Science.gov

Sample records for quantitative basicity studies

  1. Rote Learning in the Age of Technology: A Quantitative Study of a Career and Technical High School and the Practical Use of Basic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotreau Berube, Elyse A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to investigate the use of rote learning in basic skills of mathematics and spelling of 12 high school students, from a career and technical high school, in an effort to learn if the pedagogy of rote fits in the frameworks of today's education. The study compared the accuracy of…

  2. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 1. Statistical Analysis of a Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 1 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught in the twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used. The study compared performance in five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A…

  3. Study design: the basics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Ja; Hoffmann, Raymond G

    2007-01-01

    In biomedical research, meaningful conclusions can only be drawn based on data collected from a valid scientific design using appropriate statistical methods. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate study design is important in order to provide an unbiased and scientific evaluation of the research questions. In this chapter, the different kinds of experimental studies commonly used in biology and medicine are introduced. A brief survey of basic experimental study designs, randomization, blinding, possible biases, issues in data analysis, and interpretation of the study results are mainly provided.

  4. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

  5. Quantitative imaging of basic functions in renal (patho)physiology.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Julie; Toma, Ildiko; Sipos, Arnold; McCulloch, Fiona; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2006-08-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy offers the advantages of deep optical sectioning of living tissue with minimal phototoxicity and high optical resolution. More importantly, dynamic processes and multiple functions of an intact organ can be visualized in real time using noninvasive methods, and quantified. These studies aimed to extend existing methods of multiphoton fluorescence imaging to directly observe and quantify basic physiological parameters of the kidney including glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and permeability, blood flow, urinary concentration/dilution, renin content and release, as well as more integrated and complex functions like the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF)-mediated oscillations in glomerular filtration and tubular flow. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes significantly increased single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) from 32.4 +/- 0.4 to 59.5 +/- 2.5 nl/min and glomerular permeability to a 70-kDa fluorophore approximately eightfold. The loop diuretic furosemide 2-fold diluted and increased approximately 10-fold the volume of distal tubular fluid, while also causing the release of 20% of juxtaglomerular renin content. Significantly higher speeds of individual red blood cells were measured in intraglomerular capillaries (16.7 +/- 0.4 mm/s) compared with peritubular vessels (4.7 +/- 0.2 mm/s). Regular periods of glomerular contraction-relaxation were observed, resulting in oscillations of filtration and tubular flow rate. Oscillations in proximal and distal tubular flow showed similar cycle times ( approximately 45 s) to glomerular filtration, with a delay of approximately 5-10 and 25-30 s, respectively. These innovative technologies provide the most complex, immediate, and dynamic portrayal of renal function, clearly depicting the components and mechanisms involved in normal physiology and pathophysiology.

  6. Basic Studies in Plasma Physics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    ring by Evans, Kafri, Koduvely, and Mukamel, and the weakly asymmetric version was later studied by Clincy, Derrida , and Evans. Here the latter model...Dipole Model, Rev. in Math. Phys., 20, 835-872, 2007 Los Alamos Arxiv:math-ph/0609069 4. B. Derrida , E. Speer and J.L. Lebowitz, Entropy of Open...mat/0612371. 11 14. J.L. Lebowitz, Emergent Phenomena. Physics Journal, 6,1-6, 2007 15. T. Bodineau, B. Derrida and J.L. Lebowitz, Vortices in the

  7. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    SciTech Connect

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  8. Quantitative analysis of PET studies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wolfgang A

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative analysis can be included relatively easily in clinical PET-imaging protocols, but in order to obtain meaningful quantitative results one needs to follow a standardized protocol for image acquisition and data analysis. Important factors to consider are the calibration of the PET scanner, the radiotracer uptake time and the approach for definition of regions of interests. Using such standardized acquisition protocols quantitative parameters of tumor metabolism or receptor status can be derived from tracer kinetic analysis and simplified approaches such as calculation of standardized uptake values (SUVs).

  9. Comprehensive Identification and Quantitation of Basic Building Blocks for Low-Molecular Weight Heparin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojun; Sheng, Anran; Liu, Xinyue; Shi, Feng; Jin, Lan; Xie, Shaoshuai; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Chi, Lianli

    2016-08-02

    Low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are widely used anticoagulant drugs. They inherit the heterogeneous backbone sequences of the parent heparin, while the chemical depolymerization process modifies the nonreducing end (NRE) and reducing end (RE) of their sugar chains. Some side reactions may also occur and increase the structural complexity of LMWHs. It is important to precisely characterize the structures of LMWHs, especially their chemical modifications, to ensure drug quality and safety. Compositional analysis provides a powerful approach to reveal the building blocks that make up the LMWHs, which are the mutual consequence of the heparin starting materials and the manufacturing process. Here, we introduce a comprehensive analytical method to recover the most basic building blocks of LMWHs. A strategy of combining both enzymatic digestion and oxidative degradation of LMWH was used to make the NRE, RE, and backbone structures differentiable from one another. Satisfactory separation, identification, and quantitation were achieved by coupling hydrophilic interaction chromatography with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. After enzymatic digestion, over 30 species were detected, with both natural and chemically modified heparin basic building blocks. Two novel structures, including a trisaccharide containing two glucosamine residues and a tetrasaccharide containing a 3-O-sulfated uronic acid residue, were discovered. Reduced and oxidatively degraded samples were analyzed to provide the complementary information on both termini of LMWHs. The reproducibility of this method was evaluated, and enoxaparin injections were analyzed to demonstrate the application of this method for evaluating the sameness of LMWH products.

  10. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Charles; Masina, M. H.; Eichelberger, Lillian; Wharton, James D.

    1939-01-01

    A simple isolation of the prostate enabled quantitative collection of prostatic secretion in dogs over periods of months. The secretory stimulant was pilocarpine and 2 similar amounts injected with a 6 hour interval gave smaller amounts at the second testing, suggesting a fatigue effect. The prostate was not absolutely refractory since doubling the amount of alkaloid injected at the second test increased the volume to equal or exceed the preliminary secretion. The depression effect had disappeared at 24 hours. In normal dogs the secretory curves were essentially regular, with occasional prolonged rises or depressions. The amount of secretion did not bear a direct relationship to the weight of the gland in adult dogs. The germinal epithelium of the testis underwent atrophy during the first few weeks of cage life while the prostatic secretion was maintained, showing that the atrophy was differential and did not involve the cells producing the androgenic hormone. The atrophy was reversible and all dogs kept for more than 4 months showed restoration of the germ cells. A few dogs developed atrophy of the germinal cells with cessation of prostatic secretion for many weeks but with final recovery. Removal of the suprarenal glands with suprarenal insufficiency did not produce sterility. The distribution of electrolytes in the prostatic secretion differed from that in the serum-transudate system, although the concentration of osmotically active substances was the same, being made up almost entirely of sodium and chloride. The distribution was not affected by the different physiological procedures used in this study. Protein concentrations were less than 1 per cent. The rate of prostatic atrophy following castration was determined, and cessation of secretion occurred in 7 to 23 days. The restoration of prostatic fluid in castrate dogs following daily injections of testosterone propionate followed a smooth curve to form a plateau which was interrupted occasionally by

  11. Quantitative studies of immunofluorescent staining*

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Ernst H.; Sepulveda, Marion R.; Barnett, Eugene V.

    1968-01-01

    Reproducible titres of indirect immunofluorescent (IF) staining with antinuclear factor (ANF)-containing sera could be obtained with different antihuman IgG conjugates by quantitative adjustments of their characteristics. Conversely, one ANF yielded a broad range of ANF titre (80-640) upon appropriate adjustments of the conjugate characteristics. The same and related characteristics of the conjugates also afforded a basis for quantitatively defining the conditions under which non-specific staining (NSS) appeared. The salient characteristics of the anti-IgG conjugates include: (1) their strength of antiglobulin (expressed as units/ml of precipitating antibody or μg antibody N/ml); (2) their apparent fluorescein concentration (in μg F/ml); (3) their protein concentration (in mg/ml). Optical and immunologic sensitivity ratios are calculated from these conjugate characteristics. Optical sensitivity (expressed as fluorescein concentration to protein concentration (F/P) ratios), immunological sensitivities (expressed as units/1% protein) and the dilution employed serve to characterize quantitatively anti-IgG conjugates adequately to define their specific and non-specific staining properties. PMID:4179321

  12. A hybrid approach to advancing quantitative prediction of tissue distribution of basic drugs in human

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Patrick; Ekins, Sean; Theil, Frank-Peter

    2011-01-15

    A general toxicity of basic drugs is related to phospholipidosis in tissues. Therefore, it is essential to predict the tissue distribution of basic drugs to facilitate an initial estimate of that toxicity. The objective of the present study was to further assess the original prediction method that consisted of using the binding to red blood cells measured in vitro for the unbound drug (RBCu) as a surrogate for tissue distribution, by correlating it to unbound tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kpu) of several tissues, and finally to predict volume of distribution at steady-state (V{sub ss}) in humans under in vivo conditions. This correlation method demonstrated inaccurate predictions of V{sub ss} for particular basic drugs that did not follow the original correlation principle. Therefore, the novelty of this study is to provide clarity on the actual hypotheses to identify i) the impact of pharmacological mode of action on the generic correlation of RBCu-Kpu, ii) additional mechanisms of tissue distribution for the outlier drugs, iii) molecular features and properties that differentiate compounds as outliers in the original correlation analysis in order to facilitate its applicability domain alongside the properties already used so far, and finally iv) to present a novel and refined correlation method that is superior to what has been previously published for the prediction of human V{sub ss} of basic drugs. Applying a refined correlation method after identifying outliers would facilitate the prediction of more accurate distribution parameters as key inputs used in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and phospholipidosis models.

  13. Basic Weather Facts Study Texts for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This pamphlet offers information to teachers and students concerning basic facts about weather and how to construct simple weather measurement devices. Directions, necessary materials, procedures, and instructions for use are given for four weather predicting instruments: wind vane, rain gauge, barometer, anemometer. Information is provided on…

  14. Quantitative Studies and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Harry S.

    1976-01-01

    Author states that "...quantitative studies have demonstrated the impossibility of understanding the American Revolution without understanding the society in which it emerged. Combining the quantitative studies of early American social structure with the exploration of popular ideology or culture should...make possible a sense of how revolutionary…

  15. Has the "Back-to-Basics" Movement Influenced Elementary Social Studies Textbooks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bob L.; Birchell, Gregory R.

    To test whether elementary social studies texts have changed in response to the back-to-basics movement, a content analysis was made of selected basal texts series published between 1969-1972 and reissued between 1979-1982. Quantitative data, anecdotal data, and educational criticism were used to compare eight matched text series for knowledge…

  16. How to Study: The Neglected Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Wayne C.; Wilson, Brent G.

    This paper examines knowledge of studying--knowing how and when to apply study strategies. Study strategies may be classified into three categories: memory strategies, comprehension strategies, and problem-solving strategies. Memory-study strategies help students remember what they study. Five attributes often characterize memory strategies:…

  17. [Results of studying taste sensitivity with basic or pure solutions].

    PubMed

    Marco Algarra, R

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study the phenomenon of the gustatory fatigue using simple solutions in representation of the four basic-tastes. We have designed a map of the sensibility of the tongue to the four basic tastes according to our results. Finally we study the fatigue and adaptation in the gustatory system, concluding that are different concepts although they are very close related.

  18. Case-control studies: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Pearce, Neil

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present in elementary mathematical and statistical terms a simple way to quickly and effectively teach and understand case-control studies, as they are commonly done in dynamic populations-without using the rare disease assumption. Our focus is on case-control studies of disease incidence ('incident case-control studies'); we will not consider the situation of case-control studies of prevalent disease, which are published much less frequently.

  19. The Social Studies Basic Skills Connection: Practical Strategies for Teaching Basic Skills in Conjunction with Social Studies Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.

    Arranged in two parts, this guide introduces elementary and secondary social studies teachers to a variety of methods for integrating social studies content and basic skills instruction. Chapter I defines basic skills as the skills an individual needs to become a self-directed learner, communicate clearly, and make reasoned decisions, and presents…

  20. Basic radiological studies contamination control experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Duce, S.W.; Winberg, M.R.; Freeman, A.L.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the results of experiments relating to contamination control performed in support of the Environmental Restoration Programs Retrieval Project. During the years 1950 to 1970 waste contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides was disposed of in shallow land-filled pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Due to potential for migration of radionuclides to an existing aquifer the feasibility of retrieving and repackaging the waste for placement in a final repository is being examined as part of a retrieval project. Contamination control experiments were conducted to determine expected respirable and nonrespirable plutonium contaminated dust fractions and the effectiveness of various dust suppression techniques. Three soil types were tested to determine respirable fractions: Rocky Flats Plant generic soil, Radioactive Waste Management Complex generic soil, and a 1:1 blend of the two soil types. Overall, the average respirable fraction of airborne dust was 5.4% by weight. Three contamination control techniques were studied: soil fixative sprays, misting agents, and dust suppression agents. All of the tested agents proved to be effective in reducing dust in the air. Details of product performance and recommended usage are discussed.

  1. Critical Quantitative Study of Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of critical quantitative research for studies of immigrant students, a large and growing group, whose higher education experience is crucial to the future of the United States. The author outlines some of the distinctions to be made among immigrant students and recommends areas of future inquiry.

  2. Robust quantitation of basic-protein higher-order aggregates using size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gervais, David; Downer, Andrew; King, Darryl; Kanda, Patrick; Foote, Nicholas; Smith, Stuart

    2017-05-30

    Detection of higher-order aggregates (HOA) using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was found to be variable for a basic protein, using exposed-silanol or diol-silica-based SEC columns. Preparations of the tetrameric biopharmaceutical enzyme Erwinia chrysanthemil-asparaginase (ErA), which has an isoelectric point of 8.6, were analysed using a diol-silica SEC column. Although the proportions of ErA main peak and octamer species were unaffected, HOA recovery and detection were extremely variable and had poor agreement with an orthogonal measurement technique, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). The observation that only HOA was selectively affected by non-specific silanol interactions was unexpected, so alternatives were sought. Coated-silica SEC columns improved the resolution and reproducibility of HOA detection for this alkaline-pI protein, and improved the agreement of HOA with the AUC method. Basic proteins, such as ErA, should be thoroughly evaluated in SEC method development, to ensure that resolution of larger aggregate species is not compromised.

  3. Basic studies on intravascular low-intensity laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Duan, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Liu, Jiang; Cui, Li-Ping; Jin, Hua; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Intravascular low intensity laser therapy (ILILT) was originally put forward in USA in 1982, but popularized in Russia in 1980s and in China in 1990s, respectively. A randomized placebo-controlled study has shown ILILT clinical efficacy in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. As Chinese therapeutic applications of ILILT were the most widely in the world, its basic research, such as intracellular signal transduction research, blood research in vitro, animal blood research in vivo, human blood research in vivo and traditional Chinese medicine research, was also very progressive in China. Its basic studies will be reviewed in terms of the biological information model of photobiomodulation in this paper. ILILT might work in view of its basic studies, but the further randomized placebo-controlled trial and the further safety research should be done.

  4. An Evaluation Study of Adult Basic Education in Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Div. of Continuing Education.

    An evaluation study of adult basic education in Maine (ABE) was made by the University of Maine's Continuing Education Division. It was found that during FY 1968-69 ABE programs had reached 1034 persons of a potential ABE population of 88,539. Chapter I summarizes the findings and recommendations. Chapter II presents the design of the study.…

  5. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-09-01

    This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Basic concepts in three-part quantitative assessments of undiscovered mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1975, mineral resource assessments have been made for over 27 areas covering 5??106 km2 at various scales using what is now called the three-part form of quantitative assessment. In these assessments, (1) areas are delineated according to the types of deposits permitted by the geology,(2) the amount of metal and some ore characteristics are estimated using grade and tonnage models, and (3) the number of undiscovered deposits of each type is estimated. Permissive boundaries are drawn for one or more deposit types such that the probability of a deposit lying outside the boundary is negligible, that is, less than 1 in 100,000 to 1,000,000. Grade and tonnage models combined with estimates of the number of deposits are the fundamental means of translating geologists' resource assessments into a language that economists can use. Estimates of the number of deposits explicitly represent the probability (or degree of belief) that some fixed but unknown number of undiscovered deposits exist in the delineated tracts. Estimates are by deposit type and must be consistent with the grade and tonnage model. Other guidelines for these estimates include (1) frequency of deposits from well-explored areas, (2) local deposit extrapolations, (3) counting and assigning probabilities to anomalies and occurrences, (4) process constraints, (5) relative frequencies of related deposit types, and (6) area spatial limits. In most cases, estimates are made subjectively, as they are in meteorology, gambling, and geologic interpretations. In three-part assessments, the estimates are internally consistent because delineated tracts are consistent with descriptive models, grade and tonnage models are consistent with descriptive models, as well as with known deposits in the area, and estimates of number of deposits are consistent with grade and tonnage models. All available information is used in the assessment, and uncertainty is explicitly represented. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  7. Limitations of quantitative research in the study of structural adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lundy, P

    1996-02-01

    Sociologists and, more recently, critical medical anthropologists have been arguing for a refocusing of the analysis of health and health care towards a perspective which considers the broader global political economy. In the context of the debt crisis and IMF/World Bank-inspired structural adjustment policies, the political economy theoretical perspective is becoming even more relevant in the analysis of health underdevelopment in many 'Third World' countries. This study focuses on the direct and indirect effects of the Jamaican debt crisis and structural adjustment programmes on health care services and health standards. In this paper it is argued that there are methodological problems using quantitative data when studying the effects of structural adjustment. In addition to providing a limited account of the effects, it is argued that the basic problem is a matter of the availability and reliability of the quantitative data in many 'Third World' countries. It is argued that some of these problems could be overcome by the application of qualitative micro-level analysis. This type of methodology is important to ascertain the effects of global processes at the grass roots level and to gain insights into what those working in the health sector are experiencing and what they perceive as the effects, if any, of structural adjustment policies. This has often been missing from the impersonal accounts offered by quantitative research on the subject to date.

  8. Integration of Basic Skills into Social Studies Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunstrum, John P.; Irvin, Judith L.

    1981-01-01

    A basic skills model is presented which stresses the skills of writing, reading, study, and research for elementary school pupils. The model focuses on lesson background, the purpose of the reading, independent reading, follow-up discussion, developing related skills, and extending and applying ideas. A lesson about the 1910 British expedition to…

  9. Basic Facts on Study Abroad in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Dawn L.

    This booklet provides basic information about selecting an educational opportunity abroad. Its chief focus is on postsecondary academic programs, but it also includes information related to work, travel, and volunteer programs in other countries. The first step to studying abroad should be to define one's goals for doing so. The next step should…

  10. A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a quantitative method to estimate chemical-specific pesticide exposures in a large prospective cohort study of over 58,000 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. An enrollment questionnaire was administered to applicators to collect basic time- and inten...

  11. Making quantitative morphological variation from basic developmental processes: Where are we? The case of the Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Houle, David

    2015-01-23

    One of the aims of evolutionary developmental biology is to discover the developmental origins of morphological variation. The discipline has mainly focused on qualitative morphological differences (e.g., presence or absence of a structure) between species. Studies addressing subtle, quantitative variation are less common. The Drosophila wing is a model for the study of development and evolution, making it suitable to investigate the developmental mechanisms underlying the subtle quantitative morphological variation observed in nature. Previous reviews have focused on the processes involved in wing differentiation, patterning and growth. Here, we investigate what is known about how the wing achieves its final shape, and what variation in development is capable of generating the variation in wing shape observed in nature. Three major developmental stages need to be considered: larval development, pupariation, and pupal development. The major cellular processes involved in the determination of tissue size and shape are cell proliferation, cell death, oriented cell division and oriented cell intercalation. We review how variation in temporal and spatial distribution of growth and transcription factors affects these cellular mechanisms, which in turn affects wing shape. We then discuss which aspects of the wing morphological variation are predictable on the basis of these mechanisms. Developmental Dynamics, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Making quantitative morphological variation from basic developmental processes: where are we? The case of the Drosophila wing

    PubMed Central

    Alexis, Matamoro-Vidal; Isaac, Salazar-Ciudad; David, Houle

    2015-01-01

    One of the aims of evolutionary developmental biology is to discover the developmental origins of morphological variation. The discipline has mainly focused on qualitative morphological differences (e.g., presence or absence of a structure) between species. Studies addressing subtle, quantitative variation are less common. The Drosophila wing is a model for the study of development and evolution, making it suitable to investigate the developmental mechanisms underlying the subtle quantitative morphological variation observed in nature. Previous reviews have focused on the processes involved in wing differentiation, patterning and growth. Here, we investigate what is known about how the wing achieves its final shape, and what variation in development is capable of generating the variation in wing shape observed in nature. Three major developmental stages need to be considered: larval development, pupariation, and pupal development. The major cellular processes involved in the determination of tissue size and shape are cell proliferation, cell death, oriented cell division and oriented cell intercalation. We review how variation in temporal and spatial distribution of growth and transcription factors affects these cellular mechanisms, which in turn affects wing shape. We then discuss which aspects of the wing morphological variation are predictable on the basis of these mechanisms. PMID:25619644

  13. Basic Study on Engine with Scroll Compressor and Expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Nishida, Mitsuhiro

    Scroll compressors are becoming popular in air conditioning and refrigeration. This is primarily due to their higher efficiency and low noise/vibration characteristics. The scroll principle can be applied also to the steam expander and the Brayton cycle engine,as shown in the past literature. The Otto cycle spark-ignition engine with a scroll compressor and expander is studied in this report. The principle and basic structure of the scroll engine are explained,and the engine characteristic are calculated based on the idealized cycles and processes. A prototype model has been proposed and constructed. The rotary type engine has always had a problem with sealing. The scroll engine might overcome this shortcoming with its much lower rubbing speed compared to its previous counterparts,and is therefore worth investigating.

  14. Quantitative Articles: Developing Studies for Publication in Counseling Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This article is presented as a guide for developing quantitative studies and preparing quantitative manuscripts for publication in counseling journals. It is intended as an aid for aspiring authors in conceptualizing studies and formulating valid research designs. Material is presented on choosing variables and measures and on selecting…

  15. Sleep during basic combat training: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Shannon K; Wilkinson, Larrell L; Burroughs, Ericka L; Muraca, Stephanie T; Wigfall, Lisa T; Louis-Nance, Tasha; Williams, Edith M; Glover, Saundra H; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2012-07-01

    Anecdotal accounts indicate that Basic Combat Training (BCT) is associated with significant sleep impairment, which conceivably could impact health, attrition, and training. However, there has been little empirical investigation of sleep during BCT. The aim of this study was to obtain a qualitative assessment of soldiers' perceptions about their sleep and consequences of sleep disruption during BCT. During November/December of 2010, focus group discussions were conducted with soldiers, ages > or = 18 years, who had completed at least 4 weeks of BCT at Fort Jackson, SC. The soldiers were assessed in 45 to 60 min sessions involving three groups of female soldiers (total n = 28) and three groups of male soldiers (total n = 38). Soldiers reported reductions in their sleep duration and quality, which were attributed to many factors, particularly noise, nighttime work detail, stress, and hunger. These sleep changes had many perceived negative effects on performance, mood, and other components of BCT. These effects were more evident in soldiers of lower physical fitness. This study suggests associations between sleep and BCT outcomes. Whether these associations warrant changes in the sleep environment of BCT will require much further investigation.

  16. Kinetic studies on sorption of basic dye using Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Renganathan, S; Venkatakrishnan, R; Venkataramana, S; Kumar, M Dharmendira; Deepak, S; Miranda, Lima Rose; Velan, M

    2008-10-01

    Sorption capacity of different parts of Eichhornia crassipes, such as rhizome, root, lamina and petiole on basic aurophine-o was studied in a batch system. The equilibrium uptake capacity was observed as 13.65 mg/g (using root), 13.5 mg/g (using lamina), 12.9 mg/g (using rhizome) and 12.75 mg/g (using petiole). It was observed that the equilibrium dye uptake capacity using root was found to be more when compared to all other E. crassipes parts used in the present investigation. The shortcut equations developed are accurate and can be used in the place of experimental data. The shortcut equations form the basis for further research. The intra particle diffusion coefficient (K(i)) and effective diffusion coefficient (D(i)) were evaluated for the removal of dye using root, which were found to be more when compared to all other parts of E. crassipes studied such as, lamina, rhizome and petiole.

  17. Results of Studying Astronomy Students’ Science Literacy, Quantitative Literacy, and Information Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Follette, Katherine B.; Dokter, Erin F.; McCarthy, Don; Vezino, Beau; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.; Brock, Laci; Neiberding, Megan; Prather, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    Introductory astronomy courses often serve as terminal science courses for non-science majors and present an opportunity to assess non future scientists’ attitudes towards science as well as basic scientific knowledge and scientific analysis skills that may remain unchanged after college. Through a series of studies, we have been able to evaluate students’ basic science knowledge, attitudes towards science, quantitative literacy, and informational literacy. In the Fall of 2015, we conducted a case study of a single class administering all relevant surveys to an undergraduate class of 20 students. We will present our analysis of trends of each of these studies as well as the comparison case study. In general we have found that students basic scientific knowledge has remained stable over the past quarter century. In all of our studies, there is a strong relationship between student attitudes and their science and quantitative knowledge and skills. Additionally, students’ information literacy is strongly connected to their attitudes and basic scientific knowledge. We are currently expanding these studies to include new audiences and will discuss the implications of our findings for instructors.

  18. Basic experimental studies of ion and electron temperature gradient instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao

    Important issues related to the temperature gradient driven instabilities are investigated in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). The main purpose of this research is to produce, definitively identify and elucidate the basic physics of these instabilities. The first part of the thesis is about the study of Zonal flows (ZF) associated with the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. The difficult problem of the ZF detection has been solved via a novel diagnostic using the paradigm of frequency modulation (FM) in radio transmission. Through the discrete short time Fourier transform (STFT) analysis, the most important ZF characteristics such as low frequency (˜ 2kHz), poloidal symmetry ( m = 0), toroidal symmetry (k∥ = 0) and radial structure (kr ≠ 0) have been identified directly in the experiment. Furthermore, the ZF saturation physics has been investigated through unique feedback control diagnostics. Finally, the experimental results are compared with various existing theoretical models. The second part of the thesis is about the research on the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode. ETG modes, which are believed to be one of the strongest candidates for the anomalous electron energy transport in plasmas, is difficult to detect in experiments because of its high frequency (˜ MHz ) and short wave length (k⊥rho e ≈ 1). Using a DC bias heating scheme of the core plasma, we are able to produce a sufficiently strong electron temperature gradient for exciting ETG modes in the CLM. A high frequency mode at ˜ 2MHz, with azimuthal wave number m ˜ 14--16 and parallel wave number k∥ ≈ 0.01cm-1, has been observed. This frequency is consistent with the result of a kinetic dispersion relation of slab ETG modes with an appropriate E⃗xB⃗ Doppler shift. The scaling of its fluctuation level with the temperature gradient scale length and the radial structure are found to be roughly consistent with theoretical expectations. With all the parametric signatures

  19. Quantitative Literacy Provision in the First Year of Medical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a description of and motivation for the quantitative literacy (numeracy) intervention in the first year of medical studies at a South African university. This intervention is a response to the articulation gap between the quantitative literacy of many first-year medical students and the demands of their curriculum.…

  20. Quantitative microscopy of the lung: a problem-based approach. Part 1: basic principles of lung stereology.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2013-07-01

    The growing awareness of the importance of accurate morphometry in lung research has recently motivated the publication of guidelines set forth by a combined task force of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society (20). This official ATS/ERS Research Policy Statement provides general recommendations on which stereological methods are to be used in quantitative microscopy of the lung. However, to integrate stereology into a particular experimental study design, investigators are left with the problem of how to implement this in practice. Specifically, different animal models of human lung disease require the use of different stereological techniques and may determine the mode of lung fixation, tissue processing, preparation of sections, and other things. Therefore, the present companion articles were designed to allow a short practically oriented introduction into the concepts of design-based stereology (Part 1) and to provide recommendations for choosing the most appropriate methods to investigate a number of important disease models (Part 2). Worked examples with illustrative images will facilitate the practical performance of equivalent analyses. Study algorithms provide comprehensive surveys to ensure that no essential step gets lost during the multistage workflow. Thus, with this review, we hope to close the gap between theory and practice and enhance the use of stereological techniques in pulmonary research.

  1. Towards reversible basic linear algebra subprograms: A performance study

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Yoginath, Srikanth B.

    2014-12-06

    Problems such as fault tolerance and scalable synchronization can be efficiently solved using reversibility of applications. Making applications reversible by relying on computation rather than on memory is ideal for large scale parallel computing, especially for the next generation of supercomputers in which memory is expensive in terms of latency, energy, and price. In this direction, a case study is presented here in reversing a computational core, namely, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, which is widely used in scientific applications. A new Reversible BLAS (RBLAS) library interface has been designed, and a prototype has been implemented with two modes: (1) a memory-mode in which reversibility is obtained by checkpointing to memory in forward and restoring from memory in reverse, and (2) a computational-mode in which nothing is saved in the forward, but restoration is done entirely via inverse computation in reverse. The article is focused on detailed performance benchmarking to evaluate the runtime dynamics and performance effects, comparing reversible computation with checkpointing on both traditional CPU platforms and recent GPU accelerator platforms. For BLAS Level-1 subprograms, data indicates over an order of magnitude better speed of reversible computation compared to checkpointing. For BLAS Level-2 and Level-3, a more complex tradeoff is observed between reversible computation and checkpointing, depending on computational and memory complexities of the subprograms.

  2. Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, George J.; Maggs, James E.

    2014-10-25

    The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.

  3. Study of basic physical processes in liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Chen, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    Inconsistencies between analytical results and measurements for liquid rocket thrust chamber performance, which escape suitable explanations, have motivated the examination of the basic phys ical modeling formulations as to their unlimited application. The publication of Prof. D. Straub's book, 'Thermofluid-dynamics of Optimized Rocket Propulsions,' further stimulated the interest of understanding the gas dynamic relationships in chemically reacting mixtures. A review of other concepts proposed by Falk-Ruppel (Gibbsian Thermodynamics), Straub (Alternative Theory, AT), Prigogine (Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics), Boltzmann (Kinetic Theory), and Truesdell (Rational Mechanism) has been made to obtain a better understanding of the Navier-Stokes equation, which is now used extensively for chemically reacting flow treatment in combustion chambers. In addition to the study of the different concepts, two workshops were conducted to clarify some of the issues. The first workshop centered on Falk-Ruppel's new 'dynamics' concept, while the second one concentrated on Straub's AT. In this report brief summaries of the reviewed philosophies are presented and compared with the classical Navier-Stokes formulation in a tabular arrangement. Also the highlights of both workshops are addressed.

  4. Towards reversible basic linear algebra subprograms: A performance study

    DOE PAGES

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Yoginath, Srikanth B.

    2014-12-06

    Problems such as fault tolerance and scalable synchronization can be efficiently solved using reversibility of applications. Making applications reversible by relying on computation rather than on memory is ideal for large scale parallel computing, especially for the next generation of supercomputers in which memory is expensive in terms of latency, energy, and price. In this direction, a case study is presented here in reversing a computational core, namely, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, which is widely used in scientific applications. A new Reversible BLAS (RBLAS) library interface has been designed, and a prototype has been implemented with two modes: (1) amore » memory-mode in which reversibility is obtained by checkpointing to memory in forward and restoring from memory in reverse, and (2) a computational-mode in which nothing is saved in the forward, but restoration is done entirely via inverse computation in reverse. The article is focused on detailed performance benchmarking to evaluate the runtime dynamics and performance effects, comparing reversible computation with checkpointing on both traditional CPU platforms and recent GPU accelerator platforms. For BLAS Level-1 subprograms, data indicates over an order of magnitude better speed of reversible computation compared to checkpointing. For BLAS Level-2 and Level-3, a more complex tradeoff is observed between reversible computation and checkpointing, depending on computational and memory complexities of the subprograms.« less

  5. Study of basic physical processes in liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. T.; Chen, C. P.

    1992-09-01

    Inconsistencies between analytical results and measurements for liquid rocket thrust chamber performance, which escape suitable explanations, have motivated the examination of the basic phys ical modeling formulations as to their unlimited application. The publication of Prof. D. Straub's book, 'Thermofluid-dynamics of Optimized Rocket Propulsions,' further stimulated the interest of understanding the gas dynamic relationships in chemically reacting mixtures. A review of other concepts proposed by Falk-Ruppel (Gibbsian Thermodynamics), Straub (Alternative Theory, AT), Prigogine (Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics), Boltzmann (Kinetic Theory), and Truesdell (Rational Mechanism) has been made to obtain a better understanding of the Navier-Stokes equation, which is now used extensively for chemically reacting flow treatment in combustion chambers. In addition to the study of the different concepts, two workshops were conducted to clarify some of the issues. The first workshop centered on Falk-Ruppel's new 'dynamics' concept, while the second one concentrated on Straub's AT. In this report brief summaries of the reviewed philosophies are presented and compared with the classical Navier-Stokes formulation in a tabular arrangement. Also the highlights of both workshops are addressed.

  6. Toxicogenomics and ecotoxicogenomics for studying endocrine disruption and basic biology.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Taisen; Watanabe, Hajime; Katsu, Yoshinao

    2007-01-01

    Chemicals released into the environment have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in wild animals, mouse, and humans. To understand molecular mechanisms of chemical toxicity in various species, toxicogenomics/ecotoxicogenomics, describing the integration of genomics (trascriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) into toxicology/ecotoxicology, needs to be established as a powerful tool for research. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as the study of gene and protein expression in non-target organisms that is important in responses to environmental toxicant exposures. Estrogen-responsive genes and estrogen response element(s) in genes have been identified in the mouse reproductive tract by application of cDNA microarray technology. Additionally, functional mechanisms of tributyltin action via nuclear receptors such as retinoid X receptor alpha and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma also have been identified using cDNA microarray. A microarray system has been established for Daphnia magna. Toxicogenomics/ecotoxicogenomics provide powerful tools to help us understand not only molecular mechanisms of chemical toxicity but also the basic biology of various animal species.

  7. Basic investigation on acoustic velocity change imaging method for quantitative assessment of fat content in human liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, Kazune; Tanigawa, Shohei; Hori, Makoto; Yokota, Daiki; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2016-07-01

    Fatty liver is a disease caused by the excess accumulation of fat in the human liver. The early diagnosis of fatty liver is very important, because fatty liver is the major marker linked to metabolic syndrome. We already proposed the ultrasonic velocity change imaging method to diagnose fatty liver by using the fact that the temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is different in water and in fat. For the diagonosis of a fatty liver stage, we attempted a feasibility study of the quantitative assessment of the fat content in the human liver using our ultrasonic velocity change imaging method. Experimental results showed that the fat content in the tissue mimic phantom containing lard was determined by its ultrasonic velocity change in the flat temperature region formed by a circular warming ultrasonic transducer with an acoustic lens having an appropriate focal length. By considering the results of our simulation using a thermal diffusion equation, we determined whether this method could be applied to fatty liver assessment under the condition that the tissue had the thermal relaxation effect caused by blood flow.

  8. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    1999-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen (O2) delivery to a tissue is generally associated with a decrease in phosphocreatine, increases in ADP, NADH/NAD, and inorganic phosphate, increased rates of glycolysis and lactate production, and reduced rates of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in tissue O2 availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of O2 as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and in parameters controlling the rate of cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The whole body is described as a bioenergetic system consisting of metabolically distinct tissue/organ subsystems that exchange materials with the blood. In order to study the dynamic response of each subsystem to stimuli, we solve the ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of metabolite levels, given the initial concentrations. The solver used in the present study is the packaged code LSODE, as implemented in the NASA Lewis kinetics and sensitivity analysis code, LSENS. A major advantage of LSENS is the efficient procedures supporting systematic sensitivity analysis, which provides the basic methods for studying parameter sensitivities (i.e., changes in model behavior due to parameter variation

  9. Basic models modeling resistance training: an update for basic scientists interested in study skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Jason; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; da Silva Teixeira, Tamiris; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, Xia; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Lodetti, Alice; Cardozo, Mayara Quadros; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-09-01

    Human muscle hypertrophy brought about by voluntary exercise in laboratorial conditions is the most common way to study resistance exercise training, especially because of its reliability, stimulus control and easy application to resistance training exercise sessions at fitness centers. However, because of the complexity of blood factors and organs involved, invasive data is difficult to obtain in human exercise training studies due to the integration of several organs, including adipose tissue, liver, brain and skeletal muscle. In contrast, studying skeletal muscle remodeling in animal models are easier to perform as the organs can be easily obtained after euthanasia; however, not all models of resistance training in animals displays a robust capacity to hypertrophy the desired muscle. Moreover, some models of resistance training rely on voluntary effort, which complicates the results observed when animal models are employed since voluntary capacity is something theoretically impossible to measure in rodents. With this information in mind, we will review the modalities used to simulate resistance training in animals in order to present to investigators the benefits and risks of different animal models capable to provoke skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Our second objective is to help investigators analyze and select the experimental resistance training model that best promotes the research question and desired endpoints.

  10. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images

    PubMed Central

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D. DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K. Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25–30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians. PMID:27736888

  11. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25-30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians.

  12. The Mozart Effect: A quantitative EEG study.

    PubMed

    Verrusio, Walter; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Vanacore, Nicola; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mecarelli, Oriano

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on brain activity through spectral analysis of the EEG in young healthy adults (Adults), in healthy elderly (Elderly) and in elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). EEG recording was performed at basal rest conditions and after listening to Mozart's K448 or "Fur Elise" Beethoven's sonatas. After listening to Mozart, an increase of alpha band and median frequency index of background alpha rhythm activity (a pattern of brain wave activity linked to memory, cognition and open mind to problem solving) was observed both in Adults and in Elderly. No changes were observed in MCI. After listening to Beethoven, no changes in EEG activity were detected. This results may be representative of the fact that said Mozart's music is able to "activate" neuronal cortical circuits related to attentive and cognitive functions.

  13. Quantitative studies of ribosome conformational dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Christopher S; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic machine that undergoes many conformational rearrangements during the initiation of protein synthesis. Significant differences exist between the process of protein synthesis initiation in eubacteria and eukaryotes. In particular, the initiation of eukaryotic protein synthesis requires roughly an order of magnitude more initiation factors to promote efficient mRNA recruitment and ribosomal recognition of the start codon than are needed for eubacterial initiation. The mechanisms by which these initiation factors promote ribosome conformational changes during stages of initiation have been studied using cross-linking, footprinting, site-directed probing, cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, fluorescence spectroscopy and single-molecule techniques. Here, we review how the results of these different approaches have begun to converge to yield a detailed molecular understanding of the dynamic motions that the eukaryotic ribosome cycles through during the initiation of protein synthesis.

  14. Research Review: Quantitative Magazine Studies, 1983-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N.

    1994-01-01

    Examines quantitative magazine research studies published in various journals during the period 1983-1993. Questions the heavy reliance on content analysis techniques to study the role of magazines in American society. Calls for a redirection in magazine research, combining media content studies with media effects studies. (SR)

  15. The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Herranz, Andrés; Balk, Lisanne J.; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Saidha, Shiv; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H.; Lagreze, Wolf A.; Schuman, Joel S.; Villoslada, Pablo; Calabresi, Peter; Balcer, Laura; Petzold, Axel; Green, Ari J.; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. Methods: A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group. Results: We provide a 9-point checklist encompassing aspects deemed relevant when reporting quantitative OCT studies. The areas covered are study protocol, acquisition device, acquisition settings, scanning protocol, funduscopic imaging, postacquisition data selection, postacquisition data analysis, recommended nomenclature, and statistical analysis. Conclusions: The Advised Protocol for OCT Study Terminology and Elements recommendations include core items to standardize and improve quality of reporting in quantitative OCT studies. The recommendations will make reporting of quantitative OCT studies more consistent and in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. The recommendations originated from expert consensus and thus represent Class IV evidence. They will need to be regularly adjusted according to new insights and practices. PMID:27225223

  16. Theoretical Study of Strong Basicity in Aromatic Diamines.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Eiichi; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    1997-10-17

    The basic strength of NH(3), NH(2)(CH(3)), NH(CH(3))(2), and N(CH(3))(3) has been evaluated by generating for each species the orbital that plays the dominant role in electron delocalization to an attached proton. The theoretically determined strength has been found to correlate well with the calculated value of proton affinity. The analysis has then been extended to a so-called "proton-sponge" compound, 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene. The major component of the orbital of the diamine that captures the proton has been demonstrated to be an in-phase combination of two lone-pair orbitals. The out-of-phase combination elevated in energy by a strong antibonding interaction between two lone pairs of electrons is not necessarily the source of the exceptionally high basicity. The electrostatic interaction has been shown to be the major origin of stabilizing the protonated system, but the location of the captured proton is governed by electron delocalization. A similar conclusion has also been derived for 4,5-bis(dimethylamino)fluorene.

  17. The quantitative assessment of the role played by basic amino acid clusters in the nuclear uptake of human ribosomal protein L7

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Lee, I-Fang; Kirby, Ralph; Lin, Alan

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we used a multiple copy (EGFP){sub 3} reporter system to establish a numeric nuclear index system to assess the degree of nuclear import. The system was first validated by a FRAP assay, and then was applied to evaluate the essential and multifaceted nature of basic amino acid clusters during the nuclear import of ribosomal protein L7. The results indicate that the sequence context of the basic cluster determines the degree of nuclear import, and that the number of basic residues in the cluster is irrelevant; rather the position of the pertinent basic residues is crucial. Moreover, it also found that the type of carrier protein used by basic cluster has a great impact on the degree of nuclear import. In case of L7, importin β2 or importin β3 are preferentially used by clusters with a high import efficiency, notwithstanding that other importins are also used by clusters with a weaker level of nuclear import. Such a preferential usage of multiple basic clusters and importins to gain nuclear entry would seem to be a common practice among ribosomal proteins in order to ensure their full participation in high rate ribosome synthesis. - Highlights: ► We introduce a numeric index system that represents the degree of nuclear import. ► The rate of nuclear import is dictated by the sequence context of the basic cluster. ► Importin β2 and β3 were mainly responsible for the N4 mediated nuclear import.

  18. Microfluidics for High-Throughput Quantitative Studies of Early Development.

    PubMed

    Levario, Thomas J; Lim, Bomyi; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Lu, Hang

    2016-07-11

    Developmental biology has traditionally relied on qualitative analyses; recently, however, as in other fields of biology, researchers have become increasingly interested in acquiring quantitative knowledge about embryogenesis. Advances in fluorescence microscopy are enabling high-content imaging in live specimens. At the same time, microfluidics and automation technologies are increasing experimental throughput for studies of multicellular models of development. Furthermore, computer vision methods for processing and analyzing bioimage data are now leading the way toward quantitative biology. Here, we review advances in the areas of fluorescence microscopy, microfluidics, and data analysis that are instrumental to performing high-content, high-throughput studies in biology and specifically in development. We discuss a case study of how these techniques have allowed quantitative analysis and modeling of pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo.

  19. Quantitative proteomics to study carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vishvanath; Tiwari, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, respiratory infections and urinary tract infections. The prevalence of this lethal pathogen increases gradually in the clinical setup where it can grow on artificial surfaces, utilize ethanol as a carbon source. Moreover it resists desiccation. Carbapenems, a β-lactam, are the most commonly prescribed drugs against A. baumannii. Resistance against carbapenem has emerged in Acinetobacter baumannii which can create significant health problems and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. With the development of quantitative proteomics, a considerable progress has been made in the study of carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Recent updates showed that quantitative proteomics has now emerged as an important tool to understand the carbapenem resistance mechanism in Acinetobacter baumannii. Present review also highlights the complementary nature of different quantitative proteomic methods used to study carbapenem resistance and suggests to combine multiple proteomic methods for understanding the response to antibiotics by Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:25309531

  20. Cadet basic training: an ethnographic study of stress and coping.

    PubMed

    Gold, M A; Friedman, S B

    2000-02-01

    Cadet basic training (CBT) at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point is an initial cadet experience designed to transition freshmen (new cadets) into the military. Challenge is an inherent component of CBT, and some challenging activities may be stressful. However, the nature and the impact of stress on health status have not been systematically investigated. An ethnographic technique, participant observation, was used to identify stressors and coping strategies among cadets aged 18 to 21 years participating in CBT. A company of 183 cadets, consisting of 123 new cadets and 60 supervising upperclass cadets from the U.S. Military Academy, was followed throughout the 6-week CBT in the summer of 1993. The investigator observed daily activities and participated in select field training experiences. Daily field observations were taped, and field notes were generated chronicling the experience. After CBT, 10 of the 60 upperclass cadets participated in a 20-minute structured interview. Field and interview notes were systematically reviewed to identify and categorize stressors and coping techniques. Stressors included anticipatory stress, time management pressures, sleep deprivation, performance evaluations, conflicts between teamwork and competitive grading, and inexperience in the leadership role. Coping techniques identified included perceiving social support, humor, and rationalization. Three new hypotheses were generated from the observations.

  1. The quantitative assessment of the role played by basic amino acid clusters in the nuclear uptake of human ribosomal protein L7.

    PubMed

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Lee, I-Fang; Kirby, Ralph; Lin, Alan

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we used a multiple copy (EGFP)(3) reporter system to establish a numeric nuclear index system to assess the degree of nuclear import. The system was first validated by a FRAP assay, and then was applied to evaluate the essential and multifaceted nature of basic amino acid clusters during the nuclear import of ribosomal protein L7. The results indicate that the sequence context of the basic cluster determines the degree of nuclear import, and that the number of basic residues in the cluster is irrelevant; rather the position of the pertinent basic residues is crucial. Moreover, it also found that the type of carrier protein used by basic cluster has a great impact on the degree of nuclear import. In case of L7, importin β2 or importin β3 are preferentially used by clusters with a high import efficiency, notwithstanding that other importins are also used by clusters with a weaker level of nuclear import. Such a preferential usage of multiple basic clusters and importins to gain nuclear entry would seem to be a common practice among ribosomal proteins in order to ensure their full participation in high rate ribosome synthesis.

  2. Metamorphism of eucrite meteorites studied quantitatively using induced thermoluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelor, J. David; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1991-01-01

    Induced thermoluminescence studies provide a new and quantitative means of determining relative metamorphic intensities for eucrite meteorites, the simplest and most ancient products of basaltic volcanism. Using this technique, it is shown that the eucrites constitute a continuous metamorphic series and not, as commonly assumed, two groups of metamorphosed and nonmetamorphosed meteorites. It is suggested that the method may have applications to other basalts.

