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Sample records for quantitative evaluation study

  1. 'Stories' or 'snapshots'? A study directed at comparing qualitative and quantitative approaches to curriculum evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pateman, B; Jinks, A M

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a study designed to explore the validity of quantitative approaches of student evaluation in a pre-registration degree programme. As managers of the students' education we were concerned that the quantitative method, which used lecturer criteria, may not fully represent students' views. The approach taken is that of a process-type strategy for curriculum evaluation as described by Parlett and Hamilton (1972). The aim of the study is to produce illuminative data, or students' 'stories' of their educational experiences through use of semi-structured interviews. The results are then compared to the current quantitative measurement tools designed to obtain 'snapshots' of the educational effectiveness of the curriculum. The quantitative measurement tools use Likert scale measurements of teacher-devised criterion statements. The results of the study give a rich source of qualitative data which can be used to inform future curriculum development. However, complete validation of the current quantitative instruments used was not achieved in this study. Student and teacher agendas in respect of important issues pertaining to the course programme were found to differ. Limitations of the study are given. There is discussion of the options open to the management team with regard to future development of curriculum evaluation systems.

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Remedial Reading Courses at Community Colleges: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavonier, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of two instructional approaches for remedial reading courses at a community college. The instructional approaches were strategic reading and traditional, textbook-based instruction. The two research questions that guided the quantitative, quasi-experimental study were: (a) what is the effect of…

  3. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  4. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies.

    PubMed

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús; Aguiar, Pablo; Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor; Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel; Pombar, Miguel; Ruibal, Alvaro

    2014-05-01

    Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of learning and memory trace in studies of mnemotropic effects of immunotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, N M; Novoseletskaya, A V; Voevodina, Ye B; Kozlov, I G; Inozemtsev, A N

    2012-12-01

    Apart from restoration of disordered immunological parameters, tactivin and derinat exhibit a pronounced effect on the higher integrative functions of the brain. Experiments on Wistar rats have shown that these drugs accelerated conditioning of food and defense responses. New methods for quantitative evaluation of memory trace consolidation are proposed.

  6. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciT

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.silva.rodriguez@sergas.es; Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es; Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manualmore » ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.« less

  7. Quantitative skeletal evaluation based on cervical vertebral maturation: a longitudinal study of adolescents with normal occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Liu, J; Xu, T; Long, X; Lin, J

    2010-07-01

    The study aims were to investigate the correlation between vertebral shape and hand-wrist maturation and to select characteristic parameters of C2-C5 (the second to fifth cervical vertebrae) for cervical vertebral maturation determination by mixed longitudinal data. 87 adolescents (32 males, 55 females) aged 8-18 years with normal occlusion were studied. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs were taken annually for 6 consecutive years. Lateral cephalograms were divided into 11 maturation groups according to Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators (SMI). 62 morphological measurements of C2-C5 at 11 different developmental stages (SMI1-11) were measured and analysed. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, correlation coefficient analysis and variable cluster analysis were used for statistical analysis. Of the 62 cervical vertebral parameters, 44 were positively correlated with SMI, 6 were negatively correlated and 12 were not correlated. The correlation coefficients between cervical vertebral parameters and SMI were relatively high. Characteristic parameters for quantitative analysis of cervical vertebral maturation were selected. In summary, cervical vertebral maturation could be used reliably to evaluate the skeletal stage instead of the hand-wrist radiographic method. Selected characteristic parameters offered a simple and objective reference for the assessment of skeletal maturity and timing of orthognathic surgery. Copyright 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, S.; Frisoni, G. B.

    2009-02-01

    We propose a single, quantitative metric called the disease evaluation factor (DEF) and assess its efficiency at estimating disease burden in normal, control subjects (CTRL) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The study group consisted in 75 patients with a diagnosis of probable AD and 75 age-matched normal CTRL without neurological or neuropsychological deficit. We calculated a reference eigenspace of MRI appearance from reference data, in which our CTRL and probable AD subjects were projected. We then calculated the multi-dimensional hyperplane separating the CTRL and probable AD groups. The DEF was estimated via a multidimensional weighted distance of eigencoordinates for a given subject and the CTRL group mean, along salient principal components forming the separating hyperplane. We used quantile plots, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and χ2 tests to compare the DEF values and test that their distribution was normal. We used a linear discriminant test to separate CTRL from probable AD based on the DEF factor, and reached an accuracy of 87%. A quantitative biomarker in AD would act as an important surrogate marker of disease status and progression.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of essential medicines lists: the South African case study.

    PubMed

    Perumal-Pillay, Velisha Ann; Suleman, Fatima

    2016-12-12

    The South African (SA) health system has employed an Essential Medicines List (EML) with Standard Treatment Guidelines (STGs) since 1996. To date no studies have reported the changes in SA STG/EMLs. This study describes these changes over time (1996-2013) and compares latest SA STG/EMLs with the latest World Health Organization (WHO) Model EMLs to assess alignment of these lists. A quantitative evaluation of SA STGs/EMLs at 2 levels of healthcare was performed to assess changes in the number and ratio of molecules, dosage forms, and additions and deletions of medicines. The most recent WHO EMLs (18th list, 4th list for children) and 2012 priority life-saving medicines for women and children (PMWC) list were compared to the most recent available SA STG/EMLs (Primary Health Care (PHC 2008), Adult Hospital 2012, and Paediatric Hospital 2013) at the time of the research. The number of molecules over the years increased for PHC STG/EMLs but decreased slightly for Adult and Paediatric hospital STG/EMLs. The most additions and deletions over time occurred in the Adult hospital level STG/EML (27 in 2006 and 44 in 2012). A comparison between the most recent SA STG/EMLs and WHO Model EML (18th list) showed that a total of 112 medicines were absent on all SA STG/EMLs. A comparison of medicines for children between the 2013 SA Paediatric Hospital level STG/EML and PMWC indicated that these lists were somewhat aligned for most conditions as only 3 of 14 medicines and 11 of 20 vaccines were absent from SA STG/EMLs. This is the first study in SA to investigate changes in National EMLs over time in relation to molecules, dosage forms and therapeutic classes. It is also the first to compare the latest SA STG/EMLs to the WHO Model lists. The results therefore provide insight into the trends and SA STG/EML processes over time.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of the memory bias effect in ROC studies with PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallergi, Maria; Pianou, Nicoletta; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Kafiri, Georgia; Pavlou, Spiros; Chatziioannou, Sofia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the memory bias effect in ROC experiments with tomographic data and, specifically, in the evaluation of two different PET/CT protocols for the detection and diagnosis of recurrent thyroid cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two readers participated in an ROC experiment that evaluated tomographic images from 43 patients followed up for thyroid cancer recurrence. Readers evaluated first whole body PET/CT scans of the patients and then a combination of whole body and high-resolution head and neck scans of the same patients. The second set was read twice. Once within 48 hours of the first set and the second time at least a month later. The detection and diagnostic performances of the readers in the three reading sessions were assessed with the DBMMRMC and LABMRMC software using the area under the ROC curve as a performance index. Performances were also evaluated by comparing the number and the size of the detected abnormal foci among the three readings. RESULTS. There was no performance difference between first and second treatments. There were statistically significant differences between first and third, and second and third treatments showing that memory can seriously affect the outcome of ROC studies. CONCLUSION. Despite the fact that tomographic data involve numerous image slices per patient, the memory bias effect is present and substantial and should be carefully eliminated from analogous ROC experiments.

  11. Quantitative contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of peripheral arterial disease: a comparative study versus standard digital angiography.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Chris; Futamatsu, Hideki; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Guzman, Luis A; Wilke, Norbert; Siragusa, Daniel; Wludyka, Peter; Percy, Robert; Northrup, Martin; Bass, Theodore A; Costa, Marco A

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of semiautomated analysis of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in patients who have undergone standard angiographic evaluation for peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Magnetic resonance angiography is an important tool for evaluating PVD. Although this technique is both safe and noninvasive, the accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative measurements of disease severity using MRA in the clinical setting have not been fully investigated. 43 lesions in 13 patients who underwent both MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of iliac and common femoral arteries within 6 months were analyzed using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (QMRA) and quantitative vascular analysis (QVA). Analysis was repeated by a second operator and by the same operator in approximately 1 month time. QMRA underestimated percent diameter stenosis (%DS) compared to measurements made with QVA by 2.47%. Limits of agreement between the two methods were +/- 9.14%. Interobserver variability in measurements of %DS were +/- 12.58% for QMRA and +/- 10.04% for QVA. Intraobserver variability of %DS for QMRA was +/- 4.6% and for QVA was +/- 8.46%. QMRA displays a high level of agreement to QVA when used to determine stenosis severity in iliac and common femoral arteries. Similar levels of interobserver and intraobserver variability are present with each method. Overall, QMRA represents a useful method to quantify severity of PVD.

  12. The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) Evaluation Study: Impact on Quantitative Treatment Limits.

    PubMed

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Friedman, Sarah A; Azocar, Francisca; Harwood, Jessica M; Ettner, Susan L

    2017-05-01

    The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) significantly changed regulations governing behavioral health benefits for large, commercially insured employers. Pre-MHPAEA, many plans covered only a specific number of behavioral health treatment days or visits; post-MHPAEA, such quantitative treatment limits (QTLs) were allowed only if they were "at parity" with medical-surgical limits. This study assessed MHPAEA's effect on the prevalence of behavioral health QTLs. Analyses used 2008-2013 specialty behavioral health benefit design data for Optum large-group plans, both carve-outs (N=2,257 plan-years, corresponding to 1,527 plans and 40 employers) and carve-ins (N=11,644 plan-years, 3,569 plans, and 340 employers). Descriptive statistics were calculated for limits existing at parity implementation, distinguished by accumulation period (annual or lifetime), level of care (inpatient, intermediate, or outpatient), unit (days, visits, or courses), condition, and network level. Proportions of plans using specific limits during the preparity (2008-2009), transition (2010), and postparity (2011-2013) periods were compared with Fisher's exact tests. Preparity, the most common QTLs were annual visit or day limits. Accounting for overlap in limit types, 89% of regular carve-out plans, 90% of in-network-only carve-outs, and 77% of carve-in plans limited outpatient visits; 66% of regular carve-out plans, 74% of in-network-only carve-outs, and 73% of carve-ins limited inpatient or intermediate days. Postparity, QTLs almost entirely disappeared (p<.001). Before MHPAEA, QTLs were common. Postimplementation, virtually all plans dropped such limits, suggesting that MHPAEA was effective at eliminating QTLs. However, increasing access to behavioral health care will mean going beyond such QTL changes and looking at other areas of benefit management.

  13. Quantitative method of medication system interface evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pingenot, Alleene Anne; Shanteau, James; Pingenot, James D F

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative method of evaluating the user interface for medication system software. A detailed task analysis provided a description of user goals and essential activity. A structural fault analysis was used to develop a detailed description of the system interface. Nurses experienced with use of the system under evaluation provided estimates of failure rates for each point in this simplified fault tree. Means of estimated failure rates provided quantitative data for fault analysis. Authors note that, although failures of steps in the program were frequent, participants reported numerous methods of working around these failures so that overall system failure was rare. However, frequent process failure can affect the time required for processing medications, making a system inefficient. This method of interface analysis, called Software Efficiency Evaluation and Fault Identification Method, provides quantitative information with which prototypes can be compared and problems within an interface identified.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of dermatological antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Leitch, C S; Leitch, A E; Tidman, M J

    2015-12-01

    Topical antiseptics are frequently used in dermatological management, yet evidence for the efficacy of traditional generic formulations is often largely anecdotal. We tested the in vitro bactericidal activity of four commonly used topical antiseptics against Staphylococcus aureus, using a modified version of the European Standard EN 1276, a quantitative suspension test for evaluation of the bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. To meet the standard for antiseptic effectiveness of EN 1276, at least a 5 log10 reduction in bacterial count within 5 minutes of exposure is required. While 1% benzalkonium chloride and 6% hydrogen peroxide both achieved a 5 log10 reduction in S. aureus count, neither 2% aqueous eosin nor 1 : 10 000 potassium permanganate showed significant bactericidal activity compared with control at exposure periods of up to 1 h. Aqueous eosin and potassium permanganate may have desirable astringent properties, but these results suggest they lack effective antiseptic activity, at least against S. aureus. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Evaluating Social Programs; Theory, Practice, and Politics. Quantitative Studies in Social Relations Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Peter H., Ed.; Williams, Walter, Ed.

    This book addresses itself to three questions which are crucial to effective social action and hence to the lives of those whom social programs are designed to improve: (1) why has so little high quality evaluative research been done? (2) what problems are involved in developing more evaluative research and using its results in policy making? and,…

  16. Evaluating the Economic Impact of Smart Care Platforms: Qualitative and Quantitative Results of a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Van der Auwermeulen, Thomas; Van Ooteghem, Jan; Jacobs, An; Verbrugge, Sofie; Colle, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Background In response to the increasing pressure of the societal challenge because of a graying society, a gulf of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported care services (eCare) can now be noticed. Their common goal is to increase the quality of care while decreasing its costs. Smart Care Platforms (SCPs), installed in the homes of care-dependent people, foster the interoperability of these services and offer a set of eCare services that are complementary on one platform. These eCare services could not only result in more quality care for care receivers, but they also offer opportunities to care providers to optimize their processes. Objective The objective of the study was to identify and describe the expected added values and impacts of integrating SCPs in current home care delivery processes for all actors. In addition, the potential economic impact of SCP deployment is quantified from the perspective of home care organizations. Methods Semistructured and informal interviews and focus groups and cocreation workshops with service providers, managers of home care organizations, and formal and informal care providers led to the identification of added values of SCP integration. In a second step, process breakdown analyses of home care provisioning allowed defining the operational impact for home care organization. Impacts on 2 different process steps of providing home care were quantified. After modeling the investment, an economic evaluation compared the business as usual (BAU) scenario versus the integrated SCP scenario. Results The added value of SCP integration for all actors involved in home care was identified. Most impacts were qualitative such as increase in peace of mind, better quality of care, strengthened involvement in care provisioning, and more transparent care communication. For home care organizations, integrating SCPs could lead to a decrease of 38% of the current annual expenses for two administrative process steps namely

  17. Evaluating the Economic Impact of Smart Care Platforms: Qualitative and Quantitative Results of a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Vannieuwenborg, Frederic; Van der Auwermeulen, Thomas; Van Ooteghem, Jan; Jacobs, An; Verbrugge, Sofie; Colle, Didier

    2016-10-31

    In response to the increasing pressure of the societal challenge because of a graying society, a gulf of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported care services (eCare) can now be noticed. Their common goal is to increase the quality of care while decreasing its costs. Smart Care Platforms (SCPs), installed in the homes of care-dependent people, foster the interoperability of these services and offer a set of eCare services that are complementary on one platform. These eCare services could not only result in more quality care for care receivers, but they also offer opportunities to care providers to optimize their processes. The objective of the study was to identify and describe the expected added values and impacts of integrating SCPs in current home care delivery processes for all actors. In addition, the potential economic impact of SCP deployment is quantified from the perspective of home care organizations. Semistructured and informal interviews and focus groups and cocreation workshops with service providers, managers of home care organizations, and formal and informal care providers led to the identification of added values of SCP integration. In a second step, process breakdown analyses of home care provisioning allowed defining the operational impact for home care organization. Impacts on 2 different process steps of providing home care were quantified. After modeling the investment, an economic evaluation compared the business as usual (BAU) scenario versus the integrated SCP scenario. The added value of SCP integration for all actors involved in home care was identified. Most impacts were qualitative such as increase in peace of mind, better quality of care, strengthened involvement in care provisioning, and more transparent care communication. For home care organizations, integrating SCPs could lead to a decrease of 38% of the current annual expenses for two administrative process steps namely, care rescheduling and the billing for

  18. Quantitative study of controlled substance bedside wasting, disposal and evaluation of potential ecologic effects.

    PubMed

    Mankes, Russell F; Silver, Charles D

    2013-02-01

    Drugs in wastewater arise from many sources. For health care, these include excretion and direct disposal (bedside wasting). The present study reports on the dispensing and wasting of 15 controlled substances (CS) at two health care facilities in Albany, NY over a nearly two year period. The study considered measures of ecotoxicity, drug metabolism, excretion and disposal of these CS. Potential alternatives to flushing of CS into wastewaters from healthcare facilities are discussed. Drug medication and waste collection records (12,345) included: numbers of drugs dispensed, returned and wasted. Overall, 8528 g of 15 CS were wasted. Three (midazolam, acetaminophen-codeine and fentanyl) accounted for 87.5% of the total wasted. Wasting varied by hospital, 14 CS at the academic medical center hospital and 8 at the surgical care center were wasted. Liquids were more frequently wasted than tablets or pills. Some combination drugs (acetaminophen (APAP)-codeine) were frequently (50% of drug dispensed) wasted while others were less wasted (APAP-hydrocodone-6.3%; APAP-oxycodone-1.3%). The 8 CS judged more hazardous to aquatic life were: APAP-codeine, APAP-hydrocodone, APAP-oxycodone, alprazolam, diazepam, fentanyl, midazolam, and testosterone. Ketamine, morphine, oxycodone and zolpidem were of lesser acute toxicity based on available LC50 values. These CS might provide a therapeutically equivalent alternative to the more environmentally harmful drugs. In health care facilities, professionals dispose of CS by bedside wasting into water or other receptacles. This can be avoided by returning CS to the hospital's pharmacy department, thence to a licensed distributor. Study of this process of drug wasting can identify opportunities for process improvements. We found 3 CS (APAP-codeine, midazolam and testosterone) where ½ to 1/3 of the drug was wasted and 5 others with 30 to 13% wasted. Knowledge of the adverse impacts from the release of highly toxic drugs into the environment

  19. Comparison of quantitative evaluation between cutaneous and transosseous inertial sensors in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Murase, Atsunori; Nozaki, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Goto, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Masahito; Yasuma, Sanshiro; Takenaga, Tetsuya; Nagaya, Yuko; Mizutani, Jun; Okamoto, Hideki; Iguchi, Hirotaka; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-09-01

    Recently several authors have reported on the quantitative evaluation of the pivot-shift test using cutaneous fixation of inertial sensors. Before utilizing this sensor for clinical studies, it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of cutaneous sensor in assessing rotational knee instability. To evaluate the accuracy of inertial sensors, we compared cutaneous and transosseous sensors in the quantitative assessment of rotational knee instability in a cadaveric setting, in order to demonstrate their clinical applicability. Eight freshly frozen human cadaveric knees were used in this study. Inertial sensors were fixed on the tibial tuberosity and directly fixed to the distal tibia bone. A single examiner performed the pivot shift test from flexion to extension on the intact knees and ACL deficient knees. The peak overall magnitude of acceleration and the maximum rotational angular velocity in the tibial superoinferior axis was repeatedly measured with the inertial sensor during the pivot shift test. Correlations between cutaneous and transosseous inertial sensors were evaluated, as well as statistical analysis for differences between ACL intact and ACL deficient knees. Acceleration and angular velocity measured with the cutaneous sensor demonstrated a strong positive correlation with the transosseous sensor (r = 0.86 and r = 0.83). Comparison between cutaneous and transosseous sensor indicated significant difference for the peak overall magnitude of acceleration (cutaneous: 10.3 ± 5.2 m/s 2 , transosseous: 14.3 ± 7.6 m/s 2 , P < 0.01) and for the maximum internal rotation angular velocity (cutaneous: 189.5 ± 99.6 deg/s, transosseous: 225.1 ± 103.3 deg/s, P < 0.05), but no significant difference for the maximum external rotation angular velocity (cutaneous: 176.1 ± 87.3 deg/s, transosseous: 195.9 ± 106.2 deg/s, N.S). There is a positive correlation between cutaneous and transosseous inertial sensors. Therefore, this study indicated that

  20. [Study on the quantitative evaluation on the degree of TCM basic syndromes often encountered in patients with primary liver cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-tao; Ling, Chang-quan; Zhu, De-zeng

    2007-07-01

    To establish a quantitative model for evaluating the degree of the TCM basic syndromes often encountered in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC). Medical literatures concerning the clinical investigation and TCM syndrome of PLC were collected and analyzed adopting expert-composed symposium method, and the 100 millimeter scaling was applied in combining with scoring on degree of symptoms to establish a quantitative criterion for symptoms and signs degree classification in patients with PLC. Two models, i.e. the additive model and the additive-multiplicative model, were established by using comprehensive analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as the mathematical tool to estimate the weight of the criterion for evaluating basic syndromes in various layers by specialists. Then the two models were verified in clinical practice and the outcomes were compared with that fuzzy evaluated by specialists. Verification on 459 times/case of PLC showed that the coincidence rate between the outcomes derived from specialists with that from the additive model was 84.53 %, and with that from the additive-multificative model was 62.75 %, the difference between the two showed statistical significance (P<0.01). It could be decided that the additive model is the principle model suitable for quantitative evaluation on the degree of TCM basic syndromes in patients with PLC.

  1. Student nurse-educators' construction of teacher identity from a self-evaluation perspective: A quantitative case study.

    PubMed

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Alindekane, Leka Marcel

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the teacher identity formation dynamics of student nurse-educators about the subject matter, pedagogy and didactics. A case study using descriptive quantitative design was employed. Using a cross-sectional approach, data were collected in 2014 using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were asked to self-evaluate their teaching competencies on the nursing subject matter, pedagogical expertise and didactical expertise. Using descriptive analysis we determined the central tendencies of the constructs. The descriptive analysis revealed a very small variance (0.0011) and standard deviation (0.04) among the means of the three constructs, which indicates a fair balance in the contribution of the subject matter, pedagogy and didactics towards teacher identity formation. Nursing student-educators can achieve a balanced combination of subject matter expert, pedagogical expert and didactical expert combination during the formation of their teacher identity. This could be indicative of how effective the training programme is in helping the students achieve a balanced teacher identity.

  2. Objective evaluation of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy using quantitative pain measurement system (Pain Vision®), a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Junya; Mori, Megumi; Nihei, Satoru; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Kudo, Kenzo

    2017-01-01

    In an evaluation of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), objectivity may be poor because the evaluation is determined by the patient's subjective assessment. In such cases, management of neuropathy may be delayed and CIPN symptoms may become severe. In this pilot study, we attempted an objective evaluation of CIPN using a quantitative pain measurement system (Pain Vision ® ). The subjects were patients with gynecologic cancer who underwent chemotherapy using taxane and platinum drugs. The grade of the peripheral sensory nerve disorder was based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTC-AE) ver. 4.0 and was evaluated before the initiation of therapy and up to six chemotherapy cycles. A symptom scale assessed by the patients using a peripheral neuropathy questionnaire (PNQ) was also evaluated. Simultaneously during these evaluations, graded electric current was applied from the probe to a fingertip and measured both the lowest perceptible current and lowest current perceived as pain by Pain Vision ® . From these values, the pain degree was calculated from the following formula: (pain perception current value - lowest perceptible current value) ÷ lowest perceptible current value × 100. We compared the pain degrees by Pain Vision ® during CIPN development with the value obtained before chemotherapy initiation. Forty-one patients were enrolled. In the evaluation by a medical professional, 28 (64.3%) patients developed CIPN during 2.5 ± 1.1 chemotherapy cycles (mean ± standard deviation). The pain degree by Pain Vision ® at grade 1 and 2 CIPN development according to the evaluation (CTC-AE) was significantly decreased compared to that before chemotherapy initiation (126.0 ± 114.5 vs. 69.8 ± 46.8, p  = 0.001, and 126.0 ± 114.5 vs. 32.8 ± 32.6, p  = 0.004). Changes in the pain degree by Pain Vision ® were also found during scale B and C, D CIPN development in the patient evaluation (PNQ) (115.9 ± 112.4 vs. 70

  3. A combined pulmonary-radiology workshop for visual evaluation of COPD: study design, chest CT findings and concordance with quantitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barr, R Graham; Berkowitz, Eugene A; Bigazzi, Francesca; Bode, Frederick; Bon, Jessica; Bowler, Russell P; Chiles, Caroline; Crapo, James D; Criner, Gerard J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Dass, Chandra; Dirksen, Asger; Dransfield, Mark T; Edula, Goutham; Erikkson, Leif; Friedlander, Adam; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Gefter, Warren B; Gierada, David S; Grenier, Philippe A; Goldin, Jonathan; Han, MeiLan K; Hanania, Nicola A; Hansel, Nadia N; Jacobson, Francine L; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Kinnula, Vuokko L; Lipson, David A; Lynch, David A; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Mamary, A James; Mann, Howard; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Mascalchi, Mario; McLennan, Geoffrey; Murphy, James R; Naidich, David; Nath, Hrudaya; Newell, John D; Pistolesi, Massimo; Regan, Elizabeth A; Reilly, John J; Sandhaus, Robert; Schroeder, Joyce D; Sciurba, Frank; Shaker, Saher; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K; Steiner, Robert M; Strange, Charlton; Sverzellati, Nicola; Tashjian, Joseph H; van Beek, Edwin J R; Washington, Lacey; Washko, George R; Westney, Gloria; Wood, Susan A; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2012-04-01

    The purposes of this study were: to describe chest CT findings in normal non-smoking controls and cigarette smokers with and without COPD; to compare the prevalence of CT abnormalities with severity of COPD; and to evaluate concordance between visual and quantitative chest CT (QCT) scoring. Volumetric inspiratory and expiratory CT scans of 294 subjects, including normal non-smokers, smokers without COPD, and smokers with GOLD Stage I-IV COPD, were scored at a multi-reader workshop using a standardized worksheet. There were 58 observers (33 pulmonologists, 25 radiologists); each scan was scored by 9-11 observers. Interobserver agreement was calculated using kappa statistic. Median score of visual observations was compared with QCT measurements. Interobserver agreement was moderate for the presence or absence of emphysema and for the presence of panlobular emphysema; fair for the presence of centrilobular, paraseptal, and bullous emphysema subtypes and for the presence of bronchial wall thickening; and poor for gas trapping, centrilobular nodularity, mosaic attenuation, and bronchial dilation. Agreement was similar for radiologists and pulmonologists. The prevalence on CT readings of most abnormalities (e.g. emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, mosaic attenuation, expiratory gas trapping) increased significantly with greater COPD severity, while the prevalence of centrilobular nodularity decreased. Concordances between visual scoring and quantitative scoring of emphysema, gas trapping and airway wall thickening were 75%, 87% and 65%, respectively. Despite substantial inter-observer variation, visual assessment of chest CT scans in cigarette smokers provides information regarding lung disease severity; visual scoring may be complementary to quantitative evaluation.

  4. A Virtual Emergency Telemedicine Serious Game in Medical Training: A Quantitative, Professional Feedback-Informed Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Riana; Marangos, Charis; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Dafli, Eleni; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2015-01-01

    Background Serious games involving virtual patients in medical education can provide a controlled setting within which players can learn in an engaging way, while avoiding the risks associated with real patients. Moreover, serious games align with medical students’ preferred learning styles. The Virtual Emergency TeleMedicine (VETM) game is a simulation-based game that was developed in collaboration with the mEducator Best Practice network in response to calls to integrate serious games in medical education and training. The VETM game makes use of data from an electrocardiogram to train practicing doctors, nurses, or medical students for problem-solving in real-life clinical scenarios through a telemedicine system and virtual patients. The study responds to two gaps: the limited number of games in emergency cardiology and the lack of evaluations by professionals. Objective The objective of this study is a quantitative, professional feedback-informed evaluation of one scenario of VETM, involving cardiovascular complications. The study has the following research question: “What are professionals’ perceptions of the potential of the Virtual Emergency Telemedicine game for training people involved in the assessment and management of emergency cases?” Methods The evaluation of the VETM game was conducted with 90 professional ambulance crew nursing personnel specializing in the assessment and management of emergency cases. After collaboratively trying out one VETM scenario, participants individually completed an evaluation of the game (36 questions on a 5-point Likert scale) and provided written and verbal comments. The instrument assessed six dimensions of the game: (1) user interface, (2) difficulty level, (3) feedback, (4) educational value, (5) user engagement, and (6) terminology. Data sources of the study were 90 questionnaires, including written comments from 51 participants, 24 interviews with 55 participants, and 379 log files of their interaction with

  5. A Virtual Emergency Telemedicine Serious Game in Medical Training: A Quantitative, Professional Feedback-Informed Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    Nicolaidou, Iolie; Antoniades, Athos; Constantinou, Riana; Marangos, Charis; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Dafli, Eleni; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2015-06-17

    Serious games involving virtual patients in medical education can provide a controlled setting within which players can learn in an engaging way, while avoiding the risks associated with real patients. Moreover, serious games align with medical students' preferred learning styles. The Virtual Emergency TeleMedicine (VETM) game is a simulation-based game that was developed in collaboration with the mEducator Best Practice network in response to calls to integrate serious games in medical education and training. The VETM game makes use of data from an electrocardiogram to train practicing doctors, nurses, or medical students for problem-solving in real-life clinical scenarios through a telemedicine system and virtual patients. The study responds to two gaps: the limited number of games in emergency cardiology and the lack of evaluations by professionals. The objective of this study is a quantitative, professional feedback-informed evaluation of one scenario of VETM, involving cardiovascular complications. The study has the following research question: "What are professionals' perceptions of the potential of the Virtual Emergency Telemedicine game for training people involved in the assessment and management of emergency cases?" The evaluation of the VETM game was conducted with 90 professional ambulance crew nursing personnel specializing in the assessment and management of emergency cases. After collaboratively trying out one VETM scenario, participants individually completed an evaluation of the game (36 questions on a 5-point Likert scale) and provided written and verbal comments. The instrument assessed six dimensions of the game: (1) user interface, (2) difficulty level, (3) feedback, (4) educational value, (5) user engagement, and (6) terminology. Data sources of the study were 90 questionnaires, including written comments from 51 participants, 24 interviews with 55 participants, and 379 log files of their interaction with the game. Overall, the results were

  6. Mammographic features and subsequent risk of breast cancer: a comparison of qualitative and quantitative evaluations in the Guernsey prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; De Stavola, Bianca; Allen, Diane S; Pérez-Gavilán, Juan J; Ferreira, Jorge M; Fentiman, Ian S; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel

    2005-05-01

    Mammographic features are known to be associated with breast cancer but the magnitude of the effect differs markedly from study to study. Methods to assess mammographic features range from subjective qualitative classifications to computer-automated quantitative measures. We used data from the UK Guernsey prospective studies to examine the relative value of these methods in predicting breast cancer risk. In all, 3,211 women ages > or =35 years who had a mammogram taken in 1986 to 1989 were followed-up to the end of October 2003, with 111 developing breast cancer during this period. Mammograms were classified using the subjective qualitative Wolfe classification and several quantitative mammographic features measured using computer-based techniques. Breast cancer risk was positively associated with high-grade Wolfe classification, percent breast density and area of dense tissue, and negatively associated with area of lucent tissue, fractal dimension, and lacunarity. Inclusion of the quantitative measures in the same model identified area of dense tissue and lacunarity as the best predictors of breast cancer, with risk increasing by 59% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 29-94%] per SD increase in total area of dense tissue but declining by 39% (95% CI, 53-22%) per SD increase in lacunarity, after adjusting for each other and for other confounders. Comparison of models that included both the qualitative Wolfe classification and these two quantitative measures to models that included either the qualitative or the two quantitative variables showed that they all made significant contributions to prediction of breast cancer risk. These findings indicate that breast cancer risk is affected not only by the amount of mammographic density but also by the degree of heterogeneity of the parenchymal pattern and, presumably, by other features captured by the Wolfe classification.

  7. Facial asymmetry quantitative evaluation in oculoauriculovertebral spectrum.

    PubMed

    Manara, Renzo; Schifano, Giovanni; Brotto, Davide; Mardari, Rodica; Ghiselli, Sara; Gerunda, Antonio; Ghirotto, Cristina; Fusetti, Stefano; Piacentile, Katherine; Scienza, Renato; Ermani, Mario; Martini, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    Facial asymmetries in oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) patients might require surgical corrections that are mostly based on qualitative approach and surgeon's experience. The present study aimed to develop a quantitative 3D CT imaging-based procedure suitable for maxillo-facial surgery planning in OAVS patients. Thirteen OAVS patients (mean age 3.5 ± 4.0 years; range 0.2-14.2, 6 females) and 13 controls (mean age 7.1 ± 5.3 years; range 0.6-15.7, 5 females) who underwent head CT examination were retrospectively enrolled. Eight bilateral anatomical facial landmarks were defined on 3D CT images (porion, orbitale, most anterior point of frontozygomatic suture, most superior point of temporozygomatic suture, most posterior-lateral point of the maxilla, gonion, condylion, mental foramen) and distance from orthogonal planes (in millimeters) was used to evaluate the asymmetry on each axis and to calculate a global asymmetry index of each anatomical landmark. Mean asymmetry values and relative confidence intervals were obtained from the control group. OAVS patients showed 2.5 ± 1.8 landmarks above the confidence interval while considering the global asymmetry values; 12 patients (92%) showed at least one pathologically asymmetric landmark. Considering each axis, the mean number of pathologically asymmetric landmarks increased to 5.5 ± 2.6 (p = 0.002) and all patients presented at least one significant landmark asymmetry. Modern CT-based 3D reconstructions allow accurate assessment of facial bone asymmetries in patients affected by OAVS. The evaluation as a global score and in different orthogonal axes provides precise quantitative data suitable for maxillo-facial surgical planning. CT-based 3D reconstruction might allow a quantitative approach for planning and following-up maxillo-facial surgery in OAVS patients.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of optically induced disorientation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish quantitatively and systematically the association between the speed of movement of an optical environment and the extent of disorientation experienced by an individual viewing this environment. The degree of...

  9. An Architecture Framework for Orchestrating Context-Aware IT Ecosystems: A Case Study for Quantitative Evaluation †.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Park, Sungyong; Park, Young B

    2018-02-12

    With the emergence of various forms of smart devices and new paradigms such as the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, the IT (Information Technology) service areas are expanding explosively compared to the provision of services by single systems. A new system operation concept that has emerged in accordance with such technical trends is the IT ecosystem. The IT ecosystem can be considered a special type of system of systems in which multiple systems with various degrees of autonomy achieve common goals while adapting to the given environment. The single systems that participate in the IT ecosystem adapt autonomously to the current situation based on collected data from sensors. Furthermore, to maintain the services supported by the whole IT ecosystem sustainably, the configuration of single systems that participate in the IT ecosystem also changes appropriately in accordance with the changed situation. In order to support the IT ecosystem, this paper proposes an architecture framework that supports dynamic configuration changes to achieve the goal of the whole IT ecosystem, while ensuring the autonomy of single systems through the collection of data from sensors so as to recognize the situational context of individual participating systems. For the feasibility evaluation of the proposed framework, a simulated example of an IT ecosystem for unmanned forest management was constructed, and the quantitative evaluation results are discussed in terms of the extent to which the proposed architecture framework can continuously provide sustainable services in response to diverse environmental context changes.

  10. Dixon quantitative chemical shift MRI for bone marrow evaluation in the lumbar spine: a reproducibility study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Maas, M; Akkerman, E M; Venema, H W; Stoker, J; Den Heeten, G J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the reproducibility of fat-fraction measurements using Dixon quantitative chemical shift imaging (QCSI) in the lumbar spine (L3, L4, and L5) of healthy volunteers. Sixteen healthy volunteers were examined at 1.5 T two times to obtain a repeated measurement in the same slice and a third time in three parallel slices. Single slice, two point Dixon SE (TR/TE 2,500/22.3) sequences were used, from which fat-fraction images were calculated. The fat-fraction results are presented as averages over regions of interest, which were derived from the contours of the vertebrae. Reproducibility measures related to repeated measurements on different days, slice position, and contour drawing were calculated. The mean fat fraction was 0.37 (SD 0.08). The SD due to repeated measurement was small (sigmaR = 0.013-0.032), almost all of which can be explained by slice-(re)-positioning errors. When used to evaluate the same person longitudinally in time, Dixon QCSI fat-fraction measurement has an excellent reproducibility. It is a powerful noninvasive tool in the evaluation of bone marrow composition.

  11. An Architecture Framework for Orchestrating Context-Aware IT Ecosystems: A Case Study for Quantitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young B.

    2018-01-01

    With the emergence of various forms of smart devices and new paradigms such as the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, the IT (Information Technology) service areas are expanding explosively compared to the provision of services by single systems. A new system operation concept that has emerged in accordance with such technical trends is the IT ecosystem. The IT ecosystem can be considered a special type of system of systems in which multiple systems with various degrees of autonomy achieve common goals while adapting to the given environment. The single systems that participate in the IT ecosystem adapt autonomously to the current situation based on collected data from sensors. Furthermore, to maintain the services supported by the whole IT ecosystem sustainably, the configuration of single systems that participate in the IT ecosystem also changes appropriately in accordance with the changed situation. In order to support the IT ecosystem, this paper proposes an architecture framework that supports dynamic configuration changes to achieve the goal of the whole IT ecosystem, while ensuring the autonomy of single systems through the collection of data from sensors so as to recognize the situational context of individual participating systems. For the feasibility evaluation of the proposed framework, a simulated example of an IT ecosystem for unmanned forest management was constructed, and the quantitative evaluation results are discussed in terms of the extent to which the proposed architecture framework can continuously provide sustainable services in response to diverse environmental context changes. PMID:29439540

  12. Evaluating a Dutch cardiology primary care plus intervention on the Triple Aim outcomes: study design of a practice-based quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Quanjel, Tessa C C; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2017-09-06

    In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the health-care system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study focuses on a cardiology primary care plus intervention. Primary care plus (PC+) is a new health-care delivery model focused on substitution of specialist care in the hospital setting with specialist care in the primary care setting. The intervention consists of a cardiology PC+ centre in which cardiologists, supported by other health-care professionals, provide consultations in a primary care setting. The PC+ centre aims to improve the health of the population and quality of care as experienced by patients, and reduce the number of referrals to hospital-based outpatient specialist care in order to reduce health-care costs. These aims reflect the Triple Aim principle. Hence, the objectives of the study are to evaluate the cardiology PC+ centre in terms of the Triple Aim outcomes and to evaluate the process of the introduction of PC+. The study is a practice-based, quantitative study with a longitudinal observational design, and an additional qualitative study to supplement, interpret and improve the quantitative study. The study population of the quantitative part will consist of adult patients (≥18 years) with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints, who will be referred to the cardiology PC+ centre (intervention group) or hospital-based outpatient cardiology care (control group). All eligible patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at three different time points consisting of questions about their demographics, health status and experience of care. Additionally, quantitative data will be collected about health-care utilization and related health-care costs at the PC+ centre and the hospital. The qualitative part, consisting of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and observations, is designed to evaluate the process as well as to amplify, clarify and explain quantitative results. This study

  13. Nursing students' conception of clinical skills training before and after their first clinical placement: A quantitative, evaluative study.

    PubMed

    Struksnes, Solveig; Engelien, Ragna Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Education institution and practice field have a joint responsibility with regard to facilitating a learning environment for the nursing students that provides learning outcomes in accordance with the National Curriculum. Using simulated patient situations is about ensuring a safe learning environment where mistakes are not putting real patients' lives in danger. To compare nursing students' experiences with a skills training situation immediately after the training and after their ten weeks clinical placement in nursing homes. Quantitative, cross-sectional and evaluative. Full- and part-time students in their first year of a Bachelor of Nursing degree. The students answered a questionnaire on two different occasions, immediately after skills training and after internship in a nursing home. Being a "patient" and a "nurse" in simulation was experienced as useful to clinical practice. Students with previous experience had a significantly higher perception of mastering the procedure after the internship, while unexperienced fellow students did not report any significant increase with regard to a sense of coping during their clinical practice. The findings raise questions if there are aspects with the education institution or the practice field that should be improved to help facilitate a better learning process for students without any previous experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-03

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a rapid and reliable method for gene expression studies. Normalization based on reference genes can increase the reliability of this technique; however, recent studies have shown that almost no single reference gene is universal for all possible experimental conditions. In this study, eight frequently used reference genes were investigated, including Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Actin2/7 (ACT), Tubulin alpha-5 (TUA), Tubulin beta-1 (TUB), 18S ribosomal RNA (18SrRNA), RNA polymerase-II transcription factor (RPII), Elongation factor 1-b (EF-1b) and Translation elongation factor 2 (TEF2). Expression stability of candidate reference genes was examined across 27 radish samples, representing a range of tissue types, cultivars, photoperiodic and vernalization treatments, and developmental stages. The eight genes in these sample pools displayed a wide range of Ct values and were variably expressed. Two statistical software packages, geNorm and NormFinder showed that TEF2, RPII and ACT appeared to be relatively stable and therefore the most suitable for use as reference genes. These results facilitate selection of desirable reference genes for accurate gene expression studies in radish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Reconstituting evaluation methods based on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Okubo, Suguru; Yoshie, Satoru; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.

  16. Chromanyl-isoxazolidines as Antibacterial agents: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, and Molecular Docking Studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Sharma, Anuradha; Kaur, Harpreet; Ishar, Mohan Paul S

    2016-02-01

    Regio- and stereoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of C-(chrom-4-one-3-yl)-N-phenylnitrones (N) with different mono-substituted, disubstituted, and cyclic dipolarophiles were carried out to obtain substituted N-phenyl-3'-(chrom-4-one-3-yl)-isoxazolidines (1-40). All the synthesized compounds were assayed for their in vitro antibacterial activity and display significant inhibitory potential; in particular, compound 32 exhibited good inhibitory activity against Salmonella typhymurium-1 & Salmonella typhymurium-2 with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 1.56 μg/mL and also showed good potential against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration 3.12 μg/mL. Quantitative structure activity relationship investigations with stepwise multiple linear regression analysis and docking simulation studies have been performed for validation of the observed antibacterial potential of the investigated compounds for determination of the most important parameters regulating antibacterial activities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Determining quantitative immunophenotypes and evaluating their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redelman, Douglas; Hudig, Dorothy; Berner, Dave; Castell, Linda M.; Roberts, Don; Ensign, Wayne

    2002-05-01

    Quantitative immunophenotypes varied widely among > 100 healthy young males but were maintained at characteristic levels within individuals. The initial results (SPIE Proceedings 4260:226) that examined cell numbers and the quantitative expression of adhesion and lineage-specific molecules, e.g., CD2 and CD14, have now been confirmed and extended to include the quantitative expression of inducible molecules such as HLA-DR and perforin (Pf). Some properties, such as the ratio of T helper (Th) to T cytotoxic/suppressor (Tc/s) cells, are known to be genetically determined. Other properties, e.g., the T:B cell ratio, the amount of CD19 per B cell, etc., behaved similarly and may also be inherited traits. Since some patterns observed in these healthy individuals resembled those found in pathological situations we tested whether the patterns could be associated with the occurrence of disease. The current studies shows that there were associations between quantitative immunophenotypes and the subsequent incidence and severity of disease. For example, individuals with characteristically low levels of HLA-DR or B cells or reduced numbers of Pf+ Tc/s cells had more frequent and/or more severe upper respiratory infections. Quantitative immunophenotypes will be more widely measured if the necessary standards are available and if appropriate procedures are made more accessible.

  18. Nonparametric evaluation of quantitative traits in population-based association studies when the genetic model is unknown.

    PubMed

    Konietschke, Frank; Libiger, Ondrej; Hothorn, Ludwig A

    2012-01-01

    Statistical association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype and a quantitative trait in genome-wide association studies is usually assessed using a linear regression model, or, in the case of non-normally distributed trait values, using the Kruskal-Wallis test. While linear regression models assume an additive mode of inheritance via equi-distant genotype scores, Kruskal-Wallis test merely tests global differences in trait values associated with the three genotype groups. Both approaches thus exhibit suboptimal power when the underlying inheritance mode is dominant or recessive. Furthermore, these tests do not perform well in the common situations when only a few trait values are available in a rare genotype category (disbalance), or when the values associated with the three genotype categories exhibit unequal variance (variance heterogeneity). We propose a maximum test based on Marcus-type multiple contrast test for relative effect sizes. This test allows model-specific testing of either dominant, additive or recessive mode of inheritance, and it is robust against variance heterogeneity. We show how to obtain mode-specific simultaneous confidence intervals for the relative effect sizes to aid in interpreting the biological relevance of the results. Further, we discuss the use of a related all-pairwise comparisons contrast test with range preserving confidence intervals as an alternative to Kruskal-Wallis heterogeneity test. We applied the proposed maximum test to the Bogalusa Heart Study dataset, and gained a remarkable increase in the power to detect association, particularly for rare genotypes. Our simulation study also demonstrated that the proposed non-parametric tests control family-wise error rate in the presence of non-normality and variance heterogeneity contrary to the standard parametric approaches. We provide a publicly available R library nparcomp that can be used to estimate simultaneous confidence intervals or compatible

  19. Quantitative Evaluation of Medial Temporal Lobe Morphology in Children with Febrile Status Epilepticus: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

    PubMed

    McClelland, A C; Gomes, W A; Shinnar, S; Hesdorffer, D C; Bagiella, E; Lewis, D V; Bello, J A; Chan, S; MacFall, J; Chen, M; Pellock, J M; Nordli, D R; Frank, L M; Moshé, S L; Shinnar, R C; Sun, S

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study. Medial temporal lobe morphologic parameters were measured manually, including the distance of the hippocampus from the midline, hippocampal height:width ratio, hippocampal angle, collateral sulcus angle, and width of the temporal horn. Temporal lobe morphologic parameters were correlated with the presence of visual hippocampal malrotation; the strongest association was with left temporal horn width (P < .001; adjusted OR, 10.59). Multiple morphologic parameters correlated with febrile status epilepticus, encompassing both the right and left sides. This association was statistically strongest in the right temporal lobe, whereas hippocampal malrotation was almost exclusively left-sided in this cohort. The association between temporal lobe measurements and febrile status epilepticus persisted when the analysis was restricted to cases with visually normal imaging findings without hippocampal malrotation or other visually apparent abnormalities. Several component morphologic features of hippocampal malrotation are independently associated with febrile status epilepticus, even when complete hippocampal malrotation is absent. Unexpectedly, this association predominantly involves the right temporal lobe. These findings suggest that a spectrum of bilateral temporal lobe anomalies are associated with febrile status epilepticus in children. Hippocampal malrotation may represent a visually apparent subset of this spectrum. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. A quantitative method to evaluate the donor corneal tissue quality used in a comparative study between two hypothermic preservation media.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Mohit; Salvalaio, Gianni; Ferrari, Stefano; Amoureux, Marie-Claude; Albrecht, Cecile; Fortier, Denis; Ponzin, Diego

    2014-12-01

    To standardize a new evaluation technique for calculating the overall quality (OQ) of the donor cornea and validate it using a comparative study of corneas preserved in Optisol-GS and Cornea Cold®. Thirty pairs of donor corneas were selected for a 4 week in vitro comparative study using masked observers. Physiological parameters like thickness, transparency, viable endothelial cell density (VECD) and morphology were transformed to numerical range (0-4) to obtain the OQ. Microbiological examination was performed using Bactec instrument. Students t test showed statistically better results (p < 0.05) from week 3 for thickness, week 2 for transparency and week 1 for morphology and VECD; statistical significance (p < 0.05) was found for OQ from week 2 for the corneas preserved in Cornea Cold® compared to Optisol-GS. Epithelial quality was similar regardless of the medium. Microbiological examination showed absence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms in both media. OQ method is efficient, consistent and easy, now validated for comparative studies. Further refinement is necessary for its use at eye-banks, bio-banks and research or transplantation purposes. Cornea Cold® is a promising hypothermic corneal storage medium with preservation time ≤21 days. This permits higher flexibility, evaluation accuracy, longer duration for surgical preparation and ease of transportation.

  1. Evaluation of quantitative PCR for early diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Héry-Arnaud, G; Nowak, E; Caillon, J; David, V; Dirou, A; Revert, K; Munck, M-R; Frachon, I; Haloun, A; Horeau-Langlard, D; Le Bihan, J; Danner-Boucher, I; Ramel, S; Pelletier, M-P; Rosec, S; Gouriou, S; Poulhazan, E; Payan, C; Férec, C; Rault, G; Le Gal, G; Le Berre, R

    2017-03-01

    Early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung positivity is a key element in cystic fibrosis (CF) management. PCR has increased the accuracy of detection of many microorganisms. Clinical relevance of P. aeruginosa quantitative PCR (qPCR) in this context is unclear. Our aim was to determine P. aeruginosa qPCR sensitivity and specificity, and to assess the possible time saved by qPCR in comparison with standard practice (culture). A multicentre cohort study was conducted over a 3-year period in 96 patients with CF without chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Sputum samples were collected at each visit. Conventional culture and two-step qPCR (oprL qPCR and gyrB/ecfX qPCR) were performed for 707 samples. The positivity criteria were based on the qPCR results, defined in a previous study as follow: oprL qPCR positivity alone if bacterial density was <730 CFU/mL or oprL qPCR combined with gyrB/ecfX qPCR if bacterial density was ≥730 CFU/mL. During follow up, 36 of the 96 patients with CF were diagnosed on culture as colonized with P. aeruginosa. This two-step qPCR displayed a sensitivity of 94.3% (95% CI 79.7%-98.6%), and a specificity of 86.3% (95% CI 83.4%-88.7%). It enabled P. aeruginosa acquisition to be diagnosed earlier in 20 patients, providing a median detection time gain of 8 months (interquartile range 3.7-17.6) for them. Implementing oprL and gyrB/ecfX qPCR in the management of patients with CF allowed earlier detection of first P. aeruginosa lung positivity than culture alone. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative evaluation of two quantitative test methods for determining the efficacy of liquid sporicides and sterilants on a hard surface: a precollaborative study.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Stephen F; Hamilton, Martin A

    2007-01-01

    Two quantitative carrier-based test methods for determining the efficacy of liquid sporicides and sterilants on a hard surface, the Standard Quantitative Carrier Test Method-ASTM E 2111-00 and an adaptation of a quantitative micro-method as reported by Sagripanti and Bonifacino, were compared in this study. The methods were selected based on their desirable characteristics (e.g., well-developed protocol, previous use with spores, fully quantitative, and use of readily available equipment) for testing liquid sporicides and sterilants on a hard surface. In this paper, the Sagripanti-Bonifacino procedure is referred to as the Three Step Method (TSM). AOAC Official Method 966.04 was included in this study as a reference method. Three laboratories participated in the evaluation. Three chemical treatments were tested: (1) 3000 ppm sodium hypochlorite with pH adjusted to 7.0, (2) a hydrogen peroxide/peroxyacetic acid product, and (3) 3000 ppm sodium hypochlorite with pH unadjusted (pH of approximately 10.0). A fourth treatment, 6000 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution with pH adjusted to 7.0, was included only for Method 966.04 as a positive control (high level of efficacy). The contact time was 10 min for all chemical treatments except the 6000 ppm sodium hypochlorite treatment which was tested at 30 min. Each chemical treatment was tested 3 times using each of the methods. Only 2 of the laboratories performed the AOAC method. Method performance was assessed by the within-laboratory variance, between-laboratory variance, and total variance associated with the log reduction (LR) estimates generated by each quantitative method. The quantitative methods performed similarly, and the LR values generated by each method were not statistically different for the 3 treatments evaluated. Based on feedback from the participating laboratories, compared to the TSM, ASTM E 2111-00 was more resource demanding and required more set-up time. The logistical and resource concerns identified

  3. Quantitative evaluation of micronuclei in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral submucous fibrosis patients: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shreyas N; Manjunatha, Bhari S; Shah, Vandana S; Dagrus, Kapil; Soni, Nishit; Shah, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    The forte of research today aims at determining genotoxic changes in human cells as rapidly as possible. Micronuclei estimation in exfoliated cells is an easy, noninvasive and a reliable method to monitor genotoxic changes due to various reasons in oral mucosal cells. To identify, quantify and compare micronuclei in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells of healthy, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) participants. In the present study, buccal smears from the 60 participants (30 each of OSMF and OSCC) and 30 age and sex matched controls were obtained and stained using Papanicolaou (PAP) staining method and observed under 100X magnification to identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa. There was a significant increase in micronuclei count from control to OSMF to OSCC. Also, a significant increase in the micronuclei frequency is observed with the different clinical stages and histological grades of OSMF and different histological grades of OSCC. Micronucleus assay can be used as an easy and consistent marker for genotoxic evaluation in higher risk groups and can be used for better treatment evaluation and prognosis in cases of OSMF and OSCC. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this article.

  4. Quantitative framework for prospective motion correction evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pannetier, Nicolas A; Stavrinos, Theano; Ng, Peter; Herbst, Michael; Zaitsev, Maxim; Young, Karl; Matson, Gerald; Schuff, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Establishing a framework to evaluate performances of prospective motion correction (PMC) MRI considering motion variability between MRI scans. A framework was developed to obtain quantitative comparisons between different motion correction setups, considering that varying intrinsic motion patterns between acquisitions can induce bias. Intrinsic motion was considered by replaying in a phantom experiment the recorded motion trajectories from subjects. T1-weighted MRI on five volunteers and two different marker fixations (mouth guard and nose bridge fixations) were used to test the framework. Two metrics were investigated to quantify the improvement of the image quality with PMC. Motion patterns vary between subjects as well as between repeated scans within a subject. This variability can be approximated by replaying the motion in a distinct phantom experiment and used as a covariate in models comparing motion corrections. We show that considering the intrinsic motion alters the statistical significance in comparing marker fixations. As an example, two marker fixations, a mouth guard and a nose bridge, were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness for PMC. A mouth guard achieved better PMC performance. Intrinsic motion patterns can bias comparisons between PMC configurations and must be considered for robust evaluations. A framework for evaluating intrinsic motion patterns in PMC is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Quantitative evaluation improves specificity of myocardial perfusion SPECT in the assessment of functionally significant intermediate coronary artery stenoses: a comparative study with fractional flow reserve measurements.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Ilgin; Akdemir, Umit O; Kocaman, Sinan A; Sahinarslan, Asife; Timurkaynak, Timur; Unlu, Mustafa

    2013-02-01

    Myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) is a noninvasive method commonly used for assessment of the hemodynamic significance of intermediate coronary stenoses. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement is a well-validated invasive method used for the evaluation of intermediate stenoses. We aimed to determine the association between MPS and FFR findings in intermediate degree stenoses and evaluate the added value of quantification in MPS. Fifty-eight patients who underwent intracoronary pressure measurement in the catheterization laboratory to assess the physiological significance of intermediate (40-70%) left anterior descending (LAD) artery lesions, and who also underwent stress myocardial perfusion SPECT either for the assessment of an intermediate stenosis or for suspected coronary artery disease were analyzed retrospectively in the study. Quantitative analysis was performed using the 4DMSPECT program, with visual assessment performed by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the angiographic findings. Summed stress scores (SSS) and summed difference scores (SDS) in the LAD artery territory according to the 20 segment model were calculated. A summed stress score of ≥ 3 and an SDS of ≥ 2 were assumed as pathologic, indicating significance of the lesion; a cutoff value of 0.75 was used to define abnormal FFR. Both visual and quantitative assessment results were compared with FFR using Chi-square (χ²) test. The mean time interval between two studies was 13 ± 11 days. FFR was normal in 45 and abnormal in 13 patients. Considering the FFR results as the gold standard method for assessing the significance of the lesion, the sensitivity and specificity of quantitative analysis determining the abnormal flow reserve were 85 and 84%, respectively, while visual analysis had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 51%. There was a good agreement between the observers (κ = 0.856). Summed stress and difference scores demonstrated moderate inverse

  6. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation: Requirements for tomorrow's reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) is the technology of measurement, analysis, and prediction of the state of material/structural systems for safety, reliability, and mission assurance. QNDE has impact on everyday life from the cars we drive, the planes we fly, the buildings we work or live in, literally to the infrastructure of our world. Here, researchers highlight some of the new sciences and technologies that are part of a safer, cost effective tomorrow. Specific technologies that are discussed are thermal QNDE of aircraft structural integrity, ultrasonic QNDE for materials characterization, and technology spinoffs from aerospace to the medical sector. In each case, examples are given of how new requirements result in enabling measurement technologies, which in turn change the boundaries of design/practice.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using four rotary instrumentation systems: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nagaveni, S Aspalli; Balakoti, K Reddy; Smita, Karan; Ratnakar, P; Satish, S V; Aravind, T

    2013-11-01

    The apical extrusion of infected debris may have the potential to disrupt the balance between microbial aggression and host defense, resulting in incidents of acute inflammation. During preparation, irrigants and debris, such as bacteria, dentin filings and necrotic tissue may be extruded into the periradicular region leading to periapical inflammation and postoperative flare ups. Using an instrumentation technique that minimizes apical extrusion would be beneficial to both the practitioner and patient. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the weight of debris and volume of irrigant extruded apically from extracted teeth in vitro after endodontic instrumentation using four different rotary root canal instrumentation systems. Four groups of each 20 extracted mandibular premolars were instrumented using one of the four systems: ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland)), Hero-shaper (MicroMega, Besancon, France), RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and K3 (SybronEndo, West Collins, CA). Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected in preweighed test tubes. Volume of irrigant extruded was noted. The containers were stored in incubator at 70° for two days to evaporate the moisture. Weight of dry debris was noted. Data was analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test at a significance of 0.001. The results indicated that all of the instrumentation systems tested caused measurable apical extrusion of debris and irrigants. Higher extrusion was observed with Protaper system which was statistically significant with Hero-Shaper, RaCe and K3 systems. There were no statistical differences between Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems (p < 0.05). All instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris and irrigant. However, Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems produced less extruded debris and irrigant than the Protaper system.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of diffusion-kurtosis imaging for grading endometrial carcinoma: a comparative study with diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Li, Y; Lu, S-S; Zhang, Y-D; Wang, X-N; Luo, C-Y; Shi, H-B

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of histogram analysis of diffusion kurtosis magnetic resonance imaging (DKI) and standard diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in discriminating tumour grades of endometrial carcinoma (EC). Seventy-three patients with EC were included in this study. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value from standard DWI, apparent diffusion for Gaussian distribution (D app ), and apparent kurtosis coefficient (K app ) from DKI were acquired using a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. The measurement was based on an entire-tumour analysis. Histogram parameters (D app , K app , and ADC) were compared between high-grade (grade 3) and low-grade (grade 1 and 2) tumours. The diagnostic performance of imaging parameters for discriminating high- from low-grade tumours was analysed using a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the 10th percentile of D app , 90th percentile of K app and 10th percentile of ADC were higher than other parameters in distinguishing high-grade tumours from low-grade tumours (AUC=0.821, 0.891 and 0.801, respectively). The combination of 10th percentile of D app and 90th percentile of K app improved the AUC to 0.901, which was significantly higher than that of the 10th percentile of ADC (0.810, p=0.0314) in differentiating high- from low-grade EC. Entire-tumour volume histogram analysis of DKI and standard DWI were feasible for discriminating histological tumour grades of EC. DKI was relatively better than DWI in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade tumour in EC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A Framework for Quantitative Evaluation of Care Coordination Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. healthcare system lacks incentives and quantitative evaluation tools to assess coordination in a patient's care transition process. This is needed because poor care coordination has been identified by many studies as one of the major root causes for the U.S. health system's inefficiency, for poor outcomes, and for high cost. Despite…

  10. Evaluating the More Suitable ISM Frequency Band for IoT-Based Smart Grids: A Quantitative Study of 915 MHz vs. 2400 MHz.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Ruben M; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2016-12-31

    IoT has begun to be employed pervasively in industrial environments and critical infrastructures thanks to its positive impact on performance and efficiency. Among these environments, the Smart Grid (SG) excels as the perfect host for this technology, mainly due to its potential to become the motor of the rest of electrically-dependent infrastructures. To make this SG-oriented IoT cost-effective, most deployments employ unlicensed ISM bands, specifically the 2400 MHz one, due to its extended communication bandwidth in comparison with lower bands. This band has been extensively used for years by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), from which the IoT technologically inherits. However, this work questions and evaluates the suitability of such a "default" communication band in SG environments, compared with the 915 MHz ISM band. A comprehensive quantitative comparison of these bands has been accomplished in terms of: power consumption, average network delay, and packet reception rate. To allow such a study, a dual-band propagation model specifically designed for the SG has been derived, tested, and incorporated into the well-known TOSSIM simulator. Simulation results reveal that only in the absence of other 2400 MHz interfering devices (such as WiFi or Bluetooth) or in small networks, is the 2400 MHz band the best option. In any other case, SG-oriented IoT quantitatively perform better if operating in the 915 MHz band.

