Science.gov

Sample records for quantitative bibliometric study

  1. Bibliometric Studies of Scientific Productivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    In 1926, Alfred J. Lotka examined the scientific publishing productivity of chemists. His bibliometric study of the number of chemists listed in...square law’ of scientific productivity in which the frequency of authors publishing x papers varied inversely as the square of x. Bibliometric research is

  2. Japanese-Style Management: A Bibliometric Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguchi, Sachie

    1988-01-01

    Reports results of a bibliometric study of the literature on Japanese-style management published in western languages from 1971-84 in order to: (1) determine Japanese contributions to the literature; (2) determine whether there are nuclear journals for the subject; and (3) investigate how the flow of information from Japan to overseas countries…

  3. [Drifts and pernicious effects of the quantitative evaluation of research: the misuse of bibliometrics].

    PubMed

    Gingras, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The quantitative evaluation of scientific research relies increasingly on bibliometric indicators of publications and citations. We present the issues raised by the simplistic use of these methods and recall the dangers of using poorly built indicators and technically defective rankings that do not measure the dimensions they are supposed to measure, for example the of publications, laboratories or universities. We show that francophone journals are particularly susceptible to suffer from the bad uses of too simplistic bibliometric rankings of scientific journals.

  4. Combining Mapping and Citation Analysis for Evaluative Bibliometric Purposes: A Bibliometric Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyons, E. C. M; Moed, H. F.; Luwel, M.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the results of a combined performance/mapping study used to evaluate a Belgian research institute in microelectronics. Results from one bibliometric approach were used to validate results of another. Findings indicated that the method provides a detailed and useful picture of the position of the institute from an international…

  5. [Knowledge production about nurse education: a bibliometric study].

    PubMed

    Lima, Margarete Maria de; Almeida, Alexsandro Barreto; Giovannetti, Monica de Oliveira; Backes, Vania Marli Schubert; Kloh, Daiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify the nursing theses and dissertation production catalogued in the Center for Study in Nursing Research - CEPEN, which treats nurse formation according to the National Curricular Directives on the SUS formation approach. This is a bibliometric and descriptive study performed on the theses and dissertations catalog of CEPEN, between 2003 and 2007. Twenty seven papers were selected, and quantitatively analyzed according to institution, year of publication, degree of research (dissertations or theses), type of research, and qualitatively analyzed according to themes, philosophical theory, and methodological reference. The results show 100% of the work performed in public institutions, with increased production in theses, there are few studies that deal with the profile of graduates, as well as training for SUS.

  6. Anatomy of the Generalized Inverse Gaussian-Poisson Distribution with Special Applications to Bibliometric Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, H. S.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of the generalized inverse Gaussian-Poisson (GIGP) distribution in bibliometric studies. The main types of size-frequency distributions are described, bibliometric distributions in logarithms are examined; parameter estimation is discussed; and goodness-of-fit tests are considered. Examples of applications are included. (17…

  7. The Bibliometric Analysis Of Literature On Museum Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. W.; Yang, Y. H.

    2015-08-01

    Museum studies, is the study of museums, museum curation, and how and why museums developed into their institutional role in education and culture through scientific, social, political and other related forces. The purpose of this study is to shed light on the application trends of the international literature related to museum studies on the SCIE, SSCI, and AHCI databases between 1995 and 2014 using a bibliometric technique and citation analysis. The results of this study reveal that influences of the literature related to museum studies on other subject areas continue to expand. Considering the publication of major countries, subject areas, journal and institutions, the results also discussed that the future trend through analysing most cited articles. Moreover, 12 core journal lists are identified by Bradford's law.

  8. [Bibliometrics study of the development trend of acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials in foreign countries].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Kai; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Hong-Cai

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of MEDLINE and EMBASE database, through bibliometrics, the quantitative research was conducted on the published literatures on the acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trial abroad. The situation of published articles in each continent, country and institution was analyzed statistically. It was found that the number of published articles was higher in Germany, America, England, Sweden, Austria, Japan, South Korea, etc. In Europe, the clinical trial of acupuncture and moxibustion was in the tendency of more country participants, wider distribution and larger amount of research. In North America, America was the main country for the study. In Asia, Japan and South Korea played the leading role. Of those countries, some institutions in Germany America, and South Korea were on the top of the list. In future, the above-mentioned countries and institutions should be monitored specifically so as to launch the active cooperation and strategic project.

  9. [Health education to ostomy patients: a bibliometrics study].