  3. A Quantitative Study of High School Yearbook Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krepel, Wayne J.; DuVall, Charles R.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze high school yearbooks, relative to quantitative page allotments, when classified by the size of the community, the type of socioeconomic environment of the school, and the size of the graduating class. A normative survey was conducted using a questionnaire requesting the respondent to furnish a copy of the…

  4. Simulation and the Development of Clinical Judgment: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative pretest posttest quasi-experimental research study was to explore the effect of the NESD on clinical judgment in associate degree nursing students and compare the differences between groups when the Nursing Education Simulation Design (NESD) guided simulation in order to identify educational strategies promoting…

  5. Studies Concerned with Basic Radiation Protection Criteria and Studies Concerned with Guidance and Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    has been completed and is ready to enter the review stage. Task Group 2 Uranium Mining and Milling - Radiation Safety Programs - A draft report is in...8217RD-fl158 319 STUDIES CONCERNED WITH BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION i/i I CRITERIA AND STUDIES CO..(U) N T ONAL COUNCIL ON I RADIATION PROTECTION AND...NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS 1963 A ’--- ( National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 7910 WOODMONT AVENUE, SUITE 1016, BETHESDA

  6. Derived Basic Ability Factors: A Factor Analysis Replication Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mickey, M.; Lee, Lynda Newby

    The purpose of this study was to replicate the study conducted by Potter, Sagraves, and McDonald to determine whether their recommended analysis could separate criterion variables into similar factors that were stable from year to year and from school to school. The replication samples consisted of all students attending Louisiana State University…

  7. Workplace Basic Skills. A Study of 10 Canadian Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice

    Presented in case study format, this report looks at different types of workplace literacy programs across Canada. It describes in some detail 10 particular work environments and the unique characteristics that have enabled each to offer quality worker education programs. Each case study provides information in these categories: profile (an…

  8. Study Design in fMRI: Basic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Edson, Jr.; Barker, Gareth J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide range of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study designs available for the neuroscientist who wants to investigate cognition. In this manuscript we review some aspects of fMRI study design, including cognitive comparison strategies (factorial, parametric designs), and stimulus presentation possibilities (block,…

  9. A Basic Bibliography on Canada for Social Studies Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yocum, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a bibliography that provides materials on Canada available to social studies educators. Resources for teachers include teaching strategies, literature guides, and books on acid rain. Student resources include books that provide a perspective on Canadian life. (DB)

  10. A Method for Describing Basic Writers and Their Writing: Lessons from a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen-Knill, Deborah; Lynch, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Presents a holistic method for describing basic writers and their writing to encourage classroom research at two- and four-year colleges and enables comparisons of basic writers across institutions. Offers some preliminary results from the pilot study to illustrate the type of findings this approach yields and highlights the importance of such…

  11. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume II. Basic Information and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    tribal potlatch grounds along the Tulalip Bay shore. The Marysville School District uses the Tulalip Bay area for educational field trips to study...Island public access boat launch 7) Small private marina on the western tip of Spencer !sland North 8) Potlatch Grounds of the Tulalip Tribes in Tulalip

  12. Driver License Examiner Supervisors; Basic Training Program. Trainee Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, John T.; Patton, C. Duane

    This is the third part of a four-part systematized training program intended for driver license examiner supervisors. The purpose of this study guide is to act as a program compendium to aid the trainee in successfully completing the program. The lesson material presented, apart from the introduction, is: orientation to license examiner…

  13. Polymicrobial Biofilm Studies: From Basic Science to Biofilm Control

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Hubertine ME; Xu, Zhenbo; Peters, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Microbes rarely exist as single species planktonic forms as they have been commonly studied in the laboratory. Instead, the vast majority exists as part of complex polymicrobial biofilm communities attached to host and environmental surfaces. The oral cavity represents one of the most diverse and well-studied polymicrobial consortia. Despite a burgeoning field of mechanistic biofilm research within the past decades, our understanding of interactions that occur between microbial members within oral biofilms is still limited. Thus, the primary objective of this review is to focus on polymicrobial biofilm formation, microbial interactions and signaling events that mediate oral biofilm development, consequences of oral hygiene on both local and systemic disease, and potential therapeutic strategies to limit oral dysbiosis. PMID:27134811

  14. [Basic study on wartime reminiscences of older adults in Okinawa].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Maiko; Tanaka, Kanji

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated retrospectively the thoughts people had of World War II, especially the Battle of Okinawa at that time, and their current evaluation of their own wartime experience. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 217 older adults, 114 women and 103 men between 65 and 88 years old, participated. Results indicated that men generally had more negative feelings than women at the end of the war. And psychological damages caused by traumatic war memories seemed to have persisted in not a few individuals in spite of over half a century since the end of the war. However, others had been more positive and accepting toward their wartime experiences. This difference appeared to be related to qualitative differences of various experiences, as well as the person's age. It is argued that a vigorous approach will be necessary for this sort of study of Japanese war victims from a number of viewpoints.

  15. Anthropometry: Basic Studies and Applications. Volume 2, 1976 - July 1978

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    in a questionnaire and somatotype measurement study during the 1972 U.S. Masters long-course national champions. Nearly 70 percent of all mala...swimming experience. Somatotype data gathered on the men did not differentiate swimmers in their 70’s from swimmers in their 5C’s, nor did somatotype ...Anthropometry, Males, Physical fitness, Aging (PhysiolDgy) , Body weight Identifiers: Competition, Reprints, Questionnaires, Surveys, Somatotyping

  16. Osteoarthritis pain mechanisms: Basic studies in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Xin; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex and painful disease of the whole joint. At present there are no satisfying agents for treating OA. The current standard of care mainly involves managing and alleviating its symptoms. Mechanisms of OA pain have been studied in rodent knee OA models produced by intra-knee injection of the chondrocyte glycolytic inhibitor mono-iodoacetate, surgery, or spontaneous development in some species. These models are clinically relevant in terms of histological damage and functional changes, and are used to study mechanisms underlying mechanical, thermal, ambulatory, body weight supporting-evoked, and ongoing OA pain. Recent peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal biochemical and electrophysiological studies in these models suggest that peripheral pro-inflammatory mediators and neuropeptides sensitize knee nociceptors. Spinal cytokines and neuropeptides promote OA-associated pain, and peripheral and spinal cannabinoids inhibit OA pain respectively through cannabinoid-1 (CB1) and CB1/CB2 receptors. TRPV1 and metalloproteinases contribute and supraspinal descending facilitation of 5-HT/5-HT 3 receptors may also contribute to OA pain. Conditioned place preference tests demonstrate that OA pain induces aversive behaviors suggesting brain involvement in OA pain. During OA, brain functional connectivity is enhanced, but at present it is unclear how this change is related to OA pain. PMID:23973145

  17. Basic studies of microstructure of combusting turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Fazle

    1991-03-01

    The goal is to develop a state-of-the-art measurement technique, Holographic Particle Displacement Velocimetry (HPV), which can provide instantaneous velocities everywhere in the flow field simultaneously. Another goal is to use the power of supercomputers to simulate 3D flows with heat release to study the physics of combusting turbulent flows. Computations suffer from limited flow times and Reynolds number but can provide flow properties in more detail than possible by any existing experimental techniques. Moreover, numerical simulations can provide quantities almost impossible to measure experimentally. This article discusses efforts to develop the holographic particle displacement velocimetry system and results of direct numerical numerical simulations of combusting flows.

  18. Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science

    SciTech Connect

    Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  20. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-05-05

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  1. Basic study on the rectangular numeric keys for touch screen.

    PubMed

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1997-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the optimum inter-key spacing of numeric rectangular keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) participated in the experiment. Each subject performed the data entry task using rectangular keys of touch devices. These keys were arranged in both horizontal and vertical layouts. The sizes of the rectangular keys in both layouts were 12 x 21 mm and 15 x 39 mm, and each of the inter-key spacing of each key was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. The response time with inter-key spacing of 3 mm was significantly faster than with the inter-key spacing of 0, 12 and 21 mm (p < 0.05). Keys of vertical position produced faster response time than that of horizontal position. The subjective ratings showed that the inter-key spacing of 6 mm was significantly better than the inter-key spacing of 0, 3, 12 and 21 mm (p < 0.05).

  2. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1452481

  3. Basic Study on Production Well Integrity for Methane Hydrate Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakumoto, M.; Yoneda, J.; Katagiri, J.; Tenma, N.; Aoki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Methane Hydrate (MH) exist as an ice-like crystal under low-temperature and high-pressure condition, and it has gathering attention as a non-conventional natural gas resource. Depressurization method is a method to reduce the bottom hole pressure by submersible pump lowering water level in the production well, and gas and water is recovered by MH dissociation at the in situ. During the depressurization operation, consolidation and deformation of sediment occurs because of increase of effective stress by depressurization and changes in the soil structure by MH dissociation. Then consolidation and deformation of sediment makes negative friction between the production well and sediment, and large stress is occur in casing. Therefore there is concern that it may cause compression failure and shear failure of the production well. For safe MH development, it is necessary to grasp the deformation and stress vicinity of the production well. At first, we conducted push-out test to get friction strength between the different materials simulated the well and sediment. And we have done numerical analysis for integrity using by these data. The results of numerical analysis showed that the large deformation of sediment occur around the depressurization zone, and for the well, the large tensile stress in the vertical direction occur the upper vicinity of the depressurization zone.This study was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The authors thank the entire personnel related to MH21 Research Consortium.

  4. A Quantitative Study of Bulk Stresses in Nonlinear Microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depuit, Ryan; Squires, Todd

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear microrheology of a simple model system - a spherical probe translating through a dilute suspension of rigid rods - to elucidate a variety of issues inherent in the interpretation of nonlinear microrheology. We have developed a computational system to quantitatively examine the issues present in interpretation of nonlinear microrheology, as originally discussed by Squires (Langmuir, 2008). Following recent work emphasizing the importance of the microstructural behavior in the bulk (Sriram et. al, 2009), we focus our attention on the bulk microstructural deformation, and examine the significance of its (Lagrangian) transient nature, as well as the consequences of the mixed and inhomogeneous flows inherent to nonlinear microrheology. From this quantitative study, we pose solutions for the current theoretical issues facing nonlinear microrheology in interpretation and comparison of the microviscosity with the shear viscosity from traditional bulk rheometry.

  5. Private Sector Providers of Basic Skills Training in the Workplace. A Study of the General Training and Basic Skills Responses of Randomly Selected Companies Which Provide Basic Skills Training to Their Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Jorie Lester

    A questionnaire was distributed to 1,305 companies to study the basic skills training provided. Of 62 responses, 41 companies had basic skills training programs. Respondents represented these types of companies: communications and utilities, finance and insurance, manufacturing, wholesalers, retailers, health and hospitals, and mining, and had…

  6. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  7. Erosion of Terrestrial Rift Flank Topography: A Quantitative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissel, Jeffrey K.

    1999-01-01

    Many rifted or passive continental margins feature a seaward-facing erosional escarpment which abruptly demarcates deeply weathered, low relief, interior uplands from a deeply incised, high relief coastal zone. It is generally accepted that these escarpments originate at the time of continental rifting and propagate inland through the elevated rift flank topography at rates on the order of 1 km/Myr over the course of a margin's history. Considering the length of passive margins worldwide and an average rift flank plateau height of several hundred meters, it is clear that sediment eroded from passive margins is an important component of the mass flux from continents to oceans through geologic time. The overall goal of the research reported here is to develop a quantitative understanding of the kinematics of escarpment propagation across passive margins and the underlying geological processes responsible for this behavior. Plateau-bounding escarpments in general exhibit two basic forms depending on the direction of surface water drainage on the plateau interior relative to the escarpment. Where surface water flows away from the escarpment, the escarpment takes the form of subdued embayments and promontories, such that its overall trend remains fairly straight as it evolves with time. Where upland streams flow across the escarpment, it takes the form of dramatic, narrow gorges whose heads appear to propagate up the plateau drainage systems as large-scale knickpoints. From work on the Colorado Plateau, Schmidt (1987) noted that the Colorado River is located much closer to the Grand Canyon's south rim, a drainage divide escarpment, than to the north rim, which is a gorge-like escarpment. The main implication is that the gorge-like form might be associated with higher long-term average erosion rates compared to the drainage divide escarpment type.

  8. Quantitative Methods in the Study of Local History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Pene

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests how the quantitative analysis of data from census records, assessment roles, and newspapers may be integrated into the classroom. Suggestions for obtaining quantitative data are provided. (DE)

  9. Quantitative Courses in a Liberal Education Program: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly L.; Mackay, D. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues for the importance of quantitative reasoning skills as part of a liberal education and describes the successful introduction of a mathematics-based quantitative skills course at a small Canadian university. Today's students need quantitative problem-solving skills, to function as adults, professionals, consumers, and citizens in…

  10. Turnover of basic chromosomal proteins in fertilized eggs: a cytoimmunochemical study of events in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The chromosomal complements of mouse oocytes, ova, and fertilizing sperm have been studied by immunofluorescence with specific antisera to the basic protein fraction of sperm nuclei and to histones H2b and H4, and by staining with ethidium bromide. These studies support the hypothesis, previously proposed (Rodman and Barth, 1979, Dev. Biol. 68:82-95), that the chromosomes of the oocyte in maturation incorporate unique basic protein(s) similar to those incorporated during spermiogenesis. That similarity is characterized, here, by immunologic cross-reactivity. The basic proteins of the fertilizing sperm nucleus and the cross-reactive moiety of the two haploid complements of the ovum are displaced simultaneously, shortly after sperm entry. However, because the unique basic proteins incorporated into the oocyte chromosomes do not, as in the spermatogenic sequence, entirely replace the histones, the maternal chromosomes display histones H2b and H4 at all postfertilization stages examined, whereas the decondensing paternal complement, for an interval before maturation of the pronuclei, contains neither sperm basic chromosomal proteins nor histones. Sequential staining of the same specimens with ethidium bromide revealed well-organized nuclear morphology of the residual DNA complex. Those observations suggest that, for an as yet undefined period in the transformation from spermatozoal to embryonic genome, the chromatin is devoid of a complement of basic proteins. PMID:6793597

  11. A quantitative study of oxygen as a metabolic regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2003-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to a tissue is associated with metabolic changes aimed at maintaining ATP homeostasis. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). In particular, we are interested in determining mechanisms relating cellular oxygen concentration to observed metabolic responses at the cellular, tissue, organ, and whole body levels and in quantifying how changes in tissue oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics, to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of oxygen as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement--sensitivity analysis--permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and parameters controlling cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The analysis can distinguish between parameters that must be determined accurately and those that require less precision, based on their effects on model predictions. This capability may prove to be important in optimizing experimental design, thus reducing use of animals.

  12. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabera, Marco E.

    2000-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to a tissue is associated with metabolic changes aimed at maintaining ATP homeostasis. However, given the complexity of the human bio-energetic system, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). In particular, we are interested in determining mechanisms relating cellular oxygen concentration to observed metabolic responses at the cellular, tissue, organ, and whole body levels and in quantifying how changes in tissue oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study; we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics, to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of oxygen as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement - sensitivity analysis - permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and parameters controlling cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The analysis can distinguish between parameters that must be determined accurately and those that require less precision, based on their effects on model predictions. This capability may prove to be important in optimizing experimental design, thus reducing use of animals.

  13. Quantitative model studies for interfaces in organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, J. Michael

    2016-11-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes and similar devices, organic semiconductors are typically contacted by metal electrodes. Because the resulting metal/organic interfaces have a large impact on the performance of these devices, their quantitative understanding is indispensable for the further rational development of organic electronics. A study by Kröger et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 113022) of an important single-crystal based model interface provides detailed insight into its geometric and electronic structure and delivers valuable benchmark data for computational studies. In view of the differences between typical surface-science model systems and real devices, a ‘materials gap’ is identified that needs to be addressed by future research to make the knowledge obtained from fundamental studies even more beneficial for real-world applications.

  14. Basic Competence of Intensive Care Unit Nurses: Cross-Sectional Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Ritmala-Castrén, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1–5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent) was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n = 431). Intensive care unit nurses' self-assessed basic competence was good (mean 4.19, SD 0.40). The attitude and value base of basic competence was excellent whereas experience base was the poorest compared to the knowledge base and skill base of intensive and critical care nursing. The strongest factor explaining nurses' basic competence was their experience of autonomy in nursing care (F value 60.85, β 0.11, SE 0.01, and P ≤ 0.0001). Clinical competence was self-rated as good. Nurses gave their highest competence self-ratings for ICU patient care according to the principles of nursing care. The ICU nurses also self-rated their professional competence as good. Collaboration was self-rated as the best competence. In basic and continuing education and professional self-development discussions it is meaningful to consider and find solutions for how to improve nurses' experienced autonomy in nursing. PMID:26557676

  15. Quantitative study on appearance of microvessels in spectral endoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Shiraishi, Yasushi; Arai, Fumihito; Morimoto, Yoshinori; Yuasa, Atsuko

    2015-03-01

    Increase in abnormal microvessels in the superficial mucosa is often relevant to diagnostic findings of neoplasia in digestive endoscopy; hence, observation of superficial vasculature is crucial for cancer diagnosis. To enhance the appearance of such vessels, several spectral endoscopic imaging techniques have been developed, such as narrow-band imaging and blue laser imaging. Both techniques exploit narrow-band blue light for the enhancement. The emergence of such spectral imaging techniques has increased the importance of understanding the relation of the light wavelength to the appearance of superficial vasculature, and thus a new method is desired for quantitative analysis of vessel visibility in relation to the actual structure in the tissue. Here, we developed microvessel-simulating phantoms that allowed quantitative evaluation of the appearance of 15-μm-thick vessels. We investigated the relation between the vascular contrast and light wavelength by the phantom measurements and also verified it in experiments with swine, where the endoscopically observed vascular contrast was investigated together with its real vascular depth and diameter obtained by microscopic observation of fluorescence-labeled vessels. Our study indicates that changing the spectral property even in the wavelength range of blue light may allow selective enhancement of the vascular depth for clinical use.

  16. Arterial vasa vasorum: a quantitative study in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    McGeachie, J; Campbell, P; Simpson, S; Prendergast, F

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the vasa vasorum of common iliac arteries in 20 rats. The number of vasa vasorum per mm2 of arterial wall was extremely variable - from 0 to 124, the mean being 33 . 95 +/- 29 . 86 (S.D.). There was no significant difference in the vasa vasorum vascularity between the right and left common iliac arteries. The mean wall thickness of these arteries was 0 . 085 +/- 0 . 015 (S.D.) mm and 60 +/- 8% (S.D.) of this was made up by the tunica media. Arterial tissue in this study was shown to have approximately 10% of the vascularity of muscle tissue. By relating these data to the 'critical depth' hypothesis, on the nutritional supply of large arteries, it was concluded that the vasa vasorum in the common iliac arteries in rat (major arteries in small animals) probably play an insignificant role in the nutrition of the arterial wall. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7076548

  17. Revising Basic Mathematics in a Network Environment: An Empirical Study with Finnish Technology University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketamo, Harri; Alajaaski, Jarkko

    2008-01-01

    A revising/replenishment study course in basic mathematics is experienced as being almost a necessity at the beginning of technology studies at the Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland. This is to avoid early dropouts in actual engineering mathematics courses. Experimental research on factors explaining successful revision of…

  18. Freddie Fish. A Primary Environmental Study of Basic Numerals, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraynak, Ola

    This teacher's guide and study guide are an environmental approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the numerals 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…

  19. A Basic Approach to Social Studies: An Overview for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Oliver T.; Hickson, Mark, III

    A program based upon the study of human history and culture has been developed for seventh grade students by social studies teachers in Montgomery, Alabama public schools. The major objective of the program is to help students understand how basic relationships between time, space, and the cosmos have operated throughout the history of…

  20. A Study on Contribution of the Basic Training Course to the Professional Development of Probationary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, M. Cevat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make an evaluation on contribution of the basic training course to the professional development of probationary teachers. The study group consisted of 21 probationary teachers and 5 education supervisors in Sanliurfa province. The data were collected through semi-structured observation, focus group interview and…

  1. Effects of the exchange capacity and cross-linking degree on the hydration states of anions in quantitative loading onto strongly basic anion-exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Yuchi, Akio; Kuroda, Shigeo; Takagi, Mayuu; Watanabe, Yuuya; Nakao, Satoshi

    2010-10-15

    The water content was determined for five strongly basic anion-exchange resins (trimethyammonium type having different exchange capacities and cross-linking degrees by divinylbenzene) in definite anionic forms (ten singly, three doubly, one triply, and one quadruply charged) dried at 25 °C and at a relative humidity of 50%. Incorporation of the results of the previous research on the conventional resins by X-ray absorption fine structure and diffraction methods indicated that the present method gave the number of intrinsic water molecules strongly interacting with an anion. The hydration numbers of weakly hydrating anions (Cl⁻, Br⁻, and ClO₄⁻) and a small anion (F⁻) were independent of the exchange capacity and slightly decreased with an increase in cross-linking, especially at 8%. The small and strongly hydrating ion F⁻ kept the in-water hydration structure to form a water-separated ion pair in the resins, while the other weakly hydrating ions were appreciably dehydrated to form a contact ion pair. The hydration number of a strongly hydrating ion, H₂PO₄⁻, appreciably decreased with increases in both the exchange capacity and cross-linking degree accompanied by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the anions. This may be related to other characteristics of the H₂PO₄⁻ form resin, such as a higher concentration required for quantitative exchange, a systematic change in infrared spectra on the degree of exchange, and facile thermal dehydration, giving H₂P₂O₇²⁻. In contrast, multivalent anions were exchanged without dehydration, due to the larger space allowed for in the resins and the stronger interaction with water compared to those of monovalent anions.

  2. Protein standardization III: Method optimization basic principles for quantitative determination of human serum proteins on automated instruments based on turbidimetry or nephelometry.

    PubMed

    Blirup-Jensen, S

    2001-11-01

    Quantitative protein determinations in routine laboratories are today most often carried out using automated instruments. However, slight variations in the assay principle, in the programming of the instrument or in the reagents may lead to different results. This has led to the prerequisite of method optimization and standardization. The basic principles of turbidimetry and nephelometry are discussed. The different reading principles are illustrated and investigated. Various problems are identified and a suggestion is made for an integrated, fast and convenient test system for the determination of a number of different proteins on the same instrument. An optimized test system for turbidimetry and nephelometry should comprise high-quality antibodies, calibrators, controls, and buffers and a protocol with detailed parameter settings in order to program the instrument correctly. A good user program takes full advantage of the optimal reading principles for the different instruments. This implies--for all suitable instruments--sample preincubation followed by real sample blanking, which automatically corrects for initial turbidity in the sample. Likewise it is recommended to measure the reagent blank, which represents any turbidity caused by the antibody itself. By correcting all signals with these two blank values the best possible signal is obtained for the specific analyte. An optimized test system should preferably offer a wide measuring range combined with a wide security range, which for the user means few re-runs and maximum security against antigen excess. A non-linear calibration curve based on six standards is obtained using a suitable mathematical fitting model, which normally is part of the instrument software.

  3. Photodiode array to charged aerosol detector response ratio enables comprehensive quantitative monitoring of basic drugs in blood by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2015-03-20

    Quantitative screening for a broad range of drugs in blood is regularly required to assess drug abuse and poisoning within analytical toxicology. Mass spectrometry-based procedures suffer from the large amount of work required to maintain quantitative calibration in extensive multi-compound methods. In this study, a quantitative drug screening method for blood samples was developed based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with two consecutive detectors: a photodiode array detector and a corona charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-DAD-CAD). The 2.1 mm × 150 mm UHPLC column contained a high-strength silica C18 bonded phase material with a particle size of 1.8 μm, and the mobile phase consisted of methanol/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in gradient mode. Identification was based on retention time, UV spectrum and the response ratio from the two detectors. Using historic calibration over a one-month period, the median precision (RSD) of retention times was 0.04% and the median accuracy (bias) of quantification 6.75%. The median precision of the detector response ratio over two orders of magnitude was 12%. The applicable linear ranges were generally 0.05-5 mg L(-1). The method was validated for 161 compounds, including antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, and adrenergic beta blocking drugs, among others. The main novelty of the method was the proven utility of the response ratio of DAD to CAD, which provided the additional identification efficiency required. Unlike with mass spectrometry, the high stability of identification and quantification allowed the use of facile historic calibration.

  4. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  5. ABRF-PRG07: Advanced Quantitative Proteomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Falick, Arnold M.; Lane, William S.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Phinney, Brett S.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Yates, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for core facilities is determining quantitative protein differences across complex biological samples. Although there are numerous techniques in the literature for relative and absolute protein quantification, the majority is nonroutine and can be challenging to carry out effectively. There are few studies comparing these technologies in terms of their reproducibility, accuracy, and precision, and no studies to date deal with performance across multiple laboratories with varied levels of expertise. Here, we describe an Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Proteomics Research Group (PRG) study based on samples composed of a complex protein mixture into which 12 known proteins were added at varying but defined ratios. All of the proteins were present at the same concentration in each of three tubes that were provided. The primary goal of this study was to allow each laboratory to evaluate its capabilities and approaches with regard to: detection and identification of proteins spiked into samples that also contain complex mixtures of background proteins and determination of relative quantities of the spiked proteins. The results returned by 43 participants were compiled by the PRG, which also collected information about the strategies used to assess overall performance and as an aid to development of optimized protocols for the methodologies used. The most accurate results were generally reported by the most experienced laboratories. Among laboratories that used the same technique, values that were closer to the expected ratio were obtained by more experienced groups. PMID:21455478

  6. Academic Dishonesty: A Mixed-Method Study of Rational Choice among Students at the College of Basic Education in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsuwaileh, Bader Ghannam; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Alshurai, Saad R.

    2016-01-01

    The research herein used a sequential mixed methods design to investigate why academic dishonesty is widespread among the students at the College of Basic Education in Kuwait. Qualitative interviews were conducted to generate research hypotheses. Then, using questionnaire survey, the research hypotheses were quantitatively tested. The findings…

  7. Quantitative studies of human urinary excretion of uropontin.

    PubMed

    Min, W; Shiraga, H; Chalko, C; Goldfarb, S; Krishna, G G; Hoyer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Uropontin is the urinary form of osteopontin, an aspartic acid-rich phosphorylated glycoprotein. Uropontin has been previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and the binding of these crystals to renal epithelial cells. Quantitative data defining the excretion of this protein are necessary to determine its role in urinary stone formation. In the present studies, we determined uropontin excretion rates of normal humans. Urine samples were obtained under conditions of known dietary intake from young adult human volunteers with no history, radiographic or laboratory evidence of renal disease. Urinary concentrations of uropontin were measured by a sensitive ELISA employing an affinity purified polyclonal antiserum to uropontin. Thirteen normal subjects ingested a constant diet providing 1 gram of calcium, 1 gram of phosphorus, 150 mEq of sodium and 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body wt per day during an eight day study period. The relationship of urinary volume to uropontin excretion was assessed by varying fluid intake on the last four days of the study to change the mean urine volume/24 hr by > 500 ml. Urine collected in six hour aliquots for eight days was analyzed for uropontin by ELISA, and for calcium, and creatinine. Daily uropontin excretion of 13 individual subjects was 3805 +/- 1805 micrograms/24 hr (mean +/- 1 SD). The mean urinary levels (1.9 micrograms/ml) detected in the present study are sufficient for inhibition of crystallization; our previous studies have demonstrated that the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their binding to renal cells in vitro are inhibited by this concentration of purified uropontin. In contrast to the regular pattern of diurnal variation of calcium excretion seen in most subjects, uropontin excretion showed no regularity of diurnal variation and was not directly related to either calcium or creatinine excretion or changes in

  8. Quantitative structure activity relationship studies of mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chao-Bin; Luo, Wan-Chun; Ding, Qi; Liu, Shou-Zhu; Gao, Xing-Xiang

    2008-05-01

    Here, we report our results from quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on tyrosinase inhibitors. Interactions between benzoic acid derivatives and tyrosinase active sites were also studied using a molecular docking method. These studies indicated that one possible mechanism for the interaction between benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site is the formation of a hydrogen-bond between the hydroxyl (aOH) and carbonyl oxygen atoms of Tyr98, which stabilized the position of Tyr98 and prevented Tyr98 from participating in the interaction between tyrosinase and ORF378. Tyrosinase, also known as phenoloxidase, is a key enzyme in animals, plants and insects that is responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones. In the present study, the bioactivities of 48 derivatives of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and cinnamic acid compounds were used to construct three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models using comparative molecular field (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices (CoMSIA) analyses. After superimposition using common substructure-based alignments, robust and predictive 3D-QSAR models were obtained from CoMFA ( q 2 = 0.855, r 2 = 0.978) and CoMSIA ( q 2 = 0.841, r 2 = 0.946), with 6 optimum components. Chemical descriptors, including electronic (Hammett σ), hydrophobic (π), and steric (MR) parameters, hydrogen bond acceptor (H-acc), and indicator variable ( I), were used to construct a 2D-QSAR model. The results of this QSAR indicated that π, MR, and H-acc account for 34.9, 31.6, and 26.7% of the calculated biological variance, respectively. The molecular interactions between ligand and target were studied using a flexible docking method (FlexX). The best scored candidates were docked flexibly, and the interaction between the benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site was elucidated in detail. We believe

  9. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Marcello; Gangeri, Laura; Brunelli, Cinzia; Boeri, Paolo; Borreani, Claudia; Bosisio, Marco; Karmann, Claude Fusco; Greco, Margherita; Miccinesi, Guido; Murru, Luciana; Trimigno, Patrizia

    2003-01-01

    Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT) for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ), a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81%) completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease). Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness). Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions) has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which emerged from this

  10. Pair Comparison Study of the Relevance of Nine Basic Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilman, Edra L.; Spilman, Helen W.

    1975-01-01

    Reports a survey study in which basic science courses were rated according to relevance. Notes approaches for making the anatomy disciplines more relevant because results showed them of lowest relevancy compared with physiology, pathology, and pharmacology which were rated of highest relevance and with biochemistry and microbiology which fell…

  11. Student Debt, Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making of Adult Learners: A Basic Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, William J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic qualitative research study was conducted to develop insights into how adult learners employ problem-solving and decision-making (PSDM), when considering college financing, student loans, and student debt. Using the social media Website Facebook, eight qualified participants were recruited. Participants were interviewed via telephone, and…

  12. Exercise Self-Efficacy and Perceived Wellness among College Students in a Basic Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Cara L.; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Hritz, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    University basic studies courses provide a valuable opportunity for facilitating the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that develop healthy behaviors to last a lifetime. Belief in one's ability to participate in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, is a psychological construct that has had a documented impact on physical activity. Although…

  13. Basics of the "Learning Organization" at Jordanian Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawamdeh, Basem; Jaradat, Mohammed H.

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the extent to which the basics of the "learning organization" (LO) principles are available at Jordanian schools (Pilot TQA schools in Jersah); to this effect, a specially customized questionnaire was developed--it was made of 19 items across three areas: a leadership that supports learning, an environment…

  14. Learning and Motivation in Thailand: A Comparative Regional Study on Basic Education Ninth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loima, Jyrki; Vibulphol, Jutarat

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research studied regional motivation and learning of the basic education 9th graders in Thailand. Second topic was the school size and its possible effect on motivation. Furthermore, the data gave an opportunity to discuss, whether international research on motivation and learning was valid in Thai classrooms. The informants were…

  15. Toward Refining the Assessment of the Basic Public Speaking Course: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D. Gail

    A study on basic speech assessment replicated an earlier one except that in place of the CCAI and the Competent Speaker form, the Self-Perceived Public Speaking Competency Scale (SPPSC) was used. Also, 2 randomly selected control groups of students were added to the research design: one consisting of 62 students who had not taken speech and were…

  16. Quantitative thermophoretic study of disease-related protein aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Wolff , Manuel; Mittag, Judith J.; Herling, Therese W.; Genst, Erwin De; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Braun, Dieter; Buell, Alexander K.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are a hallmark of a range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. A detailed understanding of the physico-chemical properties of the different aggregated forms of proteins, and of their interactions with other compounds of diagnostic or therapeutic interest, is crucial for devising effective strategies against such diseases. Protein aggregates are situated at the boundary between soluble and insoluble structures, and are challenging to study because classical biophysical techniques, such as scattering, spectroscopic and calorimetric methods, are not well adapted for their study. Here we present a detailed characterization of the thermophoretic behavior of different forms of the protein α-synuclein, whose aggregation is associated with Parkinson’s disease. Thermophoresis is the directed net diffusional flux of molecules and colloidal particles in a temperature gradient. Because of their low volume requirements and rapidity, analytical methods based on this effect have considerable potential for high throughput screening for drug discovery. In this paper we rationalize and describe in quantitative terms the thermophoretic behavior of monomeric, oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-synuclein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microscale thermophoresis (MST) is a valuable method for screening for ligands and binding partners of even such highly challenging samples as supramolecular protein aggregates. PMID:26984748

  17. Quantitative thermophoretic study of disease-related protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Manuel; Mittag, Judith J; Herling, Therese W; Genst, Erwin De; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Braun, Dieter; Buell, Alexander K

    2016-03-17

    Amyloid fibrils are a hallmark of a range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A detailed understanding of the physico-chemical properties of the different aggregated forms of proteins, and of their interactions with other compounds of diagnostic or therapeutic interest, is crucial for devising effective strategies against such diseases. Protein aggregates are situated at the boundary between soluble and insoluble structures, and are challenging to study because classical biophysical techniques, such as scattering, spectroscopic and calorimetric methods, are not well adapted for their study. Here we present a detailed characterization of the thermophoretic behavior of different forms of the protein α-synuclein, whose aggregation is associated with Parkinson's disease. Thermophoresis is the directed net diffusional flux of molecules and colloidal particles in a temperature gradient. Because of their low volume requirements and rapidity, analytical methods based on this effect have considerable potential for high throughput screening for drug discovery. In this paper we rationalize and describe in quantitative terms the thermophoretic behavior of monomeric, oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-synuclein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microscale thermophoresis (MST) is a valuable method for screening for ligands and binding partners of even such highly challenging samples as supramolecular protein aggregates.

  18. Application study of transport intensity equation in quantitative phase reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaojun; Cheng, Wei; Wei, Chunjuan; Xue, Liang; Liu, Weijing; Bai, Baodan; Chu, Fenghong

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve detection speed and accuracy of biological cells, a quantitative non-interference optical phase recovery method is proposed in commercial microscope, taking the red blood cells as the classical phase objects. Three bright field micrographs were collected in the experiment. Utilizing the transport intensity equation (TIE), the quantitative phase distributions of red blood cell are gained and agree well with the previous optical phase models. Analysis shows that the resolution of introduced system reaches sub-micron. This method not only quickly gives quantitative phase distribution of cells, but also measures a large number of cells simultaneously. So it is potential in the use of real-time observing and quantitative analyzing of cells in vivo.

  19. How international is bioethics? A quantitative retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Studying the contribution of individual countries to leading journals in a specific discipline can highlight which countries have the most impact on that discipline and whether a geographic bias exists. This article aims to examine the international distribution of publications in the field of bioethics. Methods Retrospective quantitative study of nine peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics and medical ethics (Bioethics, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Hastings Center Report, Journal of Clinical Ethics, Journal of Medical Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Nursing Ethics, Christian Bioethics, and Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics). Results In total, 4,029 articles published between 1990 and 2003 were retrieved from the nine bioethical journals under study. The United States (59.3%, n = 2390), the United Kingdom (13.5%, n = 544), Canada (4%, n = 160) and Australia (3.8%, n = 154) had the highest number of publications in terms of absolute number of publications. When normalized to population size, smaller affluent countries, such as New Zealand, Finland and Sweden were more productive than the United States. The number of studies originating from the USA was decreasing in the period between 1990 and 2003. Conclusion While a lot of peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics profile themselves as international journals, they certainly do not live up to what one would expect from an "international" journal. The fact that English speaking countries, and to a larger extent American authors, dominate the international journals in the field of bioethics is a clear geographic bias towards the bioethical discussions that are going on in these journals. PMID:16412229

  20. A quantitative Kirkpatrick Level 1 and 2 study of equipment specialist apprentice operations training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Dirk D.

    The primary purpose of the quantitative experimental study is to compare employee-learning outcomes for a course of study that is offered in two formats: explicit and tacit instructor led and explicit e-learning operations training. A Kirkpatrick Level 2 course examination is used to establish a pretest knowledge baseline and to measure posttest learning outcomes for each instructional format. A secondary purpose is to compare responses of the two groups using a Kirkpatrick Level 1 customer satisfaction index survey. Several authors reported the United States electric utility industry would have an employee attrition issue during the 2010 through 2015 period. This is at the same time the industry will be experiencing an increased demand for electricity. There now is a demand for highly training powerplant operators. A review of literature yielded few studies comparing instructor led training and e-based training. Though the Electric Power Research Institute stated the two training modes would be acceptable instruction, the organization did not develop a quantifiable justified recommendation as to the training. Subjects participated in a basic operations course and decided to take either the instructor led or e-based training course. Results of the study concluded that both instructor led and e-based training provided significant learning to the participants. The Kirkpatrick Level 1 results indicated significantly better results for instructor led training. There was not a significant difference in the Kirkpatrick Level 2 results between the two training modalities. Recommendation for future research include conducting a quantitative studies including a Phillips Level 5 study and qualitative studies including a more detailed examination of the customer satisfaction survey (Kirkpatrick Level 1).

  1. The Evolution of Solar Flux: Quantitative Estimates for Planetary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claire, M.; Sheets, J.; Cohen, M.; Ribas, I.; Meadows, V. S.; Catling, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Sun has a profound impact on planetary atmospheres, driving such diverse processes as the vertical temperature profile, molecular reaction rates, and atmospheric escape. Understanding the time-dependence of the solar flux is therefore essential to understanding atmospheric evolution of planets and satellites in the solar system. We present numerical models of the solar flux applicable temporally and spatially throughout the solar system (Claire et al. ApJ, 2012, in press.) We combine data from the Sun and solar analogs to estimate enhanced FUV and Xray continuum and strong line fluxes for the young Sun. In addition, we describe a new parameterization for the near UV, where both the chromosphere and photosphere contribute to the flux, and use Kurucz models to estimate variable visible and infrared fluxes. The modeled fluxes are valid at nanometer resolution from 0.1 nm through the infrared, and from 0.6 Gyr through 6.7 Gyr, with extensions from the solar zero age main sequence to 8.0 Gyr (subject to additional uncertainties). This work enables quantitative estimates of the wavelength dependence of solar flux for a range of paleodates that are relevant to studies of the chemical evolution of planetary atmospheres in the solar system (or around other G-type stars). We apply this parameterization to an early Earth photochemical model, which reveals changes in photolysis reaction rates significant larger than the intrinsic model uncertainties.

  2. Doubled Haploids for Studying the Inheritance of Quantitative Characters

    PubMed Central

    Choo, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    By using a doubled-haploid population derived from F2 plants, additive and additive x additive genetic variances, as well as the number of segregating genes, can be estimated. An F2-derived doubled-haploid population may contain almost 50% more of the best recombinant than an F1-derived population. However, the best recombinant occurs in the same frequency in the two populations when there is no linkage between genes. The difference in the frequency of the best recombinant between F2- and F3-derived populations is small. This implies that the doubled-haploid method using F2 plants provides only slightly less opportunity for recombination than the conventional breeding methods of self-pollinating crops. In the absence of additive epistasis, a weighted mean of recombination values can be estimated using an F2-derived population and its parental lines. When additive epistasis is present, it can be estimated from doubled-haploid populations derived from two backcrosses. Studies on the linkage of quantitative characters are needed for determining whether doubled haploids should be produced from F2 or from F1 plants in a breeding program. PMID:7343417

  3. Quantitative methods to study epithelial morphogenesis and polarity.

    PubMed

    Aigouy, B; Collinet, C; Merkel, M; Sagner, A

    2017-01-01

    Morphogenesis of an epithelial tissue emerges from the behavior of its constituent cells, including changes in shape, rearrangements, and divisions. In many instances the directionality of these cellular events is controlled by the polarized distribution of specific molecular components. In recent years, our understanding of morphogenesis and polarity highly benefited from advances in genetics, microscopy, and image analysis. They now make it possible to measure cellular dynamics and polarity with unprecedented precision for entire tissues throughout their development. Here we review recent approaches to visualize and measure cell polarity and tissue morphogenesis. The chapter is organized like an experiment. We first discuss the choice of cell and polarity reporters and describe the use of mosaics to reveal hidden cell polarities or local morphogenetic events. Then, we outline application-specific advantages and disadvantages of different microscopy techniques and image projection algorithms. Next, we present methods to extract cell outlines to measure cell polarity and detect cellular events underlying morphogenesis. Finally, we bridge scales by presenting approaches to quantify the specific contribution of each cellular event to global tissue deformation. Taken together, we provide an in-depth description of available tools and theoretical concepts to quantitatively study cell polarity and tissue morphogenesis over multiple scales.

  4. PRP Treatment Efficacy for Tendinopathy: A Review of Basic Science Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiqin; Wang, James H-C

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) has been widely used in orthopaedic surgery and sport medicine to treat tendon injuries. However, the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy is controversial. This paper focuses on reviewing the basic science studies on PRP performed under well-controlled conditions. Both in vitro and in vivo studies describe PRP's anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects on tendons. While some clinical trials support these findings, others refute them. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of PRP to treat tendon injuries with evidence presented in basic science studies and the potential reasons for the controversial results in clinical trials. Finally, we comment on the approaches that may be required to improve the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy.

  5. PRP Treatment Efficacy for Tendinopathy: A Review of Basic Science Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) has been widely used in orthopaedic surgery and sport medicine to treat tendon injuries. However, the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy is controversial. This paper focuses on reviewing the basic science studies on PRP performed under well-controlled conditions. Both in vitro and in vivo studies describe PRP's anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects on tendons. While some clinical trials support these findings, others refute them. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of PRP to treat tendon injuries with evidence presented in basic science studies and the potential reasons for the controversial results in clinical trials. Finally, we comment on the approaches that may be required to improve the efficacy of PRP treatment for tendinopathy. PMID:27610386

  6. Exploratory and basic fluidized-bed combustion studies. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Myles, K.M.; Swift, W.M.

    1980-12-01

    This work supports development studies for both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion. Laboratory and process development studies are aimed at providing needed information on limestone utilization, removal of particulates and alkali metal compounds from the flue gas, control of SO/sub 2/ and trace pollutants emissions, and other aspects of fluidized-bed combustion. This report presents information on: (1) the development of a limestone utilization predictive methodology, (2) studies of particle breakup and elutriation, (3) basic studies on limestone sulfation enhancement by hydration, (4) studies of the kinetics of the hydration process, and (5) an investigation of various hydration process concepts.

  7. Basic Skills in Asian Studies: China. Service Center Papers on Asian Studies, No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains 20 learning activities for developing basic skills while teaching about China at the secondary level. The activities, which were field tested, are self-contained and include short readings followed by student work sheets. For developing skill in reading about China, the learning activities focus upon translating Chinese…

  8. Neuroanatomy and physiology of colorectal function and defaecation: from basic science to human clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Brookes, S J; Dinning, P G; Gladman, M A

    2009-12-01

    Colorectal physiology is complex and involves programmed, coordinated interaction between muscular and neuronal elements. Whilst a detailed understanding remains elusive, novel information has emerged from recent basic science and human clinical studies concerning normal sensorimotor mechanisms and the organization and function of the key elements involved in the control of motility. This chapter summarizes these observations to provide a contemporary review of the neuroanatomy and physiology of colorectal function and defaecation.

  9. Militarism and Foreign Conflict Behavior: A Quantitative Study Revisited.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-20

    to arms,’ but, rather, the populace is answering a more basic call of fthree hots and a cot.0 One wonders if the recent successes the United States...and GRIP Fer Capita@ 19?8* XMIuary Expedture. as % of GRIP Kiddie *Size of circle Is 13 * hu Proportionate to else of popiulation* 10 0 Pact 9 8 7 hUt A

  10. Quantitative estimates of vascularity in a collagen-based cell scaffold containing basic fibroblast growth factor by non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy for regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2008-04-01

    Successful tissue regeneration required both cells with high proliferative and differentiation potential and an environment permissive for regeneration. These conditions can be achieved by providing cell scaffolds and growth factors that induce angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Angiogenenis within cell scaffolds is typically determined by histological examination with immunohistochemical markers for endothelium. Unfortunately, this approach requires removal of tissue and the scaffold. In this study, we examined the hemoglobin content of implanted collagen-based cell scaffolds containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in vivo by non-invasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We also compared the hemoglobin levels measured by NIRS to the hemoglobin content measured with a conventional biological assay. Non-invasive NIRS recordings were performed with a custom-built near-infrared spectrometer using light guide-coupled reflectance measurements. NIRS recordings revealed that absorbance increased after implantation of collagen scaffolds containing bFGF. This result correlated (R2=0.93) with our subsequent conventional hemoglobin assay. The NIRS technique provides a non-invasive method for measuring the degree of vascularization in cell scaffolds. This technique may be advantageous for monitoring angiogenesis within different cell scaffolds, a prerequisite for effective tissue regeneration.

  11. Accrual Patterns for Clinical Studies Involving Quantitative Imaging: Results of an NCI Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Brenda F.; Aggarwal, Sameer; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Mountz, James M.; Linden, Hannah M.; Jones, Ella F.; Bodeker, Kellie L.; Buatti, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Patient accrual is essential for the success of oncology clinical trials. Recruitment for trials involving the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers may face different challenges than treatment trials. This study surveyed investigators and study personnel for evaluating accrual performance and perceived barriers to accrual and for soliciting solutions to these accrual challenges that are specific to quantitative imaging-based trials. Responses for 25 prospective studies were received from 12 sites. The median percent annual accrual attained was 94.5% (range, 3%–350%). The most commonly selected barrier to recruitment (n = 11/25, 44%) was that “patients decline participation,” followed by “too few eligible patients” (n = 10/25, 40%). In a forced choice for the single greatest recruitment challenge, “too few eligible patients” was the most common response (n = 8/25, 32%). Quantitative analysis and qualitative responses suggested that interactions among institutional, physician, and patient factors contributed to accrual success and challenges. Multidisciplinary collaboration in trial design and execution is essential to accrual success, with attention paid to ensuring and communicating potential trial benefits to enrolled and future patients. PMID:28127586

  12. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that

  13. [Tracking study to improve basic academic ability in chemistry for freshmen].

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Morone, Mieko; Azuma, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the basic academic ability of freshmen with regard to chemistry and implement suitable educational guidance measures. At Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, basic academic ability examinations are conducted in chemistry for freshmen immediately after entrance into the college. From 2003 to 2009, the examination was conducted using the same questions, and the secular changes in the mean percentage of correct response were statistically analyzed. An experience survey was also conducted on 2007 and 2009 freshmen regarding chemical experiments at senior high school. Analysis of the basic academic ability examinations revealed a significant decrease in the mean percentage of correct responses after 2007. With regard to the answers for each question, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of correct answers for approximately 80% of questions. In particular, a marked decrease was observed for calculation questions involving percentages. A significant decrease was also observed in the number of students who had experiences with chemical experiments in high school. However, notable results have been achieved through the implementation of practice incorporating calculation problems in order to improve calculation ability. Learning of chemistry and a lack of experimental experience in high school may be contributory factors in the decrease in chemistry academic ability. In consideration of the professional ability demanded of pharmacists, the decrease in calculation ability should be regarded as a serious issue and suitable measures for improving calculation ability are urgently required.

  14. Quantitative studies on roast kinetics for bioactives in coffee.

    PubMed

    Lang, Roman; Yagar, Erkan Firat; Wahl, Anika; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Dieminger, Natalie; Eggers, Rudolf; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-12-11

    Quantitative analysis of the bioactives trigonelline (1), N-methylpyridinium (2), caffeine (3), and caffeoylquinic acids (4) in a large set of roasted Arabica (total sample size n = 113) and Robusta coffees (total sample size n = 38) revealed that the concentrations of 1 and 4 significantly correlated with the roasting color (P < 0.001, two tailed), whereas that of 2 significantly correlated inversely with the color (P < 0.001, two tailed). As dark-roasted coffees were rich in N-methylpyridinium whereas light-roasted coffees were rich in trigonelline and caffeoylquinic acids, manufacturing of roast coffees rich in all four bioactives would therefore necessitate blending of two or even more coffees of different roasting colors. Additional experiments on the migration rates during coffee brewing showed that all four bioactives were nearly quantitatively extracted in the brew (>90%) when a water volume/coffee powder ratio of >16 was used.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Janani; Wang, Qingyu; Le, Thanh; Pizzo, Lucilla; Grönke, Sebastian; Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Imai, Yuzuru; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Troisí, Beatriz Llamusí; Mardon, Graeme; Artero, Ruben; Jackson, George R.; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Partridge, Linda; Lu, Bingwei; Kumar, Justin P.; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net), to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions. PMID:26994292

  16. The upgraded Large Plasma Device, a machine for studying frontier basic plasma physics.

    PubMed

    Gekelman, W; Pribyl, P; Lucky, Z; Drandell, M; Leneman, D; Maggs, J; Vincena, S; Van Compernolle, B; Tripathi, S K P; Morales, G; Carter, T A; Wang, Y; DeHaas, T

    2016-02-01

    In 1991 a manuscript describing an instrument for studying magnetized plasmas was published in this journal. The Large Plasma Device (LAPD) was upgraded in 2001 and has become a national user facility for the study of basic plasma physics. The upgrade as well as diagnostics introduced since then has significantly changed the capabilities of the device. All references to the machine still quote the original RSI paper, which at this time is not appropriate. In this work, the properties of the updated LAPD are presented. The strategy of the machine construction, the available diagnostics, the parameters available for experiments, as well as illustrations of several experiments are presented here.

  17. Osteoarthritis year in review 2014: mechanics--basic and clinical studies in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Moyer, R F; Ratneswaran, A; Beier, F; Birmingham, T B

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to highlight recent research in mechanics and osteoarthritis (OA) by summarizing results from selected studies spanning basic and clinical research methods. Databases were searched from January 2013 through to March 2014. Working in pairs, reviewers selected 67 studies categorized into four themes--mechanobiology, ambulatory mechanics, biomechanical interventions and mechanical risk factors. Novel developments in mechanobiology included the identification of cell signaling pathways that mediated cellular responses to loading of articular cartilage. Studies in ambulatory mechanics included an increased focus on instrumented knee implants and progress in computational models, both emphasizing the importance of muscular contributions to load. Several proposed biomechanical interventions (e.g., shoe insoles and knee braces) produced variable changes in external knee joint moments during walking, while meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials did not support the use of lateral wedge insoles for decreasing pain. Results from high quality randomized trials suggested diet with or without exercise decreased indicators of knee joint load during walking, whereas similar effects from exercise alone were not detected with the measures used. Data from longitudinal cohorts suggested mechanical alignment was a risk factor for incidence and progression of OA, with the mechanism involving damage to the meniscus. In combination, the basic and clinical studies highlight the importance of considering multiple contributors to joint loading that can evoke both protective and damaging responses. Although challenges clearly exist, future studies should strive to integrate basic and clinical research methods to gain a greater understanding of the interactions among mechanical factors in OA and to develop improved preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  18. Targeted basic studies of ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials for piezoelectric transducer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Barsch, G. R.; Biggers, J. V.