  11. Evaluating the More Suitable ISM Frequency Band for IoT-Based Smart Grids: A Quantitative Study of 915 MHz vs. 2400 MHz

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2016-01-01

    IoT has begun to be employed pervasively in industrial environments and critical infrastructures thanks to its positive impact on performance and efficiency. Among these environments, the Smart Grid (SG) excels as the perfect host for this technology, mainly due to its potential to become the motor of the rest of electrically-dependent infrastructures. To make this SG-oriented IoT cost-effective, most deployments employ unlicensed ISM bands, specifically the 2400 MHz one, due to its extended communication bandwidth in comparison with lower bands. This band has been extensively used for years by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), from which the IoT technologically inherits. However, this work questions and evaluates the suitability of such a “default” communication band in SG environments, compared with the 915 MHz ISM band. A comprehensive quantitative comparison of these bands has been accomplished in terms of: power consumption, average network delay, and packet reception rate. To allow such a study, a dual-band propagation model specifically designed for the SG has been derived, tested, and incorporated into the well-known TOSSIM simulator. Simulation results reveal that only in the absence of other 2400 MHz interfering devices (such as WiFi or Bluetooth) or in small networks, is the 2400 MHz band the best option. In any other case, SG-oriented IoT quantitatively perform better if operating in the 915 MHz band. PMID:28042863

  12. An experimental study: quantitatively evaluating the change of the content of collagen fibres in penis with two-dimensional ShearWave™ Elastography.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X-H; Zhang, J-J; Gao, F; Li, F; Bai, M; Du, L-F; Xing, J-F

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the value of two-dimensional ShearWave ™ Elastography (2D-SWE) on quantitatively evaluating the change of the content of collagen fibres in penis. Twenty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the pre-sexual maturity group (Group 1) and the sexual decline group (Group 2) according to age. The ultrafast ultrasound device Aixplorer ® (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) was used for 2D-SWE imaging of penis, and the measurement index was shear wave stiffness (SWS). The immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the content of collagen fibres in penis, and the measurement index was positive area percentage (PAP). The differences of SWS between the two groups and PAP between the two groups were analysed. SWS of Group 1 and Group 2 was 10.18 ± 1.09 and 8.02 ± 1.34 kPa, and SWS of Group 2 was significantly lower than Group 1 (p < .01). PAP of Group 1 and Group 2 was 4.83 ± 3.61% and 16.41 ± 10.02%, and PAP of Group 2 was significantly higher than Group 1 (p < .01). Our results indicate that when the content of collagen fibres changes, SWS of penis measured with 2D-SWE would change significantly as well. Two-dimensional SWE can be used to quantitatively evaluate the change of the content of collagen fibres in penis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Evaluation of reference genes for reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) studies in Silene vulgaris considering the method of cDNA preparation

    PubMed Central

    Koloušková, Pavla; Stone, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate gene expression measurements are essential in studies of both crop and wild plants. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a preferred tool for gene expression estimation. A selection of suitable reference genes for the normalization of transcript levels is an essential prerequisite of accurate RT-qPCR results. We evaluated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes across roots, leaves, flower buds and pollen of Silene vulgaris (bladder campion), a model plant for the study of gynodioecy. As random priming of cDNA is recommended for the study of organellar transcripts and poly(A) selection is indicated for nuclear transcripts, we estimated gene expression with both random-primed and oligo(dT)-primed cDNA. Accordingly, we determined reference genes that perform well with oligo(dT)- and random-primed cDNA, making it possible to estimate levels of nucleus-derived transcripts in the same cDNA samples as used for organellar transcripts, a key benefit in studies of cyto-nuclear interactions. Gene expression variance was estimated by RefFinder, which integrates four different analytical tools. The SvACT and SvGAPDH genes were the most stable candidates across various organs of S. vulgaris, regardless of whether pollen was included or not. PMID:28817728

  14. Evaluation of intervertebral disc regeneration with implantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) using quantitative T2 mapping: a study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Wu, Xiao-Tao; Xie, Xin-Hui; Wang, Feng; Hong, Xin; Zhuang, Su-Yang; Zhu, Lei; Rui, Yun-Feng; Shi, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the curative effects of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on intervertebral disc regeneration and to investigate the feasibility of the quantitative T2 mapping method for evaluating repair of the nucleus pulposus after implantation of BMSCs. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish the lumber disc degenerative model by stabbing the annulus fibrosus and then randomly divided into four groups, i.e. two weeks afterwards, BMSCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were transplanted into degenerative discs (BMSCs group and PBS group), while the operated rabbits without implantation of BMSCs or PBS served as the sham group and the rabbits without operation were used as the control group. At weeks two, six and ten after operation, the T2 values and disc height indices (DHI) were calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI 3.0 T), and the gene expressions of type II collagen (COL2) and aggrecan (ACAN) in degenerative discs were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). T2 values for the nucleus pulposus were correlated with ACAN or COL2 expression by regression analysis. Cell clusters, disorganised fibres, interlamellar glycosaminoglycan (GAG) matrix and vascularisation were observed in lumber degenerative discs. BMSCs could be found to survive in intervertebral discs and differentiate into nucleus pulposus-like cells expressing COL2 and ACAN. The gene expression of COL2 and ACAN increased during ten weeks after transplantation as well as the T2 signal intensity and T2 value. The DHI in the BMSCs group decreased more slowly than that in PBS and sham groups. The T2 value correlated significantly with the gene expression of ACAN and COL2 in the nucleus pulposus. Transplantation of BMSCs was able to promote the regeneration of degenerative discs. Quantitative and non-invasive T2 mapping could be used to evaluate the regeneration of the nucleus

  15. Technological innovation in neurosurgery: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-07-01

    Technological innovation within health care may be defined as the introduction of a new technology that initiates a change in clinical practice. Neurosurgery is a particularly technology-intensive surgical discipline, and new technologies have preceded many of the major advances in operative neurosurgical techniques. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery using patents and peer-reviewed publications as metrics of technology development and clinical translation, respectively. The authors searched a patent database for articles published between 1960 and 2010 using the Boolean search term "neurosurgeon OR neurosurgical OR neurosurgery." The top 50 performing patent codes were then grouped into technology clusters. Patent and publication growth curves were then generated for these technology clusters. A top-performing technology cluster was then selected as an exemplar for a more detailed analysis of individual patents. In all, 11,672 patents and 208,203 publications related to neurosurgery were identified. The top-performing technology clusters during these 50 years were image-guidance devices, clinical neurophysiology devices, neuromodulation devices, operating microscopes, and endoscopes. In relation to image-guidance and neuromodulation devices, the authors found a highly correlated rapid rise in the numbers of patents and publications, which suggests that these are areas of technology expansion. An in-depth analysis of neuromodulation-device patents revealed that the majority of well-performing patents were related to deep brain stimulation. Patent and publication data may be used to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery.

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN NEUROSURGERY: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    Object Technological innovation within healthcare may be defined as the introduction of a new technology that initiates a change in clinical practice. Neurosurgery is a particularly technologically intensive surgical discipline, and new technologies have preceded many of the major advances in operative neurosurgical technique. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery using patents and peer-reviewed publications as metrics of technology development and clinical translation respectively. Methods A patent database was searched between 1960 and 2010 using the search terms “neurosurgeon” OR “neurosurgical” OR “neurosurgery”. The top 50 performing patent codes were then grouped into technology clusters. Patent and publication growth curves were then generated for these technology clusters. A top performing technology cluster was then selected as an exemplar for more detailed analysis of individual patents. Results In all, 11,672 patents and 208,203 publications relating to neurosurgery were identified. The top performing technology clusters over the 50 years were: image guidance devices, clinical neurophysiology devices, neuromodulation devices, operating microscopes and endoscopes. Image guidance and neuromodulation devices demonstrated a highly correlated rapid rise in patents and publications, suggesting they are areas of technology expansion. In-depth analysis of neuromodulation patents revealed that the majority of high performing patents were related to Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Conclusions Patent and publication data may be used to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery. PMID:25699414

  17. Quantitative Evaluation of Musical Scale Tunings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donald E.

    1974-01-01

    The acoustical and mathematical basis of the problem of tuning the twelve-tone chromatic scale is reviewed. A quantitative measurement showing how well any tuning succeeds in providing just intonation for any specific piece of music is explained and applied to musical examples using a simple computer program. (DT)

  18. Evaluation of Coronary Artery Stenosis by Quantitative Flow Ratio During Invasive Coronary Angiography: The WIFI II Study (Wire-Free Functional Imaging II).

    PubMed

    Westra, Jelmer; Tu, Shengxian; Winther, Simon; Nissen, Louise; Vestergaard, Mai-Britt; Andersen, Birgitte Krogsgaard; Holck, Emil Nielsen; Fox Maule, Camilla; Johansen, Jane Kirk; Andreasen, Lene Nyhus; Simonsen, Jo Krogsgaard; Zhang, Yimin; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Maeng, Michael; Kaltoft, Anne; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Krusell, Lars Romer; Jakobsen, Lars; Reiber, Johan H C; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Bøttcher, Morten; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Holm, Niels Ramsing

    2018-03-01

    Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a novel diagnostic modality for functional testing of coronary artery stenosis without the use of pressure wires and induction of hyperemia. QFR is based on computation of standard invasive coronary angiographic imaging. The purpose of WIFI II (Wire-Free Functional Imaging II) was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of QFR in unselected consecutive patients. WIFI II was a predefined substudy to the Dan-NICAD study (Danish Study of Non-Invasive Diagnostic Testing in Coronary Artery Disease), referring 362 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease on coronary computed tomographic angiography for diagnostic invasive coronary angiography. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was measured in all segments with 30% to 90% diameter stenosis. Blinded observers calculated QFR (Medis Medical Imaging bv, The Netherlands) for comparison with FFR. FFR was measured in 292 lesions from 191 patients. Ten (5%) and 9 patients (5%) were excluded because of FFR and angiographic core laboratory criteria, respectively. QFR was successfully computed in 240 out of 255 lesions (94%) with a mean diameter stenosis of 50±12%. Mean difference between FFR and QFR was 0.01±0.08. QFR correctly classified 83% of the lesions using FFR with cutoff at 0.80 as reference standard. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.91) with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 77%, 86%, 75%, and 87%, respectively. A QFR-FFR hybrid approach based on the present results enables wire-free and adenosine-free procedures in 68% of cases. Functional lesion evaluation by QFR assessment showed good agreement and diagnostic accuracy compared with FFR. Studies comparing clinical outcome after QFR- and FFR-based diagnostic strategies are required. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02264717. © 2018 The Authors.

  19. Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2012-07-11

    Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated.

  20. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative PCR in the model fungus Neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Pirlo, Russell K; Cockrell, Allison L; Petersen, Emily R; Biffinger, Justin C

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1) light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2) all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3) temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4) all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated), expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring gene

  1. Evaluation of focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy: a quantitative study comparing double inversion-recovery MR imaging at 3T with FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Emiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Riki; Takaya, Shigetoshi; Ikeda, Akio; Kunieda, Takeharu; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Paul, Dominik; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2013-12-01

    To quantitatively compare the diagnostic capability of double inversion-recovery (DIR) with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for detection of seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Fifteen patients with TLE and 38 healthy volunteers were enrolled. All magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired using a 3T-MRI system. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) was conducted for FDG-PET images and white matter segments of DIR images (DIR-WM) focused on the whole temporal lobe (TL) and the anterior part of the temporal lobe (ATL). Distribution of hypometabolic areas on FDG-PET and increased signal intensity areas on DIR-WM were evaluated, and their laterality was compared with clinically determined seizure focus laterality. Correct diagnostic rates of laterality were evaluated, and agreement between DIR-WM and FDG-PET was assessed using κ statistics. Increased signal intensity areas on DIR-WM were located at the vicinity of the hypometabolic areas on FDG-PET, especially in the ATL. Correct diagnostic rates of seizure focus laterality for DIR-WM (0.80 and 0.67 for the TL and the ATL, respectively) were slightly higher than those for FDG-PET (0.67 and 0.60 for the TL and the ATL, respectively). Agreement of laterality between DIR-WM and FDG-PET was substantial for the TL and almost perfect for the ATL (κ = 0.67 and 0.86, respectively). High agreement in localization between DIR-WM and FDG-PET and nearly equivalent detectability of them show us an additional role of MRI in TLE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Evaluation of the Supratentorial Brain Regions in Patients Diagnosed with Brainstem Variant of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tai-Yuan; Wu, Te-Chang; Ko, Ching-Chung; Feng, I-Jung; Tsui, Yu-Kun; Lin, Chien-Jen; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lin, Ching-Po

    2017-07-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiologic entity with several causes, characterized by rapid onset of symptoms and typical neuroimaging features, which usually resolve if promptly recognized and treated. Brainstem variant of PRES presents with vasogenic edema in brainstem regions on magnetic resonance (MR) images and there is sparing of the supratentorial regions. Because PRES is usually caused by a hypertensive crisis, which would likely have a systemic effect and global manifestations on the brain tissue, we thus proposed that some microscopic abnormalities of the supratentorial regions could be detected with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) analysis in brainstem variant of PRES and hypothesized that "normal-looking" supratentorial regions will increase water diffusion. We retrospectively identified patients with PRES who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging studies. We identified 11 brainstem variants of PRES patients, who formed the study cohort, and 11 typical PRES patients and 20 normal control subjects as the comparison cohorts for this study. Nineteen regions of interest were drawn and systematically placed. The mean ADC values were measured and compared among these 3 groups. ADC values of the typical PRES group were consistently elevated compared with those in normal control subjects. ADC values of the brainstem variant group were consistently elevated compared with those in normal control subjects. ADC values of the typical PRES group and brainstem variant group did not differ significantly, except for the pons area. Quantitative MR DWI may aid in the evaluation of supratentorial microscopic abnormalities in brainstem variant of PRES patients. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A method based on Monte Carlo simulations and voxelized anatomical atlases to evaluate and correct uncertainties on radiotracer accumulation quantitation in beta microprobe studies in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, F.; Dhenain, M.; Gurden, H.; Routier, A. L.; Lefebvre, F.; Mastrippolito, R.; Lanièce, P.

    2008-10-01

    The β-microprobe is a simple and versatile technique complementary to small animal positron emission tomography (PET). It relies on local measurements of the concentration of positron-labeled molecules. So far, it has been successfully used in anesthetized rats for pharmacokinetics experiments and for the study of brain energetic metabolism. However, the ability of the technique to provide accurate quantitative measurements using 18F, 11C and 15O tracers is likely to suffer from the contribution of 511 keV gamma rays background to the signal and from the contribution of positrons from brain loci surrounding the locus of interest. The aim of the present paper is to provide a method of evaluating several parameters, which are supposed to affect the quantification of recordings performed in vivo with this methodology. We have developed realistic voxelized phantoms of the rat whole body and brain, and used them as input geometries for Monte Carlo simulations of previous β-microprobe reports. In the context of realistic experiments (binding of 11C-Raclopride to D2 dopaminergic receptors in the striatum; local glucose metabolic rate measurement with 18F-FDG and H2O15 blood flow measurements in the somatosensory cortex), we have calculated the detection efficiencies and corresponding contribution of 511 keV gammas from peripheral organs accumulation. We confirmed that the 511 keV gammas background does not impair quantification. To evaluate the contribution of positrons from adjacent structures, we have developed β-Assistant, a program based on a rat brain voxelized atlas and matrices of local detection efficiencies calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for several probe geometries. This program was used to calculate the 'apparent sensitivity' of the probe for each brain structure included in the detection volume. For a given localization of a probe within the brain, this allows us to quantify the different sources of beta signal. Finally, since stereotaxic accuracy is

  4. 3.0T MR imaging of the ankle: Axial traction for morphological cartilage evaluation, quantitative T2 mapping and cartilage diffusion imaging-A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jungmann, Pia M; Baum, Thomas; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Sauerschnig, Martin; Brucker, Peter U; Mann, Alexander; Ganter, Carl; Bieri, Oliver; Rummeny, Ernst J; Woertler, Klaus; Bauer, Jan S

    2015-08-01

    To determine the impact of axial traction during high resolution 3.0T MR imaging of the ankle on morphological assessment of articular cartilage and quantitative cartilage imaging parameters. MR images of n=25 asymptomatic ankles were acquired with and without axial traction (6kg). Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted (w) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences with a driven equilibrium pulse and sagittal fat-saturated intermediate-w (IMfs) TSE sequences were acquired for morphological evaluation on a four-point scale (1=best, 4=worst). For quantitative assessment of cartilage degradation segmentation was performed on 2D multislice-multiecho (MSME) SE T2, steady-state free-precession (SSFP; n=8) T2 and SSFP diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI; n=8) images. Wilcoxon-tests and paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. With axial traction, joint space width increased significantly and delineation of cartilage surfaces was rated superior (P<0.05). Cartilage surfaces were best visualized on coronal T1-w images (P<0.05). Differences for cartilage matrix evaluation were smaller. Subchondral bone evaluation, motion artifacts and image quality were not significantly different between the acquisition methods (P>0.05). T2 values were lower at the tibia than at the talus (P<0.001). Reproducibility was better for images with axial traction. Axial traction increased the joint space width, allowed for better visualization of cartilage surfaces and improved compartment discrimination and reproducibility of quantitative cartilage parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of Management Courses: Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Cyril

    1973-01-01

    The author describes how he developed a method of evaluating and comparing management courses of different types and lengths by applying an ordinal system of relative values using a process of transmutation. (MS)

  7. Quantitative evaluation of pairs and RS steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ker, Andrew D.

    2004-06-01

    We give initial results from a new project which performs statistically accurate evaluation of the reliability of image steganalysis algorithms. The focus here is on the Pairs and RS methods, for detection of simple LSB steganography in grayscale bitmaps, due to Fridrich et al. Using libraries totalling around 30,000 images we have measured the performance of these methods and suggest changes which lead to significant improvements. Particular results from the project presented here include notes on the distribution of the RS statistic, the relative merits of different "masks" used in the RS algorithm, the effect on reliability when previously compressed cover images are used, and the effect of repeating steganalysis on the transposed image. We also discuss improvements to the Pairs algorithm, restricting it to spatially close pairs of pixels, which leads to a substantial performance improvement, even to the extent of surpassing the RS statistic which was previously thought superior for grayscale images. We also describe some of the questions for a general methodology of evaluation of steganalysis, and potential pitfalls caused by the differences between uncompressed, compressed, and resampled cover images.

  8. A Quantitative Evaluation of Dissolved Oxygen Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pijanowski, Barbara S.

    1971-01-01

    The implications of the presence of dissolved oxygen in water are discussed in terms of its deleterious or beneficial effects, depending on the functional consequences to those affected, e.g., the industrialist, the oceanographer, and the ecologist. The paper is devoted primarily to an examination of the performance of five commercially available dissolved oxygen meters. The design of each is briefly reviewed and ease or difficulty of use in the field described. Specifically, the evaluation program treated a number of parameters and user considerations including an initial check and trial calibration for each instrument and a discussion of the measurement methodology employed. Detailed test results are given relating to the effects of primary power variation, water-flow sensitivity, response time, relative accuracy of dissolved-oxygen readout, temperature accuracy (for those instruments which included this feature), error and repeatability, stability, pressure and other environmental effects, and test results obtained in the field. Overall instrument performance is summarized comparatively by chart.

  9. An anthropomorphic phantom for quantitative evaluation of breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Freed, Melanie; de Zwart, Jacco A; Loud, Jennifer T; El Khouli, Riham H; Myers, Kyle J; Greene, Mark H; Duyn, Jeff H; Badano, Aldo

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the authors aim to develop a physical, tissue-mimicking phantom for quantitative evaluation of breast MRI protocols. The objective of this phantom is to address the need for improved standardization in breast MRI and provide a platform for evaluating the influence of image protocol parameters on lesion detection and discrimination. Quantitative comparisons between patient and phantom image properties are presented. The phantom is constructed using a mixture of lard and egg whites, resulting in a random structure with separate adipose- and glandular-mimicking components. T1 and T2 relaxation times of the lard and egg components of the phantom were estimated at 1.5 T from inversion recovery and spin-echo scans, respectively, using maximum-likelihood methods. The image structure was examined quantitatively by calculating and comparing spatial covariance matrices of phantom and patient images. A static, enhancing lesion was introduced by creating a hollow mold with stereolithography and filling it with a gadolinium-doped water solution. Measured phantom relaxation values fall within 2 standard errors of human values from the literature and are reasonably stable over 9 months of testing. Comparison of the covariance matrices of phantom and patient data demonstrates that the phantom and patient data have similar image structure. Their covariance matrices are the same to within error bars in the anterior-posterior direction and to within about two error bars in the right-left direction. The signal from the phantom's adipose-mimicking material can be suppressed using active fat-suppression protocols. A static, enhancing lesion can also be included with the ability to change morphology and contrast agent concentration. The authors have constructed a phantom and demonstrated its ability to mimic human breast images in terms of key physical properties that are relevant to breast MRI. This phantom provides a platform for the optimization and standardization of

  10. WE-FG-207B-12: Quantitative Evaluation of a Spectral CT Scanner in a Phantom Study: Results of Spectral Reconstructions

    SciT

    Duan, X; Arbique, G; Guild, J

    Purpose: To evaluate the quantitative image quality of spectral reconstructions of phantom data from a spectral CT scanner. Methods: The spectral CT scanner (IQon Spectral CT, Philips Healthcare) is equipped with a dual-layer detector and generates conventional 80-140 kVp images and variety of spectral reconstructions, e.g., virtual monochromatic (VM) images, virtual non-contrast (VNC) images, iodine maps, and effective atomic number (Z) images. A cylindrical solid water phantom (Gammex 472, 33 cm diameter and 5 cm thick) with iodine (2.0-20.0 mg I/ml) and calcium (50-600 mg/ml) rod inserts was scanned at 120 kVp and 27 mGy CTDIvol. Spectral reconstructions were evaluatedmore » by comparing image measurements with theoretical values calculated from nominal rod compositions provided by the phantom manufacturer. The theoretical VNC was calculated using water and iodine basis material decomposition, and the theoretical Z was calculated using two common methods, the chemical formula method (Z1) and the dual-energy ratio method (Z2). Results: Beam-hardening-like artifacts between high-attenuation calcium rods (≥300 mg/ml, >800 HU) influenced quantitative measurements, so the quantitative analysis was only performed on iodine rods using the images from the scan with all the calcium rods removed. The CT numbers of the iodine rods in the VM images (50∼150 keV) were close to theoretical values with average difference of 2.4±6.9 HU. Compared with theoretical values, the average difference for iodine concentration, VNC CT number and effective Z of iodine rods were −0.10±0.38 mg/ml, −0.1±8.2 HU, 0.25±0.06 (Z1) and −0.23±0.07 (Z2). Conclusion: The results indicate that the spectral CT scanner generates quantitatively accurate spectral reconstructions at clinically relevant iodine concentrations. Beam-hardening-like artifacts still exist when high-attenuation objects are present and their impact on patient images needs further investigation. YY is an employee of

  11. Ultrasonographic evaluation of equine tendons: a quantitative in vitro study of the effects of amplifier gain level, transducer-tilt, and transducer-displacement.

    PubMed

    van Schie, J T; Bakker, E M; van Weeren, P R

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the in vitro experiments described in this paper was to quantify the effects of some instrumental variables on the quantitative evaluation, by means of first-order gray-level statistics, of ultrasonographic images of equine tendons. The experiments were done on three isolated equine superficial digital flexor tendons that were mounted in a frame and submerged in a waterbath. Sections with either normal tendon tissue, an acute lesion, or a chronic scar, were selected. In these sections, the following experiments were done: 1) a gradual increase of total amplifier gain output subdivided in 12 equal steps; 2) a transducer tilt plus or minus 3 degrees from perpendicular, with steps of 1 degree; and 3) a transducer displacement along, and perpendicular to, the tendon long axis, with 16 steps of 0.25 mm each. Transverse ultrasonographic images were collected, and in the regions of interest (ROI) first-order gray-level statistics were calculated to quantify the effects of each experiment. Some important observations were: 1) the total amplifier gain output has a substantial influence on the ultrasonographic image; for example, in the case of an acute lesion, a low gain setting results in an almost completely black image; whereas, with higher gain settings, a marked "filling in" effect on the lesion can be observed; 2) the relative effects of the tilting of the transducer are substantial in normal tendon tissue (18%) and chronic scar (12%); whereas, in the event of an acute lesion, the effects on the mean gray level are dramatic (40%); and 3) the relative effects of displacement of the transducer are small in normal tendon tissue, but on the other hand, the mean gray-level changes 7% in chronic scar, and even 20% in an acute lesion. In general, slight variations in scanner settings and transducer handling can have considerable effects on the gray levels of the ultrasonographic image. Furthermore, there is a strong indication that this quantitative method

  12. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to quantify damage tolerance and resistance in composite materials impacted using the drop-weight method. Tests were conducted on laminates of several different carbon-fiber composite systems, such as epoxies, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics. Impacted composite specimens were examined using destructive and non-destructive techniques to establish the characteristic damage states. Specifically, optical microscopy, ultrasonic, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify impact induced damage mechanisms. Damage propagation during post impact compression was also studied.

  13. A quantitative approach to evaluating caring in nursing simulation.

    PubMed

    Eggenberger, Terry L; Keller, Kathryn B; Chase, Susan K; Payne, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to test a quantitative method of measuring caring in the simulated environment. Since competency in caring is central to nursing practice, ways of including caring concepts in designing scenarios and in evaluation of performance need to be developed. Coates' Caring Efficacy scales were adapted for simulation and named the Caring Efficacy Scale-Simulation Student Version (CES-SSV) and Caring Efficacy Scale-Simulation Faculty Version (CES-SFV). A correlational study was designed to compare student self-ratings with faculty ratings on caring efficacy during an adult acute simulation experience with traditional and accelerated baccalaureate students in a nursing program grounded in caring theory. Student self-ratings were significantly correlated with objective ratings (r = 0.345, 0.356). Both the CES-SSV and the CES-SFV were found to have excellent internal consistency and significantly correlated interrater reliability. They were useful in measuring caring in the simulated learning environment.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of fungi of the genus Candida in the feces of adult patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gosiewski, Tomasz; Salamon, Dominika; Szopa, Magdalena; Sroka, Agnieszka; Malecki, Maciej T; Bulanda, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract microbiota, particularly bacterial microflora, seem to have a different qualitative and quantitative composition in both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) mellitus cases as compared to non-diabetic individuals. So far, there are no data from diabetes research concerning the prevalence of fungi, particularly the most common genus, i.e. Candida, which are important components of human colon microflora. We aimed to examine whether there are quantitative changes of Candida fungi in the feces of patients with T1DM and T2DM as compared to healthy controls. Overall, we included 44 diabetic patients (27 patients with T1DM and 17 with T2DM) as well as 17 healthy, non-diabetic controls. Feces and blood samples were collected from all study individuals. DNA was isolated from fecal samples and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was applied in order to determine the number of fungal cells. Statistical association with selected clinical and biochemical features was examined. There was a difference in the amount of Candida in the feces among the three examined groups (p = 0.007). Candida spp. populations in T1DM and T2DM subjects were larger as compared to controls (p = 0.017 and p = 0.037, respectively). However, no difference was found between T1DM and T2DM. No association was identified between the quantity of fungi and examined patients' characteristics, except for negative correlation with blood lipid parameters in T2DM group. Candida fungi appear to be more prevalent in the feces of patients with T1DM and T2DM. Their amount seems to be associated with serum lipids in T2DM patients. This initial finding requires further confirmation.

  15. Critical Quantitative Study of Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of critical quantitative research for studies of immigrant students, a large and growing group, whose higher education experience is crucial to the future of the United States. The author outlines some of the distinctions to be made among immigrant students and recommends areas of future inquiry.

  16. Early evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness in children with epilepsy by quantitative EEG: a model of Mozart K.448 listening--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2014-10-01

    There are many treatments being developed for patients with epilepsy, including anti-epileptic drugs, ketogenic diet and vagus nerve stimulation. To date, there is a lack of valid methods to predict at an early stage the therapeutic effects on patients with epilepsy who receive one of these treatments. Our previous studies revealed that epileptiform discharges which were observed in patients with epilepsy were significantly decreased while listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we attempted to develop a useful marker by utilizing a quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) method in analyzing the features of EEG to early evaluate the effect of the music on children with epilepsy, even without epileptiform discharges. EEG segments from 19 Taiwanese children who were selected from a large screen study of music effect (eight boys and 11 girls) diagnosed with epilepsy were analyzed. EEG examinations were performed in two parallel periods in each patient; before, and while listening to Mozart K.448's first movement (8 min 22s) and EEG data were compared by qEEG. EEG segments were classified into music effective/ineffective group. The term "effective" was defined as patient exposure to music resulting in over a 25% reduction in epileptiform discharges. On the contrary, the term "ineffective" was defined as patient exposure to music resulting in less than a 5% reduction in epileptiform discharges. There were four global feature descriptors selected for the music effective/ineffective classification. Two descriptors, DecorrTime_avg_AVG and DecorrTime_std_AVG, were related to the EEG feature "decorrelation" whereas the other two descriptors, RelPowGamma_avg_SNR and RelPowGamma_std_SNR, were related to "relative power of gamma." There were significantly higher RelPowGamma_std_SNR (0.190±0.133 vs. -0.026±0.119, p=0.0029), DecorrTime_std_AVG (0.005±0.004 vs. 0.0003±0.0016, p=0.0055), DecorrTime_avg_AVG (0.005±0.005 vs. -0.002±0.008, p=0.0179), and Rel

  17. Biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with osteochondrosis dissecans by means of quantitative T2- and T2-mapping at 3T MRI: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Marik, W; Apprich, S; Welsch, G H; Mamisch, T C; Trattnig, S

    2012-05-01

    To perform an in vivo evaluation comparing overlying articular cartilage in patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) in the talocrural joint and healthy volunteers using quantitative T2 mapping at 3.0 T. Ten patients with OCD of Grade II or lower and 9 healthy age matched volunteers were examined at a 3.0 T whole body MR scanner using a flexible multi-element coil. In all investigated persons MRI included proton-density (PD)-FSE and 3D GRE (TrueFisp) sequences for morphological diagnosis and location of anatomical site and quantitative T2 and T2 maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed for the cartilage layer above the OCD and for a morphologically healthy graded cartilage layer. Mean T2 and T2 values were then statistically analysed. The cartilage layer of healthy volunteers showed mean T2 and T2 values of 29.4 ms (SD 4.9) and 11.8 ms (SD 2.7), respectively. In patients with OCD of grade I and II lesions mean T2 values were 40.9 ms (SD 6.6), 48.7 ms (SD 11.2) and mean T2 values were 16.1 ms (SD 3.2), 16.2 ms (SD 4.8). Therefore statistically significantly higher mean T2 and T2 values were found in patients suffering from OCD compared to healthy volunteers. T2 and T2 mapping can help assess the microstructural composition of cartilage overlying osteochondral lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative evaluation research of glare from automotive headlamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Rui; Cao, Ye; Gao, Mingqiu

    2018-01-01

    This study concerns the quantized evaluation research of glare from automotive headlamps. In the actual regulations, only one point in the test screen is set for judging whether driver can bear the light caused by headlamps of opposing vehicle. To evaluating practical effect of glare, we accept a glare zone with the probability distribution information of the oncoming driver's eye position. In this focus area, glare level of headlamp is represented by weighted luminous flux. To confirm the most comfortable illuminance value to human eyes at 50 m, we used test point B50L as observation position, and collected 1,000 subjective evaluation data from 20 test personnel in different ages during two months. Basing on the assessment results, we calculated 0.60 lx as recommended value for standardized testing procedure at 25 m. Then we figured out 0.38 lm as optimum value, and 0.25 / 1.20 lm as limiting values depending on regulations. We tested 40 sample vehicles with different levels to verify the sectional nonlinear quantitative evaluation method we designed, and analyzed the typical test results.

  19. Development and prospective evaluation of an automated software system for quality control of quantitative 99mTc-MAG3 renal studies.

    PubMed

    Folks, Russell D; Garcia, Ernest V; Taylor, Andrew T

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative nuclear renography has numerous potential sources of error. We previously reported the initial development of a computer software module for comprehensively addressing the issue of quality control (QC) in the analysis of radionuclide renal images. The objective of this study was to prospectively test the QC software. The QC software works in conjunction with standard quantitative renal image analysis using a renal quantification program. The software saves a text file that summarizes QC findings as possible errors in user-entered values, calculated values that may be unreliable because of the patient's clinical condition, and problems relating to acquisition or processing. To test the QC software, a technologist not involved in software development processed 83 consecutive nontransplant clinical studies. The QC findings of the software were then tabulated. QC events were defined as technical (study descriptors that were out of range or were entered and then changed, unusually sized or positioned regions of interest, or missing frames in the dynamic image set) or clinical (calculated functional values judged to be erroneous or unreliable). Technical QC events were identified in 36 (43%) of 83 studies. Clinical QC events were identified in 37 (45%) of 83 studies. Specific QC events included starting the camera after the bolus had reached the kidney, dose infiltration, oversubtraction of background activity, and missing frames in the dynamic image set. QC software has been developed to automatically verify user input, monitor calculation of renal functional parameters, summarize QC findings, and flag potentially unreliable values for the nuclear medicine physician. Incorporation of automated QC features into commercial or local renal software can reduce errors and improve technologist performance and should improve the efficiency and accuracy of image interpretation.

  20. Evaluation of the default-mode network by quantitative 15O-PET: comparative study between cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Jo; Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kato, Hiroki; Kanai, Yasukazu; Naka, Sadahiro; Matsunaga, Keiko; Isohashi, Kayako; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Hatazawa, Jun

    2018-06-22

    Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) has revealed the existence of a default-mode network (DMN) based on spontaneous oscillations of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. The BOLD signal reflects the deoxyhemoglobin concentration, which depends on the relationship between the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ). However, these two factors cannot be separated in BOLD rs-fMRI. In this study, we attempted to estimate the functional correlations in the DMN by means of quantitative 15 O-labeled gases and water PET, and to compare the contribution of the CBF and CMRO 2 to the DMN. Nine healthy volunteers (5 men and 4 women; mean age, 47.0 ± 1.2 years) were studied by means of 15 O-O 2 , 15 O-CO gases and 15 O-water PET. Quantitative CBF and CMRO 2 images were generated by an autoradiographic method and transformed into MNI standardized brain template. Regions of interest were placed on normalized PET images according to the previous rs-fMRI study. For the functional correlation analysis, the intersubject Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were calculated for all pairs in the brain regions and correlation matrices were obtained for CBF and CMRO 2 , respectively. We defined r > 0.7 as a significant positive correlation and compared the correlation matrices of CBF and CMRO 2 . Significant positive correlations (r > 0.7) were observed in 24 pairs of brain regions for the CBF and 22 pairs of brain regions for the CMRO 2 . Among them, 12 overlapping networks were observed between CBF and CMRO 2 . Correlation analysis of CBF led to the detection of more brain networks as compared to that of CMRO 2 , indicating that the CBF can capture the state of the spontaneous activity with a higher sensitivity. We estimated the functional correlations in the DMN by means of quantitative PET using 15 O-labeled gases and water. The correlation matrix derived from the CBF revealed a larger number of brain

  1. Comparison of methods for quantitative evaluation of endoscopic distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quanzeng; Castro, Kurt; Desai, Viraj N.; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Pfefer, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopy is a well-established paradigm in medical imaging, and emerging endoscopic technologies such as high resolution, capsule and disposable endoscopes promise significant improvements in effectiveness, as well as patient safety and acceptance of endoscopy. However, the field lacks practical standardized test methods to evaluate key optical performance characteristics (OPCs), in particular the geometric distortion caused by fisheye lens effects in clinical endoscopic systems. As a result, it has been difficult to evaluate an endoscope's image quality or assess its changes over time. The goal of this work was to identify optimal techniques for objective, quantitative characterization of distortion that are effective and not burdensome. Specifically, distortion measurements from a commercially available distortion evaluation/correction software package were compared with a custom algorithm based on a local magnification (ML) approach. Measurements were performed using a clinical gastroscope to image square grid targets. Recorded images were analyzed with the ML approach and the commercial software where the results were used to obtain corrected images. Corrected images based on the ML approach and the software were compared. The study showed that the ML method could assess distortion patterns more accurately than the commercial software. Overall, the development of standardized test methods for characterizing distortion and other OPCs will facilitate development, clinical translation, manufacturing quality and assurance of performance during clinical use of endoscopic technologies.

  2. [Clinical evaluation of a novel HBsAg quantitative assay].

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kazumi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Naganuma, Hatsue; Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Iida, Takayasu; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Mizokami, Masashi

    2007-07-01

    The clinical implication of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) concentrations in HBV-infected individuals remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel fully automated Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassay (Sysmex HBsAg quantitative assay) by comparative measurements of the reference serum samples versus two independent commercial assays (Lumipulse f or Architect HBsAg QT). Furthermore, clinical usefulness was assessed for monitoring of the serum HBsAg levels during antiviral therapy. A dilution test using 5 reference-serum samples showed linear correlation curve in range from 0.03 to 2,360 IU/ml. The HBsAg was measured in total of 400 serum samples and 99.8% had consistent results between Sysmex and Lumipulse f. Additionally, a positive linear correlation was observed between Sysmex and Architect. To compare the Architect and Sysmex, both methods were applied to quantify the HBsAg in serum samples with different HBV genotypes/subgenotypes, as well as in serum contained HBV vaccine escape mutants (126S, 145R). Correlation between the methods was observed in results for escape mutants and common genotypes (A, B, C) in Japan. Observed during lamivudine therapy, an increase in HBsAg and HBV DNA concentrations preceded the aminotransferase (ALT) elevation associated with drug-resistant HBV variant emergence (breakthrough hepatitis). In conclusion, reliability of the Sysmex HBsAg quantitative assay was confirmed for all HBV genetic variants common in Japan. Monitoring of serum HBsAg concentrations in addition to HBV DNA quantification, is helpful in evaluation of the response to lamivudine treatment and diagnosis of the breakthrough hepatitis.

  3. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study

    SciT

    Kane, J. J.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Craft, A. E.

    In this study, 3-D image analysis when combined with a non-destructive examination technique such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a highly quantitative tool for the investigation of a material’s structure. In this investigation 3-D image analysis and X-ray CT were combined to analyze the microstructure of a preliminary subsized fuel compact for the Transient Reactor Test Facility’s low enriched uranium conversion program to assess the feasibility of the combined techniques for use in the optimization of the fuel compact fabrication process. The quantitative image analysis focused on determining the size and spatial distribution of the surrogate fuel particles andmore » the size, shape, and orientation of voids within the compact. Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles occupied 0.8% of the compact by volume with a log-normal distribution of particle sizes with a mean diameter of 39 μm and a standard deviation of 16 μm. Roughly 39% of the particles had a diameter greater than the specified maximum particle size of 44 μm suggesting that the particles agglomerate during fabrication. The local volume fraction of particles also varies significantly within the compact although uniformities appear to be evenly dispersed throughout the analysed volume. The voids produced during fabrication were on average plate-like in nature with their major axis oriented perpendicular to the compaction direction of the compact. Finally, the microstructure, mainly the large preferentially oriented voids, may cause a small degree of anisotropy in the thermal diffusivity within the compact. α∥/α⊥, the ratio of thermal diffusivities parallel to and perpendicular to the compaction direction are expected to be no less than 0.95 with an upper bound of 1.« less

  4. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study

    DOE PAGES

    Kane, J. J.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Craft, A. E.; ...

    2016-02-05

    In this study, 3-D image analysis when combined with a non-destructive examination technique such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a highly quantitative tool for the investigation of a material’s structure. In this investigation 3-D image analysis and X-ray CT were combined to analyze the microstructure of a preliminary subsized fuel compact for the Transient Reactor Test Facility’s low enriched uranium conversion program to assess the feasibility of the combined techniques for use in the optimization of the fuel compact fabrication process. The quantitative image analysis focused on determining the size and spatial distribution of the surrogate fuel particles andmore » the size, shape, and orientation of voids within the compact. Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles occupied 0.8% of the compact by volume with a log-normal distribution of particle sizes with a mean diameter of 39 μm and a standard deviation of 16 μm. Roughly 39% of the particles had a diameter greater than the specified maximum particle size of 44 μm suggesting that the particles agglomerate during fabrication. The local volume fraction of particles also varies significantly within the compact although uniformities appear to be evenly dispersed throughout the analysed volume. The voids produced during fabrication were on average plate-like in nature with their major axis oriented perpendicular to the compaction direction of the compact. Finally, the microstructure, mainly the large preferentially oriented voids, may cause a small degree of anisotropy in the thermal diffusivity within the compact. α∥/α⊥, the ratio of thermal diffusivities parallel to and perpendicular to the compaction direction are expected to be no less than 0.95 with an upper bound of 1.« less

  5. Quantitative geomorphologic studies from spaceborne platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Although LANDSAT images of our planet represent a quantum improvement in the availability of a global image-data set for independent or comparative regional geomorphic studies of landforms, such images have several limitations which restrict their suitability for quantitative geomorphic investigations. The three most serious deficiencies are: (1) photogrammetric inaccuracies, (2) two-dimensional nature of the data, and (3) spatial resolution. These deficiencies are discussed, as well as the use of stereoscopic images and laser altimeter data.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solvent systems for countercurrent separation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, J Brent; Ahmed, Sana; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-01-16

    Rational solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography technology (collectively known as countercurrent separation) studies continues to be a scientific challenge as the fundamental questions of comparing polarity range and selectivity within a solvent system family and between putative orthogonal solvent systems remain unanswered. The current emphasis on metabolomic investigations and analysis of complex mixtures necessitates the use of successive orthogonal countercurrent separation (CS) steps as part of complex fractionation protocols. Addressing the broad range of metabolite polarities demands development of new CS solvent systems with appropriate composition, polarity (π), selectivity (σ), and suitability. In this study, a mixture of twenty commercially available natural products, called the GUESSmix, was utilized to evaluate both solvent system polarity and selectively characteristics. Comparisons of GUESSmix analyte partition coefficient (K) values give rise to a measure of solvent system polarity range called the GUESSmix polarity index (GUPI). Solvatochromic dye and electrical permittivity measurements were also evaluated in quantitatively assessing solvent system polarity. The relative selectivity of solvent systems were evaluated with the GUESSmix by calculating the pairwise resolution (αip), the number of analytes found in the sweet spot (Nsw), and the pairwise resolution of those sweet spot analytes (αsw). The combination of these parameters allowed for both intra- and inter-family comparison of solvent system selectivity. Finally, 2-dimensional reciprocal shifted symmetry plots (ReSS(2)) were created to visually compare both the polarities and selectivities of solvent system pairs. This study helps to pave the way to the development of new solvent systems that are amenable to successive orthogonal CS protocols employed in metabolomic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Online versus Paper Evaluations: Differences in Both Quantitative and Qualitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, William B.; Civitano, Adele; Steiner-Grossman, Penny

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine if differences exist in the quantitative and qualitative data collected with paper and online versions of a medical school clerkship evaluation form. Data from six-and-a-half years of clerkship evaluations were used, some collected before and some after the conversion from a paper to an online evaluation system. The…

  8. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  9. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence technology for quantitative evaluation of tooth wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Kyeom; Lee, Hyung-Suk; Park, Seok-Woo; Lee, Eun-Song; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Jung, Hoi-In; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-12-01

    Various technologies used to objectively determine enamel thickness or dentin exposure have been suggested. However, most methods have clinical limitations. This study was conducted to confirm the potential of quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) using autofluorescence intensity of occlusal surfaces of worn teeth according to enamel grinding depth in vitro. Sixteen permanent premolars were used. Each tooth was gradationally ground down at the occlusal surface in the apical direction. QLF-digital and swept-source optical coherence tomography images were acquired at each grinding depth (in steps of 100 μm). All QLF images were converted to 8-bit grayscale images to calculate the fluorescence intensity. The maximum brightness (MB) values of the same sound regions in grayscale images before (MB) and phased values after (MB) the grinding process were calculated. Finally, 13 samples were evaluated. MB increased over the grinding depth range with a strong correlation (r=0.994, P<0.001). In conclusion, the fluorescence intensity of the teeth and grinding depth was strongly correlated in the QLF images. Therefore, QLF technology may be a useful noninvasive tool used to monitor the progression of tooth wear and to conveniently estimate enamel thickness.

  10. Quantitative Image Quality and Histogram-Based Evaluations of an Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm at Low-to-Ultralow Radiation Dose Levels: A Phantom Study in Chest CT

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ki Baek

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe the quantitative image quality and histogram-based evaluation of an iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm in chest computed tomography (CT) scans at low-to-ultralow CT radiation dose levels. Materials and Methods In an adult anthropomorphic phantom, chest CT scans were performed with 128-section dual-source CT at 70, 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp, and the reference (3.4 mGy in volume CT Dose Index [CTDIvol]), 30%-, 60%-, and 90%-reduced radiation dose levels (2.4, 1.4, and 0.3 mGy). The CT images were reconstructed by using filtered back projection (FBP) algorithms and IR algorithm with strengths 1, 3, and 5. Image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were statistically compared between different dose levels, tube voltages, and reconstruction algorithms. Moreover, histograms of subtraction images before and after standardization in x- and y-axes were visually compared. Results Compared with FBP images, IR images with strengths 1, 3, and 5 demonstrated image noise reduction up to 49.1%, SNR increase up to 100.7%, and CNR increase up to 67.3%. Noteworthy image quality degradations on IR images including a 184.9% increase in image noise, 63.0% decrease in SNR, and 51.3% decrease in CNR, and were shown between 60% and 90% reduced levels of radiation dose (p < 0.0001). Subtraction histograms between FBP and IR images showed progressively increased dispersion with increased IR strength and increased dose reduction. After standardization, the histograms appeared deviated and ragged between FBP images and IR images with strength 3 or 5, but almost normally-distributed between FBP images and IR images with strength 1. Conclusion The IR algorithm may be used to save radiation doses without substantial image quality degradation in chest CT scanning of the adult anthropomorphic phantom, down to approximately 1.4 mGy in CTDIvol (60% reduced dose). PMID:29354008

  11. Evaluation of reference genes in mouse preimplantation embryos for gene expression studies using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Kang, Min-Hee; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Seo, Han Geuk; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-09-25

    Real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most sensitive, and valuable technique for rare mRNA detection. However, the expression profiles of reference genes under different experimental conditions, such as different mouse strains, developmental stage, and culture conditions have been poorly studied. mRNA stability of the actb, gapdh, sdha, ablim, ywhaz, sptbn, h2afz, tgfb1, 18 s and wrnip genes was analyzed. Using the NormFinder program, the most stable genes are as follows: h2afz for the B6D2F-1 and C57BL/6 strains; sptbn for ICR; h2afz for KOSOM and CZB cultures of B6D2F-1 and C57BL/6 strain-derived embryos; wrnip for M16 culture of B6D2F-1 and C57BL/6 strain-derived embryos; ywhaz, tgfb1, 18 s, 18 s, ywhaz, and h2afz for zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, molular, and blastocyst embryonic stages cultured in KSOM medium, respectively; h2afz, wrnip, wrnip, h2afz, ywhaz, and ablim for zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, molular, and blastocyst stage embryos cultured in CZB medium, respectively; 18 s, h2afz, h2afz, actb, h2afz, and wrnip for zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, molular, and blastocyst stage embryos cultured in M16 medium, respectively. These results demonstrated that candidate reference genes for normalization of target gene expression using RT-qPCR should be selected according to mouse strains, developmental stage, and culture conditions.

  12. Quantitative studies of bone using (18)F-fluoride and (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate: evaluation of renal and whole-blood kinetics.

    PubMed

    Park-Holohan, S J; Blake, G M; Fogelman, I

    2001-09-01

    We report a study of the renal and whole-blood kinetics of (18)F-fluoride and (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) and their effect on the evaluation of the skeletal kinetics of the two bone tracers. Data were obtained during an investigation of postmenopausal women taking hormone replacement therapy who were compared with untreated, age-matched controls. After intravenous injection of 18F-fluoride (1 MBq), (99m)Tc-MDP (1 MBq), (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) (3 MBq) and (125)I-human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA) (0.25 MBq), multiple blood samples and urine collections were taken between 0 and 4 h after injection. (51)Cr-EDTA data were used to evaluate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the completeness of each timed urine collection. (125)I-HSA data were used to evaluate the plasma volume and the red cell uptake of the other three tracers. At 4 h, the cumulative urine excretions (and standard deviations, SDs) were: (99m)Tc-MDP, 58.2% (4.8%); (18)F-fluoride, 36.1% (5.7%); (51)Cr-EDTA, 81.5% (4.5%). Plots of the renal clearance of (18)F-fluoride against urine volume showed that urine flow rates greater than 5 ml.min-1 were necessary to ensure a constant renal clearance of (18)F and hence stable conditions for the evaluation of bone tracer kinetics. In contrast, a low urine flow rate had no effect on the renal kinetics of (99m)Tc-MDP. For MDP, the evaluation of skeletal kinetics requires data on protein binding so that calculations can be performed for free MDP. In the present study, protein binding of MDP was evaluated from the ratio of total (99m)Tc-MDP renal clearance to GFR based on the principle that free (99m)Tc-MDP is a GFR tracer. Between 0 and 4 h after injection, the fractional protein binding of MDP increased linearly with time, changing from 21+/-5% immediately after injection to 58+/-5% at 4 h. Although red cell uptake of (99m)Tc-MDP was negligible, for (18)F-fluoride around 30% of circulating tracer was transported in red

  13. Quantitative evaluation of the CEEM soil sampling intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G; Lischer, P; Theocharopoulos, S; Muntau, H; Desaules, A; Quevauviller, P

    2001-01-08

    The aim of the CEEM soil project was to compare and to test the soil sampling and sample preparation guidelines used in the member states of the European Union and Switzerland for investigations of background and large-scale contamination of soils, soil monitoring and environmental risk assessments. The results of the comparative evaluation of the sampling guidelines demonstrated that, in soil contamination studies carried out with different sampling strategies and methods, comparable results can hardly be expected. Therefore, a reference database (RDB) was established by the organisers, which acted as a basis for the quantitative comparison of the participants' results. The detected deviations were related to the methodological details of the individual strategies. The comparative evaluation concept consisted of three steps: The first step was a comparison of the participants' samples (which were both centrally and individually analysed) between each other, as well as with the reference data base (RDB) and some given soil quality standards on the level of concentrations present. The comparison was made using the example of the metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. As a second step, the absolute and relative deviations between the reference database and the participants' results (both centrally analysed under repeatability conditions) were calculated. The comparability of the samples with the RDB was categorised on four levels. Methods of exploratory statistical analysis were applied to estimate the differential method bias among the participants. The levels of error caused by sampling and sample preparation were compared with those caused by the analytical procedures. As a third step, the methodological profiles of the participants were compiled to concisely describe the different procedures used. They were related to the results to find out the main factors leading to their incomparability. The outcome of this evaluation process was a list of strategies and

  14. Quantitative evaluation of phase processing approaches in susceptibility weighted imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ningzhi; Wang, Wen-Tung; Sati, Pascal; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.

    2012-03-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) takes advantage of the local variation in susceptibility between different tissues to enable highly detailed visualization of the cerebral venous system and sensitive detection of intracranial hemorrhages. Thus, it has been increasingly used in magnetic resonance imaging studies of traumatic brain injury as well as other intracranial pathologies. In SWI, magnitude information is combined with phase information to enhance the susceptibility induced image contrast. Because of global susceptibility variations across the image, the rate of phase accumulation varies widely across the image resulting in phase wrapping artifacts that interfere with the local assessment of phase variation. Homodyne filtering is a common approach to eliminate this global phase variation. However, filter size requires careful selection in order to preserve image contrast and avoid errors resulting from residual phase wraps. An alternative approach is to apply phase unwrapping prior to high pass filtering. A suitable phase unwrapping algorithm guarantees no residual phase wraps but additional computational steps are required. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate these two phase processing approaches on both simulated and real data using different filters and cutoff frequencies. Our analysis leads to an improved understanding of the relationship between phase wraps, susceptibility effects, and acquisition parameters. Although homodyne filtering approaches are faster and more straightforward, phase unwrapping approaches perform more accurately in a wider variety of acquisition scenarios.

  15. Tophaceous gout: quantitative evaluation by direct physical measurement.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, H Ralph; Becker, Michael A; Palo, William A; Streit, Janet; MacDonald, Patricia A; Joseph-Ridge, Nancy

    2005-12-01

    The absence of accepted standardized methods for monitoring tophaceous gout limits the ability to track tophus progression or regression. This multicenter study assessed intra- and interrater reproducibility of a simple and direct physical measurement. The quantitative evaluation was the area (mm2) of each measurable tophus and was determined independently by 2 raters on 2 occasions within 10 days. Intra- and interrater reproducibilities were determined by calculating mean differences and average percentage differences (APD) in measurements of areas for the same tophus at each of 2 visits and by each rater, respectively. Fifty-two tophi were measured in 13 subjects: 22 on the hand/wrist, 16 on the elbow, and 14 on the foot/ankle. The mean (+/- SD) difference in tophus areas between visits was -0.2 +/- 835 mm2 (95% CI -162 to 162 mm2) and the mean (+/- SD) APD was 29% +/- 33%. The mean (+/- SD) APD between raters was 32% +/- 27%. The largest variations in measurements were noted for elbow tophi and variations were least for well demarcated tophi on the hands. This simple and reproducible method can be easily utilized in clinical trials and in practice as a measure of efficacy of urate-lowering treatment in tophaceous gout. Among factors contributing to variability in these measurements were the anatomic site of tophi and rater experience with the method. Restriction of measurements to well circumscribed hand or foot tophi could improve reliability, but major changes, as expected with effective therapy, can clearly be documented with this simple technique.

  16. Returning to Work after Cancer: Quantitative Studies and Prototypical Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, John F.; Nowels, Carolyn T.; Main, Deborah S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective A combination of quantitative data and illustrative narratives may allow cancer survivorship researchers to disseminate their research findings more broadly. We identified recent, methodologically rigorous quantitative studies on return to work after cancer, summarized the themes from these studies, and illustrated those themes with narratives of individual cancer survivors. Methods We reviewed English-language studies of return to work for adult cancer survivors through June, 2008, and identified 13 general themes from papers that met methodological criteria (population-based sampling, prospective and longitudinal assessment, detailed assessment of work, evaluation of economic impact, assessment of moderators of work return, and large sample size). We drew survivorship narratives from a prior qualitative research study to illustrate these themes. Results Nine quantitative studies met 4 or more of our 6 methodological criteria. These studies suggested that most cancer survivors could return to work without residual disabilities. Cancer site, clinical prognosis, treatment modalities, socioeconomic status, and attributes of the job itself influenced the likelihood of work return. Three narratives - a typical survivor who returned to work after treatment, an individual unable to return to work, and an inspiring survivor who returned to work despite substantial barriers - illustrated many of the themes from the quantitative literature while providing additional contextual details. Conclusion Illustrative narratives can complement the findings of cancer survivorship research if researchers are rigorous and transparent in the selection, analysis, and retelling of those stories. PMID:19507264

  17. Three-dimensional ordered-subset expectation maximization iterative protocol for evaluation of left ventricular volumes and function by quantitative gated SPECT: a dynamic phantom study.

    PubMed

    Ceriani, Luca; Ruberto, Teresa; Delaloye, Angelika Bischof; Prior, John O; Giovanella, Luca

    2010-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to characterize the performance of a 3-dimensional (3D) ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm in the quantification of left ventricular (LV) function with (99m)Tc-labeled agent gated SPECT (G-SPECT), the QGS program, and a beating-heart phantom and to optimize the reconstruction parameters for clinical applications. A G-SPECT image of a dynamic heart phantom simulating the beating left ventricle was acquired. The exact volumes of the phantom were known and were as follows: end-diastolic volume (EDV) of 112 mL, end-systolic volume (ESV) of 37 mL, and stroke volume (SV) of 75 mL; these volumes produced an LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of 67%. Tomographic reconstructions were obtained after 10-20 iterations (I) with 4, 8, and 16 subsets (S) at full width at half maximum (FWHM) gaussian postprocessing filter cutoff values of 8-15 mm. The QGS program was used for quantitative measurements. Measured values ranged from 72 to 92 mL for EDV, from 18 to 32 mL for ESV, and from 54 to 63 mL for SV, and the calculated LVEF ranged from 65% to 76%. Overall, the combination of 10 I, 8 S, and a cutoff filter value of 10 mm produced the most accurate results. The plot of the measures with respect to the expectation maximization-equivalent iterations (I x S product) revealed a bell-shaped curve for the LV volumes and a reverse distribution for the LVEF, with the best results in the intermediate range. In particular, FWHM cutoff values exceeding 10 mm affected the estimation of the LV volumes. The QGS program is able to correctly calculate the LVEF when used in association with an optimized 3D OSEM algorithm (8 S, 10 I, and FWHM of 10 mm) but underestimates the LV volumes. However, various combinations of technical parameters, including a limited range of I and S (80-160 expectation maximization-equivalent iterations) and low cutoff values (< or =10 mm) for the gaussian postprocessing filter, produced results with similar accuracies and

  18. A human rights-focused HIV intervention for sex workers in Metro Manila, Philippines: evaluation of effects in a quantitative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Janie; Wong, Betty; Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Condino-Enrera, Gerlita; Hernandez, Laufred I.; Simbulan, Nymia Pimentel; Raj, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated a brief human rights-focused HIV community mobilization intervention for sex workers in the Philippines, a country with one of the fastest rising number of HIV cases worldwide. Methods Five single-session group interventions to reduce sexual risk and increase HIV testing among 86 sex workers in Manila were evaluated with pre–post-test data via Wilcoxon’s signed-ranks and Mann–Whitney tests. The 4-h intervention, Kapihan (August–November, 2013), integrated human rights with HIV skill-building. Demographic data, violence/trafficking victimization, human rights knowledge, and intentions to HIV test and treat were collected. Results Participants were median aged 23; female (69 %); had children (55; 22 % had 3+ children); used drugs (past 3 months: 16 %); sexually/physically abused by clients (66 %); 20 % street sex workers ever took an HIV test. Pre–post-test scores significantly improved in knowledge of HIV (z = −8.895, p < 0.001), reproductive health (z = −3.850, p < 0.001), human rights (z = −4.391, p < 0.001), ethical rights of research participants (z = −5.081, p < 0.001), and intentions to HIV test (z = −4.868, p < 0.001). Conclusions Integrating human rights into HIV interventions may empower sex workers to address their health and human rights and test for HIV. PMID:27600733

  19. Fluorescent proteins for quantitative microscopy: important properties and practical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Nathan Christopher

    2014-01-01

    More than 20 years after their discovery, fluorescent proteins (FPs) continue to be the subject of massive engineering efforts yielding continued improvements. Among these efforts are many aspects that should be of great interest to quantitative imaging users. With new variants frequently introduced into the research community, "tried and true" FPs that have been relied on for many years may now be due for upgrades to more modern variants. However, the dizzying array of FPs now available can make the initial act of narrowing down the potential choices an intimidating prospect. This chapter describes the FP properties that most strongly impact their performance in quantitative imaging experiments, along with their physical origins as they are currently understood. A workflow for evaluating a given FP in the researcher's chosen experimental system (e.g., a specific cell line) is described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear medicine and quantitative imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciT

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes goals and accomplishments of the research program supported under DOE Grant No. FG02-86ER60418 entitled Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation, with R. Beck, P. I. and M. Cooper, Co-P.I. during the period January 15, 1990 through September 1, 1990. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development andmore » transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 7 figs.« less

  1. Quantitative evaluation of light scattering intensities of the crystalline lens for radiation related minimal change in interventional radiologists: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abe, Toshi; Furui, Shigeru; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Suzuki, Shigeru; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Terasaki, Kinuyo; Kohtake, Hiroshi; Norbash, Alexander M; Behrman, Richard H; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate low-dose X-ray radiation effects on the eye by measuring the amount of light scattering in specific regions of the lens, we compared exposed subjects (interventional radiologists) with unexposed subjects (employees of medical service companies), as a pilot study. According to numerous exclusionary rules, subjects with confounding variables contributing to cataract formation were excluded. Left eye examinations were performed on 68 exposed subjects and 171 unexposed subjects. The eye examinations consisted of an initial screening examination, followed by Scheimpflug imaging of the lens using an anterior eye segment analysis system. The subjects were assessed for the quantity of light scattering intensities found in each of the six layers of the lens. Multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed with the stepwise regression for six variables: age, radiation exposure, smoking, drinking, wearing glasses and workplace. In addition, an age-matched comparison between exposed and unexposed subjects was performed. Minimal increased light scattering intensity in the posterior subcapsular region showed statistical significance. Our results indicate that occupational radiation exposure in interventional radiologists may affect the posterior subcapsular region of the lens. Since by its very nature this retrospective study had many limitations, further well-designed studies concerning minimal radiation-related lens changes should be carried out in a low-dose exposure group.