    PubMed

    Reveles, Audrey Garcia; Takahashi, Regina Toshie

    2007-06-01

    This study has as its objective to identify the scientific studies dealing with the orientation to patients submitted to ostomy published between 1970 to 2004 and to classify them according to quantity, chronology of publication, authors' function, source, kind of study, topic, origin and key words by using the bibliometrics methodology. A total of 27 publications were collected in the DEDALUS databank, in the LILACS and MEDLINE databases and from a professor of the University of São Paulo's Nursing School (EEUSP, which is a national reference in ostomy in Brazil). Of these, 19 were written by Brazilians and 8 by non-Brazilians; most were written by nurses and enterostomal therapists. Dissertations, theses, orientation manuals, books and articles were found. The origin of the material was academia, laboratories and hospitals. The 1990s concentrated the largest number of studies in this thematic area. All of them have the purpose of elevating patients' self-esteem in order to make them feel that, even with an ostomy, they can have a normal life. Thus the study concludes that the nurse, as an educator for the ostomy patient, should be acquainted with those publications to improve the assistance he/she provides.

  10. Professional Competencies and Jurisdictional Claims in Evaluative Bibliometrics: The Educational Mandate of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersohn, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative metrics in research assessment are proliferating all over the world. The demand has led to an increase in bibliometric practitioners and service providers. Their professional roles and competencies have not yet been subject to systematic study. This paper focuses on one important service provider in evaluative bibliometrics--academic…

  11. Worldwide interest in the comet assay: a bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Neri, Monica; Milazzo, Daniele; Ugolini, Donatella; Milic, Mirta; Campolongo, Alessandra; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Bonassi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The comet assay is a rapid, sensitive and relatively simple method for measuring DNA damage. A bibliometric study was performed to evaluate temporal and geographical trends, research quality and main areas of interest in scientific production in this field. A PubMed search strategy was developed and 7674 citations were retrieved in the period 1990-2013. Notably, the MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) term 'comet assay', officially introduced in 2000, is used by indexers only in two thirds of papers retrieved. Articles on the comet assay were published in 78 countries, spread over the 5 continents. The EU contributed the greatest output, producing >2900 articles with IF (42.0%) and totalling almost 10000 IF points, and was followed by USA. In the new millennium, research with this assay reached a plateau or slow decline in the most industrialised areas (USA, Germany, UK, Italy), while its use has boomed in emerging countries, with increases of 5- to 7-fold in the last 10 years in China, India and Brazil, for instance. This transition resulted in a slow decrease of scientific production quality, as the countries that increased their relative weight typically had lower mIFs. The most common MeSH terms used in papers using the comet assay referred to wide areas of interest, such as DNA damage and repair, cell survival and apoptosis, cancer and oxidative stress, occupational and environmental health. Keywords related to humans, rodents and cell culture were also frequently used. The top journal for the comet assay articles was found to be Mutation Research, followed by Mutagenesis. Most papers using the comet assay as a biomarker were published in genetic and toxicology journals, with a stress on environmental and occupational disciplines.

  12. Disciplinary and Research Subjects in French Doctoral Dissertations in Press and Media Studies: A Bibliometric Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.

    2007-01-01

    For English-speaking researchers, French doctoral dissertations can represent a "terra incognita." For this reason, a retrospective bibliometric study of French dissertations in press and media studies offers a useful profile of available research to researchers concentrating in studies of the press and other media. The present study…

  13. Bibliometric analysis of Human Factors (1970-2000): a quantitative description of scientific impact.

    PubMed

    Dee, John D; Cassano-Pinché, Andrea; Vicente, Kim J

    2005-01-01

    Bibliometric analyses use the citation history of scientific articles as data to measure scientific impact. This paper describes a bibliometric analysis of the 1682 papers and 2413 authors published in Human Factors from 1970 to 2000. The results show that Human Factors has substantial relative scientific influence, as measured by impact, immediacy, and half-life, exceeding the influence of comparable journals. Like other scientific disciplines, human factors research is a highly stratified activity. Most authors have published only one paper, and many papers are cited infrequently, if ever. A small number of authors account for a disproportionately large number of the papers published and citations received. However, the degree of stratification is not as extreme as in many other disciplines, possibly reflecting the diversity of the human factors discipline. A consistent trend of more authors per paper parallels a similar trend in other fields and may reflect the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of human factors research and a trend toward addressing human-technology interaction in more complex systems. Ten of the most influential papers from each of the last 3 decades illustrate trends in human factors research. Actual or potential applications of this research include considerations for the publication and distribution policy of Human Factors.