    1983-03-01

    The report delineates the new progress made in the fifth and final year and discusses the major accomplishments of the full five year program both in the basic science and in the spin off to practical transducer applications. Possible new areas of study which are suggested by the present studies are briefly reported. Major achievements include the development of a physical approach to understanding active composites, leading to the development of several new families of PZT:polymer piezoelectric composites for hydrophone application. New advances in the phenomenology and microscopic theory of electrostriction, and the evolution of a new family of high strain ferroelectric relaxor materials for practical application. New basic understanding of the polarization mechanisms in ferroelectric relaxors has been aided by the study of order-disorder of the cation arrangement in lead scandium tantalate, and the results correlate well with studies of relaxor behavior, and of shape memory effects in PLZT ceramics. Low temperature studies on pure and doped PZTs have given the first clear indication of the intrinsic (averaged) single domain response and correlate exceedingly well with earlier phenomenological theory. Crystal growth and ceramic processing studies have developed hand-in-hand with program needs providing new forms of conventional materials, new grain oriented structures and single crystals.

  19. Research Report: The Holt Basic Reading System (HBRS) Field Study (1976-1977). Study Phase: Student Interest Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Eileen

    Questionnaires were distributed to 6,354 elementary school students participating in the Holt Basic Reading System Field Study. Primary students reported that their favorite activity is watching television; intermediate students, playing sports. Approximately 25% of the students did not have a pet; 46% reported having a dog; 15%, a cat. Almost 48%…

  20. Targeted basic studies of ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials for piezoelectric transducer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Barsch, G. R.; Biggers, J. V.

    1983-03-01

    The work reported covers the fifth and final year of the program of targeted basic studies of ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials for piezoelectric transducer applications. Major achievements include: the development of a physical approach to understanding active composites, leading to the development of several new families of PZT, polymer piezoelectric composites for hydrophone application. These are new advances in the phenomenology and microscopic theory of electrostriction, and the evolution of a new family of high strain ferroelectric relaxor materials for practical application. New basic understanding of the polarization mechanisms in ferroelectric relaxors has been aided by the study of order disorder of the cation arrangement in lead scandium tantalate, and the results correlate well with studies of relaxor behavior, and of shape memory effects in PLZT ceramics. Low temperature studies on pure and doped PZTs have given the first clear indication of the intrinsic (averaged) single domain in response and correlate exceedingly well with earlier phenomenological theory. Crystal growth and ceramic processing studies have developed hand in hand with program needs providing new forms of conventional materials, new grain oriented structures and single crystals.

  1. Barriers to successful implementation of care in home haemodialysis (BASIC-HHD):1. Study design, methods and rationale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ten years on from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence’ technology appraisal guideline on haemodialysis in 2002; the clinical community is yet to rise to the challenge of providing home haemodialysis (HHD) to 10-15% of the dialysis cohort. The renal registry report, suggests underutilization of a treatment type that has had a lot of research interest and several publications worldwide on its apparent benefit for both physical and mental health of patients. An understanding of the drivers to introducing and sustaining the modality, from organizational, economic, clinical and patient perspectives is fundamental to realizing the full benefits of the therapy with the potential to provide evidence base for effective care models. Through the BASIC-HHD study, we seek to understand the clinical, patient and carer related psychosocial, economic and organisational determinants of successful uptake and maintenance of home haemodialysis and thereby, engage all major stakeholders in the process. Design and methods We have adopted an integrated mixed methodology (convergent, parallel design) for this study. The study arms include a. patient; b. organization; c. carer and d. economic evaluation. The three patient study cohorts (n = 500) include pre-dialysis patients (200), hospital haemodialysis (200) and home haemodialysis patients (100) from geographically distinct NHS sites, across the country and with variable prevalence of home haemodialysis. The pre-dialysis patients will also be prospectively followed up for a period of 12 months from study entry to understand their journey to renal replacement therapy and subsequently, before and after studies will be carried out for a select few who do commence dialysis in the study period. The process will entail quantitative methods and ethnographic interviews of all groups in the study. Data collection will involve clinical and biomarkers, psychosocial quantitative assessments and neuropsychometric

  2. Helping Students to Recognize and Evaluate an Assumption in Quantitative Reasoning: A Basic Critical-Thinking Activity with Marbles and Electronic Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slisko, Josip; Cruz, Adrian Corona

    2013-01-01

    There is a general agreement that critical thinking is an important element of 21st century skills. Although critical thinking is a very complex and controversial conception, many would accept that recognition and evaluation of assumptions is a basic critical-thinking process. When students use simple mathematical model to reason quantitatively…

  3. Nuclear dynamics in metastatic cells studied by quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Silvia; Kandel, Mikhail; Sridharan, Shamira; Monroy, Freddy; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    We used a new quantitative high spatiotemporal resolution phase imaging tool to explore the nuclear structure and dynamics of individual cells. We used a novel analysis tool to quantify the diffusion outside and inside the nucleus of live cells. We also obtained information about the nuclear spatio temporal mass density in metastatic cells. The results indicate that in the cytoplasm, the intracellular transport is mainly active (direct, deterministic), while inside the nucleus it is both active and passive (diffusive, random). We calculated the standard deviation of velocities in active transport and the diffusion coefficient for passive transport.

  4. Study of proper conditions for quantitative atom-probe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolander, Ulf; Andrén, Hans-Olof

    1994-03-01

    Atom-probe microanalysis is a truly quantitative method only if certain requirements are fulfilled. Field evaporation must only happen when the detector system is active; ions must travel from specimen to detector without being obstructed; and ions must be detected with the same probability regardless of mass and energy. Designs and methods to achieve these requirements are presented in the paper, such as a controlled high-voltage pulser, a detector with good and variable multi-hit resolution, ion optical alignment procedures, and a method to statistically correct for pile-up in the detector.

  5. Basic Study on Loss Reduction Effect by Stator-Teeth Slits in Turbine Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Katsumi; Nishioka, Kazuyoshi; Nakahara, Akihito; Furukawa, Yoko; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Yabumoto, Masao

    In this study, we investigate the loss reduction effect by stator-teeth slits in turbine generators on the basis of electromagnetic field analysis and basic experiments. First, the loss reduction effect in the generator is estimated by the 3-D finite element method and the theoretical solution of eddy current loss. Next, an experiment using a simple model that simulates the stator-core ends of the turbine generator is carried out. It is clarified that the loss reduction effect by the slits depends on the frequency, flux density, and permeability of the stator teeth because the loss reduction effect weakens with the skin effect.

  6. Study on Control of Inclusion Compositions in Tire Cord Steel by Low Basicity Top Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Cai-ping; Yue, Feng; Jiang, Chen-xu; Wu, Qi-fan

    2016-01-01

    Top slag melting experiment was conducted in a silicon molybdenum furnace with tire cord steel billet. The influence of top slag composition on the plasticity of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO inclusion and inclusion plasticization conditions was calculated by thermodynamic software FactSage. Use the thermodynamic calculation to guide the laboratory experiments to study slag compositions influence inclusions composition. Then industrial experiments were conducted based on the theoretical calculation and results of laboratory experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine the morphology and composition of inclusions in steel. All studies show that in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-10% MgO diagram, when CaO = 8-48%, SiO2 = 35-75%, Al2O3 = 0-32%, inclusions are in the plastic area. When basicity of top slag is certain, Al2O3 content in inclusions increases with the increase of Al2O3 content in the slag, and the distribution of inclusions becomes scattered with the increase of Al2O3 content in slag. Inclusion plasticization can be achieved when the binary basicities of top slag are 0.6, 0.8-1.2, 1.4 and corresponding w(Al2O3)s are 2-15%, 2-10%, <2%. According to industrial experimental results, when top slag basicity decreases from 1.5 to 0.67-0.9 and Al2O3 content decreases below 10 wt%, the inclusion falls into plastic area. It is feasible in practice to control the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO inclusions plastic through adjusting Al2O3 content in slag.

  7. Mantle dentine in man--a quantitative microradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Herr, P; Holz, J; Baume, L J

    1986-06-01

    50 microradiographs taken in a standardized manner of midsagittal ground sections of teeth of individuals aged 18 to 56 years were densitometrically evaluated along a track passing through enamel, dentine and an aluminium stepwedge. Semi-quantitative analysis of mineral density uniformly showed an irregular platform representing circumpulpal dentine and a peripheral down slope in the region of the amelodentinal junction, representing mantle dentine. The width of this less mineralized peripheral zone measured on densitometric recordings averaged 150 microns (+/- 50). Quantitative analysis of the two dentinal regions permitted the calculation of the mineral content in terms of volume percentage using both a graphic method and an electronic computer method. The sections were also examined by polarized light microscopy which clearly visualized the presence of peripheral mantle dentine. The mean mineral density of circumpulpal dentine was 46% according to both the graphic and the computer methods; mantle dentine yielded means close to 42% according by both methods. The 4% difference in density between circumpulpal dentine and mantle dentine proved to be statistically significant; there was no significant difference between the means obtained graphically and those obtained electronically. The need for further investigation of this region of the amelodentinal junction was stressed.

  8. A pilot study of naltrexone and BASICS for heavy drinking young adults.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Palmer, Rebekka S; Corbin, William R; Romano, Denise M; Meandzija, Boris; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2008-08-01

    Heavy drinking young adults often have limited motivation to change their drinking behavior. Adding pharmacotherapy to brief counseling is a novel approach to treating this population. A small open-label pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of offering eight weeks of daily and targeted (i.e., taken as needed in anticipation of drinking) naltrexone with BASICS (brief motivational) counseling to heavy drinking young adults; to assess the tolerability of the medication in this population and to obtain preliminary efficacy data. The sample (N=14) showed strong adherence to study appointments and medication taking, supporting the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the medication was well-tolerated. Significant reductions from baseline were observed in drinks per drinking day and in percent heavy drinking days and these gains were maintained one month after treatment ended. A significant decrease in alcohol-related consequences was also observed. Findings from this small pilot study suggest that naltrexone in combination with BASICS represents a promising strategy to reduce heavy drinking among young adults.

  9. Cognitive Modifiability of Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Multicentre Study Using Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment-Basic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozulin, A.; Lebeer, J.; Madella-Noja, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Jeffrey, I.; Rosenthal, N.; Koslowsky, M.

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of cognitive intervention with the new "Instrumental Enrichment Basic" program (IE-basic), based on Feuerstein's theory of structural cognitive modifiability that contends that a child's cognitive functioning can be significantly modified through mediated learning intervention. The IE-basic…

  10. Quantitative studies of chicken somatotrophs during growth and development by morphometry, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Deaver, D; Perez, F; Radecki, S; Gibney, J; Scanes, C G

    1997-10-01

    Changes in the male chicken somatotroph during growth and maturation have been examined by morphometric and immunocytochemical (ICC) analysis of serial sections of the anterior pituitary gland and by flow cytometry of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. ICC showed that somatotrophs are confined to the middle and caudal thirds of the anterior pituitary gland at all ages from 5 to 26 weeks. At a given age somatotrophs are of equal size at all positions along the cephalocaudal axis of the anterior pituitary gland. However, there are age-related changes: from 5 to 11 weeks rises occur in both the mean total somatotroph volume per gland (64%) and the mean number of somatotrophs (78%), while the mean volume of the single somatotroph is unchanged. From 11 to 18 weeks the mean volume of the single somatotroph decreases 41%. From 18 to 26 weeks the mean volume of the somatotroph, the mean total somatotroph volume, and the mean number per gland do not change. Flow cytometry studies suggested that somatotrophs from adults have less growth hormone (GH) than somatotrophs from young birds. The increases in total somatotroph volume and number from 5 to 11 weeks are consistent with the rise in anterior pituitary GH reported previously. Basic quantitative morphological information about age-related changes in somatotrophs is reported here. When combined with additional facts from future work, they may explain the well-documented sharp decline in circulating GH from 5 to 11 weeks.

  11. A pilot study examining if satisfaction of basic needs can ameliorate negative effects of shift work.

    PubMed

    Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Hetland, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if satisfaction of the basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is related to shift work tolerance, specifically physical and mental fatigue, insomnia, and digestive troubles in a sample of shift workers. This is a cross-sectional pilot questionnaire study, including 252 shift workers employed in a municipality in Norway. Autonomy was negatively related to physical fatigue and digestive troubles, while competence was negatively related to mental fatigue. Relatedness showed significant correlations with insomnia and mental fatigue, but did not reach significance in the regression model controlling for the two other basic needs as well as work scheduling, night work exposure, and sleep medication. Sleep medication was significant in the final regression model for insomnia, but unrelated to fatigue and digestive troubles. The demographic variables, work hours per week, work schedule, and night work exposure were unrelated to all four measures of shift work tolerance. Autonomy and competence may be more important for fatigue and digestive troubles among shift workers than work arrangement variables, night work exposure, and sleep medication use.

  12. A pilot study examining if satisfaction of basic needs can ameliorate negative effects of shift work

    PubMed Central

    SAKSVIK-LEHOUILLIER, Ingvild; HETLAND, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if satisfaction of the basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is related to shift work tolerance, specifically physical and mental fatigue, insomnia, and digestive troubles in a sample of shift workers. This is a cross-sectional pilot questionnaire study, including 252 shift workers employed in a municipality in Norway. Autonomy was negatively related to physical fatigue and digestive troubles, while competence was negatively related to mental fatigue. Relatedness showed significant correlations with insomnia and mental fatigue, but did not reach significance in the regression model controlling for the two other basic needs as well as work scheduling, night work exposure, and sleep medication. Sleep medication was significant in the final regression model for insomnia, but unrelated to fatigue and digestive troubles. The demographic variables, work hours per week, work schedule, and night work exposure were unrelated to all four measures of shift work tolerance. Autonomy and competence may be more important for fatigue and digestive troubles among shift workers than work arrangement variables, night work exposure, and sleep medication use. PMID:26423327

  13. A quantitative study of enterotoxin production by sheep milk staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, L; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    1988-01-01

    Of 124 staphylococcal strains isolated from sheep milk, 78 produced enterotoxin A, B, C, or D when evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enterotoxins A and D, elaborated by 44 and 43 strains, respectively, showed the highest incidence. Enterotoxin production by coagulase-negative strains (one Staphylococcus cohnii, three S. epidermidis, five S. haemolyticus, and four S. xylosus) was detected. Linear and logarithmic-logarithmic regressions of optical density on enterotoxin concentration yielded the best-fitting equations for enterotoxin quantitation. A significantly higher incidence of enterotoxin producers and significantly higher levels of enterotoxins produced were recorded for coagulase-positive, thermostable nuclease-positive, hemolysis-positive, or mannitol-positive strains. Mannitol utilization was the best test for discriminating between enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic staphylococci. PMID:3355142

  14. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    PubMed

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  15. Overloading study of basic compounds with a positively charged C18 column in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoran; Guo, Zhimou; Long, Zhen; Zhang, Xiuli; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-03-15

    While tailing and overloading of basic compounds remain problematic on most RP columns, a new kind of positively charged RP column named XCharge C18 was found to be superior good for the separation of alkaloids in our practical use. In this work, the surface charge property of the XCharge C18 column was evaluated by the retention of NO(3)(-) under different pH values and buffer concentrations. A considerable and pH-dependent positive charge was confirmed on the column. Then overloading behaviors of bases were systematically studied using amitriptyline as a basic probe. Good peak shapes (Tf<1.5) and extra high loadability with a C(0.5) of about 30,000 mg/L were observed on the column, with commonly used 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase additive. However, increasing the ionic strength of buffer with phosphates led to tailing peaks at high sample amount and sharp decline in loadability (C(0.5) of 2000-3000 mg/L), although it brought higher column efficiency at low sample amount. Higher pH also induced worse performance and lower loadability. The overall results demonstrated the importance of an appropriate level of ionic repulsion for the XCharge C18 column to achieve the good performance for bases, which could be explained by the multiple-site adsorption theory as ionic repulsion would shield the solute from occupying high-energy sites deeper in C18 layer.

  16. Kinetic and equilibrium studies on biosorption of basic blue dye by green macro algae Caulerpa scalpelliformis.

    PubMed

    Aravindhan, Rathinam; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2007-04-01

    Dynamic batch experiments were carried out for the biosorption of basic blue dye on to the green macro algae Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The factors affecting the sorption process such as the initial concentration of the dye, pH of the solution, the adsorbent dosage and the time of contact were studied. It has been observed that the sorption process was significantly affected by the pH of the initial dye solution. The sorption kinetics was found to follow the second-order kinetic model. The Boyd's plot confirmed the external mass transfer as the rate-limiting step. The average effective diffusion coefficient was found to be 1.652 x 10(- 5) cm(2)/s. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated that the biosorption followed Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Optimized parameters were used to treat the commercial effluent containing the dye. Complete color removal was observed in two stages of treatment with the seaweed.

  17. Critical review of a quantitative study of a specialty in high energy particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    White, D H; Sullivan, D

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of the authors' series of quantitative, historical, and social studies of the weak interactions of elementary particles. A short intellectual history, the quantitative methodology, and a summary of the papers analyzing specific episodes in this field are presented. The social organization of the field is described, and an overall policy for resource management is discussed. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  19. Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

  20. In situ quantitative study of nanoscale triboelectrification and patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu Sheng; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Guang; Lin, Zong-Hong; Pan, Caofeng; Jing, Qingshen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-06-12

    By combining contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning Kevin probe microscopy (SKPM), we demonstrated an in situ method for quantitative characterization of the triboelectrification process at the nanoscale. We systematically characterized the triboelectric charge distribution, multifriction effect on charge transfer, as well as subsequent charge diffusion on the dielectric surface: (i) the SiO2 surface can be either positively or negatively charged through triboelectric process using Si-based AFM probes with and without Pt coating, respectively; (ii) the triboelectric charges accumulated from multifriction and eventually reached to saturated concentrations of (-150 ± 8) μC/m(2) and (105 ± 6) μC/m(2), respectively; (iii) the charge diffusion coefficients on SiO2 surface were measured to be (1.10 ± 0.03) × 10(-15) m(2)/s for the positive charge and (0.19 ± 0.01) × 10(-15) m(2)/s for the negative charges. These quantifications will facilitate a fundamental understanding about the triboelectric and de-electrification process, which is important for designing high performance triboelectric nanogenerators. In addition, we demonstrated a technique for nanopatterning of surface charges without assistance of external electric field, which has a promising potential application for directed self-assembly of charged nanostructures for nanoelectronic devices.

  1. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on nitrofuranyl antitubercular agents

    PubMed Central

    Hevener, Kirk E.; Ball, David M.; Buolamwini, John K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of nitrofuranylamide and related aromatic compounds displaying potent activity against M. tuberculosis has been investigated utilizing 3-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) techniques. Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) methods were used to produce 3D-QSAR models that correlated the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against M. tuberculosis with the molecular structures of the active compounds. A training set of 95 active compounds was used to develop the models, which were then evaluated by a series of internal and external cross-validation techniques. A test set of 15 compounds was used for the external validation. Different alignment and ionization rules were investigated as well as the effect of global molecular descriptors including lipophilicity (cLogP, LogD), Polar Surface Area (PSA), and steric bulk (CMR), on model predictivity. Models with greater than 70% predictive ability, as determined by external validation, and high internal validity (cross validated r2 > .5) have been developed. Incorporation of lipophilicity descriptors into the models had negligible effects on model predictivity. The models developed will be used to predict the activity of proposed new structures and advance the development of next generation nitrofuranyl and related nitroaromatic anti-tuberculosis agents. PMID:18701298

  2. Azotaemic renal osteodystrophy: a quantitative study on iliac bone.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H A; Peart, K M

    1973-02-01

    The histopathology of bone is described in 60 patients with chronic renal failure due to a variety of renal diseases. Changes of azotaemic renal osteodystrophy included osteitis fibrosa, osteomalacia, and osteosclerosis. Quantitative histology using a point-counting technique revealed a significant increase in total bone, mineralized bone, and osteoid in comparison with a control group of 68 individuals. Osteitis fibrosa due to secondary hyperparathyroidism occurred in 93%, osteomalacia in 40%, and osteosclerosis in 30% of patients. Woven bone formation was a characteristic feature and was related to the severity of osteitis fibrosa. There were significant correlations between the weights of parathyroid glands and the number of osteoclasts, amounts of woven bone, and marrow fibrosis in the ilium. Hyperparathyroidism caused degradation of mineralized bone but the loss was balanced or exceeded by the aggradation of woven mineralized bone. Woven bone formation together with excess osteoid gave rise to osteosclerosis. The histological findings indicate that hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa usually occur early in chronic renal failure and that osteomalacia develops subsequently.

  3. Real-time quantitative phase imaging for cell studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hoa Vinh

    Most biological cells are not clearly visible with a bright field microscope. Several methods have been developed to improve contrast in cell imaging, including use of exogenous contrast agents such as fluorescence microscopy, as well as utilizing properties of light-specimen interaction for optics design, to reveal the endogenous contrast, such as phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Although PCM and DIC methods significantly improve the image contrast without the need for staining agents, they only provide qualitative information about the phase change induced by the cells as light passes through them. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has recently emerged as an effective imaging tool which provides not only better image contrast but also cell-induced phase shifts in the optical pathlength, thus allowing nanometer-scale measurements of structures and dynamics of the cells. Other important aspects of an imaging system are its imaging speed and throughput. High-throughput, high-speed, real-time quantitative phase imaging with high spatial and temporal sensitivity is highly desirable in many applications including applied physics and biomedicine. In this dissertation, to address this need, I discuss the development of such an imaging system that includes the white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a new optical imaging method, and image reconstruction/analysis algorithms using graphics processing units (GPUs). wDPM can measure optical pathlength changes at nanometer scale both spatially and temporally with single-shot image acquisition, enabling very fast imaging. I also exploit the broadband spectrum of white light used as the light source in wDPM to develop a system called spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy (sDPM). This sDPM system allows QPI measurements at several wavelengths, which solves the problem of thickness and refractive index coupling in the phase shifts induced by the cell, and which

  4. Review and perspectives of electrostatic turbulence and transport studies in the basic plasma physics device TORPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avino, Fabio; Bovet, Alexandre; Fasoli, Ambrogio; Furno, Ivo; Gustafson, Kyle; Loizu, Joaquim; Ricci, Paolo; Theiler, Christian

    2012-10-01

    TORPEX is a basic plasma physics toroidal device located at the CRPP-EPFL in Lausanne. In TORPEX, a vertical magnetic field superposed on a toroidal field creates helicoidal field lines with both ends terminating on the torus vessel. We review recent advances in the understanding and control of electrostatic interchange turbulence, associated structures and their effect on suprathermal ions. These advances are obtained using high-resolution diagnostics of plasma parameters and wave fields throughout the whole device cross-section, fluid models and numerical simulations. Furthermore, we discuss future developments including the possibility of generating closed field line configurations with rotational transform using an internal toroidal wire carrying a current. This system will also allow the study of innovative fusion-relevant configurations, such as the snowflake divertor.

  5. A quantitative study of exocytosis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from neural stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Wu, Qiuxia; Sui, Keke; Chen, Xin-Xin; Fang, Jie; Hu, Xuefeng; Wu, Minghong; Liu, Yuanfang

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely studied and applied in biomedicine and other fields. It is important to know the basic process of interaction between NPs and cells in terms of cellular endocytosis and exocytosis. However, little attention has been paid to the cellular exocytosis of NPs. Herein, using a multi-step cellular subculture method, we ascertain quantitatively the endocytosis and exocytosis of widely used TiO2 NPs using the neural stem cells (NSC) as a cellular model and ICP-AES as an analytic measure. Irrespective of the type and dose of TiO2 NPs, approximately 30% of the total TiO2 NPs entered NSCs after 48 h incubation. In the first 24 h after removing TiO2NPs, from the culture medium, about 35.0%, 34.6% and 41.7% of NP1 (50 nm), NP2 (30 nm) and NTs (nanotubes, 100 nm × 4-6 nm) were released (exocytosed) from cells, respectively. The release decreased over time, and became negligible at 72 h. Exocytosis did not happen during cell division. In addition, our results suggested that both endocytosis and exocytosis of TiO2NPs were energy-dependent processes, and NPs uptake by cells was influenced by serum proteins. Furthermore, we achieved primary dynamic confocal imaging of the exocytosis, allowing tracking of TiO2 NPs from NSCs. These findings may benefit studies on nanotoxicology and nanomedicine of TiO2 NPs.Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely studied and applied in biomedicine and other fields. It is important to know the basic process of interaction between NPs and cells in terms of cellular endocytosis and exocytosis. However, little attention has been paid to the cellular exocytosis of NPs. Herein, using a multi-step cellular subculture method, we ascertain quantitatively the endocytosis and exocytosis of widely used TiO2 NPs using the neural stem cells (NSC) as a cellular model and ICP-AES as an analytic measure. Irrespective of the type and dose of TiO2 NPs, approximately 30% of the total TiO2 NPs entered NSCs after 48 h incubation. In the

  6. Contributions of Basic Sciences to Science of Education. Studies in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Bernard M.

    The science of education has been influenced by the basic sciences to the extent that educational research now has been able to modernize its approach by accepting and using the basic scientific methodology and experimental techniques. Using primarily the same steps of scientific investigations, education today holds a place of much greater esteem…

  7. Issues of Attitude and Access: A Case Study of Basic Writers in a Computer Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavia, Catherine Matthews

    2004-01-01

    I conducted teacher research in a basic writing computer classroom to discover what two basic writers brought to the computer classroom that could complicate their interactions with technology and their ability to write with computers during our class. My discussion is twofold: First, I explore the writers' differing attitudes towards computers,…

  8. The emerging science of quantitative imaging biomarkers terminology and definitions for scientific studies and regulatory submissions.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Larry G; Barnhart, Huiman X; Buckler, Andrew J; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Kondratovich, Marina V; Toledano, Alicia; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Filice, Ross; Zhang, Zheng; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    The development and implementation of quantitative imaging biomarkers has been hampered by the inconsistent and often incorrect use of terminology related to these markers. Sponsored by the Radiological Society of North America, an interdisciplinary group of radiologists, statisticians, physicists, and other researchers worked to develop a comprehensive terminology to serve as a foundation for quantitative imaging biomarker claims. Where possible, this working group adapted existing definitions derived from national or international standards bodies rather than invent new definitions for these terms. This terminology also serves as a foundation for the design of studies that evaluate the technical performance of quantitative imaging biomarkers and for studies of algorithms that generate the quantitative imaging biomarkers from clinical scans. This paper provides examples of research studies and quantitative imaging biomarker claims that use terminology consistent with these definitions as well as examples of the rampant confusion in this emerging field. We provide recommendations for appropriate use of quantitative imaging biomarker terminological concepts. It is hoped that this document will assist researchers and regulatory reviewers who examine quantitative imaging biomarkers and will also inform regulatory guidance. More consistent and correct use of terminology could advance regulatory science, improve clinical research, and provide better care for patients who undergo imaging studies.

  9. Diffraction enhance x-ray imaging for quantitative phase contrast studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, A. K.; Singh, B.; Kashyap, Y. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sarkar, P. S.; Sinha, Amar

    2016-05-01

    Conventional X-ray imaging based on absorption contrast permits limited visibility of feature having small density and thickness variations. For imaging of weakly absorbing material or materials possessing similar densities, a novel phase contrast imaging techniques called diffraction enhanced imaging has been designed and developed at imaging beamline Indus-2 RRCAT Indore. The technique provides improved visibility of the interfaces and show high contrast in the image forsmall density or thickness gradients in the bulk. This paper presents basic principle, instrumentation and analysis methods for this technique. Initial results of quantitative phase retrieval carried out on various samples have also been presented.

  10. Comparison study on qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network.

    PubMed

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitative method is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitative method is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitative method proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment.

  11. Competencies for Adult Basic Education and Diploma Programs: A Summary of Studies and Cross-Reference of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Joan Keller

    This report summarizes and cross-references the results of 12 studies dealing with competencies for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and diploma programs. Described in the report are the following studies/projects: (1) the Adult Performance Level (APL) Study; (2) five APL-based validation studies (the New Jersey ABE Study, the New Jersey English as a…

  12. Interactions among Online Learners: A Quantitative Interdisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Pawan; Jain, Sachin; Jain, Smita

    2011-01-01

    This study concerns the design and development of online instruction and specifically targets interaction and communication between online learners. Facilitating appropriate and meaningful interactions in designing instruction is a major goal for anyone developing a course, especially an online class. The data for this study came from the online…

  13. A new laboratory stellarator for basic plasma research and wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Thiery

    2015-11-01

    A new laboratory stellarator was built for basic plasma. The device is designed following the early concept of the Spitzer's B1 to B3 stellarators built in the early 50's. The goal is to study anomalous transport and turbulence in this device, and to study wave chaos at low frequency in this complex closed magnetized plasma. In stellarators, it is well known that a special design of the torsion and of the local curvature of the magnetic field lines is necessary to obtain a stable plasma. In the B3 machine, the torsion of the magnetic field line was not continuously varying in plasma. The second point is the necessity to build a magnetic surface. The new magnetized plasma machine is a table-top machine (r = 6 cm) shaped in a ``Figure Eight'' design including the possibility to vary the twisting of the magnetic field lines. In this way, it is possible to start from a toroidal type configuration without rotational transform (unstable) and to change for a magnetized ``Figure 8'' plasma that produces a stable plasma. The plasma is created by thermionic emission of ionizing electrons emitted from a hot tungsten filament or by microwave excitation at a frequency close to the electron cyclotron frequency. When the radial electric field is minimum, the propagation of ion acoustic waves is studied in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Wave chaos related to the internal feedback present in this topology is investigated.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of wrist posture and typing performance: A comparative study of 4 computer keyboards

    SciTech Connect

    Burastero, S.

    1994-05-01

    The present study focuses on an ergonomic evaluation of 4 computer keyboards, based on subjective analyses of operator comfort and on a quantitative analysis of typing performance and wrist posture during typing. The objectives of this study are (1) to quantify differences in the wrist posture and in typing performance when the four different keyboards are used, and (2) to analyze the subjective preferences of the subjects for alternative keyboards compared to the standard flat keyboard with respect to the quantitative measurements.

  15. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  16. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  17. Study on the relationship between basic and applied subjects in Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigones, A.; Gallego, E.; Garcia, N.; Fernandez, P.; Lleo, L.

    2012-04-01

    The engineer is someone who carries out develops technological solutions to social, industrial or economic by using knowledge of science, mathematics and appropriate experience to find the best solutions to specific problems. Therefore, all engineering studies include core subjects that are taught mainly in the first courses such as mathematics and physics, they provide essential training in order to pursue certain subjects that are applied directly related, such as electrical, construction, topography or engines and machinery, among others, that solve certain technological problems specific to the engineer. A study was carried out with a total of 206 students, focused on the degree of Agricultural Engineer (Curriculum 1999) which is taught at the Technical University of Madrid, was designed to determine the degree of correlation between the results obtained by students in basic engineering materials ("Mathematics I", "Mathematics II", "Physics I" and "Physics II"), and certain applied subjects in the agricultural Technical engineering degree ("Electrical", "Engines and agricultural machinery" "Agro-industrial machinery and engines," "Design and calculation of structures", "Building agri-food," "Surveying, photogrammetry and cartography").

  18. Basic turbulence studies on TORPEX and challenges in the theory-experiment comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S. H.; Fasoli, A.; Labit, B.; McGrath, M.; Pisaturo, O.; Plyushchev, G.; Podestà, M.; Poli, F. M.

    2005-09-01

    TORPEX [A. Fasoli, B. Labit, M. McGrath, S. H. Müller, M. Podestà, and F. M. Poli, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48, 119 (2003)] is dedicated to the study of electrostatic instabilities, turbulence, and transport. Plasmas are produced by waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range and are confined by a toroidal magnetic field of about 0.1T to which a small vertical component Bz is added. The crucial role of Bz for the basic confinement scheme through the generation of parallel flows has been studied previously. This paper focuses on the effects of Bz on turbulence. The observed strong dependence indicates an intrinsic coupling between average profiles, confinement, and turbulence regulated by the action of Bz. Two approaches to characterize turbulence are adopted, via time series statistics and via the direct measurement of spatiotemporal structures, made possible by the novel hexagonal turbulence imaging probe diagnostic, which is described in detail. Analysis methods to condense the large amount of data of such imaging diagnostics are proposed.

  19. Basic turbulence studies on TORPEX and challenges in the theory-experiment comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S.H.; Fasoli, A.; Labit, B.; McGrath, M.; Pisaturo, O.; Plyushchev, G.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F.M.

    2005-09-15

    TORPEX [A. Fasoli, B. Labit, M. McGrath, S. H. Mueller, M. Podesta, and F. M. Poli, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48, 119 (2003)] is dedicated to the study of electrostatic instabilities, turbulence, and transport. Plasmas are produced by waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range and are confined by a toroidal magnetic field of about 0.1 T to which a small vertical component B{sub z} is added. The crucial role of B{sub z} for the basic confinement scheme through the generation of parallel flows has been studied previously. This paper focuses on the effects of B{sub z} on turbulence. The observed strong dependence indicates an intrinsic coupling between average profiles, confinement, and turbulence regulated by the action of B{sub z}. Two approaches to characterize turbulence are adopted, via time series statistics and via the direct measurement of spatiotemporal structures, made possible by the novel hexagonal turbulence imaging probe diagnostic, which is described in detail. Analysis methods to condense the large amount of data of such imaging diagnostics are proposed.

  20. Commercial Activities in Primary Schools: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The commercialisation of schools is a controversial issue, but very little is known about the actual situation in UK schools. The aim of this study was to investigate, with particular reference to health education and health promotion, commercial activities and their regulation in primary schools in the Yorkshire and Humber region of the UK. A…

  1. Service Learning, Phonemic Perception, and Learner Motivation: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Almitra; Gordon, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week empirical study of 25 adults in a second language (L2) Spanish phonetics course explored whether students' participation in service-learning language exchange sessions with native Spanish speakers outside of class influenced learners' (1) motivation for foreign language learning and (2) phonemic perception in Spanish. Divided…

  2. Case study 3. Application of basic enzyme kinetics to metabolism studies: real-life examples.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; McCabe, Michelle; Podila, Lalitha; Tracy, Timothy S; Tweedie, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    An appreciation of the principles of enzyme kinetics can be applied in a number of drug metabolism applications. The concept for this chapter arose from a simple discussion on selecting appropriate time points to most efficiently assess metabolite profiles in a human Phase 1a clinical study (Subheading 4). By considering enzyme kinetics, a logical approach to the issue was derived. The dialog was an important learning opportunity for the participants in the discussion, and we have endeavored to capture this experience with other questions related to determination of K m and V max parameters, a consideration of the value of hepatocytes versus liver microsomes and enzyme inhibition parameters.

  3. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Soltis, R.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy's cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  4. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Soltis, R.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy`s cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  5. An Approach to the Quantitative Study of Sea Floor Topography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    the result of igneous , sedimentary and tectonic processes, and must, when collectively dealt with, have nonstationary statistics. For these two reasons...Continental Rise by Deep Geostrophic Contour Currents. Science, v. 152, p. 1126-1149. Hess, H. H. (1962). History of Ocean Basins. In: Petrological Studies: A...estimates of ship’s speed of advance (SOA), which could easily be as high as 10% in older data, but is most likely on the order of 1-2% for present

  6. Twins born following fertility treatment: implications for quantitative genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Goody, Adam; Rice, Frances; Boivin, Jacky; Harold, Gordon T; Hay, Dale F; Thapar, Anita

    2005-08-01

    The rate of multiple births is substantially elevated in women who have had assisted reproduction treatment (ART; approximately 26%) compared to the general population ( approximately 1%), and these offspring are usually included in twin studies. Several studies have attempted to identify possible consequences of undergoing ART on the subsequent offspring. However, most studies have only included singleton births. We first examined whether twins born by ART differed from other twins on measures of childhood psychopathology, putative risk factors and correlates, and secondly tested for differences in the degree of twin similarity for available outcome measures. From a population-based twin sample, 101 families with dizygotic (DZ) twins conceived via ART were identified and compared with 1073 naturally conceived (NC) control DZ twin pairs. Analyses performed were (1) univariate and multivariate comparisons of between-group mean differences; and (2) comparison of twin 1-twin 2 correlations between the groups. The groups differed significantly on demographic factors (parental age, family size and social class) and pregnancy variables (smoking during pregnancy and birthweight) but did not differ on family conflict scores or in the frequency of obstetric complications. Family cohesion was higher in the ART group but this was accounted for by demographic factors. For child psychopathology there was a difference between the groups only for teacher-rated ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). Differences were also found between groups for twin correlations. The differences found between ART and NC twins on group means and twin correlations suggest that researchers should be aware that including ART twins may influence results from twin studies.

  7. QUANTITATIVE CT ANALYSIS, AIRFLOW OBSTRUCTION AND LUNG CANCER IN THE PITTSBURGH LUNG SCREENING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O; Leader, Joseph K; Fuhrman, Carl R; Reilly, John J; Sciurba, Frank C.; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2011-01-01

    Background To study the relationship between emphysema, airflow obstruction and lung cancer in a high risk population we performed quantitative analysis of screening computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods Subjects completed questionnaires, spirometry and low-dose helical chest CT. Analyses compared cases and controls according to automated quantitative analysis of lung parenchyma and airways measures. Results Our case-control study of 117 matched pairs of lung cancer cases and controls did not reveal any airway or lung parenchymal findings on quantitative analysis of screening CT scans that were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Airway measures including wall area %, lumen perimeter, lumen area and average wall HU, and parenchymal measures including lung fraction < −910 Hounsfield Units (HU), were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions The relationship between visual assessment of emphysema and increased lung cancer risk could not be verified by quantitative analysis of low-dose screening CT scans in a high risk tobacco exposed population. PMID:21610523

  8. A quantitative study of a physics-first pilot program

    SciTech Connect

    Pasero, Spencer Lee; /Northern Illinois U.

    2008-09-01

    Hundreds of high schools around the United States have inverted the traditional core sequence of high school science courses, putting physics first, followed by chemistry, and then biology. A quarter-century of theory, opinion, and anecdote are available, but the literature lacks empirical evidence of the effects of the program. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of the program on science achievement gain, growth in attitude toward science, and growth in understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. One hundred eighty-five honor students participated in this quasi-experiment, self-selecting into either the traditional or inverted sequence. Students took the Explore test as freshmen, and the Plan test as sophomores. Gain scores were calculated for the composite scores and for the science and mathematics subscale scores. A two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) on course sequence and cohort showed significantly greater composite score gains by students taking the inverted sequence. Participants were administered surveys measuring attitude toward science and understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge twice per year. A multilevel growth model, compared across program groups, did not show any significant effect of the inverted sequence on either attitude or understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. The sole significant parameter showed a decline in student attitude independent of course sequence toward science over the first two years of high school. The results of this study support the theory that moving physics to the front of the science sequence can improve achievement. The importance of the composite gain score on tests vertically aligned with the high-stakes ACT is discussed, and several ideas for extensions of the current study are offered.

  9. Three quantitative studies of gender and identity in psychotherapy consultations.

    PubMed

    Langs, R; Rapp, P E; Pinto, A; Cramer, G; Badalamenti, A

    1992-04-01

    This paper details the application of three distinctive approaches to the analysis of line-by-line scores for themes of gender and identity in recorded psychotherapy consultations conducted by three male analysts with a female patient. The first method involved commonly used statistical comparisons of the frequency with which gender subthemes and allusions to identity appeared in each consultation session. The results of this study indicate three significantly different patterns of gender material in the communications from the patient with each of the analysts who interviewed her--and from each analyst and patient/analyst system as well. Therapist dominance in this area appeared to be quite strong. The second study involved measures of overall informational complexity for various aspects of the gender/identity sequence of communications. Here too, individual differences emerged. They not only add to the evidence for therapist dominance in these protocols, but also provide indications that sessions differ in respect to the extent to which the information they contain is ordered and repetitive or redundant, as compared to disordered, complex, and varied. The third study availed itself of stochastic methods in which the Box-Jenkins models were used to define mathematically and post hoc, the deeper structure of aspects of the vicissitudes of gender/identity expressions in the course of these consultations. The main finding was that change in speaker role in respect to these themes accelerated in response to random interventional shocks to the system that occurred at the time of measurement and inversely with shocks to the system sustained the previous second. This look into the deeper structure of these sequences revealed considerable sensitivity to recent shocks to the patient/therapist system, much underlying instability, and strong tendencies toward establishing stability or equilibrium when the system destabilized. Of note is the finding that all three

  10. Quantitative studies of bird movement: a methodological review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Kaiser, A.

    1999-01-01

    The past several years have seen development of a number of statistical models and methods for drawing inferences about bird movement using data from marked individuals. It can be difficult to keep up with this rapid development of new methods, so our purpose here is to categorize and review methods for drawing inferences about avian movement. We also outline recommendations about future work dealing both with methods development and actual studies directed at hypotheses about bird movement of interest from conservation, management, or ecological perspectives.

  11. Quantitative studies of bird movement: A methodological review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Kaiser, A.

    1999-01-01

    The past several years have seen the development of a number of statistical models and methods for drawing inferences about bird movement using data from marked individuals. It can be difficult to keep up with this rapid development of new methods, so our purpose here is to categorize and review methods for drawing inferences about avian movement. We also outline recommendations about future work, dealing both with methodological developments and with studies directed at hypotheses about bird movement of interest from conservation, management, or ecological perspectives.

  12. A Quantitative Study of Magnetic Flux Transport on the Sun,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-15

    the Sun . Using Kitt Peak magnetograms as input, as have determined a best-fit diffusion constant by comparing the computed and observed fields at later times. This paper presents the initial results of a project to simulate the transport of solar magnetic flux using diffusion, differential rotation, and meridional flow. The study concerns the evolution of large-scale fields on a time scale of weeks of years, and ignores the rapid changes that accompany the emergence of new magnetic regions and the day-to-day changes of the supergranular network

  13. Lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related dysfunction in older persons; Findings from the longitudinal SMILE study

    PubMed Central

    Groffen, Daniëlle AI; Bosma, Hans; van den Akker, Marjan; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; van Eijk, Jacques TM

    2008-01-01

    Background More so than the traditional socioeconomic indicators, such as education and income, wealth reflects the accumulation of resources and makes socioeconomic ranking manifest and explicitly visible to the outside world. While the lack of basic goods, such as a refrigerator, may affect health directly, via biological pathways, the lack of luxury goods, such as an LCD television, may affect health indirectly through psychosocial mechanisms. We set out to examine, firstly, the relevance of both basic and luxury goods in explaining health-related dysfunction in older persons, and, secondly, the extent to which these associations are independent of traditional socioeconomic indicators. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 2067 men and women aged 55 years and older who participated in the Study on Medical Information and Lifestyles Eindhoven (SMILE) were gathered. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the relation between a lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related function, assessed with two sub-domains of the SF-36. Results The lack of basic goods was closely related to incident physical (OR = 2.32) and mental (OR = 2.12) dysfunction, even when the traditional measures of socioeconomic status, i.e. education or income, were taken into account. Cross-sectional analyses, in which basic and luxury goods were compared, showed that the lack of basic goods was strongly associated with mental dysfunction. Lack of luxury goods was, however, not related to dysfunction. Conclusion Even in a relatively wealthy country like the Netherlands, the lack of certain basic goods is not uncommon. More importantly, lack of basic goods, as an indicator of wealth, was strongly related to health-related dysfunction also when traditional measures of socioeconomic status were taken into account. In contrast, no effects of luxury goods on physical or mental dysfunction were found. Future longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the precise mechanisms

  14. New methods for quantitative and qualitative facial studies: an overview.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I T; Hintz, R J; Frias, J L

    1989-01-01

    The clinical study of birth defects has traditionally followed the Gestalt approach, with a trend, in recent years, toward more objective delineation. Data collection, however, has been largely restricted to measurements from X-rays and anthropometry. In other fields, new techniques are being applied that capitalize on the use of modern computer technology. One such technique is that of remote sensing, of which photogrammetry is a branch. Cartographers, surveyors and engineers, using specially designed cameras, have applied geometrical techniques to locate points on an object precisely. These techniques, in their long-range application, have become part of our industrial technology and have assumed great importance with the development of satellite-borne surveillance systems. The close-range application of similar techniques has the potential for extremely accurate clinical measurement. We are currently evaluating the application of remote sensing to facial measurement using three conventional 35 mm still cameras. The subject is photographed in front of a carefully measured grid, and digitization is then carried out on 35-mm slides specific landmarks on the cranioface are identified, along with points on the background grid and the four corners of the slide frame, and are registered as xy coordinates by a digitizer. These coordinates are then converted into precise locations in object space. The technique is capable of producing measurements to within 1/100th of an inch. We suggest that remote sensing methods such as this may well be of great value in the study of congenital malformations.

  15. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles under Sintering Conditions: A Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    Silencieux, Fanny; Bouchoucha, Meryem; Mercier, Olivier; Turgeon, Stéphane; Chevallier, Pascale; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Thin films made of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are finding new applications in catalysis, optics, as well as in biomedicine. The fabrication of MSNs thin films requires a precise control over the deposition and sintering of MSNs on flat substrates. In this study, MSNs of narrow size distribution (150 nm) are synthesized, and then assembled onto flat silicon substrates, by means of a dip-coating process. Using concentrated MSN colloidal solutions (19.5 mg mL(-1) SiO2), withdrawal speed of 0.01 mm s(-1), and well-controlled atmospheric conditions (ambient temperature, ∼ 70% of relative humidity), monolayers are assembled under well-structured compact patterns. The thin films are sintered up to 900 °C, and the evolution of the MSNs size distributions are compared to those of their pore volumes and densities. Particle size distributions of the sintered thin films were precisely fitted using a model specifically developed for asymmetric particle size distributions. With increasing temperature, there is first evidence of intraparticle reorganization/relaxation followed by intraparticle sintering followed by interparticle sintering. This study is the first to quantify the impact of sintering on MSNs assembled as thin films.

  16. A Quantitative Study of Right Dislocation in Cantonese Spoken Discourse.

    PubMed

    Lai, Christy Choi-Ting; Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2017-01-01

    Right Dislocation (RD) has been suggested to be a focus marking device carrying an affective function motivated by limited planning time in conversation. The current study investigated the effects of genre type, planning load and affective function on the use of RD in Cantonese monologues. Discourse data were extracted from a recently developed corpus of oral narratives in Cantonese Chinese containing language samples from 144 native Cantonese speakers evenly distributed in age, education levels and gender. Three genre types representing different structures, styles and degrees of topic familiarity were chosen for an RD analysis: procedural description, story-telling and recount of personal event. The results revealed that genre types and planning load influenced the rate of RD occurrence. (1) Specifically, the lowest proportion of RD occurred in procedural description, assumed to be the most structured genre; whereas the highest rate was found in personal event recount, considered to be the most stylized and less structured genre. (2) The highest proportion of RD appeared near the end of a narrative, where heavier cognitive load is demanded compared with the beginning of a narrative; moreover, RD also tended to co-occur with disfluency. (3) There was a high percentage of RD tokens in the personal event recount for expressing explicit emotions; and (4) a lower rate of occurrence of RD was found in monologues than previous studies based on conversations. The overall findings suggest that the use of RD is sensitive to genre structure and style, as well as planning load effects.

  17. Conformational stability of dimeric proteins: quantitative studies by equilibrium denaturation.

    PubMed Central

    Neet, K. E.; Timm, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The conformational stability of dimeric globular proteins can be measured by equilibrium denaturation studies in solvents such as guanidine hydrochloride or urea. Many dimeric proteins denature with a 2-state equilibrium transition, whereas others have stable intermediates in the process. For those proteins showing a single transition of native dimer to denatured monomer, the conformational stabilities, delta Gu (H2O), range from 10 to 27 kcal/mol, which is significantly greater than the conformational stability found for monomeric proteins. The relative contribution of quaternary interactions to the overall stability of the dimer can be estimated by comparing delta Gu (H2O) from equilibrium denaturation studies to the free energy associated with simple dissociation in the absence of denaturant. In many cases the large stabilization energy of dimers is primarily due to the intersubunit interactions and thus gives a rationale for the formation of oligomers. The magnitude of the conformational stability is related to the size of the polypeptide in the subunit and depends upon the type of structure in the subunit interface. The practical use, interpretation, and utility of estimation of conformational stability of dimers by equilibrium denaturation methods are discussed. PMID:7756976

  18. [Qualitative and quantitative studies of autofluorescence in fungi].