  2. A human rights-focused HIV intervention for sex workers in Metro Manila, Philippines: evaluation of effects in a quantitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Simmons, Janie; Wong, Betty; Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Condino-Enrera, Gerlita; Hernandez, Laufred I; Simbulan, Nymia Pimentel; Raj, Anita

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated a brief human rights-focused HIV community mobilization intervention for sex workers in the Philippines, a country with one of the fastest rising number of HIV cases worldwide. Five single-session group interventions to reduce sexual risk and increase HIV testing among 86 sex workers in Manila were evaluated with pre-post-test data via Wilcoxon's signed-ranks and Mann-Whitney tests. The 4-h intervention, Kapihan (August-November, 2013), integrated human rights with HIV skill-building. Demographic data, violence/trafficking victimization, human rights knowledge, and intentions to HIV test and treat were collected. Participants were median aged 23; female (69 %); had children (55; 22 % had 3+ children); used drugs (past 3 months: 16 %); sexually/physically abused by clients (66 %); 20 % street sex workers ever took an HIV test. Pre-post-test scores significantly improved in knowledge of HIV (z = -8.895, p < 0.001), reproductive health (z = -3.850, p < 0.001), human rights (z = -4.391, p < 0.001), ethical rights of research participants (z = -5.081, p < 0.001), and intentions to HIV test (z = -4.868, p < 0.001). Integrating human rights into HIV interventions may empower sex workers to address their health and human rights and test for HIV.

  3. Quantitative Measures for Evaluation of Ultrasound Therapies of the Prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2010-03-01

    Development of non-invasive techniques for prostate cancer treatment requires implementation of quantitative measures for evaluation of the treatment results. In this paper. we introduce measures that estimate spatial targeting accuracy and potential thermal damage to the structures surrounding the prostate. The measures were developed for the technique of treating prostate cancer with a transurethral ultrasound heating applicators guided by active MR temperature feedback. Variations of ultrasound element length and related MR imaging parameters such as MR slice thickness and update time were investigated by performing numerical simulations of the treatment on a database of ten patient prostate geometries segmented from clinical MR images. Susceptibility of each parameter configuration to uncertainty in MR temperature measurements was studied by adding noise to the temperature measurements. Gaussian noise with zero mean and standard deviation of 0, 1, 3 and 5° C was used to model different levels of uncertainty in MR temperature measurements. Results of simulations for each parameter configuration were averaged over the database of the ten prostate patient geometries studied. Results have shown that for update time of 5 seconds both 3- and 5-mm elements achieve appropriate performance for temperature uncertainty up to 3° C, while temperature uncertainty of 5° C leads to noticeable reduction in spatial accuracy and increased risk of damaging rectal wall. Ten-mm elements lacked spatial accuracy and had higher risk of damaging rectal wall compared to 3- and 5-mm elements, but were less sensitive to the level of temperature uncertainty. The effect of changing update time was studied for 5-mm elements. Simulations showed that update time had minor effects on all aspects of treatment for temperature uncertainty of 0° C and 1° C, while temperature uncertainties of 3° C and 5° C led to reduced spatial accuracy, increased potential damage to the rectal wall, and

  4. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted and hand K-file system: An ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Ghogre, Priyanka; Chourasia, Hemant Ramesh; Agarwal, Manish; Singh, M P; Gurav, Sandeep; Ghogre, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of intracanal bacteria extruded apically during root canal preparation using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted, and hand K-file system. Seventy extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Access cavities were prepared and the teeth were mounted in glass vials. Root canals were then contaminated with a pure culture of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The contaminated roots were divided into four experimental groups of 15 teeth each and one control group of 10 teeth. Group 1: ProTaper; Group 2: K3XF; Group 3: Twisted file; Group 4: Hand K-file; Group 5: Control group. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials. The microbiological samples were incubated in culture media for 24 h. Colonies of bacteria were counted and the results were given as number of colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The obtained data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U-tests. There was a significant difference between the rotary and hand instrumentation system related to the apically extruded intracanal bacteria. Both the rotary and hand instrumentation systems extruded intracanal bacteria through the apical foramen. K3XF file system showed least bacterial extrusion amongst all instrumentation groups.

  5. Evaluation of the resolving potency of a novel reconstruction filter on periodontal ligament space with dental cone-beam CT: a quantitative phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houno, Yuuki; Hishikawa, Toshimitsu; Gotoh, Ken-ichi; Naitoh, Munetaka; Ariji, Eiichiro; Kodera, Yoshie

    2014-03-01

    Diagnosis of the alveolar bone condition is important for the treatment planning of periodontal disease. Especially the determination of periodontal ligament space is the most important remark because it represents the periodontal tissue support for tooth retention. However, owing to the image blur of the current cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging technique, the periodontal ligament space is difficult to visualize. In this study, we developed an original periodontal ligament phantom (PLP) and evaluated the image quality of simulated periodontal ligament space using a novel reconstruction filter for CBCT that emphasized high frequency component. PLP was composed from two resin blocks of different materials, the bone equivalent block and the dentine equivalent block. They were assembled to make continuously changing space from 0.0 to 1.0 millimeter that mimics periodontal ligament space. PLP was placed in water and the image was obtained by using Alphard-3030 dental cone-beam CT (Asahi Roentgen Industry Co., Ltd.). Then we reconstructed the projection data with a novel reconstruction filter. The axial images were compared with conventional reconstructed images. In novel filter reconstruction images, 0.4 millimeter of the space width was steadily detected by calculation of pixel value, on the other hand 0.6 millimeter was in conventional images. With our method, the resolving potency of conebeam CT images was improved.

  6. Value of quantitative MRI parameters in predicting and evaluating clinical outcome in conservatively treated patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tsehaie, J; Poot, D H J; Oei, E H G; Verhaar, J A N; de Vos, R J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate whether baseline MRI parameters provide prognostic value for clinical outcome, and to study correlation between MRI parameters and clinical outcome. Observational prospective cohort study. Patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy were included and performed a 16-week eccentric calf-muscle exercise program. Outcome measurements were the validated Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire and MRI parameters at baseline and after 24 weeks. The following MRI parameters were assessed: tendon volume (Volume), tendon maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), tendon maximum anterior-posterior diameter (AP), and signal intensity (SI). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and minimum detectable changes (MDCs) for each parameter were established in a reliability analysis. Twenty-five patients were included and complete follow-up was achieved in 20 patients. The average VISA-A scores increased significantly with 12.3 points (27.6%). The reliability was fair-good for all MRI-parameters with ICCs>0.50. Average tendon volume and CSA decreased significantly with 0.28cm 3 (5.2%) and 4.52mm 2 (4.6%) respectively. Other MRI parameters did not change significantly. None of the baseline MRI parameters were univariately associated with VISA-A change after 24 weeks. MRI SI increase over 24 weeks was positively correlated with the VISA-A score improvement (B=0.7, R 2 =0.490, p=0.02). Tendon volume and CSA decreased significantly after 24 weeks of conservative treatment. As these differences were within the MDC limits, they could be a result of a measurement error. Furthermore, MRI parameters at baseline did not predict the change in symptoms, and therefore have no added value in providing a prognosis in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Computational Framework for Quantitative Evaluation of Movement during Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; Lehrer, Nicole; Sundaram, Hari; He, Jiping; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a novel generalized computational framework for quantitative kinematic evaluation of movement in a rehabilitation clinic setting. The framework integrates clinical knowledge and computational data-driven analysis together in a systematic manner. The framework provides three key benefits to rehabilitation: (a) the resulting continuous normalized measure allows the clinician to monitor movement quality on a fine scale and easily compare impairments across participants, (b) the framework reveals the effect of individual movement components on the composite movement performance helping the clinician decide the training foci, and (c) the evaluation runs in real-time, which allows the clinician to constantly track a patient's progress and make appropriate adaptations to the therapy protocol. The creation of such an evaluation is difficult because of the sparse amount of recorded clinical observations, the high dimensionality of movement and high variations in subject's performance. We address these issues by modeling the evaluation function as linear combination of multiple normalized kinematic attributes y = Σwiφi(xi) and estimating the attribute normalization function φi(ṡ) by integrating distributions of idealized movement and deviated movement. The weights wi are derived from a therapist's pair-wise comparison using a modified RankSVM algorithm. We have applied this framework to evaluate upper limb movement for stroke survivors with excellent results—the evaluation results are highly correlated to the therapist's observations.

  8. Surgical Treatment Assessment of Cervical Laminoplasty Using Quantitative Performance Evaluation in Elderly Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study in 505 Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Machino, Masaaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Keigo; Katayama, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Inoue, Taro; Ouchida, Jun; Tomita, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kato, Fumihiko

    2016-05-01

    A prospective cohort study. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical outcomes between non-elderly and elderly patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) who underwent laminoplasty. Since age at the time of surgery influences the surgical outcome, we designed a large-scale cohort study to examine the surgical outcome for CSM from a single operative procedure used exclusively in elderly patients. A total of 505 consecutive patients with CSM (311 men; 194 women) were prospectively enrolled. The mean age was 66.6 years (range, 41-91), and the average postoperative follow-up period was 26.5 ± 12.5 months. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: non-elderly (<65 yr, n = 201), young-old (65-74 yr, n = 186), and old-old (≥75 yr, n = 118). Pre- and postoperative neurological status was evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system for cervical myelopathy (JOA score) and quantifiable tests-the 10-s grip and release test (10-s G&R test) and the 10-s step test. Mean achieved JOA scores in non-elderly, young-old, and old-old groups were 3.1, 3.2, and 3.0, respectively, with no significant difference among three groups (P = 0.5735). Mean preoperative 10-s G&R test results were 17.3, 14.4, and 13.0, respectively, indicating a significant decrease with increasing age, whereas postoperative results significantly improved in all groups (21.0, 17.9, and 16.3, respectively). Similarly, the 10-s step test significantly decreased with age, with preoperative scores of 14.3, 11.5, and 8.6, respectively, whereas postoperative scores improved to 17.3, 14.9, and 12.5, respectively. The three groups showed no significant difference in the rate of postoperative complications. Elderly patients adequately recovered from laminoplasty in terms of achieved JOA score, the 10-s G&R test, and the 10-s step test. Therefore, laminoplasty for CSM is beneficial in elderly patients. 2.

  9. 75 FR 9488 - Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact... Quantitative Impact Study. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Numbers: N/A. Regulation requirement: 12 CFR Part 567... Basel II Capital Accord, the Basel Committee will conduct a quantitative impact study (QIS) to assess...

  10. Evaluation of errors in quantitative determination of asbestos in rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baietto, Oliviero; Marini, Paola; Vitaliti, Martina

    2016-04-01

    The quantitative determination of the content of asbestos in rock matrices is a complex operation which is susceptible to important errors. The principal methodologies for the analysis are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Phase Contrast Optical Microscopy (PCOM). Despite the PCOM resolution is inferior to that of SEM, PCOM analysis has several advantages, including more representativity of the analyzed sample, more effective recognition of chrysotile and a lower cost. The DIATI LAA internal methodology for the analysis in PCOM is based on a mild grinding of a rock sample, its subdivision in 5-6 grain size classes smaller than 2 mm and a subsequent microscopic analysis of a portion of each class. The PCOM is based on the optical properties of asbestos and of the liquids with note refractive index in which the particles in analysis are immersed. The error evaluation in the analysis of rock samples, contrary to the analysis of airborne filters, cannot be based on a statistical distribution. In fact for airborne filters a binomial distribution (Poisson), which theoretically defines the variation in the count of fibers resulting from the observation of analysis fields, chosen randomly on the filter, can be applied. The analysis in rock matrices instead cannot lean on any statistical distribution because the most important object of the analysis is the size of the of asbestiform fibers and bundles of fibers observed and the resulting relationship between the weights of the fibrous component compared to the one granular. The error evaluation generally provided by public and private institutions varies between 50 and 150 percent, but there are not, however, specific studies that discuss the origin of the error or that link it to the asbestos content. Our work aims to provide a reliable estimation of the error in relation to the applied methodologies and to the total content of asbestos, especially for the values close to the legal limits. The error assessments must

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Performance during Robot-assisted Treatment.

    PubMed

    Peri, E; Biffi, E; Maghini, C; Servodio Iammarrone, F; Gagliardi, C; Germiniasi, C; Pedrocchi, A; Turconi, A C; Reni, G

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Methodologies, Models and Algorithms for Patients Rehabilitation". The great potential of robots in extracting quantitative and meaningful data is not always exploited in clinical practice. The aim of the present work is to describe a simple parameter to assess the performance of subjects during upper limb robotic training exploiting data automatically recorded by the robot, with no additional effort for patients and clinicians. Fourteen children affected by cerebral palsy (CP) performed a training with Armeo®Spring. Each session was evaluated with P, a simple parameter that depends on the overall performance recorded, and median and interquartile values were computed to perform a group analysis. Median (interquartile) values of P significantly increased from 0.27 (0.21) at T0 to 0.55 (0.27) at T1 . This improvement was functionally validated by a significant increase of the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function. The parameter described here was able to show variations in performance over time and enabled a quantitative evaluation of motion abilities in a way that is reliable with respect to a well-known clinical scale.

  12. The Nuclear Renaissance — Implications on Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2007-03-01

    The world demand for energy is growing rapidly, particularly in developing countries that are trying to raise the standard of living for billions of people, many of whom do not even have access to electricity. With this increased energy demand and the high and volatile price of fossil fuels, nuclear energy is experiencing resurgence. This so-called nuclear renaissance is broad based, reaching across Asia, the United States, Europe, as well as selected countries in Africa and South America. Some countries, such as Italy, that have actually turned away from nuclear energy are reconsidering the advisability of this design. This renaissance provides the opportunity to deploy more advanced reactor designs that are operating today, with improved safety, economy, and operations. In this keynote address, I will briefly present three such advanced reactor designs in whose development Westinghouse is participating. These designs include the advanced passive PWR, AP1000, which recently received design certification for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the Pebble Bed Modular reactor (PBMR) which is being demonstrated in South Africa; and the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), which was showcased in the US Department of Energy's recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), program. The salient features of these designs that impact future requirements on quantitative nondestructive evaluations will be discussed. Such features as reactor vessel materials, operating temperature regimes, and new geometric configurations will be described, and mention will be made of the impact on quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) approaches.

  13. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR in Lolium temulentum under abiotic stress

    Lolium temulentum is a valuable model grass species for the study of stress in forage and turf grasses. Gene expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR relies on the use of proper internal standards. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate reference genes for use in real-time q...

  14. Quantitative Evaluation of Atherosclerotic Plaque Using Ultrasound Tissue Characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigiter, Ersin

    Evaluation of therapeutic methods directed toward interrupting and/or delaying atherogenesis is impeded by the lack of a reliable, non-invasive means for monitoring progression or regression of disease. The ability to characterize the predominant component of plaque may be very valuable in the study of this disease's natural history. The earlier the lesion, the more likely is lipid to be the predominant component. Progression of plaque is usually by way of overgrowth of fibrous tissues around the fatty pool. Calcification is usually a feature of the older or complicated lesion. To explore the feasibility of using ultrasound to characterize plaque we have conducted measurements of the acoustical properties of various atherosclerotic lesions found in freshly excised samples of human abdominal aorta. Our objective has been to determine whether or not the acoustical properties of plaque correlate with the type and/or chemical composition of plaque and, if so, to define a measurement scheme which could be done in-vivo and non-invasively. Our current data base consists of individual tissue samples from some 200 different aortas. Since each aorta yields between 10 to 30 tissue samples for study, we have data on some 4,468 different lesions or samples. Measurements of the acoustical properties of plaque were found to correlate well with the chemical composition of plaque. In short, measurements of impedance and attenuation seem sufficient to classify plaque as to type and to composition. Based on the in-vitro studies, the parameter of attenuation was selected as a means of classifying the plaque. For these measurements, an intravascular ultrasound scanner was modified according to our specifications. Signal processing algorithms were developed which would analyze the complex ultrasound waveforms and estimate tissue properties such as attenuation. Various methods were tried to estimate the attenuation from the pulse-echo backscattered signal. Best results were obtained by

  15. Development of a semi-quantitative risk assessment model for evaluating environmental threat posed by the three first EU watch-list pharmaceuticals to urban wastewater treatment plants: An Irish case study.

    PubMed

    Tahar, Alexandre; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Clifford, Eoghan; Cummins, Enda; Rowan, Neil

    2017-12-15

    Contamination of receiving waters with pharmaceutical compounds is of pressing concern. This constitutes the first study to report on the development of a semi-quantitative risk assessment (RA) model for evaluating the environmental threat posed by three EU watch list pharmaceutical compounds namely, diclofenac, 17-beta-estradiol and 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol, to aquatic ecosystems using Irish data as a case study. This RA model adopts the Irish Environmental Protection Agency Source-Pathway-Receptor concept to define relevant parameters for calculating low, medium or high risk score for each agglomeration of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which include catchment, treatments, operational and management factors. This RA model may potentially be used on a national scale to (i) identify WWTPs that pose a particular risk as regards releasing disproportionally high levels of these pharmaceutical compounds, and (ii) help identify priority locations for introducing or upgrading control measures (e.g. tertiary treatment, source reduction). To assess risks for these substances of emerging concern, the model was applied to 16 urban WWTPs located in different regions in Ireland that were scored for the three different compounds and ranked as low, medium or high risk. As a validation proxy, this case study used limited monitoring data recorded at some these plants receiving waters. It is envisaged that this semi-quantitative RA approach may aid other EU countries investigate and screen for potential risks where limited measured or predicted environmental pollutant concentrations and/or hydrological data are available. This model is semi-quantitative, as other factors such as influence of climate change and drug usage or prescription data will need to be considered in a future point for estimating and predicting risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative lung perfusion evaluation using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Kjørstad, Åsmund; Corteville, Dominique M R; Fischer, Andre; Henzler, Thomas; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Zöllner, Frank G; Schad, Lothar R

    2014-08-01

    To quantitatively evaluate lung perfusion using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI. The Fourier decomposition (FD) method is a noninvasive method for assessing ventilation- and perfusion-related information in the lungs, where the perfusion maps in particular have shown promise for clinical use. However, the perfusion maps are nonquantitative and dimensionless, making follow-ups and direct comparisons between patients difficult. We present an approach to obtain physically meaningful and quantifiable perfusion maps using the FD method. The standard FD perfusion images are quantified by comparing the partially blood-filled pixels in the lung parenchyma with the fully blood-filled pixels in the aorta. The percentage of blood in a pixel is then combined with the temporal information, yielding quantitative blood flow values. The values of 10 healthy volunteers are compared with SEEPAGE measurements which have shown high consistency with dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI. All pulmonary blood flow (PBF) values are within the expected range. The two methods are in good agreement (mean difference = 0.2 mL/min/100 mL, mean absolute difference = 11 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-FD = 150 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-SEEPAGE = 151 mL/min/100 mL). The Bland-Altman plot shows a good spread of values, indicating no systematic bias between the methods. Quantitative lung perfusion can be obtained using the Fourier Decomposition method combined with a small amount of postprocessing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comparative analysis of quantitative efficiency evaluation methods for transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuxin; Hong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency could offer guidance for the optimal control of urban traffic. Based on the introduction and related mathematical analysis of three quantitative evaluation methods for transportation network efficiency, this paper compares the information measured by them, including network structure, traffic demand, travel choice behavior and other factors which affect network efficiency. Accordingly, the applicability of various evaluation methods is discussed. Through analyzing different transportation network examples it is obtained that Q-H method could reflect the influence of network structure, traffic demand and user route choice behavior on transportation network efficiency well. In addition, the transportation network efficiency measured by this method and Braess’s Paradox can be explained with each other, which indicates a better evaluation of the real operation condition of transportation network. Through the analysis of the network efficiency calculated by Q-H method, it can also be drawn that a specific appropriate demand is existed to a given transportation network. Meanwhile, under the fixed demand, both the critical network structure that guarantees the stability and the basic operation of the network and a specific network structure contributing to the largest value of the transportation network efficiency can be identified. PMID:28399165

  18. Comparative analysis of quantitative efficiency evaluation methods for transportation networks.

    PubMed

    He, Yuxin; Qin, Jin; Hong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency could offer guidance for the optimal control of urban traffic. Based on the introduction and related mathematical analysis of three quantitative evaluation methods for transportation network efficiency, this paper compares the information measured by them, including network structure, traffic demand, travel choice behavior and other factors which affect network efficiency. Accordingly, the applicability of various evaluation methods is discussed. Through analyzing different transportation network examples it is obtained that Q-H method could reflect the influence of network structure, traffic demand and user route choice behavior on transportation network efficiency well. In addition, the transportation network efficiency measured by this method and Braess's Paradox can be explained with each other, which indicates a better evaluation of the real operation condition of transportation network. Through the analysis of the network efficiency calculated by Q-H method, it can also be drawn that a specific appropriate demand is existed to a given transportation network. Meanwhile, under the fixed demand, both the critical network structure that guarantees the stability and the basic operation of the network and a specific network structure contributing to the largest value of the transportation network efficiency can be identified.

  19. Evaluation of a rapid quantitative determination method of PSA concentration with gold immunochromatographic strips.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Ching; Lin, Hung-Yu; Wang, Chao-Ping; Lu, Li-Fen; Yu, Teng-Hung; Hung, Wei-Chin; Houng, Jer-Yiing; Chung, Fu-Mei; Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Hu, Jin-Jia

    2015-11-03

    Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men. Qualitative or semi-quantitative immunochromatographic measurements of prostate specific antigen (PSA) have been shown to be simple, noninvasive and feasible. The aim of this study was to evaluate an optimized gold immunochromatographic strip device for the detection of PSA, in which the results can be analysed using a Chromogenic Rapid Test Reader to quantitatively assess the test results. This reader measures the reflectance of the signal line via a charge-coupled device camera. For quantitative analysis, PSA concentration was computed via a calibration equation. Capillary blood samples from 305 men were evaluated, and two independent observers interpreted the test results after 12 min. Blood samples were also collected and tested with a conventional quantitative assay. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the PSA rapid quantitative test system were 100, 96.6, 89.5, 100, and 97.4 %, respectively. Reproducibility of the test was 99.2, and interobserver variation was 8 % with a false positive rate of 3.4 %. The correlation coefficient between the ordinary quantitative assay and the rapid quantitative test was 0.960. The PSA rapid quantitative test system provided results quickly and was easy to use, so that tests using this system can be easily performed at outpatient clinics or elsewhere. This system may also be useful for initial cancer screening and for point-of-care testing, because results can be obtained within 12 min and at a cost lower than that of conventional quantitative assays.

  20. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2015-04-13

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  1. Raman spectral imaging for quantitative contaminant evaluation in skim milk powder

    This study uses a point-scan Raman spectral imaging system for quantitative detection of melamine in milk powder. A sample depth of 2 mm and corresponding laser intensity of 200 mW were selected after evaluating the penetration of a 785 nm laser through milk powder. Horizontal and vertical spatial r...

  2. Are Teacher Course Evaluations Biased against Faculty That Teach Quantitative Methods Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Stockdale, Myrah R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated graduate students' responses to teacher/course evaluations (TCE) to determine if students' responses were inherently biased against faculty who teach quantitative methods courses. Item response theory (IRT) and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) techniques were utilized for data analysis. Results indicate students…

  3. Quantitative Evaluation of a First Year Seminar Program: Relationships to Persistence and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Horne, Melissa M.; Wallis, Aaron L.; Rings, Jeffrey A.; Vaughan, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we conducted a quantitative evaluation of a novel First Year Seminar (FYS) program with a coordinated curriculum implemented at a public, four-year university to assess its potential role in undergraduate student persistence decisions and academic success. Participants were 2,188 first-year students, 342 of whom completed the…

  4. A quantitative evaluation of the public response to climate engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Malcolm J.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Feetham, Pamela M.

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase, with CO2 passing 400 parts per million in May 2013. To avoid severe climate change and the attendant economic and social dislocation, existing energy efficiency and emissions control initiatives may need support from some form of climate engineering. As climate engineering will be controversial, there is a pressing need to inform the public and understand their concerns before policy decisions are taken. So far, engagement has been exploratory, small-scale or technique-specific. We depart from past research to draw on the associative methods used by corporations to evaluate brands. A systematic, quantitative and comparative approach for evaluating public reaction to climate engineering is developed. Its application reveals that the overall public evaluation of climate engineering is negative. Where there are positive associations they favour carbon dioxide removal (CDR) over solar radiation management (SRM) techniques. Therefore, as SRM techniques become more widely known they are more likely to elicit negative reactions. Two climate engineering techniques, enhanced weathering and cloud brightening, have indistinct concept images and so are less likely to draw public attention than other CDR or SRM techniques.

  5. A Quantitative Study on Student Engagement at Achieving the Dream and Non-Achieving the Dream Community Colleges Evaluated with CCSSE Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Lisa Romaine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this ex post facto study was to determine differences in the level of student engagement in (a) students attending community colleges that participated in the Achieving the Dream (AtD) in 2011 and 2012 and (b) students attending community colleges that did not participate in AtD in 2011 and 2012. The Community College Survey of…

  6. Cartilage Repair Surgery: Outcome Evaluation by Using Noninvasive Cartilage Biomarkers Based on Quantitative MRI Techniques?

    PubMed Central

    Jungmann, Pia M.; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Link, Thomas M.; Li, Xiaojuan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus; Welsch, Goetz H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. Objective. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Methods. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Results. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. Conclusions. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair. PMID:24877139

  7. Quantitative phase-contrast digital holographic microscopy for cell dynamic evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Mohanty, Samarendra; Berns, Michael W.; Chen, Zhongping

    2009-02-01

    The laser microbeam uses lasers to alter and/or to ablate intracellular organelles and cellular and tissue samples, and, today, has become an important tool for cell biologists to study the molecular mechanism of complex biological systems by removing individual cells or sub-cellular organelles. However, absolute quantitation of the localized alteration/damage to transparent phase objects, such as the cell membrane or chromosomes, was not possible using conventional phase-contrast or differential interference contrast microscopy. We report the development of phase-contrast digital holographic microscopy for quantitative evaluation of cell dynamic changes in real time during laser microsurgery. Quantitative phase images are recorded during the process of laser microsurgery and thus, the dynamic change in phase can be continuously evaluated. Out-of-focus organelles are re-focused by numerical reconstruction algorithms.

  8. Quantitative evaluations of ankle spasticity and stiffness in neurological disorders using manual spasticity evaluator.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiyu; Park, Hyung-Soon; Shah, Parag; Wilson, Nicole; Ren, Yupeng; Wu, Yi-Ning; Liu, Jie; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Spasticity and contracture are major sources of disability in people with neurological impairments that have been evaluated using various instruments: the Modified Ashworth Scale, tendon reflex scale, pendulum test, mechanical perturbations, and passive joint range of motion (ROM). These measures generally are either convenient to use in clinics but not quantitative or they are quantitative but difficult to use conveniently in clinics. We have developed a manual spasticity evaluator (MSE) to evaluate spasticity/contracture quantitatively and conveniently, with ankle ROM and stiffness measured at a controlled low velocity and joint resistance and Tardieu catch angle measured at several higher velocities. We found that the Tardieu catch angle was linearly related to the velocity, indicating that increased resistance at higher velocities was felt at further stiffer positions and, thus, that the velocity dependence of spasticity may also be position-dependent. This finding indicates the need to control velocity in spasticity evaluation, which is achieved with the MSE. Quantitative measurements of spasticity, stiffness, and ROM can lead to more accurate characterizations of pathological conditions and outcome evaluations of interventions, potentially contributing to better healthcare services for patients with neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke.

  9. A quantitative study of nanoparticle skin penetration with interactive segmentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Onseok; Lee, See Hyun; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jaeyoung; Ryu, Hwa Jung; Oh, Chilhwan; Son, Sang Wook

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, the application of nanotechnology techniques has expanded within diverse areas such as pharmacology, medicine, and optical science. Despite such wide-ranging possibilities for implementation into practice, the mechanisms behind nanoparticle skin absorption remain unknown. Moreover, the main mode of investigation has been qualitative analysis. Using interactive segmentation, this study suggests a method of objectively and quantitatively analyzing the mechanisms underlying the skin absorption of nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy and applied to the human skin equivalent model. Captured fluorescence images of this model were used to evaluate degrees of skin penetration. These images underwent interactive segmentation and image processing in addition to statistical quantitative analyses of calculated image parameters including the mean, integrated density, skewness, kurtosis, and area fraction. In images from both groups, the distribution area and intensity of fluorescent silica gradually increased in proportion to time. Since statistical significance was achieved after 2 days in the negative charge group and after 4 days in the positive charge group, there is a periodic difference. Furthermore, the quantity of silica per unit area showed a dramatic change after 6 days in the negative charge group. Although this quantitative result is identical to results obtained by qualitative assessment, it is meaningful in that it was proven by statistical analysis with quantitation by using image processing. The present study suggests that the surface charge of SNPs could play an important role in the percutaneous absorption of NPs. These findings can help achieve a better understanding of the percutaneous transport of NPs. In addition, these results provide important guidance for the design of NPs for biomedical applications.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Quantitative Test Methods for Gases on a Hard Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE TEST METHODS FOR GASES ON A HARD SURFACE ECBC-TR-1426 Vipin Rastogi...1 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE TEST METHODS FOR GASES ON A HARD SURFACE 1. INTRODUCTION Members of the U.S. Environmental...Generator 4 2.4 Experimental Design Each quantitative method was performed three times on three consecutive days. For the CD runs, three

  11. Mechanical Model Analysis for Quantitative Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Based on Ultrasound Tissue Elasticity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Makoto; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    Precise evaluation of the stage of chronic hepatitis C with respect to fibrosis has become an important issue to prevent the occurrence of cirrhosis and to initiate appropriate therapeutic intervention such as viral eradication using interferon. Ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, i.e., elastography can visualize tissue hardness/softness, and its clinical usefulness has been studied to detect and evaluate tumors. We have recently reported that the texture of elasticity image changes as fibrosis progresses. To evaluate fibrosis progression quantitatively on the basis of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, we introduced a mechanical model of fibrosis progression and simulated the process by which hepatic fibrosis affects elasticity images and compared the results with those clinical data analysis. As a result, it was confirmed that even in diffuse diseases like chronic hepatitis, the patterns of elasticity images are related to fibrous structural changes caused by hepatic disease and can be used to derive features for quantitative evaluation of fibrosis stage.

  12. Evaluation of airway protection: Quantitative timing measures versus penetration/aspiration score.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Katherine A

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative measures of swallowing function may improve the reliability and accuracy of modified barium swallow (MBS) study interpretation. Quantitative study analysis has not been widely instituted, however, secondary to concerns about the time required to make measures and a lack of research demonstrating impact on MBS interpretation. This study compares the accuracy of the penetration/aspiration (PEN/ASP) scale (an observational visual-perceptual assessment tool) to quantitative measures of airway closure timing relative to the arrival of the bolus at the upper esophageal sphincter in identifying a failure of airway protection during deglutition. Retrospective review of clinical swallowing data from a university-based outpatient clinic. Swallowing data from 426 patients were reviewed. Patients with normal PEN/ASP scores were identified, and the results of quantitative airway closure timing measures for three liquid bolus sizes were evaluated. The incidence of significant airway closure delay with and without a normal PEN/ASP score was determined. Inter-rater reliability for the quantitative measures was calculated. In patients with a normal PEN/ASP score, 33% demonstrated a delay in airway closure on at least one swallow during the MBS study. There was no correlation between PEN/ASP score and airway closure delay. Inter-rater reliability for the quantitative measure of airway closure timing was nearly perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.973). The use of quantitative measures of swallowing function, in conjunction with traditional visual perceptual methods of MBS study interpretation, improves the identification of airway closure delay, and hence, potential aspiration risk, even when no penetration or aspiration is apparent on the MBS study. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2314-2318, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Student evaluations of teaching: teaching quantitative courses can be hazardous to one’s career

    PubMed Central

    Smibert, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Anonymous student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are used by colleges and universities to measure teaching effectiveness and to make decisions about faculty hiring, firing, re-appointment, promotion, tenure, and merit pay. Although numerous studies have found that SETs correlate with various teaching effectiveness irrelevant factors (TEIFs) such as subject, class size, and grading standards, it has been argued that such correlations are small and do not undermine the validity of SETs as measures of professors’ teaching effectiveness. However, previous research has generally used inappropriate parametric statistics and effect sizes to examine and to evaluate the significance of TEIFs on personnel decisions. Accordingly, we examined the influence of quantitative vs. non-quantitative courses on SET ratings and SET based personnel decisions using 14,872 publicly posted class evaluations where each evaluation represents a summary of SET ratings provided by individual students responding in each class. In total, 325,538 individual student evaluations from a US mid-size university contributed to theses class evaluations. The results demonstrate that class subject (math vs. English) is strongly associated with SET ratings, has a substantial impact on professors being labeled satisfactory vs. unsatisfactory and excellent vs. non-excellent, and the impact varies substantially depending on the criteria used to classify professors as satisfactory vs. unsatisfactory. Professors teaching quantitative courses are far more likely not to receive tenure, promotion, and/or merit pay when their performance is evaluated against common standards. PMID:28503380

  14. Student evaluations of teaching: teaching quantitative courses can be hazardous to one's career.

    PubMed

    Uttl, Bob; Smibert, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Anonymous student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are used by colleges and universities to measure teaching effectiveness and to make decisions about faculty hiring, firing, re-appointment, promotion, tenure, and merit pay. Although numerous studies have found that SETs correlate with various teaching effectiveness irrelevant factors (TEIFs) such as subject, class size, and grading standards, it has been argued that such correlations are small and do not undermine the validity of SETs as measures of professors' teaching effectiveness. However, previous research has generally used inappropriate parametric statistics and effect sizes to examine and to evaluate the significance of TEIFs on personnel decisions. Accordingly, we examined the influence of quantitative vs. non-quantitative courses on SET ratings and SET based personnel decisions using 14,872 publicly posted class evaluations where each evaluation represents a summary of SET ratings provided by individual students responding in each class. In total, 325,538 individual student evaluations from a US mid-size university contributed to theses class evaluations. The results demonstrate that class subject (math vs. English) is strongly associated with SET ratings, has a substantial impact on professors being labeled satisfactory vs. unsatisfactory and excellent vs. non-excellent, and the impact varies substantially depending on the criteria used to classify professors as satisfactory vs. unsatisfactory. Professors teaching quantitative courses are far more likely not to receive tenure, promotion, and/or merit pay when their performance is evaluated against common standards.

  15. Evaluating the Quantitative Capabilities of Metagenomic Analysis Software.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Grolmusz, Vince

    2016-05-01

    DNA sequencing technologies are applied widely and frequently today to describe metagenomes, i.e., microbial communities in environmental or clinical samples, without the need for culturing them. These technologies usually return short (100-300 base-pairs long) DNA reads, and these reads are processed by metagenomic analysis software that assign phylogenetic composition-information to the dataset. Here we evaluate three metagenomic analysis software (AmphoraNet--a webserver implementation of AMPHORA2--, MG-RAST, and MEGAN5) for their capabilities of assigning quantitative phylogenetic information for the data, describing the frequency of appearance of the microorganisms of the same taxa in the sample. The difficulties of the task arise from the fact that longer genomes produce more reads from the same organism than shorter genomes, and some software assign higher frequencies to species with longer genomes than to those with shorter ones. This phenomenon is called the "genome length bias." Dozens of complex artificial metagenome benchmarks can be found in the literature. Because of the complexity of those benchmarks, it is usually difficult to judge the resistance of a metagenomic software to this "genome length bias." Therefore, we have made a simple benchmark for the evaluation of the "taxon-counting" in a metagenomic sample: we have taken the same number of copies of three full bacterial genomes of different lengths, break them up randomly to short reads of average length of 150 bp, and mixed the reads, creating our simple benchmark. Because of its simplicity, the benchmark is not supposed to serve as a mock metagenome, but if a software fails on that simple task, it will surely fail on most real metagenomes. We applied three software for the benchmark. The ideal quantitative solution would assign the same proportion to the three bacterial taxa. We have found that AMPHORA2/AmphoraNet gave the most accurate results and the other two software were under

  16. Quantitative methods for evaluating the efficacy of thalamic deep brain stimulation in patients with essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Wastensson, Gunilla; Holmberg, Björn; Johnels, Bo; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a safe and efficient method for treatment of disabling tremor in patient with essential tremor (ET). However, successful tremor suppression after surgery requires careful selection of stimulus parameters. Our aim was to examine the possible use of certain quantitative methods for evaluating the efficacy of thalamic DBS in ET patients in clinical practice, and to compare these methods with traditional clinical tests. We examined 22 patients using the Essential Tremor Rating Scale (ETRS) and quantitative assessment of tremor with the stimulator both activated and deactivated. We used an accelerometer (CATSYS tremor Pen) for quantitative measurement of postural tremor, and a eurythmokinesimeter (EKM) to evaluate kinetic tremor in a rapid pointing task. The efficacy of DBS on tremor suppression was prominent irrespective of the method used. The agreement between clinical rating of postural tremor and tremor intensity as measured by the CATSYS tremor pen was relatively high (rs = 0.74). The agreement between kinetic tremor as assessed by the ETRS and the main outcome variable from the EKM test was low (rs = 0.34). The lack of agreement indicates that the EKM test is not comparable with the clinical test. Quantitative methods, such as the CATSYS tremor pen, could be a useful complement to clinical tremor assessment in evaluating the efficacy of DBS in clinical practice. Future studies should evaluate the precision of these methods and long-term impact on tremor suppression, activities of daily living (ADL) function and quality of life.

  17. The Quantitative Science of Evaluating Imaging Evidence.

    PubMed

    Genders, Tessa S S; Ferket, Bart S; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular diagnostic imaging tests are increasingly used in everyday clinical practice, but are often imperfect, just like any other diagnostic test. The performance of a cardiovascular diagnostic imaging test is usually expressed in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared with the reference standard (gold standard) for diagnosing the disease. However, evidence-based application of a diagnostic test also requires knowledge about the pre-test probability of disease, the benefit of making a correct diagnosis, the harm caused by false-positive imaging test results, and potential adverse effects of performing the test itself. To assist in clinical decision making regarding appropriate use of cardiovascular diagnostic imaging tests, we reviewed quantitative concepts related to diagnostic performance (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios), as well as possible biases and solutions in diagnostic performance studies, Bayesian principles, and the threshold approach to decision making. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of photoplethysmographic artifact reduction for pulse oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Matthew J.; Smith, Peter R.

    1999-01-01

    Motion artefact corruption of pulse oximeter output, causing both measurement inaccuracies and false alarm conditions, is a primary restriction in the current clinical practice and future applications of this useful technique. Artefact reduction in photoplethysmography (PPG), and therefore by application in pulse oximetry, is demonstrated using a novel non-linear methodology recently proposed by the authors. The significance of these processed PPG signals for pulse oximetry measurement is discussed, with particular attention to the normalization inherent in the artefact reduction process. Quantitative experimental investigation of the performance of PPG artefact reduction is then utilized to evaluate this technology for application to pulse oximetry. While the successfully demonstrated reduction of severe artefacts may widen the applicability of all PPG technologies and decrease the occurrence of pulse oximeter false alarms, the observed reduction of slight artefacts suggests that many such effects may go unnoticed in clinical practice. The signal processing and output averaging used in most commercial oximeters can incorporate these artefact errors into the output, while masking the true PPG signal corruption. It is therefore suggested that PPG artefact reduction should be incorporated into conventional pulse oximetry measurement, even in the absence of end-user artefact problems.

  19. Evaluation of MRI sequences for quantitative T1 brain mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsialios, P.; Thrippleton, M.; Glatz, A.; Pernet, C.

    2017-11-01

    T1 mapping constitutes a quantitative MRI technique finding significant application in brain imaging. It allows evaluation of contrast uptake, blood perfusion, volume, providing a more specific biomarker of disease progression compared to conventional T1-weighted images. While there are many techniques for T1-mapping there is a wide range of reported T1-values in tissues, raising the issue of protocols reproducibility and standardization. The gold standard for obtaining T1-maps is based on acquiring IR-SE sequence. Widely used alternative sequences are IR-SE-EPI, VFA (DESPOT), DESPOT-HIFI and MP2RAGE that speed up scanning and fitting procedures. A custom MRI phantom was used to assess the reproducibility and accuracy of the different methods. All scans were performed using a 3T Siemens Prisma scanner. The acquired data processed using two different codes. The main difference was observed for VFA (DESPOT) which grossly overestimated T1 relaxation time by 214 ms [126 270] compared to the IR-SE sequence. MP2RAGE and DESPOT-HIFI sequences gave slightly shorter time than IR-SE (~20 to 30ms) and can be considered as alternative and time-efficient methods for acquiring accurate T1 maps of the human brain, while IR-SE-EPI gave identical result, at a cost of a lower image quality.

  20. Quantitative Articles: Developing Studies for Publication in Counseling Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This article is presented as a guide for developing quantitative studies and preparing quantitative manuscripts for publication in counseling journals. It is intended as an aid for aspiring authors in conceptualizing studies and formulating valid research designs. Material is presented on choosing variables and measures and on selecting…

  1. Utility of a Multiparametric Quantitative MRI Model That Assesses Myelin and Edema for Evaluating Plaques, Periplaque White Matter, and Normal-Appearing White Matter in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, A; Hori, M; Yokoyama, K; Takemura, M Y; Andica, C; Kumamaru, K K; Nakazawa, M; Takano, N; Kawasaki, H; Sato, S; Hamasaki, N; Kunimatsu, A; Aoki, S

    2017-02-01

    T1 and T2 values and proton density can now be quantified on the basis of a single MR acquisition. The myelin and edema in a voxel can also be estimated from these values. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multiparametric quantitative MR imaging model that assesses myelin and edema for characterizing plaques, periplaque white matter, and normal-appearing white matter in patients with MS. We examined 3T quantitative MR imaging data from 21 patients with MS. The myelin partial volume, excess parenchymal water partial volume, the inverse of T1 and transverse T2 relaxation times (R1, R2), and proton density were compared among plaques, periplaque white matter, and normal-appearing white matter. All metrics differed significantly across the 3 groups ( P < .001). Those in plaques differed most from those in normal-appearing white matter. The percentage changes of the metrics in plaques and periplaque white matter relative to normal-appearing white matter were significantly more different from zero for myelin partial volume (mean, -61.59 ± 20.28% [plaque relative to normal-appearing white matter], and mean, -10.51 ± 11.41% [periplaque white matter relative to normal-appearing white matter]), and excess parenchymal water partial volume (13.82 × 10 3 ± 49.47 × 10 3 % and 51.33 × 10 2 ± 155.31 × 10 2 %) than for R1 (-35.23 ± 13.93% and -6.08 ± 8.66%), R2 (-21.06 ± 11.39% and -4.79 ± 6.79%), and proton density (23.37 ± 10.30% and 3.37 ± 4.24%). Multiparametric quantitative MR imaging captures white matter damage in MS. Myelin partial volume and excess parenchymal water partial volume are more sensitive to the MS disease process than R1, R2, and proton density. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. [Reconsidering evaluation criteria regarding health care research: toward an integrative framework of quantitative and qualitative criteria].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Kai, Ichiro

    2006-05-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confused and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. It is therefore very important to reconsider evaluation criteria regarding rigor in social science. As Lincoln & Guba have already compared quantitative paradigms (validity, reliability, neutrality, generalizability) with qualitative paradigms (credibility, dependability, confirmability, transferability), we have discuss use of evaluation criteria based on pragmatic perspective. Validity/Credibility is the paradigm concerned to observational framework, while Reliability/Dependability refer to the range of stability in observations, Neutrality/Confirmability reflect influences between observers and subjects, Generalizability/Transferability have epistemological difference in the way findings are applied. Qualitative studies, however, does not always chose the qualitative paradigms. If we assume the stability to some extent, it is better to use the quantitative paradigm (reliability). Moreover as a quantitative study can not always guarantee a perfect observational framework, with stability in all phases of observations, it is useful to use qualitative paradigms to enhance the rigor in the study.

  3. Validating internal controls for quantitative plant gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Amy M; Yakovlev, Igor A; Strauss, Steven H

    2004-01-01

    Background Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) has greatly improved the ease and sensitivity of quantitative gene expression studies. However, accurate measurement of gene expression with this method relies on the choice of a valid reference for data normalization. Studies rarely verify that gene expression levels for reference genes are adequately consistent among the samples used, nor compare alternative genes to assess which are most reliable for the experimental conditions analyzed. Results Using real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of 10 poplar (genus Populus) housekeeping genes, we demonstrate a simple method for determining the degree of stability of gene expression over a set of experimental conditions. Based on a traditional method for analyzing the stability of varieties in plant breeding, it defines measures of gene expression stability from analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. We found that the potential internal control genes differed widely in their expression stability over the different tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions studied. Conclusion Our results support that quantitative comparisons of candidate reference genes are an important part of real-time RT-PCR studies that seek to precisely evaluate variation in gene expression. The method we demonstrated facilitates statistical and graphical evaluation of gene expression stability. Selection of the best reference gene for a given set of experimental conditions should enable detection of biologically significant changes in gene expression that are too small to be revealed by less precise methods, or when highly variable reference genes are unknowingly used in real-time RT-PCR experiments. PMID:15317655

  4. Validating internal controls for quantitative plant gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Amy M; Yakovlev, Igor A; Strauss, Steven H

    2004-08-18

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) has greatly improved the ease and sensitivity of quantitative gene expression studies. However, accurate measurement of gene expression with this method relies on the choice of a valid reference for data normalization. Studies rarely verify that gene expression levels for reference genes are adequately consistent among the samples used, nor compare alternative genes to assess which are most reliable for the experimental conditions analyzed. Using real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of 10 poplar (genus Populus) housekeeping genes, we demonstrate a simple method for determining the degree of stability of gene expression over a set of experimental conditions. Based on a traditional method for analyzing the stability of varieties in plant breeding, it defines measures of gene expression stability from analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. We found that the potential internal control genes differed widely in their expression stability over the different tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions studied. Our results support that quantitative comparisons of candidate reference genes are an important part of real-time RT-PCR studies that seek to precisely evaluate variation in gene expression. The method we demonstrated facilitates statistical and graphical evaluation of gene expression stability. Selection of the best reference gene for a given set of experimental conditions should enable detection of biologically significant changes in gene expression that are too small to be revealed by less precise methods, or when highly variable reference genes are unknowingly used in real-time RT-PCR experiments.

  5. Quantitative comparison between crowd models for evacuation planning and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Vaisagh; Lee, Chong Eu; Lees, Michael Harold; Cheong, Siew Ann; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-02-01

    Crowd simulation is rapidly becoming a standard tool for evacuation planning and evaluation. However, the many crowd models in the literature are structurally different, and few have been rigorously calibrated against real-world egress data, especially in emergency situations. In this paper we describe a procedure to quantitatively compare different crowd models or between models and real-world data. We simulated three models: (1) the lattice gas model, (2) the social force model, and (3) the RVO2 model, and obtained the distributions of six observables: (1) evacuation time, (2) zoned evacuation time, (3) passage density, (4) total distance traveled, (5) inconvenience, and (6) flow rate. We then used the DISTATIS procedure to compute the compromise matrix of statistical distances between the three models. Projecting the three models onto the first two principal components of the compromise matrix, we find the lattice gas and RVO2 models are similar in terms of the evacuation time, passage density, and flow rates, whereas the social force and RVO2 models are similar in terms of the total distance traveled. Most importantly, we find that the zoned evacuation times of the three models to be very different from each other. Thus we propose to use this variable, if it can be measured, as the key test between different models, and also between models and the real world. Finally, we compared the model flow rates against the flow rate of an emergency evacuation during the May 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and found the social force model agrees best with this real data.

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of a Planetary Renderer for Terrain Relative Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, E.; Jones, H.; Otten, N.; Wettergreen, D.; Whittaker, W.

    2016-11-01

    A ray-tracing computer renderer tool is presented based on LOLA and LROC elevation models and is quantitatively compared to LRO WAC and NAC images for photometric accuracy. We investigated using rendered images for terrain relative navigation.

  7. A systematic review, evidence synthesis and meta-analysis of quantitative and qualitative studies evaluating the clinical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness, safety and acceptability of interventions to prevent postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Morrell, C Jane; Sutcliffe, Paul; Booth, Andrew; Stevens, John; Scope, Alison; Stevenson, Matt; Harvey, Rebecca; Bessey, Alice; Cantrell, Anna; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ren, Shijie; Ragonesi, Margherita; Barkham, Michael; Churchill, Dick; Henshaw, Carol; Newstead, Jo; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen; Stewart-Brown, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is a major depressive disorder in the year following childbirth, which impacts on women, their infants and their families. A range of interventions has been developed to prevent PND. To (1) evaluate the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, acceptability and safety of antenatal and postnatal interventions for pregnant and postnatal women to prevent PND; (2) apply rigorous methods of systematic reviewing of quantitative and qualitative studies, evidence synthesis and decision-analytic modelling to evaluate the preventive impact on women, their infants and their families; and (3) estimate cost-effectiveness. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index and other databases (from inception to July 2013) in December 2012, and we were updated by electronic alerts until July 2013. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts with consensus agreement. We undertook quality assessment. All universal, selective and indicated preventive interventions for pregnant women and women in the first 6 postnatal weeks were included. All outcomes were included, focusing on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), diagnostic instruments and infant outcomes. The quantitative evidence was synthesised using network meta-analyses (NMAs). A mathematical model was constructed to explore the cost-effectiveness of interventions contained within the NMA for EPDS values. From 3072 records identified, 122 papers (86 trials) were included in the quantitative review. From 2152 records, 56 papers (44 studies) were included in the qualitative review. The results were inconclusive. The most beneficial interventions appeared to be midwifery redesigned postnatal care [as shown by the mean 12-month EPDS score difference of -1.43 (95% credible interval -4.00 to 1.36)], person-centred approach (PCA)-based and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)-based intervention (universal), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT)-based intervention and education on

  8. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciT

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-09-01

    This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further themore » development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. Quantitative analysis of multiple sclerosis: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lihong; Li, Xiang; Wei, Xinzhou; Sturm, Deborah; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2006-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with a presumed immune-mediated etiology. For treatment of MS, the measurements of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are often used in conjunction with clinical evaluation to provide a more objective measure of MS burden. In this paper, we apply a new unifying automatic mixture-based algorithm for segmentation of brain tissues to quantitatively analyze MS. The method takes into account the following effects that commonly appear in MR imaging: 1) The MR data is modeled as a stochastic process with an inherent inhomogeneity effect of smoothly varying intensity; 2) A new partial volume (PV) model is built in establishing the maximum a posterior (MAP) segmentation scheme; 3) Noise artifacts are minimized by a priori Markov random field (MRF) penalty indicating neighborhood correlation from tissue mixture. The volumes of brain tissues (WM, GM) and CSF are extracted from the mixture-based segmentation. Experimental results of feasibility studies on quantitative analysis of MS are presented.

  10. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a

  11. Evaluation of Quantitative Performance of Sequential Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatographic Enrichment for Phosphopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zeyu; Hamilton, Karyn L.; Reardon, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated a sequential elution protocol from immobilized metal affinity chromatography (SIMAC) employing gallium-based immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) in conjunction with titanium-dioxide-based metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC). The quantitative performance of this SIMAC enrichment approach, assessed in terms of repeatability, dynamic range, and linearity, was evaluated using a mixture composed of tryptic peptides from caseins, bovine serum albumin, and phosphopeptide standards. While our data demonstrate the overall consistent performance of the SIMAC approach under various loading conditions, the results also revealed that the method had limited repeatability and linearity for most phosphopeptides tested, and different phosphopeptides were found to have different linear ranges. These data suggest that, unless additional strategies are used, SIMAC should be regarded as a semi-quantitative method when used in large-scale phosphoproteomics studies in complex backgrounds. PMID:24096195

  12. Skin moisturization by hydrogenated polyisobutene--quantitative and visual evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Nava; Sivalenka, Rajarajeswari; Chase, John

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenated polyisobutene (HP) is used in topically applied cosmetic/personal care formulations as an emollient that leaves a pleasing skin feel when applied, and rubbed in after application. This effect, although distinguishable to the user, is difficult to define and quantify. Recognizing that some of the physical properties of HP such as film formation and wear resistance may contribute, in certain mechanisms, to skin moisturization, we designed a short-term pilot study to follow changes in skin moisturization. HP's incorporation into an o/w emulsion at 8% yielded increased viscosity and reduced emulsion droplet size as compared to the emollient ester CCT (capric/caprylic triglyceride) or a control formulation. Quantitative data indicate that application of the o/w emulsion formulation containing either HP or CCT significantly elevated skin moisture content and thus reduced transepidermal water loss (TEWL) by a maximal approximately 33% against the control formulation within 3 h and maintained this up to 6 h. Visual observation of skin treated with the HP-containing formulation showed fine texture and clear contrast as compared to the control or the CCT formulation, confirming this effect. As a result of increased hydration, skin conductivity, as measured in terms of corneometer values, was also elevated significantly by about tenfold as early as 20 min after HP or CCT application and was maintained throughout the test period. Throughout the test period the HP formulation was 5-10% more effective than the CCT formulation both in reduction of TEWL as well as in increased skin conductivity. Thus, compared to the emollient ester (CCT), HP showed a unique capability for long-lasting effect in retaining moisture and improving skin texture.

  13. QUANTITATIVE GENETIC ACTIVITY GRAPHICAL PROFILES FOR USE IN CHEMICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A graphic approach termed a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP) has been developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. he profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each...

  14. A quantitative evaluation of two methods for preserving hair samples

    Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Kendall, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    Hair samples are an increasingly important DNA source for wildlife studies, yet optimal storage methods and DNA degradation rates have not been rigorously evaluated. We tested amplification success rates over a one-year storage period for DNA extracted from brown bear (Ursus arctos) hair samples preserved using silica desiccation and -20C freezing. For three nuclear DNA microsatellites, success rates decreased significantly after a six-month time point, regardless of storage method. For a 1000 bp mitochondrial fragment, a similar decrease occurred after a two-week time point. Minimizing delays between collection and DNA extraction will maximize success rates for hair-based noninvasive genetic sampling projects.

  15. Functional retrograde amnesia: a quantitative case study.

    PubMed

    Schacter, D L; Wang, P L; Tulving, E; Freedman, M

    1982-01-01

    The memory impairment of a patient suffering from functional retrograde amnesia was assessed both during the amnesic episode and after its termination. The patient's performance on a task tapping semantic memory was nearly identical on the two test occasions, but his performance on a task tapping episodic memory substantially changed across test sessions. Cueing procedures revealed that in spite of the patient's restricted access to episodic memory during the amnesic period, a relatively intact "island" of episodic memories could be uncovered. The distinction between episodic and semantic memory, as well as the relation between organic and functional retrograde amnesia, are discussed in light of the case study.

  16. [Quality evaluation of rhubarb dispensing granules based on multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay].

    PubMed

    Tan, Peng; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wu, Shan-Na; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-07-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the quality of Chinese formula granules by combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay. The rhubarb dispensing granules were used as the model drug for demonstrative study. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was adopted for simultaneously quantitative determination of the 10 anthraquinone derivatives (such as aloe emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside) in rhubarb dispensing granules; purgative biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on compound diphenoxylate tablets-induced mouse constipation model; blood activating biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on in vitro rat antiplatelet aggregation model; SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used for correlation analysis between 10 anthraquinone derivatives and purgative biopotency, blood activating biopotency. The results of multi-components simultaneous quantitative analysisshowed that there was a great difference in chemical characterizationand certain differences inpurgative biopotency and blood activating biopotency among 10 batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. The correlation analysis showed that the intensity of purgative biopotency was significantly correlated with the content of conjugated anthraquinone glycosides (P<0.01), and the intensity of blood activating biopotency was significantly correlated with the content of free anthraquinone (P<0.01). In summary, the combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay can achieve objective quantification and more comprehensive reflection on overall quality difference among different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Using qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate small-scale disease management pilot programs.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Dominick; Taylor, Erin Fries; Gold, Marsha

    2009-02-01

    Interest in disease management programs continues to grow as managed care plans, the federal and state governments, and other organizations consider such efforts as a means to improve health care quality and reduce costs. These efforts vary in size, scope, and target population. While large-scale programs provide the means to measure impacts, evaluation of smaller interventions remains valuable as they often represent the early planning stages of larger initiatives. This paper describes a multi-method approach for evaluating small interventions that sought to improve the quality of care for Medicaid beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions. Our approach relied on quantitative and qualitative methods to develop a complete understanding of each intervention. Quantitative data in the form of both process measures, such as case manager contacts, and outcome measures, such as hospital use, were reported and analyzed. Qualitative information was collected through interviews and the development of logic models to document the flow of intervention activities and how they were intended to affect outcomes. The logic models helped us to understand the underlying reasons for the success or lack thereof of each intervention. The analysis provides useful information on several fronts. First, qualitative data provided valuable information about implementation. Second, process measures helped determine whether implementation occurred as anticipated. Third, outcome measures indicated the potential for favorable results later, possibly suggesting further study. Finally, the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative data in combination helped us assess the potential promise of each intervention and identify common themes and challenges across all interventions.

  18. Transparency in Europe: A Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    Bouder, Frederic; Way, Dominic; Löfstedt, Ragnar; Evensen, Darrick

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, European pharmaceutical regulators have increasingly committed to heightening access to raw safety-related data as part of a wave of transparency initiatives (e.g., providing public Internet-mediated access to clinical trials data). Yet, the regulators--who are under significant pressure--have not yet benefited from a systematic review of this new policy. In seeking to inject much needed evidence, this article explores the effects of new transparency policies designed to promote meaningful communication of risks and benefits to patients. Results of a cross-national European survey with respondents from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, France, Germany, and Sweden (N = 5,648) shed light on how patients and the public are likely to react to the regulators' new transparency policies. The findings demonstrate clear national variations in how European citizens are likely to react and emphasize the need to develop evidence-based, reasoned transparency policies that integrate benefit-risk communication. The authors conclude by providing six specific recommendations, informed by the study, that seek to improve the European transparency model both within the medical field and across health, safety, and environmental policy domains. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Design and analysis issues in quantitative proteomics studies.

    PubMed

    Karp, Natasha A; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2007-09-01

    Quantitative proteomics is the comparison of distinct proteomes which enables the identification of protein species which exhibit changes in expression or post-translational state in response to a given stimulus. Many different quantitative techniques are being utilized and generate large datasets. Independent of the technique used, these large datasets need robust data analysis to ensure valid conclusions are drawn from such studies. Approaches to address the problems that arise with large datasets are discussed to give insight into the types of statistical analyses of data appropriate for the various experimental strategies that can be employed by quantitative proteomic studies. This review also highlights the importance of employing a robust experimental design and highlights various issues surrounding the design of experiments. The concepts and examples discussed within will show how robust design and analysis will lead to confident results that will ensure quantitative proteomics delivers.

  20. Review of progress in quantitative NDE. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)

    SciT

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This booklet is composed of abstracts from papers submitted at a meeting on quantitative NDE. A multitude of topics are discussed including analysis of composite materials, NMR uses, x-ray instruments and techniques, manufacturing uses, neural networks, eddy currents, stress measurements, magnetic materials, adhesive bonds, signal processing, NDE of mechanical structures, tomography,defect sizing, NDE of plastics and ceramics, new techniques, optical and electromagnetic techniques, and nonlinear techniques. (GHH)

  1. Quantitative evaluation of translational medicine based on scientometric analysis and information extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Diao, Tianxi; Wang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Designed to advance the two-way translational process between basic research and clinical practice, translational medicine has become one of the most important areas in biomedicine. The quantitative evaluation of translational medicine is valuable for the decision making of global translational medical research and funding. Using the scientometric analysis and information extraction techniques, this study quantitatively analyzed the scientific articles on translational medicine. The results showed that translational medicine had significant scientific output and impact, specific core field and institute, and outstanding academic status and benefit. While it is not considered in this study, the patent data are another important indicators that should be integrated in the relevant research in the future. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The role of quantitative safety evaluation in regulatory decision making of drugs.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Aloka G; Izem, Rima; Keeton, Stephine; Kim, Clara Y; Levenson, Mark S; Soukup, Mat

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of safety is a critical component of drug review at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Statisticians are playing an increasingly visible role in quantitative safety evaluation and regulatory decision-making. This article reviews the history and the recent events relating to quantitative drug safety evaluation at the FDA. The article then focuses on five active areas of quantitative drug safety evaluation and the role Division of Biometrics VII (DBVII) plays in these areas, namely meta-analysis for safety evaluation, large safety outcome trials, post-marketing requirements (PMRs), the Sentinel Initiative, and the evaluation of risk from extended/long-acting opioids. This article will focus chiefly on developments related to quantitative drug safety evaluation and not on the many additional developments in drug safety in general.

