    Fasoli, Ezio; Reyes, Yiaslin Ruiz; Guzman, Osiris Martinez; Rosado, Alexandra; Cruz, Vivian Rodriguez; Borges, Amaris; Martinez, Edmarie; Bansal, Vibha

    2013-01-01

    Despite membrane-based separations offering superior alternative to packed bed chromatographic processes, there has been a substantial lacuna in their actual application to separation processes. One of the major reasons behind this is the lack of availability of appropriately modified or end-group modifiable membranes. In this paper, an affinity membrane was developed using a commercially available serine protease inhibitor, para-aminobenzamidine (pABA). The membrane modification was optimized for protein binding capacity by varying: i) the length of the spacer arm (SA; 5-atoms, 7-atoms, and 14-atoms) linking the ligand to membrane surface; ii) the affinity ligand (pABA) density on membrane surface (5–25 nmoles per cm2). Resulting membranes were tested for their ability to bind plasminogen activators (PAs) from mono- and multi- component systems in batch mode. The membrane containing pABA linked through 7-atoms SA but similar ligand density as in the case of 5- or 14- atoms long SA was found to bind up to 1.6-times higher amounts of PA per nmole of immobilized ligand from conditioned HeLa cell culture media. However, membranes with similar ligand densities but different lengths of SA, showed comparable binding capacities in monocomponent system. In addition, the length of SA did not affect the selectivity of the ligand for PA. A clear inverse linear correlation was observed between ligand density and binding capacity until the point of PA binding optima was reached (11±1.0 nmoles per cm2) in mono- and multi- component systems for 7- as well as 14- atoms SA. Up to 200-fold purification was achieved in a single step separation of PA from HeLa conditioned media using these affinity membranes. The issues of ligand leaching and reuse of the membranes were also investigated. An extensive regeneration procedure allowed the preservation of approximately 95% of the PA binding capacity of the membranes even after five cycles of use. PMID:23703544

  6. Objective Determination of Cloud Heights and Radar Reflectivities Using a Combination of Active Remote Sensors at the ARM CART Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Mace, Gerald G.; Moran, Kenneth P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Miller, Mark A.; Martner, Brooks E.

    2000-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is deploying sensitive, millimeter-wave cloud radars at its Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) sites in Oklahoma, Alaska, and the tropical western Pacific Ocean. The radars complement optical devices, including a Belfort or Vaisala laser ceilometer and a micropulse lidar, in providing a comprehensive source of information on the vertical distribution of hydrometeors overhead at the sites. An algorithm is described that combines data from these active remote sensors to produce an objective determination of hydrometeor height distributions and estimates of their radar reflectivities, vertical velocities, and Doppler spectral widths, which are optimized for accuracy. These data provide fundamental information for retrieving cloud microphysical properties and assessing the radiative effects of clouds on climate. The algorithm is applied to nine months of data from the CART site in Oklahoma for initial evaluation. Much of the algorithm's calculations deal with merging and optimizing data from the radar's four sequential operating modes, which have differing advantages and limitations, including problems resulting from range sidelobes, range aliasing, and coherent averaging. Two of the modes use advanced phase-coded pulse compression techniques to yield approximately 10 and 15 dB more sensitivity than is available from the two conventional pulse modes. Comparison of cloud-base heights from the Belfort ceilometer and the micropulse lidar confirms small biases found in earlier studies, but recent information about the ceilometer brings the agreement to within 20-30 m. Merged data of the radar's modes were found to miss approximately 5.9% of the clouds detected by the laser systems. Using data from only the radar's two less-sensitive conventional pulse modes would increase the missed detections to 22%-34%. A significant remaining problem is that the radar's lower-altitude data are often

  7. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15

    water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10° (latitude) x 10° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

  8. Deaths by suicide while on active duty, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Since 2010, suicide has been the second leading cause of death among U.S service members, exceeded only by war injury. Suicide mortality rates in the Army and Marine Corps have increased during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan; however, most active duty service members who die by suicide have never deployed. During 1998-2011, 2,990 service members died by suicide while on active duty. Numbers and rates of suicide were highest among service members who were male, in the Army, in their 20s and of white race/ethnicity. Suicide death rates were 24 percent higher among divorced/separated than single, never-married service members. Firearms were the most frequently used method of suicide among both males and females. Numbers and rates of suicide among military members have increased sharply since 2005 and an increasing proportion of these suicides were by firearms. When adjusted for age, rates of suicide are somewhat lower among active military members than civilians. There are not well established and clearly effective interventions to prevent suicides--in general or specifically in a military population during wartime.

  9. Quantifying entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Ashish Vachaspati

    Entanglement is an essential element of quantum mechanics. The aim of this work is to explore various properties of entanglement from the viewpoints of both physics and information science, thus providing a unique picture of entanglement from an interdisciplinary point of view. The focus of this work is on quantifying entanglement as a resource. We start with bipartite states, proposing a new measure of bipartite entanglement called entanglement of assistance, showing that bound entangled states of rank two cannot exist, exploring the number of members required in the ensemble achieving the entanglement of formation and the possibility of bound entangled states that are negative under partial transposition (NPT bound entangled states). For multipartite states we introduce the notions of reducibilities and equivalences under entanglement non-increasing operations and we study the relations between various reducibilities and equivalences such as exact and asymptotic LOCC, asymptotic LOCCq, cLOCC, LOc, etc. We use this new language to attempt to quantify entanglement for multiple parties. We introduce the idea of entanglement span and minimal entanglement generating set and entanglement coefficients associated with it which are the entanglement measures, thus proposing a multicomponent measure of entanglement for three or more parties. We show that the class of Schmidt decomposable states have only GHZM or Cat-like entanglement. Further we introduce the class of multiseparable states for quantification of their entanglement and prove that they are equivalent to the Schmidt decomposable states, and thus have only Cat-like entanglement. We further explore the conditions under which LOCO equivalences are possible for multipartite isentropic states. We define Cat-distillability, EPRB-distillability and distillability for multipartite mixed states and show that distillability implies EPRB-distillability. Further we show that all non-factorizable pure states are Cat

  10. Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Using a quartet of space observatories, University of Maryland astronomers may have cracked a 45-year mystery surrounding two ghostly spiral arms in the galaxy M106. The Maryland team, led by Yuxuan Yang, took advantage of the unique capabilities of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, and data obtained almost a decade ago with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. NGC X-ray Image NGC 4258 X-ray Image M106 (also known as NGC 4258) is a stately spiral galaxy 23.5 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. In visible-light images, two prominent arms emanate from the bright nucleus and spiral outward. These arms are dominated by young, bright stars, which light up the gas within the arms. "But in radio and X-ray images, two additional spiral arms dominate the picture, appearing as ghostly apparitions between the main arms," says team member Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland. These so-called "anomalous arms" consist mostly of gas. "The nature of these anomalous arms is a long-standing puzzle in astronomy," says Yang. "They have been a mystery since they were first discovered in the early 1960s." By analyzing data from XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and Chandra, Yang, Bo Li, Wilson, and Christopher Reynolds, all at the University of Maryland at College Park, have confirmed earlier suspicions that the ghostly arms represent regions of gas that are being violently heated by shock waves. Previously, some astronomers had suggested that the anomalous arms are jets of particles being ejected by a supermassive black hole in M106's nucleus. But radio observations by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico, later identified another pair of jets originating in the core. "It is highly unlikely that an active galactic nucleus could have more than one pair of jets," says Yang. In 2001, Wilson, Yang, and Gerald Cecil

  11. Global circulation of the Earth's atmosphere at altitudes from 0 to 135 Km simulated with the ARM model. Consideration of the solar activity contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, A. A.; Cherepanova, L. A.; Dement'eva, A. V.; Repnev, A. I.; Klyuchnikova, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of simulations of the global circulation and temperature regime in the altitude range from the lower tropospheric layers to 135 km are presented. They were obtained with the Atmospheric Research Model (ARM), an advanced modification of a version of the Cologne Middle Atmosphere Model (COMMA). The ARM is characterized by higher spatial resolution and better parameterizations of the radiation sources and heat sinks. At the lower boundary of the model, wavy sources of perturbations, which are caused by internal gravity waves and planetary waves, are specified. The results of the modeling of the global temperature and wind fields for the mean solar activity level are presented, and their changes, which are caused by variations of the UV-radiation fluxes in the solar activity cycle and by solar proton flares, are also considered.

  12. Dosimetric variations in permanent breast seed implant due to patient arm position.

    PubMed

    Watt, Elizabeth; Husain, Siraj; Sia, Michael; Brown, Derek; Long, Karen; Meyer, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Planning and delivery for permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) are performed with the ipsilateral arm raised; however, changes in implant geometry can be expected because of healing and anatomical motion as the patient resumes her daily activities. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of ipsilateral arm position on postplan dosimetry. Twelve patients treated at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre were included in this study. Patients underwent two postimplant CT scans on the day of implant (Day 0) and two scans approximately 8 weeks later (Day 60). One scan at each time was taken with the ipsilateral arm raised, recreating the planning scan position, and the other with both arms down in a relaxed position beside the body, recreating a more realistic postimplant arm position. Postplans were completed on all four scans using deformable image registration (MIM Maestro). On the Day 0 scan, the V200 for the evaluation planning target volume was significantly increased in the arm-down position compared with the arm-up position. Lung, rib, and chest wall dose were significantly reduced at both time points. Left anterior descending coronary artery, heart, and skin dose showed no significant differences at either time point. Although some dosimetric indices show significant differences between the arm-up and arm-down positions, the magnitude of these differences is small and the values remain indicative of implant quality. Despite the delivery of the majority of dose with the arm down, it is reasonable to use CT scans taken in the arm-up position for postplanning. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  14. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  15. Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

  16. Mental practice-based rehabilitation training to improve arm function and daily activity performance in stroke patients: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Verbunt, Jeanine A; Seelen, Henk AM; Ramos, Feljandro P; Michielsen, Bernard HM; Wetzelaer, Wim L; Moennekens, Martine

    2008-01-01

    Background Over 50% of patients with upper limb paresis resulting from stroke face long-term impaired arm function and ensuing disability in daily life. Unfortunately, the number of effective treatments aimed at improving arm function due to stroke is still low. This study aims to evaluate a new therapy for improving arm function in sub-acute stroke patients based on mental practice theories and functional task-oriented training, and to study the predictors for a positive treatment result. It is hypothesized that a six-week, mental practice-based training program (additional to regular therapy) targeting the specific upper extremity skills important to the individual patient will significantly improve both arm function and daily activity performance, as well as being cost effective. Methods/design One hundred and sixty sub-acute stroke patients with upper limb paresis (MRC grade 1–3) will participate in a single-blinded, multi-centre RCT. The experimental group will undertake a six-week, individually tailored therapy regime focused on improving arm function using mental practice. The control group will perform bimanual upper extremity exercises in addition to regular therapy. Total contact time and training intensity will be similar for both groups. Measurements will be taken at therapy onset, after its cessation and during the follow-up period (after 6 and 12 months). Primary outcome measures will assess upper extremity functioning on the ICF level of daily life activity (Wolf Motor Function Test, Frenchay Arm Test, accelerometry), while secondary outcome measures cover the ICF impairment level (Brunnstrom-Fu-Meyer test). Level of societal participation (IPA) and quality of life (EuroQol; SS-Qol) will also be tested. Costs will be based on a cost questionnaire, and statistical analyses on MAN(C)OVA and GEE (generalized estimated equations). Discussion The results of this study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of this mental practice

  17. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    effective measures to feelings of those Americans who are demanding effective measures to limit the arms race, Weinberger hypocritically said that the...way to conduct effective negotiations." Mr Weinberger knows very well that speaking the language of diktat to the Soviet Union is an activity with...the ABM Treaty"] [Text] The Soviet-American Treaty on the Limitation of ABM Systems, concluded in May 1972, has now been in effect for more than 13

  18. Coat of Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  19. Coat of Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  20. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (P<0.01), while neuromuscular activation and produced forces did not differ between techniques. At both moderate and high speed the maximal (2% and 5%, respectively) and average (both 5%) vertical force and associated impulse (10% and 14%) were greater with SWING (all P<0.05). At high speed range of motion and angular velocity of knee flexion were 24% greater with SWING (both P<0.05), while average EMG of m. biceps femoris was 31% lower (all P<0.05) in SWING. In a similar manner, the average EMG of m. vastus medialis and m. biceps femoris were lower (17% and 32%, P<0.05) during the following knee extension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds.

  1. Para-aminobenzamidine linked regenerated cellulose membranes for plasminogen activator purification: effect of spacer arm length and ligand density.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Ezio; Reyes, Yiaslin Ruiz; Guzman, Osiris Martinez; Rosado, Alexandra; Cruz, Vivian Rodriguez; Borges, Amaris; Martinez, Edmarie; Bansal, Vibha

    2013-07-01

    Despite membrane-based separations offering superior alternative to packed bed chromatographic processes, there has been a substantial lacuna in their actual application to separation processes. One of the major reasons behind this is the lack of availability of appropriately modified or end-group modifiable membranes. In this paper, an affinity membrane was developed using a commercially available serine protease inhibitor, para-aminobenzamidine (pABA). The membrane modification was optimized for protein binding capacity by varying: (i) the length of the spacer arm (SA; 5-atoms, 7-atoms, and 14-atoms) linking the ligand to membrane surface; (ii) the affinity ligand (pABA) density on membrane surface (5-25nmol/cm(2)). Resulting membranes were tested for their ability to bind plasminogen activators (PAs) from mono- and multi-component systems in batch mode. The membrane containing pABA linked through 7-atoms SA but similar ligand density as in the case of 5- or 14-atoms long SA was found to bind up to 1.6-times higher amounts of PA per nmoles of immobilized ligand from conditioned HeLa cell culture media. However, membranes with similar ligand densities but different lengths of SA, showed comparable binding capacities in mono-component system. In addition, the length of SA did not affect the selectivity of the ligand for PA. A clear inverse linear correlation was observed between ligand density and binding capacity until the point of PA binding optima was reached (11±1.0nmol/cm(2)) in mono- and multi-component systems for 7- as well as 14-atoms SA. Up to 200-fold purification was achieved in a single step separation of PA from HeLa conditioned media using these affinity membranes. The issues of ligand leaching and reuse of the membranes were also investigated. An extensive regeneration procedure allowed the preservation of approximately 95% of the PA binding capacity of the membranes even after five cycles of use.

  2. Quantifying the sensitivity of ephemeral streams to land disturbance activities in arid ecosystems at the watershed scale

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Ben L.; Hamada, Yuki; Bowen, Esther E.; Grippo, Mark A.; Hartmann, Heidi M.; Patton, Terri L.; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A.; Carr, Adrianne E.

    2014-11-01

    Large areas of public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management and located in arid regions of the southwestern United States are being considered for the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities. Land-disturbing activities in these desert, alluvium-filled valleys have the potential to adversely affect the hydrologic and ecologic functions of ephemeral streams. Regulation and management of ephemeral streams typically falls under a spectrum of federal, state, and local programs, but scientifically based guidelines for protecting ephemeral streams with respect to land-development activities are largely nonexistent. This study developed an assessment approach for quantifying the sensitivity to land disturbance of ephemeral stream reaches located in proposed solar energy zones (SEZs). The ephemeral stream assessment approach used publicly-available geospatial data on hydrology, topography, surficial geology, and soil characteristics, as well as highresolution aerial imagery. These datasets were used to inform a professional judgment-based score index of potential land disturbance impacts on selected critical functions of ephemeral streams, including flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitat value, and groundwater recharge. The total sensitivity scores (sum of scores for the critical stream functions of flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitats, and groundwater recharge) were used to identify highly sensitive stream reaches to inform decisions on developable areas in SEZs. Total sensitivity scores typically reflected the scores of the individual stream functions; some exceptions pertain to groundwater recharge and ecological habitats. The primary limitations of this assessment approach were the lack of high-resolution identification of ephemeral stream channels in the existing National Hydrography Dataset, and the lack of mechanistic processes describing potential impacts on ephemeral stream functions at the watershed scale

  3. Quantifying the sensitivity of ephemeral streams to land disturbance activities in arid ecosystems at the watershed scale.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ben L; Hamada, Yuki; Bowen, Esther E; Grippo, Mark A; Hartmann, Heidi M; Patton, Terri L; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A; Carr, Adrianne E

    2014-11-01

    Large areas of public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management and located in arid regions of the southwestern United States are being considered for the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities. Land-disturbing activities in these desert, alluvium-filled valleys have the potential to adversely affect the hydrologic and ecologic functions of ephemeral streams. Regulation and management of ephemeral streams typically falls under a spectrum of federal, state, and local programs, but scientifically based guidelines for protecting ephemeral streams with respect to land-development activities are largely nonexistent. This study developed an assessment approach for quantifying the sensitivity to land disturbance of ephemeral stream reaches located in proposed solar energy zones (SEZs). The ephemeral stream assessment approach used publicly-available geospatial data on hydrology, topography, surficial geology, and soil characteristics, as well as high-resolution aerial imagery. These datasets were used to inform a professional judgment-based score index of potential land disturbance impacts on selected critical functions of ephemeral streams, including flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitat value, and groundwater recharge. The total sensitivity scores (sum of scores for the critical stream functions of flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitats, and groundwater recharge) were used to identify highly sensitive stream reaches to inform decisions on developable areas in SEZs. Total sensitivity scores typically reflected the scores of the individual stream functions; some exceptions pertain to groundwater recharge and ecological habitats. The primary limitations of this assessment approach were the lack of high-resolution identification of ephemeral stream channels in the existing National Hydrography Dataset, and the lack of mechanistic processes describing potential impacts on ephemeral stream functions at the watershed scale. The

  4. Quantifying the Impact of Mosquitoes on Quality of Life and Enjoyment of Yard and Porch Activities in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    The recent expansion of Aedes albopictus, a day-biting mosquito, to densely inhabited areas in the northeastern Atlantic states of the USA has dramatically increased the problem that mosquitoes create for urban and suburban residents. We quantified the impact of mosquitoes on residents' quality of life within the context of a comprehensive area-wide integrated pest management program to control Ae. albopictus in two counties (Mercer and Monmouth) in New Jersey. We interviewed residents of 121 randomly selected households in both counties between October and November 2010. We asked residents about their experience with mosquitoes in their neighborhood and the importance of the ability to relax outdoors without mosquitoes compared to other neighborhood characteristics (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). We rated residents' utility based on paired comparisons to known states from the EuroQol health description system. The majority (54.6%) of respondents considered mosquitoes to be a problem. Respondents reported an average of 7.1 mosquito bites in a typical week during that summer. Mosquitoes prevented 59.5% of residents from enjoying their outdoor activities at least to some extent. Residents rated the mosquito acceptability (mean ± standard deviation) during that summer on a scale of 0 (mosquito invasion) to 100 (no mosquitoes) at 56.7±28.7, and their overall utility at 0.87±0.03. This is comparable to living with up to two risk factors for diabetes (i.e., abdominal obesity, body mass index of 28 or more, reported cholesterol problems, diagnosis of hypertension, or history of cardiovascular disease) or women experiencing menstrual disorders. Respondents rated the importance of enjoying outdoor activities without mosquitoes (4.69±0.80) comparable to that of neighborhood safety (4.74±0.80) and higher than that of a clean neighborhood (4.59±0.94). In conclusion, New Jersey residents reported that mosquitoes decreased their utility by 0

  5. Quantifying the impact of mosquitoes on quality of life and enjoyment of yard and porch activities in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    The recent expansion of Aedes albopictus, a day-biting mosquito, to densely inhabited areas in the northeastern Atlantic states of the USA has dramatically increased the problem that mosquitoes create for urban and suburban residents. We quantified the impact of mosquitoes on residents' quality of life within the context of a comprehensive area-wide integrated pest management program to control Ae. albopictus in two counties (Mercer and Monmouth) in New Jersey. We interviewed residents of 121 randomly selected households in both counties between October and November 2010. We asked residents about their experience with mosquitoes in their neighborhood and the importance of the ability to relax outdoors without mosquitoes compared to other neighborhood characteristics (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). We rated residents' utility based on paired comparisons to known states from the EuroQol health description system. The majority (54.6%) of respondents considered mosquitoes to be a problem. Respondents reported an average of 7.1 mosquito bites in a typical week during that summer. Mosquitoes prevented 59.5% of residents from enjoying their outdoor activities at least to some extent. Residents rated the mosquito acceptability (mean ± standard deviation) during that summer on a scale of 0 (mosquito invasion) to 100 (no mosquitoes) at 56.7±28.7, and their overall utility at 0.87±0.03. This is comparable to living with up to two risk factors for diabetes (i.e., abdominal obesity, body mass index of 28 or more, reported cholesterol problems, diagnosis of hypertension, or history of cardiovascular disease) or women experiencing menstrual disorders. Respondents rated the importance of enjoying outdoor activities without mosquitoes (4.69±0.80) comparable to that of neighborhood safety (4.74±0.80) and higher than that of a clean neighborhood (4.59±0.94). In conclusion, New Jersey residents reported that mosquitoes decreased their utility by 0

  6. Nest trampling and ground nesting birds: Quantifying temporal and spatial overlap between cattle activity and breeding redshank.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Elwyn; Smart, Jennifer; Mason, Lucy R; Jones, Kate; Skov, Martin W; Garbutt, Angus; Hiddink, Jan G

    2017-08-01

    Conservation grazing for breeding birds needs to balance the positive effects on vegetation structure and negative effects of nest trampling. In the UK, populations of Common redshank Tringa totanus breeding on saltmarshes declined by >50% between 1985 and 2011. These declines have been linked to changes in grazing management. The highest breeding densities of redshank on saltmarshes are found in lightly grazed areas. Conservation initiatives have encouraged low-intensity grazing at <1 cattle/ha, but even these levels of grazing can result in high levels of nest trampling. If livestock distribution is not spatially or temporally homogenous but concentrated where and when redshank breed, rates of nest trampling may be much higher than expected based on livestock density alone. By GPS tracking cattle on saltmarshes and monitoring trampling of dummy nests, this study quantified (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of cattle in relation to the distribution of redshank nesting habitats and (ii) trampling rates of dummy nests. The distribution of livestock was highly variable depending on both time in the season and the saltmarsh under study, with cattle using between 3% and 42% of the saltmarsh extent and spending most their time on higher elevation habitat within 500 m of the sea wall, but moving further onto the saltmarsh as the season progressed. Breeding redshank also nest on these higher elevation zones, and this breeding coincides with the early period of grazing. Probability of nest trampling was correlated to livestock density and was up to six times higher in the areas where redshank breed. This overlap in both space and time of the habitat use of cattle and redshank means that the trampling probability of a nest can be much higher than would be expected based on standard measures of cattle density. Synthesis and applications: Because saltmarsh grazing is required to maintain a favorable vegetation structure for redshank breeding, grazing management

  7. A Normative-Speaker Validation Study of Two Indices Developed to Quantify Tongue Dorsum Activity from Midsagittal Tongue Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders…

  8. A Normative-Speaker Validation Study of Two Indices Developed to Quantify Tongue Dorsum Activity from Midsagittal Tongue Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders…

  9. The presence of outer arm fucose residues on the N-glycans of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 reduces its activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Ie; Saldova, Radka; Park, Jun Hyoung; Lee, Young Hun; Harvey, David J; Wormald, Mark R; Wynne, Kieran; Elia, Giuliano; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Rudd, Pauline M; Lee, Seung-Taek

    2013-08-02

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by binding at a 1:1 stoichiometry. Here we have shown the involvement of N-glycosylation in the MMP inhibitory ability of TIMP-1. TIMP-1, purified from HEK 293 cells overexpressing TIMP-1 (293 TIMP-1), showed less binding and inhibitory abilities to MMPs than TIMP-1 purified from fibroblasts or SF9 insect cells infected with TIMP-1 baculovirus. Following deglycosylation of TIMP-1, all forms of TIMP-1 showed similar levels of MMP binding and inhibition, suggesting that glycosylation is involved in the regulation of these TIMP-1 activities. Analysis of the N-glycan structures showed that SF9 TIMP-1 has the simplest N-glycan structures, followed by fibroblast TIMP-1 and 293 TIMP-1, in order of increasing complexity in their N-glycan structures. Further analyses showed that cleavage of outer arm fucose residues from the N-glycans of 293 TIMP-1 or knockdown of both FUT4 and FUT7 (which encode for fucosyltransferases that add outer arm fucose residues to N-glycans) enhanced the MMP-binding and catalytic abilities of 293 TIMP-1, bringing them up to the levels of the other TIMP-1. These results demonstrate that the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit MMPs is at least in part regulated by outer arm fucosylation of its N-glycans.