    PubMed

    Graf, B; Göbel, U B; Adam, T

    1998-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an important method in mycology. It is a common procedure used in immunology or histology and more recently in modern techniques of molecular biology like in-situ hybridization. Since several molds and yeasts show autofluorescence, an interference of this phenomenon with the detection method cannot be excluded. Therefore, we studied autofluorescence in fungi in more detail, in particular with respect to the dependence of this phenomenon from growth conditions, fixing method or mounting medium used. Here we show that moulds cultivated in a liquid medium are strongly autofluorescent which could be considerably reduced by repetitive washing. In moulds, we did not find important differences in autofluorescence levels with the three fixing methods under study. However, this finding cannot be generalized. Thus, in the yeast Candida albicans we found the autofluorescence pattern being largely dependent from the fixing method and the excitation wave length, respectively. In particular, with green excitation we could show that aceton fixation resulted in strong fluorescence of individual cells within a vast population of cells showing little or no autofluorescence. In addition, we could demonstrate that mounting media are able to strongly modify autofluorescence in fungi. Using digital image acquisition with a cooled CCD camera we were able to quantify the influence of different mounting media on fluorescence intensities of Aspergillus fumigatus.

  19. A Quantitative Study of Simulated Bicuspid Aortic Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kai; Nguyen, Tran; Rodriguez, Javier; Pastuszko, Peter; Nigam, Vishal; Lasheras, Juan

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that congentially bicuspid aortic valves develop degenerative diseases earlier than the standard trileaflet, but the causes are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that the asymmetrical flow patterns and turbulence found in the bileaflet valves together with abnormally high levels of strain may result in an early thickening and eventually calcification and stenosis. Central to this hypothesis is the need for a precise quantification of the differences in the strain rate levels between bileaflets and trileaflet valves. We present here some in-vitro dynamic measurements of the spatial variation of the strain rate in pig aortic vales conducted in a left ventricular heart flow simulator device. We measure the strain rate of each leaflet during the whole cardiac cycle using phase-locked stereoscopic three-dimensional image surface reconstruction techniques. The bicuspid case is simulated by surgically stitching two of the leaflets in a normal valve.

  20. Conformational studies of immunodominant myelin basic protein 1-11 analogues using NMR and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laimou, Despina; Lazoura, Eliada; Troganis, Anastassios N.; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Deraos, Spyros N.; Katsara, Maria; Matsoukas, John; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Tselios, Theodore V.

    2011-11-01

    Τwo dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies complimented by molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the conformation of the immunodominant epitope of acetylated myelin basic protein residues 1-11 (Ac-MBP1-11) and its altered peptide ligands, mutated at position 4 to an alanine (Ac-MBP1-11[4A]) or a tyrosine residue (Ac-MBP1-11[4Y]). Conformational analysis of the three analogues indicated that they adopt an extended conformation in DMSO solution as no long distance NOE connectivities were observed and seem to have a similar conformation when bound to the active site of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC II). The interaction of each peptide with MHC class II I-Au was further investigated in order to explore the molecular mechanism of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction/inhibition in mice. The present findings indicate that the Gln3 residue, which serves as a T-cell receptor (TCR) contact site in the TCR/peptide/I-Au complex, has a different orientation in the mutated analogues especially in the Ac-MBP1-11[4A] peptide. In particular the side chain of Gln3 is not solvent exposed as for the native Ac-MBP1-11 and it is not available for interaction with the TCR.

  1. Role of MR imaging in sports medicine research. Basic science and clinical research studies.

    PubMed

    Rodkey, W G; Steadman, J R; Ho, C P

    1999-02-01

    The advent and advancement of MR imaging have provided an entire new dimension for medical imaging. MR imaging has been especially useful because of its capacity to image nonmineralized tissues with a very high degree of resolution. Although modalities such as ultrasound and scintigraphy have proven useful for specific purposes, it is MR imaging that has the most utility and capabilities, especially in the area of sports-induced injuries. The technology associated with MR imaging has expanded greatly, and it continues to evolve at a rapid pace. The result has been an ever-increasing diagnostic capability that has become more economic with time. As described previously, MR imaging is gaining importance in the area of comparative medicine for animal athletes as well. It is also interesting to note that MR imaging now has a greater potential for monitoring physiological and biochemical changes as well as anatomic ones. Some newer MR units actually include physiologic data acquisition components. Consequently, new bioassays and nondestructive tissue tests can be performed to further understand the molecular biology and ongoing cellular processes in any given condition. Coupled with MR spectroscopy, the enhanced MR techniques should continue to contribute to the overall information that will be integrated into the training and rehabilitation of patients with sports-induced inflammation and injuries. The authors support and encourage ongoing efforts in the area of MR imaging research, both basic science and clinical studies.

  2. Interaction of myelin basic protein isoforms with lipid bilayers studied by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael; Choo, Lin-P'ing; Boulias, Christopher; Moscarello, Mario A.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1993-05-01

    The secondary structure of the naturally occurring isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP1-8) from human myelin was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy under a variety of experimental conditions. In aqueous solution each isoform was found to be unstructured. In the presence of negatively charged liquid bilayers MBP1-4 were shown to exhibit an amide I band maximum indicative of the adoption of (alpha) -helical secondary structures. A detailed analysis revealed that significant proportions of (beta) -sheet secondary structure were also present. MBP5 and MBP8, which have significantly less cationic charge than MBP1-4, exhibited an amide I maximum identical to that seen in solution, suggesting that no interaction with the bilayer occurred. Analysis of the lipid CH2 and C equals O stretching vibrations also pointed towards significant interaction of MBP1-4 with the bilayer. The changes in intensity and frequency of these bands which typically accompany the phase transition in the pure bilayer were abolished by addition of the proteins. No such effect was seen for MBP5 and 8, the normal lipid phase transition being apparent. The implications of these results in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis is discussed.

  3. Study of the mechanism of spatter produced by basic welding electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.H.; Sun, Z.C.; Fan, D.

    1996-10-01

    In this work a device was made to control the current at three stages of short circuiting welding: at the beginning of short circuiting, during the overall period of short circuiting, including the breaking stage, and at the arc reinitiating stage. By investigating the effects of these currents on the spatter produced by basic welding electrodes, the decisive parameter which determined spatter quantities was identified as the current at the short circuit breaking stage. On the basis of the experimental results from the combined effect of short circuiting current and the oxygen potential in the covering, it was found that the major process causing spatter was the explosion of CO gas bubbles, which resulted in the breakage of the short circuiting bridge. The high density of current intensified this explosion and increased the spatter quantity. The spatter mechanism caused by the explosion of gases was identified by studying the metal transfer using laser back-light, high-speed photography and x-ray, high-speed photography to record two images simultaneously, along with arc sound and arc voltage oscillographs.

  4. Technetium chemistry in the fuel cycle: combining basic and applied studies.

    PubMed

    Poineau, Frederic; Mausolf, Edward; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Sattelberger, Alfred P; Czerwinski, Kenneth R

    2013-04-01

    Technetium is intimately linked with nuclear reactions. The ultraminute natural levels in the environment are due to the spontaneous fission of uranium isotopes. The discovery of technetium was born from accelerator reactions, and its use and presence in the modern world are directly due to nuclear reactors. While occupying a central location in the periodic table, the chemistry of technetium is poorly explored, especially when compared to its neighboring elements, i.e., molybdenum, ruthenium, and rhenium. This state of affairs, which is tied to the small number of laboratories equipped to work with the long-lived (99)Tc isotope, provides a remarkable opportunity to combine basic studies with applications for the nuclear fuel cycle. An example is given through examination of the technetium halide compounds. Binary metal halides represent some of the most fundamental of inorganic compounds. The synthesis of new technetium halides demonstrates trends with structure, coordination number, and speciation that can be utilized in the nuclear fuel cycle. Examples are provided for technetium-zirconium alloys as waste forms and the formation of reduced technetium species in separations.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Basic Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuya; Kawakita, Masatoshi; Iijima, Takayoshi; Koga, Mitsuhiro; Kihira, Mitsuhiko; Funaki, Jiro

    The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils have been researched in higher Reynolds-number ranges more than 106, in a historic context closely related with the developments of airplanes and fluid machineries in the last century. However, our knowledge is not enough at low and middle Reynolds-number ranges. So, in the present study, we investigate such basic airfoils as a NACA0015, a flat plate and the flat plates with modified fore-face and after-face geometries at Reynolds number Re < 1.0×105, using two- and three-dimensional computations together with wind-tunnel and water-tank experiments. As a result, we have revealed the effect of the Reynolds number Re upon the minimum drag coefficient CDmin. Besides, we have shown the effects of attack angle α upon various aerodynamic characteristics such as the lift coefficient CL, the drag coefficient CD and the lift-to-drag ratio CL/CD at Re = 1.0×102, discussing those effects on the basis of both near-flow-field information and surface-pressure profiles. Such results suggest the importance of sharp leading edges, which implies the possibility of an inversed NACA0015. Furthermore, concerning the flat-plate airfoil, we investigate the influences of fore-face and after-face geometries upon such effects.

  6. Conformational studies of immunodominant myelin basic protein 1-11 analogues using NMR and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Laimou, Despina; Lazoura, Eliada; Troganis, Anastassios N; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Deraos, Spyros N; Katsara, Maria; Matsoukas, John; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Tselios, Theodore V

    2011-11-01

    Τwo dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies complimented by molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the conformation of the immunodominant epitope of acetylated myelin basic protein residues 1-11 (Ac-MBP(1-11)) and its altered peptide ligands, mutated at position 4 to an alanine (Ac-MBP(1-11)[4A]) or a tyrosine residue (Ac-MBP(1-11)[4Y]). Conformational analysis of the three analogues indicated that they adopt an extended conformation in DMSO solution as no long distance NOE connectivities were observed and seem to have a similar conformation when bound to the active site of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC II). The interaction of each peptide with MHC class II I-A(u) was further investigated in order to explore the molecular mechanism of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction/inhibition in mice. The present findings indicate that the Gln(3) residue, which serves as a T-cell receptor (TCR) contact site in the TCR/peptide/I-A(u) complex, has a different orientation in the mutated analogues especially in the Ac-MBP(1-11)[4A] peptide. In particular the side chain of Gln(3) is not solvent exposed as for the native Ac-MBP(1-11) and it is not available for interaction with the TCR.

  7. An Analysis of Minimum Service Standards (MSS) in Basic Education: A Case Study at Magelang Municipality, Central Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haryati, Sri

    2014-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing the achievement of Minimum Service Standards (MSS) in Basic Education through a case study at Magelang Municipality. The findings shall be used as a starting point to predict the needs to meet MMS by 2015 and to provide strategies for achievement. Both primary and secondary data were used in the study investigating the…

  8. Changes in Study Strategies of Medical Students between Basic Science Courses and Clerkships Are Associated with Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensminger, David C.; Hoyt, Amy E.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; McNulty, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that medical students change their study strategies when transitioning from basic science courses to clerkships, and that their study practices are associated with performance scores. Factor scores for three approaches to studying (construction, rote, and review) generated from student (n = 150) responses to a…

  9. Adequacy of Material Resources Required for Effective Implementation of Upper Basic Education Business Studies Curriculum in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, B. E.; Okorie, Ogbonnaya

    2015-01-01

    This work is a descriptive survey of the adequacy of the material resources required for effective implementation of upper basic education business studies curriculum in Ebonyi State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The entire population of two hundred and forty-one (241) business studies teachers were used for the…

  10. Brainstem infarction and sleep-disordered breathing in the BASIC Sleep Apnea Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Devin L.; McDermott, Mollie; Mowla, Ashkan; De Lott, Lindsey; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Kerber, Kevin A.; Hegeman, Garnett; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Association between cerebral infarction site and post-stroke sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has important implications for SDB screening and the pathophysiology of post-stroke SDB. Within a large, population-based study, we assessed whether brainstem infarction location is associated with SDB presence and severity. Methods Cross-sectional study of ischemic stroke patients in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Subjects underwent SDB screening (median 13 days after stroke) with a well-validated cardiopulmonary sleep apnea testing device (n=355). Acute infarction location was determined based on review of radiology reports and dichotomized into brainstem involvement or none. Logistic and linear regression models were used to test the associations between brainstem involvement and SDB or apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) in unadjusted and adjusted models. Results Thirty-eight (11%) had acute infarction involving the brainstem. Of those without brainstem infarction, 59% had significant SDB (AHI≥10); the median AHI was 13 (interquartile range (IQR) 6, 26). Of those with brainstem infarction, 84% had SDB; median AHI was 20 (IQR 11, 38). In unadjusted analysis, brainstem involvement was associated with over three times the odds of SDB (OR 3.71 (95% CI: 1.52, 9.13)). In a multivariable model, adjusted for demographics, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, prior stroke/TIA, and stroke severity, results were similar (OR 3.76 (95% CI: 1.44, 9.81)). Brainstem infarction was also associated with AHI (continuous) in unadjusted (p=0.004) and adjusted models (p=0.004). Conclusions Data from this population-based stroke study show that acute infarction involving the brainstem is associated with both presence and severity of SDB. PMID:24916097

  11. A Quantitative Study of Michigan's Criminal HIV Exposure Law

    PubMed Central

    Galletly, Carol L.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the project were 1) to determine the extent to which HIV-positive persons living in Michigan were aware of and understood Michigan's criminal HIV exposure law, 2) to examine whether awareness of the law was associated with seropositive status disclosure to prospective sex partners, and, 3) to examine whether awareness of the law was associated with potential negative effects of the law on persons living with HIV (PLWH) including heightened HIV-related stigma, perceived societal hostility toward PLWH, and perceived need to conceal one's HIV infection. The study design was cross-sectional. A statewide sample of 384 PLWH in Michigan completed anonymous pen and paper surveys in 1 of 25 data collection sessions. A majority of participants were aware of Michigan's HIV exposure law. Awareness of the law was not associated with increased seropositive status disclosure to all prospective sex partners, decreased HIV transmission risk behavior, or increased perceived responsibility for HIV transmission prevention. However, awareness of the law was significantly associated with disclosure to a greater proportion of sex partners prior to respondents’ first sexual interaction with that partner. Awareness of the law was not associated with increased HIV-related stigma, perceived societal hostility toward PLWH, or decreased comfort with seropositive status disclosure. Evidence of an effect of Michigan's HIV exposure law on seropositive status disclosure was mixed. Further research is needed to examine the various forms of HIV exposure laws among diverse groups of persons living with or at increased risk of acquiring HIV. PMID:21861631

  12. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell. Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.

  13. Quantitative study of salivary secretion in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tumilasci, Omar R; Cersósimo, M G; Belforte, Juan E; Micheli, Federico E; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Pazo, Jorge H

    2006-05-01

    We examined basal and reflex salivary flow rate and composition in 46 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both in off and on conditions, compared to 13 age-matched controls without underlying disease or treatment affecting autonomic function. Whole saliva was collected 12 hours after withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs and at the peak of levodopa-induced motor improvement. Twenty-three of the 46 PD patients had received domperidone a week before the study. Basal salivary flow rate was significantly lower in PD patients in the off state compared to controls (P<0.005). Levodopa increased salivary flow rate (P<0.05) both in the domperidone-pretreated and untreated groups. Citric acid stimulated salivary flow rate in both the off and on states in PD patients. This effect was higher in the domperidone-pretreated patients. Salivary concentration of sodium, chloride, and amylase was higher in PD patients than in controls and was not affected by levodopa or domperidone treatment. Levodopa stimulates both basal and reflex salivary flow rate in PD. The mechanism appears to be central, as the effect is not blocked by domperidone. Domperidone may have a peripheral effect that potentiates reflex salivary secretion. Salivary composition is abnormal in PD and is not affected by levodopa treatment.

  14. Quantitative study of the enhancement of bulk nonlinearities in metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Alec; Larouche, Stephane; Smith, David R.

    2011-11-15

    Artificially structured metamaterials offer a means to enhance the weak optical nonlinearities of natural materials. The enhancement results from the inhomogeneous nature of the metamaterial unit cell, over which the local field distribution can likewise be strongly inhomogeneous, with highly localized and concentrated field regions. We investigate the nonlinear enhancement effect in metamaterials through a numerical study of four nonlinear metamaterial designs comprising arrays of metallic structures embedded in nonlinear dielectrics and operating around 10 THz. Through full-wave simulations and by employing an extended version of the transfer-matrix-based nonlinear parameter retrieval method, we confirm and quantify the enhanced nonlinearities, showing bulk quadratic nonlinear properties that are up to two orders of magnitude larger, and cubic nonlinear properties that are up to four orders of magnitude larger than the bulk nonlinear dielectric alone. Furthermore, the proposed nonlinear metamaterials support a variety of configurable nonlinear properties and regimes, including electric, magnetic, broadband, and low loss, depending on the particular geometry chosen. Finally, we use the retrieved parameters in a coupled-mode theory to predict the optimal crystal lengths and conversion efficiencies of these structures, displaying the possibility of efficient and subwavelength nonlinear devices based on metamaterials.

  15. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  16. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    DOE PAGES

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell.more » Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.« less

  17. Perinatal hemochromatosis. Clinical, morphologic, and quantitative iron studies.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M. M.; Beverley, D. W.; Valberg, L. S.; Cutz, E.; Phillips, M. J.; Shaheed, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sibling and two isolated-case perinates (4 newborn, 1 stillborn) died with siderotic cirrhosis and widespread parenchymal siderosis, the latter similar to that seen in both hereditary and secondary hemochromatosis. Reticuloendothelial siderosis was absent, as occurs in primary hemochromatosis. Studies of iron metabolism were performed antemortem in two of the siblings and ante-, post- and internatally in their mother, who showed hyperferremia antenatally. The only finding in the affected family suggestive of hereditary hemochromatosis was the commonly associated HLA haplotype (A3, B7) in the mother and an infant. Liver morphology, including immunocytochemistry and ultrastructure, was similar in the 5 infants and suggested that liver disease commenced as massive necrosis in midfetal life. Histologic grading and chemical assays for iron and copper on liver and spleen of the 5 index cases were compared with 26 controls; placentas were compared with 12 control placentas. Hepatic iron concentration, but not hepatic copper concentration, was significantly increased in index cases, compared with controls. Hepatic iron to copper ratio was significantly increased in index cases, compared with controls, but this ratio was unaltered in spleen and placenta. Total hepatic iron, but not total hepatic copper, was significantly increased in index cases, compared with a subgroup of 11 controls of low gestational age, similar to the fetal stage when liver disease commenced in utero. The results suggest that, irrespective of the fetal liver disease being genetic or acquired, hepatic iron overload was directly involved in pathogenesis. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3307444

  18. Quantitative Study of Vulnerability / Damage Curves in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pule, Tebogo

    2014-05-01

    Southern Africa is considered a stable continental region in spite of several cases of reported earthquakes, which caused considerable damage and casualties particularly in the mining industry. Most buildings and structures in South Africa are not designed to resist any intensity of earthquake and most architects, engineers and builders in the country do not consider seismic resistance as a design requirement. This is mainly because the region has not experienced any large and serious destructive earthquake in recent years. The most destructive earthquake recorded in South Africa is the Ceres earthquake of 1969. The earthquake with a magnitude of 6.3 occurred on September 29, 1969 in the Ceres-Tulbagh region of the Western Cape Province about 100 km northeast of Cape Town. Serious damage occurred to certain buildings in the area (amounting to a total of U.S. 24 million). The structural damage varied from almost total destruction of old and poorly constructed buildings to large cracks in the better-built ones, twelve people were killed and many more were injured. Another event that caused severe damage to infrastructure occurred on March 9, 2005 at Stilfontein near Klerksdorp. It is known that up to 40 or more tremors are recorded monthly in Southern Africa, the locations are predominantly in the places surrounding the gold mining areas with many events around the Carletonville and Klerksdorp areas. Recent years have seen at least four mining induced tremors causing significant damage (Welkom 1976, Klerksdorp 1977, Welkom 1989 and Carletonville 1992). Such events show that it is very necessary to take seismic events into account in the design of any infrastructure. Assessing and understanding the risk facing the South African cities as a result of major seismic activity has been paid little attention. The main focus of this study is to use results of a deterministic hazard assessment to develop the most suitable damage curves for twelve of the most common building

  19. A quantitative study of the geoeffectiveness of interplanetary structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.

    2001-05-01

    The time-integrated values of the injection function F(E) necessary to observe variations in the Dst index during the main phase of intense magnetic storms at levels of -50, -75, -100, -125 and -150 nT, were estimated for a set of 12 interplanetary coronal mass ejections events. The dataset was classified into four groups concerning the occurrence of sheath fields just behind the shock and the polarity of the magnetic clouds: (i) magnetic clouds with polarity NS, (ii) magnetic clouds with SN polarity, (iii) magnetic clouds with southward field (Y polarity) and (iv) sheath fields. The injection function was estimated using two models of the evolution of the Dst. The time-integrated values estimated for the subset of Y clouds were found to be greater than for the other subsets. This occurs as a consequence of the slow increase of the Bs for Y clouds that leads to a smaller difference between the energy injection and the loss in the ring current that for the other groups. It is important to remember that while the energy injection is driven by the dawn-dusk component of the interplanetary electric field, the energy loss is proportional to the ring current population, with a decay time τ that varies from 3 to 20 h. The time-integrated values estimated for the subset of NS were found to be high. This is also associated to the profile of the Bs. Otherwise, sheath field and the SN magnetic cloud events seems to have shorter time-integrated values as a consequence of the sharp variation of the Bs component. In this case the energy injection is much greater than the loss energy during the main phase. These results have shown that, for the dataset studied, different structures of the interplanetary events are associated to different main phase development of the ring current. We would like to acknowledge the Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo for the financial support. Project numbers 98/04734-4 and 98/15959-0.

  20. Epistasis and Quantitative Traits: Using Model Organisms to Study Gene-Gene Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The role of epistasis in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial, despite the biological plausibility that non-linear molecular interactions underpin the genotype-phenotype map. This controversy arises because most genetic variation for quantitative traits is additive. However, additive variance is consistent with pervasive epistatic gene action. Here, I discuss experimental designs to detect the contribution of epistasis to quantitative trait phenotypes in model organisms. These studies indicate that epistatic gene action is common, and that additivity can be an emergent property of underlying genetic interaction networks. Epistasis causes hidden quantitative genetic variation in natural populations and could be responsible for the small additive effects, missing heritability and lack of replication typically observed for human complex traits. PMID:24296533

  1. [Basic symptoms in schizophrenia, their clinical study and relevance in research].

    PubMed

    Miret, Salvador; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Peralta, Víctor; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Basic symptoms consist of subtle sub-clinical disturbances subjectively experienced by schizophrenia patients. These are mainly related to drive, affect, thinking and language, perception, memory, motor action, central vegetative functions, control of cognitive processes, and stress tolerance. Initially described by Huber, from a phenomenological approach, basic symptoms are part of the earliest features of schizophrenia, and they can evolve along the course of the disorder. Their assessment during the prodromal phase of the disease (together with ultra-high risk criteria) is one of the 2 main approaches that allow the definition of states of clinical risk for the development of psychosis. The present review provides an updated view of the concept of basic symptoms, highlighting its potential value in establishing neurobiological correlates of interest in aetiopathogenic research.

  2. Women's Selection of Quantitative Undergraduate Fields of Study: Direct and Indirect Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethington, Corinna A.; Wolfle, Lee M.

    1988-01-01

    Factors influencing women's decisions to pursue undergraduate degrees in quantitative fields were studied, using a structural equation model. Significant factors in High School and Beyond study data included courses taken in high school, student socioeconomic status, parental attitudes, and choice of study field as a high school sophomore. (TJH)

  3. Quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  4. 'Stories' or 'snapshots'? A study directed at comparing qualitative and quantitative approaches to curriculum evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pateman, B; Jinks, A M

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a study designed to explore the validity of quantitative approaches of student evaluation in a pre-registration degree programme. As managers of the students' education we were concerned that the quantitative method, which used lecturer criteria, may not fully represent students' views. The approach taken is that of a process-type strategy for curriculum evaluation as described by Parlett and Hamilton (1972). The aim of the study is to produce illuminative data, or students' 'stories' of their educational experiences through use of semi-structured interviews. The results are then compared to the current quantitative measurement tools designed to obtain 'snapshots' of the educational effectiveness of the curriculum. The quantitative measurement tools use Likert scale measurements of teacher-devised criterion statements. The results of the study give a rich source of qualitative data which can be used to inform future curriculum development. However, complete validation of the current quantitative instruments used was not achieved in this study. Student and teacher agendas in respect of important issues pertaining to the course programme were found to differ. Limitations of the study are given. There is discussion of the options open to the management team with regard to future development of curriculum evaluation systems.

  5. Anesthesia Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Anesthesia Basics Print A ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the English Usage and Algebra Basic Skills Testing Remediation Paradigm for Older, Masters' Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddick, David E.; Collins, Burton A.

    The use of a basic skills testing program to identify and remediate academic weaknesses of adult reentry graduate students (mean age 30.1 years) was studied longitudinally. The entering masters' level students majoring in business administration were studied in fall 1980 and again after the spring/summer registration of 1984. Through assessment…

  7. Teaching and Learning Basic Social Studies Skills, Grades 7-12. Teacher and Pupil Resource Materials No. 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Emily

    This manual contains 56 teacher-developed activities which can be used in social studies courses to improve students' basic skills. The activities teach location and map skills, writing and study skills, time skills, and thinking skills. Students also learn how to use reference books and how to read and interpret charts and graphs. Each activity…

  8. Internal Interest or External Performing? A Qualitative Study on Motivation and Learning of 9th Graders in Thailand Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loima, Jyrki; Vibulphol, Jutarat

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research was the first academic attempt to study and discuss the internal and external motivation in learning of students in basic education schools in Thailand. The study addressed two research questions to analyze similarities and differences in learning motivation or interest and teachers' enhancement or discouragement. 1) What…

  9. Study of the impacts of patient-educators on the course of basic sciences in dental studies.

    PubMed

    Renard, E; Alliot-Licht, B; Gross, O; Roger-Leroi, V; Marchand, C

    2015-02-01

    Ever since 2006, Nantes University dental educators have started organising lectures led by the mother of a young patient suffering from ectodermic dysplasia (patient-educator) to help second-year students to better understand how important it is for their future dental work to better understand basic sciences. In this study, we have analysed this training experience on students' motivation. For this purpose, students were asked to complete questionnaires 10 days after the patient-educator's lecture (early assessment; n = 193) and 4 years later, during the last year of their dental studies (delayed assessment; n = 47). Moreover, 3 years after the first lecture, we analysed the ability of students to diagnose a mother carrying the ectodermic dysplasia genetic disorder, using a case-based learning exercise with a patient showing dental features similar to those exposed by the patient-educator (measure of knowledge; n = 42). Ten days after the lecture, the early assessment shows that all the students were interested in the lecture and 59% of the students declared being motivated to find out more about genetics whilst 54% declared the same thing about embryology courses. Moreover, 4 years later, 67% of the students remembered the patient-educator's lecture a little or very well. Three years after the course, 83% of the students diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia whilst studying the case-based example that listed typical dental phenotypes. In conclusion, this study shows that this original educational approach enhances dental students' motivation in learning basic sciences and that patient-educators could offer many benefits for students and patients.

  10. Basic studies on laser-assisted phacoemulsification using diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausladen, Florian; Wurm, Holger; Stock, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of a novel diode-pumped Er:YAG laser for phacoemulsification in basic experimental investigations. An appropriate experimental setup was created, including a translation stage for sample movement, a sample holder, a water spray for sample humidification and a surgical microscope with a CCD camera for video documentation. The analysis of the laser cuts and histological sections was done by light microscopy. As samples porcine eye lenses hardened by formalin were used. In ablation experiments with different spot diameters and radiant powers and a constant repetition rate νr = 200 Hz the maximum ablation depths of (4.346 +/- 0.044) mm have reached at (Ø = 480 μm, Φ = 24.15 W) with a maximum extend of thermal damage of (0.165 +/- 0.030) mm. The average ablation efficiency is 0.241 mm3/J. With a spot diameter of 308 μm the maximum ablation depth is (4.238 +/- 0.040) mm at 24.65 W with a mean ablation efficiency of 0.293 mm3/J. The extend of the thermally damaged region is (0.171 +/- 0.024) mm at this laser power. Using a sapphire cylinder with a diameter of 412 μm (length 38.5 mm) in direct tissue contact with water spray for sample humidification the ablation depth reaches (1.017 +/- 0.074) mm at 4.93 W and (1.840 +/- 0.092) mm at 9.87 W with a mean efficiency of 0.261 mm3/J. A thermal damage zone of (0.064 +/-0.024) mm at 9.87 W was measured. Additionally, at this high power, a progressive contamination and destruction of the cylinder end facet was observed. In conclusion, the investigations show that the diode-pumped Er:YAG laser has considerable potential for cataract surgery.

  11. Basic design studies for a 600 MWe CFB boiler (270b, 2 x 600 C)

    SciTech Connect

    Bursi, J.M.; Lafanechere, L.; Jestin, L.

    1999-07-01

    Commercial CFB boilers are currently available in the 300 MWe equivalent range for use with international coal. Retrofitting of Provence 4 with a 250 MWe CFB boiler was an important step in CFB development. In light of the results obtained from two large French units--Emile Huchet 4 (125 MWe) and Provence 4 (250 MWe)--this paper focuses on the main technical points which are currently being studied in relation to the basic design of a 600 MWe CFB boiler, a project that has been undertaken by EDF. The general aim of this project is to demonstrate the competitiveness of a CFB boiler compared with a PF boiler. The main areas of focus in the design of this large CFB boiler with advanced steam conditions are described. These points are subjected to particular analysis from a design standpoint. The objective is to prepare the precise specifications needed to ensure a product which is optimized in terms of quality/cost or service/cost. Due to the present lack of theoretical understanding of the refined and complex two-phase flow, design is a challenge which has to be based on reliable and comprehensive data obtained from large plants in commercial operation. This will ensure that the advantages of CFB which arise from the hydrodynamics within the circulation loop are maintained. The major goals of maintaining good particle residence time and concentration in the furnace are described. Misunderstanding of CFB furnace bottom conditions is also pointed out, with cost reduction and better NO{sub x} capture certainly among the major new targets in relation to bottom furnace design. General problems associated with the heat exchanger arrangement, principally those linked to high steam conditions and, especially, the vaporization system, are discussed. Once again, comparison with PF in this area showed that CFB boilers appear more competitive. Finally, the main area in which there is a need for sharing of CFB experience among CFB users is pointed out.

  12. [Study on the Rapid Evaluation of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) of Mutton by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong-guang; Yao, Xue-dong; Duan, Hong-wei; Ma, Ben-xue; Tang, Ming-xiang

    2016-03-01

    Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) was usually taken as the physicochemical reference value to evaluate the mutton freshness. In order to explore the feasibility of hyperspectral (HSI) imaging technique to detect mutton freshness, 71 representative mutton samples were collected and scanned using a diffuse reflectance hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system in the Visible-Near infrared (NIR) spectral region (400-1 000 nm), and the chemical values of TVB-N content were determined using the semimicro Kjeldahl method according to the modified Chinese national standard. The representative spectra of mutton samples were extracted and obtained after selection of the region of interests (ROIs). The samples of calibration set and prediction set were divided at the ratio of 3 : 1 according to the content gradient method. Optimum HSI calibration models of the mutton (TVB-N) were established and evaluated by comparing different spectral preprocessing methods and modeling methods, which included Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Principal Component Regression (PCR) methods. The results are that through the utilization of Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC), first derivative, Savitzky-Golay (S-G) smoothing and mean-centering together, both PLSR and PCR were able to achieve quantitative detection of mutton TVB-N. As for the PLSR model of mutton TVB-N established, the spectral pretreatment methods chosen included MSC, first derivative, S-G (15,2) smoothing and mean-centering, and the latent variables (LVs) number used was 11. As for the calibration set of PLSR model of mutton TVB-N, the correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) were 0.92 and 3.00 mg x (100 g)(-1), respectively. As for the prediction set of PLSR model of mutton TVB-N, the correlation coefficient (r), Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP), and ratio of standard deviation to standard error of prediction (RPD) were 0

  13. Spatially quantitative models for vulnerability analyses and resilience measures in flood risk management: Case study Rafina, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Chiari, Michael; Hübl, Johannes; Maris, Fotis; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2013-04-01

    , and data on flash flood intensities. The model is composed of three basic parts: (1) the quantification of flood hazard via hydrologic and hydraulic calculations and the evaluation of flood intensity for various flood scenarios, (2) the determination of exposure to flood hazard using a semi-quantitative method for the determination of the hazard level, which serves the purpose for the spatial evaluation of corresponding quantities and (3) to show potential resilience measures to protect individual households. The aim of the study is to provide a modified framework for quantitative assessment of vulnerability of building damages and to show potential resilience measures to protect individual households.

  14. Study on Innovation of Teacher Training Model in Basic Education from the Perspective of "Blended Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bu, Huabai; Bu, Shizhen

    2012-01-01

    Gradual integration of synergetic technology, P2P technology and online learning community furnishes a new research field for innovation of teacher training model in a knowledge economy era. This article proposes the innovative model of "whole of three lines" in teacher training in basic education from the perspective of "blended…

  15. Teachers' Conceptions of Standards in South African Basic Education and Training: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosibo, Lungi; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, the Department of Basic Education and Training (DBE) is responsible for primary and secondary education (Grades R-12). In an effort to improve educational standards in literacy, numeracy and mathematics, especially in the Foundation Phase (FP) levels of education, the DBE has developed several initiatives and campaigns. To monitor…

  16. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  17. Students' Levels of Explanations, Models, and Misconceptions in Basic Quantum Chemistry: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefani, Christina; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    We investigated students' knowledge constructions of basic quantum chemistry concepts, namely atomic orbitals, the Schrodinger equation, molecular orbitals, hybridization, and chemical bonding. Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning provided the theoretical framework and phenomenography the method of analysis. The semi-structured interview with…

  18. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, BASIC COURSE, STUDY GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC.

    THE ASSIGNMENT SHEETS INCLUDED ARE CORRELATED WITH THE INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE (VT 002 117), THE RESOURCE MANUAL (VT 001 337), AND A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20- BY 28-INCH CHARTS (OE 84002). THE MATERIAL IS DESIGNED TO BE PRESENTED TO FIREMEN IN A 15-HOUR COURSE AS A PART OF THEIR BASIC FIRE TRAINING AND IS CONCERNED WITH THE HAZARDS RESULTING FROM THE…

  19. Developmental Dyscalculia and Basic Numerical Capacities: A Study of 8--9-Year-Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerl, Karin; Bevan, Anna; Butterworth, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one 8- and 9-year-old children selected for dyscalculia, reading difficulties or both, were compared to controls on a range of basic number processing tasks. Children with dyscalculia only had impaired performance on the tasks despite high-average performance on tests of IQ, vocabulary and working memory tasks. Children with reading…

  20. A Basic Experimental Study for Imaging by Monopolar Pulse Radiated from Concave Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooyashiki, Atsuko; Yoshida, Yasuo; Inoue, Hiroshi; Murata, Kenji

    2004-05-01

    Monopolar C-mode imaging using a concaved polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) transducer was developed. The basic characteristics of the spreading of the ultrasound field are measured and discussed with respect to the imaging, along with the spatial resolution, and the C-mode image of a printed circuit board (PCB) surface.

  1. The Speed-Power Study of the USES Basic Occupational Literacy Test (BOLT) Analysis and Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Dept. of Employment Security, Salt Lake City. Western Test Development Field Center.

    Research and analysis conducted to determine the effects of reducing the administration time for one or more levels of the Basic Occupational Literacy Test (BOLT) are described. The total usable sample consisted of 2,423 subjects. Data were collected from 23 states from 1978 to 1981. Data came from a variety of sources, including schools and…

  2. Quantitative Correlational Study: Emotional Intelligence and Project Outcomes among Hispanics in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trejo, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The present quantitative correlational research study explored relationships between Emotional Intelligence (EI) competencies, such as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management, and project management outcomes: scope creep, in-budget project cost, and project timeliness. The study was conducted within the…

  3. Leadership Trust in Virtual Teams Using Communication Tools: A Quantitative Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to address leadership trust in virtual teams using communication tools in a small south-central, family-owned pharmaceutical organization, with multiple dispersed locations located in the United States. The results of the current research study could assist leaders to develop a communication…

  4. A Quantitative Study of Cohesion in Chinese Graduate Students' Writing: Variations across Genres and Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Wenjun

    This study presents a quantitative analysis of cohesion of the academic writing of Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) graduate students by applying Halliday and Hansen's (1976) model. Six Chinese graduate students from a Midwestern university were selected for the study, representing two proficiency levels in written English--advanced and…

  5. A Quantitative Comparative Study Measuring Consumer Satisfaction Based on Health Record Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Vivianne E.

    2013-01-01

    This research study used a quantitative comparative method to investigate the relationship between consumer satisfaction and communication based on the format of health record. The central problem investigated in this research study related to the format of health record used and consumer satisfaction with care provided and effect on communication…

  6. Emotional Intelligence, Career Decision Difficulties, and Student Retention: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiljanen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between emotional intelligence (EI), career decision making difficulties, and student retention. The participants included freshmen students (N = 98) in a private Midwestern university. This quantitative study compared the scores on an assessment of EI, the Emotional Quotient Inventory (BarOn EQ-i), with the…

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

    2012-01-01

    There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…

  8. A Quantitative Study: Enhancing the Productivity of the Emotionally Challenged High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, John

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, causal-comparative study examined the degree of influence the parent teacher relationship can make on the grade point averages and graduation rates of students in an alternative school setting. Findings of this study revealed that the active parent teacher communication had direct relationship with the success rate of…

  9. Reverse Brain Drain of South Asian IT Professionals: A Quantitative Repatriation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppiah, Nithiyananthan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present quantitative correlational study was to examine if a relationship existed between the RBD phenomenon and cultural, economic, or political factors of the native countries of South Asian IT professionals living in the United States. The study on reverse brain drain was conducted to explore a growing phenomenon in the…

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Remedial Reading Courses at Community Colleges: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavonier, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of two instructional approaches for remedial reading courses at a community college. The instructional approaches were strategic reading and traditional, textbook-based instruction. The two research questions that guided the quantitative, quasi-experimental study were: (a) what is the effect of…

  11. Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches in Studying Student Perceptions of Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Fisher, Darrell L.

    A cross-national study of learning environments in Taiwan and Australia is one example of research that employs both qualitative and quantitative methods. This paper describes the part of that study related to the development and validation of an instrument called the Teacher Student Interaction (TSI) which assess student perceptions of teacher…

  12. A quantitative analysis of qualitative studies in clinical journals for the 2000 publishing year

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2004-01-01

    Background Quantitative studies are becoming more recognized as important to understanding health care with all of its richness and complexities. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the qualitative studies published in 170 core clinical journals for 2000. Methods All identified studies that used qualitative methods were reviewed to ascertain which clinical journals publish qualitative studies and to extract research methods, content (persons and health care issues studied), and whether mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative methods) were used. Results 60 330 articles were reviewed. 355 reports of original qualitative studies and 12 systematic review articles were identified in 48 journals. Most of the journals were in the discipline of nursing. Only 4 of the most highly cited health care journals, based on ISI Science Citation Index (SCI) Impact Factors, published qualitative studies. 37 of the 355 original reports used both qualitative and quantitative (mixed) methods. Patients and non-health care settings were the most common groups of people studied. Diseases and conditions were cancer, mental health, pregnancy and childbirth, and cerebrovascular disease with many other diseases and conditions represented. Phenomenology and grounded theory were commonly used; substantial ethnography was also present. No substantial differences were noted for content or methods when articles published in all disciplines were compared with articles published in nursing titles or when studies with mixed methods were compared with studies that included only qualitative methods. Conclusions The clinical literature includes many qualitative studies although they are often published in nursing journals or journals with low SCI Impact Factor journals. Many qualitative studies incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:15271221

  13. A prospective longitudinal study testing relationships between meaningful activities, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning in life.

    PubMed

    Eakman, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to determine whether change in meaningful activity over an 11-month period could help explain change in meaning in life in a sample of 174 undergraduate and graduate students. The Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, Basic Psychological Needs Scales (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness), and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as indicators of the constructs of meaningful activity, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning and purpose in life. The findings were in support of the study hypotheses and indicated that change in meaningful activity explained both change in basic psychological needs fulfillment (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness) and change in meaning in life. Further, this study reports findings consistent with results from cross-sectional studies in support of the hypothesis that change in meaningful activity may influence change in meaning in life through two pathways: a direct path of influence from meaningful activity to meaning in life and an indirect path through change in basic psychological needs fulfillment. The current study contributes to a growing literature implicating subjective evaluations of day-to-day action (or meaningful activity) as a fruitful means for exploring relationships between occupation and well-being.

  14. A high throughput geocomputing system for remote sensing quantitative retrieval and a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Ziqiang; Xu, Hui; Ai, Jianwen; Jiang, Shuzheng; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Ying; Guang, Jie; Mei, Linlu; Jiao, Xijuan; He, Xingwei; Hou, Tingting

    2011-12-01

    The quality and accuracy of remote sensing instruments have been improved significantly, however, rapid processing of large-scale remote sensing data becomes the bottleneck for remote sensing quantitative retrieval applications. The remote sensing quantitative retrieval is a data-intensive computation application, which is one of the research issues of high throughput computation. The remote sensing quantitative retrieval Grid workflow is a high-level core component of remote sensing Grid, which is used to support the modeling, reconstruction and implementation of large-scale complex applications of remote sensing science. In this paper, we intend to study middleware components of the remote sensing Grid - the dynamic Grid workflow based on the remote sensing quantitative retrieval application on Grid platform. We designed a novel architecture for the remote sensing Grid workflow. According to this architecture, we constructed the Remote Sensing Information Service Grid Node (RSSN) with Condor. We developed a graphic user interface (GUI) tools to compose remote sensing processing Grid workflows, and took the aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval as an example. The case study showed that significant improvement in the system performance could be achieved with this implementation. The results also give a perspective on the potential of applying Grid workflow practices to remote sensing quantitative retrieval problems using commodity class PCs.

  15. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  16. Basic Finance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  17. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  18. A Five Year Follow-up Study of Entering Fall 1970 Basic Skills Students at Queensborough Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Irwin

    In order to ascertain the effect of open admissions by investigating the graduation rate of basic skills students, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1,728 students who entered Queensborough Community College in fall 1970 and who were assigned to remedial reading and/or writing. Of a total enrollment of 3,230, 24% or 774 students were…

  19. Evaluation of a Numeracy Intervention Program Focusing on Basic Numerical Knowledge and Conceptual Knowledge: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Handl, Pia; Thony, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    In this study, six elementary grade children with developmental dyscalculia were trained individually and in small group settings with a one-semester program stressing basic numerical knowledge and conceptual knowledge. All the children showed considerable and partly significant performance increases on all calculation components. Results suggest…

  20. Application Essays as an Effective Tool for Assessing Instruction in the Basic Communication Course: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; Simonds, Cheri J.; Hunt, Stephen K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of student learning in general education courses is of critical importance in higher education. This study examines the utility of a writing assignment (application essays) in a basic communication course as an effective assessment tool. The authors conducted a content analysis of student portfolios to determine the extent to which…

  1. Beyond Correlational Analysis of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): A Classification Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the classification validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) using a sample of kindergarteners (N = 177). Results indicated the cutoff scores for determining "at-risk" status on the DIBELS produced substantial false negative rates. Cutoff scores identifying students as at "some risk"…

  2. Spatial memory and path integration studied by self-driven passive linear displacement. I. Basic properties.

    PubMed

    Israël, I; Grasso, R; Georges-Francois, P; Tsuzuku, T; Berthoz, A

    1997-06-01

    According to path integration, the brain is able to compute the distance of a traveled path. In this research we applied our previously reported method for studying memory of linear distance, a crucial mechanism in path integration; our method is based on the overt reconstruction of a passive transport. Passive transport is a special case of navigation in which no active control is performed. Blindfolded subjects were first asked to travel 2 m forward, in darkness, by driving with a joystick the robot on which they were seated. The results show that all subjects but two undershot this distance, i.e., overestimated their own displacement. Then, subjects were submitted to a passive linear forward displacement along 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 m, and had to reproduce the same distance, still blindfolded. The results show that the distance of the stimulus was accurately reproduced, as well as stimulus duration, peak velocity, and velocity profile. In this first condition, the imposed velocity profile was triangular and therefore stimulus distance and duration were correlated. In a second condition, it was shown that distance was correctly reproduced also when the information about stimulus duration was kept constant. Here, different velocity profiles were used as stimuli, and most subjects also reproduced the velocity profile. Statistical analyses indicated that distance was not reproduced as a consequence of duration, peak velocity, or velocity profile reproduction, but was uniquely correlated to stimulus distance. The previous hypothesis of a double integration of the otolith signal to provide a distance estimate can explain our results. There was a large discrepancy between the accuracy with which the subjects matched the velocity profiles and that of distance reproduction. It follows that, whereas the dynamics of passive motion are stored and available to further use, distance is independently estimated. It is concluded that vestibular and somatosensory signals excited by

  3. Quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Tsui, B M; Frey, E C; LaCroix, K J; Lalush, D S; McCartney, W H; King, M A; Gullberg, G T

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the clinical application of attenuation compensation to myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the promise that accurate quantitative images can be obtained to improve clinical diagnoses. The different attenuation compensation methods that are available create confusion and some misconceptions. Also, attenuation-compensated images reveal other image-degrading effects including collimator-detector blurring and scatter that are not apparent in uncompensated images. This article presents basic concepts of the major factors that degrade the quality and quantitative accuracy of myocardial perfusion SPECT images, and includes a discussion of the various image reconstruction and compensation methods and misconceptions and pitfalls in implementation. The differences between the various compensation methods and their performance are demonstrated. Particular emphasis is directed to an approach that promises to provide quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT images by accurately compensating for the 3-dimensional (3-D) attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter effects. With advances in the computer hardware and optimized implementation techniques, quantitatively accurate and high-quality myocardial perfusion SPECT images can be obtained in clinically acceptable processing time. Examples from simulation, phantom, and patient studies are used to demonstrate the various aspects of the investigation. We conclude that quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT, which holds great promise to improve clinical diagnosis, is an achievable goal in the near future.

  4. A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Leadership Practice and Strategic Intentions to Use Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Alan F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational cross-sectional research study was to examine a theoretical model consisting of leadership practice, attitudes of business process outsourcing, and strategic intentions of leaders to use cloud computing and to examine the relationships between each of the variables respectively. This study…

  5. Identifying the Effective Instructor: A Review of the Quantitative Studies. 1900-1952.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsh, Joseph E.; Wilder, Eleanor W.