  3. Quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) neurography for evaluation of peripheral nerves and plexus injuries

    PubMed Central

    Barousse, Rafael; Socolovsky, Mariano; Luna, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic conditions of peripheral nerves and plexus have been classically evaluated by morphological imaging techniques and electrophysiological tests. New magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies based on 3D fat-suppressed techniques are providing high accuracy for peripheral nerve injury evaluation from a qualitative point of view. However, these techniques do not provide quantitative information. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are functional MRI techniques that are able to evaluate and quantify the movement of water molecules within different biological structures. These techniques have been successfully applied in other anatomical areas, especially in the assessment of central nervous system, and now are being imported, with promising results for peripheral nerve and plexus evaluation. DWI and DTI allow performing a qualitative and quantitative peripheral nerve analysis, providing valuable pathophysiological information about functional integrity of these structures. In the field of trauma and peripheral nerve or plexus injury, several derived parameters from DWI and DTI studies such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) or fractional anisotropy (FA) among others, can be used as potential biomarkers of neural damage providing information about fiber organization, axonal flow or myelin integrity. A proper knowledge of physical basis of these techniques and their limitations is important for an optimal interpretation of the imaging findings and derived data. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential applications of DWI and DTI neurographic studies is performed with a focus on traumatic conditions, including main nerve entrapment syndromes in both peripheral nerves and brachial or lumbar plexus. PMID:28932698

  4. Computerized quantitative evaluation of mammographic accreditation phantom images

    SciT

    Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Shinohara, Norimitsu

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: The objective was to develop and investigate an automated scoring scheme of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantom (RMI 156, Middleton, WI) images. Methods: The developed method consisted of background subtraction, determination of region of interest, classification of fiber and mass objects by Mahalanobis distance, detection of specks by template matching, and rule-based scoring. Fifty-one phantom images were collected from 51 facilities for this study (one facility provided one image). A medical physicist and two radiologic technologists also scored the images. The human and computerized scores were compared. Results: In terms of meeting the ACR's criteria,more » the accuracies of the developed method for computerized evaluation of fiber, mass, and speck were 90%, 80%, and 98%, respectively. Contingency table analysis revealed significant association between observer and computer scores for microcalcifications (p<5%) but not for masses and fibers. Conclusions: The developed method may achieve a stable assessment of visibility for test objects in mammographic accreditation phantom image in whether the phantom image meets the ACR's criteria in the evaluation test, although there is room left for improvement in the approach for fiber and mass objects.« less

  5. [Evaluation of dental plaque by quantitative digital image analysis system].

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Luan, Q X

    2016-04-18

    To analyze the plaque staining image by using image analysis software, to verify the maneuverability, practicability and repeatability of this technique, and to evaluate the influence of different plaque stains. In the study, 30 volunteers were enrolled from the new dental students of Peking University Health Science Center in accordance with the inclusion criteria. The digital images of the anterior teeth were acquired after plaque stained according to filming standardization.The image analysis was performed using Image Pro Plus 7.0, and the Quigley-Hein plaque indexes of the anterior teeth were evaluated. The plaque stain area percentage and the corresponding dental plaque index were highly correlated,and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.776 (P<0.01). Intraclass correlation coefficients of the tooth area and plaque area which two researchers used the software to calculate were 0.956 and 0.930 (P<0.01).The Bland-Altman analysis chart showed only a few spots outside the 95% consistency boundaries. The different plaque stains image analysis results showed that the difference of the tooth area measurements was not significant, while the difference of the plaque area measurements significant (P<0.01). This method is easy in operation and control,highly related to the calculated percentage of plaque area and traditional plaque index, and has good reproducibility.The different plaque staining method has little effect on image segmentation results.The sensitive plaque stain for image analysis is suggested.

  6. Object-oriented fault tree evaluation program for quantitative analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1988-01-01

    Object-oriented programming can be combined with fault free techniques to give a significantly improved environment for evaluating the safety and reliability of large complex systems for space missions. Deep knowledge about system components and interactions, available from reliability studies and other sources, can be described using objects that make up a knowledge base. This knowledge base can be interrogated throughout the design process, during system testing, and during operation, and can be easily modified to reflect design changes in order to maintain a consistent information source. An object-oriented environment for reliability assessment has been developed on a Texas Instrument (TI) Explorer LISP workstation. The program, which directly evaluates system fault trees, utilizes the object-oriented extension to LISP called Flavors that is available on the Explorer. The object representation of a fault tree facilitates the storage and retrieval of information associated with each event in the tree, including tree structural information and intermediate results obtained during the tree reduction process. Reliability data associated with each basic event are stored in the fault tree objects. The object-oriented environment on the Explorer also includes a graphical tree editor which was modified to display and edit the fault trees.

  7. ABRF-PRG07: advanced quantitative proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Falick, Arnold M; Lane, William S; Lilley, Kathryn S; MacCoss, Michael J; Phinney, Brett S; Sherman, Nicholas E; Weintraub, Susan T; Witkowska, H Ewa; Yates, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    A major challenge for core facilities is determining quantitative protein differences across complex biological samples. Although there are numerous techniques in the literature for relative and absolute protein quantification, the majority is nonroutine and can be challenging to carry out effectively. There are few studies comparing these technologies in terms of their reproducibility, accuracy, and precision, and no studies to date deal with performance across multiple laboratories with varied levels of expertise. Here, we describe an Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Proteomics Research Group (PRG) study based on samples composed of a complex protein mixture into which 12 known proteins were added at varying but defined ratios. All of the proteins were present at the same concentration in each of three tubes that were provided. The primary goal of this study was to allow each laboratory to evaluate its capabilities and approaches with regard to: detection and identification of proteins spiked into samples that also contain complex mixtures of background proteins and determination of relative quantities of the spiked proteins. The results returned by 43 participants were compiled by the PRG, which also collected information about the strategies used to assess overall performance and as an aid to development of optimized protocols for the methodologies used. The most accurate results were generally reported by the most experienced laboratories. Among laboratories that used the same technique, values that were closer to the expected ratio were obtained by more experienced groups.

  8. The Positive Alternative Credit Experience (PACE) Program a Quantitative Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Rebecca Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative comparative study was to evaluate the Positive Alternative Credit Experience (PACE) Program using an objectives-oriented approach to a formative program evaluation. The PACE Program was a semester-long high school alternative education program designed to serve students at-risk for academic failure or dropping out…

  9. The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Herranz, Andrés; Balk, Lisanne J; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Saidha, Shiv; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Lagreze, Wolf A; Schuman, Joel S; Villoslada, Pablo; Calabresi, Peter; Balcer, Laura; Petzold, Axel; Green, Ari J; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U; Albrecht, Philipp

    2016-06-14

    To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group. We provide a 9-point checklist encompassing aspects deemed relevant when reporting quantitative OCT studies. The areas covered are study protocol, acquisition device, acquisition settings, scanning protocol, funduscopic imaging, postacquisition data selection, postacquisition data analysis, recommended nomenclature, and statistical analysis. The Advised Protocol for OCT Study Terminology and Elements recommendations include core items to standardize and improve quality of reporting in quantitative OCT studies. The recommendations will make reporting of quantitative OCT studies more consistent and in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. The recommendations originated from expert consensus and thus represent Class IV evidence. They will need to be regularly adjusted according to new insights and practices. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength of engineering materials is reviewed. A dormant concept in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is invoked. The availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions is discussed. It was shown that ultrasonic methods yield measurements of elastic moduli, microstructure, hardness, fracture toughness, tensile strength, yield strength, and shear strength for a wide range of materials (including many types of metals, ceramics, and fiber composites). It was also indicated that although most of these methods were shown feasible in laboratory studies, more work is needed before they can be used on actual parts in processing, assembly, inspection, and maintenance lines.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of his-tag purification and immunoprecipitation of tristetraprolin and its mutant proteins from transfected human cells

    Histidine (His)-tag is widely used for affinity purification of recombinant proteins, but the yield and purity of expressed proteins are quite different. Little information is available about quantitative evaluation of this procedure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the His-tag pr...

  12. Cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: a quantitative analysis of controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2003-09-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation is now recognized as an important tool in the treatment of schizophrenia, and findings in this area are emerging rapidly. There is a need for a systematic review of the effects of the different training programs. To review quantitatively the controlled studies on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia for the effect of training on performance on tasks other than those practiced in the training procedure. A meta-analysis was conducted on 12 controlled studies of cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia taking into account the effects of type of rehabilitation approach (rehearsal or strategy learning) and duration of training. The mean weighted effect size was 0.45, with a 95% confidence interval from 0.26 to 0.64. Effect sizes differed slightly, depending on rehabilitation approach, in favor of strategy learning, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Duration of training did not influence effect size. Cognitive rehabilitation can improve task performance in patients with schizophrenia and this effect is apparent on tasks outside those practiced during the training procedure. Future studies should include more real-world outcomes and perform longitudinal evaluations.

  13. A Quantitative Evaluation of Medication Histories and Reconciliation by Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Michael R.; Fogg, Sarah M.; Schminke, Brandon C.; Zackula, Rosalee E.; Nester, Tina M.; Eidem, Leslie A.; Rosendale, James C.; Ragan, Robert H.; Bond, Jack A.; Goertzen, Kreg W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objective: Medication reconciliation at transitions of care decreases medication errors, hospitalizations, and adverse drug events. We compared inpatient medication histories and reconciliation across disciplines and evaluated the nature of discrepancies. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients admitted from the emergency department at our 760-bed hospital. Eligible patients had their medication histories conducted and reconciled in order by the admitting nurse (RN), certified pharmacy technician (CPhT), and pharmacist (RPh). Discharge medication reconciliation was not altered. Admission and discharge discrepancies were categorized by discipline, error type, and drug class and were assigned a criticality index score. A discrepancy rating system systematically measured discrepancies. Results: Of 175 consented patients, 153 were evaluated. Total admission and discharge discrepancies were 1,461 and 369, respectively. The average number of medications per participant at admission was 8.59 (1,314) with 9.41 (1,374) at discharge. Most discrepancies were committed by RNs: 53.2% (777) at admission and 56.1% (207) at discharge. The majority were omitted or incorrect. RNs had significantly higher admission discrepancy rates per medication (0.59) compared with CPhTs (0.36) and RPhs (0.16) (P < .001). RPhs corrected significantly more discrepancies per participant than RNs (6.39 vs 0.48; P < .001); average criticality index reduction was 79.0%. Estimated prevented adverse drug events (pADEs) cost savings were $589,744. Conclusions: RPhs committed the fewest discrepancies compared with RNs and CPhTs, resulting in more accurate medication histories and reconciliation. RPh involvement also prevented the greatest number of medication errors, contributing to considerable pADE-related cost savings. PMID:25477614

  14. Quantitative evaluation of pancreatic tumor fibrosis using shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Takamichi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Daijuro; Morishima, Tomomasa; Kawai, Manabu; Suhara, Hiroki; Takeyama, Tomoaki; Yamamura, Takeshi; Funasaka, Kohei; Nakamura, Masanao; Miyahara, Ryoji; Watanabe, Osamu; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Nakamura, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Senju; Goto, Hidemi

    There is no established non-invasive method for diagnosis of pancreatic fibrosis. Shear wave elastography (SW-EG) may be a candidate for this purpose. The aims of this study were to assess the reproducibility of SW-EG in the normal imaging pancreas (Phase 1) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SW-EG for pancreatic fibrosis classified histologically (Phase 2). Phase 1: This included 127 cases that underwent SW-EG of the normal imaging pancreas. SW-EG was measured at least five times in the pancreatic parenchyma and the median of repeated measurements was defined as the pancreatic elastic modulus (PEM). Phase 2: This included 53 cases that underwent SW-EG of the pancreatic parenchyma preoperatively and in which pancreas parenchyma were evaluated histologically. Histological fibrosis was graded in 4 stages: normal, mild, moderate, and severe. Phase 1: Median PEM in the head, body, and tail of the pancreas were 3.23, 3.17, and 2.91 kPa, respectively, with no significant difference among regions (P = 0.554). The intraclass correlation coefficient showed good reproducibility (ρ = 0.71) after 5 measurements. Phase 2: There was a significant positive correlation between PEM and the histological pancreatic fibrosis stage (r s  = 0.63, P < 0.001). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the accuracy of SW-EG for diagnosis of pancreatic fibrosis were 0.85 (≥mild), 0.84 (≥moderate), and 0.87 (severe). SW-EG can be used to determine the stage of pancreatic fibrosis non-invasively with high accuracy and reproducibility. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How to quantitatively evaluate safety of driver behavior upon accident? A biomechanical methodology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Cao, Jieer

    2017-01-01

    How to evaluate driver spontaneous reactions in various collision patterns in a quantitative way is one of the most important topics in vehicle safety. Firstly, this paper constructs representative numerical crash scenarios described by impact velocity, impact angle and contact position based on finite element (FE) computation platform. Secondly, a driver cabin model is extracted and described in the well validated multi-rigid body (MB) model to compute the value of weighted injury criterion to quantitatively assess drivers’ overall injury under certain circumstances. Furthermore, based on the coupling of FE and MB, parametric studies on various crash scenarios are conducted. It is revealed that the WIC (Weighted Injury Criteria) value variation law under high impact velocities is quite distinct comparing with the one in low impact velocities. In addition, the coupling effect can be elucidated by the fact that the difference of WIC value among three impact velocities under smaller impact angles tends to be distinctly higher than that under larger impact angles. Meanwhile, high impact velocity also increases the sensitivity of WIC under different collision positions and impact angles. Results may provide a new methodology to quantitatively evaluate driving behaviors and serve as a significant guiding step towards collision avoidance for autonomous driving vehicles. PMID:29240789

  16. How to quantitatively evaluate safety of driver behavior upon accident? A biomechanical methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Cao, Jieer; Xu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    How to evaluate driver spontaneous reactions in various collision patterns in a quantitative way is one of the most important topics in vehicle safety. Firstly, this paper constructs representative numerical crash scenarios described by impact velocity, impact angle and contact position based on finite element (FE) computation platform. Secondly, a driver cabin model is extracted and described in the well validated multi-rigid body (MB) model to compute the value of weighted injury criterion to quantitatively assess drivers' overall injury under certain circumstances. Furthermore, based on the coupling of FE and MB, parametric studies on various crash scenarios are conducted. It is revealed that the WIC (Weighted Injury Criteria) value variation law under high impact velocities is quite distinct comparing with the one in low impact velocities. In addition, the coupling effect can be elucidated by the fact that the difference of WIC value among three impact velocities under smaller impact angles tends to be distinctly higher than that under larger impact angles. Meanwhile, high impact velocity also increases the sensitivity of WIC under different collision positions and impact angles. Results may provide a new methodology to quantitatively evaluate driving behaviors and serve as a significant guiding step towards collision avoidance for autonomous driving vehicles.

  17. Taking stock of four decades of quantitative research on stakeholder participation and evaluation use: a systematic map.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc

    2014-08-01

    Stakeholder participation and evaluation use have attracted a lot of attention from practitioners, theorists and researchers. A common hypothesis is that participation is positively associated with evaluation use. Whereas the number of empirical studies conducted on this topic is impressive, quantitative research has held a minority position within this scientific production. This study mobilizes systematic review methods to 'map' the empirical literature that has quantitatively studied participation and use. The goal is to take stock and assess the strength of evidence of this literature (but not to synthesize the findings) and, based on this assessment, to provide directions for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A quantitative evaluation of the high elbow technique in front crawl.

    PubMed

    Suito, Hiroshi; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2017-07-01

    Many coaches often instruct swimmers to keep the elbow in a high position (high elbow position) during early phase of the underwater stroke motion (pull phase) in front crawl, however, the high elbow position has never been quantitatively evaluated. The aims of this study were (1) to quantitatively evaluate the "high elbow" position, (2) to clarify the relationship between the high elbow position and required upper limb configuration and (3) to examine the efficacy of high elbow position on the resultant swimming velocity. Sixteen highly skilled and 6 novice male swimmers performed 25 m front crawl with maximal effort and their 3-dimensional arm stroke motion was captured at 60 Hz. An attempt was made to develop a new index to evaluate the high elbow position (I he : high elbow index) using 3-dimensional coordinates of the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. I he of skilled swimmers moderately correlated with the average shoulder internal rotation angle (r = -0.652, P < 0.01) and swimming velocity (r = -0.683, P < 0.01) during the pull phase. These results indicate that I he is a useful index for evaluating high elbow arm stroke technique during the pull phase in front crawl.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of the voice range profile in patients with voice disorder.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Masuda, T; Manako, H; Yamashita, H; Yamamoto, T; Komiyama, S

    1999-01-01

    In 1953, Calvet first displayed the fundamental frequency (pitch) and sound pressure level (intensity) of a voice on a two-dimensional plane and created a voice range profile. This profile has been used to evaluate clinically various vocal disorders, although such evaluations to date have been subjective without quantitative assessment. In the present study, a quantitative system was developed to evaluate the voice range profile utilizing a personal computer. The area of the voice range profile was defined as the voice volume. This volume was analyzed in 137 males and 175 females who were treated for various dysphonias at Kyushu University between 1984 and 1990. Ten normal subjects served as controls. The voice volume in cases with voice disorders significantly decreased irrespective of the disease and sex. Furthermore, cases having better improvement after treatment showed a tendency for the voice volume to increase. These findings illustrated the voice volume as a useful clinical test for evaluating voice control in cases with vocal disorders.

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of Performance in Interventional Neuroradiology: An Integrated Curriculum Featuring Theoretical and Practical Challenges.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Marielle; Kriston, Levente; Romero, Javier M; Frölich, Andreas M; Jansen, Olav; Fiehler, Jens; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We sought to develop a standardized curriculum capable of assessing key competencies in Interventional Neuroradiology by the use of models and simulators in an objective, quantitative, and efficient way. In this evaluation we analyzed the associations between the practical experience, theoretical knowledge, and the skills lab performance of interventionalists. We evaluated the endovascular skills of 26 participants of the Advanced Course in Endovascular Interventional Neuroradiology of the European Society of Neuroradiology with a set of three tasks (aneurysm coiling and thrombectomy in a virtual simulator and placement of an intra-aneurysmal flow disruptor in a flow model). Practical experience was assessed by a survey. Participants completed a written and oral examination to evaluate theoretical knowledge. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. In multivariate analysis knowledge of materials and techniques in Interventional Neuroradiology was moderately associated with skills in aneurysm coiling and thrombectomy. Experience in mechanical thrombectomy was moderately associated with thrombectomy skills, while age was negatively associated with thrombectomy skills. We found no significant association between age, sex, or work experience and skills in aneurysm coiling. Our study gives an example of how an integrated curriculum for reasonable and cost-effective assessment of key competences of an interventional neuroradiologist could look. In addition to traditional assessment of theoretical knowledge practical skills are measured by the use of endovascular simulators yielding objective, quantitative, and constructive data for the evaluation of the current performance status of participants as well as the evolution of their technical competency over time.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Performance in Interventional Neuroradiology: An Integrated Curriculum Featuring Theoretical and Practical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Marielle; Kriston, Levente; Romero, Javier M.; Frölich, Andreas M.; Jansen, Olav; Fiehler, Jens; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to develop a standardized curriculum capable of assessing key competencies in Interventional Neuroradiology by the use of models and simulators in an objective, quantitative, and efficient way. In this evaluation we analyzed the associations between the practical experience, theoretical knowledge, and the skills lab performance of interventionalists. Materials and Methods We evaluated the endovascular skills of 26 participants of the Advanced Course in Endovascular Interventional Neuroradiology of the European Society of Neuroradiology with a set of three tasks (aneurysm coiling and thrombectomy in a virtual simulator and placement of an intra-aneurysmal flow disruptor in a flow model). Practical experience was assessed by a survey. Participants completed a written and oral examination to evaluate theoretical knowledge. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results In multivariate analysis knowledge of materials and techniques in Interventional Neuroradiology was moderately associated with skills in aneurysm coiling and thrombectomy. Experience in mechanical thrombectomy was moderately associated with thrombectomy skills, while age was negatively associated with thrombectomy skills. We found no significant association between age, sex, or work experience and skills in aneurysm coiling. Conclusion Our study gives an example of how an integrated curriculum for reasonable and cost-effective assessment of key competences of an interventional neuroradiologist could look. In addition to traditional assessment of theoretical knowledge practical skills are measured by the use of endovascular simulators yielding objective, quantitative, and constructive data for the evaluation of the current performance status of participants as well as the evolution of their technical competency over time. PMID:26848840

  2. Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics For Evaluating Bond Integrity Between Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveromo, Scott Leonard

    Conventional nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques used to detect defects in composites are not able to determine intact bond integrity within a composite structure and are costly to use on large and complex shaped surfaces. To overcome current NDT limitations, a new technology was utilized based on quantitative percussion diagnostics (QPD) to better quantify bond quality in fiber reinforced composite materials. Experimental results indicate that this technology is capable of detecting 'kiss' bonds (very low adhesive shear strength), caused by the application of release agents on the bonding surfaces, between flat composite laminates bonded together with epoxy adhesive. Specifically, the local value of the loss coefficient determined from quantitative percussion testing was found to be significantly greater for a release coated panel compared to that for a well bonded sample. Also, the local value of the probe force or force returned to the probe after impact was observed to be lower for the release coated panels. The increase in loss coefficient and decrease in probe force are thought to be due to greater internal friction during the percussion event for poorly bonded specimens. NDT standards were also fabricated by varying the cure parameters of an epoxy film adhesive. Results from QPD for the variable cure NDT standards and lap shear strength measurements taken of mechanical test specimens were compared and analyzed. Finally, experimental results have been compared to a finite element analysis to understand the visco-elastic behavior of the laminates during percussion testing. This comparison shows how a lower quality bond leads to a reduction in the percussion force by biasing strain in the percussion tested side of the panel.

  3. Quantitative proteomics to study carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vishvanath; Tiwari, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, respiratory infections and urinary tract infections. The prevalence of this lethal pathogen increases gradually in the clinical setup where it can grow on artificial surfaces, utilize ethanol as a carbon source. Moreover it resists desiccation. Carbapenems, a β-lactam, are the most commonly prescribed drugs against A. baumannii. Resistance against carbapenem has emerged in Acinetobacter baumannii which can create significant health problems and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. With the development of quantitative proteomics, a considerable progress has been made in the study of carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Recent updates showed that quantitative proteomics has now emerged as an important tool to understand the carbapenem resistance mechanism in Acinetobacter baumannii. Present review also highlights the complementary nature of different quantitative proteomic methods used to study carbapenem resistance and suggests to combine multiple proteomic methods for understanding the response to antibiotics by Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:25309531

  4. Development and evaluation of a model-based downscatter compensation method for quantitative I-131 SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Song, Na; Du, Yong; He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The radionuclide 131I has found widespread use in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), partly due to the fact that it emits photons that can be imaged to perform treatment planning or posttherapy dose verification as well as beta rays that are suitable for therapy. In both the treatment planning and dose verification applications, it is necessary to estimate the activity distribution in organs or tumors at several time points. In vivo estimates of the 131I activity distribution at each time point can be obtained from quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (QSPECT) images and organ activity estimates can be obtained either from QSPECT images or quantification of planar projection data. However, in addition to the photon used for imaging, 131I decay results in emission of a number of other higher-energy photons with significant abundances. These higher-energy photons can scatter in the body, collimator, or detector and be counted in the 364 keV photopeak energy window, resulting in reduced image contrast and degraded quantitative accuracy; these photons are referred to as downscatter. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a model-based downscatter compensation method specifically designed for the compensation of high-energy photons emitted by 131I and detected in the imaging energy window. Methods: In the evaluation study, we used a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) code that had previously been validated for other radionuclides. Thus, in preparation for the evaluation study, we first validated the code for 131I imaging simulation by comparison with experimental data. Next, we assessed the accuracy of the downscatter model by comparing downscatter estimates with MCS results. Finally, we combined the downscatter model with iterative reconstruction-based compensation for attenuation (A) and scatter (S) and the full (D) collimator-detector response of the 364 keV photons to form a comprehensive compensation method. We evaluated this

  5. The emerging science of quantitative imaging biomarkers terminology and definitions for scientific studies and regulatory submissions.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Larry G; Barnhart, Huiman X; Buckler, Andrew J; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Kondratovich, Marina V; Toledano, Alicia; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Filice, Ross; Zhang, Zheng; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    The development and implementation of quantitative imaging biomarkers has been hampered by the inconsistent and often incorrect use of terminology related to these markers. Sponsored by the Radiological Society of North America, an interdisciplinary group of radiologists, statisticians, physicists, and other researchers worked to develop a comprehensive terminology to serve as a foundation for quantitative imaging biomarker claims. Where possible, this working group adapted existing definitions derived from national or international standards bodies rather than invent new definitions for these terms. This terminology also serves as a foundation for the design of studies that evaluate the technical performance of quantitative imaging biomarkers and for studies of algorithms that generate the quantitative imaging biomarkers from clinical scans. This paper provides examples of research studies and quantitative imaging biomarker claims that use terminology consistent with these definitions as well as examples of the rampant confusion in this emerging field. We provide recommendations for appropriate use of quantitative imaging biomarker terminological concepts. It is hoped that this document will assist researchers and regulatory reviewers who examine quantitative imaging biomarkers and will also inform regulatory guidance. More consistent and correct use of terminology could advance regulatory science, improve clinical research, and provide better care for patients who undergo imaging studies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. A lighting metric for quantitative evaluation of accent lighting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acholo, Cyril O.; Connor, Kenneth A.; Radke, Richard J.

    2014-09-01

    Accent lighting is critical for artwork and sculpture lighting in museums, and subject lighting for stage, Film and television. The research problem of designing effective lighting in such settings has been revived recently with the rise of light-emitting-diode-based solid state lighting. In this work, we propose an easy-to-apply quantitative measure of the scene's visual quality as perceived by human viewers. We consider a well-accent-lit scene as one which maximizes the information about the scene (in an information-theoretic sense) available to the user. We propose a metric based on the entropy of the distribution of colors, which are extracted from an image of the scene from the viewer's perspective. We demonstrate that optimizing the metric as a function of illumination configuration (i.e., position, orientation, and spectral composition) results in natural, pleasing accent lighting. We use a photorealistic simulation tool to validate the functionality of our proposed approach, showing its successful application to two- and three-dimensional scenes.

  7. A Systematic Quantitative-Qualitative Model: How To Evaluate Professional Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoda, Koji

    1973-01-01

    The proposed evaluation model provides for the assignment of relative weights to each criterion, and establishes a weighting system for calculating a quantitative-qualitative raw score for each service activity of a faculty member being reviewed. (Author)

  8. Design of 3-D adipospheres for quantitative metabolic study

    PubMed Central

    Akama, Takeshi; Leung, Brendan M.; Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi; Chun, Tae-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of adipose mitochondrial activity is critical for better understanding of adipose tissue function in obesity and diabetes. While the two-dimensional (2-D) tissue culture method has been sufficient to discover key molecules that regulate adipocyte differentiation and function, the method is insufficient to determine the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and their modifiers, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in regulating adipocyte function in three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo-like microenvironments. By using a 3-D hanging drop tissue culture system, we are able to produce scalable 3-D adipospheres that are suitable for quantitative mitochondrial study in 3-D microenvironment. PMID:28244051

  9. A Quantitative Investigation of Stakeholder Variation in Training Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalski, Greg V.

    A survey was conducted to investigate variation in stakeholder perceptions of training results and evaluation within the context of a high-technology product development firm (the case organization). A scannable questionnaire survey booklet was developed and scanned data were exported and analyzed. Based on an achieved sample of 280 (70% response…

  10. Predictive Heterosis in Multibreed Evaluations Using Quantitative and Molecular Approaches

    Heterosis is the extra genetic boost in performance obtained by crossing two cattle breeds. It is an important tool for increasing the efficiency of beef production. It is also important to adjust data used to calculate genetic evaluations for differences in heterosis. Good estimates of heterosis...

  11. Simulation and the Development of Clinical Judgment: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative pretest posttest quasi-experimental research study was to explore the effect of the NESD on clinical judgment in associate degree nursing students and compare the differences between groups when the Nursing Education Simulation Design (NESD) guided simulation in order to identify educational strategies promoting…

  12. Retention of Nontraditional Students: A Quantitative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Shirley J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to investigate, describe, and measure factors influencing retention of nontraditional first and second year students at a university located in the Midwestern United States. Retention of adult students has become a major issue for many institutions of higher education and many…

  13. A methodology to quantitatively evaluate the safety of a glazing robot.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungyeol; Yu, Seungnam; Choi, Junho; Han, Changsoo

    2011-03-01

    A new construction method using robots is spreading widely among construction sites in order to overcome labour shortages and frequent construction accidents. Along with economical efficiency, safety is a very important factor for evaluating the use of construction robots in construction sites. However, the quantitative evaluation of safety is difficult compared with that of economical efficiency. In this study, we suggested a safety evaluation methodology by defining the 'worker' and 'work conditions' as two risk factors, defining the 'worker' factor as posture load and the 'work conditions' factor as the work environment and the risk exposure time. The posture load evaluation reflects the risk of musculoskeletal disorders which can be caused by work posture and the risk of accidents which can be caused by reduced concentration. We evaluated the risk factors that may cause various accidents such as falling, colliding, capsizing, and squeezing in work environments, and evaluated the operational risk by considering worker exposure time to risky work environments. With the results of the evaluations for each factor, we calculated the general operational risk and deduced the improvement ratio in operational safety by introducing a construction robot. To verify these results, we compared the safety of the existing human manual labour and the proposed robotic labour construction methods for manipulating large glass panels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative maps of genetic interactions in yeast - comparative evaluation and integrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindén, Rolf O; Eronen, Ville-Pekka; Aittokallio, Tero

    2011-03-24

    High-throughput genetic screening approaches have enabled systematic means to study how interactions among gene mutations contribute to quantitative fitness phenotypes, with the aim of providing insights into the functional wiring diagrams of genetic interaction networks on a global scale. However, it is poorly known how well these quantitative interaction measurements agree across the screening approaches, which hinders their integrated use toward improving the coverage and quality of the genetic interaction maps in yeast and other organisms. Using large-scale data matrices from epistatic miniarray profiling (E-MAP), genetic interaction mapping (GIM), and synthetic genetic array (SGA) approaches, we carried out here a systematic comparative evaluation among these quantitative maps of genetic interactions in yeast. The relatively low association between the original interaction measurements or their customized scores could be improved using a matrix-based modelling framework, which enables the use of single- and double-mutant fitness estimates and measurements, respectively, when scoring genetic interactions. Toward an integrative analysis, we show how the detections from the different screening approaches can be combined to suggest novel positive and negative interactions which are complementary to those obtained using any single screening approach alone. The matrix approximation procedure has been made available to support the design and analysis of the future screening studies. We have shown here that even if the correlation between the currently available quantitative genetic interaction maps in yeast is relatively low, their comparability can be improved by means of our computational matrix approximation procedure, which will enable integrative analysis and detection of a wider spectrum of genetic interactions using data from the complementary screening approaches.

  15. Methods for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of vaginal microflora during menstruation.

    PubMed Central

    Onderdonk, A B; Zamarchi, G R; Walsh, J A; Mellor, R D; Muñoz, A; Kass, E H

    1986-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative changes in the bacterial flora of the vagina during menstruation have received inadequate study. Similarly, the effect of vaginal tampons on the microbial flora as well as the relationship between the microbial flora of the vagina and that of the tampon has not been adequately evaluated. The purposes of the present study were (i) to develop quantitative methods for studying the vaginal flora and the flora of tampons obtained during menstruation and (ii) to determine whether there were differences between the microflora of the tampon and that of the vaginal vault. Tampon and swab samples were obtained at various times from eight young healthy volunteers for 8 to 10 menstrual cycles. Samples consisted of swabs from women wearing menstrual pads compared with swab and tampon samples taken at various times during the menstrual cycle. Samples were analyzed for total facultative and anaerobic bacterial counts, and the six dominant bacterial species in each culture were identified. Statistical evaluation of the results indicates that total bacterial counts decreased during menstruation and that swab and tampon samples yielded similar total counts per unit weight of sample. The numbers of bacteria in tampons tended to be lower than in swabs taken at the same time. Overall, during menstruation, the concentrations of lactobacilli declined, but otherwise there was little difference among the species found during menstruation compared with those found in intermenstrual samples. Cotton tampons had little discernible effect on the microbial flora. PMID:3954346

  16. Four-point bending as a method for quantitatively evaluating spinal arthrodesis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Samuel T; Svet, Mark T; Kanim, Linda A; Metzger, Melodie F

    2015-02-01

    The most common method of evaluating the success (or failure) of rat spinal fusion procedures is manual palpation testing. Whereas manual palpation provides only a subjective binary answer (fused or not fused) regarding the success of a fusion surgery, mechanical testing can provide more quantitative data by assessing variations in strength among treatment groups. We here describe a mechanical testing method to quantitatively assess single-level spinal fusion in a rat model, to improve on the binary and subjective nature of manual palpation as an end point for fusion-related studies. We tested explanted lumbar segments from Sprague-Dawley rat spines after single-level posterolateral fusion procedures at L4-L5. Segments were classified as 'not fused,' 'restricted motion,' or 'fused' by using manual palpation testing. After thorough dissection and potting of the spine, 4-point bending in flexion then was applied to the L4-L5 motion segment, and stiffness was measured as the slope of the moment-displacement curve. Results demonstrated statistically significant differences in stiffness among all groups, which were consistent with preliminary grading according to manual palpation. In addition, the 4-point bending results provided quantitative information regarding the quality of the bony union formed and therefore enabled the comparison of fused specimens. Our results demonstrate that 4-point bending is a simple, reliable, and effective way to describe and compare results among rat spines after fusion surgery.

  17. Establishment of a Quantitative Medical Technology Evaluation System and Indicators within Medical Institutions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Suo-Wei; Chen, Tong; Pan, Qi; Wei, Liang-Yu; Wang, Qin; Li, Chao; Song, Jing-Chen; Luo, Ji

    2018-06-05

    The development and application of medical technologies reflect the medical quality and clinical capacity of a hospital. It is also an effective approach in upgrading medical service and core competitiveness among medical institutions. This study aimed to build a quantitative medical technology evaluation system through questionnaire survey within medical institutions to perform an assessment to medical technologies more objectively and accurately, and promote the management of medical quality technologies and ensure the medical safety of various operations among the hospitals. A two-leveled quantitative medical technology evaluation system was built through a two-round questionnaire survey of chosen experts. The Delphi method was applied in identifying the structure of evaluation system and indicators. The judgment of the experts on the indicators was adopted in building the matrix so that the weight coefficient and maximum eigenvalue (λ max), consistency index (CI), and random consistency ratio (CR) could be obtained and collected. The results were verified through consistency tests, and the index weight coefficient of each indicator was conducted and calculated through analytical hierarchy process. Twenty-six experts of different medical fields were involved in the questionnaire survey, 25 of whom successfully responded to the two-round research. Altogether, 4 primary indicators (safety, effectiveness, innovativeness, and benefits), as well as 13 secondary indicators, were included in the evaluation system. The matrix is built to conduct the λ max, CI, and CR of each expert in the survey, and the index weight coefficients of primary indicators were 0.33, 0.28, 0.27, and 0.12, respectively, and the index weight coefficients of secondary indicators were conducted and calculated accordingly. As the two-round questionnaire survey of experts and statistical analysis were performed and credibility of the results was verified through consistency evaluation test, the

  18. Quantitative image quality evaluation of MR images using perceptual difference models

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jun; Huo, Donglai; Wilson, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The authors are using a perceptual difference model (Case-PDM) to quantitatively evaluate image quality of the thousands of test images which can be created when optimizing fast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging strategies and reconstruction techniques. In this validation study, they compared human evaluation of MR images from multiple organs and from multiple image reconstruction algorithms to Case-PDM and similar models. The authors found that Case-PDM compared very favorably to human observers in double-stimulus continuous-quality scale and functional measurement theory studies over a large range of image quality. The Case-PDM threshold for nonperceptible differences in a 2-alternative forced choice study varied with the type of image under study, but was ≈1.1 for diffuse image effects, providing a rule of thumb. Ordering the image quality evaluation models, we found in overall Case-PDM ≈ IDM (Sarnoff Corporation) ≈ SSIM [Wang et al. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13, 600–612 (2004)] > mean squared error ≈ NR [Wang et al. (2004) (unpublished)] > DCTune (NASA) > IQM (MITRE Corporation). The authors conclude that Case-PDM is very useful in MR image evaluation but that one should probably restrict studies to similar images and similar processing, normally not a limitation in image reconstruction studies. PMID:18649487

  19. A novel approach for evaluating the performance of real time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based methods.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Gavin J; Svenstrup, Helle F; Donald, Carol E; Carder, Caroline; Stephenson, Judith M; Morris-Jones, Stephen; Huggett, Jim F; Foy, Carole A

    2014-12-01

    Molecular diagnostic measurements are currently underpinned by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There are also a number of alternative nucleic acid amplification technologies, which unlike PCR, work at a single temperature. These 'isothermal' methods, reportedly offer potential advantages over PCR such as simplicity, speed and resistance to inhibitors and could also be used for quantitative molecular analysis. However there are currently limited mechanisms to evaluate their quantitative performance, which would assist assay development and study comparisons. This study uses a sexually transmitted infection diagnostic model in combination with an adapted metric termed isothermal doubling time (IDT), akin to PCR efficiency, to compare quantitative PCR and quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP) assays, and to quantify the impact of matrix interference. The performance metric described here facilitates the comparison of qLAMP assays that could assist assay development and validation activities.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of phonetograms in the case of functional dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Airainer, R; Klingholz, F

    1993-06-01

    According to the laryngeal clinical findings, figures making up a scale were assigned to vocally trained and vocally untrained persons suffering from different types of functional dysphonia. The different types of dysphonia--from the manifested hypofunctional to the extreme hyperfunctional dysphonia--were classified by means of this scale. Besides, the subjects' phonetograms were measured and approximated by three ellipses, what rendered possible the definition of phonetogram parameters. The combining of selected phonetogram parameters to linear combinations served the purpose of a phonetographic evaluation. The linear combinations were to bring phonetographic and clinical evaluations into correspondence as accurately as possible. It was necessary to use different kinds of linear combinations for male and female singers and nonsingers. As a result of the reclassification of 71 and the new classification of 89 patients, it was possible to graduate the types of functional dysphonia by means of computer-aided phonetogram evaluation with a clinically acceptable error rate. This method proved to be an important supplement to the conventional diagnostics of functional dysphonia.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of some vocal function parameters following fitting of a prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Cavalot, A L; Palonta, F; Preti, G; Nazionale, G; Ricci, E; Vione, N; Albera, R; Cortesina, G

    2001-12-01

    The insertion of a prosthesis and restoration with pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps for patients subjected to total pharyngolaryngectomy is a technique now universally accepted; however the literature on the subject is lacking. Our study considers 10 patients subjected to total pharyngolaryngectomy and restoration with pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps who were fitted with vocal function prostheses and a control group of 50 subjects treated with a total laryngectomy without pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps and who were fitted with vocal function prostheses. Specific qualitative and quantitative parameters were compared. The quantitative measurement of the levels of voice intensity and the evaluation of the harmonics-to-noise ratio were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) between the two study groups at either high- or low-volume speech. On the contrary, statistically significant differences were found (p < 0.05) for the basic frequency of both the low and the high volume voice. For the qualitative analysis seven parameters were established for evaluation by trained and untrained listeners: on the basis of these parameters the control group had statistically better voices.

  2. Quantitation of aortic and mitral regurgitation in the pediatric population: evaluation by radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciT

    Hurwitz, R.A.; Treves, S.; Freed, M.

    The ability to quantitate aortic (AR) or mitral regurgitation (MR), or both, by radionuclide angiocardiography was evaluated in children and young adults at rest and during isometric exercise. Regurgitation was estimated by determining the ratio of left ventricular stroke volume to right ventricular stroke volume obtained during equilibrium ventriculography. The radionuclide measurement was compared with results of cineangiography, with good correlation between both studies in 47 of 48 patients. Radionuclide stroke volume ratio was used to classify severity: the group with equivocal regurgitation differed from the group with mild regurgitation (p less than 0.02); patients with mild regurgitation differed frommore » those with moderate regurgitation (p less than 0.001); and those with moderate regurgitation differed from those with severe regurgitation (p less than 0.01). The stroke volume ratio was responsive to isometric exercise, remaining constant or increasing in 16 of 18 patients. After surgery to correct regurgitation, the stroke volume ratio significantly decreased from preoperative measurements in all 7 patients evaluated. Results from the present study demonstrate that a stroke volume ratio greater than 2.0 is compatible with moderately severe regurgitation and that a ratio greater than 3.0 suggests the presence of severe regurgitation. Thus, radionuclide angiocardiography should be useful for noninvasive quantitation of AR or MR, or both, helping define the course of young patients with left-side valvular regurgitation.« less

  3. Quantitative evaluation of orbital hybridization in carbon nanotubes under radial deformation using π-orbital axis vector

    SciT

    Ohnishi, Masato, E-mail: masato.ohnishi@rift.mech.tohoku.ac.jp; Suzuki, Ken; Miura, Hideo, E-mail: hmiura@rift.mech.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-04-15

    When a radial strain is applied to a carbon nanotube (CNT), the increase in local curvature induces orbital hybridization. The effect of the curvature-induced orbital hybridization on the electronic properties of CNTs, however, has not been evaluated quantitatively. In this study, the strength of orbital hybridization in CNTs under homogeneous radial strain was evaluated quantitatively. Our analyses revealed the detailed procedure of the change in electronic structure of CNTs. In addition, the dihedral angle, the angle between π-orbital axis vectors of adjacent atoms, was found to effectively predict the strength of local orbital hybridization in deformed CNTs.

  4. [Integral quantitative evaluation of working conditions in the construction industry].

    PubMed

    Guseĭnov, A A

    1993-01-01

    Present method evaluating the quality of environment (using MAC and MAL) does not enable to assess completely and objectively the work conditions of building industry due to multiple confounding elements. A solution to this complicated problem including the analysis of various correlating elements of the system "human--work conditions--environment" may be encouraged by social norm of morbidity, which is independent on industrial and natural environment. The complete integral assessment enables to see the whole situation and reveal the points at risk.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of performance of three-dimensional printed lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawedzinski, John; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of the shape, surface quality, and imaging capabilities of custom three-dimensional (3-D) printed lenses. 3-D printing technology enables lens prototypes to be fabricated without restrictions on surface geometry. Thus, spherical, aspherical, and rotationally nonsymmetric lenses can be manufactured in an integrated production process. This technique serves as a noteworthy alternative to multistage, labor-intensive, abrasive processes, such as grinding, polishing, and diamond turning. Here, we evaluate the quality of lenses fabricated by Luxexcel using patented Printoptical©; technology that is based on an inkjet printing technique by comparing them to lenses made with traditional glass processing technologies (grinding, polishing, etc.). The surface geometry and roughness of the lenses were evaluated using white-light and Fizeau interferometers. We have compared peak-to-valley wavefront deviation, root mean square (RMS) wavefront error, radii of curvature, and the arithmetic roughness average (Ra) profile of plastic and glass lenses. In addition, the imaging performance of selected pairs of lenses was tested using 1951 USAF resolution target. The results indicate performance of 3-D printed optics that could be manufactured with surface roughness comparable to that of injection molded lenses (Ra<20 nm). The RMS wavefront error of 3-D printed prototypes was at a minimum 18.8 times larger than equivalent glass prototypes for a lens with a 12.7 mm clear aperture, but, when measured within 63% of its clear aperture, the 3-D printed components' RMS wavefront error was comparable to glass lenses.

  6. [Quantitative parameters to evaluate the publication of scientific papers].

    PubMed

    Petroianu, Andy

    2003-01-01

    The assessment of the publication of scientific works is a hard challenge when it is necessary to classify a curriculum vitae or even to verify the performance of an institution, such as a medical school, a postgraduate program or a research department. Most of time, the evaluation is based on personal feelings and experience, without established standard pattern. To present a guideline to evaluate the publications of scientific papers, without foreign influence. The guideline to assess the value of each publication is based on the multiplication of three factors. The first factor is the value of the author corresponding to his place among the authors in the authorship of the work. The second factor is the classification of the type of publication. Finally, the product of these two factors is multiplied by ten times the "impact factor" of the journal. When the "impact factor" is zero, 0.1 should substitute it. This method has been used by us since 1994, with good results and without any problem related to the judgment. This criterion prevents subjective interference. Conflicts of interest are avoided when clearly presented from the beginning of the judgment process.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of performance of 3D printed lenses

    PubMed Central

    Gawedzinski, John; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis of the shape, surface quality, and imaging capabilities of custom 3D printed lenses. 3D printing technology enables lens prototypes to be fabricated without restrictions on surface geometry. Thus, spherical, aspherical and rotationally non-symmetric lenses can be manufactured in an integrated production process. This technique serves as a noteworthy alternative to multistage, labor-intensive, abrasive processes such as grinding, polishing and diamond turning. Here, we evaluate the quality of lenses fabricated by Luxexcel using patented Printoptical© technology that is based on an inkjet printing technique by comparing them to lenses made with traditional glass processing technologies (grinding, polishing etc.). The surface geometry and roughness of the lenses were evaluated using white-light and Fizeau interferometers. We have compared peak-to-valley wavefront deviation, root-mean-squared wavefront error, radii of curvature and the arithmetic average of the roughness profile (Ra) of plastic and glass lenses. Additionally, the imaging performance of selected pairs of lenses was tested using 1951 USAF resolution target. The results indicate performance of 3D printed optics that could be manufactured with surface roughness comparable to that of injection molded lenses (Ra < 20 nm). The RMS wavefront error of 3D printed prototypes was at a minimum 18.8 times larger than equivalent glass prototypes for a lens with a 12.7 mm clear aperture, but when measured within 63% of its clear aperture, 3D printed components’ RMS wavefront error was comparable to glass lenses. PMID:29238114

  8. Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

  9. Gas turbine coatings eddy current quantitative and qualitative evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribichini, Remo; Giolli, Carlo; Scrinzi, Erica

    2017-02-01

    Gas turbine blades (buckets) are among the most critical and expensive components of the engine. Buckets rely on protective coatings in order to withstand the harsh environment in which they operate. The thickness and the microstructure of coatings during the lifespan of a unit are fundamental to evaluate their fitness for service. A frequency scanning Eddy Current instrument can allow the measurement of the thickness and of physical properties of coatings in a Non-Destructive manner. The method employed relies on the acquisition of impedance spectra and on the inversion of the experimental data to derive the coating properties and structure using some assumptions. This article describes the experimental validation performed on several samples and real components in order to assess the performance of the instrument as a coating thickness gage. The application of the technique to support residual life assessment of serviced buckets is also presented.

  10. Quantitative Evaluation of Delamination in Composites Using Lamb Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalcová, L.; Hron, R.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring has become very popular in the area of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace structures. Any possible type of damage must be reliably assessed. The paper deals with delamination length determination in DCB specimens using Lamb waves. An analytical equation based on the velocity dependence on variable thickness is utilized. The group velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric A0 mode rapidly changes in a particular range of the frequency-thickness product. Using the same actuation frequency the propagation velocity is different for delaminated structure. Lamb wave based delamination lengths were compared to the visually determined lengths. The method of the wave velocity determination proved to be essential. More accurate results were achieved by tracking the maximum amplitude of A0 mode than the first signal arrival. These findings are considered as the basis for the damage evaluation of complex structures.

  11. Towards the quantitative evaluation of visual attention models.

    PubMed

    Bylinskii, Z; DeGennaro, E M; Rajalingham, R; Ruda, H; Zhang, J; Tsotsos, J K

    2015-11-01

    Scores of visual attention models have been developed over the past several decades of research. Differences in implementation, assumptions, and evaluations have made comparison of these models very difficult. Taxonomies have been constructed in an attempt at the organization and classification of models, but are not sufficient at quantifying which classes of models are most capable of explaining available data. At the same time, a multitude of physiological and behavioral findings have been published, measuring various aspects of human and non-human primate visual attention. All of these elements highlight the need to integrate the computational models with the data by (1) operationalizing the definitions of visual attention tasks and (2) designing benchmark datasets to measure success on specific tasks, under these definitions. In this paper, we provide some examples of operationalizing and benchmarking different visual attention tasks, along with the relevant design considerations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Non cardiopatic and cardiopatic beta thalassemic patients: quantitative and qualitative cardiac iron deposition evaluation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Macarini, L; Marini, S; Pietrapertosa, A; Scardapane, A; Ettorre, G C

    2005-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is one of the major complications of b thalassaemia major as a result of transfusional iron overload. The aim of our study is to evaluate with MR if there is any difference of iron deposition signal intensity (SI) or distribution between non-cardiopathic and cardiopathic thalassaemic patients in order to establish if there is a relationship between cardiopathy and iron deposition. We studied 20 patients affected by b thalassaemia major, of whom 10 cardiopathic and 10 non-cardiopathic, and 10 healthy volunteers as control group. Serum ferritin and left ventricular ejection fraction were calculated in thalassaemic patients. All patients were examined using a 1.5 MR unit with ECG-gated GE cine-MR T2*-weighted, SE T1-weighted and GE T2*-weighted sequences. In all cases, using an adequate ROI, the myocardial and skeletal muscle signal intensity (SI), the myocardial/skeletal muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR) and the SI average of the myocardium and skeletal muscle were calculated for every study group. The qualitative evaluation of iron deposition distribution was independently performed by three radiologists who analyzed the extension, the site and the morphology of iron deposition on the MR images and reported their observations on the basis of a four-level rating scale: 0 (absent), 1 (limited), 2 (partial), 3 (widespread deposition). The result of quantitative and qualitative evaluations were analysed with statistical tests. Cardiac iron deposition was found in 8/10 non-cardiopathic thalassaemic patients and in all cardiopathic thalassaemic patients. We noticed a significant SI difference (p>0.05) between the healthy volunteer control group and the thalassaemic patients with iron deposition, but no significant SI difference in iron deposition between non-cardiopathic and cardiopathic thalassaemic patients in the areas evaluated. The qualitative evaluation revealed a different distribution of iron deposition between the two thalassaemic groups, with

  13. Analog to digital workflow improvement: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Catherine; Gallet, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This study tracked a radiology department's conversion from utilization of a Kodak Amber analog system to a Kodak DirectView DR 5100 digital system. Through the use of ProModel Optimization Suite, a workflow simulation software package, significant quantitative information was derived from workflow process data measured before and after the change to a digital system. Once the digital room was fully operational and the radiology staff comfortable with the new system, average patient examination time was reduced from 9.24 to 5.28 min, indicating that a higher patient throughput could be achieved. Compared to the analog system, chest examination time for modality specific activities was reduced by 43%. The percentage of repeat examinations experienced with the digital system also decreased to 8% vs. the level of 9.5% experienced with the analog system. The study indicated that it is possible to quantitatively study clinical workflow and productivity by using commercially available software.

  14. Methodological aspects of multicenter studies with quantitative PET.

    PubMed

    Boellaard, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of whole-body FDG PET studies is affected by many physiological and physical factors. Much of the variability in reported standardized uptake value (SUV) data seen in the literature results from the variability in methodology applied among these studies, i.e., due to the use of different scanners, acquisition and reconstruction settings, region of interest strategies, SUV normalization, and/or corrections methods. To date, the variability in applied methodology prohibits a proper comparison and exchange of quantitative FDG PET data. Consequently, the promising role of quantitative PET has been demonstrated in several monocentric studies, but these published results cannot be used directly as a guideline for clinical (multicenter) trials performed elsewhere. In this chapter, the main causes affecting whole-body FDG PET quantification and strategies to minimize its inter-institute variability are addressed.

  15. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Duty Machine Tools Remanufacturing Based on Modified Catastrophe Progression Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shunhe, Li; jianhua, Rao; lin, Gui; weimin, Zhang; degang, Liu

    2017-11-01

    The result of remanufacturing evaluation is the basis for judging whether the heavy duty machine tool can remanufacture in the EOL stage of the machine tool lifecycle management.The objectivity and accuracy of evaluation is the key to the evaluation method.In this paper, the catastrophe progression method is introduced into the quantitative evaluation of heavy duty machine tools’ remanufacturing,and the results are modified by the comprehensive adjustment method,which makes the evaluation results accord with the standard of human conventional thinking.Using the catastrophe progression method to establish the heavy duty machine tools’ quantitative evaluation model,to evaluate the retired TK6916 type CNC floor milling-boring machine’s remanufacturing.The evaluation process is simple,high quantification,the result is objective.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of Brain Stem Atrophy Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Adult Patients with Alexander Disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Yasuda, Rei; Mizuta, Ikuko; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    Brain MRI in adult patients with Alexander disease (AxD) mainly shows atrophy in the medulla oblongata. However, currently there is no quantitative standard for assessing this atrophy. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the brain stem of AxD patients with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mutation using conventional MRI to evaluate its usefulness as an aid to diagnosing AxD in daily clinical practice. Nineteen AxD patients with GFAP mutation were compared with 14 patients negative for GFAP mutation in whom AxD was suspected due to "atrophy of the medulla oblongata." In the GFAP mutation-positive group, the sagittal diameter of the medulla oblongata, the ratio of the diameter of the medulla oblongata to that of the midbrain (MO/MB), and the ratio of the sagittal diameter of the medulla oblongata to that of the pons (MO/Po) were significantly smaller compared to those of the GFAP mutation-negative group (p < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter were 87.5 and 92.3%, 91.7 and 81.3%, and 88.2 and 100% with a sagittal diameter of the medulla oblongata <9.0 mm, MO/MB <0.60, and sagittal MO/Po <0.46, respectively. These parameters can provide very useful information to differentially diagnose AxD from other disorders associated with brain stem atrophy in adult patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Highly sensitive and quantitative evaluation of the EGFR T790M mutation by nanofluidic digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Eiji; Takayama, Koichi; Harada, Taishi; Okamoto, Isamu; Ookubo, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Junji; Baba, Eishi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-08-21

    The mutation of T790M in EGFR is a major mechanism of resistance to treatment with EGFR-TKIs. Only qualitative detection (presence or absence) of T790M has been described to date, however. Digital PCR (dPCR) analysis has recently been applied to the quantitative detection of target molecules in cancer with high sensitivity. In the present study, 25 tumor samples (13 obtained before and 12 after EGFR-TKI treatment) from 18 NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations were evaluated for T790M with dPCR. The ratio of the number of T790M alleles to that of activating mutation alleles (T/A) was determined. dPCR detected T790M in all 25 samples. Although T790M was present in all pre-TKI samples from 13 patients, 10 of these patients had a low T/A ratio and manifested substantial tumor shrinkage during treatment with EGFR-TKIs. In six of seven patients for whom both pre- and post-TKI samples were available, the T/A ratio increased markedly during EGFR-TKI treatment. Highly sensitive dPCR thus detected T790M in all NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations whether or not they had received EGFR-TKI treatment. Not only highly sensitive but also quantitative detection of T790M is important for evaluation of the contribution of T790M to EGFR-TKI resistance.

  18. Highly sensitive and quantitative evaluation of the EGFR T790M mutation by nanofluidic digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Iwama, Eiji; Takayama, Koichi; Harada, Taishi; Okamoto, Isamu; Ookubo, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Junji; Baba, Eishi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    The mutation of T790M in EGFR is a major mechanism of resistance to treatment with EGFR-TKIs. Only qualitative detection (presence or absence) of T790M has been described to date, however. Digital PCR (dPCR) analysis has recently been applied to the quantitative detection of target molecules in cancer with high sensitivity. In the present study, 25 tumor samples (13 obtained before and 12 after EGFR-TKI treatment) from 18 NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations were evaluated for T790M with dPCR. The ratio of the number of T790M alleles to that of activating mutation alleles (T/A) was determined. dPCR detected T790M in all 25 samples. Although T790M was present in all pre-TKI samples from 13 patients, 10 of these patients had a low T/A ratio and manifested substantial tumor shrinkage during treatment with EGFR-TKIs. In six of seven patients for whom both pre- and post-TKI samples were available, the T/A ratio increased markedly during EGFR-TKI treatment. Highly sensitive dPCR thus detected T790M in all NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations whether or not they had received EGFR-TKI treatment. Not only highly sensitive but also quantitative detection of T790M is important for evaluation of the contribution of T790M to EGFR-TKI resistance. PMID:26015401

  19. Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ginseng adulteration.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shaoqing; Yang, Liangcheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-05-01

    Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng is common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their differences, but it is subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but they are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method is required. A taste sensing system, combining both advantages of the above two technologies, provides a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R(2) = 0.92) with mixed ratios. A bioplot of principal component analysis showed a good performance in classing samples with the first two principal components reaching 89.7%, and it was noted that it was the bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and astringency, and saltiness leading the successful determination. After factor screening, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringency and aftertaste bitterness were demonstrated to be most effective in predicting adulteration ratio, mean while, bitterness and aftertaste bitterness turned out to be most effective in ginsenoside content prediction. Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considered as taste fingerprint, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Prospective evaluation of risk of vertebral fractures using quantitative ultrasound measurements and bone mineral density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women: results of the Basel Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Hollaender, R; Hartl, F; Krieg, M-A; Tyndall, A; Geuckel, C; Buitrago-Tellez, C; Manghani, M; Kraenzlin, M; Theiler, R; Hans, D

    2009-03-01

    Prospective studies have shown that quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques predict the risk of fracture of the proximal femur with similar standardised risk ratios to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Few studies have investigated these devices for the prediction of vertebral fractures. The Basel Osteoporosis Study (BOS) is a population-based prospective study to assess the performance of QUS devices and DXA in predicting incident vertebral fractures. 432 women aged 60-80 years were followed-up for 3 years. Incident vertebral fractures were assessed radiologically. Bone measurements using DXA (spine and hip) and QUS measurements (calcaneus and proximal phalanges) were performed. Measurements were assessed for their value in predicting incident vertebral fractures using logistic regression. QUS measurements at the calcaneus and DXA measurements discriminated between women with and without incident vertebral fracture, (20% height reduction). The relative risks (RRs) for vertebral fracture, adjusted for age, were 2.3 for the Stiffness Index (SI) and 2.8 for the Quantitative Ultrasound Index (QUI) at the calcaneus and 2.0 for bone mineral density at the lumbar spine. The predictive value (AUC (95% CI)) of QUS measurements at the calcaneus remained highly significant (0.70 for SI, 0.72 for the QUI, and 0.67 for DXA at the lumbar spine) even after adjustment for other confounding variables. QUS of the calcaneus and bone mineral density measurements were shown to be significant predictors of incident vertebral fracture. The RRs for QUS measurements at the calcaneus are of similar magnitude as for DXA measurements.