  10. Physiological and immunocytochemical evidence that glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in the activation of arm autotomy in the featherstar Antedon mediterranea (Echinodermata: Crinoidea).

    PubMed

    Wilkie, I C; Barbaglio, A; Maclaren, W M; Carnevali, M D Candia

    2010-06-15

    The crinoid echinoderm Antedon mediterranea autotomises its arms at specialised skeletal joints known as syzygies that occur at regular intervals along the length of each arm. Detachment is achieved through the nervously mediated destabilisation of ligament fibres at a particular syzygy. The aim of this investigation was to identify neurotransmitters that are involved in the autotomy response. Physiological experiments were conducted on isolated preparations of syzygial joints, which can be induced to undergo autotomy-like fracture by applying stimulatory agents such as elevated [K(+)](o). Initial experiments with elevated [K(+)](o) showed that the autotomy threshold (the minimum amount of stimulation required to provoke autotomy) is lowest in syzygies at the arm base and rises distally. Of a range of neurotransmitter agonists tested, only l-glutamate invoked syzygial destabilisation, as did its analogues l-aspartate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and kainate, but not l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (l-AP4) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). The implication that l-glutamate stimulates syzygial fracture through AMPA/kainate-like receptors was supported by the finding that the action of l-glutamate was inhibited by the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Acetylcholine depressed the response of syzygial preparations to l-glutamate, suggesting a possible mechanism by which the autotomy threshold could be varied constitutively and facultatively. An immunocytochemical method employing a polyclonal antibody against l-glutamate conjugated to glutaraldehyde revealed l-glutamate-like immunoreactivity in all components of the putative neural pathway controlling the autotomy reflex, including the epidermis, brachial nerve, syzygial nerves and cellular elements close to the syzygial ligaments. We conclude that it is highly probable that l-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the activation of

  11. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  12. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    PubMed Central

    Pundik, Svetlana; McCabe, Jessica P.; Hrovat, Ken; Fredrickson, Alice Erica; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Feng, I Jung; Daly, Janis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stroke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors.Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test, AMAT), collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was a linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT) and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke.Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e., increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment) for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases of recovery or different patterns of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery. PMID:26257623

  13. Unzipping mechanism of the double-stranded DNA unwinding by a hexameric helicase: the effect of the 3' arm and the stability of the dsDNA on the unwinding activity of the Escherichia coli DnaB helicase.

    PubMed

    Galletto, Roberto; Jezewska, Maria J; Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz

    2004-10-08

    The effect of two structural elements of a replication DNA fork substrate, the length of the 3' arm of the fork and the stability of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) part, on the kinetics of the dsDNA unwinding by the Escherichia coli hexameric helicase DnaB protein has been examined under single turnover conditions using the rapid quench-flow technique. The length of the 3' arm of the replication fork, i.e. the number of nucleotides in the arm, is a major structural factor that controls the unwinding rate and processivity of the helicase. The data show the existence of an optimal length of the 3' arm where there is the highest unwinding rate and processivity, indicating that during the unwinding process, the helicase transiently interacts with the 3' arm at a specific distance on the arm with respect to the duplex part of the DNA. Moreover, the area on the enzyme that engages in interactions has also a discrete size. For DNA substrates with the 3' arm containing 14, or less, nucleotide residues, the DnaB helicase becomes a completely distributive enzyme. However, the 3' arm is not a "specific activating cofactor" in the unwinding reaction. Rather, the 3' arm plays a role as a mechanical fulcrum for the enzyme, necessary to provide support for the advancing large helicase molecule on the opposite strand of the DNA. Binding of ATP is necessary to engage the 3' arm with the DnaB helicase, but it does not change the initial distribution of complexes of the enzyme with the DNA fork substrate. Stability of the dsDNA has a significant effect on the unwinding rate and processivity. The unwinding rate constant is a decreasing linear function of the fractional content of GC base-pairs in the dsDNA, indicating that the activation of the unwinding step is proportional to the stability of the nucleic acid.

  14. Arm Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... care. If you have a compressed nerve or repetitive strain injury, be consistent about therapy; maintain good posture; and take frequent breaks at work and during repetitive activities, such as playing an instrument or practicing ...

  15. Septal serotonin depletion in rats facilitates working memory in the radial arm maze and increases hippocampal high-frequency theta activity.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel; López-Loeza, Elisa; Lajud Ávila, Naima; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca Erika; Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Reyes, Yoana Estrada; Olvera-Cortés, María Esther

    2014-07-05

    Hippocampal theta activity, which is strongly modulated by the septal medial/Broca׳s diagonal band neurons, has been linked to information processing of the hippocampus. Serotonin from the medial raphe nuclei desynchronises hippocampal theta activity, whereas inactivation or a lesion of this nucleus induces continuous and persistent theta activity in the hippocampus. Hippocampal serotonin depletion produces an increased expression of high-frequency theta activity concurrent with the facilitation of place learning in the Morris maze. The medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex (MS/DBB) has been proposed as a key structure in the serotonin modulation of theta activity. We addressed whether serotonin depletion of the MS/DBB induces changes in the characteristics of hippocampal theta activity and whether the depletion is associated with learning in a working memory spatial task in the radial arm maze. Sprague Dawley rats were depleted of 5HT with the infusion of 5,7-dihydroxytriptamine (5,7-DHT) in MS/DBB and were subsequently trained in the standard test (win-shift) in the radial arm, while the CA1 EEG activity was simultaneously recorded through telemetry. The MS/DBB serotonin depletion induced a low level of expression of low-frequency (4.5-6.5Hz) and a higher expression of high-frequency (6.5-9.5Hz) theta activity concomitant to a minor number of errors committed by rats on the working memory test. Thus, the depletion of serotonin in the MS/DBB caused a facilitator effect on working memory and a predominance of high-frequency theta activity.

  16. Languages of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Sherr, A.B.

    1985-11-01

    The author points out that the distinction between a component and subcomponent and a matter of Russian-English translation must be resolved if the Reagan-Gorbachev talks were to progress. The Reagan Administration did not create the problem of what is a component and what is a subcomponent; that was left unresolved in 1972. But the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization approach surely exacerbates it at a most inopportune time for arms control. US protestations that SDI does nothing to undermine the ABM Treaty ring hollow indeed when the professed aim of developing and testing various subcomponents is to arrive at a point of full systems development. If the Soviets were taking this same approach, no US arms control expert, in or out of government, would condone it once the activity had been identified by national technical means as probably ABM-related. The US would place the burden on the Soviets to explain, if they could, why it was not. The scope of the SDI program throws an entirely new factor into the equation. The price for pursuing SDI will be a stalemate in arms control negotiations for an indefinite future, increasing charges of cheating by both sides, and continuation of the chill in US-Soviet relations. Unless this prospect is reversed, good intentions and hopes for peace will be illusory. 7 references.

  17. Us'em: the user-centered design of a device for motivating stroke patients to use their impaired arm-hand in daily life activities.

    PubMed

    Markopoulos, Panos; Timmermans, Annick A A; Beursgens, Luuk; van Donselaar, Rik; Seelen, Henk A M

    2011-01-01

    Stroke leaves the majority of its survivors with an impairment of the upper extremity that affects their ability to live independently and their quality of life. Rehabilitation research shows that practice of everyday life activities in a natural context may sustain or even improve arm-hand performance, even during chronic stages after stroke. Based on this insight we designed, developed and evaluated Us'em; this consists of two watch-like accelerometry devices that provide feedback to stroke patients regarding the usage of their impaired versus their non-affected upper extremity. System usability and treatment credibility/expectancy were evaluated positively by therapists and patients.

  18. APC/C(Cdh1) Enables Removal of Shugoshin-2 from the Arms of Bivalent Chromosomes by Moderating Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Rattani, Ahmed; Ballesteros Mejia, Randy; Roberts, Katherine; Roig, Maurici B; Godwin, Jonathan; Hopkins, Michael; Eguren, Manuel; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Okaz, Elwy; Ogushi, Sugako; Wolna, Magda; Metson, Jean; Pendás, Alberto M; Malumbres, Marcos; Novák, Béla; Herbert, Mary; Nasmyth, Kim

    2017-05-22

    In mammalian females, germ cells remain arrested as primordial follicles. Resumption of meiosis is heralded by germinal vesicle breakdown, condensation of chromosomes, and their eventual alignment on metaphase plates. At the first meiotic division, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome associated with Cdc20 (APC/C(Cdc20)) activates separase and thereby destroys cohesion along chromosome arms. Because cohesion around centromeres is protected by shugoshin-2, sister chromatids remain attached through centromeric/pericentromeric cohesin. We show here that, by promoting proteolysis of cyclins and Cdc25B at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, APC/C associated with the Cdh1 protein (APC/C(Cdh1)) delays the increase in Cdk1 activity, leading to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). More surprisingly, by moderating the rate at which Cdk1 is activated following GVBD, APC/C(Cdh1) creates conditions necessary for the removal of shugoshin-2 from chromosome arms by the Aurora B/C kinase, an event crucial for the efficient resolution of chiasmata. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Tendon Vibration on Hemiparetic Arm Stability in Unstable Workspaces.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Megan O; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity.

  20. Effect of Tendon Vibration on Hemiparetic Arm Stability in Unstable Workspaces

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Megan O.; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A.; Schmit, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity. PMID:26633892

  1. Influence of swimming speed on inter-arm coordination in competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers.

    PubMed

    Osborough, Conor D; Payton, Carl J; Daly, Daniel J

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the effect of swimming speed on inter-arm coordination and the inter-relationships between swimming speed, inter-arm coordination, and other stroke parameters, in a group of competitive unilateral arm amputee front crawl swimmers. Thirteen highly-trained swimmers were filmed underwater during a series of 25-m front crawl trials of increasing speed. Arm coordination for both arms was quantified using an adapted version of the Index of Coordination. Inter-arm coordination of the amputee swimmers did not change as swimming speed was increased up to maximum. Swimmers showed significantly more catch-up coordination of their affected-arm compared to their unaffected-arm. When sprinting, the fastest swimmers used higher stroke frequencies and less catch-up of their affected-arm than the slower swimmers. Unilateral arm-amputees used an asymmetrical strategy for coordinating their affected-arm relative to their unaffected-arm to maintain the stable repetition of their overall arm stroke cycle. When sprinting, the attainment of a high stroke frequency is influenced mainly by the length of time the affected-arm is held in a stationary position in front of the body before pulling. Reducing this time delay appears to be beneficial for successful swimming performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Head, trunk and arm posture amplitude and variation, muscle activity, sedentariness and physical activity of 3 to 5 year-old children during tablet computer use compared to television watching and toy play.

    PubMed

    Howie, Erin K; Coenen, Pieter; Campbell, Amity C; Ranelli, Sonia; Straker, Leon M

    2017-11-01

    Young children (ages 3 to 5) are using mobile touchscreen technology, including tablet computers, yet little is known on the potential musculoskeletal and physical activity implications of its use. This within-subject laboratory study (n = 10) examined head, trunk and arm postures, upper trapezius muscle activity, and total body and upper limb physical activity during playing with tablets compared to during TV watching and playing with non-screen toys. Overall, this study found that during tablet play children had greater mean head, trunk and upper arm angles compared to both TV watching and toy play. Conversely, compared to toy play, children playing with tablets had lesser trunk, upper arm and elbow postural variation, lesser trapezius activity, more time sitting and lesser physical activity. Thus, to minimize potential musculoskeletal and sedentary risks, non-screen toy play should be encouraged and education and guidelines provided for parents and caretakers to support wise use of tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arm sway holds sway: locomotor-like modulation of leg reflexes when arms swing in alternation.

    PubMed

    Massaad, F; Levin, O; Meyns, P; Drijkoningen, D; Swinnen, S P; Duysens, J

    2014-01-31

    It has been argued that arm movements are important during human gait because they affect leg activity due to neural coupling between arms and legs. Consequently, one would expect that locomotor-like alternating arm swing is more effective than in-phase swing in affecting the legs' motor output. Other alternating movements such as trunk rotation associated to arm swing could also affect leg reflexes. Here, we assessed how locomotor-like movement patterns would affect soleus H-reflexes in 13 subjects performing arm swing in the sagittal plane (ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral in-phase versus locomotor-like anti-phase arm movements) and trunk rotation with the legs stationary, and leg stepping with the arms stationary. Findings revealed that soleus H-reflexes were suppressed for all arm, trunk or leg movements. However, a marked reflex modulation occurred during locomotor-like anti-phase arm swing, as was also the case during leg stepping, and this modulation flattened out during in-phase arm swing. This modulation had a peculiar bell shape and showed maximum suppression at a moment where the heel-strike would occur during a normal walking cycle. Furthermore, this modulation was independent from electromyographic activity, suggesting a spinal processing at premotoneuronal level. Therefore, trunk movement can affect legs' output, and a special neural coupling occurs between arms and legs when arms move in alternation. This may have implications for gait rehabilitation.

  4. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using (137)Cs activities and radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24km(2), Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n=36) and subsurface channel bank (n=17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n=41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. (137)Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of the pond. This original sediment

  5. Relations between suicide and traumatic brain injury, psychiatric diagnoses, and relationship problems, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Skopp, Nancy A; Trofimovich, Lily; Grimes, Jamie; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne; Gahm, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective case-control study of members of the active component of the U.S. Armed Forces compared those who died from suicide to controls matched by service, gender, race, age, date of entry into the active component, and years of service. Th e surveillance period was 2001 to 2009. The groups were compared with respect to numbers of deployments and documented diagnoses of traumatic brain injury (TBI), mood disorders, alcohol dependence, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), partner relationship problems, and family circumstance problems. Cases and controls were similar regarding frequencies and types of TBIs and numbers of deployments. In multivariate analyses, increased odds of suicide were associated with mood disorders, partner relationship problems, and family circumstance problems, but not with mild TBI, alcohol dependence, or PTSD. A separate analysis revealed that psychiatric comorbidities increased odds of suicide. Limitations are discussed, including the possibility that some controls with mild TBIs may have died from suicide after their military service.

  6. A comparison of ARMS and mutation specific IHC for common activating EGFR mutations analysis in small biopsy and cytology specimens of advanced non small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Yueyue; Xu, Yinhong; Zhang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    We have compared mutation analysis by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant-specific antibodies for their ability to detect two common activating EGFR mutations in a cohort of 115 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including cytology material, core biopsy, and bronchoscopic biopsies. Assessment of EGFR mutation status was performed by using antibodies and ARMS assay specific to the two major forms of mutant EGFR, exon 19 deletion E746-A750 (c.2235_2249del15 or c.2236_2250del15, p. Glu746_Ala750 del) and exon 21 L858R point mutation (c.2573T>G, p.Leu858Arg). In this study the optimal buffer for antigen retrieval was sodium citrate (pH 6.0). Q score was used to evaluate the specific mutant EGFR proteins expression. Validation using clinical material showed deletions in exon 19 were detected in 19.1% and L858R mutation in 20% of all cases by ARMS assay. A cutoff value of score 1 was used as positive by IHC. No wild type cases were immuno-reactive. The antibodies performed well in cytology, core biopsies and bronchoscopic biopsies. There were only one false positive case using L858R IHC (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.5%, positive predictive value 96%, negative predictive value 100%). All 23 E746-A750 exon 19 deletions identified by mutation analysis were positive by IHC. The sensitivity of exon 19 IHC for E746-A750 was 100%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 100%. The result of the IHC stains was finely correlated with mutations status determined by ARMS assay. Although inferior to molecular genetic analysis of the EGFR gene, IHC is highly specific and sensitive for the targeted EGFR mutations. The antibodies are likely to be of clinical value in cases especially where limited tumor material is available, or in situations where molecular genetic analysis is not readily available.

  7. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait.

    PubMed

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  8. Reversing the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    von Hippel, F. ); Sagdeev, R.Z. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains proceedings of Reversing The Arms Race. Topics covered include: Verifying Reductions of Nuclear Warheads; Verifying Limits on Nuclear-Armed Cruise Missiles; and The Technical Basis for Warhead Detection.

  9. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall, or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  10. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  11. FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Ed R. Westwater CIRES, University of Colorado /NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory 325 Broadway MS R/E/ET1 Boulder, Colorado 80305

    2002-04-30

    OAK B188 FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of atmospheric quantities relevant to radiative transfer and climate research. Primary among these atmospheric variables are integrated amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid, as well as profiles of temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid. A primary thrust of this research is to combine data from instruments available to ARM to maximize their importance in radiative transfer and climate research. To gather data relevant to these studies, participation in field experiments, especially intensive operating periods, as well as the subsequent analysis and dissemination of collected data, is of primary importance. Examples of relevant experiments include several Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods at the Southern Great Plains Cloud And Radiation Testbed site, experiments in the Tropical Western Pacific such as PROBE and Nauru'99, and experiments at the North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean site. This final report describes our analyses of data taken during these field experiments.

  12. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-023 11 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS Soviet Journal Reviews SIPRI Books on Arms Race in Outer Space (I. Kuznetsova, Yu. Orlov; Moscow INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, No 12, Dec 85) 1...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 8 Feb 86) 59 TASS: INF Accord Possible Without Space Arms Connection (Moscow TASS, 7 Feb 86) 62 TASS: U.S. Officials

  14. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on nuclear and space arms cannot be described as "equitable" even with most unrestrained imagination. ’Gray Hawk’ PM131006 Moscow IZVESTIYA in...WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Effectiveness of U.S. SDI Effort Downplayed ’ (Peter Bretschneider; Karl-Marx-Stadt...MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 7, Jul 85) 53 - b - JPRS-TAO85-064 13 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS EFFECTIVENESS OF U.S. SDI EFFORT

  15. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    PubMed

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  16. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T.; Lytton, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  17. TCLS Arm for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim; Poupat, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic “COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL”. This paper presents this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  18. TCLS ARM for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupat, Jean-Luc; Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim

    2016-08-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic "COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL".This paper presents the status on this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  19. Contributions of Altered Stretch Reflex Coordination to Arm Impairments Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Vengateswaran J.; Krutky, Matthew A.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of stereotyped muscle coactivation, clinically referred to as synergies, emerge following stroke and impair arm function. Although researchers have focused on cortical contributions, there is growing evidence that altered stretch reflex pathways may also contribute to impairment. However, most previous reflex studies have focused on passive, single-joint movements without regard to their coordination during volitional actions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of stroke on coordinated activity of stretch reflexes elicited in multiple arm muscles following multijoint perturbations. We hypothesized that cortical injury results in increased stretch reflexes of muscles characteristic of the abnormal flexor synergy during active arm conditions. To test this hypothesis, we used a robot to apply position perturbations to impaired arms of 10 stroke survivors and dominant arms of 8 healthy age-matched controls. Corresponding reflexes were assessed during volitional contractions simulating different levels of gravitational support, as well as during voluntary flexion and extension of the elbow and shoulder. Reflexes were quantified by average rectified surface electromyogram, recorded from eight muscles spanning the elbow and shoulder. Reflex coordination was quantified using an independent components analysis. We found stretch reflexes elicited in the stroke group were significantly less sensitive to changes in background muscle activation compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). We also observed significantly increased reflex coupling between elbow flexor and shoulder abductor–extensor muscles in stroke subjects relative to that in control subjects. This increased coupling was present only during volitional tasks that required elbow flexion (P < 0.001), shoulder extension (P < 0.01), and gravity opposition (P < 0.01), but not during the “no load” condition. During volitional contractions, reflex amplitudes scaled with the level

  20. Quantifying filariasis and malaria control activities in relation to lymphatic filariasis elimination: a multiple intervention score map (MISM) for Malawi.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Michelle C; Mkwanda, Square; Mzilahowa, Themba; Bockarie, Moses J; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-02-01

    To quantify the geographical extent of filariasis and malaria control interventions impacting lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Malawi and to produce a multiple intervention score map (MISM) for prioritising surveillance and intervention strategies. Interventions included mass drug administration (MDA) for LF and onchocerciasis, and bed nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria. District and subdistrict-level data were obtained from the Ministry of Health in Malawi, the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and President's Malaria Initiative reports. Single intervention scores were calculated for each variable based on population coverage thresholds, and these were combined in a weighted sum to form a multiple intervention score, which was then used to produce maps, that is MISMs. Districts were further classified into four groups based on the combination of their baseline LF prevalence and multiple intervention score. The district- and subdistrict-level MISMs highlighted specific areas that have received high and low coverage of LF-impacting interventions. High coverage areas included the LF-onchocerciasis endemic areas in the southern region of the country and areas along the shores of Lake Malawi, where malaria vector control had been prioritised. Three districts with high baseline LF prevalence measures but low coverage of multiple interventions were identified and considered to be most at risk of ongoing transmission or re-emergence. These maps and district classifications will be used by LF programme managers to identify and target high-risk areas that may not have received adequate LF-impacting interventions to interrupt the transmission of the disease.