  14. Quo Vadis Clozapine? A Bibliometric Study of 45 Years of Research in International Context

    PubMed Central

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sanz-Fuentenebro, Javier; Rubio, Gabriel; García-García, Pilar; Álamo, Cecilio

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a bibliometric study about the international scientific publications on clozapine. We have used the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, and we applied bibliometric indicators of production, as Price’s Law on the increase of scientific literature. We also calculated the participation index (PI) of the different countries. The bibliometric data have also been correlated with some social and health data from the 12 most productive countries in biomedicine and health sciences. In addition, 5607 original documents dealing with clozapine, published between 1970 and 2013, were downloaded. Our results state non-fulfilment of Price’s Law, with scientific production on clozapine showing linear growth (r = 0.8691, vs. r = 0.8478 after exponential adjustment). Seven of the 12 journals with the highest numbers of publications on clozapine have an Impact Factor > 2. Among the countries generating clozapine research, the most prominent is the USA (PI = 24.32), followed by the UK (PI = 6.27) and Germany (PI = 5.40). The differences among countries on clozapine research are significantly related to economic variables linked to research. The scientific interest in clozapine remains remarkable, although after the application of bibliometric indicators of production, a saturation point is evident in the growth of scientific literature on this topic. PMID:26404263

  15. Quo Vadis Clozapine? A Bibliometric Study of 45 Years of Research in International Context.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sanz-Fuentenebro, Javier; Rubio, Gabriel; García-García, Pilar; Álamo, Cecilio

    2015-09-23

    We have carried out a bibliometric study about the international scientific publications on clozapine. We have used the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, and we applied bibliometric indicators of production, as Price's Law on the increase of scientific literature. We also calculated the participation index (PI) of the different countries. The bibliometric data have also been correlated with some social and health data from the 12 most productive countries in biomedicine and health sciences. In addition, 5607 original documents dealing with clozapine, published between 1970 and 2013, were downloaded. Our results state non-fulfilment of Price's Law, with scientific production on clozapine showing linear growth (r=0.8691, vs. r=0.8478 after exponential adjustment). Seven of the 12 journals with the highest numbers of publications on clozapine have an Impact Factor>2. Among the countries generating clozapine research, the most prominent is the USA (PI=24.32), followed by the UK (PI=6.27) and Germany (PI=5.40). The differences among countries on clozapine research are significantly related to economic variables linked to research. The scientific interest in clozapine remains remarkable, although after the application of bibliometric indicators of production, a saturation point is evident in the growth of scientific literature on this topic.

  16. Bibliometrics for Social Validation.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a bibliometric, citation network-based method for assessing the social validation of novel research, and applies this method to the development of high-throughput toxicology research at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Social validation refers to the acceptance of novel research methods by a relevant scientific community; it is formally independent of the technical validation of methods, and is frequently studied in history, philosophy, and social studies of science using qualitative methods. The quantitative methods introduced here find that high-throughput toxicology methods are spread throughout a large and well-connected research community, which suggests high social validation. Further assessment of social validation involving mixed qualitative and quantitative methods are discussed in the conclusion.

  17. Bibliometrics for Social Validation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a bibliometric, citation network-based method for assessing the social validation of novel research, and applies this method to the development of high-throughput toxicology research at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Social validation refers to the acceptance of novel research methods by a relevant scientific community; it is formally independent of the technical validation of methods, and is frequently studied in history, philosophy, and social studies of science using qualitative methods. The quantitative methods introduced here find that high-throughput toxicology methods are spread throughout a large and well-connected research community, which suggests high social validation. Further assessment of social validation involving mixed qualitative and quantitative methods are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:28005974

  18. Telescope Bibliometrics 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, Uta; Lagerstrom, Jill

    During recent years, bibliometric studies have become increasingly important in evaluating individual scientists, institutes, and entire observatories. In astronomy, often librarians are involved in maintaining publication databases and compiling statistics for their institutions. In this paper, we present a look behind the scenes to understand who is interested in bibliometric statistics, which methodologies astronomy librarians apply, and what kind of features next-generation bibliographies may include.

  19. A Bibliometric Study to Manage a Journal Collection in an Astronomical Library: Some Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Monique

    The evaluation of the use of library collections is a fundamental tool for the development of a relevant and cost-effective collection. Bibliometrics offers several methods to measure the level of use of collections. In this paper, we present the first results of a bibliometric analysis of the references cited in the articles published by authors of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias during the last decade. We have determined which kinds of publications and which journals are mainly used. We also have studied the ages of the cited journals and their cost-effectiveness. Additionally, to see if the advent of the WWW in the mid 1990s has influenced the reading or citing practices of the authors, we have compared two sets of data: articles published over the period 1991--3 that we define as the pre-WWW period and articles published over the period 1997--9 defined as the WWW period.