  1. Technology Efficacy in Active Prosthetic Knees for Transfemoral Amputees: A Quantitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Amr M.; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have presented technological ensembles of active knee systems for transfemoral prosthesis. Other studies have examined the amputees' gait performance while wearing a specific active prosthesis. This paper combined both insights, that is, a technical examination of the components used, with an evaluation of how these improved the gait of respective users. This study aims to offer a quantitative understanding of the potential enhancement derived from strategic integration of core elements in developing an effective device. The study systematically discussed the current technology in active transfemoral prosthesis with respect to its functional walking performance amongst above-knee amputee users, to evaluate the system's efficacy in producing close-to-normal user performance. The performances of its actuator, sensory system, and control technique that are incorporated in each reported system were evaluated separately and numerical comparisons were conducted based on the percentage of amputees' gait deviation from normal gait profile points. The results identified particular components that contributed closest to normal gait parameters. However, the conclusion is limitedly extendable due to the small number of studies. Thus, more clinical validation of the active prosthetic knee technology is needed to better understand the extent of contribution of each component to the most functional development. PMID:25110727

  2. Technology efficacy in active prosthetic knees for transfemoral amputees: a quantitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Amr M; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have presented technological ensembles of active knee systems for transfemoral prosthesis. Other studies have examined the amputees' gait performance while wearing a specific active prosthesis. This paper combined both insights, that is, a technical examination of the components used, with an evaluation of how these improved the gait of respective users. This study aims to offer a quantitative understanding of the potential enhancement derived from strategic integration of core elements in developing an effective device. The study systematically discussed the current technology in active transfemoral prosthesis with respect to its functional walking performance amongst above-knee amputee users, to evaluate the system's efficacy in producing close-to-normal user performance. The performances of its actuator, sensory system, and control technique that are incorporated in each reported system were evaluated separately and numerical comparisons were conducted based on the percentage of amputees' gait deviation from normal gait profile points. The results identified particular components that contributed closest to normal gait parameters. However, the conclusion is limitedly extendable due to the small number of studies. Thus, more clinical validation of the active prosthetic knee technology is needed to better understand the extent of contribution of each component to the most functional development.

  3. Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science

    SciT

    Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisitionmore » of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  4. Quantitative evaluation of legacy phosphorus and its spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Lou, Hezhen; Zhao, Changsen; Yang, Shengtian; Shi, Liuhua; Wang, Yue; Ren, Xiaoyu; Bai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    A phosphorus resource crisis threatens the security of global crop production, especially in developing countries like China and Brazil. Legacy phosphorus (legacy-P), which is left behind in agricultural soil by over-fertilization, can help address this issue as a new resource in the soil phosphorus pool. However, issues involved with calculating and defining the spatial distribution of legacy-P hinder its future utilization. To resolve these issues, this study applied remote sensing and ecohydrological modeling to precisely quantify legacy-P and define its spatial distribution in China's Sanjiang Plain from 2000 to 2014. The total legacy-P in the study area was calculated as 579,090 t with an annual average of 38,600 t; this comprises 51.83% of the phosphorus fertilizer applied annually. From 2000 to 2014, the annual amount of legacy-P increased by more than 3.42-fold, equivalent to a 2460-ton increase each year. The spatial distribution of legacy-P showed heterogeneity and agglomeration in this area, with peaks in cultivated land experiencing long-term agricultural development. This study supplies a new approach to finding legacy-P in soil as a precondition for future utilization. Once its spatial distribution is known, legacy-P can be better utilized in agriculture to help alleviate the phosphorus resource crisis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Applying Quantitative Approaches to the Formative Evaluation of Antismoking Campaign Messages

    PubMed Central

    Parvanta, Sarah; Gibson, Laura; Forquer, Heather; Shapiro-Luft, Dina; Dean, Lorraine; Freres, Derek; Lerman, Caryn; Mallya, Giridhar; Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy; Cappella, Joseph; Hornik, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article shares an in-depth summary of a formative evaluation that used quantitative data to inform the development and selection of promotional ads for the antismoking communication component of a social marketing campaign. A foundational survey provided cross-sectional data to identify beliefs about quitting smoking that campaign messages should target, as well as beliefs to avoid. Pretesting draft ads against quantitative indicators of message effectiveness further facilitated the selection and rejection of final campaign ads. Finally, we consider lessons learned from the process of balancing quantitative methods and judgment to make formative decisions about more and less promising persuasive messages for campaigns. PMID:24817829

  6. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-02-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences.

  7. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1452481

  8. Designing automation for human use: empirical studies and quantitative models.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, R

    2000-07-01

    An emerging knowledge base of human performance research can provide guidelines for designing automation that can be used effectively by human operators of complex systems. Which functions should be automated and to what extent in a given system? A model for types and levels of automation that provides a framework and an objective basis for making such choices is described. The human performance consequences of particular types and levels of automation constitute primary evaluative criteria for automation design when using the model. Four human performance areas are considered--mental workload, situation awareness, complacency and skill degradation. Secondary evaluative criteria include such factors as automation reliability, the risks of decision/action consequences and the ease of systems integration. In addition to this qualitative approach, quantitative models can inform design. Several computational and formal models of human interaction with automation that have been proposed by various researchers are reviewed. An important future research need is the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Application of these models provides an objective basis for designing automation for effective human use.

  9. The quantitative evaluation of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program based on science mapping and scientometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Lei; Diao, Tianxi

    2013-12-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program is one of the most important initiatives in translational medical funding. The quantitative evaluation of the efficiency and performance of the CTSA program has a significant referential meaning for the decision making of global translational medical funding. Using science mapping and scientometric analytic tools, this study quantitatively analyzed the scientific articles funded by the CTSA program. The results of the study showed that the quantitative productivities of the CTSA program had a stable increase since 2008. In addition, the emerging trends of the research funded by the CTSA program covered clinical and basic medical research fields. The academic benefits from the CTSA program were assisting its members to build a robust academic home for the Clinical and Translational Science and to attract other financial support. This study provided a quantitative evaluation of the CTSA program based on science mapping and scientometric analysis. Further research is required to compare and optimize other quantitative methods and to integrate various research results. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Quantitative Evaluation of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program Based on Science Mapping and Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program is one of the most important initiatives in translational medical funding. The quantitative evaluation of the efficiency and performance of the CTSA program has a significant referential meaning for the decision making of global translational medical funding. Using science mapping and scientometric analytic tools, this study quantitatively analyzed the scientific articles funded by the CTSA program. The results of the study showed that the quantitative productivities of the CTSA program had a stable increase since 2008. In addition, the emerging trends of the research funded by the CTSA program covered clinical and basic medical research fields. The academic benefits from the CTSA program were assisting its members to build a robust academic home for the Clinical and Translational Science and to attract other financial support. This study provided a quantitative evaluation of the CTSA program based on science mapping and scientometric analysis. Further research is required to compare and optimize other quantitative methods and to integrate various research results. PMID:24330689

  11. A quantitative evaluation of dry-sensor electroencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uy, E. Timothy

    Neurologists, neuroscientists, and experimental psychologists study electrical activity within the brain by recording voltage fluctuations at the scalp. This is electroencephalography (EEG). In conventional or "wet" EEG, scalp abrasion and use of electrolytic paste are required to insure good electrical connection between sensor and skin. Repeated abrasion quickly becomes irritating to subjects, severely limiting the number and frequency of sessions. Several groups have produced "dry" EEG sensors that do not require abrasion or conductive paste. These, in addition to sidestepping the issue of abrasion, promise to reduce setup time from about 30 minutes with a technician to less than 30 seconds without one. The availability of such an instrument would (1) reduce the cost of brain-related medical care, (2) lower the barrier of entry on brain experimentation, and (3) allow individual subjects to contribute substantially more data without fear of abrasion or fatigue. Accuracy of the EEG is paramount in the medical diagnosis of epilepsy, in experimental psychology and in the burgeoning field of brain-computer interface. Without a sufficiently accurate measurement, the advantages of dry sensors remain a moot point. However, even after nearly a decade, demonstrations of dry EEG accuracy with respect to wet have been limited to visual comparison of short snippets of spontaneous EEG, averaged event-related potentials or plots of power spectrum. In this dissertation, I propose a detailed methodology based on single-trial EEG classification for comparing dry EEG sensors to their wet counterparts. Applied to a set of commercially fabricated dry sensors, this work reveals that dry sensors can perform as well their wet counterparts with careful screening and attention to the bandwidth of interest.

  12. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Iranian Researchers' Scientific Production in Dentistry Subfields.

    PubMed

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Motallebnejad, Mina; Gholinia, Hemmat; Esbakian, Somayeh

    2015-10-01

    As in other fields of medicine, scientific production in the field of dentistry has significant placement. This study aimed at quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating Iranian researchers' scientific output in the field of dentistry and determining their contribution in each of dentistry subfields and branches. This research was a scientometric study that applied quantitative and qualitative indices of Web of Science (WoS). Research population consisted of927indexed documents published under the name of Iran in the time span of 1993-2012 which were extracted from WoS on 10 March 2013. The Mann-Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to data analyses in SPSS 19. 777 (83. 73%) of indexed items of all scientific output in WoS were scientific articles. The highest growth rate of scientific productionwith90% belonged to endodontic sub field. The correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the number of documents and their publication age (P < 0. 0001). There was a significant difference between the mean number of published articles in the first ten- year (1993-2003) and that of the second one (2004-2013), in favor of the latter (P = 0. 001). The distribution frequencies of scientific production in various subfields of dentistry were very different. It needs to reinforce the infrastructure for more balanced scientific production in the field and its related subfields.

  13. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Iranian Researchers’ Scientific Production in Dentistry Subfields

    PubMed Central

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Motallebnejad, Mina; Gholinia, Hemmat; Esbakian, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: As in other fields of medicine, scientific production in the field of dentistry has significant placement. This study aimed at quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating Iranian researchers’ scientific output in the field of dentistry and determining their contribution in each of dentistry subfields and branches. Methods: This research was a scientometric study that applied quantitative and qualitative indices of Web of Science (WoS). Research population consisted of927indexed documents published under the name of Iran in the time span of 1993-2012 which were extracted from WoS on 10 March 2013. The Mann-Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to data analyses in SPSS 19. Results: 777 (83. 73%) of indexed items of all scientific output in WoS were scientific articles. The highest growth rate of scientific productionwith90% belonged to endodontic sub field. The correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the number of documents and their publication age (P < 0. 0001). There was a significant difference between the mean number of published articles in the first ten- year (1993-2003) and that of the second one (2004-2013), in favor of the latter (P = 0. 001). Conclusions: The distribution frequencies of scientific production in various subfields of dentistry were very different. It needs to reinforce the infrastructure for more balanced scientific production in the field and its related subfields. PMID:26635439

  14. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of derivatization reagents for different types of protein-bound carbonyl groups.

    PubMed

    Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Fedorova, Maria; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2013-09-07

    Mass spectrometry (MS) of 'carbonylated proteins' often involves derivatization of reactive carbonyl groups to facilitate their enrichment, identification and quantification. Among the many reported reagents, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), biotin hydrazide (BHZ) and O-(biotinylcarbazoylmethyl) hydroxylamine (ARP) are the most frequently used. Despite their common use in carbonylation research, their reactivity towards protein-bound carbonyls has not been quantitatively evaluated in detail, to the best of our knowledge. Thus we studied the reactivity and specificity of these reagents towards different classes of reactive carbonyl groups (e.g. aldehydes, ketones and lactams), each being represented by a synthetic peptide carrying an accordingly modified residue. All three tagging reagents were selective for aliphatic aldehydes and ketones. Lactams and carbonyl-containing tryptophan oxidation products, however, were labelled only at low levels or not at all. Whereas DNPH derivatization was efficient under the published standard conditions, the derivatization conditions for BHZ and ARP had to be altered. Acidic conditions provided quantitative labelling yields for ARP. Peptides derivatized with DNPH, BHZ and ARP fragmented efficiently in tandem mass spectrometry, when the experimental conditions were chosen carefully for each reagent. Importantly, the tested carbonylated peptides did not cross-react with amino groups in other proteins present during sample preparations or enzymatic digestion. Thus, it appears favourable to digest proteins first and then derivatise the reactive carbonyl groups more efficiently at the peptide level under acidic conditions. The carbonylated model peptides used in this study might be valid internal standards for carbonylation proteomics.

  15. A new approach for the quantitative evaluation of drawings in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Galli, Manuela; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Stella, Giacomo; Caiazzo, Giorgia; Norveti, Federica; Onnis, Francesca; Rigoldi, Chiara; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    A new method for a quantitative and objective description of drawing and for the quantification of drawing ability in children with learning disabilities (LD) is hereby presented. Twenty-four normally developing children (N) (age 10.6 ± 0.5) and 18 children with learning disabilities (LD) (age 10.3 ± 2.4) took part to the study. The drawing tasks were chosen among those already used in clinical daily experience (Denver Developmental Screening Test). Some parameters were defined in order to quantitatively describe the features of the children's drawings, introducing new objective measurements beside the subjective standard clinical evaluation. The experimental set-up revealed to be valid for clinical application with LD children. The parameters highlighted the presence of differences in the drawing features of N and LD children. This paper suggests the applicability of this protocol to other fields of motor and cognitive valuation, as well as the possibility to study the upper limbs position and muscle activation during drawing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of toothbrush and arm-joint motion during tooth brushing.

    PubMed

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Yu, Yong; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Murakami, Daisuke; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Morizono, Ken; Iwasaki, Tomonori; Iwase, Yoko; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2015-07-01

    It is very difficult for dental professionals to objectively assess tooth brushing skill of patients, because an obvious index to assess the brushing motion of patients has not been established. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate toothbrush and arm-joint motion during tooth brushing. Tooth brushing motion, performed by dental hygienists for 15 s, was captured using a motion-capture system that continuously calculates the three-dimensional coordinates of object's motion relative to the floor. The dental hygienists performed the tooth brushing on the buccal and palatal sides of their right and left upper molars. The frequencies and power spectra of toothbrush motion and joint angles of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were calculated and analyzed statistically. The frequency of toothbrush motion was higher on the left side (both buccal and palatal areas) than on the right side. There were no significant differences among joint angle frequencies within each brushing area. The inter- and intra-individual variations of the power spectrum of the elbow flexion angle when brushing were smaller than for any of the other angles. This study quantitatively confirmed that dental hygienists have individual distinctive rhythms during tooth brushing. All arm joints moved synchronously during brushing, and tooth brushing motion was controlled by coordinated movement of the joints. The elbow generated an individual's frequency through a stabilizing movement. The shoulder and wrist control the hand motion, and the elbow generates the cyclic rhythm during tooth brushing.

  17. Quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by quartz nanopipettes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Astudillo, Luisana; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Wenzhi; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin

    2014-09-07

    In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with a series of concentrations in the bath solution. Such current change is due to the adsorption of Cyt c to the inner surface of the nanopipette through specific interactions with hNgb. In contrast, a smaller current change with weak concentration dependence was observed when Cyt c was replaced with lysozyme, which does not specifically bind to hNgb. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the Cyt c-hNgb complex formation was derived and the value matched very well with the result from surface plasmon resonance measurement. This is the first quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by a conical-shaped nanopore based on charge sensing. Our results demonstrate that nanopipettes can potentially be used as a label-free analytical tool to quantitatively characterize protein-protein interactions.

  18. Dual respiratory and cardiac motion estimation in PET imaging: Methods design and quantitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Jizhe; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate four post-reconstruction respiratory and cardiac (R&C) motion vector field (MVF) estimation methods for cardiac 4D PET data. In Method 1, the dual R&C motions were estimated directly from the dual R&C gated images. In Method 2, respiratory motion (RM) and cardiac motion (CM) were separately estimated from the respiratory gated only and cardiac gated only images. The effects of RM on CM estimation were modeled in Method 3 by applying an image-based RM correction on the cardiac gated images before CM estimation, the effects of CM on RM estimation were neglected. Method 4 iteratively models the mutual effects of RM and CM during dual R&C motion estimations. Realistic simulation data were generated for quantitative evaluation of four methods. Almost noise-free PET projection data were generated from the 4D XCAT phantom with realistic R&C MVF using Monte Carlo simulation. Poisson noise was added to the scaled projection data to generate additional datasets of two more different noise levels. All the projection data were reconstructed using a 4D image reconstruction method to obtain dual R&C gated images. The four dual R&C MVF estimation methods were applied to the dual R&C gated images and the accuracy of motion estimation was quantitatively evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimated MVFs. Results show that among the four estimation methods, Methods 2 performed the worst for noise-free case while Method 1 performed the worst for noisy cases in terms of quantitative accuracy of the estimated MVF. Methods 4 and 3 showed comparable results and achieved RMSE lower by up to 35% than that in Method 1 for noisy cases. In conclusion, we have developed and evaluated 4 different post-reconstruction R&C MVF estimation methods for use in 4D PET imaging. Comparison of the performance of four methods on simulated data indicates separate R&C estimation with modeling of RM before CM estimation (Method 3) to be

  19. Quantitative evaluation methods of skin condition based on texture feature parameters.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hui; Chen, Tianhua; Wang, Xiaoyi; Chang, Zhineng; Shao, Siqi; Zhao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    In order to quantitatively evaluate the improvement of the skin condition after using skin care products and beauty, a quantitative evaluation method for skin surface state and texture is presented, which is convenient, fast and non-destructive. Human skin images were collected by image sensors. Firstly, the median filter of the 3 × 3 window is used and then the location of the hairy pixels on the skin is accurately detected according to the gray mean value and color information. The bilinear interpolation is used to modify the gray value of the hairy pixels in order to eliminate the negative effect of noise and tiny hairs on the texture. After the above pretreatment, the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated. On the basis of this, the four characteristic parameters, including the second moment, contrast, entropy and correlation, and their mean value are calculated at 45 ° intervals. The quantitative evaluation model of skin texture based on GLCM is established, which can calculate the comprehensive parameters of skin condition. Experiments show that using this method evaluates the skin condition, both based on biochemical indicators of skin evaluation methods in line, but also fully consistent with the human visual experience. This method overcomes the shortcomings of the biochemical evaluation method of skin damage and long waiting time, also the subjectivity and fuzziness of the visual evaluation, which achieves the non-destructive, rapid and quantitative evaluation of skin condition. It can be used for health assessment or classification of the skin condition, also can quantitatively evaluate the subtle improvement of skin condition after using skin care products or stage beauty.

  20. Nuclear medicine and quantitative imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science): Comprehensive progress report, April 1, 1986-December 31, 1988

    SciT

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1988-06-01

    This document describes several years research to improve PET imaging and diagnostic techniques in man. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefitmore » from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. The reports in the study were processed separately for the data bases. (TEM)« less

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Electrodes for External Urethral Sphincter Electromyography during Bladder-to-Urethral Guarding Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Steward, James E.; Clemons, Jessica D.; Zaszczurynski, Paul J.; Butler, Robert S.; Damaser, Margot S.; Jiang, Hai-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Accuracy in the recording of external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) is an important goal in the quantitative evaluation of urethral function. This study aim was to quantitatively compare electrode recordings taken during tonic activity and leak point pressure (LPP) testing. Methods Several electrodes, including the surface electrode (SE), concentric electrode (CE), and wire electrode (WE), were placed on the EUS singly and simultaneously in six female Sprague-Dawley rats under urethane anesthesia. The bladder was filled via a retropubic catheter while LPP testing and EUS EMG recording were done. Quantitative baseline correction of the EUS EMG signal was performed to reduce baseline variation. Amplitude and frequency of one-second samples of the EUS EMG signal were measured before LPP (tonic activity) and during peak LPP activity. Results The SE, CE, and WE signals demonstrated tonic activity before LPP and an increase in activity during LPP, suggesting that the electrodes accurately recorded EUS activity during tonic activity and during the bladder-to-EUS guarding reflex, regardless of the size or location of detection areas. SE recordings required significantly less baseline correction than both CE and WE recordings. The activity in CE-recorded EMG was significantly higher than that of the SE and WE both in single and simultaneous recordings. Conclusions These electrodes may be suitable for testing EUS EMG activity. The SE signal had significantly less baseline variation and the CE detected local activity more sensitively than the other electrodes, which may provide insight into choosing an appropriate electrode for EUS EMG recording. PMID:19680661

  2. Quantitative Evaluation of PET Respiratory Motion Correction Using MR Derived Simulated Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polycarpou, Irene; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; King, Andrew P.; Marsden, Paul K.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of respiratory motion correction on quantitative accuracy in PET imaging is evaluated using simulations for variable patient specific characteristics such as tumor uptake and respiratory pattern. Respiratory patterns from real patients were acquired, with long quiescent motion periods (type-1) as commonly observed in most patients and with long-term amplitude variability as is expected under conditions of difficult breathing (type-2). The respiratory patterns were combined with an MR-derived motion model to simulate real-time 4-D PET-MR datasets. Lung and liver tumors were simulated with diameters of 10 and 12 mm and tumor-to-background ratio ranging from 3:1 to 6:1. Projection data for 6- and 3-mm PET resolution were generated for the Philips Gemini scanner and reconstructed without and with motion correction using OSEM (2 iterations, 23 subsets). Motion correction was incorporated into the reconstruction process based on MR-derived motion fields. Tumor peak standardized uptake values (SUVpeak) were calculated from 30 noise realizations. Respiratory motion correction improves the quantitative performance with the greatest benefit observed for patients of breathing type-2. For breathing type-1 after applying motion correction, SUVpeak of 12-mm liver tumor with 6:1 contrast was increased by 46% for a current PET resolution (i.e., 6 mm) and by 47% for a higher PET resolution (i.e., 3 mm). Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that the benefit of higher scanner resolution is small unless motion correction is applied. In particular, for large liver tumor (12 mm) with low contrast (3:1) after motion correction, the SUVpeak was increased by 34% for 6-mm resolution and by 50% for a higher PET resolution (i.e., 3-mm resolution. This investigation indicates that there is a high impact of respiratory motion correction on tumor quantitative accuracy and that motion correction is important in order to benefit from the increased resolution of future PET

  3. Quantitative contrast-enhanced mammography for contrast medium kinetics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Speller, R.

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative contrast-enhanced mammography, based on a dual-energy approach, aims to extract quantitative and temporal information of the tumour enhancement after administration of iodinated vascular contrast media. Simulations using analytical expressions and optimization of critical parameters essential for the development of quantitative contrast-enhanced mammography are presented. The procedure has been experimentally evaluated using a tissue-equivalent phantom and an amorphous silicon active matrix flat panel imager. The x-ray beams were produced by a tungsten target tube and spectrally shaped using readily available materials. Measurement of iodine projected thickness in mg cm-2 has been performed. The effect of beam hardening does not introduce nonlinearities in the measurement of iodine projected thickness for values of thicknesses found in clinical investigations. However, scattered radiation introduces significant deviations from slope equal to unity when compared with the actual iodine projected thickness. Scatter correction before the analysis of the dual-energy images provides accurate iodine projected thickness measurements. At 10% of the exposure used in clinical mammography, signal-to-noise ratios in excess of 5 were achieved for iodine projected thicknesses less than 3 mg cm-2 within a 4 cm thick phantom. For the extraction of temporal information, a limited number of low-dose images were used with the phantom incorporating a flow of iodinated contrast medium. The results suggest that spatial and temporal information of iodinated contrast media can be used to indirectly measure the tumour microvessel density and determine its uptake and washout from breast tumours. The proposed method can significantly improve tumour detection in dense breasts. Its application to perform in situ x-ray biopsy and assessment of the oncolytic effect of anticancer agents is foreseeable.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of the fetal cerebellar vermis using the median view on three-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Liu, Wei; Cai, Ailu; Li, Jingyu; Chen, Lizhu; Wang, Bing

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness for quantitative evaluation of cerebellar vermis using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and to establish a nomogram for Chinese fetal vermis measurements during gestation. Sonographic examinations were performed in normal fetuses and in cases suspected of the diagnosis of vermian rotation. 3D median planes were obtained with both OMNIVIEW and tomographic ultrasound imaging. Measurements of the cerebellar vermis were highly correlated between two-dimensional and 3D median planes. The diameter of the cerebellar vermis follows growth approximately predicted by the quadratic regression equation. The normal vermis was almost parallel to the brain stem, with the average angle degree to be <2° in normal fetuses. The average angle degree of the 9 cases of vermian rotation was >5°. Three-dimensional median planes are obtained more easily than two-dimensional ones, and allow accurate measurements of the cerebellar vermis. The 3D approach may enable rapid assessment of fetal cerebral anatomy in standard examination. Measurements of cerebellar vermis may provide a quantitative index for prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa malformations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant.

  6. Mechanism of variable structural colour in the neon tetra: quantitative evaluation of the Venetian blind model.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, S; Matsuhana, B; Tanaka, S; Inouye, Y; Oshima, N; Kinoshita, S

    2011-01-06

    The structural colour of the neon tetra is distinguishable from those of, e.g., butterfly wings and bird feathers, because it can change in response to the light intensity of the surrounding environment. This fact clearly indicates the variability of the colour-producing microstructures. It has been known that an iridophore of the neon tetra contains a few stacks of periodically arranged light-reflecting platelets, which can cause multilayer optical interference phenomena. As a mechanism of the colour variability, the Venetian blind model has been proposed, in which the light-reflecting platelets are assumed to be tilted during colour change, resulting in a variation in the spacing between the platelets. In order to quantitatively evaluate the validity of this model, we have performed a detailed optical study of a single stack of platelets inside an iridophore. In particular, we have prepared a new optical system that can simultaneously measure both the spectrum and direction of the reflected light, which are expected to be closely related to each other in the Venetian blind model. The experimental results and detailed analysis are found to quantitatively verify the model.

  7. A front-of-pack nutrition logo: a quantitative and qualitative process evaluation in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Mallant, Sanne F; Mol, Zinzi L; Brug, Johannes; Temminghoff, Marcel; Feunekes, Gerda I; Jansen, Leon; Verhagen, Hans; Seidell, Jacob C

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to perform a quantitative and qualitative process evaluation of the introduction of the Choices logo, a front-of-pack nutrition logo on products with a favorable product composition, adopted by many food producers, retail and food service organizations, conditionally endorsed by the Dutch government, validated by scientists, and in the process of international dissemination. An online questionnaire was sent to adult consumers 4 months after the introduction of the logo (n = 1,032) and 1 year later (n = 1,127). Additionally, seven consumer focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to provide more insight into the questionnaire responses. Quantitative analyses showed that exposure to the logo had significantly increased. Elderly and obese respondents reported to be more in need of a logo than younger and normal-weight individuals. Women perceived the logo more attractive and credible than men did. Further qualitative analyses indicated that the logo's credibility would improve if it became known that governmental and scientific authorities support it. Elderly respondents indicated that they needed a logo due to health concerns. Consumers interested in health reported that they used the logo. Further research focusing on specific target groups, forming healthful diets, and health outcomes is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the Choices logo.

  8. Evaluating variability and uncertainty separately in microbial quantitative risk assessment using two R packages.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Delignette-Muller, Marie Laure

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative risk assessment has emerged as a valuable tool to enhance the scientific basis of regulatory decisions in the food safety domain. This article introduces the use of two new computing resources (R packages) specifically developed to help risk assessors in their projects. The first package, "fitdistrplus", gathers tools for choosing and fitting a parametric univariate distribution to a given dataset. The data may be continuous or discrete. Continuous data may be right-, left- or interval-censored as is frequently obtained with analytical methods, with the possibility of various censoring thresholds within the dataset. Bootstrap procedures then allow the assessor to evaluate and model the uncertainty around the parameters and to transfer this information into a quantitative risk assessment model. The second package, "mc2d", helps to build and study two dimensional (or second-order) Monte-Carlo simulations in which the estimation of variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates is separated. This package easily allows the transfer of separated variability and uncertainty along a chain of conditional mathematical and probabilistic models. The usefulness of these packages is illustrated through a risk assessment of hemolytic and uremic syndrome in children linked to the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. These R packages are freely available at the Comprehensive R Archive Network (cran.r-project.org). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. QUANTITATIVE NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (QNDE) OF THE ELASTIC MODULI OF POROUS TIAL ALLOYS

    SciT

    Yeheskel, O.

    2008-02-28

    The elastic moduli of {gamma}-TiA1 were studied in porous samples consolidated by various techniques e.g. cold isostatic pressing (CIP), pressure-less sintering, or hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Porosity linearly affects the dynamic elastic moduli of samples. The results indicate that the sound wave velocities and the elastic moduli affected by the processing route and depend not only on the attained density but also on the consolidation temperature. In this paper we show that there is linear correlation between the shear and the longitudinal sound velocities in porous TiA1. This opens the way to use a single sound velocity as a toolmore » for quantitative non-destructive evaluation (QNDE) of porous TiA1 alloys. Here we demonstrate the applicability of an equation derived from the elastic theory and used previously for porous cubic metals.« less

  10. Evaluation of Daily Extreme Precipitation Derived From Long-term Global Satellite Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, O. P.; Nelson, B. R.; Nickl, E.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluates the ability of different satellite-based precipitation products to capture daily precipitation extremes over the entire globe. The satellite products considered are the datasets belonging to the Reference Environmental Data Records (REDRs) program (PERSIANN-CDR, GPCP, CMORPH, AMSU-A,B, Hydrologic bundle). Those products provide long-term global records of daily adjusted Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPEs) that range from 20-year (CMORPH-CDR) to 35-year (PERSIANN-CDR, GPCP) record of daily adjusted global precipitation. The AMSU-A,B, Hydro-bundle is an 11-year record of daily rain rate over land and ocean, snow cover and surface temperature over land, and sea ice concentration, cloud liquid water, and total precipitable water over ocean among others. The aim of this work is to evaluate the ability of the different satellite QPE products to capture daily precipitation extremes. This evaluation will also include comparison with in-situ data sets at the daily scale from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN-Daily), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) gridded full data daily product, and the US Climate Reference Network (USCRN). In addition, while the products mentioned above only provide QPEs, the AMSU-A,B hydro-bundle provides additional hydrological information (precipitable water, cloud liquid water, snow cover, sea ice concentration). We will also present an analysis of those additional variables available from global satellite measurements and their relevance and complementarity in the context of long-term hydrological and climate studies.

  11. Methods for the field evaluation of quantitative G6PD diagnostics: a review.

    PubMed

    Ley, Benedikt; Bancone, Germana; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Thriemer, Kamala; Richards, Jack S; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Price, Ric N

    2017-09-11

    Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk of severe haemolysis following the administration of 8-aminoquinoline compounds. Primaquine is the only widely available 8-aminoquinoline for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. Tafenoquine is under development with the potential to simplify treatment regimens, but point-of-care (PoC) tests will be needed to provide quantitative measurement of G6PD activity prior to its administration. There is currently a lack of appropriate G6PD PoC tests, but a number of new tests are in development and are likely to enter the market in the coming years. As these are implemented, they will need to be validated in field studies. This article outlines the technical details for the field evaluation of novel quantitative G6PD diagnostics such as sample handling, reference testing and statistical analysis. Field evaluation is based on the comparison of paired samples, including one sample tested by the new assay at point of care and one sample tested by the gold-standard reference method, UV spectrophotometry in an established laboratory. Samples can be collected as capillary or venous blood; the existing literature suggests that potential differences in capillary or venous blood are unlikely to affect results substantially. The collection and storage of samples is critical to ensure preservation of enzyme activity, it is recommended that samples are stored at 4 °C and testing occurs within 4 days of collection. Test results can be visually presented as scatter plot, Bland-Altman plot, and a histogram of the G6PD activity distribution of the study population. Calculating the adjusted male median allows categorizing results according to G6PD activity to calculate standard performance indicators and to perform receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

  12. Evaluation of empirical rule of linearly correlated peptide selection (ERLPS) for proteotypic peptide-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehui; Zhang, Jiyang; Fu, Bin; Xie, Hongwei; Wang, Yingchun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2014-07-01

    Precise protein quantification is essential in comparative proteomics. Currently, quantification bias is inevitable when using proteotypic peptide-based quantitative proteomics strategy for the differences in peptides measurability. To improve quantification accuracy, we proposed an "empirical rule for linearly correlated peptide selection (ERLPS)" in quantitative proteomics in our previous work. However, a systematic evaluation on general application of ERLPS in quantitative proteomics under diverse experimental conditions needs to be conducted. In this study, the practice workflow of ERLPS was explicitly illustrated; different experimental variables, such as, different MS systems, sample complexities, sample preparations, elution gradients, matrix effects, loading amounts, and other factors were comprehensively investigated to evaluate the applicability, reproducibility, and transferability of ERPLS. The results demonstrated that ERLPS was highly reproducible and transferable within appropriate loading amounts and linearly correlated response peptides should be selected for each specific experiment. ERLPS was used to proteome samples from yeast to mouse and human, and in quantitative methods from label-free to O18/O16-labeled and SILAC analysis, and enabled accurate measurements for all proteotypic peptide-based quantitative proteomics over a large dynamic range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. [Quantitative study of the prothallial morphogenesis in Asplenium species].

    PubMed

    Henriet, M; Auquière, J P; Moens, P

    1976-01-01

    A precedent paper concerned a qualitative analysis of the gametophytic development in nine Asplenium species. By a quantitative study, we specify the parental relationships among these species. The surface of the gametophyte and the number of maginal hairs increase differently for each species. The density of the marginal hairs depends on the considered species. The relation among the morphological gametophytic parameters is constant in a group of determined species. The principal componant analysis is realized for all the parameters measured during the prothallial development. It confirms parental relationships among the diploids and tetraploids species on a morphological point of vue.

  14. Quantitative Methods in the Study of Local History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Pene

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests how the quantitative analysis of data from census records, assessment roles, and newspapers may be integrated into the classroom. Suggestions for obtaining quantitative data are provided. (DE)

  15. Quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by quartz nanopipettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Astudillo, Luisana; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Wenzhi; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin

    2014-08-01

    In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with a series of concentrations in the bath solution. Such current change is due to the adsorption of Cyt c to the inner surface of the nanopipette through specific interactions with hNgb. In contrast, a smaller current change with weak concentration dependence was observed when Cyt c was replaced with lysozyme, which does not specifically bind to hNgb. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the Cyt c-hNgb complex formation was derived and the value matched very well with the result from surface plasmon resonance measurement. This is the first quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by a conical-shaped nanopore based on charge sensing. Our results demonstrate that nanopipettes can potentially be used as a label-free analytical tool to quantitatively characterize protein-protein interactions.In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with

  16. Performance Evaluation and Quantitative Accuracy of Multipinhole NanoSPECT/CT Scanner for Theranostic Lu-177 Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arun; Kim, Kyeong Yun; Hwang, Donghwi; Lee, Min Sun; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2018-06-01

    SPECT plays important role in peptide receptor targeted radionuclide therapy using theranostic radionuclides such as Lu-177 for the treatment of various cancers. However, SPECT studies must be quantitatively accurate because the reliable assessment of tumor uptake and tumor-to-normal tissue ratios can only be performed using quantitatively accurate images. Hence, it is important to evaluate performance parameters and quantitative accuracy of preclinical SPECT systems for therapeutic radioisotopes before conducting pre- and post-therapy SPECT imaging or dosimetry studies. In this study, we evaluated system performance and quantitative accuracy of NanoSPECT/CT scanner for Lu-177 imaging using point source and uniform phantom studies. We measured recovery coefficient, uniformity, spatial resolution, system sensitivity and calibration factor for mouse whole body standard aperture. We also performed the experiments using Tc-99m to compare the results with that of Lu-177. We found that the recovery coefficient of more than 70% for Lu-177 at the optimum noise level when nine iterations were used. The spatial resolutions of Lu-177 with and without adding uniform background was comparable to that of Tc-99m in axial, radial and tangential directions. System sensitivity measured for Lu-177 was almost three times less than that of Tc-99m.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of Iranian radiology papers and its comparison with selected countries.

    PubMed

    Ghafoori, Mahyar; Emami, Hasan; Sedaghat, Abdolrasoul; Ghiasi, Mohammad; Shakiba, Madjid; Alavi, Manijeh

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological developments in medicine, including modern radiology have promoted the impact of scientific researches on social life. The scientific outputs such as article and patents are products that show the scientists' attempt to access these achievements. In the current study, we evaluate the current situation of Iranian scientists in the field of radiology and compare it with the selected countries in terms of scientific papers. For this purpose, we used scientometric tools to quantitatively assess the scientific papers in the field of radiology. Radiology papers were evaluated in the context of medical field audit using retrospective model. We used the related databases of biomedical sciences for extraction of articles related to radiology. In the next step, the situation of radiology scientific products of the country were determined with respect to the under study regional countries. Results of the current study showed a ratio of 0.19% for Iranian papers in PubMed database published in 2009. In addition, in 2009, Iranian papers constituted 0.29% of the Scopus scientific database. The proportion of Iranian papers in the understudy region was 7.6%. To diminish the gap between Iranian scientific radiology papers and other competitor countries in the region and achievement of document 2025 goals, multifold effort of the society of radiology is necessary.

  18. [Evaluation of YAG-laser vitreolysis effectiveness based on quantitative characterization of vitreous floaters].

    PubMed

    Shaimova, V A; Shaimov, T B; Shaimov, R B; Galin, A Yu; Goloshchapova, Zh A; Ryzhkov, P K; Fomin, A V

    2018-01-01

    To develop methods for evaluating effectiveness of YAG-laser vitreolysis of vitreous floaters. The study included 144 patients (173 eyes) who had underwent YAG-laser vitreolysis and were under observation from 01.09.16 to 31.01.18. The patients were 34 to 86 years old (mean age 62.7±10.2 years), 28 (19.4%) patients were male, 116 (80.6%) - female. All patients underwent standard and additional examination: ultrasonography (Accutome B-scan plus, U.S.A.), optic biometry (Lenstar 900, Haag-Streit, Switzerland), spectral optical coherence tomography using RTVue XR Avanti scanner (Optovue, U.S.A.) in modes Enhanced HD Line, 3D Retina, 3D Widefield MCT, Cross Line, Angio Retina, and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) using Navilas 577s system. Laser vitreolysis was performed using the Ultra Q Reflex laser (Ellex, Australia). This paper presents methods of objective quantitative and qualitative assessment of artifactual shadows of vitreous floaters with spectral optical coherence tomographic scanner RTVue xR Avanti employing an algorithm of automatic detection of non-perfusion zones in modes Angio Retina, HD Angio Retina, as well as foveal avascular zone (FAZ) measurement with Angio Analytics® software. SLO performed with Navilas 577s was used as method of visualizing floaters and artifactual shadows in retinal surface layers prior to surgical treatment and after YAG-laser vitreolysis. Suggested methods of quantitative and qualitative assessment of artifactual shadows of the floaters in retinal layers are promising and may prove to be highly relevant for clinical monitoring of patients, optimization of treatment indications and evaluating effectiveness of YAG-laser vitreolysis. Further research of laser vitreolysis effectiveness in patients with vitreous floaters is necessary.

  19. A whole-cell bioreporter assay for quantitative genotoxicity evaluation of environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Li, Guanghe; Xing, Yi; Zhang, Dayi; Jia, Jianli; Cui, Zhisong; Luan, Xiao; Tang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Whole-cell bioreporters have emerged as promising tools for genotoxicity evaluation, due to their rapidity, cost-effectiveness, sensitivity and selectivity. In this study, a method for detecting genotoxicity in environmental samples was developed using the bioluminescent whole-cell bioreporter Escherichia coli recA::luxCDABE. To further test its performance in a real world scenario, the E. coli bioreporter was applied in two cases: i) soil samples collected from chromium(VI) contaminated sites; ii) crude oil contaminated seawater collected after the Jiaozhou Bay oil spill which occurred in 2013. The chromium(VI) contaminated soils were pretreated by water extraction, and directly exposed to the bioreporter in two phases: aqueous soil extraction (water phase) and soil supernatant (solid phase). The results indicated that both extractable and soil particle fixed chromium(VI) were bioavailable to the bioreporter, and the solid-phase contact bioreporter assay provided a more precise evaluation of soil genotoxicity. For crude oil contaminated seawater, the response of the bioreporter clearly illustrated the spatial and time change in genotoxicity surrounding the spill site, suggesting that the crude oil degradation process decreased the genotoxic risk to ecosystem. In addition, the performance of the bioreporter was simulated by a modified cross-regulation gene expression model, which quantitatively described the DNA damage response of the E. coli bioreporter. Accordingly, the bioluminescent response of the bioreporter was calculated as the mitomycin C equivalent, enabling quantitative comparison of genotoxicities between different environmental samples. This bioreporter assay provides a rapid and sensitive screening tool for direct genotoxicity assessment of environmental samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Quantitative Courses in a Liberal Education Program: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly L.; Mackay, D. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues for the importance of quantitative reasoning skills as part of a liberal education and describes the successful introduction of a mathematics-based quantitative skills course at a small Canadian university. Today's students need quantitative problem-solving skills, to function as adults, professionals, consumers, and citizens in…

  1. Domestic violence against women in India: A systematic review of a decade of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Kalokhe, Ameeta; Del Rio, Carlos; Dunkle, Kristin; Stephenson, Rob; Metheny, Nicholas; Paranjape, Anuradha; Sahay, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is prevalent among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical health. We performed a systematic review of 137 quantitative studies published in the prior decade that directly evaluated the DV experiences of Indian women to summarise the breadth of recent work and identify gaps in the literature. Among studies surveying at least two forms of abuse, a median 41% of women reported experiencing DV during their lifetime and 30% in the past year. We noted substantial inter-study variance in DV prevalence estimates, attributable in part to different study populations and settings, but also to a lack of standardisation, validation, and cultural adaptation of DV survey instruments. There was paucity of studies evaluating the DV experiences of women over age 50, residing in live-in relationships, same-sex relationships, tribal villages, and of women from the northern regions of India. Additionally, our review highlighted a gap in research evaluating the impact of DV on physical health. We conclude with a research agenda calling for additional qualitative and longitudinal quantitative studies to explore the DV correlates proposed by this quantitative literature to inform the development of a culturally tailored DV scale and prevention strategies.

  2. Domestic violence against women in India: A systematic review of a decade of quantitative studies

    PubMed Central

    Kalokhe, Ameeta; del Rio, Carlos; Dunkle, Kristin; Stephenson, Rob; Metheny, Nicholas; Paranjape, Anuradha; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is prevalent among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical health. We performed a systematic review of 137 quantitative studies published in the prior decade that directly evaluated the DV experiences of Indian women to summarise the breadth of recent work and identify gaps in the literature. Among studies surveying at least two forms of abuse, a median 41% of women reported experiencing DV during their lifetime and 30% in the past year. We noted substantial inter-study variance in DV prevalence estimates, attributable in part to different study populations and settings, but also to a lack of standardisation, validation, and cultural adaptation of DV survey instruments. There was paucity of studies evaluating the DV experiences of women over age 50, residing in live-in relationships, same-sex relationships, tribal villages, and of women from the northern regions of India. Additionally, our review highlighted a gap in research evaluating the impact of DV on physical health. We conclude with a research agenda calling for additional qualitative and longitudinal quantitative studies to explore the DV correlates proposed by this quantitative literature to inform the development of a culturally tailored DV scale and prevention strategies. PMID:26886155

  3. An Elephant in the Room: Bias in Evaluating a Required Quantitative Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Joseph F.; Painter-Main, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate Political Science programs often require students to take a quantitative research methods course. Such courses are typically among the most poorly rated. This can be due, in part, to the way in which courses are evaluated. Students are generally asked to provide an overall rating, which, in turn, is widely used by students, faculty,…

  4. Poem Generator: A Comparative Quantitative Evaluation of a Microworlds-Based Learning Approach for Teaching English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a comparative quantitative evaluation of an approach to teaching poetry in the subject domain of English that employs a "guided discovery" pedagogy using computer-based microworlds. It uses a quasi-experimental design in order to measure performance gains in computational thinking and poetic thinking following a…

  5. Quantitative Skills as a Graduate Learning Outcome: Exploring Students' Evaluative Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Adams, Peter; Goos, Merrilyn

    2017-01-01

    In the biosciences, quantitative skills are an essential graduate learning outcome. Efforts to evidence student attainment at the whole of degree programme level are rare and making sense of such data is complex. We draw on assessment theories from Sadler (evaluative expertise) and Boud (sustainable assessment) to interpret final-year bioscience…

  6. In vivo quantitative evaluation of tooth color with hand-held colorimeter and custom template.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuki; Kakehashi, Yoshiyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Tanoue, Naomi

    2004-04-01

    This article presents a technique for quantitatively evaluating the color of teeth, as well as color change in restorations and tooth surfaces. Through use of a custom template made of a thermoplastic polymer and a dental colorimeter, tooth surface color can be recorded periodically at the same location intraorally.

  7. Evaluation of Quantitative Literacy Series: Exploring Data and Exploring Probability. Program Report 87-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Roger P.; And Others

    A quasi-experimental design with two experimental groups and one control group was used to evaluate the use of two books in the Quantitative Literacy Series, "Exploring Data" and "Exploring Probability." Group X teachers were those who had attended a workshop on the use of the materials and were using the materials during the…

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Intestinal Flora in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nidhi; Chaudhry, Rama; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the neonatal period the developing intestinal barrier function provides a sub-optimal mucosal defense against infection. Establishment of the normal commensal micro-flora plays a vital role in this process. Aims: To determine aerobic and anaerobic bacteria by quantitative and qualitative methods from faecal samples of neonates. Settings and Design: A prospective study was carried out in two groups in a tertiary care hospital, Group A-comprised preterm infant and in group B-full term infants. Materials and Methods: Sixty two preterm infants with the weight < 1500 gm and gestation age < 34 weeks and twenty nine full term infants with 4 weeks of age were included. Quantitation of bacterial load was done by ten-fold serial dilutions on respective media. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by using EPIINFO-Ver 6.04. Results and Conclusions: The predominant aerobic bacterium was Klebsiella pneumoniae. In pre term infants aerobic bacteria were colonized with an average of 2.1 and anaerobic bacteria 0.1. Quantitation showed faecal bacterial colony count ranging from 104-1013 CFU/gms. Gram negative and gram positive bacteria increased gradually over an interval of 2 to 3 weeks. Mean log CFU of gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria were statistically insignificant from day 3 to day 14 (P > 0.05). On day 21 there was a significant change in colonization of both bacterial sp (P < 0.05). Potential pathogenic aerobic bacteria dominate the intestinal flora of premature babies nursed in neonatal unit. There is a need to investigate interventions to offset this imbalance in gut micro-ecology of premature babies. PMID:23326075

  9. Achievements in postgraduate urologic education in Iran: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Simforoosh, Nasser; Tabatabai, Shima; Ziaee, Seyed Amir Mohsen

    2014-01-04

    The study focus is on the quantitative achievements in urology education and growth trends in urologic surgical workforce and fellowships by gender since 1979. This comprehensive national quantitative study was performed in Iranian Academy of medical science. The first hand data gathered from The Iran Specialty Training Council of and also from Medical Council of Iran. Over the period 1979 to 2012, the numbers of resident's admission in urology/ fellowships have increased from 5 to 51 and from 0 to 24 respectively, and graduated urologists of national programs has grown from 5 (14%) in 1979 to 47 (100%) in 2012. Iranian urologists workforce haves increased from 315 in 1979 to 1637 in 2012. In 1979, there was 1 urologist for every 117,460 population, while in 2012 there was 1 urologist for every 46120 population. Iran Urologists to population rate is 1:46120. These statistics represents significant improvement from 34 years ago. Number of female urologists has progressively increased from 1 in 1979 (0%) to 110 (7%) in 2012. Urology fellowships are offered in 6 fields since 1994 in Iran. The number of trained fellowships grew sharply and reached to 221 in 2012. The current urology training is successful to improve urology health care. Along with expansion of urology and fellowship training, the number of Iranian female urologists significantly increased. To our knowledge Iran had the greatest growth rate of female urologist training in the Middle East, and is comparable with those in the most progressed countries in the world.

  10. A quantitative study on magnesium alloy stent biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanming; Wang, Lizhen; Gu, Xuenan; Chu, Zhaowei; Guo, Meng; Fan, Yubo

    2018-06-06

    Insufficient scaffolding time in the process of rapid corrosion is the main problem of magnesium alloy stent (MAS). Finite element method had been used to investigate corrosion of MAS. However, related researches mostly described all elements suffered corrosion in view of one-dimensional corrosion. Multi-dimensional corrosions significantly influence mechanical integrity of MAS structures such as edges and corners. In this study, the effects of multi-dimensional corrosion were studied using experiment quantitatively, then a phenomenological corrosion model was developed to consider these effects. We implemented immersion test with magnesium alloy (AZ31B) cubes, which had different numbers of exposed surfaces to analyze differences of dimension. It was indicated that corrosion rates of cubes are almost proportional to their exposed-surface numbers, especially when pitting corrosions are not marked. The cubes also represented the hexahedron elements in simulation. In conclusion, corrosion rate of every element accelerates by increasing corrosion-surface numbers in multi-dimensional corrosion. The damage ratios among elements with the same size are proportional to the ratios of corrosion-surface numbers under uniform corrosion. The finite element simulation using proposed model provided more details of changes of morphology and mechanics in scaffolding time by removing 25.7% of elements of MAS. The proposed corrosion model reflected the effects of multi-dimension on corrosions. It would be used to predict degradation process of MAS quantitatively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabera, Marco E.

    2000-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to a tissue is associated with metabolic changes aimed at maintaining ATP homeostasis. However, given the complexity of the human bio-energetic system, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). In particular, we are interested in determining mechanisms relating cellular oxygen concentration to observed metabolic responses at the cellular, tissue, organ, and whole body levels and in quantifying how changes in tissue oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study; we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics, to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of oxygen as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement - sensitivity analysis - permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and parameters controlling cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The analysis can distinguish between parameters that must be determined accurately and those that require less precision, based on their effects on model predictions. This capability may prove to be important in optimizing experimental design, thus reducing use of animals.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of 3D dosimetry for stereotactic volumetric‐modulated arc delivery using COMPASS

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, Durai; Karrthick, Karukkupalayam Palaniappan; Sambasivaselli, Raju; Senniandavar, Vellaingiri; Ramu, Mahendran; Rajesh, Thiyagarajan; Lutz, Muller; Muthukumaran, Manavalan; Karthikeyan, Nithyanantham; Tejinder, Kataria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the patient‐specific 3D dosimetry tool COMPASS with 2D array MatriXX detector for stereotactic volumetric‐modulated arc delivery. Twenty‐five patients CT images and RT structures from different sites (brain, head & neck, thorax, abdomen, and spine) were taken from CyberKnife Multiplan planning system for this study. All these patients underwent radical stereotactic treatment in CyberKnife. For each patient, linac based volumetric‐modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic plans were generated in Monaco TPS v3.1 using Elekta Beam Modulator MLC. Dose prescription was in the range of 5–20 Gy per fraction. Target prescription and critical organ constraints were tried to match the delivered treatment plans. Each plan quality was analyzed using conformity index (CI), conformity number (CN), gradient Index (GI), target coverage (TC), and dose to 95% of volume (D95). Monaco Monte Carlo (MC)‐calculated treatment plan delivery accuracy was quantitatively evaluated with COMPASS‐calculated (CCA) dose and COMPASS indirectly measured (CME) dose based on dose‐volume histogram metrics. In order to ascertain the potential of COMPASS 3D dosimetry for stereotactic plan delivery, 2D fluence verification was performed with MatriXX using MultiCube phantom. Routine quality assurance of absolute point dose verification was performed to check the overall delivery accuracy. Quantitative analyses of dose delivery verification were compared with pass and fail criteria of 3 mm and 3% distance to agreement and dose differences. Gamma passing rate was compared with 2D fluence verification from MatriXX with MultiCube. Comparison of COMPASS reconstructed dose from measured fluence and COMPASS computed dose has shown a very good agreement with TPS calculated dose. Each plan was evaluated based on dose volume parameters for target volumes such as dose at 95% of volume (D95) and average dose. For critical organs dose at 20% of

  13. Integrating quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods to compare two teacher inservice training programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrenz, Frances; McCreath, Heather

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation procedures were used to compare two physical-science teacher inservice training programs. The two programs followed the master teacher training model espoused by NSF but used different types of master teachers and types of activities. The two evaluation procedures produced different results and together they provided a much clearer picture of the strengths and weaknesses of the two programs. Using only one approach or the other would have substantially altered the conclusions.

  14. A new method to evaluate image quality of CBCT images quantitatively without observers

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mayumi; Okamura, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Shoko; Weerawanich, Warangkana; Tokumori, Kenji; Jasa, Gainer R; Yoshiura, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To develop an observer-free method for quantitatively evaluating the image quality of CBCT images by applying just-noticeable difference (JND). Methods: We used two test objects: (1) a Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) plate phantom attached to a dry human mandible; and (2) a block phantom consisting of a Teflon step phantom and an aluminium step phantom. These phantoms had holes with different depths. They were immersed in water and scanned with a CB MercuRay (Hitachi Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) at tube voltages of 120 kV, 100 kV, 80 kV and 60 kV. Superimposed images of the phantoms with holes were used for evaluation. The number of detectable holes was used as an index of image quality. In detecting holes quantitatively, the threshold grey value (ΔG), which differentiated holes from the background, was calculated using a specific threshold (the JND), and we extracted the holes with grey values above ΔG. The indices obtained by this quantitative method (the extracted hole values) were compared with the observer evaluations (the observed hole values). In addition, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the shallowest detectable holes and the deepest undetectable holes were measured to evaluate the contribution of CNR to detectability. Results: The results of this evaluation method corresponded almost exactly with the evaluations made by observers. The extracted hole values reflected the influence of different tube voltages. All extracted holes had an area with a CNR of ≥1.5. Conclusions: This quantitative method of evaluating CBCT image quality may be more useful and less time-consuming than evaluation by observation. PMID:28045343

  15. A quantitative analysis of qualitative studies in clinical journals for the 2000 publishing year

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2004-01-01

    Background Quantitative studies are becoming more recognized as important to understanding health care with all of its richness and complexities. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the qualitative studies published in 170 core clinical journals for 2000. Methods All identified studies that used qualitative methods were reviewed to ascertain which clinical journals publish qualitative studies and to extract research methods, content (persons and health care issues studied), and whether mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative methods) were used. Results 60 330 articles were reviewed. 355 reports of original qualitative studies and 12 systematic review articles were identified in 48 journals. Most of the journals were in the discipline of nursing. Only 4 of the most highly cited health care journals, based on ISI Science Citation Index (SCI) Impact Factors, published qualitative studies. 37 of the 355 original reports used both qualitative and quantitative (mixed) methods. Patients and non-health care settings were the most common groups of people studied. Diseases and conditions were cancer, mental health, pregnancy and childbirth, and cerebrovascular disease with many other diseases and conditions represented. Phenomenology and grounded theory were commonly used; substantial ethnography was also present. No substantial differences were noted for content or methods when articles published in all disciplines were compared with articles published in nursing titles or when studies with mixed methods were compared with studies that included only qualitative methods. Conclusions The clinical literature includes many qualitative studies although they are often published in nursing journals or journals with low SCI Impact Factor journals. Many qualitative studies incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:15271221

  16. Genetic toxicology at the crossroads-from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    White, Paul A; Johnson, George E

    2016-05-01

    Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA). A host of pertinent issues were discussed relating to the use of in vitro and in vivo dose-response data, the development of methods for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and approaches to use in vivo dose-response data to determine human exposure limits for regulatory evaluations and decision-making. This Special Issue, which was inspired by the workshop, contains a series of papers that collectively address topics related to the aforementioned themes. The Issue includes contributions that collectively evaluate, describe and discuss in silico, in vitro, in vivo and statistical approaches that are facilitating the shift from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment. The use and application of the benchmark dose approach was a central theme in many of the workshop presentations and discussions, and the Special Issue includes several contributions that outline novel applications for the analysis and interpretation of genetic toxicity data. Although the contents of the Special Issue constitutes an important step towards the adoption of quantitative methods for regulatory assessment of genetic toxicity, formal acceptance of quantitative methods for HHRA and regulatory decision-making will require consensus regarding the

  17. Evaluation of reference gene suitability for quantitative expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the mandibular condyle of sheep.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Xue, Yang; Zhou, Hongzhi; Li, Shouhong; Zhang, Zongmin; Hou, Rui; Ding, Yuxiang; Hu, Kaijin

    2015-10-01

    Reference genes are commonly used as a reliable approach to normalize the results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and to reduce errors in the relative quantification of gene expression. Suitable reference genes belonging to numerous functional classes have been identified for various types of species and tissue. However, little is currently known regarding the most suitable reference genes for bone, specifically for the sheep mandibular condyle. Sheep are important for the study of human bone diseases, particularly for temporomandibular diseases. The present study aimed to identify a set of reference genes suitable for the normalization of qPCR data from the mandibular condyle of sheep. A total of 12 reference genes belonging to various functional classes were selected, and the expression stability of the reference genes was determined in both the normal and fractured area of the sheep mandibular condyle. RefFinder, which integrates the following currently available computational algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method, was used to compare and rank the candidate reference genes. The results obtained from the four methods demonstrated a similar trend: RPL19, ACTB, and PGK1 were the most stably expressed reference genes in the sheep mandibular condyle. As determined by RefFinder comprehensive analysis, the results of the present study suggested that RPL19 is the most suitable reference gene for studies associated with the sheep mandibular condyle. In addition, ACTB and PGK1 may be considered suitable alternatives.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles using T2 mapping.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Keisuke; Watanabe, Atsuya; Ochiai, Shunsuke; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Obata, Takayuki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Wada, Yuichi; Okubo, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Although fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles has been reported to affect the outcomes of rotator cuff repairs, only a few studies have attempted to quantitatively evaluate this degeneration. T2 mapping is a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging technique that potentially evaluates the concentration of fat in muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles by using T2 mapping, as well as to evaluate the reliability of T2 measurement. We obtained magnetic resonance images including T2 mapping from 184 shoulders (180 patients; 110 male patients [112 shoulders] and 70 female patients [72 shoulders]; mean age, 62 years [range, 16-84 years]). Eighty-three shoulders had no rotator cuff tear (group A), whereas 101 shoulders had tears, of which 62 were incomplete to medium (group B) and 39 were large to massive (group C). T2 values of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were measured and compared among groups. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities also were examined. The mean T2 values of the supraspinatus in groups A, B, and C were 36.3 ± 4.7 milliseconds, 44.2 ± 11.3 milliseconds, and 57.0 ± 18.8 milliseconds, respectively. The mean T2 values of the infraspinatus in groups A, B, and C were 36.1 ± 5.1 milliseconds, 40.0 ± 11.1 milliseconds, and 51.9 ± 18.2 milliseconds, respectively. The T2 value significantly increased with the extent of the tear in both muscles. Both intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were more than 0.99. T2 mapping can be a reliable tool to quantify fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative Lymphoscintigraphy to Predict the Possibility of Lymphedema Development After Breast Cancer Surgery: Retrospective Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul; Lee, Ju Kang; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Heung Kyu; Park, Ki Deok

    2017-12-01

    To predict the probability of lymphedema development in breast cancer patients in the early post-operation stage, we investigated the ability of quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment. This retrospective study included 201 patients without lymphedema after unilateral breast cancer surgery. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed between 4 and 8 weeks after surgery to evaluate the lymphatic system in the early postoperative stage. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy was performed using four methods: ratio of radiopharmaceutical clearance rate of the affected to normal hand; ratio of radioactivity of the affected to normal hand; ratio of radiopharmaceutical uptake rate of the affected to normal axilla (RUA); and ratio of radioactivity of the affected to normal axilla (RRA). During a 1-year follow-up, patients with a circumferential interlimb difference of 2 cm at any measurement location and a 200-mL interlimb volume difference were diagnosed with lymphedema. We investigated the difference in quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment between the non-lymphedema and lymphedema groups. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment revealed that the RUA and RRA were significantly lower in the lymphedema group than in the non-lymphedema group. After adjusting the model for all significant variables (body mass index, N-stage, T-stage, type of surgery, and type of lymph node surgery), RRA was associated with lymphedema (odds ratio=0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.46; p=0.001). In patients in the early postoperative stage after unilateral breast cancer surgery, quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment can be used to predict the probability of developing lymphedema.

  20. Religion and body weight: a review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  1. Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldoon, Timothy J.; Thekkek, Nadhi; Roblyer, Darren; Maru, Dipen; Harpaz, Noam; Potack, Jonathan; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-03-01

    Early detection of neoplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus is essential to improve outcomes. The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the ability of high-resolution microendoscopic imaging and quantitative image analysis to identify neoplastic lesions in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Nine patients with pathologically confirmed Barrett's esophagus underwent endoscopic examination with biopsies or endoscopic mucosal resection. Resected fresh tissue was imaged with fiber bundle microendoscopy; images were analyzed by visual interpretation or by quantitative image analysis to predict whether the imaged sites were non-neoplastic or neoplastic. The best performing pair of quantitative features were chosen based on their ability to correctly classify the data into the two groups. Predictions were compared to the gold standard of histopathology. Subjective analysis of the images by expert clinicians achieved average sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 61%, respectively. The best performing quantitative classification algorithm relied on two image textural features and achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 85%, respectively. This ex vivo pilot trial demonstrates that quantitative analysis of images obtained with a simple microendoscope system can distinguish neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus with good sensitivity and specificity when compared to histopathology and to subjective image interpretation.