  1. Comparison of activities of daily living (ADLs) in two different one arm drive wheelchairs: a study of individuals/participants with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Mandy, Anne; Walton, Claire; Michaelis, Jon

    2015-03-01

    This pilot study measured activities of daily living performance in individuals/participants with hemiplegia propelling both a standard dual handrim Action 3 wheelchair and a standard Action 3 wheelchair with a Neater Uni-Wheelchair kit attachment. The kit consists of a steerable front. Does the use of the NUW affect the performance quality of activities of daily living in individuals/participants with hemiplegia. Is there a difference in the motor and process skills during activities of daily living performance, and in the time taken to complete the activities. Four individuals/participants with hemiplegia were used in a cross over, repeated measures trial. Assessment of Motor and Process Skills of users undertaking making a bed and laying a table "Swedish style", tasks were measured and time taken to complete each task were recorded. Bed making completion time was quicker in the Neater Uni-wheelchair (p < 0.03). Motor skills were significantly higher than the process ability skills (p < 0.05). Activities of daily living tasks in the Neater Uni-wheelchair were completed more efficiently with no loss in quality of motor and process skills performance. This suggests that the Neater Uni-wheelchair is a viable alternative to current one arm drive provision. Implications for Rehabilitation Inappropriate wheelchair provision can result in capacity limitation and poorer quality of ADL motor skill as well-lowered process performance skill. AMPS can help to explain motor and process skill differences in complex activities.

  2. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in interlimb coordination of coupled arm movements in the parasagittal plane: II. Postural activities and coupling coordination during cyclic flexion-extension arm movements, ISO- and ANTI-directionally coupled.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Fausto G; Esposti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    When coupling cyclic adduction-abduction movements of the arms in the transverse (horizontal) plane, isodirectional (ISO) coupling is less stable than antidirectional (ANTI) coupling. We proposed that such deficiency stems from the disturbing action that anticipatory postural adjustments exert on ISO coupling. To ascertain if postural adjustments differentiate ISO versus ANTI coupling coordination in other types of cyclic arm movements, we examined flexion-extension oscillations in the parasagittal plane. Oscillations of the right arm alone elicited cyclic Postural Adjustments (PAs) in the left Anterior Deltoid and Posterior Deltoid, which replicated the excitation-inhibition pattern of the prime movers right Anterior Deltoid, right Posterior Deltoid. Cyclic PAs also developed symmetrically in Erector Spinae (RES and LES) and in phase opposition in Ischiocruralis (RIC and LIC), so as to discharge to the ground both an anteroposterior force, Fy, and a moment about the vertical axis, Tz. Oscillations of both arms in ISO coupling induced symmetric PAs in both ES and IC muscles, thus generating a large Fy but no Tz. In ANTI coupling, PAs in RES and LES remained symmetric but smaller in size, while PAs in RIC and LIC were large and opposite in phase, resulting in a large Tz and small Fy. Altogether, PAs would thus favour ISO and hamper ANTI parasagittal movements because (1) in the motor pathways to the prime movers of either arm, a convergence would occur between the voluntary commands and the commands for PAs linked to the movement of the other arm, the two commands having the same sign (excitatory or inhibitory) during ISO and an opposite sign during ANTI; (2) the postural effort of trunk and leg muscles would be higher for generating Tz in ANTI than Fy in ISO. These predictions fit with the finding that coupling stability was lower in ANTI than in ISO, i.e., opposite to horizontal movements. In conclusion, in both parasagittal and horizontal arm movements, the less

  3. Function of the shoulder muscles during arm elevation: an assessment using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Omi, Rei; Sano, Hirotaka; Ohnuma, Masahiro; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Watanuki, Shoichi; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoi, Eiji

    2010-05-01

    Although 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been used for the assessment of skeletal muscle activities, its application to the shoulder muscles is only sparse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activities of the shoulder muscles during arm elevation using PET. Six healthy volunteers performed an arm elevation exercise before and after FDG injection. The exercise consisted of 200 repetitions of arm elevation in the scapular plane with a 0.25-kg weight fixed to the wrist on both arms. PET examination was performed 50 min after FDG injection. For control data, PET scan was repeated for each subject on a separate day without any exercise. The volume of interest was established for each shoulder muscle. The subscapularis was divided into three portions (superior, middle, and inferior). The standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated in each muscle to quantify its activity. The SUVs increased significantly after exercise in the deltoid, supraspinatus, and the superior portion of subscapularis. Among three divided portions of the subscapularis, the SUV of the superior one-third was significantly greater than the rest of the muscle after exercise. Our current study clearly indicated that there were two functionally different portions in the subscapularis muscle and the superior one-third played an important role during arm elevation in the scapular plane.

  4. Function of the shoulder muscles during arm elevation: an assessment using positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Rei; Sano, Hirotaka; Ohnuma, Masahiro; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Watanuki, Shoichi; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Although 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been used for the assessment of skeletal muscle activities, its application to the shoulder muscles is only sparse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activities of the shoulder muscles during arm elevation using PET. Six healthy volunteers performed an arm elevation exercise before and after FDG injection. The exercise consisted of 200 repetitions of arm elevation in the scapular plane with a 0.25-kg weight fixed to the wrist on both arms. PET examination was performed 50 min after FDG injection. For control data, PET scan was repeated for each subject on a separate day without any exercise. The volume of interest was established for each shoulder muscle. The subscapularis was divided into three portions (superior, middle, and inferior). The standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated in each muscle to quantify its activity. The SUVs increased significantly after exercise in the deltoid, supraspinatus, and the superior portion of subscapularis. Among three divided portions of the subscapularis, the SUV of the superior one-third was significantly greater than the rest of the muscle after exercise. Our current study clearly indicated that there were two functionally different portions in the subscapularis muscle and the superior one-third played an important role during arm elevation in the scapular plane. PMID:20298439

  5. Active layer hydrology in an arctic tundra ecosystem: quantifying water sources and cycling using water stable isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Perkins, George B.; Feng, Xiahong; Graham, David E.; O'Malley, Daniel; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Young, Jessica; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-04-16

    Climate change and thawing permafrost in the Arctic will significantly alter landscape hydro-geomorphology and the distribution of soil moisture, which will have cascading effects on climate feedbacks (CO2 and CH4) and plant and microbial communities. Fundamental processes critical to predicting active layer hydrology are not well understood. This study applied water stable isotope techniques (δ2H and δ18O) to infer sources and mixing of active layer waters in a polygonal tundra landscape in Barrow, Alaska (USA), in August and September of 2012. Results suggested that winter precipitation did not contribute substantially to surface waters or subsurface active layer pore waters measured in August and September. Summer rain was the main source of water to the active layer, with seasonal ice melt contributing to deeper pore waters later in the season. Surface water evaporation was evident in August from a characteristic isotopic fractionation slope (δ2H vs δ18O). Freeze-out isotopic fractionation effects in frozen active layer samples and textural permafrost were indistinguishable from evaporation fractionation, emphasizing the importance of considering the most likely processes in water isotope studies, in systems where both evaporation and freeze-out occur in close proximity. The fractionation observed in frozen active layer ice was not observed in liquid active layer pore waters. Such a discrepancy between frozen and liquid active layer samples suggests mixing of meltwater, likely due to slow melting of seasonal ice. In conclusion, this research provides insight into fundamental processes relating to sources and mixing of active layer waters, which should be considered in process-based fine-scale and intermediate-scale hydrologic models.

  6. Active layer hydrology in an arctic tundra ecosystem: quantifying water sources and cycling using water stable isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Perkins, George B.; Feng, Xiahong; Graham, David E.; O'Malley, Daniel; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Young, Jessica; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-04-16

    Climate change and thawing permafrost in the Arctic will significantly alter landscape hydro-geomorphology and the distribution of soil moisture, which will have cascading effects on climate feedbacks (CO2 and CH4) and plant and microbial communities. Fundamental processes critical to predicting active layer hydrology are not well understood. This study applied water stable isotope techniques (δ2H and δ18O) to infer sources and mixing of active layer waters in a polygonal tundra landscape in Barrow, Alaska (USA), in August and September of 2012. Results suggested that winter precipitation did not contribute substantially to surface waters or subsurface active layer pore waters measured in August and September. Summer rain was the main source of water to the active layer, with seasonal ice melt contributing to deeper pore waters later in the season. Surface water evaporation was evident in August from a characteristic isotopic fractionation slope (δ2H vs δ18O). Freeze-out isotopic fractionation effects in frozen active layer samples and textural permafrost were indistinguishable from evaporation fractionation, emphasizing the importance of considering the most likely processes in water isotope studies, in systems where both evaporation and freeze-out occur in close proximity. The fractionation observed in frozen active layer ice was not observed in liquid active layer pore waters. Such a discrepancy between frozen and liquid active layer samples suggests mixing of meltwater, likely due to slow melting of seasonal ice. In conclusion, this research provides insight into fundamental processes relating to sources and mixing of active layer waters, which should be considered in process-based fine-scale and intermediate-scale hydrologic models.

  7. Active layer hydrology in an arctic tundra ecosystem: quantifying water sources and cycling using water stable isotopes

    DOE PAGES

    Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; ...

    2016-04-16

    Climate change and thawing permafrost in the Arctic will significantly alter landscape hydro-geomorphology and the distribution of soil moisture, which will have cascading effects on climate feedbacks (CO2 and CH4) and plant and microbial communities. Fundamental processes critical to predicting active layer hydrology are not well understood. This study applied water stable isotope techniques (δ2H and δ18O) to infer sources and mixing of active layer waters in a polygonal tundra landscape in Barrow, Alaska (USA), in August and September of 2012. Results suggested that winter precipitation did not contribute substantially to surface waters or subsurface active layer pore waters measuredmore » in August and September. Summer rain was the main source of water to the active layer, with seasonal ice melt contributing to deeper pore waters later in the season. Surface water evaporation was evident in August from a characteristic isotopic fractionation slope (δ2H vs δ18O). Freeze-out isotopic fractionation effects in frozen active layer samples and textural permafrost were indistinguishable from evaporation fractionation, emphasizing the importance of considering the most likely processes in water isotope studies, in systems where both evaporation and freeze-out occur in close proximity. The fractionation observed in frozen active layer ice was not observed in liquid active layer pore waters. Such a discrepancy between frozen and liquid active layer samples suggests mixing of meltwater, likely due to slow melting of seasonal ice. In conclusion, this research provides insight into fundamental processes relating to sources and mixing of active layer waters, which should be considered in process-based fine-scale and intermediate-scale hydrologic models.« less

  8. Dangling and Hydrolyzed Ligand Arms in [Mn3] and [Mn6] Coordination Assemblies: Synthesis, Characterization, and Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Krishna; Craig, Gavin A; Heras Ojea, María José; Pait, Moumita; Kundu, Animesh; Lee, Junseong; Murrie, Mark; Frontera, Antonio; Ray, Debashis

    2017-03-06

    Two flexible, branched, and sterically constrained di- and tripodal side arms around a phenol backbone were utilized in ligands H3L1 and H5L2 to isolate {Mn6} and {Mn3} coordination aggregates. 2,6-Bis{(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-ylimino)methyl}-4-methylphenol (H3L1) gave trinuclear complex [Mn3(μ-H2L1)2(μ1,3-O2CCH3)4(CH3OH)2](ClO4)2·4CH3OH (1), whereas 2,6-bis[{1-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butan-2-ylimino}methyl]-4-methylphenol (H5L2) provided hexanuclear complex [Mn6(μ4-H2L2)2(μ-HL3)2(μ3-OH)2(μ1,3-O2CC2H5)4](ClO4)2·2H2O (2). Binding of acetates and coordination of {H2L1}(-) provided a linear Mn(III)Mn(II)Mn(III) arrangement in 1. A Mn(III)6 fused diadamantane-type assembly was obtained in 2 from propionate bridges, coordination of {H2L2}(3-), and in situ generated {HL3}(2-). The magnetic characterization of 1 and 2 revealed the properties dominated by intramolecular anti-ferromagnetic exchange interactions, and this was confirmed using density functional theory calculations. Complex 1 exhibited field-induced slow magnetic relaxation at 2 K due to the axial anisotropy of Mn(III) centers. Both the complexes show effective solvent-dependent catechol oxidation toward 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol in air. The catechol oxidation abilities are comparable from two complexes of different nuclearity and structure.

  9. Assessment of arm movements during gait in stroke - the Arm Posture Score.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Gudrun M; Frykberg, Gunilla E; Grip, Helena; Broström, Eva W; Häger, Charlotte K

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply the Arm Posture Score (APS) to a stroke population, since comprehensive measures to quantify arm swing in the affected and non-affected arms during gait are lacking. A further aim was to investigate how gait speed and upper limb function estimated by clinical measures are related to the APS in the stroke group. The APS is the summarized root mean square deviation (RMSD) from normal, based on kinematics. Four arm movements (sagittal and frontal planes) as well as six arm movements (incorporating transversal plane) were included in the calculation of APS, referred to as APS4 and APS6, respectively. The study population consisted of 25 persons with stroke and 25 age- and gender-matched controls. The APS measures were significantly different between the affected and non-affected arms, as well as between the affected arm and the non-dominant arm of the controls (p≤0.001). Spasticity significantly influenced both APS measures, while speed only had a significant effect on the APS4. The APS measures correlated significantly to clinical measures of upper limb function. Both APS measures seem to be useful indices to quantify and discriminate between impaired and normal arm swing during gait after stroke. The variability of rotational arm movements needs to be studied further before considering the additional value of the APS6 over the APS4. When interpreting the APS, complementary kinematics should be taken into account, as the single value of the APS gives no information about the direction of the deviation.

  10. Quantifying familial influences on brain activation during the monetary incentive delay task: an adolescent monozygotic twin study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Merav H; Krueger, Robert F; Iacono, William G; Malone, Stephen M; Hunt, Ruskin H; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2014-12-01

    Although altered brain activation during reward tasks has been found in a number of heritable psychiatric disorders and health outcomes, the familial nature of reward-related brain activation remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated the degree to which the magnitude of mesocorticolimbic reward system signal intensities in anticipation of reward during the monetary incentive delay (MID) task was similar within 46 pairs of adolescent, monozygotic twins. Significant within-pair correlations in brain activation during anticipation of gain were found in one third of the 18 reward-related regions investigated. These regions were the right nucleus accumbens, left and right posterior caudate, right anterior caudate, left insula, and anterior cingulate cortex. This serves as evidence for a shared familial contribution to individual differences in reward related brain activity in certain key reward processing regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in arm tissue composition with slowly progressive weight-lifting among women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Brown, Justin C; Paskett, Electra D; Zemel, Babette S; Cheville, Andrea L; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-07-01

    Studies in breast cancer-related lymphedema (BRCL) have exclusively examined total arm volume, but not the specific tissue composition that contributes to total volume. We evaluated baseline differences in arm tissue composition [fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD)] between the affected and unaffected arms in women with BRCL. We compared changes in arm tissue composition and self-reported lymphedema symptoms after 1 year of weight-lifting versus control. We utilized data from physical activity and lymphedema trial that included 141 women with BRCL. Arm tissue composition was quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The severity of lymphedema was quantified using self-report survey. Weight-lifting was performed at community fitness facilities. At baseline, the affected arm had more fat (∆ = 89.7 g; P < 0.001) and lean mass (∆ = 149.1 g; P < 0.001), but less BMC (∆ = -3.2 g; P < 0.001) and less BMD (∆ = -5.5 mg/cm(2); P = 0.04) than the unaffected arm. After 12 months of weight-lifting, composition of the affected arm was improved: lean mass (71.2 g; P = 0.01) and BMD (14.0 mg/cm(2); P = 0.02) increased, arm fat percentage decreased (-1.5%; P = 0.003). Composition of the unaffected arm was only improved in lean mass (65.2 g; P = 0·04). Increases in lean mass were associated with less severe BCRL symptoms. Among women with BRCL, slowly progressive weight-lifting could improve arm tissue composition. Changes in arm tissue composition predict changes in symptom burden. Investigating the combined effects of exercise and weight loss on arm tissue composition and BCRL symptoms may provide additional insight into the benefits of lifestyle modification on lymphedema biology.

  12. ARM Spacecraft Illustration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-20

    This graphic depicts the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle conducting a flyby of its target asteroid. During these flybys, the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) would come within 0.6 miles (1 kilometer), generating imagery with resolution of up to 0.4 of an inch (1 centimeter) per pixel. The robotic segment of ARM will demonstrate advanced, high-power, high-throughput solar electric propulsion; advanced autonomous precision proximity operations at a low-gravity planetary body; and controlled touchdown and liftoff with a multi-ton mass. The crew segment of the mission will include spacewalk activities for sample selection, extraction, containment and return; and mission operations of integrated robotic and crewed vehicle stack -- all key components of future in-space operations for human missions to the Mars system. After collecting a multi-ton boulder from the asteroid, the robotic spacecraft will redirect the boulder to a crew-accessible orbit around the moon, where NASA plans to conduct a series of proving ground missions in the 2020s that will help validate capabilities needed for NASA's Journey to Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21062

  13. Western Diet Chow Consumption in Rats Induces Striatal Neuronal Activation While Reducing Dopamine Levels without Affecting Spatial Memory in the Radial Arm Maze

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jason C. D.; Ali, Saher F.; Kosari, Sepideh; Woodman, Owen L.; Spencer, Sarah J.; Killcross, A. Simon; Jenkins, Trisha A.

    2017-01-01

    Rats fed high fat diets have been shown to be impaired in hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks, such as spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reference memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). It is clear from previous studies, however, that motivation and reward factor into the memory deficits associated with obesity and high-fat diet consumption, and that the prefrontal cortex and striatum and neurotransmitter dopamine play important roles in cognitive performance. In this series of studies we extend our research to investigate the effect of a high fat diet on striatal neurochemistry and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task, a paradigm highly reliant on dopamine-rich brain regions, such as the striatum after high fat diet consumption. Memory performance, neuronal activation and brain dopaminergic levels were compared in rats fed a “Western” (21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol) chow diet compared to normal diet (6% fat, 0.15% cholesterol)-fed controls. Twelve weeks of dietary manipulation produced an increase in weight in western diet-fed rats, but did not affect learning and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task. Concurrently, there was an observed decrease in dopamine levels in the striatum and a reduction of dopamine turnover in the hippocampus in western diet-fed rats. In a separate cohort of rats Fos levels were measured after rats had been placed in a novel arena and allowed to explore freely. In normal rats, this exposure to a unique environment did not affect neuronal activation. In contrast, rats fed a western diet were found to have significantly increased Fos expression in the striatum, but not prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. Our study demonstrates that while western diet consumption in rats produces weight gain and brain neuronal and neurotransmitter changes, it did not affect performance in the delayed spatial win-shift paradigm in the radial arm maze. We conclude that modeling the cognitive

  14. Western Diet Chow Consumption in Rats Induces Striatal Neuronal Activation While Reducing Dopamine Levels without Affecting Spatial Memory in the Radial Arm Maze.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jason C D; Ali, Saher F; Kosari, Sepideh; Woodman, Owen L; Spencer, Sarah J; Killcross, A Simon; Jenkins, Trisha A

    2017-01-01

    Rats fed high fat diets have been shown to be impaired in hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks, such as spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reference memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). It is clear from previous studies, however, that motivation and reward factor into the memory deficits associated with obesity and high-fat diet consumption, and that the prefrontal cortex and striatum and neurotransmitter dopamine play important roles in cognitive performance. In this series of studies we extend our research to investigate the effect of a high fat diet on striatal neurochemistry and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task, a paradigm highly reliant on dopamine-rich brain regions, such as the striatum after high fat diet consumption. Memory performance, neuronal activation and brain dopaminergic levels were compared in rats fed a "Western" (21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol) chow diet compared to normal diet (6% fat, 0.15% cholesterol)-fed controls. Twelve weeks of dietary manipulation produced an increase in weight in western diet-fed rats, but did not affect learning and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task. Concurrently, there was an observed decrease in dopamine levels in the striatum and a reduction of dopamine turnover in the hippocampus in western diet-fed rats. In a separate cohort of rats Fos levels were measured after rats had been placed in a novel arena and allowed to explore freely. In normal rats, this exposure to a unique environment did not affect neuronal activation. In contrast, rats fed a western diet were found to have significantly increased Fos expression in the striatum, but not prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. Our study demonstrates that while western diet consumption in rats produces weight gain and brain neuronal and neurotransmitter changes, it did not affect performance in the delayed spatial win-shift paradigm in the radial arm maze. We conclude that modeling the cognitive decline

  15. Use of the "smart tracer" resazurin to identify biological activity and quantify sediment-water interaction in a stream in Catalonia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, R.; Martí, E.; Argerich, A.; Fonolla, P.; Ribot, M.; von Schiller, D.

    2007-12-01

    A smart tracer is a tracer that provides, directly or through measurement of its concentration or in combination with another compound, at least 1 bit more information than a conservative tracer. In other words, the tracer provides information about conditions in the hydrologic system in addition to arrival time - location history, chemical conditions, biological activity, physical interactions, or other information. We have developed a smart tracer for quantifying biological activity and sediment-water interaction in streams. We will present a hands-on demonstration of the resazurin (Raz) test of biological activity and show results from an injection of the tracer in the Riera de Santa Fe de Montseny, Catalonia, Spain. In the presence of living bacteria (in many streams these are most common as biofilms on sediment), mildly fluorescent blue resazurin reduces irreversibly to strongly fluorescent resorufin. Using the information provided by this reaction along a 125- m stream reach, in conjunction with a chloride tracer, we were able to qualitatively identify bacterial growth and to quantify sediment-water interactions.