    This research review contains summary and synthesis of 360 references selected from over 900 in 1) Education Index, 2) Psychological Abstracts, and 3) some 40 reviews and bibliographies, 28 of which were selected for inclusion in the 392-item bibliography at the end of this review. Principal findings of the cited quantitative research studies are…

  6. A Study to Formulate Quantitative Guidelines for the Audio-Visual Communications Field. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Gene; Sherman, Mendel

    Quantitative guidelines for use in determining the audiovisual (AV) needs of educational institutions were developed by the Octobe r 14-16, 1965 Seminar of the NDEA (National Defense Education Act), Faris-Sherman study. The guidelines that emerged were based in part on a review of past efforts and existing standards but primarily reflected the…

  7. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  8. Trilingual Code-Switching Using Quantitative Lenses: An Exploratory Study on Hokaglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a quantitative approach, this paper highlights findings of an exploratory study on Hokaglish, initially describing it as a trilingual code-switching phenomenon involving Hokkien, Tagalog, and English in a Filipino-Chinese enclave in Binondo, Manila, the Philippines. Departing from the (socio)linguistic landscape of the archipelagic…

  9. An Exploratory Study of "Quantitative Linguistic Feedback": Effect of LENA Feedback on Adult Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dana; Leffel, Kristin R.; Hernandez, Marc W.; Sapolich, Shannon G.; Suskind, Elizabeth; Kirkham, Erin; Meehan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A child's early language environment is critical to his or her life-course trajectory. Quantitative linguistic feedback utilizes the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) technology as a tool to analyze verbal interactions and reinforce behavior change. This exploratory pilot study evaluates the feasibility and efficacy of a novel behavior-change…

  10. Effect of Professional Development on Drama in Education Implementation: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative study with a correlational design was to determine the relationship between professional development and the use of drama in education techniques in the general education classroom as a tool to increase students' critical thinking ability. Teachers from four different schools on Long Island were asked to participate…

  11. Leadership Styles at Middle- and Early-College Programs: A Quantitative Descriptive Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berksteiner, Earl J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational study was to determine if associations existed between middle- and early-college (MEC) principals' leadership styles, teacher motivation, and teacher satisfaction. MEC programs were programs designed to assist high school students who were not served well in a traditional setting (Middle…

  12. Effects of Drawing on Alpha Activity: A Quantitative EEG Study with Implications for Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkofer, Christopher M.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Konopka, Lukasz M.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists as to how materials used in art therapy affect the brain and its neurobiological functioning. This pre/post within-groups study utilized the quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) to measure residual effects in the brain after 20 minutes of drawing. EEG recordings were conducted before and after participants (N =…

  13. Measuring the Beginning: A Quantitative Study of the Transition to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooman, Simon; Darwent, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study measures change in certain factors known to influence success of first-year students during the transition to higher education: self-efficacy, autonomous learning and social integration. A social integration scale was developed with three subscales: "sense of belonging", "relationship with staff" and…

  14. A Quantitative Study of the Effectiveness of Teacher Recruitment Strategies in a Rural Midwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Rose Etta

    2010-01-01

    A problem in American education is that rural schools have difficulty recruiting licensed teachers. Teacher shortages in mathematics, science, foreign language, and special education are more acute in rural areas. The purpose of this quantitative descriptive survey study was to examine specific recruiting strategies and newly hired licensed…

  15. Academic Advising and First-Generation College Students: A Quantitative Study on Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swecker, Hadyn K.; Fifolt, Matthew; Searby, Linda

    2014-01-01

    For this quantitative study, we used a multiple logistic regression technique to investigate the relationship between the number of meetings with an academic advisor and retention of first-generation students, as represented by enrollment status and academic standing at a large, public research institution in the Southeast. Consistent with…

  16. Quantitative radiomics studies for tissue characterization: a review of technology and methodological procedures.

    PubMed

    Larue, Ruben T H M; Defraene, Gilles; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Lambin, Philippe; van Elmpt, Wouter

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative analysis of tumour characteristics based on medical imaging is an emerging field of research. In recent years, quantitative imaging features derived from CT, positron emission tomography and MR scans were shown to be of added value in the prediction of outcome parameters in oncology, in what is called the radiomics field. However, results might be difficult to compare owing to a lack of standardized methodologies to conduct quantitative image analyses. In this review, we aim to present an overview of the current challenges, technical routines and protocols that are involved in quantitative imaging studies. The first issue that should be overcome is the dependency of several features on the scan acquisition and image reconstruction parameters. Adopting consistent methods in the subsequent target segmentation step is evenly crucial. To further establish robust quantitative image analyses, standardization or at least calibration of imaging features based on different feature extraction settings is required, especially for texture- and filter-based features. Several open-source and commercial software packages to perform feature extraction are currently available, all with slightly different functionalities, which makes benchmarking quite challenging. The number of imaging features calculated is typically larger than the number of patients studied, which emphasizes the importance of proper feature selection and prediction model-building routines to prevent overfitting. Even though many of these challenges still need to be addressed before quantitative imaging can be brought into daily clinical practice, radiomics is expected to be a critical component for the integration of image-derived information to personalize treatment in the future.

  17. The study of backscatter of basic target for CO{sub 2} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Yongjiang; Ge Chunfeng; Cai Xiping; Sun Dongsong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the expansion, transmission and distributed function for antenna are analyzed, and the optimum characteristics of the antenna are obtained. If the authors accurately calculate intensity of backscatter from the target, the sign of light facula and distribution of energy have to be considered on the surface of the target. The authors had built swapping relation equation between coordinates of the radar and object space of the target. Using computer simulation, the pseudo-color imaging of the basic target is produced.

  18. Methodology development for quantitative optimization of security enhancement in medical information systems -Case study in a PACS and a multi-institutional radiotherapy database-.

    PubMed

    Haneda, Kiyofumi; Umeda, Tokuo; Koyama, Tadashi; Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    The target of our study is to establish the methodology for analyzing level of security requirements, for searching suitable security measures and for optimizing security distribution to every portion of medical practice. Quantitative expression must be introduced to our study as possible for the purpose of easy follow up of security procedures and easy evaluation of security outcomes or results. Results of system analysis by fault tree analysis (FTA) clarified that subdivided system elements in detail contribute to much more accurate analysis. Such subdivided composition factors very much depended on behavior of staff, interactive terminal devices, kinds of service, and routes of network. As conclusion, we found the methods to analyze levels of security requirements for each medical information systems employing FTA, basic events for each composition factor and combination of basic events. Methods for searching suitable security measures were found. Namely risk factors for each basic event, number of elements for each composition factor and candidates of security measure elements were found. Method to optimize the security measures for each medical information system was proposed. Namely optimum distribution of risk factors in terms of basic events were figured out, and comparison of them between each medical information systems became possible.

  19. Basic Science Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  20. Exploratory and basic fluidized-bed combustion studies. Quarterly report, April-June 1980. [Limestone and dolomite; USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Myles, K.M.; Swift, W.M.

    1980-12-01

    This work supports the development studies for both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion. Laboratory and process development studies are aimed at providing needed information on limestone utilization, removal of particles and alkali metal compounds from the flue gas, control of SO/sub 2/ and trace pollutant emissions, and other aspects of fluidized-bed coal combustion. This report presents information on: (1) the development of a sorbent utilization prediction methodology, (2) studies of factors which affect limestone breakup and elutriation, (3) basic studies of limestone sulfation under combustion conditions, and (4) studies of the kinetics of the hydration of spent limestone.

  1. Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" is devoted to the arts in education as a concern that should be addressed in a time of new priorities for the curriculum. Five articles and a book review are included. The opening article, "The State of the Arts in Education: Envisioning Active Participation By All" (Virginia Robinson),…

  2. Basic Backwardness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  3. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Basic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    Instructional materials are provided for a course that covers basic concepts of physics and chemistry. Designed for use in a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners, the course describes applications of these concepts to real-life situations, with an emphasis on applications of…

  5. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  6. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  7. Quantitative Phase Imaging Techniques for the Study of Cell Pathophysiology: From Principles to Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KyeoReh; Kim, Kyoohyun; Jung, Jaehwang; Heo, JiHan; Cho, Sangyeon; Lee, Sangyun; Chang, Gyuyoung; Jo, YoungJu; Park, Hyunjoo; Park, YongKeun

    2013-01-01

    A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:23539026

  8. Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

  9. Domestic violence against women in India: A systematic review of a decade of quantitative studies

    PubMed Central

    Kalokhe, Ameeta; del Rio, Carlos; Dunkle, Kristin; Stephenson, Rob; Metheny, Nicholas; Paranjape, Anuradha; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is prevalent among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical health. We performed a systematic review of 137 quantitative studies published in the prior decade that directly evaluated the DV experiences of Indian women to summarise the breadth of recent work and identify gaps in the literature. Among studies surveying at least two forms of abuse, a median 41% of women reported experiencing DV during their lifetime and 30% in the past year. We noted substantial inter-study variance in DV prevalence estimates, attributable in part to different study populations and settings, but also to a lack of standardisation, validation, and cultural adaptation of DV survey instruments. There was paucity of studies evaluating the DV experiences of women over age 50, residing in live-in relationships, same-sex relationships, tribal villages, and of women from the northern regions of India. Additionally, our review highlighted a gap in research evaluating the impact of DV on physical health. We conclude with a research agenda calling for additional qualitative and longitudinal quantitative studies to explore the DV correlates proposed by this quantitative literature to inform the development of a culturally tailored DV scale and prevention strategies. PMID:26886155

  10. Domestic violence against women in India: A systematic review of a decade of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Kalokhe, Ameeta; Del Rio, Carlos; Dunkle, Kristin; Stephenson, Rob; Metheny, Nicholas; Paranjape, Anuradha; Sahay, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is prevalent among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical health. We performed a systematic review of 137 quantitative studies published in the prior decade that directly evaluated the DV experiences of Indian women to summarise the breadth of recent work and identify gaps in the literature. Among studies surveying at least two forms of abuse, a median 41% of women reported experiencing DV during their lifetime and 30% in the past year. We noted substantial inter-study variance in DV prevalence estimates, attributable in part to different study populations and settings, but also to a lack of standardisation, validation, and cultural adaptation of DV survey instruments. There was paucity of studies evaluating the DV experiences of women over age 50, residing in live-in relationships, same-sex relationships, tribal villages, and of women from the northern regions of India. Additionally, our review highlighted a gap in research evaluating the impact of DV on physical health. We conclude with a research agenda calling for additional qualitative and longitudinal quantitative studies to explore the DV correlates proposed by this quantitative literature to inform the development of a culturally tailored DV scale and prevention strategies.

  11. Defining Success in Adult Basic Education Settings: Multiple Stakeholders, Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Barnes, Adrienne E.; Connor, Carol M.; Steadman, Sharilyn C.

    2013-01-01

    This study employed quantitative and qualitative research approaches to investigate what constitutes success in adult basic education (ABE) programs from the perspectives of multiple educational stakeholders: the state funding agency, the teachers, and the students. Success was defined in multiple ways. In the quantitative section of the study, we…

  12. Quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kyani, Anahita; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Jenssen, Håvard

    2012-02-01

    Defining the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine pathogenesis could lead to the application of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists as novel migraine therapeutics. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of biological activities of a large range of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists was performed using a panel of physicochemical descriptors. The computational studies evaluated different variable selection techniques and demonstrated shuffling stepwise multiple linear regression to be superior over genetic algorithm-multiple linear regression. The linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model revealed better statistical parameters of cross-validation in comparison with the non-linear support vector regression technique. Implementing only five peptide descriptors into this linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model resulted in an extremely robust and highly predictive model with calibration, leave-one-out and leave-20-out validation R(2) of 0.9194, 0.9103, and 0.9214, respectively. We performed docking of the most potent calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists with the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor and demonstrated that peptide antagonists act by blocking access to the peptide-binding cleft. We also demonstrated the direct contact of residues 28-37 of the calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists with the receptor. These results are in agreement with the conclusions drawn from the quantitative structure-activity relationship model, indicating that both electrostatic and steric factors should be taken into account when designing novel calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists.

  13. Shortage of Mathematics Teachers in Thai Basic Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puncreobutr, Vichian; Rattanatumma, Tawachai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for shortage of Mathematics teachers at Thai Basic Education level. This research is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. For the purpose of study, survey was conducted with senior high school students, in order to find out their willingness to pursue mathematics in Bachelor of…

  14. Exploring the use of storytelling in quantitative research fields using a multiple case study method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lori N. Hamlet

    The purpose of this study was to explore the emerging use of storytelling in quantitative research fields. The focus was not on examining storytelling in research, but rather how stories are used in various ways within the social context of quantitative research environments. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven professionals who had experience using storytelling in their work and my personal experience with the subject matter was also used as a source of data according to the notion of researcher-as-instrument. This study is qualitative in nature and is guided by two supporting theoretical frameworks, the sociological perspective and narrative inquiry. A multiple case study methodology was used to gain insight about why participants decided to use stories or storytelling in a quantitative research environment that may not be traditionally open to such methods. This study also attempted to identify how storytelling can strengthen or supplement existing research, as well as what value stories can provide to the practice of research in general. Five thematic findings emerged from the data and were grouped under two headings, "Experiencing Research" and "Story Work." The themes were found to be consistent with four main theoretical functions of storytelling identified in existing scholarly literature: (a) sense-making; (b) meaning-making; (c) culture; and (d) communal function. The five thematic themes that emerged from this study and were consistent with the existing literature include: (a) social context; (b) quantitative versus qualitative; (c) we think and learn in terms of stories; (d) stories tie experiences together; and (e) making sense and meaning. Recommendations are offered in the form of implications for various social contexts and topics for further research are presented as well.

  15. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  16. Integrated case studies and medical decision making: a novel, computer-assisted bridge from the basic sciences to the clinics.

    PubMed

    Schor, N F; Troen, P; Adler, S; Williams, J G; Kanter, S L; Mahling, D E; Sorrows, B; Skogseid, I; Bernier, G M

    1995-09-01

    This article describes a novel course that was designed to bridge the gap between the basic science years and clinical experiences in medical school by using information science and computer technology as major components of problem-based learning (PBL) sessions. The course, Integrated Case Studies and Medical Decision Making, was first given to second-year students at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in the spring of 1994. It consists of 13 PBL exercises, each of which explores a clinical case. The cases, including images and gated access to information, are housed on a computer. Using one of 16 networked terminals in specially designed small-group rooms, groups of nine students progress through the cases with a faculty facilitator. The responses of students and faculty to the initial year of the course were favorable. In comparison with traditional PBL sessions, enhanced quality of and access to images and accountability for accessing case information in sequential fashion were cited as major strengths of the course. Juxtaposition of basic science and clinical material and utility in reviewing for the United States Medical Licensing Examination were also cited as strengths. The diversity of the basic science material involved in completing the cases drew overwhelming enthusiasm from students and facilitators alike. In conclusion, the course successfully employs computer and information science technology, which will be of increasing importance to future physicians. The course also serves as an effective bridge to the clinical years of medical school and as a study adjunct for the USMLE.

  17. A parametric study of the thoracic injury potential of basic taekwondo kicks.

    PubMed

    Chuang, T Y; Lieu, D K

    1992-08-01

    A parametric investigation of the thoracic injury potential of basic taekwondo kicks was conducted through the use of computer simulations. Linkage-based models were employed to simulate the kinetics of the kicking leg and were used to drive a human thorax model. The results of the analysis according to the thoracic compression criterion indicated a minimal probability of severe injury (AIS4+) for swing kicks, nearly 0 percent and thrust kicks, less than three percent. The thoracic viscous criteria, on the other hand, predicted a severe injury probability of up to 100 percent for swing kicks and up to 80 percent for thrust kicks. Additional analysis showed that the injury potential was a strong function of the kick velocity and a weak function of the applied constant force. The injury potential was also found to be a weak function of the size and weight of the kicking leg, with variations in the peak compression and viscous response being typically below 5 percent for a 20 percent change in either the mass or the length.

  18. An Analysis of the Educational Effects of Studying Basic Life Support.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiko; Itoh, Kunio; Yonezawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    We set students' learning goal of basic life support (BLS) education at "being able to describe all the steps of BLS in an appropriate order", and objectively analyzed the appropriateness of the learning goal we set and educational effects of lecture contents. Before delivering a lecture, we provided students with an assignment which asked them to "Describe the steps of BLS in an appropriate order", and investigated students' levels of acquiring knowledge on BLS. As the results, the majority of students failed to perform this assignment. Since many students did not understand the process of BLS correctly, the learning goal was considered appropriate in the sense of promoting students' understanding of BLS. We also investigated whether the contents of BLS education was effective to achieve the learning goal. We provided students with the same assignment after the lecture, and the results showed that most students successfully performed the assignment. Furthermore, the time required for students to recall the whole process of BLS was significantly reduced after receiving the lecture, showing that the BLS lecture was effective in improving students' "ability to act to save lives".

  19. Basic studies on the treatment of volatile organic pollutant in sand by microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myoung-Sook; Kim, Dong-Su; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2006-01-01

    The heating characteristics of water and sand were investigated to understand the basic features of a microwave soil pollution treatment system and the reasonableness of this method was examined. The evaporation and temperature change of water by microwave irradiation were dependent on its volume and sand showed a three-fold temperature change compared with water. When microwave energy was applied, water showed an even variation in temperature on the whole, however, there was approximately 30 square difference according to the location inside the sand. Sand temperature was observed to show a larger difference as it was horizontally and vertically closer to the microwave irradiation point and horizontal temperature variations were more evenly distributed than vertical variations. Heating characteristics according to the particle size of sand showed that the temperature change was larger when the particle size became smaller and the moisture content of sand was found to influence its heating behavior. In the conditions of experiment, about 50% of the benzene in sand was volatized after 23 minutes of heating and 85% of the total benzene was removed from the sand after 60 minutes of microwave irradiation. For real soil test, more than 70% of BTEX was successfully removed from the soil after 120 minutes of heating.

  20. Quantitative study of the myenteric plexus of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, C E; Miranda-Neto, M H; Molinari, S L; Zanoni, J N

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the morphological and quantitative alterations of the myenteric plexus neurons of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetes and compare them to those of non-diabetic animals. Samples from the body of the stomach were used for whole-mount preparations stained with NADH-diaphorase and for histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. It was observed that diabetes cause a significant decrease on the number of neurons.

  1. Quantitative study of FORC diagrams in thermally corrected Stoner- Wohlfarth nanoparticles systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasi, E.; Curiale, J.; Zysler, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    The use of FORC diagrams is becoming increasingly popular among researchers devoted to magnetism and magnetic materials. However, a thorough interpretation of this kind of diagrams, in order to achieve quantitative information, requires an appropriate model of the studied system. For that reason most of the FORC studies are used for a qualitative analysis. In magnetic systems thermal fluctuations "blur" the signatures of the anisotropy, volume and particle interactions distributions, therefore thermal effects in nanoparticles systems conspire against a proper interpretation and analysis of these diagrams. Motivated by this fact, we have quantitatively studied the degree of accuracy of the information extracted from FORC diagrams for the special case of single-domain thermal corrected Stoner- Wohlfarth (easy axes along the external field orientation) nanoparticles systems. In this work, the starting point is an analytical model that describes the behavior of a magnetic nanoparticles system as a function of field, anisotropy, temperature and measurement time. In order to study the quantitative degree of accuracy of our model, we built FORC diagrams for different archetypical cases of magnetic nanoparticles. Our results show that from the quantitative information obtained from the diagrams, under the hypotheses of the proposed model, is possible to recover the features of the original system with accuracy above 95%. This accuracy is improved at low temperatures and also it is possible to access to the anisotropy distribution directly from the FORC coercive field profile. Indeed, our simulations predict that the volume distribution plays a secondary role being the mean value and its deviation the only important parameters. Therefore it is possible to obtain an accurate result for the inversion and interaction fields despite the features of the volume distribution.

  2. Basic study on hot-wire flow meter in forced flow of liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oura, Y.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Murakami, K.; Tatsumoto, H.; Naruo, Y.; Nonaka, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.; Narita, N.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a key issue in a carbon-free energy infrastructure at the energy storage and transportation stage. The typical features of LH2 are low viscosity, large latent heat and small density, compared with other general liquids. It is necessary to measure a mass flow of liquid hydrogen with a simple and compact method, especially in a two phase separate flow condition. We have proposed applying a hot-wire type flow meter, which is usually used a for gas flow meter, to LH2 flow due to the quite low viscosity and density. A test model of a compact LH2 hot-wire flow meter to measure local flow velocities near and around an inside perimeter of a horizontal tube by resistance thermometry was designed and made. The model flow meter consists of two thin heater wires made of manganin fixed in a 10 mm-diameter and 40 mm-length tube flow path made of GFRP. Each rigid heater wire was set twisted by 90 degrees from the inlet to the outlet along the inner wall. In other words, the wires were aslant with regard to the LH2 stream line. The heated wire was cooled by flowing LH2, and the flow velocity was obtained by means of the difference of the cooling characteristic in response to the flow velocity. In this report, we show results on the basic experiments with the model LH2 hot-wire flow meter. First, the heat transfer characteristics of the two heater wires for several LH2 flow velocities were measured. Second, the heating current was controlled to keep the wire temperature constant for various flow velocities. The relations between the flow velocity and the heating current were measured. The feasibility of the proposed model was confirmed.

  3. The role of personal values and basic traits in perceptions of the consequences of immigration: a three-nation study.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Michele; Caprara, Gianvittorio; Schoen, Harald; Castro, Josè Luis Gonzàlez; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2012-08-01

    Using data from Italy, Spain, and Germany (N= 1,569), this study investigated the role of basic values (universalism and security) and basic traits (openness and agreeableness) in predicting perceptions of the consequences of immigration. In line with Schwartz's (1992) theory, we conceptualized security as having two distinct components, one concerned with safety of the self (personal security) and the other with harmony and stability of larger groups and of society (group security). Structural equation modelling revealed that universalism values underlie perceptions that immigration has positive consequences and group security values underlie perceptions that it has negative consequences. Personal security makes no unique, additional contribution. Multi-group analyses revealed that these associations are invariant across the three countries except for a stronger link between universalism and perceptions of the consequences of immigration in Spain. To examine whether values mediate relations of traits to perceptions of immigration, we used the five-factor model. Findings supported a full mediation model. Individuals' traits of openness and agreeableness explained significant variance in security and universalism values. Basic values, in turn, explained perceptions of the consequences of immigration.

  4. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  5. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  6. Basic results of medical studies during prolonged manned flights on-board the Salyut-7/Soyuz-T orbital complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    From 1982 through 1986 six extended flights (from 65 to 237 days) were carried out in the Salyut-7/Soyuz-T orbital complex by the principal crews, and five short-term flights (8 to 12 days) by visiting crews. During these flights, a broad series of medical studies was performed, their greatest extent during the longest flight (237 days), with the participation of a cosmonaut-doctor. The medical studies were aimed at obtaining additional information and new data on the reactions of the body's basic systems during a prolonged state of weightlessness.

  7. Quantitative analysis of anions in glycosaminoglycans and application in heparin stability studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2014-06-15

    The sulfo groups of glycosaminoglycans contribute to their high charge densities, and are critical for the role they play in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Unfortunately, the sulfo groups can be hydrolyzed to inorganic sulfate. Thus, it is important to monitor the presence of these sulfo groups. In addition, free anions, including chloride, sulfate and acetate, are often present in glycosaminoglycans as a result of multiple purification steps, and their presence also needs to be monitored. In this report, ion chromatography with conductivity detection is used to analyze the anions present in glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. This method allows quantitation over a wide range of concentrations, affording a limit of quantitation of 0.1 ppm and a limit of detection of 0.05 ppm for most anions of interest. The stability of heparin was also studied, providing data on the formation of both sulfate and acetate anions.

  8. Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-11-01

    We present for the first time in vivo full three-dimensional (3-D) photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of the distal interphalangeal joint in a human subject. Both absorbed energy density and absorption coefficient images of the joint are quantitatively obtained using our finite-element-based photoacoustic image reconstruction algorithm coupled with the photon diffusion equation. The results show that major anatomical features in the joint along with the side arteries can be imaged with a 1-MHz transducer in a spherical scanning geometry. In addition, the cartilages associated with the joint can be quantitatively differentiated from the phalanx. This in vivo study suggests that the 3-D PAT method described has the potential to be used for early diagnosis of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Supernova Cosmology Project; Nugent, Peter E; Garavini, G.; Folatelli, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Bronder, J.; Burns, M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Thomas, R. C.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.

    2008-03-24

    We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.

  10. [Study of infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis method for methane gas based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Ju

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring of methane gas is one of the important factors affecting the coal mine safety. The online real-time monitoring of the methane gas is used for the mine safety protection. To improve the accuracy of model analysis, in the present paper, the author uses the technology of infrared spectroscopy to study the gas infrared quantitative analysis algorithm. By data mining technology application in multi-component infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis algorithm, it was found that cluster analysis partial least squares algorithm is obviously superior to simply using partial least squares algorithm in terms of accuracy. In addition, to reduce the influence of the error on the accuracy of model individual calibration samples, the clustering analysis was used for the data preprocessing, and such denoising method was found to improve the analysis accuracy.

  11. Gene set analyses of genome-wide association studies on 49 quantitative traits measured in a single genetic epidemiology dataset.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Kwon, Ji-Sun; Kim, Sangsoo

    2013-09-01

    Gene set analysis is a powerful tool for interpreting a genome-wide association study result and is gaining popularity these days. Comparison of the gene sets obtained for a variety of traits measured from a single genetic epidemiology dataset may give insights into the biological mechanisms underlying these traits. Based on the previously published single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data on 8,842 individuals enrolled in the Korea Association Resource project, we performed a series of systematic genome-wide association analyses for 49 quantitative traits of basic epidemiological, anthropometric, or blood chemistry parameters. Each analysis result was subjected to subsequent gene set analyses based on Gene Ontology (GO) terms using gene set analysis software, GSA-SNP, identifying a set of GO terms significantly associated to each trait (pcorr < 0.05). Pairwise comparison of the traits in terms of the semantic similarity in their GO sets revealed surprising cases where phenotypically uncorrelated traits showed high similarity in terms of biological pathways. For example, the pH level was related to 7 other traits that showed low phenotypic correlations with it. A literature survey implies that these traits may be regulated partly by common pathways that involve neuronal or nerve systems.

  12. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  13. Validation of Student and Parent Report Data on the Basic Grant Application Form: Institution Referral Study, Pre-established Criteria Study, Overpayment Recovery. Final Report, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ronald J.; And Others

    The types and ranges of errors made on applications to the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program were studied, along with procedures used in recovering overpayments. The objective was to assess the scope and nature of misreporting and misuse of the BEOG program. A 1975-1976 study reviewed cases referred to the U.S. Office of Education…

  14. Comparative quantitative study of astrocytes and capillary distribution in optic nerve laminar regions.

    PubMed

    Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Kang, Min H; Yu, Paula; Chan, Geoffrey; Morgan, William H; Cringle, Stephen J; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal structure and function in the optic nerve head (ONH) is predominantly supported by astrocytes and capillaries. There is good experimental evidence to demonstrate that RGC axons are perturbed in a non-uniform manner following ONH injury and it is likely that the pattern of RGC axonal modification bears some correlation with the quantitative properties of astrocytes and capillaries within laminar compartments. Although there have been some excellent topographic studies concerning glial and microvascular networks in the ONH our knowledge regarding the quantitative properties of these structures are limited. This report is an in-depth quantitative, structural analysis of astrocytes and capillaries in the pre laminar, lamina cribrosa and post laminar compartments of the ONH. 49 optic nerves from human (n = 10), pig (n = 12), horse (n = 6), rat (n = 11) and rabbit (n = 10) eyes are studied. Immunohistochemical and high-magnification confocal microscopy techniques are used to co-localise astrocytes, capillaries and nuclei in the mid-portion of the optic nerve. Quantitative methodology is used to determine the area occupied by astrocyte processes, microglia processes, nuclei density and the area occupied by capillaries in each laminar compartment. Comparisons are made within and between species. Relationships between ONH histomorphometry and astrocyte-capillary constitution are also explored. This study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the quantitative properties of capillaries and astrocytes between the laminar compartments of the human ONH. Astrocyte processes occupied the greatest area in the lamina cribrosa compartment of the human ONH implicating it as an area of great metabolic demands. Microglia were found to occupy only a small proportion of tissue in the rat, rabbit and pig optic nerve suggesting that the astrocyte is the predominant glia cell type in the optic nerve. This study also demonstrates

  15. Time-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) study on the transformation of zinc basic salt into bis(N-oxopyridine-2-thionato) zinc (II).

    PubMed

    Paek, Seung-Min; Jo, Won-Young; Park, Man; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2007-11-01

    Solid transchelation reaction was established for the synthesis of bis(N-oxopyridine-2-thionato) zinc (II), commonly known as zinc pyrithione (ZPT), to control particle size using zinc basic salt (ZBS) and aqueous sodium pyrithione solution. Distinguished from ZPT particles prepared by usual precipitation reaction, the obtained ZPT nanoparticles exhibited very narrow size distribution. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at Zn K-edge was systematically examined to elucidate time-dependent local structural evolution during solid transchelation reaction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis clearly revealed that local environment around zinc atoms transformed into pentahedron as reaction proceeded. Based on quantitative X-ray diffraction and XANES analysis, we made structural models. Theoretical XAS spectrum calculated with FEFF code could reproduce experimental one, suggesting that XAS analysis could be very powerful tool to probe phase transformation. Furthermore, according to extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting results, Zn-O distance in reaction products gradually increased from 1.96 to 2.07 angstroms, suggesting that zinc atoms bounded with oxygen ones in ZBS were transchelated with pyrithione ligands. This study could be a strong evidence for the usefulness of XAS to study time-dependent structural transformation of nanocrystalline materials.

  16. Genome-Wide Pathway Association Studies of Multiple Correlated Quantitative Phenotypes Using Principle Component Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Guo, Xiong; Wu, Shixun; Han, Jing; Liu, Yongjun; Shen, Hui; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide pathway association studies provide novel insight into the biological mechanism underlying complex diseases. Current pathway association studies primarily focus on single important disease phenotype, which is sometimes insufficient to characterize the clinical manifestations of complex diseases. We present a multi-phenotypes pathway association study(MPPAS) approach using principle component analysis(PCA). In our approach, PCA is first applied to multiple correlated quantitative phenotypes for extracting a set of orthogonal phenotypic components. The extracted phenotypic components are then used for pathway association analysis instead of original quantitative phenotypes. Four statistics were proposed for PCA-based MPPAS in this study. Simulations using the real data from the HapMap project were conducted to evaluate the power and type I error rates of PCA-based MPPAS under various scenarios considering sample sizes, additive and interactive genetic effects. A real genome-wide association study data set of bone mineral density (BMD) at hip and spine were also analyzed by PCA-based MPPAS. Simulation studies illustrated the performance of PCA-based MPPAS for identifying the causal pathways underlying complex diseases. Genome-wide MPPAS of BMD detected associations between BMD and KENNY_CTNNB1_TARGETS_UP as well as LONGEVITYPATHWAY pathways in this study. We aim to provide a applicable MPPAS approach, which may help to gain deep understanding the potential biological mechanism of association results for complex diseases. PMID:23285279

  17. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis. Part I: heterogeneity study of illicit drugs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dujourdy, L; Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Franc, A; Nagy, J

    2013-09-10

    Sampling of illicit drugs for qualitative and quantitative analysis would normally be considered as routine and comparable tasks in forensic drugs laboratories and previously similar statistical sampling approaches have been applied. However, we believe that two different sampling approaches, based on two different theoretical and statistical backgrounds are more appropriate. Furthermore the application of the qualitative sampling approach can be impractical for quantitative sampling as it could generate many analytical samples from a single seizure. In some countries the purity of the illicit drug in a seizure may affect the criminal sentence and therefore, reliable results for quantitative analysis are crucial. It was decided to investigate a new approach, which although incorporating some statistics also took account of our background knowledge about the composition of the drugs we were analysing. The ultimate goal was to produce recommendations for a practical sampling plan for quantitative analysis. It was found that the two key factors which had a significant effect on obtaining a representative analytical sample from a bulk seizure were the heterogeneity of the drug powder and the particle sizes of its components. This article concentrates on drug heterogeneity. Particle size effects will be addressed in part II of this study. A sampling plan was devised for a range of drug seizure types and asked ENFSI member laboratories to use it when analysing real drug seizures to provide heterogeneity data for the most common illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA and cannabis (herbal and resin)). It was found that for routine quantitative drugs analysis, the sampling problems caused by heterogeneity can be solved by using an incremental sampling protocol. Furthermore, the number of increments that need to be taken for a particular drug is dependent on the relative standard deviation (RSD) required by an individual laboratory and the analytical method that

  18. Validation of internal reference genes for relative quantitation studies of gene expression in human laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Wang, Wei; Ren, Ming; Gao, Sujie; Zhao, Guanjie

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the expression stabilities of 12 common internal reference genes for the relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in human laryngeal cancer. Methods Hep-2 cells and 14 laryngeal cancer tissue samples were investigated. The expression characteristics of 12 internal reference gene candidates (18S rRNA, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, RPL29, HMBS, PPIA, ALAS1, TBP, PUM1, GUSB, and B2M) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The data were analyzed by three commonly used software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results The use of the combination of four internal reference genes was more appropriate than the use of a single internal reference gene. The optimal combination was PPIA + GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 for both the cell line and tissues; while the most appropriate combination was GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 + HMBS for the tissues. Conclusions Our recommended internal reference genes may improve the accuracy of relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by the RT-qPCR method in further gene expression research on laryngeal tumors. PMID:27957397

  19. Quantitative study of cellular heterogeneity in doxorubicin uptake and its pharmacological effect on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Zhou, Zi-Hao; Liu, Yi-Meng; Yang, Xi-Liang; Song, Jian; Xiao, Yu-Xiu

    2014-10-01

    Cellular heterogeneity in doxorubicin (DOX) uptake and its relationship with pharmacological effect on cancer cells were quantitatively investigated for the first time. An in vitro experimental model was established by treating human leukemia K562 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with different schedules of DOX with or without surface P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil (VER). The cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake was quantitatively examined by single-cell analysis using capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The corresponding cytotoxic effect was tested by cellular morphology, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium and flow cytometry assays. The expression of cellular membrane surface P-gp was determined by flow cytometry. Results showed that the cellular heterogeneity exists in DOX uptake. The single-high DOX schedule leads to lower uptake heterogeneity and higher mean drug uptake. The cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake was found to be negatively correlated with drug cytotoxicity and surface P-gp expression, with r = -0.7680 to ~ -0.9587. VER reduces the cellular variation in DOX uptake, suggesting that surface P-gp may be one of the causes of the cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake. This research demonstrates the importance of quantitative study of cellular heterogeneity in drug uptake and its potential application in drug schedule design, response prediction and therapy modulation.

  20. [The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study.

  1. Thermodynamic study of the binding of calcium and magnesium ions with myelin basic protein using the extended solvation theory.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, G Rezaei; Saboury, A A; Divsalar, A

    2008-11-01

    The interaction of myelin basic protein (MBP) from the bovine central nervous system with Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, named as M2+, was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry at 27 degrees C in aqueous solution. The extended solvation model was used to reproduce the enthalpies of MBP+M2+ interactions. The solvation parameters recovered from the extended solvation model were attributed to the structural change of MBP due to the metal ion interaction. It was found that there is a set of two identical and noninteracting binding sites for Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions.

  2. A Comparative Study on Basic Emotion Conceptual Metaphors in English and Persian Literary Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashak, Shahrzad Pirzad; Pazhakh, Abdolreza; Hayati, Abdolmajid

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor becomes the subject of interest for many researchers in recent decades. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the universality of emotion metaphorical conceptualization and the dominant pattern in English and Persian based on Kovecses's (2003) model for Linguistic expression of Metaphor. The emotions under study were…

  3. Electronic Components, Transducers, and Basic Circuits. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowery, Donald R.

    This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed for the purpose of training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. The program integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and…

  4. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Gigi; Green, David W.; Abutalebi, Jubin; Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model based on a qualitative analysis [Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557–582.]. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, ten neuroimaging studies met our inclusion criteria and in each study, bilinguals switched between languages in response to cues. We isolated regions involved in voluntary language switching, by including reported contrasts between the switching conditions and high level baseline conditions involving similar tasks but requiring the use of only one language. Eight brain regions showed significant and reliable activation: left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, midline pre-SMA and bilateral caudate nuclei. This quantitative result is consistent with bilingual aphasia studies that report switching deficits associated with lesions to the caudate nuclei or prefrontal cortex. It also extends the previously reported qualitative model. We discuss the implications of the findings for accounts of bilingual cognitive control. PMID:24795491

  5. The brain network for deductive reasoning: a quantitative meta-analysis of 28 neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jérôme; Chadha, Angad; Booth, James R

    2011-11-01

    Over the course of the past decade, contradictory claims have been made regarding the neural bases of deductive reasoning. Researchers have been puzzled by apparent inconsistencies in the literature. Some have even questioned the effectiveness of the methodology used to study the neural bases of deductive reasoning. However, the idea that neuroimaging findings are inconsistent is not based on any quantitative evidence. Here, we report the results of a quantitative meta-analysis of 28 neuroimaging studies of deductive reasoning published between 1997 and 2010, combining 382 participants. Consistent areas of activations across studies were identified using the multilevel kernel density analysis method. We found that results from neuroimaging studies are more consistent than what has been previously assumed. Overall, studies consistently report activations in specific regions of a left fronto-parietal system, as well as in the left BG. This brain system can be decomposed into three subsystems that are specific to particular types of deductive arguments: relational, categorical, and propositional. These dissociations explain inconstancies in the literature. However, they are incompatible with the notion that deductive reasoning is supported by a single cognitive system relying either on visuospatial or rule-based mechanisms. Our findings provide critical insight into the cognitive organization of deductive reasoning and need to be accounted for by cognitive theories.

  6. Studying the relationship between redox and cell growth using quantitative phase imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Leslie, Matthew T.; Bapst, Natalya; Smith, John; Gaskins, H. Rex; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging has been used in the past to study the dry mass of cells and study cell growth under various treatment conditions. However, the relationship between cellular redox and growth rates has not yet been studied in this context. This study employed the recombinant Glrx-roGFP2 redox biosensor targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or cytosolic compartments of A549 lung epithelial carcinoma cells. The Glrx-roGFP2s biosensor consists of a modified GFP protein containing internal cysteine residues sensitive to the local redox environment. The formation/dissolution of sulfide bridges contorts the internal chromophore, dictating corresponding changes in florescence emission that provide direct measures of the local redox potential. Combining 2-channel florescent imaging of the redox sensor with quantitative phase imaging allowed observation of redox homeostasis alongside measurements of cellular mass during full cycles of cellular division. The results indicate that mitochondrial redox showed a stronger inverse correlation with cell growth than cytoplasmic redox states; although redox changes are restricted to a 5% range. We are now studying the relationship between mitochondrial redox and cell growth in an isogenic series of breast cell lines built upon the MCF-10A genetic background that vary both in malignancy and metastatic potential.

  7. Basic Arithmetical Skills of Students with Learning Disabilities in the Secondary Special Schools: An Exploratory Study Covering Fifth to Ninth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhardt, Markus; Zehner, Fabian; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2014-01-01

    The mission of German special schools is to enhance the education of students with Special Educational Needs in the area of Learning (SEN-L). However, recent studies indicate that students with SEN-L from special schools show difficulties in basic arithmetical operations, and the development of basic mathematical skills during secondary special…

  8. Basic Education for Girls in Yemen: Country Case Study and Analysis. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Sharon

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All (EFA) commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines provision of basic education (grades 1-9) in Yemen, focusing on obstacles to girls' education in rural areas. The report…

  9. Regional Office Procedures. Stage I Final Report for the Study of Program Management Procedures in the Campus-Based and Basic Grant Programs. (Volume III).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    Volume III of a study of program management procedures in the campus-based and Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) programs provides a description of procedures employed within the U.S. Office of Education regional offices to administer the Basic Grant and campus-based student financial assistance programs. The objective of the report is to…

  10. A Basic Study on Stimulation Pulse Width Determination for Dynamic Presentation of Electrocutaneous Sensation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minegishi, Yuka; Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    In this study, we aimed to realize a method of presenting dynamic electrocutaneous sensation patterns as a user interface for persons with disabilities. In this study, the previously used pulse width (200µs) was used in pattern recognition testing on the forearm and was compared with the short pulse width (80µs) used for stimulation. A cathodic pulse with a frequency of 100pps, which was suggested to be suitable in our previous study, was used. Experimental results on neurologically intact subjects suggested that the previously used pulse width was suitable and that a short pulse width would not be effective for stabilizing the stimulation amplitude or for improving the pattern recognition ability of our method.

  11. Basic study on the influence of inhibition induced by the magnetic stimulation on the peripheral nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Iramina, Keiji

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the inhibition mechanism of magnetic stimulation on motor function. A magnetic stimulator with a flat figure-eight coil was used to stimulate the peripheral nerve of the antebrachium. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 0.8 T, and the stimulation frequency was 1 Hz. The amplitudes of the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at the abductor pollicis brevis muscle and first dorsal interosseous muscle were used to evaluate the effects of magnetic stimulation. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the MEP amplitude before and after magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex. The results showed that MEP amplitude after magnetic stimulation compared with before magnetic stimulation decreased. Because there were individual differences in MEP amplitude induced by magnetic stimulation, the MEP amplitude after stimulation was normalized by the amplitude of each participant before stimulation. The MEP amplitude after stimulation decreased by approximately 58% (p < 0.01) on average compared with before stimulation. Previous studies suggested that magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex induced an increase or a decrease in MEP amplitude. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that the alteration in MEP amplitude was induced by cortical excitability based on magnetic stimulation. The results of this study showed that MEP amplitude decreased following magnetic stimulation to the peripheral nerve. We suggest that the decrease in MEP amplitude found in this study was obtained via the feedback from a peripheral nerve through an afferent nerve to the brain. This study suggests that peripheral excitement by magnetic stimulation of the peripheral nerve may control the central nervous system via afferent feedback.

  12. Basic Study of Detecting Defects in Solid Materials Using High-Intensity Aerial Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osumi, Ayumu; Kobayashi, Hiromasa; Ito, Youichi

    2012-07-01

    Recently, developments have improved methods employing aerial ultrasonic waves for detecting defects in solid materials such as metals, pipe walls, and fiber-reinforced plastics. These methods can be performed using a noncontacting aerial ultrasonic probe. In a previous study, we developed a new method using high-intensity aerial ultrasonic waves to successfully detect peeling, artificially created by inserting an air gap between tiles and concrete plates. In the present study, we use the same method to detect the depth and size of defects in a homogeneous medium.

  13. Controversies about population, clinical or basic research studies related with food, nutrition, physical activity and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Alberdi Aresti, Goiuri; Varela Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    Nutritional studies including food and beverage consumption assessment are needed for different purposes in the field of nutrition, food supply monitoring, toxicology or in the context of intervention strategies that include changes in eating behaviors. Different methods have been used, each with strengths, weaknesses, biases and limitations that must be considered when choosing the most appropriate in each case. The development of new technologies offers exciting developments to improve the validity and accuracy of these methods, as well as their efficiency and commodity. The characteristics of the individuals under study, its environment and the resources available should be considered as well.

  14. Quantitative structure-activity studies of octopaminergic agonists and antagonists against nervous system of Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, A; Pan, C; Shinkai, K; Tomita, J; Kuwano, E; Taniguchi, E; Eto, M

    1998-07-01

    The quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) of octopaminergic agonists and antagonists against the thoracic nerve cord of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L., was analyzed using physicochemical parameters and regression analysis. The hydrophobic effect, dipole moment, and shape index were important in terms of Ki: the more hydrophobic, the greater dipole moment, and the smaller shape index of the molecules, the greater the activity. A receptor surface model (RSM) was generated using some subset of the most active structures. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from RSM/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in QSAR analysis. This data set was studied further using molecular shape analysis.

  15. Ground state atomic oxygen in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering: a quantitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britun, Nikolay; Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Silva, Tiago; Snyders, Rony

    2017-02-01

    The ground state density of oxygen atoms in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges has been studied quantitatively. Both time-resolved and space-resolved measurements were conducted. The measurements were performed using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF), and calibrated by optical emission actinometry with multiple Ar emission lines. The results clarify the dynamics of the O ground state atoms in the discharge afterglow significantly, including their propagation and fast decay after the plasma pulse, as well as the influence of gas pressure, O2 admixture, etc.

  16. [The study of tomato fruit weight quantitative trait locus and its application in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan

    2015-08-01

    The classical research cases, which have greatly promoted the development of genetics in history, can be combined with the content of courses in genetics teaching to train students' ability of scientific thinking and genetic analysis. The localization and clone of gene controlling tomato fruit weight is a pioneer work in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies and represents a complete process of QTL research in plants. Application of this integrated case in genetics teaching, which showed a wonderful process of scientific discovery and the fascination of genetic research, has inspired students' interest in genetics and achieved a good teaching effect.

  17. A computational quantitative structure-activity relationship study of carbamate anticonvulsants using quantum pharmacological methods.

    PubMed

    Knight, J L; Weaver, D F

    1998-10-01

    A pattern recognition quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study has been performed to determine the molecular features of carbamate anticonvulsants which influence biological activity. Although carbamates, such as felbamate, have been used to treat epilepsy, their mechanisms of efficacy and toxicity are not completely understood. Quantum and classical mechanics calculations have been exploited to describe 46 carbamate drugs. Employing a principal component analysis and multiple linear regression calculations, five crucial structural descriptors were identified which directly relate to the bioactivity of the carbamate family. With the resulting mathematical model, the biological activity of carbamate analogues can be predicted with 85-90% accuracy.

  18. Application of multispectral imaging in quantitative immunohistochemistry study of breast cancer: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Lou; Wang, Lin-Wei; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Xiang, Qing-Ming; Yang, Gui-Fang; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) based on imaging and spectroscopy, as relatively novel to the field of histopathology, has been used in biomedical multidisciplinary researches. We analyzed and compared the utility of multispectral (MS) versus conventional red-green-blue (RGB) images for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining to explore the advantages of MSI in clinical-pathological diagnosis. The MS images acquired of IHC-stained membranous marker human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytoplasmic marker cytokeratin5/6 (CK5/6), and nuclear marker estrogen receptor (ER) have higher resolution, stronger contrast, and more accurate segmentation than the RGB images. The total signal optical density (OD) values for each biomarker were higher in MS images than in RGB images (all P < 0.05). Moreover, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that a greater area under the curve (AUC), higher sensitivity, and specificity in evaluation of HER2 gene were achieved by MS images (AUC = 0.91, 89.1 %, 83.2 %) than RGB images (AUC = 0.87, 84.5, and 81.8 %). There was no significant difference between quantitative results of RGB images and clinico-pathological characteristics (P > 0.05). However, by quantifying MS images, the total signal OD values of HER2 positive expression were correlated with lymph node status and histological grades (P = 0.02 and 0.04). Additionally, the consistency test results indicated the inter-observer agreement was more robust in MS images for HER2 (inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.95, r s = 0.94), CK5/6 (ICC = 0.90, r s = 0.88), and ER (ICC = 0.94, r s = 0.94) (all P < 0.001) than that in RGB images for HER2 (ICC = 0.91, r s = 0.89), CK5/6 (ICC = 0.85, r s = 0.84), and ER (ICC = 0.90, r s = 0.89) (all P < 0.001). Our results suggest that the application of MS images in quantitative IHC analysis could obtain higher accuracy, reliability, and more

  19. Application of the Convergence Technique to Basic Studies of the Reading Process. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gephart, William J.

    This study covers a program of research on problems in the area of reading undertaken and supported by the U. S. Office of Education. Due to the effectiveness of the Convergence Technique in the planning and management of complex programs of bio-medical research, this project is undertaken to develop plans for the application of this technique in…

  20. Computer-Based Basic Skills Instruction in a CETA Funded Project: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Robert M.; Hedl, John J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a study that (1) examined the effectiveness of computer-based education in developing literacy and mathematics skills in young adults to enable them to secure unsubsidized employment and (2) compared motivation of CETA-funded students with those who sought training voluntarily. Discusses failures of CETA training projects and makes…

  1. Basic aerodynamic research facility for comparative studies of flow diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Gartrell, Luther R.; Stainback, P. Calvin

    1987-01-01

    Current flow diagnostic research efforts are focusing on higher order flow field data bases, such as those generated by laser velocimetry (LV), hot-wire anemometry, and multi-hole pressure probes. Recent low-speed comparisons of results obtained with LV and hot wires have revealed strengths and weaknesses of each instrument. A seeding study will be initiated to determine particulate tracking ability.

  2. Studies of basic mechanisms in high pressure gases: Applications to high efficiency high power lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdeyen, J. T.; Cherrington, B. E.; Leslie, S. G.; Millar, W. S.; Edwards, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    A high power pulsed dye laser was used to optically excite high pressure cesium-xenon mixtures and the resulting measurements are presented. A microwave discharge in rubidium at relatively high xenon pressure was achieved. Preliminary studies of cadium-rare gas mixtures are discussed and a detailed description of the entire experimental apparatus is given.

  3. Beyond Discrete Categories: Studying Multiracial, Intersex, and Transgender Children Will Strengthen Basic Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Yarrow; Olson, Kristina R.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research on social categorization has overwhelmingly focused on perceptions about and experiences of individuals who are clear or prototypical members of discrete and usually dichotomous social categories. For example, studies of social categorization, stereotyping, prejudice, and social identity have generally explored how children…

  4. Cognitive Processes and Math Performance: A Study with Children at Third Grade of Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Isabel S.; Almeida, Leandro S.; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Martinez, Luis F.; Ramalho, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between cognitive factors and mathematical achievement in primary education. Participants were 103 Portuguese third grade students, aged 8 and 9. All participants completed a battery for working memory (WMTB-C), a test of general intelligence (Raven's Progressive Color Matrices), a selective…

  5. Cultural Analysis and Personal Identification: A Basic Skill in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searles, John E.

    Teachers and curriculum developers should organize cultural materials within a conceptual framework which explains how to classify the behavior of any cultural group. This would help elementary and secondary students in social studies classes learn about their own and other cultures. This conceptual framework must represent all major realms of…

  6. Understanding the Basic Bargain: A Study of Charter School Accountability in Massachusetts and Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdman, Paul A.

    This paper examines the balance between autonomy and accountability in education from the perspective of Massachusetts and Texas charter schools and their state authorizers. By analyzing national survey data, interviews with key policymakers, and case studies of six low, medium, and high performing schools, the paper examines the organizational…

  7. A Study of the Retention of Skills and Knowledge Acquired in Basic Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    differences betwtetn thei pcrfomurwz* test 3wrsas ’John S. Tayor . Euon R. Mid4kht, and Mtask F. 8etniu. Thr contOph of Ntfuogredat Ovicostd Mut’urtiou...that was used, perhaps provides the best and most recent data that are available. However, studies are clearly needed that (a) employ a longer

  8. Studies in Mathematics Education. Volume 2. The Teaching of Basic Sciences, Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robert, Ed.