  2. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  3. Evaluation of shear wave elastography for differential diagnosis of breast lesions: A new qualitative analysis versus conventional quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei-Wei; Li, Xiao-Long; Wang, Dan; Liu, Bo-Ji; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2018-04-13

    To evaluate a special kind of ultrasound (US) shear wave elastography for differential diagnosis of breast lesions, using a new qualitative analysis (i.e. the elasticity score in the travel time map) compared with conventional quantitative analysis. From June 2014 to July 2015, 266 pathologically proven breast lesions were enrolled in this study. The maximum, mean, median, minimum, and standard deviation of shear wave speed (SWS) values (m/s) were assessed. The elasticity score, a new qualitative feature, was evaluated in the travel time map. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were plotted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of both qualitative and quantitative analyses for differentiation of breast lesions. Among all quantitative parameters, SWS-max showed the highest AUROC (0.805; 95% CI: 0.752, 0.851) compared with SWS-mean (0.786; 95% CI:0.732, 0.834; P = 0.094), SWS-median (0.775; 95% CI:0.720, 0.824; P = 0.046), SWS-min (0.675; 95% CI:0.615, 0.731; P = 0.000), and SWS-SD (0.768; 95% CI:0.712, 0.817; P = 0.074). The AUROC of qualitative analysis in this study obtained the best diagnostic performance (0.871; 95% CI: 0.825, 0.909, compared with the best parameter of SWS-max in quantitative analysis, P = 0.011). The new qualitative analysis of shear wave travel time showed the superior diagnostic performance in the differentiation of breast lesions in comparison with conventional quantitative analysis.

  4. Motor Events during Healthy Sleep: A Quantitative Polysomnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Frauscher, Birgit; Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Biermayr, Marlene; Bregler, Deborah; Ehrmann, Laura; Ulmer, Hanno; Högl, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Many sleep disorders are characterized by increased motor activity during sleep. In contrast, studies on motor activity during physiological sleep are largely lacking. We quantitatively investigated a large range of motor phenomena during polysomnography in physiological sleep. Design: Prospective polysomnographic investigation. Setting: Academic referral sleep laboratory. Participants: One hundred healthy sleepers age 19-77 y were strictly selected from a representative population sample by a two-step screening procedure. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) standards was performed, and quantitative normative values were established for periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), high frequency leg movements (HFLM), fragmentary myoclonus (FM), neck myoclonus (NM), and rapid eye movement (REM)-related electromyographic (EMG) activity. Thirty-six subjects had a PLMS index > 5/h, 18 had a PLMS index > 15/h (90th percentile: 24.8/h). Thirty-three subjects had HFLM (90th percentile: four sequences/night). All subjects had FM (90th percentile 143.7/h sleep). Nine subjects fulfilled AASM criteria for excessive FM. Thirty-five subjects had NM (90th percentile: 8.8/h REM sleep). For REM sleep, different EMG activity measures for the mentalis and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were calculated: the 90th percentile for phasic mentalis EMG activity for 30-sec epochs according to AASM recommendation was 15.6%, and for tonic mentalis EMG activity 2.6%. Twenty-five subjects exceeded the recently proposed phasic mentalis cutoff of 11%. None of the subjects exceeded the tonic mentalis cutoff of 9.6%. Conclusion: Quantification of motor phenomena is a basic prerequisite to develop normative values, and is a first step toward a more precise description of the various motor phenomena present during sleep. Because rates of motor events were unexpectedly high even in physiological

  5. A quantitative risk assessment model to evaluate effective border control measures for rabies prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Pei-I; Yang, Ping-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Border control is the primary method to prevent rabies emergence. This study developed a quantitative risk model incorporating stochastic processes to evaluate whether border control measures could efficiently prevent rabies introduction through importation of cats and dogs using Taiwan as an example. Both legal importation and illegal smuggling were investigated. The impacts of reduced quarantine and/or waiting period on the risk of rabies introduction were also evaluated. The results showed that Taiwan’s current animal importation policy could effectively prevent rabies introduction through legal importation of cats and dogs. The median risk of a rabid animal to penetrate current border control measures and enter Taiwan was 5.33 × 10−8 (95th percentile: 3.20 × 10−7). However, illegal smuggling may pose Taiwan to the great risk of rabies emergence. Reduction of quarantine and/or waiting period would affect the risk differently, depending on the applied assumptions, such as increased vaccination coverage, enforced custom checking, and/or change in number of legal importations. Although the changes in the estimated risk under the assumed alternatives were not substantial except for completely abolishing quarantine, the consequences of rabies introduction may yet be considered to be significant in a rabies-free area. Therefore, a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis needs to be conducted before recommending these alternative measures. PMID:19822125

  6. Histogram-based quantitative evaluation of endobronchial ultrasonography images of peripheral pulmonary lesion.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Kei; Kurimoto, Noriaki; Inoue, Takeo; Mineshita, Masamichi; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography using a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) is an increasingly common bronchoscopic technique, but currently, no methods have been established to quantitatively evaluate EBUS images of peripheral pulmonary lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether histogram data collected from EBUS-GS images can contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. Histogram-based analyses focusing on the brightness of EBUS images were retrospectively conducted: 60 patients (38 lung cancer; 22 inflammatory diseases), with clear EBUS images were included. For each patient, a 400-pixel region of interest was selected, typically located at a 3- to 5-mm radius from the probe, from recorded EBUS images during bronchoscopy. Histogram height, width, height/width ratio, standard deviation, kurtosis and skewness were investigated as diagnostic indicators. Median histogram height, width, height/width ratio and standard deviation were significantly different between lung cancer and benign lesions (all p < 0.01). With a cutoff value for standard deviation of 10.5, lung cancer could be diagnosed with an accuracy of 81.7%. Other characteristics investigated were inferior when compared to histogram standard deviation. Histogram standard deviation appears to be the most useful characteristic for diagnosing lung cancer using EBUS images. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A quantitative risk assessment model to evaluate effective border control measures for rabies prevention.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Pei-I; Yang, Ping-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Border control is the primary method to prevent rabies emergence. This study developed a quantitative risk model incorporating stochastic processes to evaluate whether border control measures could efficiently prevent rabies introduction through importation of cats and dogs using Taiwan as an example. Both legal importation and illegal smuggling were investigated. The impacts of reduced quarantine and/or waiting period on the risk of rabies introduction were also evaluated. The results showed that Taiwan's current animal importation policy could effectively prevent rabies introduction through legal importation of cats and dogs. The median risk of a rabid animal to penetrate current border control measures and enter Taiwan was 5.33 x 10(-8) (95th percentile: 3.20 x 10(-7)). However, illegal smuggling may pose Taiwan to the great risk of rabies emergence. Reduction of quarantine and/or waiting period would affect the risk differently, depending on the applied assumptions, such as increased vaccination coverage, enforced custom checking, and/or change in number of legal importations. Although the changes in the estimated risk under the assumed alternatives were not substantial except for completely abolishing quarantine, the consequences of rabies introduction may yet be considered to be significant in a rabies-free area. Therefore, a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis needs to be conducted before recommending these alternative measures.

  8. Evaluating resective surgery targets in epilepsy patients: A comparison of quantitative EEG methods.

    PubMed

    Müller, Michael; Schindler, Kaspar; Goodfellow, Marc; Pollo, Claudio; Rummel, Christian; Steimer, Andreas

    2018-07-15

    Quantitative analysis of intracranial EEG is a promising tool to assist clinicians in the planning of resective brain surgery in patients suffering from pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Quantifying the accuracy of such tools, however, is nontrivial as a ground truth to verify predictions about hypothetical resections is missing. As one possibility to address this, we use customized hypotheses tests to examine the agreement of the methods on a common set of patients. One method uses machine learning techniques to enable the predictive modeling of EEG time series. The other estimates nonlinear interrelation between EEG channels. Both methods were independently shown to distinguish patients with excellent post-surgical outcome (Engel class I) from those without improvement (Engel class IV) when assessing the electrodes associated with the tissue that was actually resected during brain surgery. Using the AND and OR conjunction of both methods we evaluate the performance gain that can be expected when combining them. Both methods' assessments correlate strongly positively with the similarity between a hypothetical resection and the corresponding actual resection in class I patients. Moreover, the Spearman rank correlation between the methods' patient rankings is significantly positive. To our best knowledge, this is the first study comparing surgery target assessments from fundamentally differing techniques. Although conceptually completely independent, there is a relation between the predictions obtained from both methods. Their broad consensus supports their application in clinical practice to provide physicians additional information in the process of presurgical evaluation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of stone fragments in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy using a time reversal operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jen-Chieh; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-03-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used widely in the noninvasive treatment of kidney calculi. The fine fragments less than 2 mm in size can be discharged by urination, which determines the success of ESWL. Although ultrasonic and fluorescent imaging are used to localize the calculi, it's challenging to monitor the stone comminution progress, especially at the late stage of ESWL when fragments spread out as a cloud. The lack of real-time and quantitative evaluation makes this procedure semi-blind, resulting in either under- or over-treatment after the legal number of pulses required by FDA. The time reversal operator (TRO) method has the ability to detect point-like scatterers, and the number of non-zero eigenvalues of TRO is equal to that of the scatterers. In this study, the validation of TRO method to identify stones was illustrated from both numerical and experimental results for one to two stones with various sizes and locations. Furthermore, the parameters affecting the performance of TRO method has also been investigated. Overall, TRO method is effective in identifying the fragments in a stone cluster in real-time. Further development of a detection system and evaluation of its performance both in vitro and in vivo during ESWL is necessary for application.

  10. Direct quantitative evaluation of disease symptoms on living plant leaves growing under natural light.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tomoko M; Ogawa, Daisuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Ishimoto, Masao; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Habu, Yoshiki

    2017-06-01

    Leaf color is an important indicator when evaluating plant growth and responses to biotic/abiotic stress. Acquisition of images by digital cameras allows analysis and long-term storage of the acquired images. However, under field conditions, where light intensity can fluctuate and other factors (shade, reflection, and background, etc.) vary, stable and reproducible measurement and quantification of leaf color are hard to achieve. Digital scanners provide fixed conditions for obtaining image data, allowing stable and reliable comparison among samples, but require detached plant materials to capture images, and the destructive processes involved often induce deformation of plant materials (curled leaves and faded colors, etc.). In this study, by using a lightweight digital scanner connected to a mobile computer, we obtained digital image data from intact plant leaves grown in natural-light greenhouses without detaching the targets. We took images of soybean leaves infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines , and distinctively quantified two disease symptoms (brown lesions and yellow halos) using freely available image processing software. The image data were amenable to quantitative and statistical analyses, allowing precise and objective evaluation of disease resistance.

  11. Evaluation of the remineralization capacity of CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish by different quantitative methods

    PubMed Central

    SAVAS, Selcuk; KAVRÌK, Fevzi; KUCUKYÌLMAZ, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish for remineralizing white spot lesions (WSLs) with four different quantitative methods. Material and Methods Four windows (3x3 mm) were created on the enamel surfaces of bovine incisor teeth. A control window was covered with nail varnish, and WSLs were created on the other windows (after demineralization, first week and fourth week) in acidified gel system. The test material (MI Varnish) was applied on the demineralized areas, and the treated enamel samples were stored in artificial saliva. At the fourth week, the enamel surfaces were tested by surface microhardness (SMH), quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and laser fluorescence (LF pen). The data were statistically analyzed (α=0.05). Results While the LF pen measurements showed significant differences at baseline, after demineralization, and after the one-week remineralization period (p<0.05), the difference between the 1- and 4-week was not significant (p>0.05). With regards to the SMH and QLF-D analyses, statistically significant differences were found among all the phases (p<0.05). After the 1- and 4-week treatment periods, the calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) concentrations and Ca/P ratio were higher compared to those of the demineralization surfaces (p<0.05). Conclusion CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish provides remineralization of WSLs after a single application and seems suitable for clinical use. PMID:27383699

  12. The quantitative evaluation of intracranial pressure by optic nerve sheath diameter/eye diameter CT measurement.

    PubMed

    Bekerman, Inessa; Sigal, Tal; Kimiagar, Itzhak; Ben Ely, Anna; Vaiman, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The changes of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) have been used to assess changes of the intracranial pressure for 20 years. The aim of this research was to further quantify the technique of measuring the ONSD for this purpose. Retrospective study of computed tomographic (CT) data of 1766 adult patients with intracranial hypotension (n=134) or hypertension (n=1632) were analyzed. The eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) and ONSD were obtained bilaterally, and the ONSD/ETD ratio was calculated. The ratio was used to calculate the normal ONSD for patients and to estimate the intracranial pressure of the patients before and after the onset of the pathology. Correlation analysis was performed with invasively measured intracranial pressure, the presence or absence of papilledema, sex, and age. In hypotension cases, the ONSD by CT was 3.4±0.7 mm (P=.03 against normative 4.4±0.8 mm). In cases with hypertension, the diameter was 6.9±1.3 (P=.02, with a cutoff value ˃5.5 mm). The ONSD/ETD ratio was 0.29±0.04 against 0.19±0.02 in healthy adults (P=.01). The ONSD and the ONSD/ETD ratio can indicate low intracranial pressure, but quantification is impossible at intracranial pressure less than 13 mm Hg. In elevated intracranial pressure, the ONSD and the ratio provide readings that correspond to readings in millimeters of mercury. The ONSD method, reinforced with additional calculations, may help to indicate a raised intracranial pressure, evaluate its severity quantitatively, and establish quantitative goals for treatment of intracranial hypertension, but the limitations of the method are to be taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation-based evaluation of the resolution and quantitative accuracy of temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuting; Nouizi, Farouk; Kwong, Tiffany C; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2015-09-01

    Conventional fluorescence tomography (FT) can recover the distribution of fluorescent agents within a highly scattering medium. However, poor spatial resolution remains its foremost limitation. Previously, we introduced a new fluorescence imaging technique termed "temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography" (TM-FT), which provides high-resolution images of fluorophore distribution. TM-FT is a multimodality technique that combines fluorescence imaging with focused ultrasound to locate thermo-sensitive fluorescence probes using a priori spatial information to drastically improve the resolution of conventional FT. In this paper, we present an extensive simulation study to evaluate the performance of the TM-FT technique on complex phantoms with multiple fluorescent targets of various sizes located at different depths. In addition, the performance of the TM-FT is tested in the presence of background fluorescence. The results obtained using our new method are systematically compared with those obtained with the conventional FT. Overall, TM-FT provides higher resolution and superior quantitative accuracy, making it an ideal candidate for in vivo preclinical and clinical imaging. For example, a 4 mm diameter inclusion positioned in the middle of a synthetic slab geometry phantom (D:40  mm×W:100  mm) is recovered as an elongated object in the conventional FT (x=4.5  mm; y=10.4  mm), while TM-FT recovers it successfully in both directions (x=3.8  mm; y=4.6  mm). As a result, the quantitative accuracy of the TM-FT is superior because it recovers the concentration of the agent with a 22% error, which is in contrast with the 83% error of the conventional FT.

  14. Simulation-based evaluation of the resolution and quantitative accuracy of temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuting; Nouizi, Farouk; Kwong, Tiffany C.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional fluorescence tomography (FT) can recover the distribution of fluorescent agents within a highly scattering medium. However, poor spatial resolution remains its foremost limitation. Previously, we introduced a new fluorescence imaging technique termed “temperature-modulated fluorescence tomography” (TM-FT), which provides high-resolution images of fluorophore distribution. TM-FT is a multimodality technique that combines fluorescence imaging with focused ultrasound to locate thermo-sensitive fluorescence probes using a priori spatial information to drastically improve the resolution of conventional FT. In this paper, we present an extensive simulation study to evaluate the performance of the TM-FT technique on complex phantoms with multiple fluorescent targets of various sizes located at different depths. In addition, the performance of the TM-FT is tested in the presence of background fluorescence. The results obtained using our new method are systematically compared with those obtained with the conventional FT. Overall, TM-FT provides higher resolution and superior quantitative accuracy, making it an ideal candidate for in vivo preclinical and clinical imaging. For example, a 4 mm diameter inclusion positioned in the middle of a synthetic slab geometry phantom (D:40 mm × W :100 mm) is recovered as an elongated object in the conventional FT (x = 4.5 mm; y = 10.4 mm), while TM-FT recovers it successfully in both directions (x = 3.8 mm; y = 4.6 mm). As a result, the quantitative accuracy of the TM-FT is superior because it recovers the concentration of the agent with a 22% error, which is in contrast with the 83% error of the conventional FT. PMID:26368884

  15. Comprehensive evaluation of direct injection mass spectrometry for the quantitative profiling of volatiles in food samples

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although qualitative strategies based on direct injection mass spectrometry (DIMS) have recently emerged as an alternative for the rapid classification of food samples, the potential of these approaches in quantitative tasks has scarcely been addressed to date. In this paper, the applicability of different multivariate regression procedures to data collected by DIMS from simulated mixtures has been evaluated. The most relevant factors affecting quantitation, such as random noise, the number of calibration samples, type of validation, mixture complexity and similarity of mass spectra, were also considered and comprehensively discussed. Based on the conclusions drawn from simulated data, and as an example of application, experimental mass spectral fingerprints collected by direct thermal desorption coupled to mass spectrometry were used for the quantitation of major volatiles in Thymus zygis subsp. zygis chemotypes. The results obtained, validated with the direct thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method here used as a reference, show the potential of DIMS approaches for the fast and precise quantitative profiling of volatiles in foods. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644978

  16. Neural net classification of liver ultrasonogram for quantitative evaluation of diffuse liver disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Hyuk; Kim, JongHyo; Kim, Hee C.; Lee, Yong W.; Min, Byong Goo

    1997-04-01

    There have been a number of studies on the quantitative evaluation of diffuse liver disease by using texture analysis technique. However, the previous studies have been focused on the classification between only normal and abnormal pattern based on textural properties, resulting in lack of clinically useful information about the progressive status of liver disease. Considering our collaborative research experience with clinical experts, we judged that not only texture information but also several shape properties are necessary in order to successfully classify between various states of disease with liver ultrasonogram. Nine image parameters were selected experimentally. One of these was texture parameter and others were shape parameters measured as length, area and curvature. We have developed a neural-net algorithm that classifies liver ultrasonogram into 9 categories of liver disease: 3 main category and 3 sub-steps for each. Nine parameters were collected semi- automatically from the user by using graphical user interface tool, and then processed to give a grade for each parameter. Classifying algorithm consists of two steps. At the first step, each parameter was graded into pre-defined levels using neural network. in the next step, neural network classifier determined disease status using graded nine parameters. We implemented a PC based computer-assist diagnosis workstation and installed it in radiology department of Seoul National University Hospital. Using this workstation we collected 662 cases during 6 months. Some of these were used for training and others were used for evaluating accuracy of the developed algorithm. As a conclusion, a liver ultrasonogram classifying algorithm was developed using both texture and shape parameters and neural network classifier. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed algorithm is useful for evaluation of diffuse liver disease.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of simulated functional brain networks in graph theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Hee; Bullmore, Ed; Frangou, Sophia

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential of whole-brain computational models to provide mechanistic insights into resting-state brain networks. It is therefore important to determine the degree to which computational models reproduce the topological features of empirical functional brain networks. We used empirical connectivity data derived from diffusion spectrum and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy individuals. Empirical and simulated functional networks, constrained by structural connectivity, were defined based on 66 brain anatomical regions (nodes). Simulated functional data were generated using the Kuramoto model in which each anatomical region acts as a phase oscillator. Network topology was studied using graph theory in the empirical and simulated data. The difference (relative error) between graph theory measures derived from empirical and simulated data was then estimated. We found that simulated data can be used with confidence to model graph measures of global network organization at different dynamic states and highlight the sensitive dependence of the solutions obtained in simulated data on the specified connection densities. This study provides a method for the quantitative evaluation and external validation of graph theory metrics derived from simulated data that can be used to inform future study designs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intratumoral histologic heterogeneity of gliomas. A quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Paulus, W; Peiffer, J

    1989-07-15

    Quantitative data for intratumoral histologic heterogeneity were obtained by investigating ten small and ten large punched samples from 50 unembedded supratentorial gliomas. The 1000 samples were diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and six histopathologic features associated with malignancy were evaluated (cellular density, nuclear pleomorphism, necroses, histologic architecture, vessels, and mitoses), each with defined gradations. The slides were read independently by two observers. The initially high interobserver variability (grade, 22.2%; type, 10.3%; and tumor presence/absence, 7.1%) was for the most part due to intermediate grades and types and was reduced to 1.7% after mutual review. Small samples showed lower mean grade than large samples and more often absence of tumor (7.6% versus 2.4%). Of all gliomas, 48% showed differently typed samples, 82% differently graded samples, and 62% benign and malignant grades. Intratumoral heterogeneity was higher for the necroses than for the other histopathologic features. Our results underscore the importance of extensive tissue sampling.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of morphological changes in activated platelets in vitro using digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yutaka; Isobe, Kazushige; Kawabata, Hideo; Tsujino, Tetsuhiro; Watanabe, Taisuke; Nakamura, Masayuki; Toyoda, Toshihisa; Okudera, Hajime; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Koh; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2018-06-18

    Platelet activation and aggregation have been conventionally evaluated using an aggregometer. However, this method is suitable for short-term but not long-term quantitative evaluation of platelet aggregation, morphological changes, and/or adhesion to specific materials. The recently developed digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has enabled the quantitative evaluation of cell size and morphology without labeling or destruction. Thus, we aim to validate its applicability in quantitatively evaluating changes in cell morphology, especially in the aggregation and spreading of activated platelets, thus modifying typical image analysis procedures to suit aggregated platelets. Freshly prepared platelet-rich plasma was washed with phosphate-buffered saline and treated with 0.1% CaCl 2 . Platelets were then fixed and subjected to DHM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, and flow cytometry (FCM). Tightly aggregated platelets were identified as single cells. Data obtained from time-course experiments were plotted two-dimensionally according to the average optical thickness versus attachment area and divided into four regions. The majority of the control platelets, which supposedly contained small and round platelets, were distributed in the lower left region. As activation time increased, however, this population dispersed toward the upper right region. The distribution shift demonstrated by DHM was essentially consistent with data obtained from SEM and FCM. Therefore, DHM was validated as a promising device for testing platelet function given that it allows for the quantitative evaluation of activation-dependent morphological changes in platelets. DHM technology will be applicable to the quality assurance of platelet concentrates, as well as diagnosis and drug discovery related to platelet functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peer support for parents of children with chronic disabling conditions: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Val; Morris, Christopher; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Logan, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To review the qualitative and quantitative evidence of the benefits of peer support for parents of children with disabling conditions in the context of health, well-being, impact on family, and economic and service implications. We comprehensively searched multiple databases. Eligible studies evaluated parent-to-parent support and reported on the psychological health and experience of giving or receiving support. There were no limits on the child's condition, study design, language, date, or setting. We sought to aggregate quantitative data; findings of qualitative studies were combined using thematic analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data were brought together in a narrative synthesis. Seventeen papers were included: nine qualitative studies, seven quantitative studies, and one mixed-methods evaluation. Four themes were identified from qualitative studies: (1) shared social identity, (2) learning from the experiences of others, (3) personal growth, and (4) supporting others. Some quantitative studies reported a positive effect of peer support on psychological health and other outcomes; however, this was not consistently confirmed. It was not possible to aggregate data across studies. No costing data were identified. Qualitative studies strongly suggest that parents perceive benefit from peer support programmes, an effect seen across different types of support and conditions. However, quantitative studies provide inconsistent evidence of positive effects. Further research should explore whether this dissonance is substantive or an artefact of how outcomes have been measured. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Identifying symptoms of ovarian cancer: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Bankhead, C R; Collins, C; Stokes-Lampard, H; Rose, P; Wilson, S; Clements, A; Mant, D; Kehoe, S T; Austoker, J

    2008-07-01

    Symptoms of ovarian cancer are often vague and consequently a high proportion of women with ovarian cancer are not referred to the appropriate clinic. To identify diagnostic factors for ovarian cancer. A qualitative and quantitative study. Four UK hospitals. One hundred and twenty-four women referred to hospital with suspected ovarian malignancy. Women were interviewed prior to diagnosis (n = 63), or soon after. A thematic analysis was conducted. Emergent symptoms were quantitatively analysed to identify distinguishing features of ovarian cancer. Symptoms in women with and without ovarian cancer. Diagnoses comprised 44 malignancies, 59 benign gynaecological pathologies and 21 normal findings. Of the malignancies, 25 women had stage III or more disease, with an average age of 59 years. The benign/normal cohort was significantly younger (48 years). Multivariate analysis revealed persistent abdominal distension (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.3-20.5), postmenopausal bleeding (OR 9.2, 95% CI 1.1-76.1), appetite loss (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.2), early satiety (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.6-15.7) and progressive symptoms (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-9.8) as independent, statistically significant variables associated with ovarian cancer. Fluctuating distension was not associated with ovarian cancer (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0-4.1). Women frequently used the term bloating, but this represented two distinct events: persistent abdominal distension and fluctuating distension/discomfort. Ovarian cancer is not a silent killer. Clinicians should distinguish between persistent and fluctuating distension. Recognition of the significance of symptoms described by women could lead to earlier and more appropriate referral.

  2. [Quality evaluation of Artemisiae Argyi Folium based on fingerprint analysis and quantitative analysis of multicomponents].

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Jiao, Qian; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Ai-Peng; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Yu-Guang

    2018-03-01

    Artemisiae Argyi Folium, the dried leaves of Artemisia argyi, has been widely used in traditional Chinese and folk medicines for treatment of hemorrhage, pain, and skin itch. Phytochemical studies indicated that volatile oil, organic acid and flavonoids were the main bioactive components in Artemisiae Argyi Folium. Compared to the volatile compounds, the research of nonvolatile compounds in Artemisiae Argyi Folium are limited. In the present study, an accurate and reliable fingerprint approach was developed using HPLC for quality control of Artemisiae Argyi Folium. A total of 10 common peaks were marked,and the similarity of all the Artemisiae Argyi Folium samples was above 0.940. The established fingerprint method could be used for quality control of Artemisiae Argyi Folium. Furthermore, an HPLC method was applied for simultaneous determination of seven bioactive compounds including five organic acids and two flavonoids in Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Lavandulaefoliae Folium samples. Moreover, chemometrics methods such as hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis were performed to compare and discriminate the Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Lavandulaefoliae Folium based on the quantitative data of analytes. The results indicated that simultaneous quantification of multicomponents coupled with chemometrics analysis could be a well-acceptable strategy to identify and evaluate the quality of Artemisiae Argyi Folium. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of high-resolution features in images of negatively stained Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Chang, C F; Williams, R C; Grano, D A; Downing, K H; Glaeser, R M

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of the apparent differences between the optical diffraction pattern of a micrograph of a Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) particle, the optical diffraction pattern of a ten-fold photographically averaged image, and the computed diffraction pattern of the original micrograph. Peak intensities along the layer lines in the transform of the averaged image appear to be quite unlike those in the diffraction pattern of the original micrograph, and the diffraction intensities for the averaged image extend to unexpectedly high resolution. A carefully controlled, quantitative comparison reveals, however, that the optical diffraction pattern of the original micrograph and that of the ten-fold averaged image are essentially equivalent. Using computer-based image processing, we discovered that the peak intensities on the 6th layer line have values very similar in magnitude to the neighboring noise, in contrast to what was expected from the optical diffraction pattern of the original micrograph. This discrepancy was resolved by recording a series of optical diffraction patterns when the original micrograph was immersed in oil. These patterns revealed the presence of a substantial phase grating effect, which exaggerated the peak intensities on the 6th layer line, causing an erroneous impression that the high resolution features possessed a good signal-to-noise ratio. This study thus reveals some pitfalls and misleading results that can be encountered when using optical diffraction patterns to evaluate image quality.

  4. Quantitative structure activity relationship studies of mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chao-Bin; Luo, Wan-Chun; Ding, Qi; Liu, Shou-Zhu; Gao, Xing-Xiang

    2008-05-01

    Here, we report our results from quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on tyrosinase inhibitors. Interactions between benzoic acid derivatives and tyrosinase active sites were also studied using a molecular docking method. These studies indicated that one possible mechanism for the interaction between benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site is the formation of a hydrogen-bond between the hydroxyl (aOH) and carbonyl oxygen atoms of Tyr98, which stabilized the position of Tyr98 and prevented Tyr98 from participating in the interaction between tyrosinase and ORF378. Tyrosinase, also known as phenoloxidase, is a key enzyme in animals, plants and insects that is responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones. In the present study, the bioactivities of 48 derivatives of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and cinnamic acid compounds were used to construct three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models using comparative molecular field (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices (CoMSIA) analyses. After superimposition using common substructure-based alignments, robust and predictive 3D-QSAR models were obtained from CoMFA ( q 2 = 0.855, r 2 = 0.978) and CoMSIA ( q 2 = 0.841, r 2 = 0.946), with 6 optimum components. Chemical descriptors, including electronic (Hammett σ), hydrophobic (π), and steric (MR) parameters, hydrogen bond acceptor (H-acc), and indicator variable ( I), were used to construct a 2D-QSAR model. The results of this QSAR indicated that π, MR, and H-acc account for 34.9, 31.6, and 26.7% of the calculated biological variance, respectively. The molecular interactions between ligand and target were studied using a flexible docking method (FlexX). The best scored candidates were docked flexibly, and the interaction between the benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site was elucidated in detail. We believe

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of CART-Containing Cells in Urinary Bladder of Rats with Renovascular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Janiuk, I.; Kasacka, I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB) of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip) to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings, the question

  6. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, I; Kasacka, I

    2015-04-13

    Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB) of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip) to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings, the question

  7. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    1999-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen (O2) delivery to a tissue is generally associated with a decrease in phosphocreatine, increases in ADP, NADH/NAD, and inorganic phosphate, increased rates of glycolysis and lactate production, and reduced rates of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in tissue O2 availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of O2 as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and in parameters controlling the rate of cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The whole body is described as a bioenergetic system consisting of metabolically distinct tissue/organ subsystems that exchange materials with the blood. In order to study the dynamic response of each subsystem to stimuli, we solve the ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of metabolite levels, given the initial concentrations. The solver used in the present study is the packaged code LSODE, as implemented in the NASA Lewis kinetics and sensitivity analysis code, LSENS. A major advantage of LSENS is the efficient procedures supporting systematic sensitivity analysis, which provides the basic methods for studying parameter sensitivities (i.e., changes in model behavior due to parameter variation

  8. [Evaluation on methodological problems in reports concerning quantitative analysis of syndrome differentiation of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Cang; Wu, Qiu-Ying; Xiang, Cheng-Bin; Zhou, Yi; Guo, Ling-Xiang; Zhao, Neng-Jiang; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of reports published in recent 10 years in China about quantitative analysis of syndrome differentiation for diabetes mellitus (DM) in order to explore the methodological problems in these reports and find possible solutions. The main medical literature databases in China were searched. Thirty-one articles were included and evaluated by the principles of clinical epidemiology. There were many mistakes and deficiencies in these articles, such as clinical trial designs, diagnosis criteria for DM, standards of syndrome differentiation of DM, case inclusive and exclusive criteria, sample size and estimation, data comparability and statistical methods. It is necessary and important to improve the quality of reports concerning quantitative analysis of syndrome differentiation of DM in light of the principles of clinical epidemiology.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Glycine max Germplasm Lines with Quantitative Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    PubMed Central

    McCaghey, Megan; Willbur, Jaime; Ranjan, Ashish; Grau, Craig R.; Chapman, Scott; Diers, Brian; Groves, Carol; Kabbage, Mehdi; Smith, Damon L.

    2017-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of Sclerotinia stem rot, is a devastating fungal pathogen of soybean that can cause significant yield losses to growers when environmental conditions are favorable for the disease. The development of resistant varieties has proven difficult. However, poor resistance in commercial cultivars can be improved through additional breeding efforts and understanding the genetic basis of resistance. The objective of this project was to develop soybean germplasm lines that have a high level of Sclerotinia stem rot resistance to be used directly as cultivars or in breeding programs as a source of improved Sclerotinia stem rot resistance. Sclerotinia stem rot-resistant soybean germplasm was developed by crossing two sources of resistance, W04-1002 and AxN-1-55, with lines exhibiting resistance to Heterodera glycines and Cadophora gregata in addition to favorable agronomic traits. Following greenhouse evaluations of 1,076 inbred lines derived from these crosses, 31 lines were evaluated for resistance in field tests during the 2014 field season. Subsequently, 11 Sclerotinia stem rot resistant breeding lines were moved forward for field evaluation in 2015, and seven elite breeding lines were selected and evaluated in the 2016 field season. To better understand resistance mechanisms, a marker analysis was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci linked to resistance. Thirteen markers associated with Sclerotinia stem rot resistance were identified on chromosomes 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19. Our markers confirm previously reported chromosomal regions associated with Sclerotinia stem rot resistance as well as a novel region of chromosome 16. The seven elite germplasm lines were also re-evaluated within a greenhouse setting using a cut petiole technique with multiple S. sclerotiorum isolates to test the durability of physiological resistance of the lines in a controlled environment. This work presents a novel and comprehensive classical

  10. A quantitative evaluation of the 3-8 July 2009 Shamal dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Mehdi; Kavianpour, Mohammad Reza; Shao, Yaping

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a quantitative evaluation of the severe dust storm which occurred in the Middle East during 3-8 July 2009 is presented. The quantification is based on the numerical simulation using the WRF/Chem-D model which has been verified and calibrated for the Middle East region. It is found that, during the 3-8 July 2009 event, more than 9.67 Tg dust were emitted from the study area and the maximum simulated dust emission rate is 540 (μg m-2 s-1). The west of Iraq, east of Syria and northwest of Jordan (Al-Nafud desert and western Euphrates alluvial plain) are found to be the most active areas of dust emission, contributing much to the dust emission from the Middle East region. In this study, more that 60% of dust particles were emitted from these areas and less than 10% were emitted from Iran dust sources. About 21% of the deposited dust was deposited in Iran land, while 79% in other parts of the study area. The dust load in the study area was estimated to be more than 0.3 g m-2. The residence time of dust in the atmosphere was 6.2 days over the study area, 7.8 days over Iran and 6 days over other parts. The simulation results exhibit that Iran contribution in emission rate in the study area is much lower than its contribution in dust deposition and residence time and the conclusion of this study can demonstrate the necessity of forming cooperation for suppressing the severe dust events.

  11. Study On The Application Of CBERS-02B To Quantitative Soil Erosion Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Mingchang; Xu, Jing; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Mu, Jing

    2010-10-01

    Currently, the reduction of soil erosion is an important prerequisite for achieving ecological security. Since real-time and quantitative evaluation on regional soil erosion plays a significant role in reducing the soil erosion, soil erosion models are more and more widely used. Based on RUSLE model, this paper carries out the quantitative soil erosion monitoring in the Xi River Basin and its surrounding areas by using CBERS-02B CCD, DEM, TRMM and other data. Besides, it performs the validation for monitoring results by using remote sensing investigation results in 2005. The monitoring results show that in 2009, the total amount of soil erosion in the study area was 1.94×106t, the erosion area was 2055.2km2 (54.06% of the total area), and the average soil erosion modulus was 509.7t km-2 a-1. As a case using CBERS-02B data for quantitative soil erosion monitoring, this study provides experience on the application of CBERS-02B data in the field of quantitative soil erosion monitoring and also for local soil erosion management.

  12. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluations of the Enhanced Logo-autobiography Program for Korean-American Women.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyung Mi; Bernstein, Kunsook

    2017-12-01

    This study extends Bernstein et al.'s (2016) investigation of the effects of the Enhanced Logo-autobiography Program on Korean-American women's depressive symptoms, coping strategies, purpose in life, and posttraumatic growth by analyzing quantitative and qualitative data. This study's participants significantly improved on quantitative measures of depression, coping strategies, purpose in life, and post-traumatic growth at eight weeks post-intervention and follow-up. The qualitative content analysis revealed 17 themes with five essential themes. The program's activity to promote purpose in life through posttraumatic growth facilitated participants' recovery from traumatic experiences. Standardized guidelines are needed to conduct this program in Korean community centers.

  13. High Resolution Qualitative and Quantitative MR Evaluation of the Glenoid Labrum

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Kenyu; Tafur, Monica; Chang, Eric Y.; SherondaStatum; Biswas, Reni; Tran, Betty; Bae, Won C.; Du, Jiang; Bydder, Graeme M.; Chung, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To implement qualitative and quantitative MR sequences for the evaluation of labral pathology. Methods Six glenoid labra were dissected and the anterior and posterior portions were divided into normal, mildly degenerated, or severely degenerated groups using gross and MR findings. Qualitative evaluation was performed using T1-weighted, proton density-weighted (PD), spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) and ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequences. Quantitative evaluation included T2 and T1rho measurements as well as T1, T2*, and T1rho measurements acquired with UTE techniques. Results SPGR and UTE sequences best demonstrated labral fiber structure. Degenerated labra had a tendency towards decreased T1 values, increased T2/T2* values and increased T1 rho values. T2* values obtained with the UTE sequence allowed for delineation between normal, mildly degenerated and severely degenerated groups (p<0.001). Conclusion Quantitative T2* measurements acquired with the UTE technique are useful for distinguishing between normal, mildly degenerated and severely degenerated labra. PMID:26359581

  14. Localization of Broca's Area Using Functional MR Imaging: Quantitative Evaluation of Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Heon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, June Sic; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Sang Kun

    2009-04-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is frequently used to localize language areas in a non-invasive manner. Various paradigms for presurgical localization of language areas have been developed, but a systematic quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of those paradigms has not been performed. In the present study, the authors analyzed different language paradigms to see which paradigm is most efficient in localizing frontal language areas. Five men and five women with no neurological deficits participated (mean age, 24 years) in this study. All volunteers were right-handed. Each subject performed 4 tasks, including fixation (Fix), sentence reading (SR), pseudoword reading (PR), and word generation (WG). Fixation and pseudoword reading were used as contrasts. The functional area was defined as the area(s) with a t-value of more than 3.92 in fMRI with different tasks. To apply an anatomical constraint, we used a brain atlas mapping system, which is available in AFNI, to define the anatomical frontal language area. The numbers of voxels in overlapped area between anatomical and functional area were individually counted in the frontal expressive language area. Of the various combinations, the word generation task was most effective in delineating the frontal expressive language area when fixation was used as a contrast (p<0.05). The sensitivity of this test for localizing Broca's area was 81% and specificity was 70%. Word generation versus fixation could effectively and reliably delineate the frontal language area. A customized effective paradigm should be analyzed in order to evaluate various language functions.

  15. Standardizing evaluation of pQCT image quality in the presence of subject movement: qualitative versus quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Blew, Robert M; Lee, Vinson R; Farr, Joshua N; Schiferl, Daniel J; Going, Scott B

    2014-02-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is an essential tool for assessing bone parameters of the limbs, but subject movement and its impact on image quality remains a challenge to manage. The current approach to determine image viability is by visual inspection, but pQCT lacks a quantitative evaluation. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) examine the reliability of a qualitative visual inspection scale and (2) establish a quantitative motion assessment methodology. Scans were performed on 506 healthy girls (9-13 years) at diaphyseal regions of the femur and tibia. Scans were rated for movement independently by three technicians using a linear, nominal scale. Quantitatively, a ratio of movement to limb size (%Move) provided a measure of movement artifact. A repeat-scan subsample (n = 46) was examined to determine %Move's impact on bone parameters. Agreement between measurers was strong (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.732 for tibia, 0.812 for femur), but greater variability was observed in scans rated 3 or 4, the delineation between repeat and no repeat. The quantitative approach found ≥95% of subjects had %Move <25 %. Comparison of initial and repeat scans by groups above and below 25% initial movement showed significant differences in the >25 % grouping. A pQCT visual inspection scale can be a reliable metric of image quality, but technicians may periodically mischaracterize subject motion. The presented quantitative methodology yields more consistent movement assessment and could unify procedure across laboratories. Data suggest a delineation of 25% movement for determining whether a diaphyseal scan is viable or requires repeat.

  16. Standardizing Evaluation of pQCT Image Quality in the Presence of Subject Movement: Qualitative vs. Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blew, Robert M.; Lee, Vinson R.; Farr, Joshua N.; Schiferl, Daniel J.; Going, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is an essential tool for assessing bone parameters of the limbs, but subject movement and its impact on image quality remains a challenge to manage. The current approach to determine image viability is by visual inspection, but pQCT lacks a quantitative evaluation. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) examine the reliability of a qualitative visual inspection scale, and (2) establish a quantitative motion assessment methodology. Methods Scans were performed on 506 healthy girls (9–13yr) at diaphyseal regions of the femur and tibia. Scans were rated for movement independently by three technicians using a linear, nominal scale. Quantitatively, a ratio of movement to limb size (%Move) provided a measure of movement artifact. A repeat-scan subsample (n=46) was examined to determine %Move’s impact on bone parameters. Results Agreement between measurers was strong (ICC = .732 for tibia, .812 for femur), but greater variability was observed in scans rated 3 or 4, the delineation between repeat or no repeat. The quantitative approach found ≥95% of subjects had %Move <25%. Comparison of initial and repeat scans by groups above and below 25% initial movement, showed significant differences in the >25% grouping. Conclusions A pQCT visual inspection scale can be a reliable metric of image quality but technicians may periodically mischaracterize subject motion. The presented quantitative methodology yields more consistent movement assessment and could unify procedure across laboratories. Data suggest a delineation of 25% movement for determining whether a diaphyseal scan is viable or requires repeat. PMID:24077875

  17. A quantitative experimental phantom study on MRI image uniformity.

    PubMed

    Felemban, Doaa; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Iwamoto, Yuri; Uchiyama, Yuka; Kakimoto, Naoya; Kreiborg, Sven; Murakami, Shumei

    2018-05-23

    Our goal was to assess MR image uniformity by investigating aspects influencing said uniformity via a method laid out by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). Six metallic materials embedded in a glass phantom were scanned (i.e. Au, Ag, Al, Au-Ag-Pd alloy, Ti and Co-Cr alloy) as well as a reference image. Sequences included spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GRE) scanned in three planes (i.e. axial, coronal, and sagittal). Moreover, three surface coil types (i.e. head and neck, Brain, and temporomandibular joint coils) and two image correction methods (i.e. surface coil intensity correction or SCIC, phased array uniformity enhancement or PURE) were employed to evaluate their effectiveness on image uniformity. Image uniformity was assessed using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association peak-deviation non-uniformity method. Results showed that temporomandibular joint coils elicited the least uniform image and brain coils outperformed head and neck coils when metallic materials were present. Additionally, when metallic materials were present, spin echo outperformed gradient echo especially for Co-Cr (particularly in the axial plane). Furthermore, both SCIC and PURE improved image uniformity compared to uncorrected images, and SCIC slightly surpassed PURE when metallic metals were present. Lastly, Co-Cr elicited the least uniform image while other metallic materials generally showed similar patterns (i.e. no significant deviation from images without metallic metals). Overall, a quantitative understanding of the factors influencing MR image uniformity (e.g. coil type, imaging method, metal susceptibility, and post-hoc correction method) is advantageous to optimize image quality, assists clinical interpretation, and may result in improved medical and dental care.

  18. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of dermal elastin of draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    De Cock, H E V; Van Brantegem, L; Affolter, V K; Oosterlinck, M; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2009-01-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) in horses, a disease of certain draught breeds, is associated with altered elastin metabolism. The characteristic lesions are seen in the skin of the lower (distal) limbs. This study was based on horses of susceptible breeds, with and without CPL, and on horses of a non-susceptible breed. Skin samples were obtained for examination from the neck (considered a non-affected region) and from the distal limb. The skin lesions were characterized histologically and the dermal elastic fibres were evaluated morphologically and quantitatively. In all horses the mean elastin concentrations were highest in the superficial dermis, gradually decreasing in the mid-dermis and deep dermis. As compared with horses of a non-susceptible breed, affected horses had increased amounts of dermal elastin in both the distal limb and neck, while non-affected horses of a susceptible breed had decreased amounts. The findings support an earlier hypothesis that CPL of horses is a generalized disease. Reduced efficiency of the elastic network in supporting the dermal lymphatics may explain the development of CPL.

  20. Flexor and extensor muscle tone evaluated using the quantitative pendulum test in stroke and parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Wei; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexor and extensor muscle tone of the upper limbs in patients with spasticity or rigidity and to investigate the difference in hypertonia between spasticity and rigidity. The two experimental groups consisted of stroke patients and parkinsonian patients. The control group consisted of age and sex-matched normal subjects. Quantitative upper limb pendulum tests starting from both flexed and extended joint positions were conducted. System identification with a simple linear model was performed and model parameters were derived. The differences between the three groups and two starting positions were investigated by these model parameters and tested by two-way analysis of variance. In total, 57 subjects were recruited, including 22 controls, 14 stroke patients and 21 parkinsonian patients. While stiffness coefficient showed no difference among groups, the number of swings, relaxation index and damping coefficient showed changes suggesting significant hypertonia in the two patient groups. There was no difference between these two patient groups. The test starting from the extended position constantly manifested higher muscle tone in all three groups. In conclusion, the hypertonia of parkinsonian and stroke patients could not be differentiated by the modified pendulum test; the elbow extensors showed a higher muscle tone in both control and patient groups; and hypertonia of both parkinsonian and stroke patients is velocity dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative susceptibility mapping as a biomarker for evaluating white matter alterations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaojun; Huang, Peiyu; Zeng, Qiaoling; Liu, Chunlei; Wei, Hongjiang; Xuan, Min; Gu, Quanquan; Xu, Xiaojun; Wang, Nian; Yu, Xinfeng; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Minming

    2018-02-07

    Myelinated white matter showing diamagnetic susceptibility is important for information transfer in the brain. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the white matter is also suffering degenerative alterations. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique for noninvasive assessment of regional white matter ultrastructure, and provides different information of white matter in addition to standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In this study, we used QSM to detect spatial white matter alterations in PD patients (n = 65) and age- and sex-matched normal controls (n = 46). Voxel-wise tract-based spatial statistics were performed to analyze QSM and DTI data. QSM showed extensive white matter involvement-including regions adjacent to the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes-in PD patients, which was more widespread than that observed using DTI. Both QSM and DTI showed similar alterations in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and right cerebellar hemisphere. Further, alterations in the white matter were correlated with motor impairment and global disease severity in PD patients. We suggest that QSM may provide a novel approach for detecting white matter alterations and underlying network disruptions in PD. Further, the combination of QSM and DTI would provide a more complete evaluation of the diseased brain by analyzing different biological tissue properties.

  2. Determination of a quantitative parameter to evaluate swimming technique based on the maximal tethered swimming test.

    PubMed

    Soncin, Rafael; Mezêncio, Bruno; Ferreira, Jacielle Carolina; Rodrigues, Sara Andrade; Huebner, Rudolf; Serrão, Julio Cerca; Szmuchrowski, Leszek

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a new force parameter, associated with swimmers' technique and performance. Twelve swimmers performed five repetitions of 25 m sprint crawl and a tethered swimming test with maximal effort. The parameters calculated were: the mean swimming velocity for crawl sprint, the mean propulsive force of the tethered swimming test as well as an oscillation parameter calculated from force fluctuation. The oscillation parameter evaluates the force variation around the mean force during the tethered test as a measure of swimming technique. Two parameters showed significant correlations with swimming velocity: the mean force during the tethered swimming (r = 0.85) and the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation (r = 0.86). However, the intercept coefficient was significantly different from zero only for the mean force, suggesting that although the correlation coefficient of the parameters was similar, part of the mean velocity magnitude that was not associated with the mean force was associated with the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation. Thus, force fluctuation during tethered swimming can be used as a quantitative index of swimmers' technique.

  3. Clumsiness in fine motor tasks: evidence from the quantitative drawing evaluation of children with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, S L; Galli, M; Stella, G; Caiazzo, G; Ancillao, A; Albertini, G

    2015-03-01

    Drawing tests are commonly used for the clinical evaluation of cognitive capabilities in children with learning disabilities. We analysed quantitatively the drawings of children with Down Syndrome (DS) and of healthy, mental age-matched controls to characterise the features of fine motor skills in DS during a drawing task, with particular attention to clumsiness, a well-known feature of DS gross movements. Twenty-three children with DS and 13 controls hand-copied the figures of a circle, a cross and a square on a sheet. An optoelectronic system allowed the acquisition of the three-dimensional track of the drawing. The participants' posture and upper limb movements were analysed as well. Results showed that the participants with DS tended to draw faster but with less accuracy than controls. While clumsiness in gross movements manifests mainly as slow, less efficient movements, it manifests as high velocity and inaccurate movements in fine motor tasks such as drawing. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. New quantitative method for evaluation of motor functions applicable to spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Matsumaru, Naoki; Hattori, Ryo; Ichinomiya, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Katsura; Kato, Zenichiro

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and introduce new method to quantify motor functions of the upper extremity. The movement was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system, and the movement trajectory was analyzed using newly developed two indices, which measure precise repeatability and directional smoothness. Our target task was shoulder flexion repeated ten times. We applied our method to a healthy adult without and with a weight, simulating muscle impairment. We also applied our method to assess the efficacy of a drug therapy for amelioration of motor functions in a non-ambulatory patient with spinal muscular atrophy. Movement trajectories before and after thyrotropin-releasing hormone therapy were analyzed. In the healthy adult, we found the values of both indices increased significantly when holding a weight so that the weight-induced deterioration in motor function was successfully detected. From the efficacy assessment of drug therapy in the patient, the directional smoothness index successfully detected improvements in motor function, which were also clinically observed by the patient's doctors. We have developed a new quantitative evaluation method of motor functions of the upper extremity. Clinical usability of this method is also greatly enhanced by reducing the required number of body-attached markers to only one. This simple but universal approach to quantify motor functions will provide additional insights into the clinical phenotypes of various neuromuscular diseases and developmental disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, J. W.; Lofgren, G. E.; Carlson, W. D.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Many workers have considered the degree to which partial melting occurred in chondrules they have studied, and this has led to attempts to find reliable methods of determining the degree of melting. At least two quantitative methods have been used in the literature: a convolution index (CVI), which is a ratio of the perimeter of the chondrule as seen in thin section divided by the perimeter of a circle with the same area as the chondrule, and nominal grain size (NGS), which is the inverse square root of the number density of olivines and pyroxenes in a chondrule (again, as seen in thin section). We have evaluated both nominal grain size and convolution index as melting indicators. Nominal grain size was measured on the results of a set of dynamic crystallization experiments previously described, where aliquots of LEW97008(L3.4) were heated to peak temperatures of 1250, 1350, 1370, and 1450 C, representing varying degrees of partial melting of the starting material. Nominal grain size numbers should correlate with peak temperature (and therefore degree of partial melting) if it is a good melting indicator. The convolution index is not directly testable with these experiments because the experiments do not actually create chondrules (and therefore they have no outline on which to measure a CVI). Thus we had no means to directly test how well the CVI predicted different degrees of melting. Therefore, we discuss the use of the CVI measurement and support the discussion with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) data.

  6. Environmental determinants of tropical forest and savanna distribution: A quantitative model evaluation and its implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhenzhong; Chen, Anping; Piao, Shilong; Rabin, Sam; Shen, Zehao

    2014-07-01

    The distributions of tropical ecosystems are rapidly being altered by climate change and anthropogenic activities. One possible trend—the loss of tropical forests and replacement by savannas—could result in significant shifts in ecosystem services and biodiversity loss. However, the influence and the relative importance of environmental factors in regulating the distribution of tropical forest and savanna biomes are still poorly understood, which makes it difficult to predict future tropical forest and savanna distributions in the context of climate change. Here we use boosted regression trees to quantitatively evaluate the importance of environmental predictors—mainly climatic, edaphic, and fire factors—for the tropical forest-savanna distribution at a mesoscale across the tropics (between 15°N and 35°S). Our results demonstrate that climate alone can explain most of the distribution of tropical forest and savanna at the scale considered; dry season average precipitation is the single most important determinant across tropical Asia-Australia, Africa, and South America. Given the strong tendency of increased seasonality and decreased dry season precipitation predicted by global climate models, we estimate that about 28% of what is now tropical forest would likely be lost to savanna by the late 21st century under the future scenario considered. This study highlights the importance of climate seasonality and interannual variability in predicting the distribution of tropical forest and savanna, supporting the climate as the primary driver in the savanna biogeography.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of 3D images produced from computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, David T.; Mason, Ian R.; Cameron, Colin D.; Payne, Douglas A.; Slinger, Christopher W.

    1999-08-01

    Advances in computing and optical modulation techniques now make it possible to anticipate the generation of near real- time, reconfigurable, high quality, three-dimensional images using holographic methods. Computer generated holography (CGH) is the only technique which holds promise of producing synthetic images having the full range of visual depth cues. These realistic images will be viewable by several users simultaneously, without the need for headtracking or special glasses. Such a data visualization tool will be key to speeding up the manufacture of new commercial and military equipment by negating the need for the production of physical 3D models in the design phase. DERA Malvern has been involved in designing and testing fixed CGH in order to understand the connection between the complexity of the CGH, the algorithms used to design them, the processes employed in their implementation and the quality of the images produced. This poster describes results from CGH containing up to 108 pixels. The methods used to evaluate the reconstructed images are discussed and quantitative measures of image fidelity made. An understanding of the effect of the various system parameters upon final image quality enables a study of the possible system trade-offs to be carried out. Such an understanding of CGH production and resulting image quality is key to effective implementation of a reconfigurable CGH system currently under development at DERA.

  8. Quantitative image analysis for evaluating the abrasion resistance of nanoporous silica films on glass

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karsten H.; Karlsson, Stefan; Limbach, Rene; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    The abrasion resistance of coated glass surfaces is an important parameter for judging lifetime performance, but practical testing procedures remain overly simplistic and do often not allow for direct conclusions on real-world degradation. Here, we combine quantitative two-dimensional image analysis and mechanical abrasion into a facile tool for probing the abrasion resistance of anti-reflective (AR) coatings. We determine variations in the average coated area, during and after controlled abrasion. Through comparison with other experimental techniques, we show that this method provides a practical, rapid and versatile tool for the evaluation of the abrasion resistance of sol-gel-derived thin films on glass. The method yields informative data, which correlates with measurements of diffuse reflectance and is further supported by qualitative investigations through scanning electron microscopy. In particular, the method directly addresses degradation of coating performance, i.e., the gradual areal loss of antireflective functionality. As an exemplary subject, we studied the abrasion resistance of state-of-the-art nanoporous SiO2 thin films which were derived from 5–6 wt% aqueous solutions of potassium silicates, or from colloidal suspensions of SiO2 nanoparticles. It is shown how abrasion resistance is governed by coating density and film adhesion, defining the trade-off between optimal AR performance and acceptable mechanical performance. PMID:26656260

  9. General Platform for Systematic Quantitative Evaluation of Small-Molecule Permeability in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The chemical features that impact small-molecule permeability across bacterial membranes are poorly understood, and the resulting lack of tools to predict permeability presents a major obstacle to the discovery and development of novel antibiotics. Antibacterials are known to have vastly different structural and physicochemical properties compared to nonantiinfective drugs, as illustrated herein by principal component analysis (PCA). To understand how these properties influence bacterial permeability, we have developed a systematic approach to evaluate the penetration of diverse compounds into bacteria with distinct cellular envelopes. Intracellular compound accumulation is quantitated using LC-MS/MS, then PCA and Pearson pairwise correlations are used to identify structural and physicochemical parameters that correlate with accumulation. An initial study using 10 sulfonyladenosines in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis has identified nonobvious correlations between chemical structure and permeability that differ among the various bacteria. Effects of cotreatment with efflux pump inhibitors were also investigated. This sets the stage for use of this platform in larger prospective analyses of diverse chemotypes to identify global relationships between chemical structure and bacterial permeability that would enable the development of predictive tools to accelerate antibiotic drug discovery. PMID:25198656

  10. Quantitative evaluation of the requirements for the promotion as associate professor at German medical faculties.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Heiko; Knobloch, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    First quantitative evaluation of the requirements for the promotion as associate professor (AP) at German medical faculties. Analysis of the AP-regulations of German medical faculties according to a validated scoring system, which has been adapted to this study. The overall scoring for the AP-requirements at 35 German medical faculties was 13.5±0.6 of 20 possible scoring points (95% confidence interval 12.2-14.7). More than 88% of the AP-regulations demand sufficient performance in teaching and research with adequate scientific publication. Furthermore, 83% of the faculties expect an expert review of the candidate's performance. Conference presentations required as an assistant professor as well as the reduction of the minimum time as an assistant professor do only play minor roles. The requirements for assistant professors to get nominated as an associate professor at German medical faculties are high with an only small range. In detail, however, it can be seen that there still exists large heterogeneity, which hinders equal opportunities and career possibilities. These data might be used for the ongoing objective discussion.

  11. Evaluation of viral removal by nanofiltration using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaowen; Bailey, Mark R; Emery, Warren R; Lambooy, Peter K; Chen, Dayue

    2007-06-01

    Nanofiltration is commonly introduced into purification processes of biologics produced in mammalian cells to serve as a designated step for removal of potential exogenous viral contaminants and endogenous retrovirus-like particles. The LRV (log reduction value) achieved by nanofiltration is often determined by cell-based infectivity assay, which is time-consuming and labour-intensive. We have explored the possibility of employing QPCR (quantitative PCR) to evaluate LRV achieved by nanofiltration in scaled-down studies using two model viruses, namely xenotropic murine leukemia virus and murine minute virus. We report here the successful development of a QPCR-based method suitable for quantification of virus removal by nanofiltration. The method includes a nuclease treatment step to remove free viral nucleic acids, while viral genome associated with intact virus particles is shielded from the nuclease. In addition, HIV Armored RNA was included as an internal control to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the method. The QPCRbased method described here provides several advantages such as better sensitivity, faster turnaround time, reduced cost and higher throughput over the traditional cell-based infectivity assays.

  12. A quantitative in vitro assay for the evaluation of phototoxic potential of topically applied materials.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, S; DiNardo, J; Morris, W E; Wolf, B A; Schnetzinger, R W

    1984-10-01

    A quantitative in vitro method for phototoxic evaluation of chemicals has been developed and validated. The assay uses Saccharomyces cerevisiae, seeded in an agar overlay on top of a plate count agar base. 8-Methoxy psoralen is used as a reference standard against which materials are measured. Activity is quantified by cytotoxicity measured as zones of inhibition. Several known phototoxins (heliotropine, lyral, phantolid, and bergamot oil) and photoallergens (6-methyl coumarin and musk ambrette) are used to validate the assay. An excellent correlation is observed between in vivo studies employing Hartley albino guinea pigs and the in vitro assay for several fragrance raw materials and other chemicals. The in vitro assay exhibits a greater sensitivity from 2-500 fold. For three fragrance oils, the in vitro assay detects low levels of photobiological activity while the in vivo assay is negative. Although the in vitro assay does not discriminate between phototoxins and photoallergens, it can be used for screening of raw materials so that reduction in animal usage can be achieved while maintaining the protection of the consumer.

  13. Quantitative oxygen concentration imaging in toluene atmospheres using Dual Imaging with Modeling Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, Andreas; Jonsson, Malin; Johansson, Olof; Aldén, Marcus; Bood, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetimes of toluene as a function of oxygen concentration in toluene/nitrogen/oxygen mixtures have been measured at room temperature using picosecond-laser excitation of the S1-S0 transition at 266 nm. The data satisfy the Stern-Volmer relation with high accuracy, providing an updated value of the Stern-Volmer slope. A newly developed fluorescence lifetime imaging scheme, called Dual Imaging with Modeling Evaluation (DIME), is evaluated and successfully demonstrated for quantitative oxygen concentration imaging in toluene-seeded O2/N2 gas mixtures.

  14. Quantitative oxygen concentration imaging in toluene atmospheres using Dual Imaging with Modeling Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, Andreas; Jonsson, Malin; Johansson, Olof; Aldén, Marcus; Bood, Joakim

    2012-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetimes of toluene as a function of oxygen concentration in toluene/nitrogen/oxygen mixtures have been measured at room temperature using picosecond-laser excitation of the S1-S0 transition at 266 nm. The data satisfy the Stern-Volmer relation with high accuracy, providing an updated value of the Stern-Volmer slope. A newly developed fluorescence lifetime imaging scheme, called Dual Imaging with Modeling Evaluation (DIME), is evaluated and successfully demonstrated for quantitative oxygen concentration imaging in toluene-seeded O2/N2 gas mixtures.