  16. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  17. ARM Radar Contoured Frequency by Altitude Diagram (CFAD) Data Products

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zhang, Yuying

    2017-03-10

    To compare with ARM cloud radar simulator outputs, observational reflectivity-height joint histograms, i.e., CFADs, are constructed from the operational ARM Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) Value-Added Product.

  18. Kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP) quantifies the contribution of protein kinases to the regulation of cell viability.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Edmund H; Casado, Pedro; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Cutillas, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    Cell survival is regulated by a signaling network driven by the activity of protein kinases; however, determining the contribution that each kinase in the network makes to such regulation remains challenging. Here, we report a computational approach that uses mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics data to rank protein kinases based on their contribution to cell regulation. We found that the scores returned by this algorithm, which we have termed kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP), were a quantitative measure of the contribution that individual kinases make to the signaling output. Application of KARP to the analysis of eight hematological cell lines revealed that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1/2, casein kinase (CK) 2, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and p21-activated kinase (PAK) were the most frequently highly ranked kinases in these cell models. The patterns of kinase activation were cell-line specific yet showed a significant association with cell viability as a function of kinase inhibitor treatment. Thus, our study exemplifies KARP as an untargeted approach to empirically and systematically identify regulatory kinases within signaling networks. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. L-Malate dehydrogenase activity in the reductive arm of the incomplete citric acid cycle of Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Charles E

    2013-11-01

    The autotrophic nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea does not synthesize 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase under aerobic conditions and so has an incomplete citric acid cycle. L-malate (S-malate) dehydrogenase (MDH) from N. europaea was predicted to show similarity to the NADP(+)-dependent enzymes from chloroplasts and was separated from the NAD(+)-dependent proteins from most other bacteria or mitochondria. MDH activity in a soluble fraction from N. europaea ATCC 19718 was measured spectrophotometrically and exhibited simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In the reductive direction, activity with NADH increased from pH 6.0 to 8.5 but activity with NADPH was consistently lower and decreased with pH. At pH 7.0, the K m for oxaloacetate was 20 μM; the K m for NADH was 22 μM but that for NADPH was at least 10 times higher. In the oxidative direction, activity with NAD(+) increased with pH but there was very little activity with NADP(+). At pH 7.0, the K m for L-malate was 5 mM and the K m for NAD(+) was 24 μM. The reductive activity was quite insensitive to inhibition by L-malate but the oxidative activity was very sensitive to oxaloacetate. MDH activity was not strongly activated or inhibited by glycolytic or citric acid cycle metabolites, adenine nucleotides, NaCl concentrations, or most metal ions, but increased with temperature up to about 55 °C. The reductive activity was consistently 10-20 times higher than the oxidative activity. These results indicate that the L-malate dehydrogenase in N. europaea is similar to other NAD(+)-dependent MDHs (EC 1.1.1.37) but physiologically adapted for its role in a reductive biosynthetic sequence.

  20. On Day-to-Day Variability of Global Lightning Activity as Quantified from Background Schumann Resonance Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Among the palette of methods (satellite, VLF, ELF) for monitoring global lightning activity, observations of the background Schumann resonances (SR) provide a unique prospect for estimating the integrated activity of global lightning activity in absolute units (coul2 km2/sec). This prospect is ensured by the SR waves' low attenuation, with wavelengths commensurate with the dimensions of dominant regional lightning "chimneys", and by the accumulating methodology for background SR techniques. Another benefit is the reduction of SR measurements into a compact set of resonance characteristics (modal frequencies, intensities, and quality factors). Suggested and tested in numerical simulations by T.R. Madden in the 1960s, the idea to invert the SR characteristics for the global lightning source has been farther developed, statistically substantiated, and practically realized here on the basis of the computing power and the quantity of experimental material way beyond what the SR pioneers had at their disposal. The critical issue of the quality of the input SR parameters is addressed by implementing a statistically substantiated sanitizing procedure to dispose of the fragments of the observed time series containing unrepresentative elements - local interference of various origin and strong ELF transients originating outside the major "chimneys" represented in the source model. As a result of preliminary research, a universal empirical sanitizing criterion has been established. Due to the fact that the actual observations have been collected from a set of individually organized ELF stations with various equipment sets and calibration techniques, the relative parameters in both input (the intensities) and output (the "chimney" activities) are being used as far as possible in the inversion process to avoid instabilities caused by calibration inconsistencies. The absolute regional activities - and so the sought for global activity in absolute units - is determined in the

  1. Continued Development of a Coupled Instrument Model for Quantifying Droplet Activation and Growth Kinetics in the DMT CCN Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathem, T. L.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Moore, R.; Nenes, A.

    2011-12-01

    The continuous-flow streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) chamber (CFSTGC1) and its commercialization by Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT) has enabled large strides in measuring and parameterizing the CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol. The fast time response of the DMT CCN coupled with its ability to both count and size the activated droplets exiting the flow chamber have facilitated studies on CCN activation kinetics. Such studies are increasing in importance because changes in the kinetics of cloud droplet growth may have large impacts on cloud droplet number concentrations and climate. However, we find that activated droplet sizes in the DMT CCN are also strongly dependent on the instrument operating conditions and dry aerosol properties. A detailed numerical instrument model1 is utilized to account for these dependences, thereby enabling the quantification of an empirical water uptake coefficient and detection of changes in droplet growth arising from particle composition-dependent mechanisms.
    We present improvements to the coupled instrument and droplet growth model of Roberts and Nenes (2005)1, which include significantly reducing computing time, enhancing convergence stability, and incorporating an explicit treatment of water vapor depletion effects2. We apply the model to a variety of field campaign data and find that water vapor depletion effects can explain a large portion of the observed variability in CCN droplet sizes, which might have otherwise been incorrectly attributed to slow activation kinetics. Model accuracy is assessed through comparison of measured and model predicted droplet sizes for ammonium sulfate calibration experiments at a variety of instrument flow rates, pressures, and supersaturations. The accuracy of CCN optical particle counter (OPC) is also assessed using polystyrene latex and glass spheres (2-10 μm), which indicate a small but significant bias toward under-sizing. This suggests that while the

  2. Imbalance in individual researcher's peer review activities quantified for four British Ecological Society journals, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Petchey, Owen L; Fox, Jeremy W; Haddon, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Researchers contribute to the scientific peer review system by providing reviews, and "withdraw" from it by submitting manuscripts that are subsequently reviewed. So far as we are aware, there has been no quantification of the balance of individual's contributions and withdrawals. We compared the number of reviews provided by individual researchers (i.e., their contribution) to the number required by their submissions (i.e. their withdrawals) in a large and anonymised database provided by the British Ecological Society. The database covered the Journal of Ecology, Journal of Animal Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, and Functional Ecology from 2003-2010. The majority of researchers (64%) did not have balanced contributions and withdrawals. Depending on assumptions, 12% to 44% contributed more than twice as much as required; 20% to 52% contributed less than half as much as required. Balance, or lack thereof, varied little in relation to the number of years a researcher had been active (reviewing or submitting). Researchers who contributed less than required did not lack the opportunity to review. Researchers who submitted more were more likely to accept invitations to review. These finding suggest overall that peer review of the four analysed journals is not in crisis, but only due to the favourable balance of over- and under-contributing researchers. These findings are limited to the four journals analysed, and therefore cannot include researcher's other peer review activities, which if included might change the proportions reported. Relatively low effort was required to assemble, check, and analyse the data. Broader analyses of individual researcher's peer review activities would contribute to greater quality, efficiency, and fairness in the peer review system.

  3. Dynamic arm study: quantitative description of upper extremity function and activity of boys and men with duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Mariska M H P; Harlaar, Jaap; Koopman, Bart; de Groot, Imelda J M

    2017-05-26

    Therapeutic management of upper extremity (UE) function of boys and men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) requires sensitive and objective assessment. Therefore, we aimed to measure physiologic UE function of healthy subjects and DMD patients in different disease stages, and to evaluate the relation between these physiologic measures and functional UE scales. Twenty-three DMD patients and twenty healthy controls (7-23 years) participated in this explorative case-control study. Maximal muscle torque, maximal and normalized surface electromyography (sEMG) amplitudes, muscle thickness, echogenicity and maximal passive and active joint angles were measured. At activity level, Brooke upper extremity rating scale and the Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) scale were used. Outcome measures related to proximal UE function could discriminate between disease stages. Increased normalized sEMG amplitudes were found in patients, even in early disease stages. Maximal active joint angles showed the strongest relation to Brooke scale (R (2)  = 0.88) and PUL scale (R (2)  = 0.85). The decline of muscle functions precedes the decline in performance of UE activities, and therefore may play a role in early detection of UE limitations. Increased sEMG levels demonstrate that DMD patients use more of their muscle capacity compared to healthy subjects, to perform daily activities. This might result in increased fatigability. Active maximal joint angles are highly related to functional scales, so preserving the ability to use the full range of motion is important for the performance of daily activities. Close monitoring of active joint angles could therefore help in starting interventions that minimize functional UE decline in DMD patients timely.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of the Arm Light Exoskeleton on movement execution and muscle activities: a pilot study on healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, Elvira; Coscia, Martina; Marcheschi, Simone; Roas, Gianluca; Salsedo, Fabio; Frisoli, Antonio; Bergamasco, Massimo; Micera, Silvestro

    2016-01-23

    Exoskeletons for lower and upper extremities have been introduced in neurorehabilitation because they can guide the patient's limb following its anatomy, covering many degrees of freedom and most of its natural workspace, and allowing the control of the articular joints. The aims of this study were to evaluate the possible use of a novel exoskeleton, the Arm Light Exoskeleton (ALEx), for robot-aided neurorehabilitation and to investigate the effects of some rehabilitative strategies adopted in robot-assisted training. We studied movement execution and muscle activities of 16 upper limb muscles in six healthy subjects, focusing on end-effector and joint kinematics, muscle synergies, and spinal maps. The subjects performed three dimensional point-to-point reaching movements, without and with the exoskeleton in different assistive modalities and control strategies. The results showed that ALEx supported the upper limb in all modalities and control strategies: it reduced the muscular activity of the shoulder's abductors and it increased the activity of the elbow flexors. The different assistive modalities favored kinematics and muscle coordination similar to natural movements, but the muscle activity during the movements assisted by the exoskeleton was reduced with respect to the movements actively performed by the subjects. Moreover, natural trajectories recorded from the movements actively performed by the subjects seemed to promote an activity of muscles and spinal circuitries more similar to the natural one. The preliminary analysis on healthy subjects supported the use of ALEx for post-stroke upper limb robotic assisted rehabilitation, and it provided clues on the effects of different rehabilitative strategies on movement and muscle coordination.

  5. Influence of Pyranose and Spacer Arm Structures on Phloem Mobility and Insecticidal Activity of New Tralopyril Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Lei, Zhi Wei; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Wen; Liu, Hui Fang; Zhou, Yu Feng; Yang, Mao Fa

    2017-06-25

    Six new conjugates were designed and synthesized by introducing glucose, methyl glucuronate or glucuronic acid moieties on tralopyril. Phytotoxicity and phloem mobility results demonstrated that the introduction of glucose, methyl glucuronate or glucuronic acid moieties can simultaneously solve the tough phytotoxicity problem and phloem mobility transformation of tralopyril. Conjugates 12 and 18 containing the glucuronic acid moiety exhibited higher phloem mobility than conjugates 9, 11, 15 and 17. Conjugates 15, 17 and 18 with methoxymethyl groups on the tralopyril pyrrole nitrogen atom showed activity against Plutella xylostella, while conjugates 9, 11 and 12 with a methene group on the pyrrole N showed no activity. Cabbage roots were incubated in a buffered solution containing conjugates 15, 17 and 18 at 4 mM for 72 h. Only 18 showed systemic insecticidal activity with 100% mortalityagainst P. xylostella, while 15 and 17 showed lower activity andchlorfenapyr showed no activity. The glucuronic acid promoiety imparted more phloem mobility to tralopyril than glucose and methyl glucuronate. The methoxymethyl group bond on the tralopyril skeleton was the key factor in determining the insecticidal activity of the conjugates. A promising systemic proinsecticide containing glucuronic acid and tralopyril moieties was proposed.

  6. Quantifying the CDK inhibitor VMY-1-103's activity and tissue levels in an in vivo tumor model by LC-MS/MS and by MRI.

    PubMed

    Sirajuddin, Paul; Das, Sudeep; Ringer, Lymor; Rodriguez, Olga C; Sivakumar, Angiela; Lee, Yi-Chien; Üren, Aykut; Fricke, Stanley T; Rood, Brian; Ozcan, Alpay; Wang, Sean S; Karam, Sana; Yenugonda, Venkata; Salinas, Patricia; Petricoin, Emanuel; Pishvaian, Michael; Lisanti, Michael P; Wang, Yue; Schlegel, Richard; Moasser, Bahram; Albanese, Chris

    2012-10-15

    The development of new small molecule-based therapeutic drugs requires accurate quantification of drug bioavailability, biological activity and treatment efficacy. Rapidly measuring these endpoints is often hampered by the lack of efficient assay platforms with high sensitivity and specificity. Using an in vivo model system, we report a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay to quantify the bioavailability of a recently developed novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor VMY-1-103, a purvalanol B-based analog whose biological activity is enhanced via dansylation. We developed a rapid organic phase extraction technique and validated wide and functional VMY-1-103 distribution in various mouse tissues, consistent with its enhanced potency previously observed in a variety of human cancer cell lines. More importantly, in vivo MRI and single voxel proton MR-Spectroscopy further established that VMY-1-103 inhibited disease progression and affected key metabolites in a mouse model of hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma.

  7. Quantifying Habitual Levels of Physical Activity According to Impact in Older People: Accelerometry Protocol for the VIBE Study

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin C.; Hannam, Kimberly; Coulson, Jessica; Ireland, Alex; McPhee, Jamie S.; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H.; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayers, Adrian; Lipperts, Matthijs; Grimm, Bernd; Tobias, Jon H.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5–1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0–1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals. PMID:26372670

  8. Arm swing in human walking: what is their drive?

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Marije; Jonkers, Ilse; van Dieen, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-06-01

    Although previous research has studied arm swing during walking, to date, it remains unclear what the contribution of passive dynamics versus active muscle control to arm swing is. In this study, we measured arm swing kinematics with 3D-motion analysis. We used a musculoskeletal model in OpenSim and generated dynamic simulations of walking with and without upper limb muscle excitations. We then compared arm swing amplitude and relative phase during both simulations to verify the extent to which passive dynamics contribute to arm swing. The results confirm that passive dynamics are partly responsible for arm swing during walking. However, without muscle activity, passive swing amplitude and relative phase decrease significantly (both p<0.05), the latter inducing a more in-phase swing pattern of the arms. Therefore, we conclude that muscle activity is needed to increase arm swing amplitude and modify relative phase during human walking to obtain an out-phase movement relative to the legs.

  9. Selective Activation of Shoulder, Trunk, and Arm Muscles: A Comparative Analysis of Different Push-Up Variants

    PubMed Central

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola; Moro, Tatiana; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Context The push-up is a widely used exercise for upper limb strengthening that can be performed with many variants. A comprehensive analysis of muscle activation during the ascendant phase (AP) and descendant phase (DP) in different variants could be useful for trainers and rehabilitators. Objective To obtain information on the effect of different push-up variants on the electromyography (EMG) of a large sample of upper limb muscles and to investigate the role of the trunk and abdomen muscles during the AP and DP. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Eight healthy, young volunteers without a history of upper extremity or spine injury. Intervention(s) Participants performed a set of 10 repetitions for each push-up variant: standard, wide, narrow, forward (FP), and backward (BP). Surface EMG of 12 selected muscles and kinematics data were synchronously recorded to describe the AP and DP. Main Outcome Measure(s) Mean EMG activity of the following muscles was analyzed: serratus anterior, deltoideus anterior, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis, triceps brachii caput longus, triceps brachii caput lateralis, obliquus externus abdominis, pectoralis major sternal head, pectoralis major clavicular head, trapezius transversalis, and biceps brachii. Results The triceps brachii and pectoralis major exhibited greater activation during the narrow-base variant. The highest activation of abdomen and back muscles was recorded for the FP and BP variants. The DP demonstrated the least electrical activity across all muscles, with less marked differences for the abdominal and erector spinae muscles because of their role as stabilizers. Conclusions Based on these findings, we suggest the narrow-base variant to emphasize triceps and pectoralis activity and the BP variant for total upper body strength conditioning. The FP and BP variants should be implemented carefully in participants with low back pain because of the

  10. Selective Activation of Shoulder, Trunk, and Arm Muscles: A Comparative Analysis of Different Push-Up Variants.

    PubMed

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola; Moro, Tatiana; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    The push-up is a widely used exercise for upper limb strengthening that can be performed with many variants. A comprehensive analysis of muscle activation during the ascendant phase (AP) and descendant phase (DP) in different variants could be useful for trainers and rehabilitators. To obtain information on the effect of different push-up variants on the electromyography (EMG) of a large sample of upper limb muscles and to investigate the role of the trunk and abdomen muscles during the AP and DP. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Eight healthy, young volunteers without a history of upper extremity or spine injury. Participants performed a set of 10 repetitions for each push-up variant: standard, wide, narrow, forward (FP), and backward (BP). Surface EMG of 12 selected muscles and kinematics data were synchronously recorded to describe the AP and DP. Mean EMG activity of the following muscles was analyzed: serratus anterior, deltoideus anterior, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis, triceps brachii caput longus, triceps brachii caput lateralis, obliquus externus abdominis, pectoralis major sternal head, pectoralis major clavicular head, trapezius transversalis, and biceps brachii. The triceps brachii and pectoralis major exhibited greater activation during the narrow-base variant. The highest activation of abdomen and back muscles was recorded for the FP and BP variants. The DP demonstrated the least electrical activity across all muscles, with less marked differences for the abdominal and erector spinae muscles because of their role as stabilizers. Based on these findings, we suggest the narrow-base variant to emphasize triceps and pectoralis activity and the BP variant for total upper body strength conditioning. The FP and BP variants should be implemented carefully in participants with low back pain because of the greater activation of abdominal and back muscles.

  11. Variability in spatio-temporal pattern of trapezius activity and coordination of hand-arm muscles during a sustained repetitive dynamic task.

    PubMed

    Samani, Afshin; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg's CR-10 scale. We collected high-density surface electromyogram (HD-EMG) over the upper trapezius, as well as bipolar EMG from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius from 21 healthy women. Root-mean-square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MNF) were calculated for all EMG signals. The barycenter of RMS values over the HD-EMG grid was also determined, as well as normalized mutual information (NMI) for each pair of muscles. Cycle-to-cycle variability of these metrics was also assessed. With time, EMG RMS increased for most of the muscles, and MNF decreased. Trapezius activity became higher on the lateral side than on the medial side of the HD-EMG grid and the barycenter moved in a lateral direction. NMI between muscle pairs increased with time while its variability decreased. The variability of the metrics during the initial 10 % of task performance was not associated with the time to task termination. Our results suggest that the considerable variability in force and posture contained in the dynamic task per se masks any possible effects of differences between subjects in initial motor variability on the rate of fatigue development.

  12. The XBP1 Arm of the Unfolded Protein Response Induces Fibrogenic Activity in Hepatic Stellate Cells Through Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rosa S.; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Goossens, Nicolas; Tsuchida, Takuma; Athwal, Varinder; Sun, Xiaochen; Robinson, Christopher L.; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Chou, Hsin-I; Zhang, David Y.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Lee, Youngmin; Hoshida, Yujin; Friedman, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) both promote activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), however the link between the two stimuli remains unclear. Here we have explored the role of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), one of three UPR effector pathways and sought to establish the interdependence between autophagy and the UPR during HSC activation. XBP1 induction accompanied both culture-based HSC activation and ER stress induced by tunicamycin. Ectopic overexpression of XBP1 induced collagen 1-alpha expression in HSCs, which was inhibited by knockdown of ATG7, a critical autophagy mediator. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling indicated an upregulation of collagen synthesis pathways, but not of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-b pathway, a canonical fibrogenic driver, suggesting that XBP1 activates a specific subset of fibrogenesis pathways independent of TGF-β1. XBP1 target gene signatures were significantly induced in rodent liver fibrosis models (n = 3–5) and in human samples of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 72–135). Thus, XBP1-mediated UPR contributes to fibrogenic HSC activation and is functionally linked to cellular autophagy. PMID:27996033

  13. The arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, M.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive examination of the nature of the contemporary arms race, the forces that encourage arms competition, and the means by which these forces can be controlled. The author provides analyses of such specific issues as the viability of arms control agreements; the possibilities for nuclear disarmament; the means of deterrence, detection, and defense; and the methods of destruction themselves - nuclear, conventional, chemical, and space weapons.