    This volume was geared to answering the question, does the teaching of mathematics correspond to the needs of the majority of pupils and the society. There are three types of chapters: (1) descriptions of goals reflecting some need of society; (2) case studies of national goal setting; and (3) a summary of the May 1980 meeting of the United…

  9. BASIC Simulation Programs; Volumes V and VI. Social Studies, Teacher Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

    Five computer programs which teach concepts and processes related to social studies (in the main, economics) are presented. The subjects of the programs are the distinction between balance of trade and balance of payments; installment buying, loan payments, and savings accounts; flow of goods, services, and money between business and the consumer;…

  10. Predictors of Achievement in Basic Skills: A Canadian Effective Schools Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytton, Hugh; Pyryt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Studied factors accounting for elementary school achievement. Analysis of achievement test results in language arts and mathematics in Calgary (Alberta, Canada) shows that social class variables explain up to 45% of the variation, with student-body characteristics explaining 6% to 11% and school-based variables explaining a further 3% to 6%. (SLD)

  11. Increasing Creativity with the Self-Studies in Basic English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagcioglu, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    There are many materials, books and resources for the self-studies which can be useful in the ESL and in the EFL classrooms. Choosing the ones which can make learners more creative and happier will help our students to develop their language skills in speaking, reading, writing and listening. This paper deals with the methods and approaches to…

  12. How Human Information Behaviour Researchers Use Each Other's Work: A Basic Citation Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKechnie, Lynne E. F.; Goodall, George R.; Lajoie-Paquette, Darian; Julien, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if and how human information behaviour (HIB) research is used by others. Method: Using ISI Web of Knowledge, a citation analysis was conducted on 155 English-language HIB articles published from 1993 to 2000 in six prominent LIS journals. The bibliometric core of 12 papers was identified.…

  13. A basic study on removal of nutrient salts in wastewater using plants (removal by mung beans; Phaseolus radiatus L).

    PubMed

    Azuma, T; Niiro, M; Motobu, H

    1992-01-01

    Many studies have reported on the removal of pollutants from wastewater using aquatic plants. The water hyacinth has been the most widely used and its system is the most well established. This system however, has a few problems in practical use. The purpose of this study is to obtain basic information on a new system that can substitute for a conventional system or be used as a secondary system to assist the conventional one. We first envisioned a model of this new system and then conducted a preliminary experiment using a small experimental unit to simulate the new system. The experiment showed that mung beans were a suitable plant for our study. Their removal rate of pollutants was the highest before they developed leaves and started photosynthesis. We found that nutrients were expelled outside the plant root when nutrient concentration inside the plant tissue became too high.

  14. Inflation Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  15. Basic mechanisms study for MIS solar cell structures on GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The solar cell structure examined is the MIS configuration on (n) GaAs. The metal room temperature oxide/(n) GaAs materials system was studied. Metals with electronegativities varying from 2.4 (Au) to 1.5 (Al) were used as the upper electrode. The thinnest metallization that did not interfere with the measurement techniques (by introducing essentially transmission line series resistance problems across a device) was used. Photovoltaic response was not optimized.

  16. Basic Studies Relative to the Syntheses of Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine and Monomethylhydrazine by Chloramination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-07

    Studies of the Chloramination of Dimethylamine and 1 , 1 - Dimethylhydrazine . I1. Chloramination of Trimethylhydrazine. III. Pyrolysis and Hydrolysis of...prepared for publication and shortly to be submitted. 1 . Chloramination of Dimethylamine and 1,1- Dimethylhydrazine . The chloramination of dimethylamine in...substance has been previo sly reported as an oxidation product of 1 ,I- dimethylhydrazine , but had not previously been reported for thk chloraminaticn of

  17. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study.

    PubMed

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther; Lutti, Antoine; Draganski, Bodgan

    2016-05-01

    The high gray-white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1-weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1-weighted images (R1 (=1/T1), R2 *, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18-87 years). Synthetic T1-weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features-gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue-myelination, iron, and water content-on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801-1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p<0.01; d>0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  19. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie‐Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The high gray‐white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1‐weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1‐weighted images (R 1 (=1/T1), R 2*, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18–87 years). Synthetic T1‐weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features—gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue—myelination, iron, and water content—on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801–1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876452

  20. [Basic studies on radionuclide computed tomography using a rotating chair (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fukukita, H; Oyamada, H; Kawai, H; Nagaiwa, K; Terui, S; Uehara, T; Kiri, M

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide Computed Tomography (RCT) was studied from the technical standpoint of view. In this study, a gamma camera (Ohio Nuclear sigma 410S) and a rotating chair designed by one of us were used. The computer used was Scintipac 1200 (32 kW memories and 2.4 MB X 2 disk memories). A cylindrical phantom having a diameter of 20 cm was also designed by us into which various-sized tubes could be inserted for resolution study. The phantom was set on the chair, the center of which was 20 cm off from the surface of the detector. The chair was rotated manually 10 degrees, and finally 36 digital images in the form of 64 X 64 elements were obtained, covering an entire circumference. RCT images were displayed in the form of 128 X 128 elements on a X-ray film through a Microdot Imager. At first, the phantom was filled with 99mTc solution and the uniformity of the RCT image on it was checked using several formulae for count rate correction to find out which one of the formulae was best fitted. For the reconstruction of the RCT image, "filtered back projection" was used. Then, we found that, as far as out phantom study was concerned, simple geometrical mean on the data from the two opposing directions was found the best for the count rate corrections, which was exclusively used thereafter. The fluctuation on the uniform source was found to be approximately 15%. For the resolution study, hot tubes having diameters of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 cm and cold tubes of 1.5, 2.4, 3.5, and 4.7 cm were inserted into the phantom. As for the hot tubes, all the tubes were depicted on the RCT image whereas 2.4 cm was the smallest depicted for the cold tubes. FWHM was checked with a fine line source in the phantom and was found to be 2.0 cm regardless to its depth. The Alderson liver phantom was also used to detect defects in the air and it was found both balls having diameters of 2.7 and 3.7 cm could be depicted on the RCT image. Now we are evaluating clinical usefulness of this technique on

  1. The renal quantitative scintillation camera study for determination of renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, I.M. Jr.; Boineau, F.G.; Evans, B.B.; Schlegel, J.U.

    1983-03-01

    The renal quantitative scintillation camera study assesses glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow based upon renal uptake of 99mtechnetium-iron ascorbate and 131iodine-hippuran, respectively. The method was compared to inulin, para-aminohippuric acid and creatinine clearance studies in 7 normal subjects and 9 patients with various degrees of reduced renal function. The reproducibility of the technique was determined in 15 randomly selected pediatric patients. The values of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow were not significantly different from those of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. The reproducibility of the technique was comparable to that of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. Patient acceptance of the technique is excellent and the cost is minimal. Renal morphology and excretory dynamics also are demonstrated. The technique is advocated as a clinical measure of renal function.

  2. Quantitative study of temperature-dependent order in thin films of cylindrical morphology block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vindhya; Kramer, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Disordering and defect generation in block copolymer systems at high temperatures is of significance to get a better understanding of the physics governing these systems, which can also direct efforts to minimize them. We have studied the smectic-nematic-isotropic transition in confined monolayers and bilayers of cylindrical morphology poly (styrene-b-2vinyl pyridine) diblock copolymer. Previous studies of melting phenomena in block copolymer thin films have relied on quantitative AFM studies alone. We have supplemented AFM studies with grazing incidence small angle X-ray diffraction lineshape analysis to quantify the decay of translational and orientational order with increasing temperature. The results have been interpreted in the context of the Toner-Nelson theory of melting for layered systems.

  3. Platelet reactivity in thromboelastometry. Revision of the FIBTEM test: a basic study.

    PubMed

    Biolik, Grzegorz; Kokot, Michał; Sznapka, Mariola; Święszek, Agnieszka; Ziaja, Damian; Pawlicki, Krzysztof; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate modifications to the FIBTEM test to better assess fibrinogen levels and the quality of fibrin polymerization in citrated blood using Multiplate impedance aggregometry to verify platelet inhibition. Blood samples from 26 healthy volunteers were subjected to thromboelastometry studies (EXTEM/FIBTEM tests) in accordance with the standard study protocol (cytochalasin D) and according to a modified protocol (synthetic IIbIIIa receptor antagonist vs. acetylsalicylic acid [ASA] + synthetic IIbIIIa receptor antagonist instead of cytochalasin D). Independent of thromboelastometry, Multiplate impedance aggregometry was used to assess the degree of restriction by the platelet blocked with the following treatments: (1) cytochalasin D, (2) synthetic IIbIIIa antagonist or (3) ASA + synthetic IIbIIIa antagonist to assess the aggregation response to activation with an agonist (ADP, collagen, thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 [TRAP-6], and arachidonic acid). Via aggregometry, cytochalasin D more weakly inhibited platelet aggregation than simultaneous administration of the -IIbIIIa receptor antagonist with ASA. However, total platelet aggregation inhibition was observed after simultaneous administration of cytochalasin D combined with a synthetic IIbIIIa receptor antagonist. In the thromboelastometry, a significant decrease of the A10, A20 and MCF parameters were observed in the EXTEM/FIBTEM tests after they were modified by the addition of a synthetic IIbIIIa receptor antagonist alone or in combination with ASA. In conclusion, in this Multiplate- and ROTEM-based laboratory approach, a two-way blockade (IIbIIIa-antagonist + cytochalasine D) was sufficient to completely inhibit procoagulant platelet function as observed by aggregometry and thromboelastometry.

  4. [Banks of biological resources in the system of basic epidemiological and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Semenenko, T A; Anan'ina, Iu V; Boev, B V; Gintsburg, A L

    2011-01-01

    Banks of biological resources appear to become the key centres of long-standing international scientific infrastructure necessary for efficacious use of achievements in public health. Approaches to building up the global system of monitoring socially significant and other dangerous infections based on the passported blood sera bank and computerized epidemiological database meeting the current WHO standards are discussed. An innovative project for the creation of the Electronic Atlas of Russia is considered that must provide an original information-analytical system for the study of the most widespread infectious diseases with the use of modern geoinformation technologies.

  5. Basic study of the portable fatigue meter: effects of illumination, distance from eyes and age.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, T; Mikami, K; Saito, K

    1997-09-01

    Several aspects of a new, small and inexpensive fatigue assessment tool, the Portable Fatigue Meter (PFM), were studied. In the first experiment the effects of room illumination and distance between the PFM and the eyes on critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) values were examined. The results revealed that the PFM CFF value varied significantly as a function of the distance between the indicator and the eyes, but it was not affected by room illumination. The effect of ageing on the PFM CFF value was assessed in a second experiment. The results suggested that PFM CFF values are significantly smaller in middle-aged females than in younger females.

  6. A quantitative study of the distribution of IgG sub-classes in a group of normal human sera.

    PubMed

    Shakib, F; Stanworth, D R; Drew, R; Catty, D

    1975-01-01

    The radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini has been applied to quantitative study of IgG subclasses in a normal population. The method was assessed in terms of both reproducibility and antiserum consumption. The distribution of IgG subclasses in a group of normal individuals was studied, and compared with their incidence in a series of monoclonal proteins investigated by previous workers and particularly with other quantitative studies on groups of normal individual's sera.

  7. Study of the dehydrochlorination of DDT in basic media in sulfobetaine aqueous micellar solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, A.; Mar Graciani, M. del; Guinda, A.; Munoz, M.; Moya, M.L.

    2000-04-04

    The reaction of dehydrochlorination of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, DDT, with hydroxide ions has been studied in aqueous micellar solutions of N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammino-1-propane-sulfonate, SB3-14, and N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, SB3-16. A simple expression for the observed rate constant, k{sub obs}, based on the pseudophase model, could explain the influence of changes in the surfactant concentration on k{sub obs}. The kinetic effects of added electrolytes (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, and NaNO{sub 3}) on the reaction rate in SB3-14 micellar media have also been studied. They were rationalized by considering the binding of the anions, which come from the added salt, to the sulfobetaine micelles and their competition with the reactive hydroxide ions for the micellar surface. Conductivity measurements have been a helpful tool in the discussion of the kinetic effects of added salts and permitted the estimation of equilibrium constants for the distribution of the anions between the zwitterionic micelles and the aqueous phase.

  8. Basic study of a transcutaneous information transmission system using intra-body communication.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Sato, Yusuke; Seino, Kazuyuki; Kiyono, Takashi; Kato, Yoshikuni; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2010-07-01

    The transcutaneous communication system (TCS) is one of the key technologies for monitoring and controling artificial hearts and other artificial organs in the body. In this study, we have developed a new TCS that uses the human body as a conductive medium. Having no energy conversion from electric currents into electromagnetic waves and light provides energy-saving data transmission with a simple electrical circuit. Each unit of the TCS mainly consists of two electrodes, an amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulator and an ASK demodulator (carrier frequency: 4 and 10 MHz). A resonant frequency of an L-C tank circuit including the capacitance component of the body is tuned into each carrier frequency in order to apply the data current effectively into the body. Performance of the TCS was evaluated by a communication test on the surface of a human body. The TCS was able to transmit 3,315 bytes of data bi-directionally at a transmission rate of 115 kbps from a left wrist to a right forearm, to an abdomen and to a left calf without communication error. The power consumption of each TCS unit was 125 mW with an ASK modulated current of 7 mA (RMS). While further study is required to secure its safety, the TCS promises to be a next-generation transcutaneous communication device.

  9. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  10. A BASIC STUDY FOR GRAVITY SURVEY USING A FORCE-BALANCED-TYPE ACCELEROMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroko; Morikawa, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Shigeo; Tokue, Satoshi; Komazawa, Masao; Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    The gravity survey is applied to model a ground structure. For this purpose, a spring-type relative gravimeter is usually used. Though this type of gravimeter can provide very accurate data, it is very expensive and difficult to handle. This means that a simple and inexpensive sensor to measure the gravity is required. For this, we began to develop a new gravimeter using a force-balanced-type accelerometer. In this study, we develop a preliminary system and calibrate it. Then, a simple measurements is carried out on an observation wheel, on a car, and on a ship. The gravity data is contaminated by vibration of carriers, though we found a technique of blind source separation can be hopeful to pick up gravity data from the observed data. However, we also recognized some problems that needs to be solved.

  11. A basic study of a triangular magnet chain for locomotion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Hashi, Shuichiro; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2011-04-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical (magnetic and robotic) and experimental study of a robotic locomotion principle utilizing a triangular artificial magnetic chain with a rotating magnetic field for biomedical applications. A three-axis Helmholtz coil system with external controller (joystick) controls the moving direction of the proposed magnet chain according to changes of the plane of the rotating magnetic field. The proposed magnet chain consists of three NdFeB magnets, and its magnetic property depends on dipoles interaction. Also, motion dynamics bring about a magnetic torque analyzed by robotics. A total magnetic moment on the triangular magnet chain provides magnetic torque in the rotating magnetic field, and a geometric property produces a stable movement for robotic locomotion.

  12. A comparative study of six different inpatient groups with respect to their basic assumption functioning.

    PubMed

    Karterud, S

    1989-07-01

    Seventy-five group therapy sessions of six different inpatient team groups in one short-term, one intermediate term, and one long-term psychiatric ward were studied with Group Focal Conflict Analysis and the Group Emotionality Rating System. The majority of the group sessions (41) functioned as fight-flight groups, twenty-four sessions functioned at a "pseudogroup" level, and ten sessions were dependency groups. The differences between the fight-flight groups and the dependency group on the variables aggression and dependency were highly significant statistically. A mixture of fight-flight groups and pseudogroups were found in the short-term ward with emergency obligations. The author discusses the assets and shortcomings of fight-flight and dependency cultures within psychiatric wards.

  13. Basic mechanisms of longevity: A case study of Drosophila pro-longevity genes.

    PubMed

    Proshkina, Ekaterina N; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Moskalev, Alexey A

    2015-11-01

    Drosophila is one of the most convenient model organisms in the genetics of aging and longevity. Unlike the nematodes, which allow for the detection of new pro-aging genes by knockout and RNAi-mediated knock-down, Drosophila also provides an opportunity to find new pro-longevity genes by driver-induced overexpression. Similar studies on other models are extremely rare. In this review, we focused on genes whose overexpression prolongs the life of fruit flies. The majority of longevity-associated genes regulates metabolism and stress resistance, and belongs to the IGF-1R, PI3K, PKB, AMPK and TOR metabolic regulation cluster and the FOXO, HDAC, p53 stress response cluster.

  14. Bioresearch Module Design Definition and Space Shuttle Vehicle Integration Study. Volume 1: Basic Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, A. L., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Preliminary designs of the Bioexplorer spacecraft, developed in an earlier study program, are analyzed and updated to conform to a new specification which includes use of both the Scout and the space shuttle vehicle for launch. The updated spacecraft is referred to as bioresearch module. It is capable of supporting a variety of small biological experiments in near-earth and highly elliptical earth orbits. The baseline spacecraft design is compatible with the Scout launch vehicle. Inboard profile drawings, weight statements, interface drawings, and spacecraft parts and aerospace ground equipment lists are provided to document the design. The baseline design was analyzed to determine the design and cost impact of a set of optional features. These include reduced experiment power and thermal load, addition of an experiment television monitor, and replacement of VHF with S-band communications. The impact of these options on power required, weight change and cost is defined.

  15. Basic study of a new denture base resin applying hydrophobic methacrylate monomer.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, K; Kurata, S

    1997-06-01

    To improve the water sorption of poly(methyl methacrylate), new hydrophobic monomers, such as norbonyl and phenyl methacrylate, were studied to determine the resin with lower water sorption with no decrease in mechanical property. Water sorption of the copolymers of the hydrophobic monomers and MMA decreased with the increase in the concentration of the monomers. Compressive and bending strength of the copolymers were higher than that of PMMA, and the elastic modulus in bending was the same as that of PMMA. In addition, the transverse-deflection values satisfied ADA specifications. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of the copolymers showed a similar tendency to that of PMMA in spite of the introduction of bulky groups, such as norbonyl and phenyl, in the polymer molecule. The polymerization shrinkage in volume was in the following order: norbonyl < phenyl < methyl methacrylate.

  16. Ischemic stroke subtype and presence of sleep-disordered breathing: the BASIC Sleep Apnea Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Devin L.; Mowla, Ashkan; McDermott, Mollie; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Hegeman, Garnett; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2014-01-01

    Goal Little is known about the prevalence of sleep apnea (SA) across ischemic stroke subtypes. Given the important implications for SA screening, we tested the association between SA and ischemic stroke subtype in a population-based study. Methods Within the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project, ischemic stroke patients were offered SA screening with the ApneaLink Plus™ (n=355). A neurologist assigned TOAST subtype (with an additional category for nonlacunar infarctions of unknown etiology) using hospital records. Unadjusted and adjusted (demographics, BMI, NIHSS, diabetes, history of stroke/TIA) logistic and linear regression models were used to test the association between subtype and SA or apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Findings Median age was 65 and 55% were male; 59% were Mexican American. Median time from stroke onset to SA screen was 13 days (IQR: 6, 21). Overall, 215 (61%) had SA (AHI ≥ 10). Median AHI was 13 (IQR: 6, 27). Prevalence of SA by subtype was: cardioembolism, 66%; large artery atherosclerosis, 57%; small vessel occlusion, 68%; other determined, 50%; undetermined etiology, 58%; and nonlacunar stroke of unknown etiology, 63%. Ischemic stroke subtype was not associated with SA in unadjusted (p=0.72) or adjusted models (p=0.91) models. Ischemic stroke subtype was not associated with AHI in unadjusted (p=0.41) or adjusted models (p=0.62). Conclusion In this population-based stroke surveillance study, ischemic stroke subtype was not associated with the presence or severity of SA. Sleep apnea is likely to be present after ischemic stroke, and the subtype should not influence decisions about SA screening. PMID:25497720

  17. The novel drug delivery to vascular wall using laser driven thermal balloon: basic study ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Kao; Homma, Rie; Shimazaki, Natsumi; Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2016-10-01

    To enhance drug delivery performance of popular drug eluting balloon against re-stenosis after angioplasty, we have an idea regarding to adjacent use of our unique laser driven thermal balloon of which characteristics could realize short term and uniform temperature elevation to modify drug delivery characteristics. We have already reported a delivery enhancement effect using this idea, however, detailed characteristics have not been studied yet. We studied balloon dilatation in terms of vascular circumferential tension on the heating drug delivery performance using porcine carotid artery wall ex vivo. The extracted carotid artery was used and circumferential tension of 0-30 mN/mm2 was added. Heating drug delivery was performed on this carotid artery with the heated solution of hydrophobic fluorescent Rhodamine B with 3 μg/ml in concentration at 37 and 70°C. We obtained a defined drug delivery quantity as well as delivery depth by a microscopic fluorescence measurement on a cross section of the drug delivered vessel wall. In the cases of 70°C, we found the drug penetration increase against 3°C case. We predict that the collagen thermal denaturation of the vessel wall may play important role to this penetration. In the case of 3°C, we found the drug concentration on the intimal surface with 7 mN/mm2 was increased as 10-30 times as other tension values. We found surface grooves in this case using an electron micrography. Therefore, we think that the drug delivery enhancement might be related to the groove formations of the vessel wall.

  18. Quantitative study of the interactome of PKCζ involved in the EGF-induced tumor cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruibing; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Fei; Shieh, Chia-Hui Paul; Yang, De; Zhang, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Chemotaxis plays an important role in metastasis. In our previous studies, we reported that protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) mediated cancer cell chemotaxis by regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. To further study the molecular mechanism of chemotaxis, mass spectrometry-based approaches were employed to investigate the interactome of PKCζ and its changes upon stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF). As a result, 233 proteins were identified as potential PKCζ binding partners. Label free quantification was applied to examine the quantitative changes of these interactions involved in the EGF induced chemotaxis. Fifteen identified proteins were enriched and 9 proteins were reduced in the presence of EGF (≥ 1.5 folds, p ≤ 0.05). The interaction between cofilin-1 (CFL1) and PKCζ was evidenced and this interaction was enhanced in the EGF induced chemotaxis signaling transduction. In addition, novel PKCζ interacting proteins potentially related with chemotaxis were characterized, such as isoform 1 of nucleophosmin (NPM1). Furthermore, Western blotting and chemotaxis assays were also applied to validate the proteomics result and explore its biological implications. Collectively, the combination of quantitative proteomics and biological assays provides a powerful strategy for elucidating the signaling pathway of tumor cell chemotaxis.

  19. Quantitative imaging of the human upper airway: instrument design and clinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, M. S.; Armstrong, J. J.; Paduch, A.; Sampson, D. D.; Walsh, J. H.; Hillman, D. R.; Eastwood, P. R.

    2006-08-01

    Imaging of the human upper airway is widely used in medicine, in both clinical practice and research. Common imaging modalities include video endoscopy, X-ray CT, and MRI. However, no current modality is both quantitative and safe to use for extended periods of time. Such a capability would be particularly valuable for sleep research, which is inherently reliant on long observation sessions. We have developed an instrument capable of quantitative imaging of the human upper airway, based on endoscopic optical coherence tomography. There are no dose limits for optical techniques, and the minimally invasive imaging probe is safe for use in overnight studies. We report on the design of the instrument and its use in preliminary clinical studies, and we present results from a range of initial experiments. The experiments show that the instrument is capable of imaging during sleep, and that it can record dynamic changes in airway size and shape. This information is useful for research into sleep disorders, and potentially for clinical diagnosis and therapies.

  20. Quantitative study of Xanthosoma violaceum leaf surfaces using RIMAPS and variogram techniques.

    PubMed

    Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O; Molina, Ana M

    2006-08-01

    Two new imaging techniques (rotated image with maximum averaged power spectrum (RIMAPS) and variogram) are presented for the study and description of leaf surfaces. Xanthosoma violaceum was analyzed to illustrate the characteristics of both techniques. Both techniques produce a quantitative description of leaf surface topography. RIMAPS combines digitized images rotation with Fourier transform, and it is used to detect patterns orientation and characteristics of surface topography. Variogram relates the mathematical variance of a surface with the area of the sample window observed. It gives the typical scale lengths of the surface patterns. RIMAPS detects the morphological variations of the surface topography pattern between fresh and dried (herbarium) samples of the leaf. The variogram method finds the characteristic dimensions of the leaf microstructure, i.e., cell length, papillae diameter, etc., showing that there are not significant differences between dry and fresh samples. The results obtained show the robustness of RIMAPS and variogram analyses to detect, distinguish, and characterize leaf surfaces, as well as give scale lengths. Both techniques are tools for the biologist to study variations of the leaf surface when different patterns are present. The use of RIMAPS and variogram opens a wide spectrum of possibilities by providing a systematic, quantitative description of the leaf surface topography.

  1. A relative quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique: animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Xuefang; Zhou, Kenneth J.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique in swine model. Numerous techniques based on the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) Hounsfield Unit (HU) density have emerged. Although these methods proposed to be able to assess haemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis, their limitations are noticed. There are still needs to develop some new techniques. Experiments were performed upon five (5) closed-chest swine. Balloon catheters were placed into the coronary artery to simulate different degrees of luminal stenosis. Myocardial Blood Flow (MBF) was measured using color microsphere technique. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) was measured using pressure wire. CT examinations were performed twice during First-pass phase under adenosine-stress condition. CT HU Density (HUDCT) and CT HU Density Ratio (HUDRCT) were calculated using the acquired CT images. Our study presents that HUDRCT shows a good (y=0.07245+0.09963x, r2=0.898) correlation with MBF and FFR. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, HUDRCT provides excellent diagnostic performance for the detection of significant ischemia during adenosine-stress as defined by FFR indicated by the value of Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.927. HUDRCT has the potential to be developed as a useful indicator of quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion.

  2. Effect of pepsin on maintaining the supersaturation of the HCl salt of a weakly basic drug: a case study.

    PubMed

    Pinnamaneni, Swathi; Rinaldi, Frank A; Jayawickrama, Dimuthu A; Li, Jinjiang; Dali, Mandar V

    2016-01-01

    The impact of pepsin on the maintenance of supersaturated solution of the HCl salt of a weakly basic drug was evaluated in simulated gastric fluid by monitoring the drug solubility in the absence and presence of pepsin. In the presence of pepsin, the HCl salt maintained its apparent solubility through 24 h, whereas, no such solubility advantage was seen in the absence of pepsin. Consequently, a minimum inhibitory concentration of pepsin is required for maintenance of supersaturation. In addition, NMR study seems to indicate a molecular level interaction between pepsin and HCl salt leading to a weak binding between the two. Therefore, for the HCl salts of weak bases having disproportionation potential, it is preferred that preformulation solubility studies are conducted in the presence of pepsin to reflect their in vivo behavior in maintaining supersaturation solubility.

  3. Experimental sea slicks: Their practical applications and utilization for basic studies of air-sea interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Garrett, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Practical applications of organic surface films added to the sea surface date back to ancient times. Aristotle, Plutarch, and Pliny the Elder describe the seaman's practice of calming waves in a storm by pouring oil onto the sea [Scott, 1977]. It was also noted that divers released oil beneath the water surface so that it could rise and spread over the sea surface, thereby suppressing the irritating flicker associated with the passage of light through a rippled surface. From a scientific point of view, Benjamin Franklin was the first to perform experiments with oils on natural waters. His experiment with a `teaspoonful of oil' on Clapham pond in 1773 inspired many investigators to consider sea surface phenomena or to conduct experiments with oil films. This early research has been reviewed by Giles [1969], Giles and Forrester [1970], and Scott [1977]. Franklin's studies with experimental slicks can be regarded as the beginning of surface film chemistry. His speculations on the wave damping influence of oil induced him to perform the first qualitative experiment with artificial sea slicks at Portsmouth (England) in October of 1773. Although the sea was calmed and very few white caps appeared in the oil-covered area, the swell continued through the oiled area to Franklin's great disappointment.

  4. Predicting all-cause mortality from basic physiology in the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William B; Pincus, Zachary

    2016-02-01

    Using longitudinal data from a cohort of 1349 participants in the Framingham Heart Study, we show that as early as 28-38 years of age, almost 10% of variation in future lifespan can be predicted from simple clinical parameters. Specifically, we found diastolic and systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to be relevant to lifespan. These and similar parameters have been well-characterized as risk factors in the relatively narrow context of cardiovascular disease and mortality in middle to old age. In contrast, we demonstrate here that such measures can be used to predict all-cause mortality from mid-adulthood onward. Further, we find that different clinical measurements are predictive of lifespan in different age regimes. Specifically, blood pressure and BMI are predictive of all-cause mortality from ages 35 to 60, while blood glucose is predictive from ages 57 to 73. Moreover, we find that several of these parameters are best considered as measures of a rate of 'damage accrual', such that total historical exposure, rather than current measurement values, is the most relevant risk factor (as with pack-years of cigarette smoking). In short, we show that simple physiological measurements have broader lifespan-predictive value than indicated by previous work and that incorporating information from multiple time points can significantly increase that predictive capacity. In general, our results apply equally to both men and women, although some differences exist.

  5. Rho-Isp Revisited and Basic Stage Mass Estimating for Launch Vehicle Conceptual Sizing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The ideal rocket equation is manipulated to demonstrate the essential link between propellant density and specific impulse as the two primary stage performance drivers for a launch vehicle. This is illustrated by examining volume-limited stages such as first stages and boosters. This proves to be a good approximation for first-order or Phase A vehicle design studies for solid rocket motors and for liquid stages, except when comparing to hydrogen-fueled stages. A next-order mass model is developed that is able to model the mass differences between hydrogen-fueled and other stages. Propellants considered range in density from liquid methane to inhibited red fuming nitric acid. Calculated comparisons are shown for solid rocket boosters, liquid first stages, liquid upper stages, and a balloon-deployed single-stage-to-orbit concept. The derived relationships are ripe for inclusion in a multi-stage design space exploration and optimization algorithm, as well as for single-parameter comparisons such as those shown herein.

  6. [Study of Cervical Exfoliated Cell's DNA Quantitative Analysis Based on Multi-Spectral Imaging Technology].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng; Zeng, Li-bo; Wu, Qiong-shui

    2016-02-01

    The conventional cervical cancer screening methods mainly include TBS (the bethesda system) classification method and cellular DNA quantitative analysis, however, by using multiple staining method in one cell slide, which is staining the cytoplasm with Papanicolaou reagent and the nucleus with Feulgen reagent, the study of achieving both two methods in the cervical cancer screening at the same time is still blank. Because the difficulty of this multiple staining method is that the absorbance of the non-DNA material may interfere with the absorbance of DNA, so that this paper has set up a multi-spectral imaging system, and established an absorbance unmixing model by using multiple linear regression method based on absorbance's linear superposition character, and successfully stripped out the absorbance of DNA to run the DNA quantitative analysis, and achieved the perfect combination of those two kinds of conventional screening method. Through a series of experiment we have proved that between the absorbance of DNA which is calculated by the absorbance unmixxing model and the absorbance of DNA which is measured there is no significant difference in statistics when the test level is 1%, also the result of actual application has shown that there is no intersection between the confidence interval of the DNA index of the tetraploid cells which are screened by using this paper's analysis method when the confidence level is 99% and the DNA index's judging interval of cancer cells, so that the accuracy and feasibility of the quantitative DNA analysis with multiple staining method expounded by this paper have been verified, therefore this analytical method has a broad application prospect and considerable market potential in early diagnosis of cervical cancer and other cancers.

  7. Green initiative impact on stock prices: A quantitative study of the clean energy industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurisich, John M.

    The purpose of this quantitative ex post facto research study was to explore the relationship between green initiative expense disclosures and stock prices of 46 NASDAQ listed Clean Edge Green Energy global companies from 2007 to 2010. The independent variables were sales and marketing, environmental, customer and supplier, community, and corporate governance practices that were correlated with the dependent variable in the study of stock prices. Expense disclosures were examined in an effort to measure the impact of green initiative programs and to expose the interrelationships between green initiative expense disclosures and fluctuations of stock prices. The data for the research was secondary data from existing annual reports. A statistically significant relationship was revealed between environmental practices and changes in stock prices. The study results also provided substantial evidence for leadership and managerial decision making to reduce or increase green initiative practices to maximize shareholder wealth of their respective organizations.

  8. Marriage Patterns and Childbearing: Results From a Quantitative Study in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Ebadi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Social changes have rapidly removed arranged marriages and it seems the change in marriage pattern has played a role in childbearing. On the other hand, there is a great reduction in population in many countries which requires a comprehensive policy to manage the considerable drop in population. To achieve this goal, initially, the factors affecting fertility must be precisely identified. This study aims to examine the role of marriage patterns in childbearing. In this cross-sectional quantitative study, 880 married women 15-49 years old, living in the north of Iran were studied using a cluster sampling strategy. The results showed that there are no significant differences in reproductive behaviors of three patterns of marriage in Bobol city of Iran. It seems there is a convergence in childbearing due to the different patterns of marriage and Policymakers should pay attention to other determinants of reproductive behaviors in demographic planning. PMID:26493414

  9. Quantitative assessment of the benefits of specific information technologies applied to clinical studies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Avilés, William; Ortega, Oscar; Kuan, Guillermina; Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva

    2008-02-01

    Clinical studies and trials require accessibility of large amounts of high-quality information in a timely manner, often daily. The integrated application of information technologies can greatly improve quality control as well as facilitate compliance with established standards such as Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). We have customized and implemented a number of information technologies, such as personal data assistants (PDAs), geographic information system (GIS), and barcode and fingerprint scanning, to streamline a pediatric dengue cohort study in Managua, Nicaragua. Quantitative data was obtained to assess the actual contribution of each technology in relation to processing time, accuracy, real-time access to data, savings in consumable materials, and time to proficiency in training sessions. In addition to specific advantages, these information technologies benefited not only the study itself but numerous routine clinical and laboratory processes in the health center and laboratories of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health.

  10. Marriage Patterns and Childbearing: Results From a Quantitative Study in North of Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Ebadi, Abbas

    2015-09-22

    Social changes have rapidly removed arranged marriages and it seems the change in marriage pattern has played a role in childbearing. On the other hand, there is a great reduction in population in many countries which requires a comprehensive policy to manage the considerable drop in population. To achieve this goal, initially, the factors affecting fertility must be precisely identified. This study aims to examine the role of marriage patterns in childbearing. In this cross-sectional quantitative study, 880 married women 15-49 years old, living in the north of Iran were studied using a cluster sampling strategy. The results showed that there are no significant differences in reproductive behaviors of three patterns of marriage in Bobol city of Iran. It seems there is a convergence in childbearing due to the different patterns of marriage and Policymakers should pay attention to other determinants of reproductive behaviors in demographic planning.

  11. Basic study of transient breakdown voltage in solid dielectric cables. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bahder, G.; Sosnowski, M.; Katz, C.

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive review of the technical and scientific publications relating to crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulated cables revealed that there is very little known with respect to the life expectancy, the final factory voltage test background and the mechanism of voltage breakdown of these cables. In this study a new methodology for the investigation of breakdown voltages of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed which is based on the investigation of breakdown voltages at various voltage transients such as unipolarity pulses and dual-polarity pulses, and a.c. voltage at power and high frequency. Also, a new approach to statistical testing was developed which allows one to establish a correlation among the breakdown voltages obtained with various voltage transients. Finally, a method for the determination of threshold voltage regardless of the magnitude of apparent charge was developed. Extensive statistical testing of breakdown voltages was conducted using: impulses with front durations from approximately 1.5 to 1000 ..mu..s and times to half-values from 40 to 3000 ..mu..s; dual-polarity pulses consisting of d.c. voltage and standard impulse of opposite polarity; combined a.c. and d.c. voltages; and a.c. voltages at power and high frequencies. Based on the results of this testing, a model of breakdown and electrical aging of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed as well as life expectancy characteristics for high voltage stress XLPE insulated cables operated in a dry environment at room temperature and at 90/sup 0/C. Life expectancy characteristics for EPR insulated cables are approximated. A test procedure including requirements for full-reel factory voltage withstand and partial discharge testing of finished XLPE and EPR insulated cables is proposed. Cables that pass the proposed tests will exhibit a smaller rate of failure in service than cables tested in accordance with present practices.

  12. A comprehensive study of electrostatic turbulence and transport in the laboratory basic plasma device TORPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furno, I.; Fasoli, A.; Avino, F.; Bovet, A.; Gustafson, K.; Iraji, D.; Labit, B.; Loizu, J.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.

    2012-04-01

    TORPEX is a toroidal device located at the CRPP-EPFL in Lausanne. In TORPEX, a vertical magnetic field superposed on a toroidal field creates helicoidal field lines with both ends terminating on the torus vessel. The turbulence driven by magnetic curvature and plasma gradients causes plasma transport in the radial direction while at the same time plasma is progressively lost along the field lines. The relatively simple magnetic geometry and diagnostic access of the TORPEX configuration facilitate the experimental study of low frequency instabilities and related turbulent transport, and make an accurate comparison between simulations and experiments possible. We first present a detailed investigation of electrostatic interchange turbulence, associated structures and their effect on plasma using high-resolution diagnostics of plasma parameters and wave fields throughout the whole device cross-section, fluid models and numerical simulations. Interchange modes nonlinearly develop blobs, radially propagating filaments of enhanced plasma pressure. Blob velocities and sizes are obtained from probe measurements using pattern recognition and are described by an analytical expression that includes ion polarization currents, parallel sheath currents and ion-neutral collisions. Then, we describe recent advances of a non-perturbative Li 6+ miniaturized ion source and a detector for the investigation of the interaction between supra thermal ions and interchange-driven turbulence. We present first measurements of the spatial and energy space distribution of the fast ion beam in different plasma scenarios, in which the plasma turbulence is fully characterized. The experiments are interpreted using two-dimensional fluid simulations describing the low-frequency interchange turbulence, taking into account the plasma source and plasma losses at the torus vessel. By treating fast ions as test particles, we integrate their equations of motion in the simulated electromagnetic fields, and

  13. Implementation of basic studies in the ecological restoration of surface-mined land

    SciTech Connect

    Tischew, S.; Kirmer, A.

    2007-06-15

    This paper focuses on attempts to encourage a new state of the art in the ecological restoration of surface-mined land in Germany. On most of these sites, the application of traditional recultivation methods often destroys valuable ecological potential by leveling of the surface, ameliorating of nutrient-poor substrates, and seeding or planting of species not suited to the present habitat conditions. Many studies have shown that even highly disturbed ecosystems, such as large mining areas, can regenerate spontaneously over long-term periods. Colonization processes were influenced by the availability of diaspore sources as well as the suitability of sites for establishment. The predictability of succession could be improved by the identification of switch points in successional pathways depending on age and conditions of the sites. Based on the developmental potential, orientation by nature and biodiversity are selected as main targets for priority areas for nature conservation in mining sites. On priority areas restoration measures must be restricted to the use of near-natural methods (e.g., application of fresh, diaspore-rich plant clipping material, dumping of overburden with seed bank and vegetative propagules, seeding of site-specific, local seed mixtures) that are very successful in preventing erosion and accelerating vegetation development. Despite the success of these methods, the transfer of knowledge between scientists, practitioners, and administrative organizations has proved to be insufficient. Therefore, one of the main tasks in ecological restoration must be the inclusion of all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes and the establishment of a network of excellence to enhance the exchange of knowledge.

  14. Magnetorheological fluid template for basic studies of mechanical-chemical effects during polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Chunlin; Bristol, Kirk M.; Marino, Anne E.; Shafrir, Shai N.; DeGroote, Jessica E.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2007-09-01

    We developed a new magnetorheological (MR) fluid for studying the relative contributions of mechanics and chemistry in polishing hard materials. The base carrier fluid is a mixture of two non-aqueous liquids. At conventional carbonyl iron (CI) magnetic particle concentrations, removal rates with this formulation were unacceptably low for the polycrystalline optical ceramic aluminum oxynitride (ALON). We overcame this problem by creating a high magnetic solids concentration suspension consisting of a blend of large and small CI particles. Our test bed for experiments was a magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spot-taking machine (STM) that can only polish spots into a non-rotating part. We demonstrated that, using this new MR fluid formulation, we could substantially increase peak removal rates on ALON with small additions of nonmagnetic, nanodiamond abrasives. Material removal with this fluid was assumed to be predominately driven by mechanics. With the addition of small amounts of DI water to the base fluid containing nanodiamonds, the peak removal rate showed an additional increase, presumably due to the altered fluid rheology and possibly chemical interactions. It is possible, however, that this result is due to increased fluid viscosity as well. Interestingly, the microtexture on the surfaces of the ALON grains (albeit-two different ALON parts) showed distinctly different features when spotted with nanodiamonds or with nanodiamonds and water, and an understanding of this phenomenon is the goal of future work. In this paper we describe the difficult fluid viscosity issues that were addressed in creating a viable, high removal rate, non-aqueous MR fluid template that could be pumped in the STM for several days of experiments.

  15. Heritability of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measures in healthy adults from the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Choh, Audrey C; Towne, Bradford; Demerath, Ellen W; Chumlea, Wm Cameron; Sun, Shumei S; Siervogel, Roger M

    2004-11-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone have been reported to predict osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women and older men. Although many studies have examined the heritability of bone mineral density (BMD), few studies have estimated the heritability of calcaneal QUS phenotypes. In the present study, we examined the genetic regulation of calcaneal QUS parameters in individuals from nuclear and extended families. The study population includes 260 men and 295 women aged 18-91 years (mean+/-SD: 46+/-16 years) who belong to 111 pedigrees in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Three measures of calcaneal structure were collected from both the right and left heel using the Sahara bone sonometer. These measures included broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and the quantitative ultrasound index (QUI). We used a variance components based maximum likelihood method to estimate the heritability of QUS parameters while simultaneously adjusting for covariate effects. Additionally, we used bivariate extensions of these methods to calculate additive genetic and random environmental correlations among QUS measures. All phenotypes demonstrated statistically significant heritabilities (P<0.0000001). Heritabilities in the right heel (h2+/-SE) were h2=0.59+/-0.10 for BUA, h2=0.73+/-0.09 for SOS, and h2=0.72+/-0.09 for QUI. Similarly, heritabilities for the left heel were h2=0.52+/-0.10, h2=0.75+/-0.10, and h2=0.70+/0.10, respectively. There was evidence for significant genetic and environmental correlations among these six QUS measures. Combinations of QUS measures in the right and left heel demonstrated genetic correlations of 0.94-0.99 and all were significantly different from one indicating at least a partially unique genetic architecture for each of these measures. This study demonstrates that QUS measures of the calcaneus among healthy men and women are heritable, and there are large shared additive genetic effects among all of the traits

  16. Determining the basic characteristics of aerosols suitable for studies of deposition in the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Legáth, L; Naus, A; Halík, J

    1988-01-01

    Studies of aerosol particle deposition in the respiratory tract requires experimental inhalation of artificial model aerosols. The paper formulates some of the most important requirements for the properties of such aerosols. Several suitable fractions were prepared as part of a research project dealing with the use of microporous polymers for diagnostic purposes. 5 fractions of the polymer designated G-gel 60 with the particle size as stated by the manufacturer, ranging from 3 to 7 micron were evaluated using a 16-channel particle dispersity analyzer HIAC/ROYCO MT 3210 with the sensor 1200 and operated by a microprocessor, the equipment being coupled to an APPLE IIe computer. G-gel 60 particles introduced into the aerosol were characterized by the parameters CMAD, MMAD and sg both numerically and graphically. The measurement procedure was found to be very sensitive with respect to all fractions in evaluating the subtile differences between different lot numbers of the aerosol. G-gel 60 fractions characterized both numerically and graphically were compared with the known aerosols from paraffin oil and atmospheric air. The equipment MT 3210 enables prompt determination of the percentages of aerosol particles distribution by size class. The authors conclude that the procedure, both in its numerical and graphical versions, is particularly suitable for the diagnosis of aerosol particles deposition in the respiratory tract, offering a new application for HIAC/ROYCO in the field of medicine. In evaluating atmospheric aerosol in exhaled air, the number of particles was found to be below that in inhaled air, the difference being dependent on the choice of investigation methods. Percentual distribution of deposited particles following one minute ventilation proved to be at its maximum, as regards atmospheric aerosol, in the 0.30-0.50 micron range. The deposition curve was similar to already published curves, being characterized by an S-shaped pattern with maximum deposition

  17. Quantitative Study of Cell Invasion Process under Extracellular Stimulation of Cytokine in a Microfluidic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Tseng, Hsueh-Peng; Lee, Chia-Yi; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Cell invasion is the first step of cancer metastasis that is the primary cause of death for cancer patients and defined as cell movement through extracellular matrix (ECM). Investigation of the correlation between cell invasive and extracellular stimulation is critical for the inhabitation of metastatic dissemination. Conventional cell invasion assay is based on Boyden chamber assay, which has a number of limitations. In this work, a microfluidic device incorporating with impedance measurement technique was developed for quantitative investigation of cell invasion process. The device consisted of 2 reservoirs connecting with a microchannel filled with hydrogel. Malignant cells invaded along the microchannel and impedance measurement was concurrently conducted by measuring across electrodes located at the bottom of the microchannel. Therefore, cell invasion process could be monitored in real-time and non-invasive manner. Also, cell invasion rate was then calculated to study the correlation between cell invasion and extracellular stimulation, i.e., IL-6 cytokine. Results showed that cell invasion rate was directly proportional to the IL-6 concentration. The microfluidic device provides a reliable and convenient platform for cell-based assays to facilitate more quantitative assessments in cancer research.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Protein Expression to Study Lineage Specification in Mouse Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Nestor; Kang, Minjung; Schrode, Nadine; Lou, Xinghua; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2016-01-01

    This protocol presents a method to perform quantitative, single-cell in situ analyses of protein expression to study lineage specificationin mouse preimplantation embryos. The procedures necessary for embryo collection, immunofluorescence, imaging on a confocal microscope, and image segmentation and analysis are described. This method allows quantitation of the expression of multiple nuclear markers and the spatial (XYZ) coordinates of all cells in the embryo. It takes advantage of MINS, an image segmentation software tool specifically developed for the analysis of confocal images of preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cell (ESC) colonies. MINS carries out unsupervised nuclear segmentation across the X, Y and Z dimensions, and produces information on cell position in three-dimensional space, as well as nuclear fluorescence levels for all channels with minimal user input. While this protocol has been optimized for the analysis of images of preimplantation stage mouse embryos, it can easily be adapted to the analysis of any other samples exhibiting a good signal-to-noise ratio and where high nuclear density poses a hurdle to image segmentation (e.g., expression analysis of embryonic stem cell (ESC) colonies, differentiating cells in culture, embryos of other species or stages, etc.). PMID:26967230

  19. Quantitative microplate assay for studying mesenchymal stromal cell-induced neuropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Aizman, Irina; McGrogan, Michael; Case, Casey C

    2013-03-01

    Transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or their derivatives in a neurodegenerative environment is believed to be beneficial because of the trophic support, migratory guidance, and neurogenic stimuli they provide. There is a growing need for in vitro models of mesenchymal-neural cell interactions to enable identification of mediators of the MSC activity and quantitative assessment of neuropoietic potency of MSC preparations. Here, we characterize a microplate-format coculture system in which primary embryonic rat cortex cells are directly cocultured with human MSCs on cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In this system, expression levels of the rat neural stem/early progenitor marker nestin, as well as neuronal and astrocytic markers, directly depended on MSC dose, whereas an oligodendrogenic marker exhibited a biphasic MSC-dose response, as measured using species-specific quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in total cell lysates and confirmed using immunostaining. Both neural cell proliferation and differentiation contributed to the MSC-mediated neuropoiesis. ECM's heparan sulfate proteoglycans were essential for the growth of the nestin-positive cell population. Neutralization studies showed that MSC-derived fibroblast growth factor 2 was a major and diffusible inducer of rat nestin, whereas MSC-derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), particularly, BMP4, were astrogenesis mediators, predominantly acting in a coculture setting. This system enables analysis of multifactorial MSC-neural cell interactions and can be used for elucidating the neuropoietic potency of MSCs and their derivative preparations.

  20. Quantitative Study of Cell Invasion Process under Extracellular Stimulation of Cytokine in a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin Fong; Tseng, Hsueh-Peng; Lee, Chia-Yi; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-05-06

    Cell invasion is the first step of cancer metastasis that is the primary cause of death for cancer patients and defined as cell movement through extracellular matrix (ECM). Investigation of the correlation between cell invasive and extracellular stimulation is critical for the inhabitation of metastatic dissemination. Conventional cell invasion assay is based on Boyden chamber assay, which has a number of limitations. In this work, a microfluidic device incorporating with impedance measurement technique was developed for quantitative investigation of cell invasion process. The device consisted of 2 reservoirs connecting with a microchannel filled with hydrogel. Malignant cells invaded along the microchannel and impedance measurement was concurrently conducted by measuring across electrodes located at the bottom of the microchannel. Therefore, cell invasion process could be monitored in real-time and non-invasive manner. Also, cell invasion rate was then calculated to study the correlation between cell invasion and extracellular stimulation, i.e., IL-6 cytokine. Results showed that cell invasion rate was directly proportional to the IL-6 concentration. The microfluidic device provides a reliable and convenient platform for cell-based assays to facilitate more quantitative assessments in cancer research.