  15. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation of ceramic matrix composite by the resonance method

    SciT

    Watanabe, T.; Aizawa, T.; Kihara, J.

    The resonance method was developed to make quantitative nondestructive evaluation on the mechanical properties without any troublesome procedure. Since the present method is indifferent to the geometry of specimen, both monolithic and ceramic matrix composite materials in process can be evaluated in the nondestructive manner. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, SiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and various C/C composite materials are employed to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the present method.

  16. Evaluation of risk factors for false-negative results with an antigen-specific peripheral blood-based quantitative T cell assay (T-SPOT®. TB) in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: A large-scale retrospective study in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shaojun; Yao, Lan; Fan, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of an interferon-γ release assay, T-SPOT ® . TB, for diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB) and to identify risk factors for false-negative results. Methods This retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with active TB and with non-TB respiratory diseases to evaluate the risk factors for false-negative results when using the T-SPOT ® . TB assay for the diagnosis of active TB. Patients with active TB were categorized as having confirmed pulmonary TB, clinically diagnosed pulmonary TB or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Results This study analysed 4964 consecutive patients; 2425 with active TB and 2539 with non-TB respiratory diseases. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified the following five factors that were all associated with an increased false-negative rate with the T-SPOT ® . TB assay: increased age (odds ratio [OR] 1.018; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.013, 1.024); decreased CD8+ count (OR 0.307; 95% CI 0.117, 0.803); negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear staining (OR 1.821; 95% CI 1.338, 2.477); negative mycobacterial cultures (OR 1.379; 95% CI 1.043, 1.824); and absence of EPTB (OR 1.291; 95% CI 1.026, 1.623). Conclusions Increased age, decreased CD8+ count, negative sputum AFB smear results, negative sputum mycobacterial cultures and absence of EPTB might lead to an increased false-negative rate when using the T-SPOT ® . TB assay.

  17. How international is bioethics? A quantitative retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Dierickx, Kris

    2006-01-13

    Studying the contribution of individual countries to leading journals in a specific discipline can highlight which countries have the most impact on that discipline and whether a geographic bias exists. This article aims to examine the international distribution of publications in the field of bioethics. Retrospective quantitative study of nine peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics and medical ethics (Bioethics, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Hastings Center Report, Journal of Clinical Ethics, Journal of Medical Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Nursing Ethics, Christian Bioethics, and Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics). In total, 4,029 articles published between 1990 and 2003 were retrieved from the nine bioethical journals under study. The United States (59.3%, n = 2390), the United Kingdom (13.5%, n = 544), Canada (4%, n = 160) and Australia (3.8%, n = 154) had the highest number of publications in terms of absolute number of publications. When normalized to population size, smaller affluent countries, such as New Zealand, Finland and Sweden were more productive than the United States. The number of studies originating from the USA was decreasing in the period between 1990 and 2003. While a lot of peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics profile themselves as international journals, they certainly do not live up to what one would expect from an "international" journal. The fact that English speaking countries, and to a larger extent American authors, dominate the international journals in the field of bioethics is a clear geographic bias towards the bioethical discussions that are going on in these journals.

  18. A quantitative electroencephalographic study of meditation and binaural beat entrainment.

    PubMed

    Lavallee, Christina F; Koren, Stanley A; Persinger, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    The study objective was to determine the quantitative electroencephalographic correlates of meditation, as well as the effects of hindering (15 Hz) and facilitative (7 Hz) binaural beats on the meditative process. The study was a mixed design, with experience of the subject as the primary between-subject measure and power of the six classic frequency bands (δ, θ, low α, high α, β, γ), neocortical lobe (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital), hemisphere (left, right), and condition (meditation only, meditation with 7-Hz beats, meditation with 15-Hz beats) as the within-subject measures. The study was conducted at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The subjects comprised novice (mean of 8 months experience) and experienced (mean of 18 years experience) meditators recruited from local meditation groups. Experimental manipulation included application of hindering and facilitative binaural beats to the meditative process. Experienced meditators displayed increased left temporal lobe δ power when the facilitative binaural beats were applied, whereas the effect was not observed for the novice subjects in this condition. When the hindering binaural beats were introduced, the novice subjects consistently displayed more γ power than the experienced subjects over the course of their meditation, relative to baseline. Based on the results of this study, novice meditators were not able to maintain certain levels of θ power in the occipital regions when hindering binaural beats were presented, whereas when the facilitative binaural beats were presented, the experienced meditators displayed increased θ power in the left temporal lobe. These results suggest that the experienced meditators have developed techniques over the course of their meditation practice to counter hindering environmental stimuli, whereas the novice meditators have not yet developed those techniques.

  19. Evaluation of quantitative precipitation forecasts by TIGGE ensembles for south China during the presummer rainy season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ling; Luo, Yali

    2017-08-01

    Based on The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) data set, this study evaluates the ability of global ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Korean Meteorological Administration, and China Meteorological Administration (CMA) to predict presummer rainy season (April-June) precipitation in south China. Evaluation of 5 day forecasts in three seasons (2013-2015) demonstrates the higher skill of probability matching forecasts compared to simple ensemble mean forecasts and shows that the deterministic forecast is a close second. The EPSs overestimate light-to-heavy rainfall (0.1 to 30 mm/12 h) and underestimate heavier rainfall (>30 mm/12 h), with JMA being the worst. By analyzing the synoptic situations predicted by the identified more skillful (ECMWF) and less skillful (JMA and CMA) EPSs and the ensemble sensitivity for four representative cases of torrential rainfall, the transport of warm-moist air into south China by the low-level southwesterly flow, upstream of the torrential rainfall regions, is found to be a key synoptic factor that controls the quantitative precipitation forecast. The results also suggest that prediction of locally produced torrential rainfall is more challenging than prediction of more extensively distributed torrential rainfall. A slight improvement in the performance is obtained by shortening the forecast lead time from 30-36 h to 18-24 h to 6-12 h for the cases with large-scale forcing, but not for the locally produced cases.

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurement for Global Smoke Emissions Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has steadily gained increasing recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies and applications relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. To establish the scientific integrity of the FRP as a stable quantity that can be measured consistently across a variety of sensors and platforms, with the potential of being utilized to develop a unified long-term climate data record of fire activity and impacts, it needs to be thoroughly evaluated, calibrated, and validated. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to evaluate the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the effects of satellite variable observation geometry and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in diverse scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show recent results of the MODIS FRP uncertainty analysis and error mitigation solutions, and demonstrate

  1. Supply chain risk management of newspaper industry: A quantitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartika, Viny; Hisjam, Muh.; Sutopo, Wahyudi

    2018-02-01

    The newspaper industry has several distinctive features that make it stands out from other industries. The strict delivery deadline and zero inventory led to a very short time frame for production and distribution. On the other hand, there is pressure from the newsroom to encourage the start of production as slowly as possible in order to enter the news, while there is pressure from production and distribution to start production as early as possible. Supply chain risk management is needed in determining the best strategy for dealing with possible risks in the newspaper industry. In a case study of a newspaper in Surakarta, quantitative approaches are made to the newspaper supply chain risk management by calculating the expected cost of risk based on the magnitude of the impact and the probability of a risk event. From the calculation results obtained that the five risks with the highest value are newspaper delays to the end customer, broken plate, miss print, down machine, and delayed delivery of newspaper content. Then analyzed appropriate mitigation strategies to cope with such risk events.

  2. Evaluation of reference genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize the viru...

  3. [The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of avian demineralized bone matrix in heterotopic beds.

    PubMed

    Reza Sanaei, M; Abu, Jalila; Nazari, Mojgan; A B, Mohd Zuki; Allaudin, Zeenathul N

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the osteogenic potential of avian demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in the context of implant geometry. Experimental. Rock pigeons (n = 24). Tubular and chipped forms of DBM were prepared by acid demineralization of long bones from healthy allogeneic donors and implanted bilaterally into the pectoral region of 24 pigeons. After euthanasia at 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks, explants were evaluated histologically and compared by means of quantitative (bone area) and semi quantitative measures (scores). All explants had new bone at retrieval with the exception of tubular implants at the end of week 1. The most reactive part in both implants was the interior region between the periosteal and endosteal surfaces followed by the area at the implant-muscle interface. Quantitative measurements demonstrated a significantly (P = .012) greater percentage of new bone formation induced by tubular implants (80.28 ± 8.94) compared with chip implants (57.64 ± 3.12). There was minimal inflammation. Avian DBM initiates heterotopic bone formation in allogeneic recipients with low grades of immunogenicity. Implant geometry affects this phenomenon as osteoconduction appeared to augment the magnitude of the effects in larger tubular implants. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Evaluating 'good governance': The development of a quantitative tool in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kisingo, Alex; Rollins, Rick; Murray, Grant; Dearden, Phil; Clarke, Marlea

    2016-10-01

    Protected areas (PAs) can provide important benefits to conservation and to communities. A key factor in the effective delivery of these benefits is the role of governance. There has been a growth in research developing frameworks to evaluate 'good' PA governance, usually drawing on a set of principles that are associated with groups of indicators. In contrast to dominant qualitative approaches, this paper describes the development of a quantitative method for measuring effectiveness of protected area governance, as perceived by stakeholders in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem in Tanzania. The research developed a quantitative method for developing effectiveness measures of PA governance, using a set of 65 statements related to governance principles developed from a literature review. The instrument was administered to 389 individuals from communities located near PAs in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem. The results of a factor analysis suggest that statements load onto 10 factors that demonstrate high psychometric validity as measured by factor loadings, explained variance, and Cronbach's alpha reliability. The ten common factors that were extracted were: 1) legitimacy, 2) transparency and accountability, 3) responsiveness, 4) fairness, 5) participation, 6) ecosystem based management (EBM) and connectivity, 7) resilience, 8) achievements, 9) consensus orientation, and 10) power. The paper concludes that quantitative surveys can be used to evaluate governance of protected areas from a community-level perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of the Use of Actigraphy for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu; Kwak, Shin; Yoshida, Sohei; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and objective evaluation of disease severity and/or drug effect is necessary in clinical practice. Wearable accelerometers such as an actigraph enable long-term recording of a patient's movement during activities and they can be used for quantitative assessment of symptoms due to various diseases. We reviewed some applications of actigraphy with analytical methods that are sufficiently sensitive and reliable to determine the severity of diseases and disorders such as motor and nonmotor disorders like Parkinson's disease, sleep disorders, depression, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) for vascular dementia (VD), seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and stroke, as well as the effects of drugs used to treat them. We believe it is possible to develop analytical methods to assess more neurological or psychopathic disorders using actigraphy records. PMID:25214709

  7. Quantitative Evaluation Method of Each Generation Margin for Power System Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Su; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    As the power system deregulation advances, the competition among the power companies becomes heated, and they seek more efficient system planning using existing facilities. Therefore, an efficient system planning method has been expected. This paper proposes a quantitative evaluation method for the (N-1) generation margin considering the overload and the voltage stability restriction. Concerning the generation margin related with the overload, a fast solution method without the recalculation of the (N-1) Y-matrix is proposed. Referred to the voltage stability, this paper proposes an efficient method to search the stability limit. The IEEE30 model system which is composed of 6 generators and 14 load nodes is employed to validate the proposed method. According to the results, the proposed method can reduce the computational cost for the generation margin related with the overload under the (N-1) condition, and specify the value quantitatively.

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Quantitative PCR Assay Targeting Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) Fecal Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Lu, Jingrang; Vogel, Jason; Elk, Michael; Chávez-Ramírez, Felipe; Ashbolt, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    While the microbial water quality in the Platte River is seasonally impacted by excreta from migrating cranes, there are no methods available to study crane fecal contamination. Here we characterized microbial populations in crane feces using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene fecal clone libraries. Using these sequences, a novel crane quantitative PCR (Crane1) assay was developed, and its applicability as a microbial source tracking (MST) assay was evaluated by determining its host specificity and detection ability in environmental waters. Bacteria from crane excreta were dominated by bacilli and proteobacteria, with a notable paucity of sequences homologous to Bacteroidetes and Clostridia. The Crane1 marker targeted a dominant clade of unclassified Lactobacillales sequences closely related to Catellicoccus marimammalium. The host distribution of the Crane1 marker was relatively high, being positive for 69% (66/96) of the crane excreta samples tested. The assay also showed high host specificity, with 95% of the nontarget fecal samples (i.e., n = 553; 20 different free-range hosts) being negative. Of the presumed crane-impacted water samples (n = 16), 88% were positive for the Crane1 assay, whereas none of the water samples not impacted by cranes were positive (n = 165). Bayesian statistical models of the Crane1 MST marker demonstrated high confidence in detecting true-positive signals and a low probability of false-negative signals from environmental water samples. Altogether, these data suggest that the newly developed marker could be used in environmental monitoring studies to study crane fecal pollution dynamics. PMID:22492437

  9. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP2-01: Quantitative Evaluation of PROPELLER DWI Using QIBA Diffusion Phantom

    SciT

    Yung, J; Ai, H; Liu, H

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the quantitative variability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values when varying imaging parameters in a diffusion-weighted (DW) fast spin echo (FSE) sequence with Periodically Rotated Overlapping ParallEL Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) k-space trajectory. Methods: Using a 3T MRI scanner, a NIST traceable, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion phantom (High Precision Devices, Inc, Boulder, Colorado) consisting of 13 vials filled with various concentrations of polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in aqueous solution was imaged with a standard Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA) DWI spin echo, echo planar imaging (SE EPI) acquisition. Themore » same phantom was then imaged with a DWI PROPELLER sequence at varying echo train lengths (ETL) of 8, 20, and 32, as well as b-values of 400, 900, and 2000. QIBA DWI phantom analysis software was used to generate ADC maps and create region of interests (ROIs) for quantitative measurements of each vial. Mean and standard deviations of the ROIs were compared. Results: The SE EPI sequence generated ADC values that showed very good agreement with the known ADC values of the phantom (r2 = 0.9995, slope = 1.0061). The ADC values measured from the PROPELLER sequences were inflated, but were highly correlated with an r2 range from 0.8754 to 0.9880. The PROPELLER sequence with an ETL=20 and b-value of 0 and 2000 showed the closest agreement (r2 = 0.9034, slope = 0.9880). Conclusion: The DW PROPELLER sequence is promising for quantitative evaluation of ADC values. A drawback of the PROPELLER sequence is the longer acquisition time. The 180° refocusing pulses may also cause the observed increase in ADC values compared to the standard SE EPI DW sequence. However, the FSE sequence offers an advantage with in-plane motion and geometric distortion which will be investigated in future studies.« less

  10. A simple hemostasis model for the quantitative evaluation of hydrogel-based local hemostatic biomaterials on tissue surface.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2008-09-01

    Several hemostat hydrogels are clinically used, and some other agents are studied for safer, more facile, and more efficient hemostasis. In the present paper, we proposed a novel method to evaluate local hemostat hydrogel on tissue surface. The procedure consisted of the following steps: (step 1) a mouse was fixed on a cork board, and its abdomen was incised; (step 2) serous fluid was carefully removed because it affected the estimation of the weight gained by the filter paper, and parafilm and preweighted filter paper were placed beneath the liver (parafilm prevented the filter paper's absorption of gradually oozing serous fluid); (step 3) the cork board was tilted and maintained at an angle of about 45 degrees so that the bleeding would more easily flow from the liver toward the filter paper; and (step 4) the bleeding lasted for 3 min. In this step, a hemostat was applied to the liver wound immediately after the liver was pricked with a needle. We found that (1) a careful removal of serous fluid prior to a bleeding and (2) a quantitative determination of the amount of excess aqueous solution that oozed out from a hemostat were important to a rigorous evaluation of hemostat efficacy. We successfully evaluated the efficacy of a fibrin-based hemostat hydrogel by using our method. The method proposed in the present study enabled the quantitative, accurate, and easy evaluation of the efficacy of local hemostatic hydrogel which acts as tissue-adhesive agent on biointerfaces.

  11. A Stereological Method for the Quantitative Evaluation of Cartilage Repair Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Lind, Martin; Spector, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Objective To implement stereological principles to develop an easy applicable algorithm for unbiased and quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair. Design Design-unbiased sampling was performed by systematically sectioning the defect perpendicular to the joint surface in parallel planes providing 7 to 10 hematoxylin–eosin stained histological sections. Counting windows were systematically selected and converted into image files (40-50 per defect). The quantification was performed by two-step point counting: (1) calculation of defect volume and (2) quantitative analysis of tissue composition. Step 2 was performed by assigning each point to one of the following categories based on validated and easy distinguishable morphological characteristics: (1) hyaline cartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in hyaline matrix), (2) fibrocartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in fibrous matrix), (3) fibrous tissue (elongated cells in fibrous tissue), (4) bone, (5) scaffold material, and (6) others. The ability to discriminate between the tissue types was determined using conventional or polarized light microscopy, and the interobserver variability was evaluated. Results We describe the application of the stereological method. In the example, we assessed the defect repair tissue volume to be 4.4 mm3 (CE = 0.01). The tissue fractions were subsequently evaluated. Polarized light illumination of the slides improved discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage and increased the interobserver agreement compared with conventional transmitted light. Conclusion We have applied a design-unbiased method for quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair, and we propose this algorithm as a natural supplement to existing descriptive semiquantitative scoring systems. We also propose that polarized light is effective for discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. PMID:26069715

  12. A Stereological Method for the Quantitative Evaluation of Cartilage Repair Tissue.

    PubMed

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Lind, Martin; Spector, Myron

    2015-04-01

    To implement stereological principles to develop an easy applicable algorithm for unbiased and quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair. Design-unbiased sampling was performed by systematically sectioning the defect perpendicular to the joint surface in parallel planes providing 7 to 10 hematoxylin-eosin stained histological sections. Counting windows were systematically selected and converted into image files (40-50 per defect). The quantification was performed by two-step point counting: (1) calculation of defect volume and (2) quantitative analysis of tissue composition. Step 2 was performed by assigning each point to one of the following categories based on validated and easy distinguishable morphological characteristics: (1) hyaline cartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in hyaline matrix), (2) fibrocartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in fibrous matrix), (3) fibrous tissue (elongated cells in fibrous tissue), (4) bone, (5) scaffold material, and (6) others. The ability to discriminate between the tissue types was determined using conventional or polarized light microscopy, and the interobserver variability was evaluated. We describe the application of the stereological method. In the example, we assessed the defect repair tissue volume to be 4.4 mm(3) (CE = 0.01). The tissue fractions were subsequently evaluated. Polarized light illumination of the slides improved discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage and increased the interobserver agreement compared with conventional transmitted light. We have applied a design-unbiased method for quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair, and we propose this algorithm as a natural supplement to existing descriptive semiquantitative scoring systems. We also propose that polarized light is effective for discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  13. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF ENDOLYSIN SYNTHESIS DURING REPRODUCTION OF LAMBDA PHAGES

    PubMed Central

    Groman, Neal B.; Suzuki, Grace

    1963-01-01

    Groman, Neal B. (University of Washington, Seattle) and Grace Suzuki. Quantitative study of endolysin synthesis during reproduction of lambda phages. J. Bacteriol. 86:187–194. 1963.—Endolysin is presumed to be a phage-induced enzyme participating in lysis through its destructive action on the host cell wall. A method for assaying endolysin is described, which was utilized in studying endolysin synthesis at 37 and 44 C by induced strains of K-12 (λ), K-12 (λtem), and K-12 (λ112). In all cases, endolysin was detected prior to the appearance of mature, intracellular phage and was detected earlier at 44 C than at 37 C. It was synthesized at a linear rate, as was phage, and both syntheses terminated at the same time. Surprisingly, endolysin also accumulated under conditions in which induced K-12 (λ112) exhibited lysis inhibition. Under these conditions, endolysin concentration per induced cell was 2 to 2.5 times that produced by normally lysing K-12 (λ). Since alterations introduced into the lytic process by temperature, mutation, or both correlate well with the timing and rate of endolysin synthesis, the data tend to support the concept that endolysin determines the kinetics of the process. However, the accumulation of endolysin during lysis inhibition suggests the need for alternative hypotheses. One hypothesis is that although endolysin action is the key to lysis some preliminary steps are required to release the enzyme so that it may contact its substrate in the cell wall. A second hypothesis is that basically the lytic process involves an alteration in the permeability barrier of the cell and that lytic enzymes such as endolysin have evolved as an auxillary but dispensable mechanism to this process. PMID:14058940

  14. Quantitative evaluation of retinal degeneration in royal college of surgeons rats by contrast enhanced ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syu, Jia-Pu; Su, Min-Jyun; Chen, Po-Wei; Ke, Chang-Chih; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    This study presents a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using supercontinuum laser combined with a fundus photography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of retinal degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS-/- rat). These findings were compared with the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the corresponding histology. Quantitative measurements show that changes in thickness were not significantly different between SD control and young RCS retinas (4 weeks). However, in old RCS rats (55 weeks), the thickness of photoreceptor layer decreased significantly as compared to young RCS rats (both 4 weeks and 5 weeks). After contrast enhancement method, this platform will be useful for the quantitative evaluation of the degree of retinal degeneration, treatment outcome after therapy, and drug screening development in the future.

  15. Genomic Quantitative Genetics to Study Evolution in the Wild.

    PubMed

    Gienapp, Phillip; Fior, Simone; Guillaume, Frédéric; Lasky, Jesse R; Sork, Victoria L; Csilléry, Katalin

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative genetic theory provides a means of estimating the evolutionary potential of natural populations. However, this approach was previously only feasible in systems where the genetic relatedness between individuals could be inferred from pedigrees or experimental crosses. The genomic revolution opened up the possibility of obtaining the realized proportion of genome shared among individuals in natural populations of virtually any species, which could promise (more) accurate estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in virtually any species. Such a 'genomic' quantitative genetics approach relies on fewer assumptions, offers a greater methodological flexibility, and is thus expected to greatly enhance our understanding of evolution in natural populations, for example, in the context of adaptation to environmental change, eco-evolutionary dynamics, and biodiversity conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of luciferase and GFP-expressing Nipah viruses for rapid quantitative antiviral screening.

    PubMed

    Lo, Michael K; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2014-06-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, India, and Bangladesh, and the virus continues to cause annual outbreaks of fatal human encephalitis in Bangladesh due to spillover from its bat host reservoir. Due to its high pathogenicity, its potential use for bio/agro-terrorism, and to the current lack of approved therapeutics, NiV is designated as an overlap select agent requiring biosafety level-4 containment. Although the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and soluble protein subunit vaccines have shown great promise, the paucity of effective antiviral drugs against NiV merits further exploration of compound libraries using rapid quantitative antiviral assays. As a proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the use of fluorescent and luminescent reporter NiVs for antiviral screening. We constructed and rescued NiVs expressing either Renilla luciferase or green fluorescent protein, and characterized their reporter signal kinetics in different cell types as well as in the presence of several inhibitors. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) derived for inhibitors against both reporter viruses are within range of EC50s derived from virus yield-based dose-response assays against wild-type NiV (within 1Log10), thus demonstrating that both reporter NiVs can serve as robust antiviral screening tools. Utilizing these live NiV-based reporter assays requires modest instrumentation, and circumvents the time and labor-intensive steps associated with cytopathic effect or viral antigen-based assays. These reporter NiVs will not only facilitate antiviral screening, but also the study of host cell components that influence the virus life cycle. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Evaluating interventions against Salmonella in broiler chickens: applying synthesis research in support of quantitative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Farrar, A; Wills, R; McEwen, S A

    2012-05-01

    A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area.

  18. Quantitative electroencephalographic studies of cue-induced cocaine craving.

    PubMed

    Reid, Malcolm S; Prichep, Leslie S; Ciplet, Debra; O'Leary, Siobhan; Tom, MeeLee; Howard, Bryant; Rotrosen, John; John, E Roy

    2003-07-01

    Quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) profiles were studied in cocaine dependent patients in response to cocaine cue exposure. Using neurometric analytical methods, the spectral power of each primary bandwidth was computed and topographically mapped. Additional measures of cue-reactivity included cocaine craving, anxiety and related subjective ratings, and physiological measures of skin conductance, skin temperature, heart rate, and plasma cortisol and HVA levels. Twenty-four crack cocaine-dependent subjects were tested for their response to tactile, visual and audio cues related to crack cocaine or neutral items. All measures were analyzed for significant difference by comparing cocaine versus neutral cue conditions. An increase in cocaine craving, anxiety and related subjective ratings, elevated plasma cortisol levels, and a decrease in skin temperature, were induced by cocaine cue exposure. Distinct qEEG profiles were found during the paraphernalia handling and video viewing (eyes-open), and guided imagery (eyes-closed), phases of cocaine cue exposure. During paraphernalia handling and video viewing, there was an increase in beta activity accompanied by a drop in delta power in the frontal cortex, and an increase in beta mean frequency in the occipital cortex. In contrast, during guided imagery there was an increase in theta and delta power in the frontal cortex, and an increase in beta power in the occipital cortex. Correlation analyses revealed that cue-induced anxiety during paraphernalia handling and video viewing was associated with reduced high frequency and enhanced low frequency EEG activity. These findings demonstrated that EEG activation during cue-induced cocaine craving may be topographically mapped and subsequently analyzed for functional relevance.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for Genetically Modified Soybean MON87701.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Keita; Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event, MON87701. First, a standard plasmid for MON87701 quantification was constructed. The conversion factor (C f ) required to calculate the amount of genetically modified organism (GMO) was experimentally determined for a real-time PCR instrument. The determined C f for the real-time PCR instrument was 1.24. For the evaluation of the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an inter-laboratory trial. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr), respectively. The determined biases and the RSDr values were less than 30 and 13%, respectively, at all evaluated concentrations. The limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and the developed method would thus be applicable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MON87701.

  20. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Iramina, Keiji

    2016-01-18

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS) are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7-11 years (27 males, six females) and twenty five adults participants aged 21-29 years old (19 males, six females) participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD.

  1. Application of Organosilane Monolayer Template to Quantitative Evaluation of Cancer Cell Adhesive Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanii, Takashi; Sasaki, Kosuke; Ichisawa, Kota; Demura, Takanori; Beppu, Yuichi; Vu, Hoan Anh; Thanh Chi, Hoan; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Sato, Yuko

    2011-06-01

    The adhesive ability of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines was evaluated using organosilane monolayer templates (OMTs). Using the OMT, the spreading area of adhered cells can be limited, and this enables us to focus on the initial attachment process of adhesion. Moreover, it becomes possible to arrange the cells in an array and to quantitatively evaluate the number of attached cells. The adhesive ability of the cancer cells cultured on the OMT was controlled by adding (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which blocks a receptor that mediates cell adhesion and is overexpressed in cancer cells. Measurement of the relative ability of the cancer cells to attach to the OMT revealed that the ability for attachment decreased with increasing EGCG concentration. The results agreed well with the western blot analysis, indicating that the OMT can potentially be employed to evaluate the adhesive ability of various cancer cells.

  2. A Prospective, Quantitative Evaluation of Fatty Infiltration Before and After Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, Drew A; Lee, Sonia; Sam, Craig; Krug, Roland; Feeley, Brian T; Ma, C Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    Current evaluation of muscle fatty infiltration has been limited by subjective classifications. Quantitative fat evaluation through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for an improved longitudinal evaluation of the effect of surgical repair on the progression of fatty infiltration. We hypothesized that (1) patients with isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears would have less progression in fatty infiltration compared with patients with full-thickness tears of multiple tendons and (2) patients with eventual failed repair would have higher baseline levels of fatty infiltration. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Thirty-five patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were followed longitudinally. All patients received a shoulder MRI, including the iterative decomposition of echoes of asymmetric length (IDEAL) sequence for fat measurement, prior to surgical treatment and at 6 months after surgical repair. Fat fractions were recorded for all 4 rotator cuff muscles from measurements on 4 sagittal slices centered at the scapular-Y. Demographics and tear characteristics were recorded. Baseline and follow-up fat fractions were compared for patients with isolated supraspinatus tears versus multitendon tears and for patients with intact repairs versus failed repairs. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. The mean fat fractions were significantly higher at follow-up than at baseline for the supraspinatus (9.8% ± 7.0% vs 8.3% ± 5.7%; P = .025) and infraspinatus (7.4% ± 6.1% vs 5.7% ± 4.4%; P = .027) muscles. Patients with multitendon tears showed no significant change for any rotator cuff muscle after repair. Patients with isolated supraspinatus tears showed a significant progression in the supraspinatus fat fraction from baseline to follow-up (from 6.8% ± 4.9% to 8.6% ± 6.8%; P = .0083). Baseline supraspinatus fat fractions were significantly higher in patients with eventual failed repairs compared with those with intact repairs (11.7% ± 6

  3. Evaluation of Daphnid Grazing on Microscopic Zoosporic Fungi by Using Comparative Threshold Cycle Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Michelle A.; Uchii, Kimiko; Peterson, Tawnya D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lethal parasitism of large phytoplankton by chytrids (microscopic zoosporic fungi) may play an important role in organic matter and nutrient cycling in aquatic environments by shunting carbon away from hosts and into much smaller zoospores, which are more readily consumed by zooplankton. This pathway provides a mechanism to more efficiently retain carbon within food webs and reduce export losses. However, challenges in accurate identification and quantification of chytrids have prevented a robust assessment of the relative importance of parasitism for carbon and energy flows within aquatic systems. The use of molecular techniques has greatly advanced our ability to detect small, nondescript microorganisms in aquatic environments in recent years, including chytrids. We used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the consumption of zoospores by Daphnia in laboratory experiments using a culture-based comparative threshold cycle (CT) method. We successfully quantified the reduction of zoospores in water samples during Daphnia grazing and confirmed the presence of chytrid DNA inside the daphnid gut. We demonstrate that comparative CT qPCR is a robust and effective method to quantify zoospores and evaluate zoospore grazing by zooplankton and will aid in better understanding how chytrids contribute to organic matter cycling and trophic energy transfer within food webs. IMPORTANCE The study of aquatic fungi is often complicated by the fact that they possess complex life cycles that include a variety of morphological forms. Studies that rely on morphological characteristics to quantify the abundances of all stages of the fungal life cycle face the challenge of correctly identifying and enumerating the nondescript zoospores. These zoospores, however, provide an important trophic link between large colonial phytoplankton and zooplankton: that is, once the carbon is liberated from phytoplankton into the parasitic zoospores, the latter are consumed by zooplankton and

  4. Evaluation of Daphnid Grazing on Microscopic Zoosporic Fungi by Using Comparative Threshold Cycle Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Maier, Michelle A; Uchii, Kimiko; Peterson, Tawnya D; Kagami, Maiko

    2016-07-01

    Lethal parasitism of large phytoplankton by chytrids (microscopic zoosporic fungi) may play an important role in organic matter and nutrient cycling in aquatic environments by shunting carbon away from hosts and into much smaller zoospores, which are more readily consumed by zooplankton. This pathway provides a mechanism to more efficiently retain carbon within food webs and reduce export losses. However, challenges in accurate identification and quantification of chytrids have prevented a robust assessment of the relative importance of parasitism for carbon and energy flows within aquatic systems. The use of molecular techniques has greatly advanced our ability to detect small, nondescript microorganisms in aquatic environments in recent years, including chytrids. We used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the consumption of zoospores by Daphnia in laboratory experiments using a culture-based comparative threshold cycle (CT) method. We successfully quantified the reduction of zoospores in water samples during Daphnia grazing and confirmed the presence of chytrid DNA inside the daphnid gut. We demonstrate that comparative CT qPCR is a robust and effective method to quantify zoospores and evaluate zoospore grazing by zooplankton and will aid in better understanding how chytrids contribute to organic matter cycling and trophic energy transfer within food webs. The study of aquatic fungi is often complicated by the fact that they possess complex life cycles that include a variety of morphological forms. Studies that rely on morphological characteristics to quantify the abundances of all stages of the fungal life cycle face the challenge of correctly identifying and enumerating the nondescript zoospores. These zoospores, however, provide an important trophic link between large colonial phytoplankton and zooplankton: that is, once the carbon is liberated from phytoplankton into the parasitic zoospores, the latter are consumed by zooplankton and carbon is retained in

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging with quantitative evaluation and fiber tractography of lumbar nerve roots in sciatica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yin; Zong, Min; Xu, Xiaoquan; Zou, Yuefen; Feng, Yang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Dehang

    2015-04-01

    To quantitatively evaluate nerve roots by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) values in healthy volunteers and sciatica patients, visualize nerve roots by tractography, and compare the diagnostic efficacy between conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI. Seventy-five sciatica patients and thirty-six healthy volunteers underwent MR imaging using DTI. FA values for L5-S1 lumbar nerve roots were calculated at three levels from DTI images. Tractography was performed on L3-S1 nerve roots. ROC analysis was performed for FA values. The lumbar nerve roots were visualized and FA values were calculated in all subjects. FA values decreased in compressed nerve roots and declined from proximal to distal along the compressed nerve tracts. Mean FA values were more sensitive and specific than MR imaging for differentiating compressed nerve roots, especially in the far lateral zone at distal nerves. DTI can quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots, and DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and localization of probable nerve compression. DTI has great potential utility for evaluating lumbar nerve compression in sciatica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A TEM quantitative evaluation of strengthening in an Mg-RE alloy reinforced with SiC

    SciT

    Cabibbo, Marcello, E-mail: m.cabibbo@univpm.it; Spigarelli, Stefano

    2011-10-15

    Magnesium alloys containing rare earth elements are known to have high specific strength, good creep and corrosion resistance up to 523 K. The addition of SiC ceramic particles strengthens the metal matrix composite resulting in better wear and creep resistance while maintaining good machinability. The role of the reinforcement particles in enhancing strength can be quantitatively evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This paper presents a quantitative evaluation of the different strengthening contributions, determined through TEM inspections, in an SiC Mg-RE composite alloy containing yttrium, neodymium, gadolinium and dysprosium. Compression tests at temperatures ranging between 290 and 573 K weremore » carried out. The microstructure strengthening mechanism was studied for all the compression conditions. Strengthening was compared to the mechanical results and the way the different contributions were combined is also discussed and justified. - Research Highlights: {yields} TEM yield strengthening terms evaluation on a Mg-RE SiC alloy. {yields} The evaluation has been extended to different compression temperature conditions. {yields} Linear and Quadratic sum has been proposed and validated. {yields} Hall-Petch was found to be the most prominent strengthening contributions.« less

  7. Extensions and evaluations of a general quantitative theory of forest structure and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Enquist, Brian J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Brown, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we present the second part of a quantitative theory for the structure and dynamics of forests under demographic and resource steady state. The theory is based on individual-level allometric scaling relations for how trees use resources, fill space, and grow. These scale up to determine emergent properties of diverse forests, including size–frequency distributions, spacing relations, canopy configurations, mortality rates, population dynamics, successional dynamics, and resource flux rates. The theory uniquely makes quantitative predictions for both stand-level scaling exponents and normalizations. We evaluate these predictions by compiling and analyzing macroecological datasets from several tropical forests. The close match between theoretical predictions and data suggests that forests are organized by a set of very general scaling rules. Our mechanistic theory is based on allometric scaling relations, is complementary to “demographic theory,” but is fundamentally different in approach. It provides a quantitative baseline for understanding deviations from predictions due to other factors, including disturbance, variation in branching architecture, asymmetric competition, resource limitation, and other sources of mortality, which are not included in the deliberately simplified theory. The theory should apply to a wide range of forests despite large differences in abiotic environment, species diversity, and taxonomic and functional composition. PMID:19363161

  8. Dynamic phase differences based on quantitative phase imaging for the objective evaluation of cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Krizova, Aneta; Collakova, Jana; Dostal, Zbynek; Kvasnica, Lukas; Uhlirova, Hana; Zikmund, Tomas; Vesely, Pavel; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) brought innovation to noninvasive observation of live cell dynamics seen as cell behavior. Unlike the Zernike phase contrast or differential interference contrast, QPI provides quantitative information about cell dry mass distribution. We used such data for objective evaluation of live cell behavioral dynamics by the advanced method of dynamic phase differences (DPDs). The DPDs method is considered a rational instrument offered by QPI. By subtracting the antecedent from the subsequent image in a time-lapse series, only the changes in mass distribution in the cell are detected. The result is either visualized as a two dimensional color-coded projection of these two states of the cell or as a time dependence of changes quantified in picograms. Then in a series of time-lapse recordings, the chain of cell mass distribution changes that would otherwise escape attention is revealed. Consequently, new salient features of live cell behavior should emerge. Construction of the DPDs method and results exhibiting the approach are presented. Advantage of the DPDs application is demonstrated on cells exposed to an osmotic challenge. For time-lapse acquisition of quantitative phase images, the recently developed coherence-controlled holographic microscope was employed.

  9. Dynamic phase differences based on quantitative phase imaging for the objective evaluation of cell behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizova, Aneta; Collakova, Jana; Dostal, Zbynek; Kvasnica, Lukas; Uhlirova, Hana; Zikmund, Tomas; Vesely, Pavel; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) brought innovation to noninvasive observation of live cell dynamics seen as cell behavior. Unlike the Zernike phase contrast or differential interference contrast, QPI provides quantitative information about cell dry mass distribution. We used such data for objective evaluation of live cell behavioral dynamics by the advanced method of dynamic phase differences (DPDs). The DPDs method is considered a rational instrument offered by QPI. By subtracting the antecedent from the subsequent image in a time-lapse series, only the changes in mass distribution in the cell are detected. The result is either visualized as a two-dimensional color-coded projection of these two states of the cell or as a time dependence of changes quantified in picograms. Then in a series of time-lapse recordings, the chain of cell mass distribution changes that would otherwise escape attention is revealed. Consequently, new salient features of live cell behavior should emerge. Construction of the DPDs method and results exhibiting the approach are presented. Advantage of the DPDs application is demonstrated on cells exposed to an osmotic challenge. For time-lapse acquisition of quantitative phase images, the recently developed coherence-controlled holographic microscope was employed.

  10. Quantitative polarization and flow evaluation of choroid and sclera by multifunctional Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, S.; Hong, Y.-J.; Kasaragod, D.; Makita, S.; Miura, M.; Ikuno, Y.; Yasuno, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative evaluation of optical properties of choroid and sclera are performed by multifunctional optical coherence tomography. Five normal eyes, five glaucoma eyes and one choroidal atrophy eye are examined. The refractive error was found to be correlated with choroidal birefringence, polarization uniformity, and flow in addition to scleral birefringence among normal eyes. The significant differences were observed between the normal and the glaucoma eyes, as for choroidal polarization uniformity, flow and scleral birefringence. An automatic segmentation algorithm of retinal pigment epithelium and chorioscleral interface based on multifunctional signals is also presented.

  11. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of engineering properties in metals, composites and ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrasonic technology from the perspective of nondestructive evaluation approaches to material strength prediction and property verification is reviewed. Emergent advanced technology involving quantitative ultrasonic techniques for materials characterization is described. Ultrasonic methods are particularly useful in this area because they involve mechanical elastic waves that are strongly modulated by the same morphological factors that govern mechanical strength and dynamic failure processes. It is emphasized that the technology is in its infancy and that much effort is still required before all the available techniques can be transferred from laboratory to industrial environments.

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  13. A quantitative method for evaluating inferior glenohumeral joint stiffness using ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Wei; Lee, Ming-Yih; Yeh, Wen-Lin; Cheng, Shih-Chung; Soon, Kok-Soon; Lei, Kin Fong; Lin, Wen-Yen

    2013-02-01

    Subluxation of the affected shoulder in post-stroke patients is associated with nerve disorders and muscle fatigue. Clinicians must be able to accurately and reliably measure inferior glenohumeral subluxation in patients to provide appropriate treatment. However, quantitative methods for evaluating the laxity and stiffness of the glenohumeral joint (GHJ) are still being developed. The aim of this study was to develop a new protocol for evaluating the laxity and stiffness of the inferior GHJ using ultrasonography under optimal testing conditions and to investigate changes in the GHJ from a commercially available humerus brace and shoulder brace. Multistage inferior displacement forces were applied to create a glide between the most cephalad point on the visible anterosuperior surface of the humeral head and coracoid process in seven healthy volunteers. GHJ stiffness was defined as the slope of the linear regression line between the glides and different testing loads. The testing conditions were defined by different test loading mechanisms (n=2), shoulder constraining conditions (n=2), and loading modes (n=4). The optimal testing condition was defined as the condition with the least residual variance of measured laxity to the calculated stiffness under different testing loads. A paired t-test was used to compare the laxity and stiffness of the inferior GHJ using different braces. No significant difference was identified between the two test loading mechanisms (t=0.218, p=0.831) and two shoulder constraining conditions (t=-0.235, p=0.818). We concluded that ultrasonographic laxity measurements performed using a pulley set loading mechanism was as reliable as direct loading. Additionally, constraining the unloaded shoulder was proposed due to the lower mean residual variance value. Moreover, pulling the elbow downward with loading on the upper arm was suggested, as pulling the elbow downward with the elbow flexed and loading on the forearm may overestimate stiffness

  14. A novel full-angle scanning light scattering profiler to quantitatively evaluate forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses

    SciT

    Walker, Bennett N., E-mail: bennett.walker@fda.hhs.gov; Office of Device Evaluation, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993; James, Robert H.

    Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearlymore » 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter.« less

  15. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that

  16. Quantitative assessment of participant knowledge and evaluation of participant satisfaction in the CARES training program.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Obasohan, Adesuwa; Mchunguzi, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Community Alliance for Research Empowering Social change (CARES) training program was to (1) train community members on evidence-based public health, (2) increase their scientific literacy, and (3) develop the infrastructure for community-based participatory research (CBPR). We assessed participant knowledge and evaluated participant satisfaction of the CARES training program to identify learning needs, obtain valuable feedback about the training, and ensure learning objectives were met through mutually beneficial CBPR approaches. A baseline assessment was administered before the first training session and a follow-up assessment and evaluation was administered after the final training session. At each training session a pretest was administered before the session and a posttest and evaluation were administered at the end of the session. After training session six, a mid-training evaluation was administered. We analyze results from quantitative questions on the assessments, pre- and post-tests, and evaluations. CARES fellows knowledge increased at follow-up (75% of questions were answered correctly on average) compared with baseline (38% of questions were answered correctly on average) assessment; post-test scores were higher than pre-test scores in 9 out of 11 sessions. Fellows enjoyed the training and rated all sessions well on the evaluations. The CARES fellows training program was successful in participant satisfaction and increasing community knowledge of public health, CBPR, and research methodology. Engaging and training community members in evidence-based public health research can develop an infrastructure for community-academic research partnerships.

  17. A GATE evaluation of the sources of error in quantitative {sup 90}Y PET

    SciT

    Strydhorst, Jared, E-mail: jared.strydhorst@gmail.

    Purpose: Accurate reconstruction of the dose delivered by {sup 90}Y microspheres using a postembolization PET scan would permit the establishment of more accurate dose–response relationships for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with {sup 90}Y. However, the quality of the PET data obtained is compromised by several factors, including poor count statistics and a very high random fraction. This work uses Monte Carlo simulations to investigate what impact factors other than low count statistics have on the quantification of {sup 90}Y PET. Methods: PET acquisitions of two phantoms—a NEMA PET phantom and the NEMA IEC PET body phantom-containing either {sup 90}Y ormore » {sup 18}F were simulated using GATE. Simulated projections were created with subsets of the simulation data allowing the contributions of random, scatter, and LSO background to be independently evaluated. The simulated projections were reconstructed using the commercial software for the simulated scanner, and the quantitative accuracy of the reconstruction and the contrast recovery of the reconstructed images were evaluated. Results: The quantitative accuracy of the {sup 90}Y reconstructions were not strongly influenced by the high random fraction present in the projection data, and the activity concentration was recovered to within 5% of the known value. The contrast recovery measured for simulated {sup 90}Y data was slightly poorer than that for simulated {sup 18}F data with similar count statistics. However, the degradation was not strongly linked to any particular factor. Using a more restricted energy range to reduce the random fraction in the projections had no significant effect. Conclusions: Simulations of {sup 90}Y PET confirm that quantitative {sup 90}Y is achievable with the same approach as that used for {sup 18}F, and that there is likely very little margin for improvement by attempting to model aspects unique to {sup 90}Y, such as the much higher random fraction or the presence of

  18. Quantitative study of flavonoids in leaves of citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M; Koizumi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    2000-09-01

    Leaf flavonoids were quantitatively determined in 68 representative or economically important Citrus species, cultivars, and near-Citrus relatives. Contents of 23 flavonoids including 6 polymethoxylated flavones were analyzed by means of reversed phase HPLC analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the 7 associations according to Tanaka's classification were observed, but some do overlap each other. Group VII species could be divided into two different subgroups, namely, the first-10-species class and the last-19-species class according to Tanaka's classification numbers.

  19. Optical coherence tomography for the quantitative study of cerebrovascular physiology

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Vivek J; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Jiang, James Y; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Wu, Weicheng; Barry, Scott; Cable, Alex E; Ayata, Cenk; Huang, Paul L; Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) and OCT angiography are novel methods to investigate cerebrovascular physiology. In the rodent cortex, DOCT flow displays features characteristic of cerebral blood flow, including conservation along nonbranching vascular segments and at branch points. Moreover, DOCT flow values correlate with hydrogen clearance flow values when both are measured simultaneously. These data validate DOCT as a noninvasive quantitative method to measure tissue perfusion over a physiologic range. PMID:21364599

  20. Quantitative evaluation of malignant gliomas damage induced by photoactivation of IR700 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Morito; Kita, Sayaka; Higuchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The processes involved in malignant gliomas damage were quantitatively evaluated by microscopy. The near-infrared fluorescent dye IR700 that is conjugated to an anti-CD133 antibody (IR700-CD133) specifically targets malignant gliomas (U87MG) and stem cells (BT142) and is endocytosed into the cells. The gliomas are then photodamaged by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the heat induced by illumination of IR700 by a red laser, and the motility of the vesicles within these cells is altered as a result of cellular damage. To investigate these changes in motility, we developed a new method that measures fluctuations in the intensity of phase-contrast images obtained from small areas within cells. The intensity fluctuation in U87MG cells gradually decreased as cell damage progressed, whereas the fluctuation in BT142 cells increased. The endocytosed IR700 dye was co-localized in acidic organelles such as endosomes and lysosomes. The pH in U87MG cells, as monitored by a pH indicator, was decreased and then gradually increased by the illumination of IR700, while the pH in BT142 cells increased monotonically. In these experiments, the processes of cell damage were quantitatively evaluated according to the motility of vesicles and changes in pH.

  1. Polymer on Top: Current Limits and Future Perspectives of Quantitatively Evaluating Surface Grafting.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Lukas; Barner, Leonie; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2018-03-07

    Well-defined polymer strands covalently tethered onto solid substrates determine the properties of the resulting functional interface. Herein, the current approaches to determine quantitative grafting densities are assessed. Based on a brief introduction into the key theories describing polymer brush regimes, a user's guide is provided to estimating maximum chain coverage and-importantly-examine the most frequently employed approaches for determining grafting densities, i.e., dry thickness measurements, gravimetric assessment, and swelling experiments. An estimation of the reliability of these determination methods is provided via carefully evaluating their assumptions and assessing the stability of the underpinning equations. A practical access guide for comparatively and quantitatively evaluating the reliability of a given approach is thus provided, enabling the field to critically judge experimentally determined grafting densities and to avoid the reporting of grafting densities that fall outside the physically realistic parameter space. The assessment is concluded with a perspective on the development of advanced approaches for determination of grafting density, in particular, on single-chain methodologies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. An adaptive model approach for quantitative wrist rigidity evaluation during deep brain stimulation surgery.

    PubMed

    Assis, Sofia; Costa, Pedro; Rosas, Maria Jose; Vaz, Rui; Silva Cunha, Joao Paulo

    2016-08-01

    Intraoperative evaluation of the efficacy of Deep Brain Stimulation includes evaluation of the effect on rigidity. A subjective semi-quantitative scale is used, dependent on the examiner perception and experience. A system was proposed previously, aiming to tackle this subjectivity, using quantitative data and providing real-time feedback of the computed rigidity reduction, hence supporting the physician decision. This system comprised of a gyroscope-based motion sensor in a textile band, placed in the patients hand, which communicated its measurements to a laptop. The latter computed a signal descriptor from the angular velocity of the hand during wrist flexion in DBS surgery. The first approach relied on using a general rigidity reduction model, regardless of the initial severity of the symptom. Thus, to enhance the performance of the previously presented system, we aimed to develop models for high and low baseline rigidity, according to the examiner assessment before any stimulation. This would allow a more patient-oriented approach. Additionally, usability was improved by having in situ processing in a smartphone, instead of a computer. Such system has shown to be reliable, presenting an accuracy of 82.0% and a mean error of 3.4%. Relatively to previous results, the performance was similar, further supporting the importance of considering the cogwheel rigidity to better infer about the reduction in rigidity. Overall, we present a simple, wearable, mobile system, suitable for intra-operatory conditions during DBS, supporting a physician in decision-making when setting stimulation parameters.

  3. Quantitative metrics for evaluating the phased roll-out of clinical information systems.

    PubMed

    Wong, David; Wu, Nicolas; Watkinson, Peter

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a novel quantitative approach for evaluating the order of roll-out during phased introduction of clinical information systems. Such roll-outs are associated with unavoidable risk due to patients transferring between clinical areas using both the old and new systems. We proposed a simple graphical model of patient flow through a hospital. Using a simple instance of the model, we showed how a roll-out order can be generated by minimising the flow of patients from the new system to the old system. The model was applied to admission and discharge data acquired from 37,080 patient journeys at the Churchill Hospital, Oxford between April 2013 and April 2014. The resulting order was evaluated empirically and produced acceptable orders. The development of data-driven approaches to clinical Information system roll-out provides insights that may not necessarily be ascertained through clinical judgment alone. Such methods could make a significant contribution to the smooth running of an organisation during the roll-out of a potentially disruptive technology. Unlike previous approaches, which are based on clinical opinion, the approach described here quantitatively assesses the appropriateness of competing roll-out strategies. The data-driven approach was shown to produce strategies that matched clinical intuition and provides a flexible framework that may be used to plan and monitor Clinical Information System roll-out. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of the Total Magnetic Moments of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Kinetics-based Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyi; Sun, Jianfei; Wang, Haoyao; Wang, Peng; Song, Lina; Li, Yang; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-06-08

    A kinetics-based method is proposed to quantitatively characterize the collective magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles. The method is based on the relationship between the magnetic force on a colloidal droplet and the movement of the droplet under a gradient magnetic field. Through computational analysis of the kinetic parameters, such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration, the magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles can be calculated. In our experiments, the values measured by using our method exhibited a better linear correlation with magnetothermal heating, than those obtained by using a vibrating sample magnetometer and magnetic balance. This finding indicates that this method may be more suitable to evaluate the collective magnetism of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles under low magnetic fields than the commonly used methods. Accurate evaluation of the magnetic properties of colloidal nanoparticles is of great importance for the standardization of magnetic nanomaterials and for their practical application in biomedicine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Establishment of a new method to quantitatively evaluate hyphal fusion ability in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Tsukasaki, Wakako; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Hyphal fusion is involved in the formation of an interconnected colony in filamentous fungi, and it is the first process in sexual/parasexual reproduction. However, it was difficult to evaluate hyphal fusion efficiency due to the low frequency in Aspergillus oryzae in spite of its industrial significance. Here, we established a method to quantitatively evaluate the hyphal fusion ability of A. oryzae with mixed culture of two different auxotrophic strains, where the ratio of heterokaryotic conidia growing without the auxotrophic requirements reflects the hyphal fusion efficiency. By employing this method, it was demonstrated that AoSO and AoFus3 are required for hyphal fusion, and that hyphal fusion efficiency of A. oryzae was increased by depleting nitrogen source, including large amounts of carbon source, and adjusting pH to 7.0.

  6. Assessing the Expected Impact of Global Health Treaties: Evidence From 90 Quantitative Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-01

    We assessed what impact can be expected from global health treaties on the basis of 90 quantitative evaluations of existing treaties on trade, finance, human rights, conflict, and the environment. It appears treaties consistently succeed in shaping economic matters and consistently fail in achieving social progress. There are at least 3 differences between these domains that point to design characteristics that new global health treaties can incorporate to achieve positive impact: (1) incentives for those with power to act on them; (2) institutions designed to bring edicts into effect; and (3) interests advocating their negotiation, adoption, ratification, and domestic implementation. Experimental and quasiexperimental evaluations of treaties would provide more information about what can be expected from this type of global intervention. PMID:25393196

  7. Quantitative Acoustic Model for Adhesion Evaluation of Pmma/silicon Film Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, H. S.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2010-02-01

    A Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) film on a silicon substrate is a main structure for photolithography in semiconductor manufacturing processes. This paper presents a potential of scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) for nondestructive evaluation of the PMMA/Si film structure, whose adhesion failure is commonly encountered during the fabrication and post-fabrication processes. A physical model employing a partial discontinuity in displacement is developed for rigorously quantitative evaluation of the interfacial weakness. The model is implanted to the matrix method for the surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in anisotropic media. Our results show that variations in the SAW velocity and reflectance are predicted to show their sensitivity to the adhesion condition. Experimental results by the v(z) technique and SAW velocity reconstruction verify the prediction.

  8. Evaluation of acute ischemic stroke using quantitative EEG: a comparison with conventional EEG and CT scan.

    PubMed

    Murri, L; Gori, S; Massetani, R; Bonanni, E; Marcella, F; Milani, S

    1998-06-01

    The sensitivity of quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) was compared with that of conventional EEG in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. In addition, a correlation between quantitative EEG data and computerized tomography (CT) scan findings was carried out for all the areas of lesion in order to reassess the actual role of EEG in the evaluation of stroke. Sixty-five patients were tested with conventional and quantitative EEG within 24 h from the onset of neurological symptoms, whereas CT scan was performed within 4 days from the onset of stroke. EEG was recorded from 19 electrodes placed upon the scalp according to the International 10-20 System. Spectral analysis was carried out on 30 artefact-free 4-sec epochs. For each channel absolute and relative power were calculated for the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands and such data were successively represented in colour-coded maps. Ten patients with extensive lesions documented by CT scan were excluded. The results indicated that conventional EEG revealed abnormalities in 40 of 55 cases, while EEG mapping showed abnormalities in 46 of 55 cases: it showed focal abnormalities in five cases and nonfocal abnormalities in one of six cases which had appeared to be normal according to visual inspection of EEG. In a further 11 cases, where the conventional EEG revealed abnormalities in one hemisphere, the quantitative EEG and maps allowed to further localize abnormal activity in a more localized way. The sensitivity of both methods was higher for frontocentral, temporal and parieto-occipital cortical-subcortical infarctions than for basal ganglia and internal capsule lesions; however, quantitative EEG was more efficient for all areas of lesion in detecting cases that had appeared normal by visual inspection and was clearly superior in revealing focal abnormalities. When we considered the electrode related to which the maximum power of the delta frequency band is recorded, a fairly close correlation was found

  9. Quantitative Kinetics Evaluation of Blocks Versus Granules of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds (HA/β-TCP 30/70) by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Microtomography: A Human Study.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Alessandra; Manescu, Adrian; Mohammadi, Sara; Mazzoni, Serena; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Francesco; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Successful bone regeneration using both granules and blocks of biphasic calcium phosphate materials has been reported in the recent literature, in some clinical applications for maxillary sinus elevation, but the long-term kinetics of bone regeneration has still not been fully investigated. Twenty-four bilateral sinus augmentation procedures were performed and grafted with hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate 30/70, 12 with granules and 12 with blocks. The samples were retrieved at different time points and were evaluated for bone regeneration, graft resorption, neovascularization, and morphometric parameters by computed microtomography and histology. A large amount of newly formed bone was detected in the retrieved specimens, together with a good rate of biomaterial resorption and the formation of a homogeneous and rich net of new vessels. The morphometric values were comparable at 5/6 months from grafting but, 9 months after grafting, revealed that the block-based specimens mimicked slightly better than granule-based samples the healthy native bone of the maxillary site. The scaffold morphology was confirmed to influence the long-term kinetics of bone regeneration.

  10. Evaluation of cerebral maturation by visual and quantitative analysis of resting electroencephalography in children with primary nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Hallioğlu, O; Ozge, A; Comelekoglu, U; Topaloglu, A K; Kanik, A; Duzovali, O; Yilgor, E

    2001-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate resting electroencephalographic (EEG) changes and their relations to cerebral maturation in children with primary nocturnal enuresis. Cerebral maturation is known to be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Twenty-five right-handed patients with primary nocturnal enuresis, aged 6 to 14 years, and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy children were included in this cross-sectional case-control study. The abnormalities detected using such techniques as hemispheral asymmetry, regional differences, and hyperventilation response in addition to visual and quantitative EEG analysis were examined statistically by multivariate analysis. A decrease in alpha activity in the left (dominant hemisphere) temporal lobe and in the frontal lobes bilaterally and an increase in delta activity in the right temporal region were observed. We concluded that insufficient cerebral maturation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of primary nocturnal enuresis, and EEG, as a noninvasive and inexpensive method, could be used in evaluating cerebral maturation.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of DNA damage and mutation rate by atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) and conventional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Chong; Zhou, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Li-Yan; Chang, Hai-Bo; Li, He-Ping; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2015-07-01

    DNA damage is the dominant source of mutation, which is the driving force of evolution. Therefore, it is important to quantitatively analyze the DNA damage caused by different mutagenesis methods, the subsequent mutation rates, and their relationship. Atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis has been used for the mutation breeding of more than 40 microorganisms. However, ARTP mutagenesis has not been quantitatively compared with conventional mutation methods. In this study, the umu test using a flow-cytometric analysis was developed to quantify the DNA damage in individual viable cells using Salmonella typhimurium NM2009 as the model strain and to determine the mutation rate. The newly developed method was used to evaluate four different mutagenesis systems: a new ARTP tool, ultraviolet radiation, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) mutagenesis. The mutation rate was proportional to the corresponding SOS response induced by DNA damage. ARTP caused greater DNA damage to individual living cells than the other conventional mutagenesis methods, and the mutation rate was also higher. By quantitatively comparing the DNA damage and consequent mutation rate after different types of mutagenesis, we have shown that ARTP is a potentially powerful mutagenesis tool with which to improve the characteristics of microbial cell factories.

  12. Travtek Evaluation Safety Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-02-01

    One of the major evaluation goals of the TravTek operational test was to assess the safety impact of the TravTek system as implemented in Orlando, Florida during the 1 -year deployment phase. Also, the results of the TravTek operational test, with re...

  13. Social Studies. Microsift Courseware Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This compilation of 17 courseware evaluations gives a general overview of available social studies microcomputer courseware for students in grades 1-12. Each evaluation lists title, date, producer, date of evaluation, evaluating institution, cost, ability level, topic, medium of transfer, required hardware, required software, instructional…

  14. Results of Studying Astronomy Students’ Science Literacy, Quantitative Literacy, and Information Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Follette, Katherine B.; Dokter, Erin F.; McCarthy, Don; Vezino, Beau; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.; Brock, Laci; Neiberding, Megan; Prather, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    Introductory astronomy courses often serve as terminal science courses for non-science majors and present an opportunity to assess non future scientists’ attitudes towards science as well as basic scientific knowledge and scientific analysis skills that may remain unchanged after college. Through a series of studies, we have been able to evaluate students’ basic science knowledge, attitudes towards science, quantitative literacy, and informational literacy. In the Fall of 2015, we conducted a case study of a single class administering all relevant surveys to an undergraduate class of 20 students. We will present our analysis of trends of each of these studies as well as the comparison case study. In general we have found that students basic scientific knowledge has remained stable over the past quarter century. In all of our studies, there is a strong relationship between student attitudes and their science and quantitative knowledge and skills. Additionally, students’ information literacy is strongly connected to their attitudes and basic scientific knowledge. We are currently expanding these studies to include new audiences and will discuss the implications of our findings for instructors.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of the lumbosacral sagittal alignment in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Makirov, Serik K.; Jahaf, Mohammed T.; Nikulina, Anastasia A.