  14. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-85-065 16 December 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS French...34U.S.-USSR Geneva Talks" for "European Conferences". JPRS-TAO85-065 16 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS FRENCH PRIME MINISTER DISCUSSES SDI...imbalances in conventional weapons can really be discussed. As far as space is concerned, we want to avoid the emergence of weapons which are highly

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-31

    113198 JPRS-TAC-86-0 1 2 31 January 1986 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL W806Q2 155 FBIS WK QUALTTF BTSPSüfED 9 FOREIGN BROADCAST...JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books , but also from news agency transmissions and...JPRS-TAC-86-012 31 January 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL SDI AND SPACE ARMS Soviet Journal Warns Europe on SDI ’Trojan Horse’ (L, Korzun

  16. Quantifying disease activity in fatty-infiltrated skeletal muscle by IDEAL-CPMG in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mankodi, Ami; Bishop, Courtney A.; Auh, Sungyoung; Newbould, Rexford D.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Janiczek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the use of iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (IDEAL-CPMG) to simultaneously measure skeletal muscle apparent fat fraction (AFF) and water T2 (T2,w) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Materials and Methods In twenty healthy volunteer (HV) boys and thirteen subjects with DMD, thigh muscle AFF was measured by Dixon and IDEAL-CPMG, with the IDEAL-CPMG also providing T2,w as a measure of muscle inflammatory activity. A subset of subjects with DMD was followed up during a 48-week clinical study. The study was in compliance with the Patient Privacy Act and approved by the Institutional Review Board. Results AFF in the thigh muscles of subjects with DMD was significantly increased compared to HV boys (p < 0.001). Dixon and IDEAL-CPMG AFF strongly correlated (r = 0.92) and were in good agreement. Muscle T2,w measured by IDEAL-CPMG was independent of changes in AFF. Muscle T2,w was higher in the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles of subjects with DMD (p < 0.05). There was a strong correlation (p < 0.004) between AFF in all thigh muscles and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in subjects with DMD. Conclusions IDEAL-CPMG allowed independent and simultaneous quantification of skeletal muscle fatty degeneration and disease activity in DMD. IDEAL-CPMG AFF and T2,w may be useful as biomarkers in clinical trials of DMD as the technique disentangles two competing biological processes. PMID:27593185

  17. Quantifiable analysis of cellular pathway inhibition of a Nedd8-activating enzyme inhibitor, MLN4924, using AlphaScreen.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhong-Hua; Burkhardt, Anne; Loke, Huay-Keng; Chen, Jesse; Xu, Qing; Brauer, Pam; Ma, Jingya; Lin, Yafang; Garcia, Khris; Dick, Lawrence R; Bembenek, Michael E

    2013-08-15

    Cellular effects of a Nedd8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, MLN4924, using the AlphaScreen format were explored. MLN4924 acts as a substrate-assisted inhibitor of NAE by forming a tight binding Nedd8-MLN4924 adduct. The inhibited enzyme can no longer transfer Nedd8 downstream to modify and activate the E3 cullin-RING ligases. This results in the stabilization of proteins regulated by the proteasome, leading to cell death. These studies monitored the endogenous cellular changes to NAE∼Nedd8 thioester, the formation of the Nedd8-MLN4924 adduct, and the reduction in the Cul1-Nedd8. Lysates derived from MLN4924-treated HCT116 cells showed that whereas the β-subunit of NAE remained constant, reductions of both NAE∼Nedd8 thioester and Cul1-Nedd8 levels occurred with a concomitant rise of the adduct. Moreover, the formation of the Nedd8-MLN4924 adduct was approximately stoichiometric with the concentration of NAEβ. Higher density 384-well cell-based assays illustrated the kinetics of enzyme inactivation across a wider range of MLN4924 concentrations, showing a rapid loss of NAE∼Nedd8 thioester and Cul1-Nedd8. The reduction of NAE∼Nedd8 thioester precedes the loss of Cul1-Nedd8 at twice the rate. Finally, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of the homogeneous assay for quantitative assessment of these endogenous cellular components in a 384-well plate in response to inhibition of NAE by MLN4924.

  18. Arm-Hand Usage in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives 1) To quantify arm-hand usage of older adults without a disability and to determine the effect of hand dominance, gender and day on hand usage, 2) to determine the factors that predict arm-hand usage. This information will enhance the understanding of the client’s extent of occupational performance. Methods Twenty men and 20 women, 65–85 years old, wore 3 accelerometers (wrists and hip) for 7 consecutive days. Manual dexterity and grip strength were assessed. A 3–way factorial ANOVA and multiple linear regressions were conducted. Results The activity kilocounts from both wrist accelerometers revealed a significant interaction effect between hand and gender (F(1,190)=24.4, p<.001). Enhanced manual dexterity of the right hand was associated with greater right hand usage. Conclusion Arm-hand usage is a novel dimension of hand function which can be used to measure the extent of real-life occupational performance when the client is in his/her home. PMID:21218678

  19. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sowle, D.

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  20. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  1. A new method to quantify and reduce projection error in whole-solar-active-region parameters measured from vector magnetograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Khazanov, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Projection error limits the use of vector magnetograms of active regions (ARs) far from disk center. For ARs observed up to 60o from disk center, we demonstrate a method of measuring and reducing the projection error in the magnitude of any whole-AR parameter derived from a vector magnetogram that has been deprojected to disk center. The method assumes that the center-to-limb curve of the average of the parameter’s absolute values measured from the disk passage of a large number of ARs and normalized to each AR’s absolute value of the parameter at central meridian, gives the average fractional projection error at each radial distance from disk center. To demonstrate the method, we use a large set of large-flux ARs and apply the method to a whole-AR parameter that is among the simplest to measure: whole-AR magnetic flux. We measure 30,845 SDO/HMI vector magnetograms covering the disk passage of 272 large-flux ARs, each having whole-AR flux >1022 Mx. We obtain the center-to-limb radial-distance run of the average projection error in measured whole-AR flux from a Chebyshev fit to the radial-distance plot of the 30,845 normalized measured values. The average projection error in the measured whole-AR flux of an AR at a given radial distance is removed by multiplying the measured flux by the correction factor given by the fit. The correction is important for both the study of evolution of ARs and for improving the accuracy of forecasting an AR’s major flare/CME productivity. We will also show corrections for other whole-AR parameters, especially AR free-energy proxies.

  2. Update: Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2011-June 2016.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Francis L; Taubman, Stephen B

    2016-10-01

    From July 2015 through June 2016, a total of 447 members of the active (n=383) and reserve (n=64) components had at least one medical encounter with a primary diagnosis of cold injury. The numbers of affected individuals in both components were the lowest since the 2011-2012 cold season, when the total was 394. In the active component, the service-specific incidence rates for each of the four services were lower than the respective rates for the previous (2014-2015) cold season. Frostbite was the most common type of cold injury. During the five cold seasons in the surveillance period (2011-2016), rates tended to be higher among service members who were in the youngest age groups; female; black, non-Hispanic; or in the Army. The numbers of cold injuries associated with service in Iraq and Afghanistan have fallen precipitously in the past four cold seasons and included just 11 cases in the most recent year.

  3. Active women before/after an intervention designed to restore menstrual function: resting metabolic rate and comparison of four methods to quantify energy expenditure and energy availability.

    PubMed

    Guebels, Charlotte P; Kam, Lynn C; Maddalozzo, Gianni F; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-02-01

    It is hypothesized that exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) results from low energy availability (EA), defined as energy intake (EI)--exercise energy expenditure (EEE). When EI is too low, resting metabolic rate (RMR) may be reduced to conserve energy. To measure changes in RMR and EA, using four methods to quantify EEE, before/after a 6-month diet intervention aimed at restoring menses in women with ExMD; eumenorrheic (Eumen) active controls (n = 9) were also measured. Active women with ExMD (n = 8) consumed +360 kcal/d (supplement) for 6 months; RMR was measured 2 times at 0 months/6 months. EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) were estimated using 7-day diet/activity records, with EA assessed using four methods to quantify EEE. At baseline, groups did not differ for age, gynecological age, body weight, lean/fat mass, VO₂max, EI and EA, but mean TEE was higher in ExMD (58.3 ± 4.4 kcal/ kgFFM/d; Eumen = 50.6 ± 2.4; p < .001) and energy balance (EB) more negative (-10.3 ± 6.9 kcal/kgFFM/d; Eumen=-3.0 ± 9.7; p = .049). RMR was higher in ExMD (31.3 ± 1.8 kcal/kgFFM/d) vs. Eumen (29.1 ± 1.9; p < .02). The intervention increased weight (1.6 ± 2.0 kg; p = .029), but there were no significant changes in EA (0-month range = 28.2-36.7 kcal/kgFFM/d; 6-month range = 30.0-45.4; p > .05), EB (6 months = -0.7 ± 15.1 kcal/kgFFM/d) or RMR (0 months = 1515 ± 142; 6 months = 1522 ± 134 kcal/d). Assessment of EA varied dramatically (~30%) by method used. For the ExMD group, EI and weight increased with +360 kcal/d for 6 months, but there were no significant changes in EB, EA or RMR. No threshold EA value was associated with ExMD. Future research should include TEE, EB and clearly quantifying EEE (e.g.,>4 MET) if EA is measured.

  4. A new algorithm quantifies the roles of wind and midge flight activity in the bluetongue epizootic in northwest Europe.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Luigi; Brown, Heidi E; Purse, Bethan V; Burgin, Laura; Gloster, John; Rogers, David J

    2012-06-22

    The 2006 bluetongue (BT) outbreak in northwestern Europe had devastating effects on cattle and sheep in that intensively farmed area. The role of wind in disease spread, through its effect on Culicoides dispersal, is still uncertain, and remains unquantified. We examine here the relationship between farm-level infection dates and wind speed and direction within the framework of a novel model involving both mechanistic and stochastic steps. We consider wind as both a carrier of host semio-chemicals, to which midges might respond by upwind flight, and as a transporter of the midges themselves, in a more or less downwind direction. For completeness, we also consider midge movement independent of wind and various combinations of upwind, downwind and random movements. Using stochastic simulation, we are able to explain infection onset at 94 per cent of the 2025 affected farms. We conclude that 54 per cent of outbreaks occurred through (presumably midge) movement of infections over distances of no more than 5 km, 92 per cent over distances of no more than 31 km and only 2 per cent over any greater distances. The modal value for all infections combined is less than 1 km. Our analysis suggests that previous claims for a higher frequency of long-distance infections are unfounded. We suggest that many apparent long-distance infections resulted from sequences of shorter-range infections; a 'stepping stone' effect. Our analysis also found that downwind movement (the only sort so far considered in explanations of BT epidemics) is responsible for only 39 per cent of all infections, and highlights the effective contribution to disease spread of upwind midge movement, which accounted for 38 per cent of all infections. The importance of midge flight speed is also investigated. Within the same model framework, lower midge active flight speed (of 0.13 rather than 0.5 m s(-1)) reduced virtually to zero the role of upwind movement, mainly because modelled wind speeds in the area

  5. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  6. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-02

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  7. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C-H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Romo, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Natural products have a venerable history of, and enduring potential for the discovery of useful biological activity. To fully exploit this, the development of chemical methodology that can functionalize unique sites within these complex structures is highly desirable. Here, we describe the use of rhodium(II)-catalysed C-H amination reactions developed by Du Bois to carry out simultaneous structure-activity relationship studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products at 'unfunctionalized' positions. Allylic and benzylic C-H bonds in the natural products undergo amination while olefins undergo aziridination, and tertiary amine-containing natural products are converted to amidines by a C-H amination-oxidation sequence or to hydrazine sulfamate zwitterions by an unusual N-amination. The alkynylated derivatives are ready for conversion into cellular probes that can be used for mechanism-of-action studies. Chemo- and site-selectivity was studied with a diverse library of natural products. For one of these-the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate-quantitative proteome profiling led to the identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, suggesting a polypharmacological mode of action.

  8. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C-H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Natural products have a venerable history of, and enduring potential for the discovery of useful biological activity. To fully exploit this, the development of chemical methodology that can functionalize unique sites within these complex structures is highly desirable. Here, we describe the use of rhodium(II)-catalysed C-H amination reactions developed by Du Bois to carry out simultaneous structure-activity relationship studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions. Allylic and benzylic C-H bonds in the natural products undergo amination while olefins undergo aziridination, and tertiary amine-containing natural products are converted to amidines by a C-H amination-oxidation sequence or to hydrazine sulfamate zwitterions by an unusual N-amination. The alkynylated derivatives are ready for conversion into cellular probes that can be used for mechanism-of-action studies. Chemo- and site-selectivity was studied with a diverse library of natural products. For one of these—the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate—quantitative proteome profiling led to the identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, suggesting a polypharmacological mode of action.

  9. Characterizing the relationship between tick bites and Lyme disease in active component U.S. Armed Forces in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Carlo; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Rohrbeck, Patricia; Olsen, Cara; DeFraites, Robert F

    2015-03-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is the most commonly diagnosed vector-borne illness in the U.S. Analysis of ticks that are removed from patients (rather than collected from the environment) may inform LD surveillance. In this ecological study, LD rates among active component U.S. Armed Forces in the eastern U.S. were compared with tick data from the U.S. Army Public Health Command Human Tick Test Kit Program (HTTKP) covering the same geographic region. In the population of service members in the study sample, mean annual LD incidence was 52.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI±; 7.6 per 100,000) between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012. A 10% increase in the rate of ticks submitted to the HTTKP corresponded to an increase in LD incidence of 5.7% (p<0.01). Where Borrelia burgdorferi infection of Ixodes scapularis ticks was high (20% or greater tick infection prevalence), tick removal rates explained 53.7% of the annual variation in LD incidence (p=0.01). These data support using location-specific rates of ticks removed while feeding on active component service members to complement LD surveillance.

  10. Associations of work activities requiring pinch or hand grip or exposure to hand-arm vibration with finger and wrist osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Paula E C; Shiri, Rahman; Kryger, Ann I; Kirkeskov, Lilli; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2014-03-01

    We systematically reviewed the epidemiologic evidence linking finger and wrist osteoarthritis (OA) with work activities requiring pinch or hand grip or exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV). PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to June 2013. We selected studies assessing the associations of radiographic diagnosed finger and/or wrist joint OA with work activities involving pinch or hand grip or exposure to HAV. We used specific criteria to evaluate completeness of reporting, potential confounding, and bias. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were computed using random-effects meta-analyses. Of the 19 studies included, 17 were cross-sectional, 1 was a prospective cohort, and 1 a case-control study. The meta-analyses of studies that controlled their estimates for at least age and gender showed the associations of pinch grip work with proximal interphalangeal joint [OR 1.56, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.09-2.23] and the first carpometacarpal joint OA (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.06-4.17), but not with distal interphalangeal, metacarpalphalangeal, or wrist joints OA. Hand grip work and exposure to HAV were not associated with any finger or wrist OA. Epidemiological studies provide limited evidence that pinch grip may increase the risk of wrist or finger OA, but causal relation cannot be resolved because of cross-sectional designs and inadequate characterization of biomechanical strain to the hand and wrist.

  11. Activation of heat shock response to treat obese subjects with type 2 diabetes: a prospective, frequency-escalating, randomized, open-label, triple-arm trial

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Tatsuya; Goto, Rieko; Ono, Kaoru; Kitano, Sayaka; Suico, Mary Ann; Sato, Miki; Igata, Motoyuki; Kawashima, Junji; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Kai, Hirofumi; Araki, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Activation of heat shock response (HSR) improves accumulated visceral adiposity and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. To identify the optimal intervention strategy of the activation of the HSR provided by mild electrical stimulation (MES) with heat shock (HS) in type 2 diabetes. This study was a prospective, frequency-escalating, randomized, open-label, triple-arm trial in Japan. A total of 60 obese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized into three groups receiving two, four, or seven treatments per week for 12 weeks. No adverse events were identified. MES + HS treatment (when all three groups were combined), significantly improved visceral adiposity, glycemic control, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, renal function, hepatic steatosis and lipid profile compared to baseline. The reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater among those treated four times per week (−0.36%) or seven times per week (−0.65%) than among those treated two times per week (−0.10%). The relative HbA1c levels in seven times per week group was significantly decreased when adjusted by two times per week group (−0.55%. p = 0.001). This research provides the positive impact of MES + HS to treat obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27759092

  12. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast Guard...

  13. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  14. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  15. Cortical activation and inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence in individuals with arm dystonia due to childhood stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kukke, Sahana N.; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Damiano, Diane; Alter, Katharine E.; Patronas, Nicholas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dystonia is a disabling motor disorder often without effective therapies. To better understand the genesis of dystonia after childhood stroke, we analyzed electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in this population. Methods Resting spectral power of EEG signals over bilateral sensorimotor cortices (Powrest), resting inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence (Cohrest), and task-related changes in power (TRPow) and coherence (TRCoh) during wrist extension were analyzed in individuals with dystonia (age 20±3 years) and healthy volunteers (age 17±5 years). Results Ipsilesional TRPow decrease was significantly lower in patients than controls during the more affected wrist task. Force deficits of the affected wrist correlated with reduced alpha TRPow decrease on the ipsilesional and not the contralesional hemisphere. Cohrest was significantly lower in patients than controls, and correlated with more severe dystonia and poorer hand function. Powrest and TRCoh were similar between groups. Conclusions The association between weakness and cortical activation during wrist extension highlights the importance of ipsilesional sensorimotor activation on function. Reduction of Cohrest in patients reflects a loss of inter-hemispheric connectivity that may result from structural changes and neuroplasticity, potentially contributing to the development of dystonia. Significance Cortical and motor dysfunction are correlated in patients with childhood stroke and may in part explain the genesis of dystonia. PMID:25499610

  16. Update: cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2009-June 2014.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ricardford R

    2014-10-01

    From July 2013 through June 2014, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=719) was the highest of the past five cold seasons (2009-2014). The rate of cold injury among active component personnel was also the highest of the 5-year period. Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries. Frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in each of the services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, younger than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Numbers of cases in the combat zone have decreased in the past 2 years, presumably as a result of declining numbers of personnel exposed and the changing nature of operations. The increase in numbers and the geographic distribution of cold injuries in the previous cold season are compatible with the unusual pattern of cold weather that marked Winter 2013-2014.

  17. Summary of mental disorder hospitalizations, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    Mental disorders are the leading cause of hospital bed days and the second leading cause of medical encounters for active component service members in the U.S. military. Mental disorder-related hospitalizations among military members have increased in both number and duration since 2006; mental disorders are the only illness/injury category for which hospitalization rates have markedly increased during the first 11 years of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Between 2000 and 2012, 159,107 active component service members experienced 192,317 mental disorder hospitalizations. There were approximately 87 percent more mental disorder-related hospitalizations in 2011 (n=21,646) than in 2000 (n=11,604); in 2012, this number declined slightly (n=21,360). The overall increase since 2006 was largely due to sharp increases in hospitalizations for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, alcohol abuse and dependence, and adjustment disorder (% increases in hospitalizations, 2006-2012: PTSD: 192%; depression: 66%; alcohol abuse and dependence: 110%; adjustment disorders: 52%). Similar rates of increase occured among members of the reserve component. The percentage of mental disorder hospitalization records with a second (concurrent) mental disorder diagnosis increased during the surveillance period; more than half of all service members hospitalized for a mental disorder have a second mental disorder diagnosis documented during the same hospitalization.

  18. The Application of High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (HRGS) to Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Walter R.; Lemley, James R.; Forman, Leon

    1997-12-31

    While well-developed methodologies exist for the employment of high- resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) in determining the isotopic composition of plutonium samples, the potential capabilities of such measurements in determining the properties of nuclear materials otherwise remain largely unexploited. These measurements contain information sufficiently detailed such that not only can the isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium materials be determined, but the details of the spectrum obtained will depend reproducibly upon other factors including the total mass, density, chemical composition, and geometrical configuration of the material, and for certain materials, the elapsed time since chemical processing. The potential thus exists to obtain a `gamma-ray fingerprint` for typical containers or assemblies of nuclear material which will then serve to identify that class of item in a later confirmatory measurement. These measurements have the additional advantage that, by comparison with active interrogation techniques which usually require the introduction of some extraneous form of radiation or other intrusive activity, they are totally passive, and thus impose only minimal additional safety or regulatory burdens on the operators. In the application of these measurements to the verification of treaty-limited items, where the information acquired may be sensitive in nature, the use of the CIVET (Controlled Intrusiveness Verification Technique) approach, where a computer-based interface is employed to limit access to the information obtained, may be followed.

  19. Biomarkers, imaging and disease activity indices in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis: the Italian arm of the SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early (SPACE) Study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzin, M; Ortolan, A; Vio, S; Favero, M; Oliviero, F; Zaninotto, M; Cosma, C; Lacognata, C; Punzi, L; Ramonda, R

    2017-08-03

    The study aimed to evaluate biomarkers facilitating early diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and correlations between them and disease activity parameters and imaging indexes. Patients with low back pain (LBP) (≥3 months, ≤2 years, onset ≤45 years) participating in the Italian arm of the SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early SPACE study underwent a physical examination, questionnaires, laboratory tests, X-rays and MRI of the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJ). An expert rheumatologist formulated axSpA diagnosis in accordance with Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria. Disease activity and physical functioning were assessed using imaging, clinical and serological indices. Spine and SIJ MRI and X-rays were scored independently by 2 readers using the SPARCC, mSASSS and NY-criteria. Patients were classified as: subjects with signs of radiographic sacroiliitis (r-axSpA), subjects with signs of sacroiliitis on SIJ-MRI but not on X-rays (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ+) or subjects with no signs of sacroiliitis on MRI/X-rays but with >2 SpA features and signs of bone oedema on MRI spine (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ-/undifferentiated SpA). Significant differences were found in the prevalence of radiographic sacroiliitis, active sacroiliitis on MRI and SPARCC SIJ scores. Biomarker levels were not significantly increased in any of the patient groups. The correlations between IL-17 and IL-23 and other indices were not significant; correlations were found between IL-22 and BASFI, BASG1, HAQ, VAS pain, between mSASSS and MMP3, and between the latter and hsCRP. Although not significantly higher in any of the three groups, IL-22, MMP3 and hsCRP values were correlated with some disease activity indexes and with mSASSS. Large observational studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

  20. Targeting RING domains of Mdm2-MdmX E3 complex activates apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Xu, C; Ling, X; Fan, C; Buckley, B P; Chernov, M V; Ellis, L; Li, F; Muñoz, I G; Wang, X

    2015-12-31

    Reactivation of tumor-suppressor p53 for targeted cancer therapy is an attractive strategy for cancers bearing wild-type (WT) p53. Targeting the Mdm2-p53 interface or MdmX ((MDM4), mouse double minute 4)-p53 interface or both has been a focus in the field. However, targeting the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2-MdmX really interesting new gene (RING)-RING interaction as a novel anticancer strategy has never been explored. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors targeting Mdm2-MdmX RING-RING interaction as a new class of E3 ligase inhibitors. With a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based E3 activity assay in high-throughput screening of a chemical library, we identified inhibitors (designated as MMRis (Mdm2-MdmX RING domain inhibitors)) that specifically inhibit Mdm2-MdmX E3 ligase activity toward Mdm2 and p53 substrates. MMRi6 and its analog MMRi64 are capable of disrupting Mdm2-MdmX interactions in vitro and activating p53 in cells. In leukemia cells, MMRi64 potently induces downregulation of Mdm2 and MdmX. In contrast to Nutlin3a, MMRi64 only induces the expression of pro-apoptotic gene PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) with minimal induction of growth-arresting gene p21. Consequently, MMRi64 selectively induces the apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells. Owing to the distinct mechanisms of action of MMRi64 and Nutlin3a, their combination synergistically induces p53 and apoptosis. Taken together, this study reveals that Mdm2-MdmX has a critical role in apoptotic response of the p53 pathway and MMRi64 may serve as a new pharmacological tool for p53 studies and a platform for cancer drug development.