  1. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret; Loai, Yasir; Beaumont, Marine; Farhat, Walid A

    2010-08-01

    Bladder acellular matrices (ACMs) derived from natural tissue are gaining increasing attention for their role in tissue engineering and regeneration. Unlike conventional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers or gels, ACMs possess native biomechanical and many acquired biologic properties. Efforts to optimize ACM-based scaffolds are ongoing and would be greatly assisted by a noninvasive means to characterize scaffold properties and monitor interaction with cells. MRI is well suited to this role, but research with MRI for scaffold characterization has been limited. This study presents initial results from quantitative MRI measurements for bladder ACM characterization and investigates the effects of incorporating hyaluronic acid, a natural biomaterial useful in tissue-engineering and regeneration. Measured MR relaxation times (T(1), T(2)) and diffusion coefficient were consistent with increased water uptake and glycosaminoglycan content observed on biochemistry in hyaluronic acid ACMs. Multicomponent MRI provided greater specificity, with diffusion data showing an acellular environment and T(2) components distinguishing the separate effects of increased glycosaminoglycans and hydration. These results suggest that quantitative MRI may provide useful information on matrix composition and structure, which is valuable in guiding further development using bladder ACMs for organ regeneration and in strategies involving the use of hyaluronic acid.

  2. Clinical study of quantitative diagnosis of early cervical cancer based on the classification of acetowhitening kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So-Fan; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2010-03-01

    A quantitative colposcopic imaging system for the diagnosis of early cervical cancer is evaluated in a clinical study. This imaging technology based on 3-D active stereo vision and motion tracking extracts diagnostic information from the kinetics of acetowhitening process measured from the cervix of human subjects in vivo. Acetowhitening kinetics measured from 137 cervical sites of 57 subjects are analyzed and classified using multivariate statistical algorithms. Cross-validation methods are used to evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithms. The results show that an algorithm for screening precancer produced 95% sensitivity (SE) and 96% specificity (SP) for discriminating normal and human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected tissues from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. For a diagnostic algorithm, 91% SE and 90% SP are achieved for discriminating normal tissue, HPV infected tissue, and low-grade CIN lesions from high-grade CIN lesions. The results demonstrate that the quantitative colposcopic imaging system could provide objective screening and diagnostic information for early detection of cervical cancer.

  3. Study of the cellular sociology through quantitative microscopy and topographical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussert, Christophe; Palmari, Jacqueline; Rasigni, Monique; Kopp, Francis; Berthois, Yolande; Dong, Xue-Fen; Isnardon, Daniel; Rasigni, Georges; Martin, Pierre-Marie

    1992-06-01

    We have developed a methodology to quantitatively study tumor cell heterogeneity from a topographical point of view through the concept of a minimal spanning tree graph. This concept is applied to the quantitation of the degree of order that may exist in a cell population, and by combining biological and mathematical approaches, to the analysis of dynamic and metabolic interactions responsible for this topographical organization. The method is used to analyze the cell cycle phases in tumor cell lines: the cells are detected from an optical microscopy image of the preparation by using algorithms that preserve the cell topography. The cells appear to be differently, and non-randomly, spatially distributed depending on the cycle phase in which they fall. Those topographical behaviors allow us to deduce some unexpected proliferating characteristics of the cells and to compare them to a numerical model of the cell cycle in an interactive population, developed from the cellular automata theory. The method may as well be applied to the topographical analysis of the cells expressing hormone receptors (namely, oestrogenic ones). More generally it may be used to analyze and quantify the cellular sociology both in its normal (morphogenesis) and pathological (cancer, therapeutic responses, ...) aspects.

  4. Quantitative correlation of rainfall and earth surface displacements for slope stability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Apostolou, Evangelia; Papavgeri, Georgia; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas

    2015-06-01

    It is common sense that the possibility of a rockfall increases after an intense rainfall and it is well documented that rainfalls accelerate earth surface displacements such as landslides and rockfalls. This qualitative correlation is highly affected by the geology and climate condition of the area under consideration. The research project entitled "Development of an integrated system for rockfall identification in highways", funded by the Operational Program Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship (co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)) aims to develop an operational system for early warning of rockfalls that occur along transportation corridors. To accomplish this goal the influence and the time gap between triggering mechanisms and rockfall incidents is investigated. In this work, previous studies towards quantitative correlation of rainfall magnitude and earth surface displacements are briefly presented. Based on these works, and taking into account that rockfall incidents, in the majority of Mediterranean countries, are not well-documented, data obtained by a slope stability monitoring network are used to quantitatively determine the magnitude of the rainfall that caused the slope's movement.

  5. Quantitative and empirical demonstration of the Matthew effect in a study of career longevity

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The Matthew effect refers to the adage written some two-thousand years ago in the Gospel of St. Matthew: “For to all those who have, more will be given.” Even two millennia later, this idiom is used by sociologists to qualitatively describe the dynamics of individual progress and the interplay between status and reward. Quantitative studies of professional careers are traditionally limited by the difficulty in measuring progress and the lack of data on individual careers. However, in some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, success, and prowess, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. Here we demonstrate testable evidence of the age-old Matthew “rich get richer” effect, wherein the longevity and past success of an individual lead to a cumulative advantage in further developing his or her career. We develop an exactly solvable stochastic career progress model that quantitatively incorporates the Matthew effect and validate our model predictions for several competitive professions. We test our model on the careers of 400,000 scientists using data from six high-impact journals and further confirm our findings by testing the model on the careers of more than 20,000 athletes in four sports leagues. Our model highlights the importance of early career development, showing that many careers are stunted by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience. PMID:21173276

  6. Heterogeneous basic catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Hideshi

    1995-05-01

    Heterogeneous acid catalysis attracted much attention primarily because heterogeneous acidic catalysts act as catalysts in petroleum refinery and are known as a main catalyst in the cracking process which is the largest process among the industrial chemical processes. In contrast to these extensive studies of heterogeneous acidic catalysts, fewer efforts have been given to the study of heterogeneous basic catalysts. The types of heterogeneous basic catalysts are listed in Table 1. Except for non-oxide catalysts, the basic sites are believed to be surface O atoms. The studies of heterogeneous catalysis have been continuous and progressed steadily. They have never been reviewed in the chemical Reviews before. It is more useful and informative to describe the studies of heterogeneous basic catalysis performed for a long period. In the present article, therefore, the cited papers are not restricted to those published recently, but include those published for the last 25 years. The paper first describes the generation of basic sites before describing methods used in the characterization of basic surfaces. These are indicator methods, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of CO{sub 2}, UV absorption and luminescence spectroscopies, TPD of H{sub 2}, XPS, IR of CO{sub 2}, IR of pyrrole, and oxygen exchange between CO{sub 2} and the surface. The paper then discusses studies on the catalysis by heterogeneous basic catalysts. Some of these reactions are dehydration, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, amination, alkylation, ring transformation, and reactions of organosilanes. Catalysts discussed are single component metal oxides, zeolites, non-oxide types, and superbasic catalysts. 141 refs.

  7. Mechanisms of cortical neural synchronization related to healthy and impaired consciousness: evidence by quantitative electroencephalographic studies.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Buffo, Paola; Iacoboni, Marco; Pistoia, Francesca; Sacco, Simona; Sara, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the contribution of our research group to the study of human consciousness by quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques. We posit that EEG techniques can be extremely useful for a direct measurement of brain electrophysiological activity related to human consciousness for their unsurpassable high temporal resolution (milliseconds). This activity can be expressed in terms of event-related potentials as well as changes of EEG rhythms of interest, for example the dominant alpha rhythms (about 8-12 Hz). The results of our studies, and those of several independent groups, lead support to the hypothesis that these techniques provide important insights about the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying cortical neural synchronization/desynchronization and the regulation of neuromodulatory systems (e.g. dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, etc.) at the basis of brain arousal and consciousness in healthy subjects and in patients with impairment of the consciousness. A possible interaction of these mechanisms and the drugs administered to patients with consciousness disorders is discussed.

  8. Sexual dimorphism in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells: a quantitative Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Caminero, A A; Segovia, S; Guillamón, A

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dendritic field of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells in rats and to investigate the effects of male orchidectomy and female androgenization on the day of birth upon this dendritic field. The rapid Golgi method was used to conduct a quantitative study of various characteristics of the dendritic field of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells. The results indicated greater values for males than females for the following characteristics: (i) somatic area; (ii) degree of branching in the dendritic field; (iii) total dendritic length; and (iv) dendritic density around the neuronal soma. Orchidectomy of males, as well as androgenization of females, on the day of birth inverted these differences.

  9. Quantitative study of polymer conformation and dynamics by single-particle tracking.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, H; Elson, E L

    1999-01-01

    We present a new method for analyzing the dynamics of conformational fluctuations of individual flexible polymer molecules. In single-particle tracking (SPT), one end of the polymer molecule is tethered to an immobile substratum. A microsphere attached to the other end serves as an optical marker. The conformational fluctuations of the polymer molecule can be measured by optical microscopy via the motion of the microsphere. The bead-and-spring theory for polymer dynamics is further developed to account for the microsphere, and together the measurement and the theory yield quantitative information about molecular conformations and dynamics under nonperturbing conditions. Applying the method to measurements carried out on DNA molecules provides information complementary to recent studies of single DNA molecules under extensional force. Combining high precision measurements with the theoretical analysis presented here creates a powerful tool for studying conformational dynamics of biological and synthetic macromolecules at the single-molecule level. PMID:10049340

  10. Quantitative muscle strength assessment in duchenne muscular dystrophy: longitudinal study and correlation with functional measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment using Quantitative Muscle Testing (QMT) in a cohort of ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the results of QMT with functional measures. This study is to date the most thorough long-term evaluation of QMT in a cohort of DMD patients correlated with other measures, such as the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) or thee 6-min walk test (6MWT). Methods This is a single centre, prospective, non-randomised, study assessing QMT using the Kin Com® 125 machine in a study cohort of 28 ambulant DMD boys, aged 5 to 12 years. This cohort was assessed longitudinally over a 12 months period of time with 3 monthly assessments for QMT and with assessment of functional abilities, using the NSAA and the 6MWT at baseline and at 12 months only. QMT was also used in a control group of 13 healthy age-matched boys examined at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was an increase in QMT over 12 months in boys below the age of 7.5 years while in boys above the age of 7.5 years, QMT showed a significant decrease. All the average one-year changes were significantly different than those experienced by healthy controls. We also found a good correlation between quantitative tests and the other measures that was more obvious in the stronger children. Conclusion Our longitudinal data using QMT in a cohort of DMD patients suggest that this could be used as an additional tool to monitor changes, providing additional information on segmental strength. PMID:22974002

  11. Basic Policy Studies Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, William D., Ed.; O'Leary, Michael K., Ed.

    This publication will help high school and college students develop policy analysis skills and techniques and apply these to important public issues. A public policy issue is defined as a disagreement between two or more elements of a society over the way that the society's government deals with a given situation. There are six chapters. Chapter…

  12. Preparation of Zirconia Supported Basic Nanocatalyst: A Physicochemical and Kinetic Study of Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pramod; Pratap, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia supported cadmium oxide basic nanocatalyst was prepared by simple co-precipitation method using aq. ammonia as precipitating reagent. The catalyst was characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy technique (TEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area measurement (BET), temperature program desorption (TPD-CO2) etc. The transesterificaton of soybean oil with methanol into biodiesel was catalysed by employing zirconia supported nanocatalyst. Kinetics of transesterificaton of oil was studied and obeyed the pseudo first order equation. While, the activation energy (Ea) for the transesterification of oil was found to be 41.18 kJ mol(-1). The 97% yield of biodiesel was observed using 7% catalyst loading (with respect of oil), 1:40 molar ratio of oil to methanol at 135°C.

  13. [Advances in the research of basic study and clinical application of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Cao, S J; Wang, L F; Ba, T; Rong, Z D; Hu, G L; Zhou, B; Li, Q

    2017-03-20

    Since the discovery of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) in more than ten years, a great progress has been made from its basic research to clinical application. Compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, ADSCs are more abundant in reserve, easier to obtain with fewer injuries and less complications. These cells have multiple differentiation potential and can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts with the influence of different inducing factors. Early studies of ADSCs mainly focused on the ability of multi-directional differentiation, espe-cially on the regeneration of bone defects and cartilage tissue. At present, the researches mainly focus on immunoregulation and paracrine function of ADSCs. Although ADSCs have made a great progress in clinical application, the cell preparation, use pattern, and mechanisms in clinical treatment are not clear. This paper elaborates on these issues.

  14. Study of the sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye over slurry titanium dioxide and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    González, Antonia Sandoval; Martínez, Susana Silva

    2008-09-01

    The sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye has been studied in the presence of ultrasound (20 kHz) over a TiO(2) slurry employing an UV lamp (15 W, 352 nm). It was observed that the color removal efficiency was influenced by the pH of the solution, initial dye concentration and TiO(2) amount. It was found that the dye degradation followed apparent first order kinetics. The rate constant increased by decreasing dye concentration and was affected by the pH of the solution with the highest degradation obtained at pH 7. The first order rate constants obtained with sonophotocatalysis were twofold and tenfold than those obtained under photocatalysis and sonolysis, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand was abated over 80%.

  15. How fast is fisheries-induced evolution? Quantitative analysis of modelling and empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Kuparinen, Anna; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    A number of theoretical models, experimental studies and time-series studies of wild fish have explored the presence and magnitude of fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). While most studies agree that FIE is likely to be happening in many fished stocks, there are disagreements about its rates and implications for stock viability. To address these disagreements in a quantitative manner, we conducted a meta-analysis of FIE rates reported in theoretical and empirical studies. We discovered that rates of phenotypic change observed in wild fish are about four times higher than the evolutionary rates reported in modelling studies, but correlation between the rate of change and instantaneous fishing mortality (F) was very similar in the two types of studies. Mixed-model analyses showed that in the modelling studies traits associated with reproductive investment and growth evolved slower than rates related to maturation. In empirical observations age-at-maturation was changing faster than other life-history traits. We also found that, despite different assumption and modelling approaches, rates of evolution for a given F value reported in 10 of 13 modelling studies were not significantly different. PMID:23789026

  16. The role of basic health insurance on depression: an epidemiological cohort study of a randomized community sample in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little research has focused on the relationship between health insurance and mental health in the community. The objective of this study is to determine how the basic health insurance system influences depression in Northwest China. Methods Participants were selected from 32 communities in two northwestern Chinese cities through a three-stage random sampling. Three waves of interviews were completed in April 2006, December 2006, and January 2008. The baseline survey was completed by 4,079 participants. Subsequently, 2,220 participants completed the first follow-up, and 1,888 completed the second follow-up. Depression symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results A total of 40.0% of participants had at least one form of health insurance. The percentages of participants with severe depressive symptoms in the three waves were 21.7%, 22.0%, and 17.6%. Depressive symptoms were found to be more severe among participants without health insurance in the follow-up surveys. After adjusting for confounders, participants without health insurance were found to experience a higher risk of developing severe depressive symptoms than participants with health insurance (7 months: OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.82; p = 0.01; 20 months: OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.37-2.61; p < 0.001). Conclusion A lack of basic health insurance can dramatically increase the risk of depression based on northwestern Chinese community samples. PMID:22994864

  17. Developing a Quantitative Measure of Alcohol Consumption for Genomic Studies on Prospective Cohorts*

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Grant, Julia D.; Littlefield, Andrew; Waldron, Mary; Pergadia, Michele L.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Todorov, Alexandre; Trull, Timothy; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Todd, Richard D.; Sher, Kenneth; Heath, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative measure of alcohol consumption for gene-mapping studies. Method: Using a sample of 3,787 young-adult twin women and an independent sample of 489 men and women from a college drinking study, we developed an alcohol-consumption factor score indexed by (1) maximum typical consumption (log-transformed quantity frequency [LQNTFRQ]), (2) maximum drinks in a 24-hours period (LMAXALC), (3) frequency of drinking five or more drinks per day (FIVE), and (4) frequency of drinking to intoxication (INTOX). We tested (1) for factorial and psychometric equivalence across samples and genders; (2) for construct validity and its equivalence, across samples and genders, using measures of tobacco and cannabis use and family history of alcoholism; and (3) to determine the heritability of the alcohol-consumption factor score using a genetic psychometric model. Results: A single-factor model fit well with factor loadings ranging from .60 to .90. With rare exception, we found support for measurement invariance across the two samples and across genders. Measures of nicotine and cannabis use as well as family history of alcoholism were associated, to a similar extent across samples and genders, with the underlying alcohol-consumption factor. Psychometric twin modeling revealed that each of the alcohol-consumption measures (h 2 = 34%-47%) and the underlying factor score (h 2 = 50%) were heritable, with the remainder of the variance attributable to individual-specific environmental factors. This moderately heritable alcohol-consumption factor also accounted for a majority of the genetic variance in LQNTFRQ, LMAXALC, FIVE, and INTOX. Conclusions: Quantitative measures of alcohol consumption with the favorable attributes of measurement invariance, construct validity, and moderate heritability can greatly enhance future gene-mapping efforts, supplementing information afforded by conventional diagnostic measures of alcohol abuse

  18. Lifelong bound feet in China: a quantitative ultrasound and lifestyle questionnaire study in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Mian; Lao, Hanchang; O'Laughlin, Michael C; Tong, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Hung, VWY; Cheng, JCY; Guo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The phenomenon of foot binding, also known as ‘lotus feet’, has an enduring and influential history in China. To achieve a man-made smaller foot size, lifelong foot binding may have had adverse effects on the skeleton. We investigated bone properties in postmenopausal women with bound feet, which may provide new information for developing countermeasures for prevention of fragility fractures. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants This study involved 254 postmenopausal women aged 65–80, including 172 with bound feet and 82 age- and gender-matched control subjects, living in a remote region of China. Outcomes Anthropometric, SF-36 Lifestyle Questionnaire and heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) data were collected for the whole study population. A small subset of two cases was also invited for assessment of bone mineral density and microarchitecture at the distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) and gait and balance tests. Results Women with bound feet had significantly lower QUS values than age-matched women with normal feet; this was supported by HR-pQCT data. However, SF-36 Questionnaire results did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any categorical responses, including physical functioning, general health vitality and physical component summary score, and number of previous fractures. No impairment of body balance was found in the small subset. Conclusions The man-made changes caused by foot binding led to reduced physical activity, making the subjects prone to osteoporosis. Women with bound feet and osteoporosis did not have a higher incidence of fragility fractures than controls. This might be explained by compensation in physical activity to improve body balance, implying the importance of improving or maintaining body balance in overall prevention strategies against fragility fractures. PMID:25783423

  19. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  20. Quantitative cardiac SPECT in three dimensions: validation by experimental phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Z.; Ye, J.; Cheng, J.; Li, J.; Harrington, D.

    1998-04-01

    A mathematical framework for quantitative SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) reconstruction of the heart is presented. An efficient simultaneous compensation approach to the reconstruction task is described. The implementation of the approach on a digital computer is delineated. The approach was validated by experimental data acquired from chest phantoms. The phantoms consisted of a cylindrical elliptical tank of Plexiglass, a cardiac insert made of Plexiglass, a spine insert of packed bone meal and lung inserts made of styrofoam beads alone. Water bags were added to simulate different body characteristics. Comparison between the quantitative reconstruction and the conventional FBP (filtered backprojection) method was performed. The FBP reconstruction had a poor quantitative accuracy and varied for different body configurations. Significant improvement in reconstruction accuracy by the quantitative approach was demonstrated with a moderate computing time on a currently available desktop computer. Furthermore, the quantitative reconstruction was robust for different body characteristics. Therefore, the quantitative approach has the potential for clinical use.

  1. Quantitative HPLC analysis of sunscreens and caffeine during in vitro percutaneous penetration studies.

    PubMed

    Potard, G; Laugel, C; Baillet, A; Schaefer, H; Marty, J P

    1999-11-05

    This report describes rapid analytical HPLC for the quantification of five UV filters (octyl methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-4, octyl triazone and octocrylene) and of caffeine in various skin layers (stratum corneum, dermis, epidermis and receptor fluid) and in cosmetic preparations. The predominant purpose of the study was to establish standard operating procedures for rapid analysis of the compounds in various skin samples. Particular attention was paid to the preparation of biological samples whose natural constitution could interfere with the quantitative analysis. Our methods used the isocratic chromatographic mode in an RP-HPLC with UV detection and did not involve centrifugation or evaporation. Our results were validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantification. The first results, obtained after in vitro experiments, are presented in this report.

  2. [Study on temperature correctional models of quantitative analysis with near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan

    2005-06-01

    Effect of enviroment temperature on near infrared spectroscopic quantitative analysis was studied. The temperature correction model was calibrated with 45 wheat samples at different environment temperaturs and with the temperature as an external variable. The constant temperature model was calibated with 45 wheat samples at the same temperature. The predicted results of two models for the protein contents of wheat samples at different temperatures were compared. The results showed that the mean standard error of prediction (SEP) of the temperature correction model was 0.333, but the SEP of constant temperature (22 degrees C) model increased as the temperature difference enlarged, and the SEP is up to 0.602 when using this model at 4 degrees C. It was suggested that the temperature correctional model improves the analysis precision.

  3. A quantitative μNRA study of helium intergranular and volume diffusion in sintered UO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Desgardin, P.; Sauvage, T.; Garcia, P.; Carlot, G.; Khodja, H.; Barthe, M. F.

    2006-08-01

    To understand the mechanisms related to helium migration in nuclear oxide fuels, 3He was implanted at 2 × 1016 at. cm-2 in UO2 sintered disks. The samples were then annealed at temperatures ranging between 800 °C and 1300 °C. Changes in helium concentrations were investigated using two nuclear reaction analysis techniques based on the 3He(d, α)1H reaction. The first technique uses a macrobeam in order to measure helium depth profiles averaged over a 500 × 500 μm2 area. The second technique uses a microbeam and provides a quantitative two-dimensional helium concentration cartography, for which each pixel corresponds to a depth integrated helium signal. The analysed zones were optically characterised which enabled a detailed analysis of the impact of the material microstructure on helium release from the samples, with an emphasis on the study of grain boundary effects.

  4. [Fuzzy mathematic quantitative law of composing principle in the study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Gao, Yue; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Bo-li

    2009-01-01

    This study is to analyze microcosmic significance of Chinese medicine composing principle "principal, assistant, complement and mediating guide" and it's fuzzy mathematic quantitative law. According to molecular biology and maximal membership principle, fuzzy subset and membership functions were proposed. Using in vivo experiment on the effects of SiWu Decoction and its ingredients on mice with radiation-induced blood deficiency, it is concluded that DiHuang and DangGui belonged to the principal and assistant subset, BaiShao belonged to the contrary complement subset, ChuanXiong belonged to the mediating guide subset by maximal membership principle. It is discussed that traditional Chinese medicine will be consummate medical science when its theory can be described by mathematic language.

  5. CNS effects of citalopram, a new serotonin inhibitor antidepressant (a quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalography study).

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Menon, G N; Bozak, M M; Itil, K Z

    1984-01-01

    Citalopram, a new phthalane derivative and a specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitor in animal pharmacological tests, was evaluated in a double-blind, crossover, quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEGTM) study in healthy human volunteers. The CNS effects of citalopram are linear, dose- and time-related, can statistically be differentiated from placebo, and indicate a rapid onset of effects with short duration. According to the Computer Data Bank, citalopram has a mode of action similar to mood elevators (antidepressants) with fewer sedative properties. Thus the therapeutic action of citalopram is predicted to be similar to desipramine and protriptyline from the tricyclics, and fluvoxamine from non-tricyclics. According to data bank assessment, it is hypothesized that the single antidepressant dose of citalopram is to be more than 25 mg, which should be given t.i.d. in clinical trials.

  6. Fitness to drive in cognitive impairment--a quantitative study of GPs' experience.

    PubMed

    Doherty, U; Hawke, A L; Kearns, J; Kelly, M

    2015-04-01

    Assessing fitness to drive is part of the role of general practitioners. Cognitive impairment may affect an individual's ability to drive safely. The aims of our study were to question GPs about their experience of assessing patients with cognitive impairment for driving fitness and to explore their attitudes to this role. We carried out a quantitative cross-sectional anonymous postal survey of 200 GPs in counties Galway, Mayo and Roscommon. Ethical approval was obtained from the Irish College of General Practitioners. Data was analysed using Epi Info. The response rate was 62.5% (n=125). 86 (68.8%) GPs used guidelines when assessing fitness to drive in cognitive impairment. 83 (66.4%) respondents formally assess cognitive function. 52 (41.6%) GPs would certify someone as fit to drive with verbal restrictions. 102 (81.6%) respondents feel confident in assessing fitness to drive. 98 (78.4%) GPs have referred patients for further assessment.

  7. Implementing Communication Studies into General Education: The Basic Course as General Education (Or, How We Made It Work for Us).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckrop, Jacquelyn J.

    At Ball State University in Indiana, the basic course (COMM 210) focuses communication concepts and skills with the goals of helping students understand basic communication principles, providing them with the opportunity to improve their communication skills, and enhancing their awareness of communication's role in culture. Special emphasis is…

  8. How I-BEST Works: Findings from a Field Study of Washington State's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachen, John; Jenkins, Davis; Van Noy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) is an innovative program and strategy developed by the Washington (WA) State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) in conjunction with the state's 29 community colleges and five technical colleges. Its goal is to increase the rate at which adult basic education and…

  9. Inferring Quantitative Trait Pathways Associated with Bull Fertility from a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Weigel, Kent A.; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Khatib, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome association studies typically focus on genetic markers with the strongest evidence of association. However, single markers often explain only a small component of the genetic variance and hence offer a limited understanding of the trait under study. As such, the objective of this study was to perform a pathway-based association analysis in Holstein dairy cattle in order to identify relevant pathways involved in bull fertility. The results of a single-marker association analysis, using 1,755 bulls with sire conception rate data and genotypes for 38,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were used in this study. A total of 16,819 annotated genes, including 2,767 significantly associated with bull fertility, were used to interrogate a total of 662 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 248 InterPro (IP) entries using a test of proportions based on the cumulative hypergeometric distribution. After multiple-testing correction, 20 GO categories and one IP entry showed significant overrepresentation of genes statistically associated with bull fertility. Several of these functional categories such as small GTPases mediated signal transduction, neurogenesis, calcium ion binding, and cytoskeleton are known to be involved in biological processes closely related to male fertility. These results could provide insight into the genetic architecture of this complex trait in dairy cattle. In addition, this study shows that quantitative trait pathways inferred from single-marker analyses could enhance our interpretations of the results of genome-wide association studies. PMID:23335935

  10. The assessment of regional skeletal metabolism: studies of osteoporosis treatments using quantitative radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Blake, Glen M; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Siddique, Musib; Fogelman, Ignac

    2011-01-01

    Studies of bone remodeling using bone biopsy and biochemical markers of bone turnover play an important role in research studies to investigate the effect of new osteoporosis treatments on bone quality. Quantitative radionuclide imaging using either positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 sodium fluoride or gamma camera studies with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate provides a novel tool for studying bone metabolism that complements conventional methods, such as bone turnover markers (BTMs). Unlike BTMs, which measure the integrated response to treatment across the whole skeleton, radionuclide imaging can distinguish the changes occurring at sites of particular clinical interest, such as the spine or proximal femur. Radionuclide imaging can be used to measure either bone uptake or (if done in conjunction with blood sampling) bone plasma clearance. Although the latter is more complicated to perform, unlike bone uptake, it provides a measurement that is specific to the bone metabolic activity at the measurement site. Treatment with risedronate was found to cause a decrease in bone plasma clearance, whereas treatment with the bone anabolic agent teriparatide caused an increase. Studies of teriparatide are of particular interest because the treatment has different effects at different sites in the skeleton, with a substantially greater response in the flat bone of the skull and cortical bone in the femur compared with the lumbar spine. Future studies should include investigations of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical fractures of the femur to examine the associated regional changes in bone metabolism and to throw light on the underlying pathologies.

  11. Perception of mobbing during the study: results of a national quantitative research among Slovenian midwifery students.

    PubMed

    Došler, Anita Jug; Skubic, Metka; Mivšek, Ana Polona

    2014-09-01

    Mobbing, defined as sustained harassment among workers, in particular towards subordinates, merits investigation. This study aims to investigate Slovenian midwifery students' (2nd and 3rd year students of midwifery at the Faculty for Health Studies Ljubljana; the single educational institution for midwives in Slovenia) perception of mobbing, since management of acceptable behavioural interrelationships in midwifery profession forms already during the study, through professional socialization. Descriptive and causal-nonexperimental method with questionnaire was used. Basic descriptive statistics and measures for calculating statistical significance were carried out with SPSS 20.0 software version. All necessary ethical measures were taken into the consideration during the study to protect participants. The re- sults revealed that several participants experienced mobbing during the study (82.3%); 58.8% of them during their practical training and 23.5% from midwifery teachers. Students are often anxious and nervous in face of clinical settings (60.8%) or before faculty commitments (exams, presentations etc.) (41.2%). A lot of them (40.4%) estimate that mobbing affected their health. They did not show effective strategies to solve relationship problems. According to the findings, everyone involved in midwifery education, but above all students, should be provided with more knowledge and skills on successful management of conflict situations.

  12. Quantitative electron microscopic study of the intracellular localization of wheat germ agglutinin in retinal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.H.; Stieber, A.; Gonatas, N.K.

    1986-12-15

    Previous work has established that, following endocytosis, wheat germ agglutinin, like a number of other plasma membrane bound ligands, is transported to the Golgi apparatus-complex. Previous studies that provided qualitative information about the intracellular distribution of internalized wheat germ agglutinin used techniques that precluded any quantitative conclusions about the relative magnitude of the labeling of endosomes, lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus-complex. Using quantitative ultrastructural autoradiography, this study compares the time course and relative magnitude of labeling of various intracellular compartments to the labeling in the Golgi area. Fifteen minutes after intraocular injection, wheat germ agglutinin is confined to the inner surface of the retina and the immediate subsurface neuropil with little labeling of the retinal ganglion cell perikarya. Thirty minutes after injection, the plasma membrane (6.97 +/- 1.17), endosomes (10.27 +/- 3.98), smooth vesicles and tubules (1.94 +/- 1.66), and lysosomes (2.42 +/- 1.21) of the retinal ganglion cells are labeled, while the Golgi apparatus-complex is not labeled (0.29 +/- 0.25). The relative labeling density of the plasma membrane and endosomes decreases somewhat during the next 90 minutes (plasma membrane, 4.76 +/- 0.67; endosomes, 7.23 +/- 2.02), while the labeling density of smooth vesicles and tubules and of lysosomes rises (smooth vesicles and tubules, 5.56 +/- 0.94; lysosomes, 7.76 +/- 1.56). The Golgi apparatus-complex, which is unlabeled at 30 minutes, is weakly labeled at 2 hours (1.26 +/- 0.28).

  13. Quantitative EOH and FEM hybrid study of vibration characteristics of avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leak, Chris E.; Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    1995-06-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of avionics is the requirement to assure their reliable functionality while subjected to the actual operating conditions which are static and dynamic in nature. Of particular interest to the developments presented in this paper are the dynamic loading conditions. Because the avionics have certain mass and elasticity, they respond to the loads encountered during operation with a specific vibration behavior. Therefore, development of reliable avionics packages depends upon our ability to determine the dynamic characteristics which define and control their vibration behavior, particularly as it relates to the dynamic environment within an aircraft which is a major contributor to the failure of airborne avionic systems. In this paper, computational and experimental hybrid methodolgy is used to quantitatively study the vibration characteristics of avionics. The computational methodology is based on the finite element method. The experimental methodology is based on the electro-optic holography method, which allows direct electro- optic recording, processing, and display of the laser holograms at the rate of 30 holograms per second, making it capable of producing quantitative data in nearly real-time. Using the electro- optic holography method, displacement magnitudes in the submicron range are measured noninvasively over the full field of view, as a function of the resonance frequencies. Although some of the experimentally observed mode shapes were not predicted using the computational model employed in this study, the correlation between the results obtained using the finite element and the electro-optic holography methods was otherwise good and the agreement between the corresponding resonance frequencies was within 2%.

  14. A procedure for quantitation of total oxidized uranium for bioremediation studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Senko, John M.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure was developed for the quantitation of complexed U(VI) during studies on U(VI) bioremediation. These studies typically involve conversion of soluble or complexed U(VI) (oxidized) to U(IV) (the reduced form which is much less soluble). Since U(VI) freely exchanges between material adsorbed to the solid phase and the dissolved phase, uranium bioremediation experiments require a mass balance of U in both its soluble and adsorbed forms as well as in the reduced sediment bound phase. We set out to optimize a procedure for extraction and quantitation of sediment bound U(VI). Various extractant volumes to sediment ratios were tested and it was found that between 1:1 to 8:1 ratios (v/w) there was a steady increase in U(VI) recovered, but no change with further increases in v/w ratio.Various strengths of NaHCO3, Na-EDTA, and Na-citrate were used to evaluate complexed U(VI) recovery, while the efficiency of a single versus repeated extraction steps was compared with synthesized uranyl-phosphate and uranyl-hydroxide. Total recovery with 1 M NaHCO3 was 95.7% and 97.9% from uranyl-phosphate and uranyl-hydroxide, respectively, compared to 80.7% and 89.9% using 450 mM NaHCO3. Performing the procedure once yielded an efficiency of 81.1% and 92.3% for uranyl-phosphate and uranyl-hydroxide, respectively, as compared to three times. All other extractants yielded 7.9–82.0% in both experiments.

  15. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology.

    PubMed

    Kolasinski, James; Stagg, Charlotte J; Chance, Steven A; Deluca, Gabriele C; Esiri, Margaret M; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A; McNab, Jennifer A; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  16. Understanding metal homeostasis in primary cultured neurons. Studies using single neuron subcellular and quantitative metallomics.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Robert A; Lai, Barry; Holmes, William R; Lee, Daewoo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how single cell quantitative and subcellular metallomics inform us about both the spatial distribution and cellular mechanisms of metal buffering and homeostasis in primary cultured neurons from embryonic rat brain, which are often used as models of human disease involving metal dyshomeostasis. The present studies utilized synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and focused primarily on zinc and iron, two abundant metals in neurons that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Total single cell contents for calcium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and nickel were determined. Resting steady state zinc showed a diffuse distribution in both soma and processes, best defined by the mass profile of the neuron with an enrichment in the nucleus compared with the cytoplasm. Zinc buffering and homeostasis was studied using two modes of cellular zinc loading - transporter and ionophore (pyrithione) mediated. Single neuron zinc contents were shown to statistically significantly increase by either loading method - ionophore: 160 million to 7 billion; transporter 160 million to 280 million atoms per neuronal soma. The newly acquired and buffered zinc still showed a diffuse distribution. Soma and processes have about equal abilities to take up zinc via transporter mediated pathways. Copper levels are distributed diffusely as well, but are relatively higher in the processes relative to zinc levels. Prior studies have observed iron puncta in certain cell types, but others have not. In the present study, iron puncta were characterized in several primary neuronal types. The results show that iron puncta could be found in all neuronal types studied and can account for up to 50% of the total steady state content of iron in neuronal soma. Although other metals can be present in iron puncta, they are predominantly iron containing and do not appear to be

  17. A Quantitative Study Investigating Supervisory Style, Satisfaction with Supervision and Self-Efficacy among Female Clinical Training Supervisees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova-Nirenberg, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    This non-experimental quantitative study investigated the relationship between supervisory style, satisfaction with supervision, and the level of self-efficacy reported by the study participants. The study was based on counselor supervision theories found in the literature. The study investigated whether there was a difference between traditional…

  18. Quantitative indices in paternity cases.

    PubMed

    Lenhartová, E; Lenhart, K; Bártová, A

    1992-01-01

    The study discusses the basic quantitative indices used as a standard method in foreign professional literature dealing with paternity cases. They are as follows: 1. mean probability of exclusion (PE) which characterizes the informative value of the experts opinions and is the same in all the disputes evaluated by this expert. 2. relative frequency of men chosen at random from the population and excluded at given phenotype of mother and child (RME). 3. probability of paternity (PP) for particular trio: mother-child-the accused man. Hereinafter the results of our studies in the HLA laboratory in Olomouc from 1976-1991 are introduced.

  19. Basic Mycology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Lilla M.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses activities that can be carried out on a field trip study of mushrooms; follow-up activities in the classroom are suggested. Mushrooms are selected as an introduction to mycology mainly because of their large size and prominent reproductive structures. (BR)

  20. Quantitative Fluorescence Studies in Living Cells: Extending Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy to Peripheral Membrane Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Elizabeth Myhra

    The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with both membrane lipids and proteins are vital for many cellular processes including membrane trafficking, cellular signaling, and cell growth/regulation. Building accurate biophysical models of these processes requires quantitative characterization of the behavior of peripheral membrane proteins, yet methods to quantify their interactions inside living cells are very limited. Because peripheral membrane proteins usually exist both in membrane-bound and cytoplasmic forms, the separation of these two populations is a key challenge. This thesis aims at addressing this challenge by extending fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) to simultaneously measure the oligomeric state of peripheral membrane proteins in the cytoplasm and at the plasma membrane. We developed a new method based on z-scan FFS that accounts for the fluorescence contributions from cytoplasmic and membrane layers by incorporating a fluorescence intensity z-scan through the cell. H-Ras-EGFP served as a model system to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. The resolvability and stability of z-scanning was determined as well as the oligomeric state of H-Ras-EGFP at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. Further, we successfully characterized the binding affinity of a variety of proteins to the plasma membrane by quantitative analysis of the z-scan fluorescence intensity profile. This analysis method, which we refer to as z-scan fluorescence profile deconvoution, was further used in combination with dual-color competition studies to determine the lipid specificity of protein binding. Finally, we applied z-scan FFS to provide insight into the early assembly steps of the HTLV-1 retrovirus.

  1. The Quantitative Ethology of the Zebra Finch: A Study in Comparative Psychometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative ethogram was developed for the zebra finch, using one-zero focal animal sampling on an ethologically comprehensive checklist of 52 behavioral items, and it was assessed for interobserver reliability and construct validity. Applying the quantitative methods of psychometrics allows verification of ethological theory and testing of…

  2. Effects of Quantitative Linguistic Feedback to Caregivers of Young Children: A Pilot Study in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yiwen; Xu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Fan; Gilkerson, Jill; Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Harnsberger, James; Topping, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in natural language environments of families receiving quantitative language feedback in Shanghai were investigated. Volunteer parents of 22 children aged 5 to 30 months were recruited from a hospital and a learning center. Quantitative measures of adult word count and conversational turns with children were collected regularly over 6…

  3. Pedagogical implications of approaches to study in distance learning: developing models through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Carnwell, R

    2000-05-01

    The need for flexibility in the delivery of nurse education has been identified by various initiatives including: widening the entry gate; continuous professional development; and the specialist practitioner. Access to degree level programmes is creating the need to acquire academic credit through flexible learning. The aim of this study was to further develop relationships between the need for guidance, materials design and learning styles and strategies and how these impact upon the construction of meaning. The study is based on interviews of 20 female community nurses purposively selected from the 96 respondents who had previously completed a survey questionnaire. The interviews were underpinned by theories relating to learning styles and approaches to study. Of particular concern was how these variables are mediated by student context, personal factors and materials design, to influence the need for support and guidance. The interview transcripts were first analysed using open and axial coding. Three approaches to study emerged from the data - systematic waders, speedy-focusers and global dippers - which were linked to other concepts and categories. Categories were then assigned numerical codes and subjected to logistical regression analysis. The attributes of the three approaches to study, arising from both qualitative and quantitative analysis, are explained in detail. The pedagogical implications of the three approaches to study are explained by their predicted relationships to other variables, such as support and guidance, organization of study, materials design and role of the tutor. The global dipper approach is discussed in more detail due to its association with a variety of predictor variables, not associated with the other two approaches to study. A feedback model is then developed to explore the impact of guidance on the global dipper approach. The paper makes recommendations for guidance to students using different approaches to study in distance

  4. Basic Considerations on Defining Safety Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Hakata, Tadakuni

    2003-06-15

    A study on considerations and strategies for developing safety goals applicable to all nuclear facilities is presented. A scheme of basic safety goals and subsidiary safety goals is assumed, and quantitative basic safety goals for radiation protection of individuals in the vicinity of nuclear facilities are discussed. The risk limit rules are based on comparative risk factors for various health effects, including annual dose, health detriments, acute fatality, latent cancers, and severe hereditary effects. The comparative factor of 1% is used for nonfatal health detriments and 0.1% for fatal effects. A risk limit profile is generated from the risk factors, biological effects, and statistics of injury and mortality rates from general causes. The approaches have potential for developing integrated and comprehensive safety goals.

  5. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marvin E.; Aalderink, Bernard J.; Padoan, Roberto; de Bruin, Gerrit; Steemers, Ted A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared). By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands) to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms. PMID:27873831

  6. Study of Basic Coagulation Parameters among HIV Patients in Correlation to CD4 Counts and ART Status

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, D; Rachakatla, Praveen; Bharathi, K; Afroz, Tameem; Sagar, Radha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection is known to cause coagulation abnormalities by various mechanism, especially during its late course. Aim The objective of this study was to analyse platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time among HIV infected patients and to analyse these parameters with respect to their CD4 count and ART status. Materials and Methods A case control study was conducted with 120 HIV infected patients and 40 normal individuals. The blood samples were collected after obtaining consent from the subjects. The blood samples were processed for platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and CD4 count. The results were tabulated and analysed with statistical package. Results The platelet count was significantly decreased in HIV infected patients compared to controls. Though HIV patients with CD4 count less than 200cells/mm3 showed a decreased platelet count compared to those with CD4 count greater than 200cells/mm3, it was not statistically significant. Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) was significantly prolonged in HIV patients, but only aPTT showed significant inverse correlation with CD4 count. None of the parameters showed statistical significance on comparing HIV patients on ART with those not on ART. Conclusion Basic coagulation tests like platelet count, PT and especially aPTT can be used as prospective screening test to assess severity in HIV patients in resource limited settings where CD4 count is not available. PMID:27437222

  7. Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

  8. A Quantitative Study of the Internationalization of the Academics and Research Productivity: Case Study of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xian, Wu

    2015-01-01

    With the significant rise in China's economic strength, more students and scholars have returned to China recently. But there is limited literature examining academics with foreign degrees and their research productivity. Using the data of the Changing Academic Profession in Asia (APA) survey, which was exercised in 2012, this study expands the…

  9. Which Psychological Factors are Related to HIV Testing? A Quantitative Systematic Review of Global Studies.

    PubMed

    Evangeli, Michael; Pady, Kirsten; Wroe, Abigail L

    2016-04-01

    Deciding to test for HIV is necessary for receiving HIV treatment and care among those who are HIV-positive. This article presents a systematic review of quantitative studies on relationships between psychological (cognitive and affective) variables and HIV testing. Sixty two studies were included (fifty six cross sectional). Most measured lifetime testing. HIV knowledge, risk perception and stigma were the most commonly measured psychological variables. Meta-analysis was carried out on the relationships between HIV knowledge and testing, and HIV risk perception and testing. Both relationships were positive and significant, representing small effects (HIV knowledge, d = 0.22, 95 % CI 0.14-0.31, p < 0.001; HIV risk perception, OR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.26-1.67, p < 0.001). Other variables with a majority of studies showing a relationship with HIV testing included: perceived testing benefits, testing fear, perceived behavioural control/self-efficacy, knowledge of testing sites, prejudiced attitudes towards people living with HIV, and knowing someone with HIV. Research and practice implications are outlined.

  10. A population-based study of quantitative sensory testing in adolescents with and without chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Tham, See Wan; Palermo, Tonya M; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Zhou, Chuan; Stubhaug, Audun; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been used to characterize pain sensitivity in individuals with and without pain conditions. Research remains limited in pediatric populations, hindering the ability to expand the utility of QST toward its potential application in clinical settings and clinical predictive value. The aims of this study were to examine pain sensitivity using QST in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain and identify predictors of pain sensitivity. A population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2011 provided data on 941 adolescents, 197 were classified as having chronic pain and 744 were classified without chronic pain. Self-reported data on pain characteristics, psychological functioning, and QST responses were examined. The findings revealed lower pressure pain threshold and tolerance on the trapezius (P's = 0.03) in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain, but no differences on heat or cold-pressor pain tasks. Female sex (P's = 0.02) and poorer psychological functioning (P's = 0.02) emerged as significant predictors of greater pain sensitivity across all pain modalities. Exploratory analyses revealed several associations between clinical pain characteristics and QST responses within the chronic pain cohort. Findings from this large pediatric sample provide comprehensive data that could serve as normative data on QST responses in adolescents with and without chronic pain. These findings lay the groundwork toward developing future QST research and study protocols in pediatric populations, taking into consideration sex and psychological distress.

  11. Quantitative study on guinea pig spermatogenesis shows a relative high percentage of early meiotic prophase stages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosana E; Wettstein, Rodolfo M

    2004-05-01

    Meiosis is the special double cellular division characterized by the reduction of chromosome number of the final products and recombination of genetic information present in maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Early stages of meiotic prophase, leptotene and zygotene (L/Z), are functionally important since homologous chromosomes recognize, align, and pair during them. They are poorly represented in the seminiferous tubules of mammalian species, and this fact turns studies focused on these stages difficult to perform. As a consequence, the molecular bases of these important events are so far poorly known and understood in higher eukaryotes. The purpose of this work was to provide an advantageous experimental mammalian model (with a reasonable number of cells) for biochemical and molecular analysis of early meiotic prophase stages. Here, we present the results of our quantitative study on testes material of both immature and adult guinea pig specimens (Cavia porcellus). We show that their seminiferous tubules contain a comparatively high percentage of L/Z spermatocytes, as well as a very conspicuous chromosome bouquet at the L/Z transition, which points out this species as a well-suited one to address studies on such stages in mammals.

  12. Cone snail milked venom dynamics--a quantitative study of Conus purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Chun, Joycelyn B S; Baker, Margaret R; Kim, Do H; Leroy, Majdouline; Toribo, Priamo; Bingham, Jon-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Milked venom from cone snails represent a novel biological resource with a proven track record for drug discovery. To strengthen this correlation, we undertook a chromatographic and mass spectrometric study of individual milked venoms from Conus purpurascens. Milked venoms demonstrate extensive peptide differentiation amongst individual specimens and during captivity. Individual snails were found to lack a consistent set of described conopeptides, but instead demonstrated the ability to change venom expression, composition and post-translational modification incorporation; all variations contribute to an increase in chemical diversity and prey targeting strategies. Quantitative amino acid analysis revealed that milked venom peptides are expressed at ranges up to 3.51-121.01 μM within single milked venom samples. This provides for a 6.37-20,965 fold-excess of toxin to induce apparent IC₅₀ for individual conopeptides identified in this study. Comparative molecular mass analysis of duct venom, milked venom and radula tooth extracts from single C. purpurascens specimens demonstrated a level of peptide continuity. Numerous highly abundant and unique conopeptides remain to be characterized. This study strengthens the notion that approaches in conopeptide drug lead discovery programs will potentially benefit from a greater understanding of the toxinological nature of the milked venoms of Conus.

  13. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study using refractotopological state atom index on some neonicotinoid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Bikash; Gayen, Shovanlal; Basu, Anindya; Ghosh, Balaram; Srikanth, Kolluru; Jha, Tarun

    2004-12-01

    Importance of atom-level topological descriptors like electrotopological state atom (E-state) index in QSAR study is increasing. These descriptors help to relate structure and activity at atomic/fragmental level. In view of the earlier success of E-state index on some azidopyridinyl neonicotinoid insecticides, a relatively new atom-level topological descriptor; refractotopological state atom (R-state) index was used in this work. This was used to identify the important atoms/fragments related to dispersive/van der Waals interactions of neonicotinoids with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). This study showed the structural requirements for the mammal alpha(4)beta(2) and Drosophila nAChR agonistic activity. It also revealed that substituted imine, nitromethylene at X-position were selective to the insecticidal activity. Azido substitution at pyridine ring of neonicotinoids disfavored the binding with the receptors. This study confirmed the validity of the R-state index as a new tool for quantitative structure-activity relationships. It has the ability to find out the required structural features as well as to predict the activity of the neonicotinoids.