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the study This study intends to develop a method of quantitative sagittal balance parameters assessment, based on a geometrical model of lumbar spine and sacrum. Methods One hundred eight patients were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group have been included 59 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis on L1-5 level. Forty-nine healthy volunteers without history of any lumbar spine pathlogy were included in the control group. All patients have been examined with supine MRI. Lumbar lordosis has been adopted as circular arc and described either anatomical (lumbar lordosis angle), or geometrical (chord length, circle segment height, the central angle, circle radius) parameters. Moreover, 2 sacral parameters have been assessed for all patients: sacral slope and sacral deviation angle. Both parameters characterize sacrum disposition in horizontal and vertical axis respectively. Results Significant correlation was observed between anatomical and geometrical lumbo-sacral parameters. Significant differences between stenosis group and control group were observed in the value of the “central angle” and “sacral deviation” parameters. We propose additional parameters: lumbar coefficient, as ratio of the lordosis angle to the segmental angle (Kl); sacral coefficient, as ratio of the sacral tilt (ST) to the sacral deviation (SD) angle (Ks); and assessment modulus of the mathematical difference between sacral and lumbar coefficients has been used for determining lumbosacral balance (LSB). Statistically significant differences between main and control group have been obtained for all described coefficients (p = 0.006, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001, accordingly). Median of LSB value of was 0.18 and 0.34 for stenosis and control groups, accordingly. Conclusion Based on these results we believe that that spinal stenosis is associated with an acquired deformity that is measureable by the described parameters. It's possible that spinal stenosis occurs in patients with an

  16. Quantitative evaluation of brain development using anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging☆

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia V.; Yoshida, Shoko; Chang, Linda; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The development of the brain is structure-specific, and the growth rate of each structure differs depending on the age of the subject. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to evaluate brain development because of the high spatial resolution and contrast that enable the observation of structure-specific developmental status. Currently, most clinical MRIs are evaluated qualitatively to assist in the clinical decision-making and diagnosis. The clinical MRI report usually does not provide quantitative values that can be used to monitor developmental status. Recently, the importance of image quantification to detect and evaluate mild-to-moderate anatomical abnormalities has been emphasized because these alterations are possibly related to several psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities. In the research arena, structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been widely applied to quantify brain development of the pediatric population. To interpret the values from these MR modalities, a “growth percentile chart,” which describes the mean and standard deviation of the normal developmental curve for each anatomical structure, is required. Although efforts have been made to create such a growth percentile chart based on MRI and DTI, one of the greatest challenges is to standardize the anatomical boundaries of the measured anatomical structures. To avoid inter- and intra-reader variability about the anatomical boundary definition, and hence, to increase the precision of quantitative measurements, an automated structure parcellation method, customized for the neonatal and pediatric population, has been developed. This method enables quantification of multiple MR modalities using a common analytic framework. In this paper, the attempt to create an MRI- and a DTI-based growth percentile chart, followed by an application to investigate developmental abnormalities related to cerebral palsy, Williams syndrome, and Rett syndrome, have been introduced

  17. Evaluation of coronary stenosis with the aid of quantitative image analysis in histological cross sections.

    PubMed

    Dulohery, Kate; Papavdi, Asteria; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Kranioti, Elena F

    2012-11-01

    Coronary artery atherosclerosis is a hugely prevalent condition in the Western World and is often encountered during autopsy. Atherosclerotic plaques can cause luminal stenosis: which, if over a significant level (75%), is said to contribute to cause of death. Estimation of stenosis can be macroscopically performed by the forensic pathologists at the time of autopsy or by microscopic examination. This study compares macroscopic estimation with quantitative microscopic image analysis with a particular focus on the assessment of significant stenosis (>75%). A total of 131 individuals were analysed. The sample consists of an atherosclerotic group (n=122) and a control group (n=9). The results of the two methods were significantly different from each other (p=0.001) and the macroscopic method gave a greater percentage stenosis by an average of 3.5%. Also, histological examination of coronary artery stenosis yielded a difference in significant stenosis in 11.5% of cases. The differences were attributed to either histological quantitative image analysis underestimation; gross examination overestimation; or, a combination of both. The underestimation may have come from tissue shrinkage during tissue processing for histological specimen. The overestimation from the macroscopic assessment can be attributed to the lumen shape, to the examiner observer error or to a possible bias to diagnose coronary disease when no other cause of death is apparent. The results indicate that the macroscopic estimation is open to more biases and that histological quantitative image analysis only gives a precise assessment of stenosis ex vivo. Once tissue shrinkage, if any, is accounted for then histological quantitative image analysis will yield a more accurate assessment of in vivo stenosis. It may then be considered a complementary tool for the examination of coronary stenosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study of qualitative and quantitative methods for the assessment of adhesive remnant after bracket debonding.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, S Burcak; Polat-Ozsoy, Omur; Sar, Cagla; Cubukcu, H Evren; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2012-04-01

    The amount of the residual adhesive after bracket debonding is frequently assessed in a qualitative manner, utilizing the adhesive remnant index (ARI). This study aimed to investigate whether quantitative assessment of the adhesive remnant yields more precise results compared to qualitative methods utilizing the 4- and 5-point ARI scales. Twenty debonded brackets were selected. Evaluation and scoring of the adhesive remnant on bracket bases were made consecutively using: 1. qualitative assessment (visual scoring) and 2. quantitative measurement (image analysis) on digital photographs. Image analysis was made on scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and high-precision elemental maps of the adhesive remnant as determined by energy dispersed X-ray spectrometry. Evaluations were made in accordance with the original 4-point and the modified 5-point ARI scales. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated, and the data were evaluated using Friedman test followed by Wilcoxon signed ranks test with Bonferroni correction. ICC statistics indicated high levels of agreement for qualitative visual scoring among examiners. The 4-point ARI scale was compliant with the SEM assessments but indicated significantly less adhesive remnant compared to the results of quantitative elemental mapping. When the 5-point scale was used, both quantitative techniques yielded similar results with those obtained qualitatively. These results indicate that qualitative visual scoring using the ARI is capable of generating similar results with those assessed by quantitative image analysis techniques. In particular, visual scoring with the 5-point ARI scale can yield similar results with both the SEM analysis and elemental mapping.

  19. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Quantitative Coronary Plaque Progression Study: rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Rine; Post, Wendy S; Osawa, Kazuhiro; Jayawardena, Eranthi; Kim, Michael; Sheidaee, Nasim; Nezarat, Negin; Rahmani, Sina; Kim, Nicholas; Hathiramani, Nicolai; Susarla, Shriraj; Palella, Frank; Witt, Mallory; Blaha, Michael J; Brown, Todd T; Kingsley, Lawrence; Haberlen, Sabina A; Dailing, Christopher; Budoff, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    The association of HIV with coronary atherosclerosis has been established; however, the progression of coronary atherosclerosis over time among participants with HIV is not well known. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Quantitative Coronary Plaque Progression Study is a large prospective multicenter study quantifying progression of coronary plaque assessed by serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). HIV-infected and uninfected men who were enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Cardiovascular Substudy were eligible to complete a follow-up contrast coronary CTA 3-6 years after baseline. We measured coronary plaque volume and characteristics (calcified and noncalcified plaque including fibrous, fibrous-fatty, and low attenuation) and vulnerable plaque among HIV-infected and uninfected men using semiautomated plaque software to investigate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis over time. We describe a novel, large prospective multicenter study investigating incidence, transition of characteristics, and progression in coronary atherosclerosis quantitatively assessed by serial coronary CTAs among HIV-infected and uninfected men.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of hidden defects in cast iron components using ultrasound activated lock-in vibrothermography.

    PubMed

    Montanini, R; Freni, F; Rossi, G L

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports one of the first experimental results on the application of ultrasound activated lock-in vibrothermography for quantitative assessment of buried flaws in complex cast parts. The use of amplitude modulated ultrasonic heat generation allowed selective response of defective areas within the part, as the defect itself is turned into a local thermal wave emitter. Quantitative evaluation of hidden damages was accomplished by estimating independently both the area and the depth extension of the buried flaws, while x-ray 3D computed tomography was used as reference for sizing accuracy assessment. To retrieve flaw's area, a simple yet effective histogram-based phase image segmentation algorithm with automatic pixels classification has been developed. A clear correlation was found between the thermal (phase) signature measured by the infrared camera on the target surface and the actual mean cross-section area of the flaw. Due to the very fast cycle time (<30 s/part), the method could potentially be applied for 100% quality control of casting components.

  1. Introduction of a method for quantitative evaluation of spontaneous motor activity development with age in infants.

    PubMed

    Disselhorst-Klug, Catherine; Heinze, Franziska; Breitbach-Faller, Nico; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Rau, Günter

    2012-04-01

    Coordination between perception and action is required to interact with the environment successfully. This is already trained by very young infants who perform spontaneous movements to learn how their body interacts with the environment. The strategies used by the infants for this purpose change with age. Therefore, very early progresses in action control made by the infants can be investigated by monitoring the development of spontaneous motor activity. In this paper, an objective method is introduced, which allows the quantitative evaluation of the development of spontaneous motor activity in newborns. The introduced methodology is based on the acquisition of spontaneous movement trajectories of the feet by 3D movement analysis and subsequent calculation of specific movement parameters from them. With these movement-based parameters, it was possible to provide an objective description of age-dependent developmental steps in healthy newborns younger than 6 months. Furthermore, it has been shown that pathologies like infantile cerebral palsy influence development of motor activity significantly. Since the introduced methodology is objective and quantitative, it is suitable to monitor how newborns train their cognitive processes, which will enable them to cope with their environment by motor interaction.

  2. Identification and quantitative evaluation of the fiber structure in the pathological tissue using Mueller matrix microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Fiber structure changes in the various pathological processes, such as the increase of fibrosis in liver diseases, the derangement of fiber in cervical cancer and so on. Currently, clinical pathologic diagnosis is regarded as the golden criterion, but different doctors with discrepancy in knowledge and experience may obtain different conclusions. Up to a point, quantitative evaluation of the fiber structure in the pathological tissue can be of great service to quantitative diagnosis. Mueller matrix measurement is capable of probing comprehensive microstructural information of samples and different wavelength of lights can provide more information. In this paper, we use a Mueller matrix microscope with light sources in six different wavelength. We use unstained, dewaxing liver tissue slices in four stages and the pathological biopsy of the filtration channels from rabbit eyes as samples. We apply the Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) parameter δ which corresponds to retardance to liver slices. The mean value of abnormal region get bigger when the level of fibrosis get higher and light in short wavelength is more sensitive to the microstructure of fiber. On the other hand, we use the Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameter Φ which is associated to the angel of fast axis in the analysis of the slices of the filtration channels from rabbit eyes. The value of kurtosis and the value of skewness shows big difference between new born region and normal region and can reveal the arrangement of fiber. These results indicate that the Mueller matrix microscope has great potential in auxiliary diagnosis.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of analyte transport on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs).

    PubMed

    Ota, Riki; Yamada, Kentaro; Suzuki, Koji; Citterio, Daniel

    2018-02-07

    The transport efficiency during capillary flow-driven sample transport on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) made from filter paper has been investigated for a selection of model analytes (Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , PO 4 3- , bovine serum albumin, sulforhodamine B, amaranth) representing metal cations, complex anions, proteins and anionic molecules. For the first time, the transport of the analytical target compounds rather than the sample liquid, has been quantitatively evaluated by means of colorimetry and absorption spectrometry-based methods. The experiments have revealed that small paperfluidic channel dimensions, additional user operation steps (e.g. control of sample volume, sample dilution, washing step) as well as the introduction of sample liquid wicking areas allow to increase analyte transport efficiency. It is also shown that the interaction of analytes with the negatively charged cellulosic paper substrate surface is strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the model analyte and can in some cases (Cu 2+ ) result in nearly complete analyte depletion during sample transport. The quantitative information gained through these experiments is expected to contribute to the development of more sensitive μPADs.

  4. Quantitative background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Swanson, Tiffinee N; Mammel, Alyssa N; Lake, David S; Manduca, Armando; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Scott, Christopher G; Carter, Rickey E; Rhodes, Deborah J; O'Connor, Michael K; Vachon, Celine M

    2018-06-05

    Background parenchymal uptake (BPU), which refers to the level of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake within normal fibroglandular tissue on molecular breast imaging (MBI), has been identified as a breast cancer risk factor, independent of mammographic density. Prior analyses have used subjective categories to describe BPU. We evaluate a new quantitative method for assessing BPU by testing its reproducibility, comparing quantitative results with previously established subjective BPU categories, and determining the association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer risk. Two nonradiologist operators independently performed region-of-interest analysis on MBI images viewed in conjunction with corresponding digital mammograms. Quantitative BPU was defined as a unitless ratio of the average pixel intensity (counts/pixel) within the fibroglandular tissue versus the average pixel intensity in fat. Operator agreement and the correlation of quantitative BPU measures with subjective BPU categories assessed by expert radiologists were determined. Percent density on mammograms was estimated using Cumulus. The association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer (per one unit BPU) was examined within an established case-control study of 62 incident breast cancer cases and 177 matched controls. Quantitative BPU ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 across all subjects and was on average higher in cases compared to controls (1.4 versus 1.2, p < 0.007 for both operators). Quantitative BPU was strongly correlated with subjective BPU categories (Spearman's r = 0.59 to 0.69, p < 0.0001, for each paired combination of two operators and two radiologists). Interoperator and intraoperator agreement in the quantitative BPU measure, assessed by intraclass correlation, was 0.92 and 0.98, respectively. Quantitative BPU measures showed either no correlation or weak negative correlation with mammographic percent density. In a model adjusted for body mass index and percent density, higher quantitative BPU was

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Early Response to a Vascular-Disrupting Agent with Dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Guo, Jinxia; Lang, Lixin; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Li, Quanzheng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the early response of tumors to a vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) VEGF121/recombinant toxin gelonin (rGel) using dynamic [(18)F]FPPRGD2 positron emission tomography (PET) and kinetic parameter estimation. Two tumor xenograft models: U87MG (highly vascularized) and A549 (moderately vascularized), were selected, and both were randomized into treatment and control groups. Sixty-minute dynamic PET scans with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 that targets to integrin αvβ3 were performed at days 0 (baseline), 1, and 3 since VEGF121/rGel treatment started. Dynamic PET-derived binding potential (BPND) and parametric maps were compared with tumor uptake (%ID/g) and the static PET image at 1 h after the tracer administration. The growth of U87MG tumor was obviously delayed upon VEGF121/rGel treatment. A549 tumor was not responsive to the same treatment. BPND of treated U87MG tumors decreased significantly at day 1 (p < 0.05), and the difference was more significant at day 3 (p < 0.01), compared with the control group. However, the tracer uptake (%ID/g) derived from static images at 1-h time point did not show significant difference between the treated and control tumors until day 3. Little difference in tracer uptake (%ID/g) or BPND was found between treated and control A549 tumors. Considering the tracer retention in tumor and the slower clearance due to damaged tumor vasculature after treatment, BPND representing the actual specific binding portion appears to be more sensitive and accurate than the semiquantitative parameters (such as %ID/g) derived from static images to assess the early response of tumor to VDA treatment. Quantitative analysis based on dynamic PET with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 shows advantages in distinguishing effective from ineffective treatment during the course of VEGF121/rGel therapy at early stage and is therefore more sensitive in assessing therapy response than static PET.

  6. Evaluation of changes in periodontal bacteria in healthy dogs over 6 months using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, N; Mori, A; Shono, S; Oda, H; Sako, T

    2018-03-01

    Porphyromonas gulae, Tannerella forsythia and Campylobacter rectus are considered dominant periodontal pathogens in dogs. Recently, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) methods have been used for absolute quantitative determination of oral bacterial counts. The purpose of the present study was to establish a standardized qRT-PCR procedure to quantify bacterial counts of the three target periodontal bacteria (P. gulae, T. forsythia and C. rectus). Copy numbers of the three target periodontal bacteria were evaluated in 26 healthy dogs. Then, changes in bacterial counts of the three target periodontal bacteria were evaluated for 24 weeks in 7 healthy dogs after periodontal scaling. Analytical evaluation of each self-designed primer indicated acceptable analytical imprecision. All 26 healthy dogs were found to be positive for P. gulae, T. forsythia and C. rectus. Median total bacterial counts (copies/ng) of each target genes were 385.612 for P. gulae, 25.109 for T. forsythia and 5.771 for C. rectus. Significant differences were observed between the copy numbers of the three target periodontal bacteria. Periodontal scaling reduced median copy numbers of the three target periodontal bacteria in 7 healthy dogs. However, after periodontal scaling, copy numbers of all three periodontal bacteria significantly increased over time (p<0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) (24 weeks). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that qRT-PCR can accurately measure periodontal bacteria in dogs. Furthermore, the present study has revealed that qRT-PCR method can be considered as a new objective evaluation system for canine periodontal disease. Copyright© by the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  7. A Quantitative Study Identifying Political Strategies Used by Principals of Dual Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the external and internal political strategies used by principals that allow them to successfully navigate the political environment surrounding dual language programs. Methodology. This quantitative study used descriptive research to collect, analyze, and report data that identified…

  8. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciT

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1989-09-01

    This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development ofmore » new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility.« less

  9. Quantitative evaluation of statistical errors in small-angle X-ray scattering measurements

    SciT

    Sedlak, Steffen M.; Bruetzel, Linda K.; Lipfert, Jan

    A new model is proposed for the measurement errors incurred in typical small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments, which takes into account the setup geometry and physics of the measurement process. The model accurately captures the experimentally determined errors from a large range of synchrotron and in-house anode-based measurements. Its most general formulation gives for the variance of the buffer-subtracted SAXS intensity σ 2(q) = [I(q) + const.]/(kq), whereI(q) is the scattering intensity as a function of the momentum transferq;kand const. are fitting parameters that are characteristic of the experimental setup. The model gives a concrete procedure for calculating realistic measurementmore » errors for simulated SAXS profiles. In addition, the results provide guidelines for optimizing SAXS measurements, which are in line with established procedures for SAXS experiments, and enable a quantitative evaluation of measurement errors.« less

  10. Clinical study of quantitative diagnosis of early cervical cancer based on the classification of acetowhitening kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So-Fan; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2010-03-01

    A quantitative colposcopic imaging system for the diagnosis of early cervical cancer is evaluated in a clinical study. This imaging technology based on 3-D active stereo vision and motion tracking extracts diagnostic information from the kinetics of acetowhitening process measured from the cervix of human subjects in vivo. Acetowhitening kinetics measured from 137 cervical sites of 57 subjects are analyzed and classified using multivariate statistical algorithms. Cross-validation methods are used to evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithms. The results show that an algorithm for screening precancer produced 95% sensitivity (SE) and 96% specificity (SP) for discriminating normal and human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected tissues from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. For a diagnostic algorithm, 91% SE and 90% SP are achieved for discriminating normal tissue, HPV infected tissue, and low-grade CIN lesions from high-grade CIN lesions. The results demonstrate that the quantitative colposcopic imaging system could provide objective screening and diagnostic information for early detection of cervical cancer.

  11. A quantitative evaluation of cell migration by the phagokinetic track motility assay.

    PubMed

    Nogalski, Maciej T; Chan, Gary C T; Stevenson, Emily V; Collins-McMillen, Donna K; Yurochko, Andrew D

    2012-12-04

    Cellular motility is an important biological process for both unicellular and multicellular organisms. It is essential for movement of unicellular organisms towards a source of nutrients or away from unsuitable conditions, as well as in multicellular organisms for tissue development, immune surveillance and wound healing, just to mention a few roles(1,2,3). Deregulation of this process can lead to serious neurological, cardiovascular and immunological diseases, as well as exacerbated tumor formation and spread(4,5). Molecularly, actin polymerization and receptor recycling have been shown to play important roles in creating cellular extensions (lamellipodia), that drive the forward movement of the cell(6,7,8). However, many biological questions about cell migration remain unanswered. The central role for cellular motility in human health and disease underlines the importance of understanding the specific mechanisms involved in this process and makes accurate methods for evaluating cell motility particularly important. Microscopes are usually used to visualize the movement of cells. However, cells move rather slowly, making the quantitative measurement of cell migration a resource-consuming process requiring expensive cameras and software to create quantitative time-lapsed movies of motile cells. Therefore, the ability to perform a quantitative measurement of cell migration that is cost-effective, non-laborious, and that utilizes common laboratory equipment is a great need for many researchers. The phagokinetic track motility assay utilizes the ability of a moving cell to clear gold particles from its path to create a measurable track on a colloidal gold-coated glass coverslip(9,10). With the use of freely available software, multiple tracks can be evaluated for each treatment to accomplish statistical requirements. The assay can be utilized to assess motility of many cell types, such as cancer cells(11,12), fibroblasts(9), neutrophils(13), skeletal muscle cells(14

  12. Practical no-gold-standard evaluation framework for quantitative imaging methods: application to lesion segmentation in positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Mena, Esther; Caffo, Brian; Ashrafinia, Saeed; Rahmim, Arman; Frey, Eric; Subramaniam, Rathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Recently, a class of no-gold-standard (NGS) techniques have been proposed to evaluate quantitative imaging methods using patient data. These techniques provide figures of merit (FoMs) quantifying the precision of the estimated quantitative value without requiring repeated measurements and without requiring a gold standard. However, applying these techniques to patient data presents several practical difficulties including assessing the underlying assumptions, accounting for patient-sampling-related uncertainty, and assessing the reliability of the estimated FoMs. To address these issues, we propose statistical tests that provide confidence in the underlying assumptions and in the reliability of the estimated FoMs. Furthermore, the NGS technique is integrated within a bootstrap-based methodology to account for patient-sampling-related uncertainty. The developed NGS framework was applied to evaluate four methods for segmenting lesions from F-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography images of patients with head-and-neck cancer on the task of precisely measuring the metabolic tumor volume. The NGS technique consistently predicted the same segmentation method as the most precise method. The proposed framework provided confidence in these results, even when gold-standard data were not available. The bootstrap-based methodology indicated improved performance of the NGS technique with larger numbers of patient studies, as was expected, and yielded consistent results as long as data from more than 80 lesions were available for the analysis. PMID:28331883

  13. Towards a Quantitative Framework for Evaluating Vulnerability of Drinking Water Wells to Contamination from Unconventional Oil & Gas Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, M., Jr.; Deziel, N. C.; Saiers, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) production, made possible by advances in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), has triggered concerns over risks this extraction poses to water resources and public health. Concerns are particularly acute within communities that host UO&G development and rely heavily on shallow aquifers as sources of drinking water. This research aims to develop a quantitative framework to evaluate the vulnerability of drinking water wells to contamination from UO&G activities. The concept of well vulnerability is explored through application of backwards travel time probability modeling to estimate the likelihood that capture zones of drinking water wells circumscribe source locations of UO&G contamination. Sources of UO&G contamination considered in this analysis include gas well pads and documented sites of UO&G wastewater and chemical spills. The modeling approach is illustrated for a portion of Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, where more than one thousand shale gas wells have been completed since 2005. Data from a network of eight multi-level groundwater monitoring wells installed in the study site in 2015 are used to evaluate the model. The well vulnerability concept is proposed as a physically based quantitative tool for policy-makers dealing with the management of contamination risks of drinking water wells. In particular, the model can be used to identify adequate setback distances of UO&G activities from drinking water wells and other critical receptors.

  14. StreamQRE: Modular Specification and Efficient Evaluation of Quantitative Queries over Streaming Data*

    PubMed Central

    Mamouras, Konstantinos; Raghothaman, Mukund; Alur, Rajeev; Ives, Zachary G.; Khanna, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions. The former allows the programmer to employ relational constructs to partition the input data by keys and to integrate data streams from different sources, while the latter can be used to exploit the logical hierarchy in the input stream for modular specifications. We first present the core language with a small set of combinators, formal semantics, and a decidable type system. We then show how to express a number of common patterns with illustrative examples. Our compilation algorithm translates the high-level query into a streaming algorithm with precise complexity bounds on per-item processing time and total memory footprint. We also show how to integrate approximation algorithms into our framework. We report on an implementation in Java, and evaluate it with respect to existing high-performance engines for processing streaming data. Our experimental evaluation shows that (1) StreamQRE allows more natural and succinct specification of queries compared to existing frameworks, (2) the throughput of our implementation is higher than comparable systems (for example, two-to-four times greater than RxJava), and (3) the approximation algorithms supported by our implementation can lead to substantial memory savings. PMID:29151821

  15. StreamQRE: Modular Specification and Efficient Evaluation of Quantitative Queries over Streaming Data.

    PubMed

    Mamouras, Konstantinos; Raghothaman, Mukund; Alur, Rajeev; Ives, Zachary G; Khanna, Sanjeev

    2017-06-01

    Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions. The former allows the programmer to employ relational constructs to partition the input data by keys and to integrate data streams from different sources, while the latter can be used to exploit the logical hierarchy in the input stream for modular specifications. We first present the core language with a small set of combinators, formal semantics, and a decidable type system. We then show how to express a number of common patterns with illustrative examples. Our compilation algorithm translates the high-level query into a streaming algorithm with precise complexity bounds on per-item processing time and total memory footprint. We also show how to integrate approximation algorithms into our framework. We report on an implementation in Java, and evaluate it with respect to existing high-performance engines for processing streaming data. Our experimental evaluation shows that (1) StreamQRE allows more natural and succinct specification of queries compared to existing frameworks, (2) the throughput of our implementation is higher than comparable systems (for example, two-to-four times greater than RxJava), and (3) the approximation algorithms supported by our implementation can lead to substantial memory savings.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of human dental enamel after bracket debonding: a noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fabiano G; Nouer, Darcy F; Silva, Nelson P; Garbui, Ivana U; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Nouer, Paulo R A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of changes on enamel surfaces after debonding of brackets followed by finishing procedures, using a high-resolution three-dimensional optical profiler and to investigate the accuracy of the technique. The labial surfaces of 36 extracted upper central incisors were examined. Before bonding, the enamel surfaces were subjected to profilometry, recording four amplitude parameters. Brackets were then bonded using two types of light-cured orthodontic adhesive: composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Finishing was performed by three different methods: pumice on a rubber cup, fine and ultrafine aluminum oxide discs, and microfine diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes. The samples were subsequently re-analyzed by profilometry. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05) and a posteriori Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (p < 0.0167) revealed a significant reduction of enamel roughness when diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes were used to finish surfaces that had remnants of resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive and when pumice was used to finish surfaces that had traces of composite resin. Enamel loss was minimal. The 3D optical profilometry technique was able to provide accurate qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes on the enamel surface after debonding. Morphological changes in the topography of dental surfaces, especially if related to enamel loss and roughness, are of considerable clinical importance. The quantitative evaluation method used herein enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of orthodontic bonding on teeth.

  17. Positive Effects of a Stress Reduction Program Based on Mindfulness Meditation in Brazilian Nursing Professionals: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Teresa Maria; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Carmagnani, Isabel Sampaio; Tanaka, Luiza Hiromi; Lacerda, Shirley Silva; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation has been shown to effectively mitigate the negative effects of stress among nursing professionals, but in countries like Brazil, these practices are relatively unexplored. To evaluate the effects of a Stress Reduction Program (SRP) including mindfulness and loving kindness meditation among nursing professionals working in a Brazilian hospital setting. Pilot study with a mixed model using quantitative and qualitative methods was used to evaluate a group of participants. The quantitative data were analyzed at three different time points: pre-intervention, post-intervention, and follow-up. The qualitative data were analyzed at post-intervention. Hospital São Paulo (Brazil). Sample 13 nursing professionals, including nurses, technicians, and nursing assistants working in a hospital. Participants underwent mindfulness and loving kindness meditation during a period of six weeks. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment, and Work Stress Scale (WSS). Qualitative data were collected via a group interview following six weeks participation in the SRP. The quantitative analyses revealed a significant reduction (P < .05) between pre-intervention and post-intervention scores for perceived stress, burnout, depression, and anxiety (trait). These variables showed no significant differences between post-intervention and follow-up scores. The WHOQOL-BREF revealed significant increase (P < .05) just in the physical and psychological domains at post-intervention scores, which remained at the follow-up. Qualitative results showed improvement in the reactivity to inner experience; a more attentive perception of internal and external experiences; greater attention and awareness of actions and attitudes at every moment; and a positive influence of the SRP in nursing

  18. Evaluation of dynamic row-action maximum likelihood algorithm reconstruction for quantitative 15O brain PET.

    PubMed

    Ibaraki, Masanobu; Sato, Kaoru; Mizuta, Tetsuro; Kitamura, Keishi; Miura, Shuichi; Sugawara, Shigeki; Shinohara, Yuki; Kinoshita, Toshibumi

    2009-09-01

    A modified version of row-action maximum likelihood algorithm (RAMLA) using a 'subset-dependent' relaxation parameter for noise suppression, or dynamic RAMLA (DRAMA), has been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess the capability of DRAMA reconstruction for quantitative (15)O brain positron emission tomography (PET). Seventeen healthy volunteers were studied using a 3D PET scanner. The PET study included 3 sequential PET scans for C(15)O, (15)O(2) and H (2) (15) O. First, the number of main iterations (N (it)) in DRAMA was optimized in relation to image convergence and statistical image noise. To estimate the statistical variance of reconstructed images on a pixel-by-pixel basis, a sinogram bootstrap method was applied using list-mode PET data. Once the optimal N (it) was determined, statistical image noise and quantitative parameters, i.e., cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were compared between DRAMA and conventional FBP. DRAMA images were post-filtered so that their spatial resolutions were matched with FBP images with a 6-mm FWHM Gaussian filter. Based on the count recovery data, N (it) = 3 was determined as an optimal parameter for (15)O PET data. The sinogram bootstrap analysis revealed that DRAMA reconstruction resulted in less statistical noise, especially in a low-activity region compared to FBP. Agreement of quantitative values between FBP and DRAMA was excellent. For DRAMA images, average gray matter values of CBF, CBV, CMRO(2) and OEF were 46.1 +/- 4.5 (mL/100 mL/min), 3.35 +/- 0.40 (mL/100 mL), 3.42 +/- 0.35 (mL/100 mL/min) and 42.1 +/- 3.8 (%), respectively. These values were comparable to corresponding values with FBP images: 46.6 +/- 4.6 (mL/100 mL/min), 3.34 +/- 0.39 (mL/100 mL), 3.48 +/- 0.34 (mL/100 mL/min) and 42.4 +/- 3.8 (%), respectively. DRAMA reconstruction is applicable to quantitative (15)O PET study and is superior to

  19. Development of the local magnification method for quantitative evaluation of endoscope geometric distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quanzeng; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Suresh, Nitin; Hua, Hong

    2016-05-01

    With improved diagnostic capabilities and complex optical designs, endoscopic technologies are advancing. As one of the several important optical performance characteristics, geometric distortion can negatively affect size estimation and feature identification related diagnosis. Therefore, a quantitative and simple distortion evaluation method is imperative for both the endoscopic industry and the medical device regulatory agent. However, no such method is available yet. While the image correction techniques are rather mature, they heavily depend on computational power to process multidimensional image data based on complex mathematical model, i.e., difficult to understand. Some commonly used distortion evaluation methods, such as the picture height distortion (DPH) or radial distortion (DRAD), are either too simple to accurately describe the distortion or subject to the error of deriving a reference image. We developed the basic local magnification (ML) method to evaluate endoscope distortion. Based on the method, we also developed ways to calculate DPH and DRAD. The method overcomes the aforementioned limitations, has clear physical meaning in the whole field of view, and can facilitate lesion size estimation during diagnosis. Most importantly, the method can facilitate endoscopic technology to market and potentially be adopted in an international endoscope standard.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of software packages for single-molecule localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sage, Daniel; Kirshner, Hagai; Pengo, Thomas; Stuurman, Nico; Min, Junhong; Manley, Suliana; Unser, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The quality of super-resolution images obtained by single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) depends largely on the software used to detect and accurately localize point sources. In this work, we focus on the computational aspects of super-resolution microscopy and present a comprehensive evaluation of localization software packages. Our philosophy is to evaluate each package as a whole, thus maintaining the integrity of the software. We prepared synthetic data that represent three-dimensional structures modeled after biological components, taking excitation parameters, noise sources, point-spread functions and pixelation into account. We then asked developers to run their software on our data; most responded favorably, allowing us to present a broad picture of the methods available. We evaluated their results using quantitative and user-interpretable criteria: detection rate, accuracy, quality of image reconstruction, resolution, software usability and computational resources. These metrics reflect the various tradeoffs of SMLM software packages and help users to choose the software that fits their needs.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of susceptibility effects caused by dental materials in head magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strocchi, S.; Ghielmi, M.; Basilico, F.; Macchi, A.; Novario, R.; Ferretti, R.; Binaghi, E.

    2016-03-01

    This work quantitatively evaluates the effects induced by susceptibility characteristics of materials commonly used in dental practice on the quality of head MR images in a clinical 1.5T device. The proposed evaluation procedure measures the image artifacts induced by susceptibility in MR images by providing an index consistent with the global degradation as perceived by the experts. Susceptibility artifacts were evaluated in a near-clinical setup, using a phantom with susceptibility and geometric characteristics similar to that of a human head. We tested different dentist materials, called PAL Keramit, Ti6Al4V-ELI, Keramit NP, ILOR F, Zirconia and used different clinical MR acquisition sequences, such as "classical" SE and fast, gradient, and diffusion sequences. The evaluation is designed as a matching process between reference and artifacts affected images recording the same scene. The extent of the degradation induced by susceptibility is then measured in terms of similarity with the corresponding reference image. The matching process involves a multimodal registration task and the use an adequate similarity index psychophysically validated, based on correlation coefficient. The proposed analyses are integrated within a computer-supported procedure that interactively guides the users in the different phases of the evaluation method. 2-Dimensional and 3-dimensional indexes are used for each material and each acquisition sequence. From these, we drew a ranking of the materials, averaging the results obtained. Zirconia and ILOR F appear to be the best choice from the susceptibility artefacts point of view, followed, in order, by PAL Keramit, Ti6Al4V-ELI and Keramit NP.

  2. Assessing agreement between preclinical magnetic resonance imaging and histology: An evaluation of their image qualities and quantitative results

    PubMed Central

    Elschner, Cindy; Korn, Paula; Hauptstock, Maria; Schulz, Matthias C.; Range, Ursula; Jünger, Diana; Scheler, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    One consequence of demographic change is the increasing demand for biocompatible materials for use in implants and prostheses. This is accompanied by a growing number of experimental animals because the interactions between new biomaterials and its host tissue have to be investigated. To evaluate novel materials and engineered tissues the use of non-destructive imaging modalities have been identified as a strategic priority. This provides the opportunity for studying interactions repeatedly with individual animals, along with the advantages of reduced biological variability and decreased number of laboratory animals. However, histological techniques are still the golden standard in preclinical biomaterial research. The present article demonstrates a detailed method comparison between histology and magnetic resonance imaging. This includes the presentation of their image qualities as well as the detailed statistical analysis for assessing agreement between quantitative measures. Exemplarily, the bony ingrowth of tissue engineered bone substitutes for treatment of a cleft-like maxillary bone defect has been evaluated. By using a graphical concordance analysis the mean difference between MRI results and histomorphometrical measures has been examined. The analysis revealed a slightly but significant bias in the case of the bone volume (biasHisto−MRI:Bone volume=2.40 %, p<0.005) and a clearly significant deviation for the remaining defect width (biasHisto−MRI:Defect width=−6.73 %, p≪0.005). But the study although showed a considerable effect of the analyzed section position to the quantitative result. It could be proven, that the bias of the data sets was less originated due to the imaging modalities, but mainly on the evaluation of different slice positions. The article demonstrated that method comparisons not always need the use of an independent animal study, additionally. PMID:28666026

  3. Quantitative Outcomes of a One Health approach to Study Global Health Challenges.

    PubMed

    Falzon, Laura C; Lechner, Isabel; Chantziaras, Ilias; Collineau, Lucie; Courcoul, Aurélie; Filippitzi, Maria-Eleni; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Peroz, Carole; Pinto Ferreira, Jorge; Postma, Merel; Prestmo, Pia G; Phythian, Clare J; Sarno, Eleonora; Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Vergne, Timothée; Grindlay, Douglas J C; Brennan, Marnie L

    2018-03-01

    Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis. The top two biotic health issues addressed in these studies were rabies and malaria; the top abiotic health issue was air pollution. Most studies described collaborations between human and animal (n = 42), or human and environmental disciplines (n = 41); commonly reported interventions included vector control and animal vaccination. Monetary outcomes were commonly expressed as cost-benefit or cost-utility ratios; non-monetary outcomes were described using disease frequency or disease burden measurements. The majority of the studies reported positive or partially positive outcomes. This paper illustrates the variety of health challenges that can be addressed using a One Health approach, and provides tangible quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate future implementations of the One Health approach.

  4. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    PubMed

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  5. Travtek Evaluation Modeling Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-03-01

    THE FOLLOWING REPORT DESCRIBES A MODELING STUDY THAT WAS PERFORMED TO EXTRAPOLATE, FROM THE TRAVTEK OPERATIONAL TEST DATA, A SET OF SYSTEM WIDE BENEFITS AND PERFORMANCE VALUES FOR A WIDER-SCALE DEPLOYMENT OF A TRAVTEK-LIKE SYSTEM. IN THE FIRST PART O...

  6. Quantitative Estimation of Plasma Free Drug Fraction in Patients With Varying Degrees of Hepatic Impairment: A Methodological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Fu; Yu, Guo; Li, Yanfei; Zheng, Yi; Zheng, Qing-Shan; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2018-07-01

    Quantitative prediction of unbound drug fraction (f u ) is essential for scaling pharmacokinetics through physiologically based approaches. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate the projection of f u values under pathological conditions. The primary objective of this study was to predict f u values (n = 105) of 56 compounds with or without the information of predominant binding protein in patients with varying degrees of hepatic insufficiency by accounting for quantitative changes in molar concentrations of either the major binding protein or albumin plus alpha 1-acid glycoprotein associated with differing levels of hepatic dysfunction. For the purpose of scaling, data pertaining to albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein levels in response to differing degrees of hepatic impairment were systematically collected from 919 adult donors. The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of physiologically based scaling f u in hepatic dysfunction after verifying with experimentally measured data of a wide variety of compounds from individuals with varying degrees of hepatic insufficiency. Furthermore, the high level of predictive accuracy indicates that the inter-relation between the severity of hepatic impairment and these plasma protein levels are physiologically accurate. The present study enhances the confidence in predicting f u in hepatic insufficiency, particularly for albumin-bound drugs. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 41985 - Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Evaluation and Research (CBER) and suggestions for further development. The public workshop will include... Evaluation and Research (HFM-210), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite 200N, Rockville... models to generate quantitative estimates of the benefits and risks of influenza vaccination. The public...

  8. Quantitative T2 mapping evaluation for articular cartilage lesions in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-mao; Du, Xiang-ke; Huo, Tian-long; Li, Xu-bin; Quan, Guang-nan; Li, Tian-ran; Cheng, Jin; Zhang, Wei-tao

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative T2 mapping has been a widely used method for the evaluation of pathological cartilage properties, and the histological assessment system of osteoarthritis in the rabbit has been published recently. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of quantitative T2 mapping evaluation for articular cartilage lesions of a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) osteoarthritis. Twenty New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were divided into ACLT surgical group and sham operated group equally. The anterior cruciate ligaments of the rabbits in ACLT group were transected, while the joints were closed intactly in sham operated group. Magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were performed on 3.0T MR unit at week 0, week 6, and week 12. T2 values were computed on GE ADW4.3 workstation. All rabbits were killed at week 13, and left knees were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Semiquantitative histological grading was obtained according to the osteoarthritis cartilage histopathology assessment system. Computerized image analysis was performed to quantitate the immunostained collagen type II. The average MR T2 value of whole left knee cartilage in ACLT surgical group ((29.05±12.01) ms) was significantly higher than that in sham operated group ((24.52±7.97) ms) (P=0.024) at week 6. The average T2 value increased to (32.18±12.79) ms in ACLT group at week 12, but remained near the baseline level ((27.66±8.08) ms) in the sham operated group (P=0.03). The cartilage lesion level of left knee in ACLT group was significantly increased at week 6 (P=0.005) and week 12 (P<0.001). T2 values had positive correlation with histological grading scores, but inverse correlation with optical densities (OD) of type II collagen. This study demonstrated the reliability and practicability of quantitative T2 mapping for the cartilage injury of rabbit ACLT osteoarthritis model.

  9. Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

  10. Comparison of semi-quantitative and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI evaluations of vertebral marrow perfusion in a rat osteoporosis model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingqi; Xiong, Zuogang; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiu, Yuyou; Hua, Ting; Tang, Guangyu

    2017-11-14

    This study aims to investigate the technical feasibility of semi-quantitative and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the assessment of longitudinal changes of marrow perfusion in a rat osteoporosis model, using bone mineral density (BMD) measured by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histopathology as the gold standards. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to the control group (n=25) and ovariectomy (OVX) group whose bilateral ovaries were excised (n=25). Semi-quantitative and quantitative DCE-MRI, micro-CT, and histopathological examinations were performed on lumbar vertebrae at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after operation. The differences between the two groups in terms of semi-quantitative DCE-MRI parameter (maximum enhancement, E max ), quantitative DCE-MRI parameters (volume transfer constant, K trans ; interstitial volume, V e ; and efflux rate constant, K ep ), micro-CT parameter (BMD), and histopathological parameter (microvessel density, MVD) were compared at each of the time points using an independent-sample t test. The differences in these parameters between baseline and other time points in each group were assessed via Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. A Pearson correlation analysis was applied to assess the relationships between DCE-MRI, micro-CT, and histopathological parameters. In the OVX group, the E max values decreased significantly compared with those of the control group at weeks 6 and 9 (p=0.003 and 0.004, respectively). The K trans values decreased significantly compared with those of the control group from week 3 (p<0.05). However, the V e values decreased significantly only at week 9 (p=0.032), and no difference in the K ep was found between two groups. The BMD values of the OVX group decreased significantly compared with those of the control group from week 3 (p<0.05). Transmission electron microscopy showed tighter gaps between vascular endothelial cells with swollen mitochondria

  11. Economic evaluation of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis strategies: protocol for a methodological systematic review and quantitative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Thavorn, Kednapa; Kugathasan, Howsikan; Tan, Darrell H S; Moqueet, Nasheed; Baral, Stefan D; Skidmore, Becky; MacFadden, Derek; Simkin, Anna; Mishra, Sharmistha

    2018-03-15

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals is an efficacious and effective intervention to decrease the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition. Yet drug and delivery costs prohibit access in many jurisdictions. In the absence of guidelines for the synthesis of economic evaluations, we developed a protocol for a systematic review of economic evaluation studies for PrEP by drawing on best practices in systematic reviews and the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations. We aim to estimate the incremental cost per health outcome of PrEP compared with placebo, no PrEP, or other HIV prevention strategies; assess the methodological variability in, and quality of, economic evaluations of PrEP; estimate the incremental cost per health outcome of different PrEP implementation strategies; and quantify the potential sources of heterogeneity in outcomes. We will systematically search electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase) and the gray literature. We will include economic evaluation studies that assess both costs and health outcomes of PrEP in HIV-uninfected individuals, without restricting language or year of publication. Two reviewers will independently screen studies using predefined inclusion criteria, extract data, and assess methodological quality using the Philips checklist, Second Panel on the Cost-effectiveness of Health and Medicines, and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research recommendations. Outcomes of interest include incremental costs and outcomes in natural units or utilities, cost-effectiveness ratios, and net monetary benefit. We will perform descriptive and quantitative syntheses using sensitivity analyses of outcomes by population subgroups, HIV epidemic settings, study designs, baseline intervention contexts, key parameter inputs and assumptions, type of outcomes, economic perspectives, and willingness to pay values. Findings will guide future economic evaluation of PrEP strategies in terms of

  12. The effect of image sharpness on quantitative eye movement data and on image quality evaluation while viewing natural images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuori, Tero; Olkkonen, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study is to test both customer image quality rating (subjective image quality) and physical measurement of user behavior (eye movements tracking) to find customer satisfaction differences in imaging technologies. Methodological aim is to find out whether eye movements could be quantitatively used in image quality preference studies. In general, we want to map objective or physically measurable image quality to subjective evaluations and eye movement data. We conducted a series of image quality tests, in which the test subjects evaluated image quality while we recorded their eye movements. Results show that eye movement parameters consistently change according to the instructions given to the user, and according to physical image quality, e.g. saccade duration increased with increasing blur. Results indicate that eye movement tracking could be used to differentiate image quality evaluation strategies that the users have. Results also show that eye movements would help mapping between technological and subjective image quality. Furthermore, these results give some empirical emphasis to top-down perception processes in image quality perception and evaluation by showing differences between perceptual processes in situations when cognitive task varies.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of protocorm growth and fungal colonization in Bletilla striata (Orchidaceae) reveals less-productive symbiosis with a non-native symbiotic fungus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuki; Miura, Chihiro; Fuji, Masako; Nagata, Shotaro; Otani, Yuria; Yagame, Takahiro; Yamato, Masahide; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2017-02-21

    In nature, orchid plants depend completely on symbiotic fungi for their nutrition at the germination and the subsequent seedling (protocorm) stages. However, only limited quantitative methods for evaluating the orchid-fungus interactions at the protocorm stage are currently available, which greatly constrains our understanding of the symbiosis. Here, we aimed to improve and integrate quantitative evaluations of the growth and fungal colonization in the protocorms of a terrestrial orchid, Blettila striata, growing on a plate medium. We achieved both symbiotic and asymbiotic germinations for the terrestrial orchid B. striata. The protocorms produced by the two germination methods grew almost synchronously for the first three weeks. At week four, however, the length was significantly lower in the symbiotic protocorms. Interestingly, the dry weight of symbiotic protocorms did not significantly change during the growth period, which implies that there was only limited transfer of carbon compounds from the fungus to the protocorms in this relationship. Next, to evaluate the orchid-fungus interactions, we developed an ink-staining method to observe the hyphal coils in protocorms without preparing thin sections. Crushing the protocorm under the coverglass enables us to observe all hyphal coils in the protocorms with high resolution. For this observation, we established a criterion to categorize the stages of hyphal coils, depending on development and degradation. By counting the symbiotic cells within each stage, it was possible to quantitatively evaluate the orchid-fungus symbiosis. We describe a method for quantitative evaluation of orchid-fungus symbiosis by integrating the measurements of plant growth and fungal colonization. The current study revealed that although fungal colonization was observed in the symbiotic protocorms, the weight of the protocorm did not significantly increase, which is probably due to the incompatibility of the fungus in this symbiosis. These

  14. Morphological quantitative criteria and aesthetic evaluation of eight female Han face types.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiming; Zhou, Rongrong; Zhang, XuDong; Sun, Huafeng; Lu, Xin; Xia, Dongsheng; Song, Mingli; Liang, Yang

    2013-04-01

    Human facial aesthetics relies on the classification of facial features and standards of attractiveness. However, there are no widely accepted quantitative criteria for facial attractiveness, particularly for Chinese Han faces. Establishing quantitative standards of attractiveness for facial landmarks within facial types is important for planning outcomes in cosmetic plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively the criteria for attractiveness of eight female Chinese Han facial types. A photographic database of young Chinese Han women's faces was created. Photographed faces (450) were classified based on eight established types and scored for attractiveness. Measurements taken at seven standard facial landmarks and their relative proportions were analyzed for correlations to attractiveness scores. Attractive faces of each type were averaged via an image-morphing algorithm to generate synthetic facial types. Results were compared with the neoclassical ideal and data for Caucasians. Morphological proportions corresponding to the highest attractiveness scores for Chinese Han women differed from the neoclassical ideal. In our population of young, normal, healthy Han women, high attractiveness ratings were given to those with greater temporal width and pogonion-gonion distance, and smaller bizygomatic and bigonial widths. As attractiveness scores increased, the ratio of the temporal to bizygomatic widths increased, and the ratio of the distance between the pogonion and gonion to the bizygomatic width also increased slightly. Among the facial types, the oval and inverted triangular were the most attractive. The neoclassical ideal of attractiveness does not apply to Han faces. However, the proportion of faces considered attractive in this population was similar to that of Caucasian populations. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please

  15. Application of image analysis in studies of quantitative disease resistance, exemplified using common bacterial blight-common bean pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weilong; Yu, Kangfu; Pauls, K Peter; Navabi, Alireza

    2012-04-01

    The effectiveness of image analysis (IA) compared with an ordinal visual scale, for quantitative measurement of disease severity, its application in quantitative genetic studies, and its effect on the estimates of genetic parameters were investigated. Studies were performed using eight backcross-derived families of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (n = 172) segregating for the molecular marker SU91, known to be associated with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans. Even though both IA and visual assessments were highly repeatable, IA was more sensitive in detecting quantitative differences between bean genotypes. The CBB phenotypic difference between the two SU91 genotypic groups was consistently more than fivefold for IA assessments but generally only two- to threefold for visual assessments. Results suggest that the visual assessment results in overestimation of the effect of QTL in genetic studies. This may have been caused by lack of additivity and uneven intervals of the visual scale. Although visual assessment of disease severity is a useful tool for general selection in breeding programs, assessments using IA may be more suitable for phenotypic evaluations in quantitative genetic studies involving CBB resistance as well as other foliar diseases.

  16. Quantitative detection of caffeine in human skin by confocal Raman spectroscopy--A systematic in vitro validation study.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Lutz; Anderski, Juliane; Windbergs, Maike

    2015-09-01

    For rational development and evaluation of dermal drug delivery, the knowledge of rate and extent of substance penetration into the human skin is essential. However, current analytical procedures are destructive, labor intense and lack a defined spatial resolution. In this context, confocal Raman microscopy bares the potential to overcome current limitations in drug depth profiling. Confocal Raman microscopy already proved its suitability for the acquisition of qualitative penetration profiles, but a comprehensive investigation regarding its suitability for quantitative measurements inside the human skin is still missing. In this work, we present a systematic validation study to deploy confocal Raman microscopy for quantitative drug depth profiling in human skin. After we validated our Raman microscopic setup, we successfully established an experimental procedure that allows correlating the Raman signal of a model drug with its controlled concentration in human skin. To overcome current drawbacks in drug depth profiling, we evaluated different modes of peak correlation for quantitative Raman measurements and offer a suitable operating procedure for quantitative drug depth profiling in human skin. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrate the potential of confocal Raman microscopy for quantitative drug depth profiling in human skin as valuable alternative to destructive state-of-the-art techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary Results of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging by Combined Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses for Evaluation of Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Wan, Cai-Feng; Du, Jing; Li, Feng-Hua

    2018-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of a new elastographic technique, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, and its diagnostic performance for characterizing breast lesions. One hundred consecutive female patients with 126 breast lesions were enrolled in our study. After routine breast ultrasound examinations, the patients underwent ARFI elasticity imaging. Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI) and Virtual Touch tissue quantification (Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the elasticity and hardness of tumors. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ARFI for discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions. Pathologic analysis revealed 40 lesions in the malignant group and 86 lesions in the benign group. Different VTI patterns were observed in benign and malignant breast lesions. Eighty lesions (93.0%) of benign group had pattern 1, 2, or 3, whereas all pattern 4b lesions (n = 20 [50.0%]) were malignant. Regarding the quantitative analysis, the mean VTI-to-B-mode area ratio, internal shear wave velocity, and marginal shear wave velocity of benign lesions were statistically significantly lower than those of malignant lesions (all P < .001). The cutoff point for a scoring system constructed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ARFI was estimated to be between 3 and 4 points for malignancy, with sensitivity of 77.5%, specificity of 96.5%, accuracy of 90.5%, and an area under the curve of 0.933. The application of ARFI technology has shown promising results by noninvasively providing substantial complementary information and could potentially serve as an effective diagnostic tool for differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. Menses cup evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, M; Kung, R; Hannah, M; Wilansky, D; Shime, J

    1995-09-01

    To determine whether the menses cup is well tolerated by menstruating women. Prospective descriptive clinical study. Normal human volunteers in an academic research environment. Fifty-one menstruating women recruited between June to December 1991. Each participant was provided with two menses cups and an instruction sheet. Baseline information, including age, occupation, martial status, parity, description of menstrual flow, and current method used to cope with menstrual flow was collected. Subjects were asked to describe their experience with the cup at 1-, 2-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. The proportion of women who found the cup acceptable. The cup was used by 51 subjects for a total of 159 cycles. Overall, 23 women (45%) found the cup an acceptable method for coping with menses. Among 29 (57%) women who used the cup for two or more cycles, 62% found it acceptable. The menses cup may be an acceptable method for some women for coping with menstrual flow.

  19. Evaluation of patients with painful total hip arthroplasty using combined single photon emission tomography and conventional computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) - a comparison of semi-quantitative versus 3D volumetric quantitative measurements.

    PubMed

    Barthassat, Emilienne; Afifi, Faik; Konala, Praveen; Rasch, Helmut; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2017-05-08

    It was the primary purpose of our study to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability of a standardized SPECT/CT algorithm for evaluating patients with painful primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). The secondary purpose was a comparison of semi-quantitative and 3D volumetric quantification method for assessment of bone tracer uptake (BTU) in those patients. A novel SPECT/CT localization scheme consisting of 14 femoral and 4 acetabular regions on standardized axial and coronal slices was introduced and evaluated in terms of inter- and intra-observer reliability in 37 consecutive patients with hip pain after THA. BTU for each anatomical region was assessed semi-quantitatively using a color-coded Likert type scale (0-10) and volumetrically quantified using a validated software. Two observers interpreted the SPECT/CT findings in all patients two times with six weeks interval between interpretations in random order. Semi-quantitative and quantitative measurements were compared in terms of reliability. In addition, the values were correlated using Pearson`s correlation. A factorial cluster analysis of BTU was performed to identify clinically relevant regions, which should be grouped and analysed together. The localization scheme showed high inter- and intra-observer reliabilities for all femoral and acetabular regions independent of the measurement method used (semiquantitative versus 3D volumetric quantitative measurements). A high to moderate correlation between both measurement methods was shown for the distal femur, the proximal femur and the acetabular cup. The factorial cluster analysis showed that the anatomical regions might be summarized into three distinct anatomical regions. These were the proximal femur, the distal femur and the acetabular cup region. The SPECT/CT algorithm for assessment of patients with pain after THA is highly reliable independent from the measurement method used. Three clinically relevant anatomical regions (proximal femoral

  20. Quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain at 3T: a multisite reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Lin, P-Y; Chao, T-C; Wu, M-L

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping of the human brain has demonstrated strong potential in examining iron deposition, which may help in investigating possible brain pathology. This study assesses the reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping across different imaging sites. In this study, the susceptibility values of 5 regions of interest in the human brain were measured on 9 healthy subjects following calibration by using phantom experiments. Each of the subjects was imaged 5 times on 1 scanner with the same procedure repeated on 3 different 3T systems so that both within-site and cross-site quantitative susceptibility mapping precision levels could be assessed. Two quantitative susceptibility mapping algorithms, similar in principle, one by using iterative regularization (iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping) and the other with analytic optimal solutions (deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping), were implemented, and their performances were compared. Results show that while deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping had nearly 700 times faster computation speed, residual streaking artifacts seem to be more prominent compared with iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping. With quantitative susceptibility mapping, the putamen, globus pallidus, and caudate nucleus showed smaller imprecision on the order of 0.005 ppm, whereas the red nucleus and substantia nigra, closer to the skull base, had a somewhat larger imprecision of approximately 0.01 ppm. Cross-site errors were not significantly larger than within-site errors. Possible sources of estimation errors are discussed. The reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping in the human brain in vivo is regionally dependent, and the precision levels achieved with quantitative susceptibility mapping should allow longitudinal and multisite studies such as aging-related changes in brain tissue magnetic susceptibility. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. EVALUATING TOOLS AND MODELS USED FOR QUANTITATIVE EXTRAPOLATION OF IN VITRO TO IN VIVO DATA FOR NEUROTOXICANTS*

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a number of risk management decisions, which range from prioritization for testing to quantitative risk assessments. The utility of in vitro studies in these decisions depends on how well the results of such data can be qualitatively and quantitatively extrapolated to i...

  2. EVALUATION OF STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM IN THE HOUSE OF AN INFANT WITH PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE: QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys chartarum is an indoor mold that has been associated with pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) cases in the Cleveland, Ohio area. This study applied two new quantitative measurements to air samples from a home where an infant developed PH. Quantitative polymerase chain reacti...

  3. Quantitative evaluation of the disintegration of orally rapid disintegrating tablets by X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Yamanaka, Azusa; Uchino, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Kuniko; Sadamoto, Kiyomi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    To measure the rapid disintegration of Oral Disintegrating Tablets (ODT), a new test (XCT) was developed using X-ray computing tomography (X-ray CT). Placebo ODT, rapid disintegration candy (RDC) and Gaster®-D-Tablets (GAS) were used as model samples. All these ODTs were used to measure oral disintegration time (DT) in distilled water at 37±2°C by XCT. DTs were affected by the width of mesh screens, and degree to which the tablet holder vibrated from air bubbles. An in-vivo tablet disintegration test was performed for RDC using 11 volunteers. DT by the in-vivo method was significantly longer than that using the conventional tester. The experimental conditions for XCT such as the width of the mesh screen and degree of vibration were adjusted to be consistent with human DT values. Since DTs by the XCT method were almost the same as the human data, this method was able to quantitatively evaluate the rapid disintegration of ODT under the same conditions as inside the oral cavity. The DTs of four commercially available ODTs were comparatively evaluated by the XCT method, conventional tablet disintegration test and in-vivo method.

  4. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow-Kramer, Wendy M.; Horton, Brent M.; Maney, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is becoming a popular tool for the quantification of gene expression in the brain and endocrine tissues of songbirds. Accurate analysis of qPCR data relies on the selection of appropriate reference genes for normalization, yet few papers on songbirds contain evidence of reference gene validation. Here, we evaluated the expression of ten potential reference genes (18S, ACTB, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT, PPIA, RPL4, RPL32, TFRC, and UBC) in brain, pituitary, ovary, and testis in two species of songbird: zebra finch and white-throated sparrow. We used two algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, to assess the stability of these reference genes in our samples. We found that the suitability of some of the most popular reference genes for target gene normalization in mammals, such as 18S, depended highly on tissue type. Thus, they are not the best choices for brain and gonad in these songbirds. In contrast, we identified alternative genes, such as HPRT, RPL4 and PPIA, that were highly stable in brain, pituitary, and gonad in these species. Our results suggest that the validation of reference genes in mammals does not necessarily extrapolate to other taxonomic groups. For researchers wishing to identify and evaluate suitable reference genes for qPCR songbirds, our results should serve as a starting point and should help increase the power and utility of songbird models in behavioral neuroendocrinology. PMID:24780145

  5. Erosion of Terrestrial Rift Flank Topography: A Quantitative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissel, Jeffrey K.

    1999-01-01

    Many rifted or passive continental margins feature a seaward-facing erosional escarpment which abruptly demarcates deeply weathered, low relief, interior uplands from a deeply incised, high relief coastal zone. It is generally accepted that these escarpments originate at the time of continental rifting and propagate inland through the elevated rift flank topography at rates on the order of 1 km/Myr over the course of a margin's history. Considering the length of passive margins worldwide and an average rift flank plateau height of several hundred meters, it is clear that sediment eroded from passive margins is an important component of the mass flux from continents to oceans through geologic time. The overall goal of the research reported here is to develop a quantitative understanding of the kinematics of escarpment propagation across passive margins and the underlying geological processes responsible for this behavior. Plateau-bounding escarpments in general exhibit two basic forms depending on the direction of surface water drainage on the plateau interior relative to the escarpment. Where surface water flows away from the escarpment, the escarpment takes the form of subdued embayments and promontories, such that its overall trend remains fairly straight as it evolves with time. Where upland streams flow across the escarpment, it takes the form of dramatic, narrow gorges whose heads appear to propagate up the plateau drainage systems as large-scale knickpoints. From work on the Colorado Plateau, Schmidt (1987) noted that the Colorado River is located much closer to the Grand Canyon's south rim, a drainage divide escarpment, than to the north rim, which is a gorge-like escarpment. The main implication is that the gorge-like form might be associated with higher long-term average erosion rates compared to the drainage divide escarpment type.

  6. Evaluating and learning from RNA pseudotorsional space: quantitative validation of a reduced representation for RNA structure.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Leven M; Keating, Kevin S; Duarte, Carlos M; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2007-09-28

    Quantitatively describing RNA structure and conformational elements remains a formidable problem. Seven standard torsion angles and the sugar pucker are necessary to characterize the conformation of an RNA nucleotide completely. Progress has been made toward understanding the discrete nature of RNA structure, but classifying simple and ubiquitous structural elements such as helices and motifs remains a difficult task. One approach for describing RNA st