  1. A method to quantify and analyze the foraging activity of honey bees: relevance to the sublethal effects induced by systemic insecticides.

    PubMed

    Colin, M E; Bonmatin, J M; Moineau, I; Gaimon, C; Brun, S; Vermandere, J P

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of agropharmaceuticals' side effects requires more realistic simulations of field conditions than those deduced from the dose-lethality relation obtained under laboratory conditions. Because the presence of sublethal doses or concentrations may also alter the behavior of foraging insects, we attempted to devise a quantifiable and accurate protocol for evidencing various alterations in free-flying bees. Such a protocol was illustrated by testing new classes of systemic insecticides. The protocol focused on video recording to quantify the foraging activity of small colonies of honey bees confined in insect-proof tunnels. The basis of the protocol was not the colony itself but the change in each colony on a specific day and between days. First, the paradigms of attendance at a safe feeding source were established by observing 8 control colonies at different times of the season during 5 days after the necessary forager training was accomplished. Second, on three different colonies we considered the paradigms on the control day before contamination and during 4 days after the feeding source was contaminated. During the same period, one more colony was exclusively fed with safe food to serve as control. Two plant-systemic insecticides were tested at contamination levels 70 times lower than the 50% of the lethal concentration. Imidacloprid, at 6 microg/kg, clearly induced a decrease in the proportion of active bees. Fipronil, at 2 microg/kg, induced an additional decrease in attendance at the feeder. Such levels are still higher than the corresponding lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC). Our protocol, which provided intermediate conditions between field and laboratory conditions, allowed the quantification, with an enhanced level of sensitivity, of sublethal effects on foraging bees.

  2. Update: Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2007-June 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    From July 2011 through June 2012, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=499) was lower than the number in each of the four previous one year periods. Over the last five years, frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in all the Services except for the Marine Corps, in which hypothermia was slightly more frequent. Service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Army personnel accounted for the majority of cold injuries. Service members who train in and deploy to areas with wet and freezing conditions - and their supervisors at all levels - should be able to recognize the signs of cold injury and should know and implement the standard countermeasures against the threat of cold injury.

  3. The how and why of arm swing during human walking.

    PubMed

    Meyns, Pieter; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Duysens, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    Humans walk bipedally, and thus, it is unclear why they swing their arms. In this paper, we will review the mechanisms and functions of arm swinging in human gait. First, we discuss the potential advantages of having swinging arms. Second, we go into the detail on the debate whether arm swing is arising actively or passively, where we will conclude that while a large part of arm swinging is mechanically passive, there is an active contribution of muscles (i.e. an activity that is not merely caused by stretch reflexes). Third, we describe the possible function of the active muscular contribution to arm swinging in normal gait, and discuss the possibility that a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) generates this activity. Fourth, we discuss examples from pathological cases, in which arm swinging is affected. Moreover, using the ideas presented, we suggest ways in which arm swing may be used as a therapeutic aid. We conclude that (1) arm swing should be seen as an integral part of human bipedal gait, arising mostly from passive movements, which are stabilized by active muscle control, which mostly originates from locomotor circuits in the central nervous system (2) arm swinging during normal bipedal gait most likely serves to reduce energy expenditure and (3) arm swinging may be of therapeutic value.

  4. Dynamic arm supports: overview and categorization of dynamic arm supports for people with decreased arm function.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Loek A; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P

    2013-06-01

    In the 1940s the wish for independent feeding in polio survivors has led to the development of the first dynamic arm supports. By now polio is eradicated, but persons with difficulty to perform activities of daily living due to a limited arm function still exist. Many devices aiming to support these persons have been developed in the past 70 years. A review making an inventory of devices developed was performed in scientific literature databases, conference proceedings, assistive technology databases and by consultation of experts. A total of 97 devices were found, and three main categories were recognized: the non-actuated devices (N=39), the passively-actuated devices (N=24) and the actively-actuated devices (N=34). Of the 97 devices encountered 43 devices were commercially available in October 2012, the lowest percentage found in the actively-actuated devices. This means that the more advanced systems are not (yet) available for users. The continuous efforts in developing new devices suggest there is potential for actively activated arm supports. Developing these into products ready for the market would be a first step in fulfilling this potential.

  5. Pain-Related Brain Activity Evoked by Active and Dynamic Arm Movement: Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness as a Promising Model for Studying Movement-Related Pain in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Kan, Shigeyuki; Uematsu, Hironobu; Shibata, Masahiko; Fujino, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a suitable model for the study of movement-evoked pain, we attempted to identify brain regions specifically involved in pain evoked by active and dynamic movement under DOMS condition. Subject Twelve healthy volunteers Methods DOMS was induced in the left upper-arm flexor muscles by an eccentric elbow contraction exercise. Movement-evoked pain in the affected muscles was evaluated just before (day 0) and after (days 1–7 and 30) the exercise using a visual analog scale. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans while performing repeated elbow flexion on day 2 (DOMS condition) and day 30 (painless condition). We compared brain activity between the DOMS and painless conditions. Results Movement-evoked pain reached peak intensity on day 2 and disappeared by day 30 in all subjects. No subject felt pain at rest on either of these days. Contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), parietal operculum and bilateral presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) showed greater activity during active and dynamic arm movement with DOMS than during the same movement without pain. There was no difference in activation of brain regions known collectively as the “pain matrix,” except for the parietal operculum, between the two conditions. Conclusion Active and dynamic movement with pain selectively evoked activation of M1, pre-SMA, and parietal operculum, as assessed using DOMS. Our results demonstrate that DOMS is a promising experimental model for the study of movement-evoked pain in humans. PMID:25929675

  6. Use of complementary health approaches at military treatment facilities, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Williams, Valerie F; Clark, Leslie L; McNellis, Mark G

    2016-07-01

    Survey-based research has demonstrated the increasing use and acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in general and military populations. This report summarizes the use of three CAM procedures (chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, and biofeedback) among active component service members from 2010 through 2015. Findings document a marked increase in the use of chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation and acupuncture procedures since 2010. The majority of the 240 military installations in this analysis provided chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation; more than three-quarters provided acupuncture; and approximately one-third provided biofeedback procedures. "Other and unspecified disorders of the back" was the most frequent condition for which chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation and acupuncture were used. "Non-allopathic lesions not elsewhere classified" was the second most frequent diagnosis during chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation-related visits. The second and third most frequent diagnoses during acupuncture-related visits were "acute and chronic pain" and "adjustment reaction," respectively. "Adjustment reaction" was the second most frequent diagnosis associated with biofeedback. Continued research is needed to gain a better understanding of why military personnel are using CAM and the role these procedures play in their health care.

  7. Update: Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2010-June 2015.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sumitha

    2015-10-01

    From July 2014 through June 2015, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=603) was much lower than the 719 cases diagnosed during the previous, unusually cold winter of 2013- 2014. Army personnel accounted for the majority (51%) of cold injuries. Frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in each of the services except the Marine Corps for which immersion foot was unusually common. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, younger than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Numbers of cases in the combat zone have decreased in the past 3 years, most likely the result of declining numbers of personnel exposed and the changing nature of operations. It is important that awareness, policies, and procedures continue to be emphasized to reduce the toll of cold injuries among U.S. service members.

  8. Two-Armed Activation of Bone Mineral Deposition by the Flavones Baicalin and Baicalein, Encapsulated in Polyphosphate Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Yue-Wei; Tolba, Emad; Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2017-04-02

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the two flavonoids, baicalin (baicalein 7-O-β-d-glucuronic acid) and its aglycone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), after encapsulation into amorphous calcium polyphosphate (Ca-polyP) microparticles on mineralization of primary human osteoblasts (phOSB). Both flavonoids, which come from root extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and are nontoxic in cells up to a concentration of 3[Formula: see text]μg/ml. The morphogenetically active, energy-rich Ca-polyP particles with a stoichiometric P:Ca ratio of 1:2 are degraded by cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to ortho-phosphate used for bone hydroxyapatite formation. Here we show that the flavone-loaded Ca-polyP microparticles are readily taken up by phOSB, resulting in the accumulation of polyP around the nuclei and the formation of intracellular vesicles containing the ALP. In addition, we demonstrate that baicalin/baicalein causes a rise of the intracellular calcium [Ca[Formula: see text

  9. Post-refractive surgery complications and eye disease, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Jason B; Hunt, Devin J; Cost, Angelia A

    2016-05-01

    Refractive surgery (RS) is a common procedure in the U.S. military population. This report provides an estimation of incident RS for vision correction purposes in the active component of the U.S. military from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014 and the prevalence of post-RS complications and eye disease in the 1-year period after RS. During the surveillance period, a total of 121,571 subjects without a diagnosis of eye disease other than hyperopia, myopia, or astigmatism in the previous year received a single incident RS procedure. In the 1-year period after RS, 5.3% of subjects with preoperative hyperopia or myopia had treatment-persistent (unresolved) hyperopia or myopia; 2.0% of subjects with preoperative astigmatism had treatment-persistent (unresolved) astigmatism; and 3.8% were diagnosed with tear film insufficiency. In general, most outcomes showed higher prevalences in Army and Air Force personnel versus Navy and Marine Corps personnel, in women versus men, in officer versus enlisted personnel, and in aviation and Special Forces personnel. A wide variation in outcome prevalences was noted by procedural military treatment facility.

  10. A novel method to quantify the activity of alcohol acetyltransferase Using a SnO2-based sensor of electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongqiu; Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Huxuan; Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2016-07-15

    Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATFase) extensively catalyzes the reactions of alcohols to acetic esters in microorganisms and plants. In this work, a novel method has been proposed to quantify the activity of AATFase using a SnO2-based sensor of electronic nose, which was determined on the basis of its higher sensitivity to the reducing alcohol than the oxidizing ester. The maximum value of the first-derivative of the signals from the SnO2-based sensor was therein found to be an eigenvalue of isoamyl alcohol concentration. Quadratic polynomial regression perfectly fitted the correlation between the eigenvalue and the isoamyl alcohol concentration. The method was used to determine the AATFase activity in this type of reaction by calculating the conversion rate of isoamyl alcohol. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the AATFase activity of a cider yeast strain. Compared with GC-MS, the method shows promises with ideal recovery and low cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a sensitive in vitro assay to quantify the biological activity of pro-inflammatory phorbol esters in Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Padhi, Bhaja K; Hawari, Jalal; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Poon, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    New health safety concerns may arise from the increasing production and use of Jatropha oil, a biodiesel feedstock that also contains toxic, pro-inflammatory, and co-carcinogenic phorbol esters. Based on the exceptional sensitivity of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to the model phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a robust bioassay was developed to quantify the biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters directly in oil, without sample extraction. We first verified that the characteristic response of MDCK cells to TPA was also observed following direct exposure to phorbol esters in Jatropha oil. We further confirmed that similarly to TPA, Jatropha oil's phorbol esters can activate protein kinase C (PKC). We then assessed the transcriptional response of MDCK cells to Jatropha oil exposure by measuring the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a gene involved in inflammatory processes which is strongly upregulated following PKC activation. Based on the parameterization of a TPA dose-response curve, the transcriptional response of MDCK cells to Jatropha oil exposure was expressed in term of TPA toxic equivalent (TEQ), a convenient metric to report the inflammatory potential of complex mixtures. The sensitive bioassay described in this manuscript may prove useful for risk assessment, as it provides a quantitative method and a convenient metric to report the inflammatory potential of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil. This bioassay may also be adapted for the detection of bioactive phorbol esters in other matrices.

  12. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C–H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Congying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To fully exploit the inherent and enduring potential of natural products for fundamental cell biology and drug lead discovery, synthetic methods for functionalizing unique sites are highly desirable. Here we describe a strategy for the derivatization of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions via Rh(II)-catalyzed amination enabling simultaneous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products. Employing Du Bois C–H amination, allylic and benzylic C–H bonds underwent amination and olefins underwent aziridination. With tertiary amine-containing natural products, amidines were produced via C–H amination/oxidation and unusual N-aminations provided hydrazine sulfamate inner salts. The alkynylated derivatives are readied for subsequent conjugation to access cellular probes for mechanism of action studies. Both chemo- and site-selectivity was studied by application to a diverse set of natural products including the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate (EPA). Quantitative proteome profiling with an alkynyl EPA derivative obtained by site-selective, allylic C–H amination led to identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, including several known to be associated with cancer proliferation, suggestive of a polypharmacological mode of action for EPA. PMID:23695633

  13. Durations of military service after diagnoses of HIV-1 infections among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces, 1990-2013.

    PubMed

    Brundage, John F; Hunt, Devin J; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-08-01

    This report describes the trends in length of military service for active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces who were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections during 1990-2013. Durations of service after service members' initial diagnoses of HIV-1 infection were compared for five different cohorts that corresponded to when diagnoses were made during the 5-year intervals beginning in 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005, and the 4-year interval of 2010-2013. By several measures, the durations of service after initial diagnoses of HIV-1 infection increased from the earliest to the later cohorts. The findings are discussed in the context of changes in several factors during the surveillance period: the growing availability and effectiveness of treatments for HIV-1 disease; the stigmas associated with the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and its link to homosexuality; and the changes in U.S. military policy about the inclusion of homosexuals in its ranks. Also discussed are the limitations of the estimates for the most recent cohorts and the future prospects for continued lengthening of service for those infected with HIV-1.

  14. The influence of handrail predictability on compensatory arm reactions in response to a loss of balance.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Tyler B; Tokuno, Craig D

    2013-06-01

    The current study examined whether compensatory arm reactions are influenced by the participant's knowledge of the handrail location prior to losing their balance. Thirteen young adults stood on a motor driven platform that could translate in the forward or backward directions. A handrail was positioned in a location that was either predictable (i.e., always on the participant's right) or unpredictable (i.e., on either the participant's right or left) to the participant. Unpredictability of the handrail location was ensured by using liquid crystal goggles to occlude the participant's vision until the onset of each translation. In response to each surface translation, participants were instructed to reach for and grasp the handrail as fast as possible. EMG activity from the posterior and anterior deltoids of the left and right arms as well as kinematic data of the wrist were recorded to quantify the resulting arm responses. It was found that in response to a loss of balance, participants activated the reaching arm 7 ms earlier (p = 0.020) and with a 21-30% greater amplitude (p = 0.010-0.029) during the predictable compared to unpredictable handrail condition. The earlier and larger EMG activity resulted in a 19% earlier initiation of arm movement (p = 0.016) and a 24% earlier handrail contact (p = 0.002) when the handrail was in a predictable compared to unpredictable location. These findings indicate that when a handrail is predictably located, individuals will pre-select their upcoming compensatory arm reactions prior to losing their balance and may be more effective in re-gaining stability.

  15. Dual redundant arm system operational quality measures and their applications - Dynamic measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1990-01-01

    Dual-arm dynamic operation quality measures are presented which quantify the efficiency and capability of generating Cartesian accelerations by two cooperative arms based on the analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions. Dual-arm dynamic manipulability is defined as the efficiency of generating Cartesian accelerations under the dynamic and kinematic interactions between individual arms and an object under manipulation. The analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions is based on the so-called Cartesian space agent model of an arm, which represents an individual arm as a force source acting upon a point mass with the effective Cartesian space arm dynamics and an environment or an object under manipulation. The Cartesian space agent model of an arm makes it possible to derive the dynamic and kinematic constraints involved in the transport, assembly and grasping modes of dual-arm cooperation. A task-oriented operational quality measure, (TOQd) is defined by evaluating dual-arm dynamic manipulability in terms of given task requirements. TOQd is used in dual-arm joint configuration optimization. Simulation results are shown. A complete set of forward dynamic equations for a dual-arm system is derived, and dual-arm dynamic operational quality measures for various modes of dual-arm cooperation allowing sliding contacts are established.

  16. Dual redundant arm system operational quality measures and their applications - Dynamic measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1990-01-01

    Dual-arm dynamic operation quality measures are presented which quantify the efficiency and capability of generating Cartesian accelerations by two cooperative arms based on the analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions. Dual-arm dynamic manipulability is defined as the efficiency of generating Cartesian accelerations under the dynamic and kinematic interactions between individual arms and an object under manipulation. The analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions is based on the so-called Cartesian space agent model of an arm, which represents an individual arm as a force source acting upon a point mass with the effective Cartesian space arm dynamics and an environment or an object under manipulation. The Cartesian space agent model of an arm makes it possible to derive the dynamic and kinematic constraints involved in the transport, assembly and grasping modes of dual-arm cooperation. A task-oriented operational quality measure, (TOQd) is defined by evaluating dual-arm dynamic manipulability in terms of given task requirements. TOQd is used in dual-arm joint configuration optimization. Simulation results are shown. A complete set of forward dynamic equations for a dual-arm system is derived, and dual-arm dynamic operational quality measures for various modes of dual-arm cooperation allowing sliding contacts are established.

  17. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  18. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2016-01-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>−1.5 m d−1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ∼0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8–9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  19. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>-1.5 m d-1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ˜0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8-9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  20. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  1. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-06

    0000813 JPRS-TAC-85-060 6 December 1985 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL JLppre’wd for p’ifeiJc r-siaas®; i £» 2To C3gBo< 19980728 093...VA. 22161 5 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books , but also from news agency...Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-85-060 6 December 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Mid-November Soviet Comment on

  2. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  3. A fuzzy-genetic model for estimating forces from electromyographical activity of antagonistic muscles due to planar lower arm movements: the effect of nonlinear muscle properties.

    PubMed

    Nowshiravan Rahatabad, Fereidoun; Jafari, Amir Homayoun; Fallah, Ali; Razjouyan, Javad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a model for mapping the surface electromyogram (EMG) signals to the force that generated by human arm muscles. Because the parameters of each person's muscle are individual, the model of the muscle must have two characteristics: (1) The model must be adjustable for each subject. (2) The relationship between the input and output of model must be affected by the force-length and the force-velocity behaviors are proven through Hill's experiments. Hill's model is a kinematic mechanistic model with three elements, i.e. one contractile component and two nonlinear spring elements. In this research, fuzzy systems are applied to improve the muscle model. The advantages of using fuzzy system are as follows: they are robust to noise, they prove an adjustable nonlinear mapping, and are able to model the uncertainties of the muscle. Three fuzzy coefficients have been added to the relationships of force-length (active and passive) and force-velocity existing in Hill's model. Then, a genetic algorithm (GA) has been used as a biological search method that can adjust the parameters of the model in order to achieve the optimal possible fit. Finally, the accuracy of the fuzzy genetic implementation Hill-based muscle model (FGIHM) is invested as following: the FGIHM results have 12.4% RMS error (in worse case) in comparison to the experimental data recorded from three healthy male subjects. Moreover, the FGIHM active force-length relationship which is the key characteristics of muscles has been compared to virtual muscle (VM) and Zajac muscle model. The sensitivity of the FGIHM has been evaluated by adding a white noise with zero mean to the input and FGIHM has proved to have lower sensitivity to input noise than the traditional Hill's muscle model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibacterial, DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of pendant-armed polyamine macrocyclic dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthi, P.; Haleel, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-08-01

    A series of dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes (1-6) of hexaaza macrocycles of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with three different benzoyl pendant-arms, 2,2‧-benzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L), 2,2‧-4-nitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L‧) and 2,2‧-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L″) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral methods. The electrochemical studies of these complexes depict two irreversible one electron reduction processes around E1pc = -0.62 to -0.76 V and E2pc = -1.21 to -1.31, and nickel(II) complexes (1-3) exhibit two irreversible one electron oxidation processes around E1pa = 1.08 to 1.14 V and E2pa = 1.71 to 1.74 V. The room temperature magnetic moment values (μeff, 1.52-1.54 BM) indicate the presence of an antiferromagnetic interaction in the binuclear copper(II) complexes (4-6) which is also observed from the broad ESR spectra with a g value of 2.14-2.15. The synthesized complexes (1-6) were screened for their antibacterial activity. The results of DNA interaction studies indicate that the dinuclear complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode and display efficient cleavage of plasmid DNA. Further, the cytotoxic activity of complexes 2, 5 and 6 on human liver adenocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line has been examined. Nuclear-chromatin cleavage has also been observed with PI staining and comet assays.

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving capacity in activities and arm function after stroke: a network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Bernhard; Kwakkel, Gert; Kugler, Joachim; Mehrholz, Jan

    2017-09-13

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging approach for improving capacity in activities of daily living (ADL) and upper limb function after stroke. However, it remains unclear what type of tDCS stimulation is most effective. Our aim was to give an overview of the evidence network regarding the efficacy and safety of tDCS and to estimate the effectiveness of the different stimulation types. We performed a systematic review of randomised trials using network meta-analysis (NMA), searching the following databases until 5 July 2016: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, and four other databases. We included studies with adult people with stroke. We compared any kind of active tDCS (anodal, cathodal, or dual, that is applying anodal and cathodal tDCS concurrently) regarding improvement of our primary outcome of ADL capacity, versus control, after stroke. CRD42016042055. We included 26 studies with 754 participants. Our NMA showed evidence of an effect of cathodal tDCS in improving our primary outcome, that of ADL capacity (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.42; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.70). tDCS did not improve our secondary outcome, that of arm function, measured by the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity assessment (FM-UE). There was no difference in safety between tDCS and its control interventions, measured by the number of dropouts and adverse events. Comparing different forms of tDCS shows that cathodal tDCS is the most promising treatment option to improve ADL capacity in people with stroke.