  14. Future Time Perspective in the Work Context: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Hélène; Zacher, Hannes; Desmette, Donatienne

    2017-01-01

    A core construct in the lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity, future time perspective (FTP) refers to individuals’ perceptions of their remaining time in life. Its adaptation to the work context, occupational future time perspective (OFTP), entails workers’ perceptions of remaining time and opportunities in their careers. Over the past decade, several quantitative studies have investigated antecedents and consequences of general FTP and OFTP in the work context (i.e., FTP at work). We systematically review and critically discuss this literature on general FTP (k = 17 studies) and OFTP (k = 16 studies) and highlight implications for future research and practice. Results of our systematic review show that, in addition to its strong negative relationship with age, FTP at work is also associated with other individual (e.g., personality traits) and contextual variables (e.g., job characteristics). Moreover, FTP at work has been shown to mediate and moderate relationships of individual and contextual antecedents with occupational well-being, as well as motivational and behavioral outcomes. As a whole, findings suggest that FTP at work is an important variable in the field of work and aging, and that future research should improve the ways in which FTP at work is measured and results on FTP at work are reported.

  15. Quantitative studies of animal colour constancy: using the chicken as model.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Peter; Wilby, David; Kelber, Almut

    2016-05-11

    Colour constancy is the capacity of visual systems to keep colour perception constant despite changes in the illumination spectrum. Colour constancy has been tested extensively in humans and has also been described in many animals. In humans, colour constancy is often studied quantitatively, but besides humans, this has only been done for the goldfish and the honeybee. In this study, we quantified colour constancy in the chicken by training the birds in a colour discrimination task and testing them in changed illumination spectra to find the largest illumination change in which they were able to remain colour-constant. We used the receptor noise limited model for animal colour vision to quantify the illumination changes, and found that colour constancy performance depended on the difference between the colours used in the discrimination task, the training procedure and the time the chickens were allowed to adapt to a new illumination before making a choice. We analysed literature data on goldfish and honeybee colour constancy with the same method and found that chickens can compensate for larger illumination changes than both. We suggest that future studies on colour constancy in non-human animals could use a similar approach to allow for comparison between species and populations.

  16. From the podium to the PC: a study on various modalities of lecture delivery within an undergraduate basic pharmacology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Jason W.; McQueeney, Maureen L.

    2011-07-01

    Background. The need to evolve with our ever-changing student bodies has never been as great as it is today, particularly given the advanced technological aptitude of today's students. Purpose This retrospective study evaluates student outcomes as they relate to overall course score and composite quiz and examination scores from a basic pharmacology course taught over three separate semesters using three different lecture delivery modalities: traditional in-class; blended; and online-only. Sample A total of 48 students from a US university's health sciences bachelor degree programme enrolled in one of these three sections between 2009 and 2010. Design and methods A one-way analysis of variance test with Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc testing was utilized to determine if any statistical difference existed between the studied outcomes for each of the three teaching modalities. A p-value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The students enrolled in the online-only course scored statistically significantly higher than their counterparts enrolled on the traditional course for all studied outcomes, and higher than those enrolled on the blended course for most of the studied outcomes. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that students enrolled in the online-only section achieved scores that were statistically significantly higher than their counterparts enrolled in the traditional and blended lecture settings. These findings reveal that students enrolled in an online course may in fact have improved performance compared with traditional lecture methods, given their generational preferences for learning.

  17. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes.

  18. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes. PMID:27242878

  19. Production of isotopically-labeled standards from a uniformly labeled precursor for quantitative volatile metabolomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cortés, Pilar; Brenna, J. Thomas; Sacks, Gavin L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal accuracy and precision in small molecule profiling by mass spectrometry generally requires isotopically labeled standards chemically representative of all compounds of interest. However, preparation of mixed standards from commercially available pure compounds is often prohibitively expensive and time consuming, and many labeled compounds are not available in pure form. We used a single prototype uniformly labeled [U-13C]-compound to generate [U-13C]-volatile standards for use in subsequent experimental profiling studies. [U-13C]-α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, ALA) was thermally oxidized to produce labeled lipid degradation volatiles which were subsequently characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. Twenty-five [U-13C]-labeled volatiles were identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS) by comparison of spectra with unlabeled volatiles. Using 250 μL starting sample, labeled volatiles were quantified by a reverse isotope dilution procedure. Using the [U-13C]-labeled standards, limits of detection comparable to or better than previous HS-SPME reports were achieved, 0.010–1.04 ng/g. The performance of the [U-13C]-volatile standards was evaluated using a commodity soybean oil (CSO) oxidized at 60°C from 0 to 15 d. Relative responses of n-decane, an unlabeled internal standard otherwise absent from the mixture, and [U-13C]-oxidation products changed by up to 8-fold as the CSO matrix was oxidized, demonstrating that reliance on a single standard in volatile profiling studies yields inaccurate results due to changing matrix effects. The [U-13C]-standard mixture was used to quantify 25 volatiles in oxidized CSO and low-ALA soybean oil with an average relative standard deviation of 8.5%. Extension of this approach to other labeled substrates, e.g., [U-13C]-sugars and amino acids, for profiling studies should be feasible and can dramatically improve quantitative results compared to

  20. [Quantitative study of immunoglobulins A and G in the salivary secretion of asthmatic patients].

    PubMed

    Frouchtman, R; Viñas, J; Rodríguez, J L; Olivé, A

    1975-01-01

    "Quantitative study of IgG and IgA in the saliva of asthmatics." In this paper the data obtained from the quantitative determination of the IgG and IgA contents of saliva in a group of 56 asthmatic patients of different ages and a group of 54 non-asthmatic healthy controls are compared and discussed. The method of Mancini has been used for measuring the contents of IgG and IgM, both in serum and saliva, the correction proposed by Hobbs has been applied to these values. The following findings are reported: 1. The IgG and IgA levels in the saliva of asthmatic patients (both children and adults) showed a trend to an increased dispersion, when compared with the values observed in the corresponding normal healthy controls. 2. In the group of asthmatic children studied, the measurement of the concentration of these immunoglobulins in saliva showed, as a whole, a significative decrease of IgA (p less than 0,001) and an increase of IgG (p less than 0,01). It is not possible, however, from this data to infer any type of correlation between the concentration of IgA or IgG in saliva and etiology or clinical picture. On the other hand, no statistical difference could be demonstrated between the concentration of these immunoglobulins in the saliva of the group of adult asthmatic patients and the corresponding healthy controls. 3. The present data does not support the existence of any correlation between the concentration of these immunoglobulins in saliva and serum in a group of asthmatic patients. It is of interest to point out, however, that the only three adult asthamtic patients with an IgA serum concentration higher than 400 mg/100 ml. show increased IgA levels in saliva. The authors are planning to proceed this study adding in furture cases the measurement of IgE and IgD with the purpose of confirming the difference found between the concentrations of IgA and IgG in the saliva of asthmatic children versus healthy controls, and of looking at the existence of other

  1. Quantitative In Situ TEM Studies of Small-Scale Plasticity in Irradiated and Unirradiated Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Claire

    mechanical data, as the two defect conditions exhibit similar yield strengths, ultimate tensile strengths, and number and size of load-drops. This similarity implies that, even if materials contain dissimilar individual defects, the collective defect behavior can result in similar mechanical properties. Thus, the origin of mechanical properties can be ambiguous and caution should be taken when extrapolating to different size scales. Furthermore, such similarities highlight the importance of in-situ observation during deformation. These experiments provide a key test of theory, by providing a local test of behavior, which is much more stringent than testing behaviors averaged over many regions. Advanced electron microscopy imaging techniques and quantitative in-situ TEM tensile tests are performed with Au thin-film as a model FCC structural material. These investigations highlight the various hurdles experimental studies must overcome in order to probe defect behavior at a fundamental level. Two novelly-applied strain mapping techniques are performed to directly measure the matrix strain around helium bubbles in He1+ implanted Au thin-film. Dark-field inline holography (DFIH) is applied here for the first time to a metal, and nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED) transient strain mapping is shown to be experimentally feasible using the high frame rate Gatan K2 camera. The K2 camera reduces scan times from ˜18 minutes to 82 seconds for a 128x256 pixel scan at 400 fps. Both methods measure a peak strain around 10 nm bubbles of 0.7%, correlating to an internal pressure of 580 MPa, or a vacancy to helium ion ratio of 1V:2.4He. Previous studies have relied on determining the appropriate equation of state to relate measured or approximated helium density to internal bubble pressure and thus strain. Direct measurement of the surrounding matrix strain through DFIH and NBED methods effectively bypasses this step, allowing for easier defect interaction modeling as the bubble can be

  2. Quantitative skeletal evaluation based on cervical vertebral maturation: a longitudinal study of adolescents with normal occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Liu, J; Xu, T; Long, X; Lin, J

    2010-07-01

    The study aims were to investigate the correlation between vertebral shape and hand-wrist maturation and to select characteristic parameters of C2-C5 (the second to fifth cervical vertebrae) for cervical vertebral maturation determination by mixed longitudinal data. 87 adolescents (32 males, 55 females) aged 8-18 years with normal occlusion were studied. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs were taken annually for 6 consecutive years. Lateral cephalograms were divided into 11 maturation groups according to Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators (SMI). 62 morphological measurements of C2-C5 at 11 different developmental stages (SMI1-11) were measured and analysed. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, correlation coefficient analysis and variable cluster analysis were used for statistical analysis. Of the 62 cervical vertebral parameters, 44 were positively correlated with SMI, 6 were negatively correlated and 12 were not correlated. The correlation coefficients between cervical vertebral parameters and SMI were relatively high. Characteristic parameters for quantitative analysis of cervical vertebral maturation were selected. In summary, cervical vertebral maturation could be used reliably to evaluate the skeletal stage instead of the hand-wrist radiographic method. Selected characteristic parameters offered a simple and objective reference for the assessment of skeletal maturity and timing of orthognathic surgery.

  3. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime

    PubMed Central

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78) though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media), increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point). Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast) modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks). PMID:26418016

  4. Career interest, self-efficacy, and perception in undecided and nursing undergraduate students: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Fillman, Valentina M

    2015-01-01

    Career choice variables of career interest, self-efficacy, and perception were chosen based upon Social Cognitive Career Theory concepts for study between nursing and undecided undergraduate student groups. Components of the Career Search Questionnaire and Perceptions of Professional Nursing instruments were combined and adapted to form the Career Choice Survey for use in this research. This web-based survey totaling 40 questions was sent to 577 undergraduate students with a 12% response rate (N=68). Due to the need to increase nursing recruitment and retention, hypotheses were developed that distinguish if any relationship existed between groups. Findings of this quantitative study resulted in statistically significant results on two of the three variable hypotheses (p=.006 for career interest, p=.002 for self-efficacy, p=.395 for perception), aligning with previous research and provide insight into the change in nursing perception. Overall, scores for each subscale were encouraging to current nurses and expected from undecided students. Implications for practice include increases in accurate nursing portrayal in the media and early career counseling to younger populations. Nurse educators can further research in career choice with focus on continuing education for current nurses and recruitment of young nursing hopefuls.

  5. Neuroticism and the brain: a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies investigating emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Servaas, Michelle N; van der Velde, Jorien; Costafreda, Sergi G; Horton, Paul; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

    2013-09-01

    Neuroticism is a robust personality trait that constitutes a risk factor for mood disorders. Neuroimaging findings related to neuroticism have been inconsistent across studies and hardly integrated in order to construct a model of the underlying neural correlates of neuroticism. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide a quantitative summary of the literature, using a parametric coordinate-based meta-analysis (PCM) approach. Data were pooled for emotion processing tasks investigating the contrasts (negative>neutral) and (positive>neutral) to identify brain regions that are consistently associated with neuroticism across studies. Significant negative and positive correlations with neuroticism were found only for the contrast (negative>neutral) after multiple comparisons correction. Differences in brain activation were found to be associated with neuroticism during fear learning, anticipation of aversive stimuli and the processing and regulation of emotion. The relationship between neuroticism and these three psychological processes and their corresponding neural correlates is discussed. Furthermore, the meta-analytic findings are incorporated into a general model of emotion processing in neuroticism.

  6. Quantitative estimation of temperature variations in plantar angiosomes: a study case for diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Peregrina-Barreto, H; Morales-Hernandez, L A; Rangel-Magdaleno, J J; Avina-Cervantes, J G; Ramirez-Cortes, J M; Morales-Caporal, R

    2014-01-01

    Thermography is a useful tool since it provides information that may help in the diagnostic of several diseases in a noninvasive and fast way. Particularly, thermography has been applied in the study of the diabetic foot. However, most of these studies report only qualitative information making it difficult to measure significant parameters such as temperature variations. These variations are important in the analysis of the diabetic foot since they could bring knowledge, for instance, regarding ulceration risks. The early detection of ulceration risks is considered an important research topic in the medicine field, as its objective is to avoid major complications that might lead to a limb amputation. The absence of symptoms in the early phase of the ulceration is conceived as the main disadvantage to provide an opportune diagnostic in subjects with neuropathy. Since the relation between temperature and ulceration risks is well established in the literature, a methodology that obtains quantitative temperature differences in the plantar area of the diabetic foot to detect ulceration risks is proposed in this work. Such methodology is based on the angiosome concept and image processing.

  7. A quantitative multiplexed mass spectrometry assay for studying the kinetic of residue-specific histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yin-Ming; Henry, Ryan A; Andrews, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Histone acetylation is involved in gene regulation and, most importantly, aberrant regulation of histone acetylation is correlated with major human diseases. Although many lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) have been characterized as being capable of acetylating multiple lysine residues on histones, how different factors such as enzyme complexes or external stimuli (e.g. KAT activators or inhibitors) alter KAT specificity remains elusive. In order to comprehensively understand how the homeostasis of histone acetylation is maintained, a method that can quantitate acetylation levels of individual lysines on histones is needed. Here we demonstrate that our mass spectrometry (MS)-based method accomplishes this goal. In addition, the high throughput, high sensitivity, and high dynamic range of this method allows for effectively and accurately studying steady-state kinetics. Based on the kinetic parameters from in vitro enzymatic assays, we can determine the specificity and selectivity of a KAT and use this information to understand what factors influence histone acetylation. These approaches can be used to study the enzymatic mechanisms of histone acetylation as well as be adapted to other histone modifications. Understanding the post-translational modification of individual residues within the histones will provide a better picture of chromatin regulation in the cell.

  8. Rationing of nursing care and nurse-patient outcomes: a systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Andreou, Panayiota; Efstathiou, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Bedside rationing in nursing care refers to withholding or failure to carry out certain aspects of care because of limited resources such as time, staffing or skill mix. The absence of previous systematic reviews on nursing care rationing leads to a gap of synthesized knowledge on the factors and processes related to rationing and the potential negative consequences on both patients and nurses. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors and processes related to nursing care rationing. Selected papers were methodologically assessed based on their design, sampling, measurement and statistical analysis. Seventeen quantitative studies were reviewed, and findings were categorized into four themes: elements of nursing care being rationed, causes of rationing, nurse outcomes and patient outcomes. Results revealed that communication with patients and families, patient ambulation, and mouth care were common elements of rationed care. Nurse-patient workload and communication barriers were reported as potential causes of rationing. Patient-related outcomes included patient falls, nosocomial infections and low patient satisfaction levels. Nurse-related outcomes included low job and occupational satisfaction. In addition, rationing appears to be an important organizational variable linked with patient safety and quality of care. This review increases understanding of what is actually occurring at the point of care delivery so that managers will be able to improve processes that lead to high quality of care and better patient and nurse outcomes.

  9. The Relationship Between Online Social Networking and Depression: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Baker, David A; Algorta, Guillermo Perez

    2016-11-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace are used by billions of people every day to communicate and interact with others. There has been increasing interest in the potential impact of online social networking on wellbeing, with a broadening body of new research into factors associated with both positive and negative mental health outcomes such as depression. This systematic review of empirical studies (n = 30) adds to existing research in this field by examining current quantitative studies focused on the relationship between online social networking and symptoms of depression. The academic databases PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched systematically using terms related to online social networking and depression. Reporting quality was critically appraised and the findings discussed with reference to their wider implications. The findings suggest that the relationship between online social networking and symptoms of depression may be complex and associated with multiple psychological, social, behavioral, and individual factors. Furthermore, the impact of online social networking on wellbeing may be both positive and negative, highlighting the need for future research to determine the impact of candidate mediators and moderators underlying these heterogeneous outcomes across evolving networks.

  10. How to use linear regression and correlation in quantitative method comparison studies.

    PubMed

    Twomey, P J; Kroll, M H

    2008-04-01

    Linear regression methods try to determine the best linear relationship between data points while correlation coefficients assess the association (as opposed to agreement) between the two methods. Linear regression and correlation play an important part in the interpretation of quantitative method comparison studies. Their major strength is that they are widely known and as a result both are employed in the vast majority of method comparison studies. While previously performed by hand, the availability of statistical packages means that regression analysis is usually performed by software packages including MS Excel, with or without the software programe Analyze-it as well as by other software packages. Such techniques need to be employed in a way that compares the agreement between the two methods examined and more importantly, because we are dealing with individual patients, whether the degree of agreement is clinically acceptable. Despite their use for many years, there is a lot of ignorance about the validity as well as the pros and cons of linear regression and correlation techniques. This review article describes the types of linear regression and regression (parametric and non-parametric methods) and the necessary general and specific requirements. The selection of the type of regression depends on where one has been trained, the tradition of the laboratory and the availability of adequate software.

  11. Quantitative study of molecular transport due to electroporation: uptake of bovine serum albumin by erythrocyte ghosts.

    PubMed Central

    Prausnitz, M R; Milano, C D; Gimm, J A; Langer, R; Weaver, J C

    1994-01-01

    Electroporation is believed to involve the creation of aqueous pathways in lipid bilayer membranes by transient elevation of the transmembrane voltage to approximately 1 V. Here, results are presented for a quantitative study of the number of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules transported into erythrocyte ghosts caused by electroportion. 1) Uptake of BSA was found to plateau at high field strength. However, this was not necessarily an absolute maximum in transport. Instead, it represented the maximum effect of increasing field strength for a particular pulse protocol. 2) Maximum uptake under any conditions used in this study corresponded to approximately one-fourth of apparent equilibrium with the external solution. 3) Multiple and longer pulses each increased uptake of BSA, where the total time integral of field strength correlated with uptake, independent of inter-pulse spacing. 4) Pre-pulse adsorption of BSA to ghost membranes appears to have increased transport. 5) Most transport of BSA probably occurred by electrically driven transport during pulses; post-pulse uptake occurred, but to a much lesser extent. Finally, approaches to increasing transport are discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:8061201

  12. Quantitative methods for reconstructing tissue biomechanical properties in optical coherence elastography: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Sudheendran, Narendran; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the accuracy of five different methods for extracting the biomechanical properties of soft samples using optical coherence elastography (OCE). OCE is an emerging noninvasive technique, which allows assessing biomechanical properties of tissues with a micrometer spatial resolution. However, in order to accurately extract biomechanical properties from OCE measurements, application of proper mechanical model is required. In this study, we utilize tissue-mimicking phantoms with controlled elastic properties and investigate the feasibilities of four available methods for reconstructing elasticity (Young’s modulus) based on OCE measurements of an air-pulse induced elastic wave. The approaches are based on the shear wave equation (SWE), the surface wave equation (SuWE), Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE), and finite element method (FEM), Elasticity values were compared with uniaxial mechanical testing. The results show that the RLFE and the FEM are more robust in quantitatively assessing elasticity than the other simplified models. This study provides a foundation and reference for reconstructing the biomechanical properties of tissues from OCE data, which is important for the further development of noninvasive elastography methods. PMID:25860076

  13. Quantitation and pharmacokinetic modeling of therapeutic antibody quality attributes in human studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinyin; Monine, Michael; Huang, Yu; Swann, Patrick; Nestorov, Ivan; Lyubarskaya, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A thorough understanding of drug metabolism and disposition can aid in the assessment of efficacy and safety. However, analytical methods used in pharmacokinetics (PK) studies of protein therapeutics are usually based on ELISA, and therefore can provide a limited perspective on the quality of the drug in concentration measurements. Individual post-translational modifications (PTMs) of protein therapeutics are rarely considered for PK analysis, partly because it is technically difficult to recover and quantify individual protein variants from biological fluids. Meanwhile, PTMs may be directly linked to variations in drug efficacy and safety, and therefore understanding of clearance and metabolism of biopharmaceutical protein variants during clinical studies is an important consideration. To address such challenges, we developed an affinity-purification procedure followed by peptide mapping with mass spectrometric detection, which can profile multiple quality attributes of therapeutic antibodies recovered from patient sera. The obtained data enable quantitative modeling, which allows for simulation of the PK of different individual PTMs or attribute levels in vivo and thus facilitate the assessment of quality attributes impact in vivo. Such information can contribute to the product quality attribute risk assessment during manufacturing process development and inform appropriate process control strategy. PMID:27216574

  14. Novel quantitative metabolomic approach for the study of stress responses of plant root metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Kefeng; Wang, Xu; Pidatala, Venkataramana R; Chang, Chi-Peng; Cao, Xiaohong

    2014-12-05

    Quantitative metabolomics (qMetabolomics) is a powerful tool for understanding the intricate metabolic processes involved in plant abiotic stress responses. qMetabolomics is hindered by the limited coverage and high cost of isotopically labeled standards. In this study, we first selected 271 metabolites which might play important roles in abiotic stress responses as the targets and established a comprehensive LC-MS/MS based qMetabolomic method. We then developed a novel metabolic labeling method using E. coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-step cultivation for the production of uniformly (13)C-labeled metabolites as internal standards. Finally, we applied the developed qMetabolomic method to investigate the influence of Pb stress on maize root metabolism. The absolute concentration of 226 metabolites in maize roots was accurately quantified in a single run within 30 min. Our study also revealed that glycolysis, purine, pyrimidine, and phospholipids were the main metabolic pathways in maize roots involved in Pb stress response. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive qMetabolomic method for plant metabolomics thus far. We developed a simple and inexpensive metabolic labeling method which dramatically expanded the availability of uniformly (13)C labeled metabolites. Our findings also provided new insights of maize metabolic responses to Pb stress.

  15. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime.

    PubMed

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78) though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media), increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point). Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast) modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks).

  16. Study on the use of quantitative ultrasound evaluation of diabetic neuropathy in the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunxia; Hu, Bing; Zhu, Jiaan

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound is an effective tool for peripheral disease with direct imaging of morphological and echogenic changes, but it has limitations when applied to evaluation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to assess the role of ultrasound to quantitatively evaluate diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rat sciatic nerve. In our experiments, ultrasound imaging and electrophysiological examination testing of sciatic nerves were monitored in diabetic and control rats at the period of 1st and 4th month of hyperglycemia. Cross sectional area, intraneural echo intensity, inner diameter, motor nerve conduction velocity, and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control groups. Intraneural hyperechoic were observed in the diabetic rats, and the echo intensity of the sciatic nerve was increased in diabetic rats rather than control lean rats at 4th month of hyperglycemia (p < 0.05), which has shown a similar correlation with functional deficit and histological changes based on the severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We conclude that the echo intensity is potentially useful in detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which can pave the way for more accurate and efficient diagnosis in clinical study.

  17. A quantitative-metallographic study of the sintering behaviour of dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Yeprem, H.A.; Tueredi, E.; Karagoez, S. . E-mail: karagoez@kou.edu.tr

    2004-07-15

    Grain growth of the MgO phase during sintering of natural dolomite from Selcuklu-Konya in Turkey was studied in the temperature range 1600-1700 deg. C. For comparison purposes, iron oxide (98.66% mill scale) was added up to 1.5%. The compositions of the phases formed during sintering were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Quantitative-metallographic analyses were performed on images taken by SEM. For the automatic image analysis of dolomite microstructures, material (atomic number) contrast with backscattered electrons (BSEs) was utilized because it yields higher phase contrast compared to secondary electrons (SEs). Iron oxide additions to dolomite result in dense dolomite structures at given sintering temperatures, where phases with low melting temperatures are developed. During liquid phase sintering, periclase is enriched with iron, which destabilizes the MgO phase. The relevant kinetic exponents for MgO in the natural doloma and 0.5% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} added doloma were 6 and 2, and the activation energies were 108 and 243 kJ/mol, respectively.

  18. Kinetics, isothermal and thermodynamics studies of electrocoagulation removal of basic dye rhodamine B from aqueous solution using steel electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Balakrishnan, Ramesh Babu

    2015-09-01

    Electrocoagulation was used for the removal of basic dye rhodamine B from aqueous solution, and the process was carried out in a batch electrochemical cell with steel electrodes in monopolar connection. The effects of some important parameters such as current density, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration, on the process, were investigated. Equilibrium was attained after 10 min at 30 °C. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Avrami kinetic models were used to test the experimental data in order to elucidate the kinetic adsorption process; pseudo-first-order and Avrami models best fitted the data. Experimental data were analysed using six model equations: Langmuir, Freudlinch, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Sips isotherms and it was found that the data fitted well with Sips isotherm model. The study showed that the process depends on current density, temperature, pH and initial dye concentration. The calculated thermodynamics parameters (Δ G^circ ,Δ H^circ {text{and}}Δ S{^circ } ) indicated that the process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  19. Science and scientific literacy vs science and scientific awareness through basic physics lectures: A study of wish and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2012-06-01

    Scientific literacy was already discussed in the 1950s, as a prerequisite for the general citizen in a world increasingly served and infused by science and technology: the so-called knowledge or learning society. This kind of literacy has been described in detail by Victor Showalter in 1975, expanded by others, and later defined succinctly by the OECD in 2003. As a complement, science literacy is described also by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) as a content knowledge needed in setting up practical models for handling daily matters with science and engineering. These important and worthy aims were studied, and compared with reality and existing conditions. One hypothesis put forward and argued for is, that it is more realistic, considering existing trends, to aim for scientific and science awareness for the general student, while scientific and science literacy remain important and worthy aims for the common good of the global community, and important to be strived for by teachers, lecturers and intellectuals. The Basic Physics lectures can also lend themselves usefully for the more realistic aim, due to the science-based nature of the present knowledge society.

  20. Umami the Fifth Basic Taste: History of Studies on Receptor Mechanisms and Role as a Food Flavor

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Kenzo

    2015-01-01

    Three umami substances (glutamate, 5′-inosinate, and 5′-guanylate) were found by Japanese scientists, but umami has not been recognized in Europe and America for a long time. In the late 1900s, umami was internationally recognized as the fifth basic taste based on psychophysical, electrophysiological, and biochemical studies. Three umami receptors (T1R1 + T1R3, mGluR4, and mGluR1) were identified. There is a synergism between glutamate and the 5′-nucleotides. Among the above receptors, only T1R1 + T1R3 receptor exhibits the synergism. In rats, the response to a mixture of glutamate and 5′-inosinate is about 1.7 times larger than that to glutamate alone. In human, the response to the mixture is about 8 times larger than that to glutamate alone. Since glutamate and 5′-inosinate are contained in various foods, we taste umami induced by the synergism in daily eating. Hence umami taste induced by the synergism is a main umami taste in human. PMID:26247011

  1. Chronic Spinal Compression Model in Minipigs: A Systematic Behavioral, Qualitative, and Quantitative Neuropathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Roman; Juhas, Stefan; Keshavarzi, Sassan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Johe, Karl; Marsala, Silvia; Scadeng, Miriam; Lazar, Peter; Tomori, Zoltan; Schulteis, Gery; Beattie, Michael; Ciacci, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The goal of the present study was to develop a porcine spinal cord injury (SCI) model, and to describe the neurological outcome and characterize the corresponding quantitative and qualitative histological changes at 4–9 months after injury. Adult Gottingen-Minnesota minipigs were anesthetized and placed in a spine immobilization frame. The exposed T12 spinal segment was compressed in a dorso-ventral direction using a 5-mm-diameter circular bar with a progressively increasing peak force (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 kg) at a velocity of 3 cm/sec. During recovery, motor and sensory function were periodically monitored. After survival, the animals were perfusion fixed and the extent of local SCI was analyzed by (1) post-mortem MRI analysis of dissected spinal cords, (2) qualitative and quantitative analysis of axonal survival at the epicenter of injury, and (3) defining the presence of local inflammatory changes, astrocytosis, and schwannosis. Following 2.5-kg spinal cord compression the animals demonstrated a near complete loss of motor and sensory function with no recovery over the next 4–9 months. Those that underwent spinal cord compression with 2 kg force developed an incomplete injury with progressive partial neurological recovery characterized by a restricted ability to stand and walk. Animals injured with a spinal compression force of 1.5 kg showed near normal ambulation 10 days after injury. In fully paralyzed animals (2.5 kg), MRI analysis demonstrated a loss of spinal white matter integrity and extensive septal cavitations. A significant correlation between the magnitude of loss of small and medium-sized myelinated axons in the ventral funiculus and neurological deficits was identified. These data, demonstrating stable neurological deficits in severely injured animals, similarities of spinal pathology to humans, and relatively good post-injury tolerance of this strain of minipigs to spinal trauma, suggest that this model can successfully be used

  2. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Leischow, Scott J.; Lando, Harry A.; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2014-01-01

    Background: During recent years, there have been many advances in different types of pharmacological and non-pharmacological tobacco control treatments. In this study, we aimed to identify the most effective smoking cessation methods used in quit based upon a review of the literature. Methods: We did a search of PubMed, limited to English publications from 2000 to 2012. Two trained reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts and full texts of articles after a pilot inter-rater reliability assessment which was conducted by the author (GH). The total number of papers and their conclusions including recommendation of that method (positive) or not supporting (negative) was computed for each method. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones for each method. In cases of inconsistency between the two reviewers, these were adjudicated by author. Results: Of the 932 articles that were critically assessed, 780 studies supported quit smoking methods. In 90 studies, the methods were not supported or rejected and in 62 cases the methods were not supported. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), Champix and Zyban with 352, 117 and 71 studies respectively were the most supported methods and e-cigarettes and non-Nicotine medications with one case were the least supported methods. Finally, NRT with 39 and Champix and education with 36 scores were the most supported methods. Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation. PMID:25013685

  3. Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, economic status, marital status and access to healthcare contribute to sex differences in adverse outcomes, physiological and molecular bases of differences between women and men that contribute to development of cardiovascular disease and response to therapy remain underexplored. Methods This article describes concepts, methods and procedures to assist in the design of animal and tissue/cell based studies of sex differences in cardiovascular structure, function and models of disease. Results To address knowledge gaps, study designs must incorporate appropriate experimental material including species/strain characteristics, sex and hormonal status. Determining whether a sex difference exists in a trait must take into account the reproductive status and history of the animal including those used for tissue (cell) harvest, such as the presence of gonadal steroids at the time of testing, during development or number of pregnancies. When selecting the type of experimental animal, additional consideration should be given to diet requirements (soy or plant based influencing consumption of phytoestrogen), lifespan, frequency of estrous cycle in females, and ability to investigate developmental or environmental components of disease modulation. Stress imposed by disruption of sleep/wake cycles, patterns of social interaction (or degree of social isolation), or handling may influence adrenal hormones that interact with pathways activated by the sex steroid hormones. Care must be given to selection of hormonal treatment and route of administration. Conclusions Accounting for sex in the design and interpretation of studies including pharmacological effects of drugs is essential to increase the foundation of basic knowledge upon which to build translational

  4. Studies with neuronal cells: From basic studies of mechanisms of neurotoxicity to the prediction of chemical toxicity.

    PubMed

    Suñol, C; Babot, Z; Fonfría, E; Galofré, M; García, D; Herrera, N; Iraola, S; Vendrell, I

    2008-08-01

    Neurotoxicology considers that chemicals perturb neurological functions by interfering with the structure or function of neural pathways, circuits and systems. Using in vitro methods for neurotoxicity studies should include evaluation of specific targets for the functionalism of the nervous system and general cellular targets. In this review we present the neuronal characteristics of primary cultures of cortical neurons and of cerebellar granule cells and their use in neurotoxicity studies. Primary cultures of cortical neurons are constituted by around 40% of GABAergic neurons, whereas primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells are mainly constituted by glutamatergic neurons. Both cultures express functional GABAA and ionotropic glutamate receptors. We present neurotoxicity studies performed in these cell cultures, where specific neural targets related to GABA and glutamate neurotransmission are evaluated. The effects of convulsant polychlorocycloalkane pesticides on the GABAA, glycine and NMDA receptors points to the GABAA receptor as the neural target that accounts for their in vivo acute toxicity, whereas NMDA disturbance might be relevant for long-term toxicity. Several compounds from a list of reference compounds, whose severe human poisoning result in convulsions, inhibited the GABAA receptor. We also present cell proteomic studies showing that the neurotoxic contaminant methylmercury affect mitochondrial proteins. We conclude that the in vitro assays that have been developed can be useful for their inclusion in an in vitro test battery to predict human toxicity.

  5. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús Aguiar, Pablo; Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor; Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel; Pombar, Miguel; Ruibal, Álvaro

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  6. Genetic Studies of Quantitative MCI and AD Phenotypes in ADNI: Progress, Opportunities, and Plans

    PubMed Central

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Yao, Xiaohui; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Risacher, Shannon L.; Ramanan, Vijay K.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Faber, Kelly M.; Sarwar, Nadeem; Munsie, Leanne M.; Hu, Xiaolan; Soares, Holly D.; Potkin, Steven G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Kauwe, John S.K.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Green, Robert C.; Toga, Arthur W.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Genetic data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has been crucial in advancing the understanding of AD pathophysiology. Here we provide an update on sample collection, scientific progress and opportunities, conceptual issues, and future plans. METHODS Lymphoblastoid cell lines and DNA and RNA samples from blood have been collected and banked, and data and biosamples have been widely disseminated. To date, APOE genotyping, genome-wide association study (GWAS), and whole exome and whole genome sequencing (WES, WGS) data have been obtained and disseminated. RESULTS ADNI genetic data have been downloaded thousands of times and over 300 publications have resulted, including reports of large scale GWAS by consortia to which ADNI contributed. Many of the first applications of quantitative endophenotype association studies employed ADNI data, including some of the earliest GWAS and pathway-based studies of biospecimen and imaging biomarkers, as well as memory and other clinical/cognitive variables. Other contributions include some of the first WES and WGS data sets and reports in healthy controls, MCI, and AD. DISCUSSION Numerous genetic susceptibility and protective markers for AD and disease biomarkers have been identified and replicated using ADNI data, and have heavily implicated immune, mitochondrial, cell cycle/fate, and other biological processes. Early sequencing studies suggest that rare and structural variants are likely to account for significant additional phenotypic variation. Longitudinal analyses of transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and epigenomic changes will also further elucidate dynamic processes underlying preclinical and prodromal stages of disease. Integration of this unique collection of multi-omics data within a systems biology framework will help to separate truly informative markers of early disease mechanisms and potential novel therapeutic targets from the vast background of less relevant biological

  7. Is It Science? A Study of the Attitudes of Medical Trainees and Physicians toward Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation.…

  8. The Relationship between Shyness and Internet Addiction: A Quantitative Study on Middle and Post Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, W. Craig

    2005-01-01

    This small scale quantitative study looks into the relationship between shyness and internet addiction in middle school students. This study has been conducted on the belief that shyness is a possible predictor of Internet Addiction. To prove this hypothesis a questionnaire was created and distributed to 53 middle school students and 159 post…

  9. A Quantitative Study of Teacher Readiness to Teach School-Based HIV/AIDS Education in Kenyan Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang'at, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' self-perceived readiness to teach school-based HIV/AIDS Awareness and Prevention education in Kenyan primary schools based on their knowledge, attitudes and instructional confidence. This research utilized a non-experimental quantitative approach with a…

  10. The quantitative analysis of OH in vesuvianite: a polarized FTIR and SIMS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellatreccia, Fabio; della Ventura, Giancarlo; Ottolini, Luisa; Libowitzky, Eugen; Beran, Anton

    2005-05-01

    A well-characterized suite of vesuvianite samples from the volcanic ejecta (skarn or syenites) from Latium (Italy) was studied by single-crystal, polarized radiation, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and secondary-ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS). OH-stretching FTIR spectra consist of a rather well-defined triplet of broad bands at higher-frequency (3,700 3,300 cm-1) and a very broad composite absorption below 3,300 cm-1. Measurements with E//c or E⊥c show that all bands are strongly polarized with maximum absorption for E//c. They are in agreement with previous band assignments (Groat et al. Can Mineral 33:609, 1995) to the two O(11) H(1) and O(10) H(2) groups in the structure. Pleochroic measurements with changing direction of the E vector of the incident radiation show that the orientation of the O(11) H(1) dipole is OH∧c~35°, in excellent agreement with the neutron data of Lager et al. (Can Mineral 37:763, 1999). A SIMS-based calibration curve at ~10% rel. accuracy has been worked out and used as reference for the quantitative analysis of H2O in vesuvianite by FTIR. Based on previous SIMS results for silicate minerals (Ottolini and Hawthorne in J Anal At Spectrom 16:1266, 2001; Ottolini et al. in Am Mineral 87:1477, 2002) the SiO2 and FeO content of the matrix were assumed as the major factors to be considered at a first approximation in the selection of the standards for H. The lack of vesuvianite standards for quantitative SIMS analysis of H2O has been here overcome by selecting low-silica elbaite crystals (Ottolini et al. in Am Mineral 87:1477, 2002). The resulting integrated molar absorption FTIR coefficient for vesuvianite is ɛi=100.000±2.000 l mol-1 cm-2. SIMS data for Li, B, F, Sr, Y, Be, Ba REE, U and Th are also provided in the paper.

  11. Study the multi-band co-caliber infrared system optimize design and quantitative measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ju guang; Ma, Yong hui; Yang, Zhi hui

    2016-10-01

    The main optical system of multi-band co-caliber infrared system is designed by using a Cassegrain telescope whose primary mirror (PM) and secondary mirror (SM) are aspherical form, and the structure of which is using total reflection system for the former level, the refractive lens group for the stage. After the target radiation to reach the primary mirror, reflecting onto the secondary mirror, and on top of toggling the spectral radiometric flux , respectively, which is reflected by different spectrum region, transmit to infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) for each other imaging detector. Then, photoelectric converse those information which were received by IRFPA. The output signal of detectors are processed and displayed by Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC). We are confirming the image quality of different bands during system model optimization design. According to the specification of design system, establishing the measurement program of quantitative study. The results experimental measurement shows that the optimized design of the optical system has good validity.

  12. Quantitative study of ruthenium cross-over in direct methanol fuel cells during early operation hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoekel, A.; Melke, J.; Bruns, M.; Wippermann, K.; Kuppler, F.; Roth, C.

    2016-01-01

    In direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), ruthenium cross-over is an important degradation phenomenon. The loss of ruthenium from the anode, its transport through the membrane and its deposition onto the cathode are detrimental to the fuel cell performance and limit the fuel cell's lifetime. Here we present a quantitative study on the fraction of ruthenium being transferred from the anode to the cathode during early operation hours (0-100 h) of a DMFC. Already during fabrication of the MEA ruthenium is transferred to the cathode. In our pristine MEAs about 0.024 wt% Ru could be found in the cathode catalyst. The cell potential during operation seems to have only a minor influence on the dissolution process. In contrast, the operation time appears to be much more important. Our data hint at two dissolution processes: a fast process dominating the first hours of operation and a slower process, which is responsible for the ongoing ruthenium transfer during the fuel cell lifetime. After 2 h held at open circuit conditions the Ru content of the cathode side was 10 times higher than in the pristine MEA. In contrast, the slower process increased that amount only by a factor of two over the course of another 100 h.

  13. [Psychosocial Stress, Stress Perception and Stress Management of Students of Social Work: a Quantitative Study].

    PubMed

    Kriener, C; Schwertfeger, A; Deimel, D; Köhler, T

    2016-06-17

    In this quantitative study, data on 746 students of social work were collected regarding their current sense of stress, experience of psychosocial drain as well as their use of specific coping strategies. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (TICS) were used. The results show that one out of 3 students suffer from a lot of to extreme stress. One-fourth of the students report feeling overworked and socially overburdened. More than half of the students are exposed to psychosocial drain as a consequence of past events in their biography (e. g. death or mental illness of a close relative). Despite these obvious burdens, only one-fourth made use of professional aid or counseling. Students who are primarily using functional coping strategies have a lower sensibility to stress and feel less overworked than students primarily using dysfunctional coping strategies. In the university setting, the theoretically and empirically sound knowledge based on this report can be used profitably: The increasing implementation of seminars on coping with stress at universities itself suggests that learning and utilizing functional coping strategies can contribute to a reduction of stress and strain among students.

  14. Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R.; Frost, C.; Collins, R.; Appleby, P.; Peto, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative importance of dietary fatty acids and dietary cholesterol to blood concentrations of total, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies of solid food diets in healthy volunteers. SUBJECTS: 395 dietary experiments (median duration 1 month) among 129 groups of individuals. RESULTS: Isocaloric replacement of saturated fats by complex carbohydrates for 10% of dietary calories resulted in blood total cholesterol falling by 0.52 (SE 0.03) mmol/l and low density lipoprotein cholesterol falling by 0.36 (0.05) mmol/l. Isocaloric replacement of complex carbohydrates by polyunsaturated fats for 5% of dietary calories resulted in total cholesterol falling by a further 0.13 (0.02) mmol/l and low density lipoprotein cholesterol falling by 0.11 (0.02) mmol/l. Similar replacement of carbohydrates by monounsaturated fats produced no significant effect on total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Avoiding 200 mg/day dietary cholesterol further decreased blood total cholesterol by 0.13 (0.02) mmol/l and low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.10 (0.02) mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: In typical British diets replacing 60% of saturated fats by other fats and avoiding 60% of dietary cholesterol would reduce blood total cholesterol by about 0.8 mmol/l (that is, by 10-15%), with four fifths of this reduction being in low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:9006469

  15. A Quantitative Study of the Quasistatic Tensioning Process of a Drumhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Stephen Garrett

    A system to extract quantitative measurements of the axial forces and resulting in-plane displacements of Mylar and latex drumheads undergoing a tuning procedure was developed and implemented as a step towards understanding the effect of detailed drumhead tension on drum acoustics. This system encompasses a combination of specialized hardware, software, experimental methods, and post-processing techniques. A customized test apparatus was implemented to quantify axial forces while simultaneously performing Digital Image Correlation studies on a drumhead to quantify the in-plane drumhead displacement. Axial forces in the ranges of 5--100 lbf and 5--35 lbf were developed in the tensioning members of said apparatus, in various radial configurations, such to produce in-plane radial displacement distributions with maximum values of 0.01 inches and 0.60 inches during the tensioning of Mylar and latex drumheads, respectively. The viability of the Digital Image Correlation method for this application was assessed extensively, and has proven to be a valid method for quantifying the displacement of latex drumheads. This system was less effective in quantifying the displacements of Mylar drumheads; it is believed that certain optical parameters require further optimization in order to improve the validity of the displacement data that can be extracted from these drumheads.

  16. A quantitative study relating observed shear in photospheric magnetic fields to repeated flaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper a quantitative evaluation of the shear in the magnetic field along the neutral line in an active region during an epoch of flare activity is presented. Shear is defined as the angular difference in the photosphere between the potential magnetic field, which fits the boundary conditions imposed by the observed line-of-sight field, and the observed magnetic field. For the active region studied, this angular difference (shear) is non-uniform along the neutral line with maxima occurring at the locations of repeated flare onsets. It is suggested that continued magnetic evolution causes the field's maximum shear to exceed a critical value of shear, resulting in a flare around the site of maximum shear. Evidently, the field at the site of the flare must relax to a state of shear somewhat below the critical value (but still far from potential), with subsequent evolution returning the field to the critical threshold. This inference is drawn because several flares occured at sites of maximum photospheric shear which were persistent in location.

  17. Paradoxical Effect of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio of GRAPPA Calibration Lines: A Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu; Xue, Hui; Ahmad, Rizwan; Chang, Ti-chiun; Ting, Samuel T.; Simonetti, Orlando P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intuitively, GRAPPA auto-calibration signal (ACS) lines with higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may be expected to boost the accuracy of kernel estimation and increase the SNR of GRAPPA reconstructed images. Paradoxically, Sodickson and his colleagues pointed out that using ACS lines with high SNR may actually lead to lower SNR in the GRAPPA reconstructed images. A quantitative study of how the noise in the ACS lines affects the SNR of the GRAPPA reconstructed images is presented. Methods In a phantom, the singular values of the GRAPPA encoding matrix and the root-mean-square error of GRAPPA reconstruction were evaluated using multiple sets of ACS lines with variant SNR. In volunteers, ACS lines with high and low SNR were estimated, and the SNR of corresponding TGRAPPA reconstructed images was evaluated. Results We show that the condition number of the GRAPPA kernel estimation equations is proportional to the SNR of the ACS lines. In dynamic image series reconstructed with TGRAPPA, high SNR ACS lines result in reduced SNR if appropriate regularization is not applied. Conclusion Noise has a similar effect to Tikhonov regularization. Without appropriate regularization, a GRAPPA kernel estimated from ACS lines with higher SNR amplifies random noise in the GRAPPA reconstruction. PMID:25078425

  18. Quantitative study of mesangial injury with proteinuria induced by monoclonal antibody 1-22-3.

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, H; Oite, T; Shimizu, F

    1993-01-01

    Murine MoAb 1-22-3 has already been reported to bind to the mesangial cell surface and to cause transient proteinuria and mesangial morphological changes characterized by mesangiolysis, subsequent mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial matrix increase by a single i.v. injection. In this study, MoAb-induced glomerulopathy was quantitatively analysed. No correlation between the severity of mesangial morphological changes and the degree of proteinuria was detected (r = 0.190). The minimum dose injected to induce abnormal proteinuria was 25 micrograms. This dose corresponded to 1.79 micrograms/2 kidneys 30 min after MoAb injection. The highest average level of proteinuria was observed in rats injected with 500 micrograms of MoAb, and less proteinuria was observed in rats injected with 10.0, 5.0 and 2.0 mg. Although the amounts of kidney-fixing MoAb and the subsequent deposition of rat C3 in the high-dose-injected group were larger than in the 500 micrograms injected group, the numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells were the same in both groups. No correlations between the degrees of such mediators and proteinuria were observed. PMID:8485919

  19. Quantitative ARG microimaging studies of two muscarinic antagonist isomers: Blocking and the effects of cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Wang, G.J.; Oster, Z.H.

    1994-05-01

    The distribution of the racemic mixture of IQNP(1-Azabicyclo [2-2-2] oct-3-yl alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(1-iodo-propen-3-yl)-alpha-phenylacetate), a muscarinic antagonist was described earlier. Recently, the radioiodinated Z and E-(R,R) IQNP isomers have been prepared. Quantitative ARG studies using the Z and E isomers were performed in control rats and after pretreatment with ({plus_minus}) QNB or cocaine. High uptake of (Z)-IQNP was seen in the heart and brain with GI and urinary excretion. Lung uptake was lower than with the racemic IQNP. (Z)-IQNP uptake was maximal at 15 min p.i. with homogeneous distribution in the heart. In the brain, highest uptake was in the caudate, cortex, hippocampus, pons and thalamus. (Z)-IQNP showed higher cerebellar uptake and lower cortical uptake compared to (E)-IQNP. Clearance from brain was slower than bean. Heart and brain uptake of (E)-IQNP were markedly lower than the Z isomer. After QNB pretreatment, almost complete blocking of (Z)-IQNP uptake in heart and brain occurred. Cocaine did not significantly affect the distribution of IQNP. These data indicate that (Z)-IQNP has high affinity for the M2 muscarinic receptor with potential for brain and heart imaging. Cocaine appears to have little effect on the muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in the brain and heart.

  20. Quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction for identification of counterfeit medicines: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Chiaki C. E.; O'Flynn, Daniel; Sidebottom, Aiden; Speller, Robert D.

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of counterfeit and substandard medicines has been growing rapidly over the past decade, and fast, nondestructive techniques for their detection are urgently needed to counter this trend. In this study, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) combined with chemometrics was assessed for its effectiveness in quantitative analysis of compressed powder mixtures. Although EDXRD produces lower-resolution diffraction patterns than angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD), it is of interest for this application as it carries the advantage of allowing the analysis of tablets within their packaging, due to the higher energy X-rays used. A series of caffeine, paracetamol and microcrystalline cellulose mixtures were prepared with compositions between 0 - 100 weight% in 20 weight% steps (22 samples in total, including a centroid mixture), and were pressed into tablets. EDXRD spectra were collected in triplicate, and a principal component analysis (PCA) separated these into their correct positions in the ternary mixture design. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model calibrated using this training set was validated using both segmented cross-validation, and with a test set of six samples (mixtures in 8:1:1 and 5⅓:2⅓:2⅓ ratios) - the latter giving a root-mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.30, 2.25 and 2.03 weight% for caffeine, paracetamol and cellulose respectively. These initial results are promising, with RMSEP values on a par with those reported in the ADXRD literature.