  6. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  7. Accuracy of neutron self-activation method with iodine-containing scintillators for quantifying 128I generation using decay-fitting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Wakabayashi, Genichiro

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a self-activation method with iodine-containing scintillators in quantifying 128I generation in an activation detector; the self-activation method was recently proposed for photo-neutron on-line measurements around X-ray radiotherapy machines. Here, we consider the accuracy of determining the initial count rate R0, observed just after termination of neutron irradiation of the activation detector. The value R0 is directly related to the amount of activity generated by incident neutrons; the detection efficiency of radiation emitted from the activity should be taken into account for such an evaluation. Decay curves of 128I activity were numerically simulated by a computer program for various conditions including different initial count rates (R0) and background rates (RB), as well as counting statistical fluctuations. The data points sampled at minute intervals and integrated over the same period were fit by a non-linear least-squares fitting routine to obtain the value R0 as a fitting parameter with an associated uncertainty. The corresponding background rate RB was simultaneously calculated in the same fitting routine. Identical data sets were also evaluated by a well-known integration algorithm used for conventional activation methods and the results were compared with those of the proposed fitting method. When we fixed RB = 500 cpm, the relative uncertainty σR0 /R0 ≤ 0.02 was achieved for R0/RB ≥ 20 with 20 data points from 1 min to 20 min following the termination of neutron irradiation used in the fitting; σR0 /R0 ≤ 0.01 was achieved for R0/RB ≥ 50 with the same data points. Reasonable relative uncertainties to evaluate initial count rates were reached by the decay-fitting method using practically realistic sampling numbers. These results clarified the theoretical limits of the fitting method. The integration method was found to be potentially vulnerable to short-term variations in background levels, especially

  8. Measuring and managing radiologist workload: a method for quantifying radiologist activities and calculating the full-time equivalents required to operate a service.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Sharyn L S; Cowan, Ian A; Floyd, Richard A; Graham, Rob

    2013-10-01

    Accurate and transparent measurement and monitoring of radiologist workload is highly desirable for management of daily workflow in a radiology department, and for informing decisions on department staffing needs. It offers the potential for benchmarking between departments and assessing future national workforce and training requirements. We describe a technique for quantifying, with minimum subjectivity, all the work carried out by radiologists in a tertiary department. Six broad categories of clinical activities contributing to radiologist workload were identified: reporting, procedures, trainee supervision, clinical conferences and teaching, informal case discussions, and administration related to referral forms. Time required for reporting was measured using data from the radiology information system. Other activities were measured by observation and timing by observers, and based on these results and extensive consultation, the time requirements and frequency of each activity was agreed on. An activity list was created to record this information and to calculate the total clinical hours required to meet the demand for radiologist services. Diagnostic reporting accounted for approximately 35% of radiologist clinical time; procedures, 23%; trainee supervision, 15%; conferences and tutorials, 14%; informal case discussions, 10%; and referral-related administration, 3%. The derived data have been proven reliable for workload planning over the past 3 years. A transparent and robust method of measuring radiologists' workload has been developed, with subjective assessments kept to a minimum. The technique has value for daily workload and longer term planning. It could be adapted for widespread use. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  9. Generating and predicting high quality action plans to facilitate physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption: results from an experimental arm of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reinwand, Dominique Alexandra; Crutzen, Rik; Storm, Vera; Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; de Vries, Hein; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-04-12

    In order to improve the transition from an intention to a change in health behaviour, action planning is a frequently used behavioural change method. The quality of action plans in terms of instrumentality and specificity is important in terms of supporting a successful change in health behaviour. Until now, little has been known about the predictors of action plan generation and the predictors of high quality action plans and, therefore, the current study investigates these predictors. A randomised controlled trial was conducted to improve physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption using a web-based computer tailored intervention. During the 8-week intervention period, participants in the intervention arm (n = 346) were guided (step-by-step) to generate their own action plans to improve their health behaviours. Demographic characteristics, social cognitions, and health behaviour were assessed at baseline by means of self-reporting. Whether participants generated action plans was tracked by means of server registrations within two modules of the intervention. The action planning component of the intervention regarding physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption was used by 40.9 and 20.7 % of the participants, respectively. We found that participants who were physically active at baseline were less likely to generate action plans concerning physical activity. With regards to generating fruit and vegetable action plans, participants with a high risk perception and a strong intention to eat fruit and vegetables on a daily basis made more use of the action planning component for this behaviour. Finally, the large majority of the action plans for physical activity (96.6 %) and fruit and vegetable consumption (100 %) were instrumental and about half of the action plans were found to be highly specific (PA = 69.6 %/FV = 59.7 %). The specificity of the action plans is associated with having a relationship and low levels of

  10. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  11. Look at my Arms!

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-25

    This image shows the hidden spiral arms that were discovered around the galaxy called NGC 4625 top by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer. An armless companion galaxy called NGC 4618 is pictured below.

  12. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-15

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

  13. An elastica arm scale

    PubMed Central

    Bosi, F.; Misseroni, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Bigoni, D.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a ‘deformable arm scale’ (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  14. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    past 23 years, Senate President Jovito Salonga said yesterday. In an interview on government television, Salonga said the presence of nuclear arms...date and place not given] [Excerpts] The Bulgarian Government recently announced that it will reduce its armed forces by 10,000 soldiers, 200 tanks...unambiguous and does not leave any room for any kind of speculation, not even in Bonn’s government statement. Corresponding to the GDR’s peace

  15. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-25

    Jordanian Border [Jerusalem TV 30 Mar] .................................. 16 Italian Role in Missile Project Denied [Rome ANSA 31 Mar] 16 Spokesman: Trigger...Corporation of South Africa]. cross country speeds. [end recording] JPRS-TAC-90-012 2 CHINA 25 April 1990 Zhou Peiyuan Meets Disarmament Seminar U.S., USSR...camouflaged "arms buildup" program intended to [" Queer Arms Cut"-KCNA headline] improve the "quality and capacity" of the U.S. combatunits present in South

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ABM (Moscow TASS, 9, 10 Nov 85) 5 .U.S. ’New Interpretation’ 5 U.S. Posture Unchanged 5 PRAVDA 27 Oct Review of Week’s International Events...Space Arms Race (Beijing XINHUA, 8 Nov 85) ........................... 34 Briefs Senators Hit ABM Change 35 CSSR Representative Addresses UN...SDI AND SPACE ARMS TASS REPORTS NITZE NOVEMBER REMARKS ON SDI, ABM U.S. ’New Interpretation’ LD901421 Moscow TASS in English 1334 GMT 9 Nov 85

  17. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  18. Quantifying Isoniazid Levels in Small Hair Samples: A Novel Method for Assessing Adherence during the Treatment of Latent and Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gerona, Roy; Wen, Anita; Chin, Aaron T.; Koss, Catherine A.; Bacchetti, Peter; Metcalfe, John; Gandhi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from an infectious pathogen worldwide and the most prevalent opportunistic infection in people living with HIV. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the incidence of active TB and reduces morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients independently of antiretroviral therapy. However, treatment of latent or active TB is lengthy and inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetics and adherence common. Current methods of assessing adherence to TB treatment using drug levels in plasma or urine assess short-term exposure and pose logistical challenges. Drug concentrations in hair assess long-term exposure and have demonstrated pharmacodynamic relevance in HIV. Methods A large hair sample from a patient with active TB was obtained for assay development. Methods to pulverize hair and extract isoniazid were optimized and then the drug detected by liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity and stability to establish the assay’s suitability for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Hair samples from patients on directly-observe isoniazid-based latent or active TB therapy from the San Francisco Department of Public Health TB clinic were then tested. Results Our LC/MS-MS-based assay detected isoniazid in quantities as low as 0.02ng/mg using 10–25 strands hair. Concentrations in spiked samples demonstrated linearity from 0.05–50ng/mg. Assay precision and accuracy for spiked quality-control samples were high, with an overall recovery rate of 79.5%. In 18 patients with latent or active TB on treatment, isoniazid was detected across a wide linear dynamic range. Conclusions An LC-MS/MS-based assay to quantify isoniazid levels in hair with performance characteristics suitable for TDM was developed and validated. Hair concentrations of isoniazid assess long-term exposure and may be useful for monitoring adherence to

  19. Simultaneous arming and structure/activity studies of natural products employing O-H insertions: an expedient and versatile strategy for natural products-based chemical genetics.

    PubMed

    Peddibhotla, Satyamaheshwar; Dang, Yongjun; Liu, Jun O; Romo, Daniel

    2007-10-10

    The identification of "druggable" targets is an immediate opportunity and challenge in the post-genomic era. Natural products are enduring tools for basic cellular studies and leads for identifying medically relevant protein targets. However, their use for these studies is often hampered by limited quantities and a lack of selective and mild monofunctionalization reactions. The development of selective methods that could simultaneously equip the natural product with a reactive group for subsequent conjugation to reporter tags and provide important structure-activity relationship (SAR) information, requiring only a knowledge of functional groups present in the natural product, could significantly decrease the time between bioactive natural product isolation and target identification. Herein, we report such a strategy that enables simultaneous arming and SAR studies of alcohol-containing natural products involving both chemo- and site-selective ("chemosite" selective) and site-nonselective O-H insertion reactions with rhodium carbenoids derived from alkynyl diazo acetates. This strategy was applied to a diverse set of natural products, and general guidelines for predicting chemosite selectivity were formulated. A subsequent Sharpless-Hüisgen [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction with the appended alkyne allows for attachment of a variety of reporter tags. Using this strategy, we synthesized a novel FK506-biotin conjugate that enabled pull-down of the entire "immunosuppressive complex" including FKBP12, calcineurins A and B, and calmodulin. In addition, the potential for a chemoselective but site-nonselective process was shown with both gibberellic acid methyl ester and brefeldin A using only achiral rhodium catalysts.

  20. Acid-labile pHPMA modification of four-arm oligoaminoamide pDNA polyplexes balances shielding and gene transfer activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Linda; Kostka, Libor; Kessel, Eva; Krhac Levacic, Ana; Kostkova, Hana; Etrych, Tomas; Lächelt, Ulrich; Wagner, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    We report novel pH-reversibly surface-shielded polyplexes with enhanced gene transfer activity upon systemic administration. A four-arm-structured sequence-defined cationic oligomer KK[HK[(H-Sph-K)3HC]2]2 was designed and synthesized on solid-phase, containing additional lysine residues not only for improved pDNA polyplex stability, but also providing attachment points for subsequent polyplex functionalization with amine-reactive shielding polymers. Herein, the surface of polyplexes was shielded with hydrophilic polymers, monovalent PEG or monovalent and multivalent pHPMA, optionally attached to the polyplex via the acid-labile linker AzMMMan. Overall, surface modification with PEG or pHPMA resulted in a decrease in the zeta potential of polyplexes, consistent with the degree of surface shielding. At pH 6.0, only polyplexes modified via the acid-labile linkage showed an increase in zeta potential, consistent with a "deshielding" in acidic environment, expected as beneficial for endosomal escape. Shielding was more efficient for multivalent pHPMA (20kDa, 30kDa) as compared to monovalent pHPMA (10kDa, 20kDa, 30kDa) or PEG (5kDa). In vitro transfection studies revealed higher gene expression by the polyplexes with the acid-labile shield as compared to their irreversibly shielded counterparts. Intravenous administration of AzMMMan-pHPMA modified polyplexes in an in vivo tumor mouse model mediated enhanced gene expression in the subcutaneous tumor and reduced undesirable expression in the liver.

  1. Integrated evaluation of HPLC and UV fingerprints for the quality control of Danshen tablet by systematic quantified fingerprint method combined with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-03-20

    Danshen tablet, which consists of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Borneolum syntheticum, has been widely used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive evaluation methods for the quality control of Danshen tablet. First, five-wavelength fusion fingerprint was established to avoid one-sidedness of a single wavelength. Then, the ultraviolet spectrum fingerprint was applied to reflect the information of unsaturated bond and conjugated system of chemical substances in Danshen tablet. The similarity analyses of these two fingerprints were performed by systematic quantified fingerprint method in terms of qualitative and quantitative aspects. After that, the evaluation results of high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet fingerprints were integrated by the mean algorithm, which could reduce the error caused by single method. The integrated evaluation results showed that 30 batches of samples were classified into seven grades. Finally, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship was established using an on-line antioxidant system and partial least squares model to explore the connection between chemical components and antioxidant activities. The methods established in this paper had proven to be suitable for the analysis of Danshen tablet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Diesel Emissions Quantifier (DEQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    .The Diesel Emissions Quantifier (Quantifier) is an interactive tool to estimate emission reductions and cost effectiveness. Publications EPA-420-F-13-008a (420f13008a), EPA-420-B-10-035 (420b10023), EPA-420-B-10-034 (420b10034)

  3. A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, E; Sisterson, DL

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is observationally based, and quantifying the uncertainty of its measurements is critically important. With over 300 widely differing instruments providing over 2,500 datastreams, concise expression of measurement uncertainty is quite challenging. The ARM Facility currently provides data and supporting metadata (information about the data or data quality) to its users through a number of sources. Because the continued success of the ARM Facility depends on the known quality of its measurements, the Facility relies on instrument mentors and the ARM Data Quality Office (DQO) to ensure, assess, and report measurement quality. Therefore, an easily-accessible, well-articulated estimate of ARM measurement uncertainty is needed.

  4. Quantify work load and muscle functional activation patterns in neck-shoulder muscles of female sewing machine operators using surface electromyogram.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei-Ruo; He, Li-Hua; Wu, Shan-Shan; Li, Jing-Yun; Ye, Kang-Pin; Wang, Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have high prevalence in sewing machine operators employed in the garment industry. Long work duration, sustained low level work and precise hand work are the main risk factors of neck-shoulder disorders for sewing machine operators. Surface electromyogram (sEMG) offers a valuable tool to determine muscle activity (internal exposure) and quantify muscular load (external exposure). During sustained and/or repetitive muscle contractions, typical changes of muscle fatigue in sEMG, as an increase in amplitude or a decrease as a shift in spectrum towards lower frequencies, can be observed. In this paper, we measured and quantified the muscle load and muscular activity patterns of neck-shoulder muscles in female sewing machine operators during sustained sewing machine operating tasks using sEMG. A total of 18 healthy women sewing machine operators volunteered to participate in this study. Before their daily sewing machine operating task, we measured the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and 20%MVC of bilateral cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT) respectively, then the sEMG signals of bilateral UT and CES were monitored and recorded continuously during 200 minutes of sustained sewing machine operating simultaneously which equals to 20 time windows with 10 minutes as one time window. After 200 minutes' work, we retest 20%MVC of four neck-shoulder muscles and recorded the sEMG signals. Linear analysis, including amplitude probability distribution frequency (APDF), amplitude analysis parameters such as roof mean square (RMS) and spectrum analysis parameter as median frequency (MF), were used to calculate and indicate muscle load and muscular activity of bilateral CES and UT. During 200 minutes of sewing machine operating, the median load for the left cervical erector spinae (LCES), right cervical erector spinae (RCES), left upper trapezius (LUT) and right upper trapezius (RUT) were 6.78%MVE, 6.94%MVE, 6

  5. Incident diagnoses of cancers in the active component and cancer-related deaths in the active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terrence; Williams, Valerie F; Clark, Leslie L

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S., surpassed only by heart disease. It is estimated that approximately one of every four deaths in the U.S. is due to cancer. Between 2005 and 2014 among active component service members in the U.S. military, crude incidence rates of most cancer diagnoses have remained relatively stable. During this period, 8,973 active component members were diagnosed with at least one of the cancers of interest and no specific increasing or decreasing trends were evident. Cancers accounted for 1,054 deaths of service members on active duty during the 10-year surveillance period; this included 727 service members in the active component and 327 in the reserve component.

  6. Application of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in detecting and quantifying forest loss caused by artisanal gold mining activities in Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengisteab, B. S.; Blesius, L.; Hennessy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal gold mining in Guyana is mostly done in forest covered areas, causing forest loss and land degradation. Data from the Guyana Geology and Mining commission show there has been an increase of 2074% between 1986 and 2009. Our analysis of Landsat data between 1986 and 2013 for a part of the Upper Mazaruni area shows an increase from 34.2 to 278.4 hectares, which amounts to more than 800%. While the frequent coverage of Landsat data is useful for multitemporal studies, the lower resolution may not be adequate for accurate detection of mining sites. Therefore, RapidEye imagery from 2011 at a resolution of 5m was used to detect gold mining activity and to compare the results with the Landsat study. Processing was conducted in eCognition, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) software. OBIA is an image processing technique that has proven to be advantageous over traditional pixel based image processing techniques, with the primary advantage being the ability of the approach in combining both the spatial and spectral information. The satellite image was subjected to segmentation at multiple scales and classified using fuzzy sets of membership functions. Classification explicitly incorporated the different scales in order to accommodate different sizes of real-world objects and spatial relationships were utilized to establish connections between related objects. For example the presence or absence of water in pits, or the existence of sediments in the river may serve as additional indicators of mining sites besides the spectral components. Preliminary results show that OBIA approach was able to successfully detect and quantify small scale mining activities in the basin, and that the Landsat data were giving an acceptable estimate of mining sites over time. Keywords:Object Based Image Analysis, Gold Mining, Remote Sensing, Guyana

  7. A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, E; Sisterson, Douglas

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is observationally based, and quantifying the uncertainty of its measurements is critically important. With over 300 widely differing instruments providing over 2,500 datastreams, concise expression of measurement uncertainty is quite challenging. The ARM Facility currently provides data and supporting metadata (information about the data or data quality) to its users through a number of sources. Because the continued success of the ARM Facility depends on the known quality of its measurements, the Facility relies on instrument mentors and the ARM Data Quality Office (DQO) to ensure, assess, and report measurement quality. Therefore, an easily accessible, well-articulated estimate of ARM measurement uncertainty is needed. Note that some of the instrument observations require mathematical algorithms (retrievals) to convert a measured engineering variable into a useful geophysical measurement. While those types of retrieval measurements are identified, this study does not address particular methods for retrieval uncertainty. As well, the ARM Facility also provides engineered data products, or value-added products (VAPs), based on multiple instrument measurements. This study does not include uncertainty estimates for those data products. We propose here that a total measurement uncertainty should be calculated as a function of the instrument uncertainty (calibration factors), the field uncertainty (environmental factors), and the retrieval uncertainty (algorithm factors). The study will not expand on methods for computing these uncertainties. Instead, it will focus on the practical identification, characterization, and inventory of the measurement uncertainties already available in the ARM community through the ARM instrument mentors and their ARM instrument handbooks. As a result, this study will address the first steps towards reporting ARM measurement uncertainty

  8. Armed conflict and child health.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  9. Quantifying T Lymphocyte Turnover

    PubMed Central

    De Boer, Rob J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral T cell populations are maintained by production of naive T cells in the thymus, clonal expansion of activated cells, cellular self-renewal (or homeostatic proliferation), and density dependent cell life spans. A variety of experimental techniques have been employed to quantify the relative contributions of these processes. In modern studies lymphocytes are typically labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU), deuterium, or the fluorescent dye carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), their division history has been studied by monitoring telomere shortening and the dilution of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) or the dye CFSE, and clonal expansion has been documented by recording changes in the population densities of antigen specific cells. Proper interpretation of such data in terms of the underlying rates of T cell production, division, and death has proven to be notoriously difficult and involves mathematical modeling. We review the various models that have been developed for each of these techniques, discuss which models seem most appropriate for what type of data, reveal open problems that require better models, and pinpoint how the assumptions underlying a mathematical model may influence the interpretation of data. Elaborating various successful cases where modeling has delivered new insights in T cell population dynamics, this review provides quantitative estimates of several processes involved in the maintenance of naive and memory, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell pools in mice and men. PMID:23313150

  10. ARM-Led Improvements Aerosols in Climate and Climate Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.; Penner, Joyce E.

    2016-07-25

    The DOE ARM program has played a foundational role in efforts to quantify aerosol effects on climate, beginning with the early back-of-the-envelope estimates of direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate and biomass burning aerosol (Penner et al., 1994). In this chapter we review the role that ARM has played in subsequent detailed estimates based on physically-based representations of aerosols in climate models. The focus is on quantifying the direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosol on the planetary energy balance. Only recently have other DOE programs applied the aerosol modeling capability to simulate the climate response to the radiative forcing.

  11. Safety and activity of blinatumomab for adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Topp, Max S; Gökbuget, Nicola; Stein, Anthony S; Zugmaier, Gerhard; O'Brien, Susan; Bargou, Ralf C; Dombret, Hervé; Fielding, Adele K; Heffner, Leonard; Larson, Richard A; Neumann, Svenja; Foà, Robin; Litzow, Mark; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Schiller, Gary; Brüggemann, Monika; Horst, Heinz A; Holland, Chris; Jia, Catherine; Maniar, Tapan; Huber, Birgit; Nagorsen, Dirk; Forman, Stephen J; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2015-01-01

    Adults with relapsed or refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia have an unfavourable prognosis. Blinatumomab is a bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct targeting CD19, an antigen consistently expressed on B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. We aimed to confirm the activity and safety profile of blinatumomab for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In a multicentre, single-arm, open-label phase 2 study, we enrolled adult patients with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative, primary refractory or relapsed (first relapse within 12 months of first remission, relapse within 12 months after allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation [HSCT], or no response to or relapse after first salvage therapy or beyond) leukaemia. Patients received blinatumomab (9 μg/day for the first 7 days and 28 μg/day thereafter) by continuous intravenous infusion over 4 weeks every 6 weeks (up to five cycles), per protocol. The primary endpoint was complete remission (CR) or CR with partial haematological recovery of peripheral blood counts (CRh) within the first two cycles. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01466179. Between Jan 13, 2012, and Oct 10, 2013, 189 patients were enrolled and treated with blinatumomab. After two cycles, 81 (43%, 95% CI 36-50) patients had achieved a CR or CRh: 63 (33%) patients had a CR and 18 (10%) patients had a CRh. 32 (40%) of patients who achieved CR/CRh underwent subsequent allogeneic HSCT. The most frequent grade 3 or worse adverse events were febrile neutropenia (48 patients, 25%), neutropenia (30 patients, 16%), and anaemia (27 patients, 14%). Three (2%) patients had grade 3 cytokine release syndrome. Neurologic events of worst grade 3 or 4 occurred in 20 (11%) and four (2%) patients, respectively. Three deaths (due to sepsis, Escherichia coli sepsis, and Candida infection) were thought to be treatment-related by the investigators. Single-agent blinatumomab showed

  12. Quantifying economic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.; Gabaix, Xavier; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Plerou, Vasiliki

    2001-12-01

    This manuscript is a brief summary of a talk designed to address the question of whether two of the pillars of the field of phase transitions and critical phenomena-scale invariance and universality-can be useful in guiding research on interpreting empirical data on economic fluctuations. Using this conceptual framework as a guide, we empirically quantify the relation between trading activity-measured by the number of transactions N-and the price change G( t) for a given stock, over a time interval [ t, t+Δ t]. We relate the time-dependent standard deviation of price changes-volatility-to two microscopic quantities: the number of transactions N( t) in Δ t and the variance W2( t) of the price changes for all transactions in Δ t. We find that the long-ranged volatility correlations are largely due to those of N. We then argue that the tail-exponent of the distribution of N is insufficient to account for the tail-exponent of P{ G> x}. Since N and W display only weak inter-dependency, our results show that the fat tails of the distribution P{ G> x} arises from W. Finally, we review recent work on quantifying collective behavior among stocks by applying the conceptual framework of random matrix theory (RMT). RMT makes predictions for “universal” properties that do not depend on the interactions between the elements comprising the system, and deviations from RMT provide clues regarding system-specific properties. We compare the statistics of the cross-correlation matrix C-whose elements Cij are the correlation coefficients of price fluctuations of stock i and j-against a random matrix having the same symmetry properties. It is found that RMT methods can distinguish random and non-random parts of C. The non-random part of C which deviates from RMT results, provides information regarding genuine collective behavior among stocks. We also discuss results that are reminiscent of phase transitions in spin systems, where the divergent behavior of the response function at

  13. Arms Industry limited

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, H.

    1993-12-31

    The intent of this study is to give an overview of the present state of the world arms industry. It is an empirical account of the size of the industry and particularly its present problems. The authors examine the economic pressures that affect the international arms trade. Specifically, it raises the question of how dependent the industry is on weapons production and exports, and whether there are any alternatives. Export dependence of the major weapons producing countries is a major focus. The book focus`s on private industry as opposed to examination of national governments. Despite the passing of the Cold War and some brief post-Gulf War euphoria about the possibility of greater restrain on the part of weapons exporters, the conventional arms trade is alive and well, albeit with new variations.

  14. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-04

    GMT 4 Jan 87 LD] /9738 CSO: 5200/1128 11 U.S.«-USSR NUCLEAR AND SPACE ARMS TALKS GORBACHEV, REAGAN NEW YEAR MESSAGES ON DISARMAMENT Reagan to...Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 28 Dec 86 First Edition p 4 [Vitaliy Korionov "International Review"] [Excerpts] Only a few days remain until the New Year...105063 JPRS-TAC-87-OlO 4 FEBRUARY 1987 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL ’DUO QUALITY BFSPSSTEP * 19980515 022 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST■1NFORMAtlÖN

  17. Dual redundant arm system operational quality measures and their applications - Static measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1990-01-01

    The authors present dual-arm system static operational quality measures which quantify the efficiency and capability of a dual-arm system in generating Cartesian velocities and static forces. First, they define and analyze the kinematic interactions between the two arms incurred by the various modes of dual-arm cooperation, such as transport, assembly, and grasping modes of cooperation, and specify the kinematic constraints imposed on individual arms in Cartesian space due to the kinematic interactions. Dual-arm static manipulability is presented. Finally, dual-arm operational quality is scaled by a task-oriented operational quality measure (TOQs) obtained by the comparison between the desired and actual static manipulabilities. TOQs is used in the optimization of dual-arm joint configurations. Simulation results are shown.

  18. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

  19. Wireless quantified reflex device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoyne, Robert Charles

    The deep tendon reflex is a fundamental aspect of a neurological examination. The two major parameters of the tendon reflex are response and latency, which are presently evaluated qualitatively during a neurological examination. The reflex loop is capable of providing insight for the status and therapy response of both upper and lower motor neuron syndromes. Attempts have been made to ascertain reflex response and latency, however these systems are relatively complex, resource intensive, with issues of consistent and reliable accuracy. The solution presented is a wireless quantified reflex device using tandem three dimensional wireless accelerometers to obtain response based on acceleration waveform amplitude and latency derived from temporal acceleration waveform disparity. Three specific aims have been established for the proposed wireless quantified reflex device: 1. Demonstrate the wireless quantified reflex device is reliably capable of ascertaining quantified reflex response and latency using a quantified input. 2. Evaluate the precision of the device using an artificial reflex system. 3.Conduct a longitudinal study respective of subjects with healthy patellar tendon reflexes, using the wireless quantified reflex evaluation device to obtain quantified reflex response and latency. Aim 1 has led to the steady evolution of the wireless quantified reflex device from a singular two dimensional wireless accelerometer capable of measuring reflex response to a tandem three dimensional wireless accelerometer capable of reliably measuring reflex response and latency. The hypothesis for aim 1 is that a reflex quantification device can be established for reliably measuring reflex response and latency for the patellar tendon reflex, comprised of an integrated system of wireless three dimensional MEMS accelerometers. Aim 2 further emphasized the reliability of the wireless quantified reflex device by evaluating an artificial reflex system. The hypothesis for aim 2 is that

  20. Gene knockout using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) reveals that human NDUFA9 protein is essential for stabilizing the junction between membrane and matrix arms of complex I.

    PubMed

    Stroud, David A; Formosa, Luke E; Wijeyeratne, Xiaonan W; Nguyen, Thanh N; Ryan, Michael T

    2013-01-18

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) represent a promising approach for targeted knock-out of genes in cultured human cells. We used TALEN-technology to knock out the nuclear gene encoding NDUFA9, a subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I in HEK293T cells. Screening for the knock-out revealed a mixture of NDUFA9 cell clones that harbored partial deletions of the mitochondrial N-terminal targeting signal but were still capable of import. A cell line lacking functional copies of both NDUFA9 alleles resulted in a loss of NDUFA9 protein expression, impaired assembly of complex I, and cells incapable of growth in galactose medium. Cells lacking NDUFA9 contained a complex I subcomplex consisting of membrane arm subunits but not marker subunits of the matrix arm. Re-expression of NDUFA9 restored the defects in complex I assembly. We conclude that NDUFA9 is involved in stabilizing the junction between membrane and matrix arms of complex I, a late assembly step critical for complex I biogenesis and activity.

  1. Gene Knockout Using Transcription Activator-like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) Reveals That Human NDUFA9 Protein Is Essential for Stabilizing the Junction between Membrane and Matrix Arms of Complex I*

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, David A.; Formosa, Luke E.; Wijeyeratne, Xiaonan W.; Nguyen, Thanh N.; Ryan, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) represent a promising approach for targeted knock-out of genes in cultured human cells. We used TALEN-technology to knock out the nuclear gene encoding NDUFA9, a subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I in HEK293T cells. Screening for the knock-out revealed a mixture of NDUFA9 cell clones that harbored partial deletions of the mitochondrial N-terminal targeting signal but were still capable of import. A cell line lacking functional copies of both NDUFA9 alleles resulted in a loss of NDUFA9 protein expression, impaired assembly of complex I, and cells incapable of growth in galactose medium. Cells lacking NDUFA9 contained a complex I subcomplex consisting of membrane arm subunits but not marker subunits of the matrix arm. Re-expression of NDUFA9 restored the defects in complex I assembly. We conclude that NDUFA9 is involved in stabilizing the junction between membrane and matrix arms of complex I, a late assembly step critical for complex I biogenesis and activity. PMID:23223238

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Pendant Arm-Pyridyltetrazole Copper(II) Complexes: DNA Binding/Cleavage Activity and Cytotoxic Studies.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Shaik; Rao, Bommuluri Umamaheswara; Surendrababu, Manubolu Surya; Raju, Kalidindi Krishnam; Rao, Gollapalli Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    2-(1H-Tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L) has been reacted separately with Me2NCH2CH2Cl⋅HCl and ClCH2CH2OH to yield two regioisomers in each case, N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanamine (L1)/N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanamine (L2) and 2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanol (L3)/2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanol (L4), respectively. These ligands, L1-L4, have been coordinated with CuCl2 ⋅H2O in 1 : 1 composition to furnish the corresponding complexes 1-4. EPR Spectra of Cu complexes 1 and 3 were characteristic of square planar geometry, with nuclear hyperfine spin 3/2. Single X-ray crystallographic studies of 3 revealed that the Cu center has a square planar structure. DNA binding studies were carried out by UV/VIS absorption; viscosity and thermal denaturation studies revealed that each of these complexes are avid binders of calf thymus DNA. Investigation of nucleolytic cleavage activities of the complexes was carried out on double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by using a gel electrophoresis experiment under various conditions, where cleavage of DNA takes place by oxidative free-radical mechanism (OH(⋅)). In vitro anticancer activities of the complexes against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cells revealed that the complexes inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The IC50 values of the complexes showed that Cu complexes exhibit comparable cytotoxic activities compared to the standard drug cisplatin.

  3. Active Submarine Volcanoes and Electro-Optical Sensor Networks: The Potential of Capturing and Quantifying an Entire Eruptive Sequence at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, J. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Proskurowski, G.; Fundis, A. T.; Kawka, O.

    2011-12-01

    The NE Pacific Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative is designed to provide unprecedented electrical power and bandwidth to the base and summit of Axial Seamount. The scientific community is engaged in identifying a host of existing and innovative observation and measurement techniques that utilize the high-power and bandwidth infrastructure and its real-time transmission capabilities. The cable, mooring, and sensor arrays will enable the first quantitative documentation of myriad processes leading up to, during, and following a submarine volcanic event. Currently planned RSN instrument arrays will provide important and concurrent spatial and temporal constraints on earthquake activity, melt migration, hydrothermal venting behavior and chemistry, ambient currents, microbial community structure, high-definition (HD) still images and HD video streaming from the vents, and water-column chemistry in the overlying ocean. Anticipated, but not yet funded, additions will include AUVs and gliders that continually document the spatial-temporal variations in the water column above the volcano and the distal zones. When an eruption appears imminent the frequency of sampling will be increased remotely, and the potential of repurposing the tracking capabilities of the mobile sensing platforms will be adapted to the spatial indicators of likely eruption activity. As the eruption begins mobile platforms will fully define the geometry, temperature, and chemical-microbial character of the volcanic plume as it rises into the thoroughly documented control volume above the volcano. Via the Internet the scientific community will be able to witness and direct adaptive sampling in response to changing conditions of plume formation. A major goal will be to document the eruptive volume and link the eruption duration to the volume of erupted magma. For the first time, it will be possible to begin to quantify the time-integrated output of an underwater

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-07

    artillery and armored equipment. In the Warsaw Pact Joint Armed Forces there are a few more tactical aircraft than there are in NATO. 19 Thus...the total numbers of ICBM’s, submarine launched balistic missiles, and heavy bombers in the United States and the USSR are not 1,893 and 2,832, but

  5. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  6. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  7. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-28

    Dec 85 [Text] Moscow, December 3 TASS —TASS political news analyst valerity Vavilov writes: The defence ministers of the twelve West European NATO...that during the second Taiwan crisis of 1958, the use of nuclear arms against China was very close to reality. (In August of that year, the U.S. 7th

  8. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-12

    control treaty obligations in Central Europe and for the political consol - idation of U.S. alliance positions in the rest of Western Europe to guard...officer described as ’NATO’s nuclear theology .’ Nuclear arms have become a sort of fetish and have to be perfected and modernized at almost any

  9. Gorbachev's arms control moves

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.

    1987-06-01

    Soviet concessions to the US position are unparalleled in the postwar history of US-Soviet arms control negotiations. They document a compelling Soviet desire to conclude arms control agreements with the Reagan administration and have brought an agreement on reducing intermediate-range missiles, and possibly an agreement in principle on strategic reductions, in range this year. So far, the Reagan administration, divided within itself over arms control, has been consistent only in its intransigence. In the face of Soviet moratoriums on testing of nuclear warheads and antisatellite weapons, the US has tested both. It has renounced and exceeded the SALT II ceilings on strategic delivery systems. It seems intent on dismantling the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty through the testing in space of ballistic missile defense weapons on the basis of an arbitrary reinterpretation of the treaty. A Soviet regime of past temper would probably have responded in kind to such actions, bringing anarchic, unregulated competition in weapons of offense and defense. But Gorbachev's moves toward the US position have continued. The author explores the question of whether a deliberately unyielding Reagan administration strategy has elicited this flow of Soviet concessions or whether they are generated mainly by policy change in the Soviet Union itself after looking at the actual record of Soviet arms control moves of the last two years.

  10. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  11. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  12. Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Holloway, John H; Holloway, John H; Raichlen, David A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the control and function of arm swing in human walking and running to test the hypothesis that the arms act as passive mass dampers powered by movement of the lower body, rather than being actively driven by the shoulder muscles. We measured locomotor cost, deltoid muscle activity and kinematics in 10 healthy adult subjects while walking and running on a treadmill in three experimental conditions: control; no arms (arms folded across the chest); and arm weights (weights worn at the elbow). Decreasing and increasing the moment of inertia of the upper body in no arms and arm weights conditions, respectively, had corresponding effects on head yaw and on the phase differences between shoulder and pelvis rotation, consistent with the view of arms as mass dampers. Angular acceleration of the shoulders and arm increased with torsion of the trunk and shoulder, respectively, but angular acceleration of the shoulders was not inversely related to angular acceleration of the pelvis or arm. Restricting arm swing in no arms trials had no effect on locomotor cost. Anterior and posterior portions of the deltoid contracted simultaneously rather than firing alternately to drive the arm. These results support a passive arm swing hypothesis for upper body movement during human walking and running, in which the trunk and shoulders act primarily as elastic linkages between the pelvis, shoulder girdle and arms, the arms act as passive mass dampers which reduce torso and head rotation, and upper body movement is primarily powered by lower body movement.

  13. Quantifying structural controls of rockfall activity on alpine limestone cliffs: a LiDAR-based geological approach in the Wetterstein Mountains, Bavarian Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Benjamin; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In mountainous regions, rockfall represents one of the most hazardous processes potentially threatening human life and infrastructure. For risk assessment and dimensioning rockfall mitigation, a thorough understanding of rockfall processes is crucial. Here, the rate of backweathering and rockfall supply are key factors for sediment budget assessment in rock slope environments. However, recent LiDAR approaches do not cover the entire spectrum of rockfall magnitudes (e.g. small fragmental rockfall, rare large events) and many former rockfall studies do not address geological and geotechnical factors controlling rockfall. The test setup was deliberately chosen to reduce the degrees of freedom for rockfall-controlling factors. Lithology, aspect, slope gradient and porosity were kept uniform but scan sites were chosen vary bedding orientation and joint density systematically along a 600 m high limestone rock face. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to detect and quantify rockfall activity (mm/a) at five selected rock walls of the north-facing rock slopes of the Reintal Valley over the course of one year. Additionally, structural data were obtained by traditional scanline measurements and TLS-based analysis. The compatibility of TLS methods was tested by validating the data with existing rockfall inventories obtained by direct measurements by Krautblatter et al. (2012). The results show a high discrepancy of seasonal rockfall activity between summer months (0.001 to 0.022 mm/a) and autumn to spring (0.021 to 0.364 mm/a) as well as between favorable bedding orientation (0.015 mm/a) and daylighted bedding (max. 0.264 mm/a). A significant effect of joint spacing on rockfall activity is not evident in the data or overlain by the bedding orientation effect. Nevertheless, the differences in estimated block sizes between the observed rock walls is clearly visible in the TLS derived particle size distribution. The latter was adduced to extrapolate rockfall magnitudes

  14. Scientific Infrastructure To Support Manned And Unmanned Aircraft, Tethered Balloons, And Related Aerial Activities At Doe Arm Facilities On The North Slope Of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facilities, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. DOE has recently invested in improvements to facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska. A new ground facility, the Third ARM Mobile Facility, was installed at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons were used to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. A new Special Use Airspace was granted to DOE in 2015 to support science missions in international airspace in the Arctic. Warning Area W-220 is managed by Sandia National Laboratories for DOE Office of Science/BER. W-220 was successfully used for the first time in July 2015 in conjunction with Restricted Area R-2204 and a connecting Altitude Reservation Corridor (ALTRV) to permit unmanned aircraft to operate north of Oliktok Point. Small unmanned aircraft (DataHawks) and tethered balloons were flown at Oliktok during the summer and fall of 2015. This poster will discuss how principal investigators may apply for use of these Special Use Airspaces, acquire data from the Third ARM Mobile Facility, or bring their own instrumentation for deployment at Oliktok Point, Alaska. The printed poster will include the standard DOE funding statement.

  15. Erlotinib and bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and activating EGFR mutations (BELIEF): an international, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Rafael; Dafni, Urania; Felip, Enriqueta; Curioni-Fontecedro, Alessandra; Gautschi, Oliver; Peters, Solange; Massutí, Bartomeu; Palmero, Ramon; Aix, Santiago Ponce; Carcereny, Enric; Früh, Martin; Pless, Miklos; Popat, Sanjay; Kotsakis, Athanasios; Cuffe, Sinead; Bidoli, Paolo; Favaretto, Adolfo; Froesch, Patrizia; Reguart, Noemí; Puente, Javier; Coate, Linda; Barlesi, Fabrice; Rauch, Daniel; Thomas, Michael; Camps, Carlos; Gómez-Codina, Jose; Majem, Margarita; Porta, Rut; Shah, Riyaz; Hanrahan, Emer; Kammler, Roswitha; Ruepp, Barbara; Rabaglio, Manuela; Kassapian, Marie; Karachaliou, Niki; Tam, Rachel; Shames, David S; Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Stahel, Rolf A

    2017-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib improves the outcomes of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The coexistence of the T790M resistance mutation with another EGFR mutation in treatment-naive patients has been associated with a shorter progression-free survival to EGFR inhibition than in the absence of the T790M mutation. To test this hypothesis clinically, we developed a proof-of-concept study, in which patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC were treated with the combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab, stratified by the presence of the pretreatment T790M mutation. BELIEF was an international, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial done at 29 centres in eight European countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had treatment-naive, pathologically confirmed stage IIIB or stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with a confirmed, activating EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion or L858R mutation). Patients received oral erlotinib 150 mg per day and intravenous bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 21 days and were tested centrally for the pretreatment T790M resistance mutation with a peptide nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The primary efficacy analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and was stratified into two parallel substudies according to the centrally confirmed pretreatment T790M mutation status of enrolled patients (T790M positive or negative). The safety analysis was done in all patients that have received at least one dose of trial treatment. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01562028. Between June 11, 2012, and Oct 28, 2014, 109 patients were enrolled and included in the efficacy analysis. 37 patients were T790M mutation positive and 72 negative. The overall median progression-free survival was 13·2 months (95% CI 10·3-15·5), with a 12 month progression-free survival of 55% (95% CI

  16. Single Myosin Cross-Bridge Orientation in Cardiac Papillary Muscle Detects Lever-Arm Shear Strain in Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Josephson, Matthew P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley–Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons (1971) Nature 233, 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution. PMID:21819137

  17. Single myosin cross-bridge orientation in cardiac papillary muscle detects lever-arm shear strain in transduction.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Josephson, Matthew P; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-09-13

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley-Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons ( 1971 ) Nature 233 , 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution.

  18. Robot arm system for automatic satellite capture and berthing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, Shinichiro; Toriu, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Masato; Kubo, Tomoaki; Miyata, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Load control is one of the most important technologies for capturing and berthing free flying satellites by a space robot arm because free flying satellites have different motion rates. The performance of active compliance control techniques depend on the location of the force sensor and the arm's structural compliance. A compliance control technique for the robot arm's structural elasticity and a consideration for an end-effector appropriate for it are presented in this paper.

  19. EMG-triggered electrical stimulation is a feasible intervention to apply to multiple arm muscles in people early after stroke, but does not improve strength and activity more than usual therapy: a randomized feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, Simone; Ada, Louise; Canning, Colleen G

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether EMG-triggered electrical stimulation applied to multiple muscles daily is a feasible intervention and to determine its effect on strength and activity in very weak stroke patients. A prospective, randomized trial with blinded assessment. Metropolitan mixed acute and rehabilitation units. Thirty-three people within four weeks of a stroke with less than Grade 3 strength in three out of four muscle groups (shoulder flexors, elbow extensors, wrist and finger extensors and thumb abductors) of the affected arm. Participants were randomly allocated to receive EMG-triggered electrical stimulation to the four muscle groups of the affected arm plus usual therapy five times a week for four weeks, or usual therapy only. Feasibility of the intervention was measured by examining compliance with the trial protocol. Strength was measured using manual muscle testing summed across muscle groups (0-20). Activity was measured using the Motor Assessment Scale, summed upper limb items (0-18). The experimental group received 87% of the intervention. Following the intervention period, there was no difference between the groups for strength (mean between-group difference, 0 out of 20, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3 to 3, p = 0.91) or activity (mean between-group difference 1 out of 18, 95% CI -2 to 4, p = 0.44). It is feasible to apply EMG-triggered electrical stimulation to multiple muscles of the upper limb in very weak people early after stroke. However, it does not appear to improve strength or activity beyond usual arm therapy that contains strengthening.

  20. Research and development of a portable device to quantify muscle tone in patients with Parkinsons disease.

    PubMed

    Wright, David; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Tetsuya; Kutsuzawa, Keiichi; Miyawaki, Kazuhito; Nagata, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, degenerative condition that is characterised by tremor, bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity and postural instability. Currently, only subjective tests are employed and we aim to develop a portable device to quantify muscle tone in patients with movement disorders, in particular, Parkinson's disease. A servo-motor robotic arm was developed to rhythmically flex and extend the subjects arm and their response was measured using continuous electromyography (EMG) sampled at 4kHz. Surface electrodes were attached over the biceps of the more severely affected arm and a reference electrode attached to the back of the contra-lateral hand. EMG data was normalized using the rest mean EMG level and then segmented into epochs according to the position data. EMG recorded from normal subjects remained flat throughout the trial with only very small fluctuations in amplitude about the mean. In contrast, biceps activity in parkinsonian patients tended to increase with flexion and as expected there were large variations in amplitude about the baseline activity. A fast fourier transform was also performed and spectra obtained from a typical Parkinsonian patient showed two peaks at approximately 6 Hz and 8 Hz, consistent with previously published data. In conclusion, the results clearly differentiate between normal and parkinsonian cases and to some extent severity. Quantification of disease severity might be possible given a broader range and greater number of patients.

  1. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  2. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  3. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  4. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  5. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  6. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  7. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  8. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    Navigation Radar Deployment PY1701143090 La Paz La Red Panamericana in Spanish 1130 GMT 17 Jan 90 [Text] Aeronautics Minister Luis Gonzales...airspace and that it can guarantee our sovereignty. Aeronautics Military Under Secretary Installed PY1701125290 La Paz La Red Panamericana in...Militarization of Northern Regions Debated Armed Forces Propose Military Zone PY2201165990 La Paz La Red Panamericana in Spanish 1130 GMT 22 Jan 90