  20. Trends in Scientific Literature on Atypical Antipsychotics in South Korea: A Bibliometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Winston W.; Pae, Chi-Un; Moreno, Raquel; Rubio, Gabriel; Molina, Juan D.; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel A.; Huelves, Lorena; Álamo, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have carried out a bibliometric study on the scientific publications in relation to atypical or second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in South Korea. Methods With the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, we selected those publications made in South Korea whose title included the descriptors atypic* (atypical*) antipsychotic*, second-generation antipsychotic*, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, quetiapine, sertindole, aripiprazole, paliperidone, amisulpride, zotepine, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, perospirone and blonanserin. We applied some bibliometric indicators of paper production and dispersion with Price's law and Bradford's law, respectively. We also calculated the participation index (PI) of the different countries, and correlated the bibliometric data with some social and health data from Korea (such as total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development). Results We collected 326 original papers published between 1993 and 2011. Our results state fulfilment of fulfilled Price's law, with scientific production on SGAs showing exponential growth (correlation coefficient r=0.8978, as against an r=0.8149 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were risperidone (91 papers), aripiprazole (77), olanzapine (53), and clozapine (43). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (36 articles). A total of 86 different journals were published, with 4 of the first 10 used journals having an impact factor being greater than 4. Conclusion The publications on SGAs in South Korea have undergone exponential growth over the studied period, without evidence of reaching a saturation point. PMID:23482954

  1. A bibliometric analysis of cancer research in South Africa: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Jennifer; Singh, Vedantha; Kagina, Benjamin M; Abdullahi, Leila; Hussey, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is an important and growing public health burden in South Africa (SA). Over the past few decades, there has been considerable scientific activity in cancer in SA. However, there has been limited analysis of cancer scientific publications. In this paper, we present a protocol for bibliometric analysis of cancer research conducted in SA. Methods and analysis A comprehensive search of the journal databases PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science and EBSCO will be conducted to identify and retrieve data from primary peer-reviewed cancer research articles using a set of consensus search words. Articles that involve cancer research conducted in SA or using biological or clinical data from South African participants and published between 2004 and 2014 will be included in the study. Two independent researchers will screen the articles for eligibility. Bibliometric indicators and study characteristics will be extracted, entered into a database and analysed. The cancer disease site will be recorded and research will be classified using the Common Scientific Outline system. Data obtained will be analysed to determine SA's publication productivity index in cancer research. Annual trends in bibliometric indicators and the type of cancer research will be determined. The degree of collaboration in research conducted in SA will be analysed using co-authorship matrix software. A publication to disease type ratio will be used to assess scientific production relative to disease burden. Ethics and dissemination As this analysis will draw on publicly available data and does not directly involve human participants, ethical review is not required. We anticipate that the bibliometric analysis will identify the trends in cancer research productivity and the extent to which cancer research is aligned to the local burden of disease. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented in a user-friendly format to relevant policymakers and funders. PMID:25678542

  2. Why Bibliometrics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerstrom, J.

    2012-08-01

    Why bibliometrics? This presentation will give a brief overview of the history of bibliometrics. More specific to astronomy, this presentation will discuss the results of a survey which will reveal how various facilities HST, Chandra, ground-based, etc. are using various aspects of paper- and citation-counting to provi de information about their research output.

  3. Bibliometrics, Librarians, and Bibliograms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets forth an integrated way of introducing bibliometrics to relatively non-quantitative audiences, such as librarians and iSchool students. The integrative device is the bibliogram, a linguistic object consisting of a seed term and the terms that co-occur with it, ranked by their co-occurrence counts with the seed--a standard…

  4. A bibliometric study of scientific research conducted on second-generation antipsychotic drugs in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sim, Kang; Shen, Winston Wu; Huelves, Lorena; Moreno, Raquel; Molina, Juan de Dios; Rubio, Gabriel; Noriega, Concha; Ángel Miguel, Pérez-Nieto; Álamo, Cecilio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A bibliometric study was carried out to ascertain the volume and impact of scientific literature published on second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in Singapore from 1997 to 2011. METHODS A search of the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases was performed to identify articles originating from Singapore that included the descriptors ‘atypic* antipsychotic*’, ‘second-generation antipsychotic*’, ‘clozapine’, ‘risperidone’, ‘olanzapine’, ‘ziprasidone’, ‘quetiapine’, ‘sertindole’, ‘aripiprazole’, ‘paliperidone’, ‘amisulpride’, ‘zotepine’, ‘asenapine’, ‘iloperidone’, ‘lurasidone’, ‘perospirone’ and ‘blonanserin’ in the article titles. Certain bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion (e.g. Price's Law on the increase of scientific literature, and Bradford's Law) were applied, and the participation index of various countries was calculated. The bibliometric data was also correlated with some social and health data from Singapore, such as the total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development. RESULTS From 1997 to 2011, a total of 51 articles on SGAs in Singapore were published. Our results suggested non-fulfilment of Price's Law (r = 0.0648 after exponential adjustment vs. r = 0.2140 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were clozapine (21 articles), risperidone (16 articles) and olanzapine (8 articles). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (6 articles) and the Singapore Medical Journal (4 articles). The analysed material was published in a total of 30 journals, with the majority from six journals. Four of these six journals have an impact factor greater than 2. CONCLUSION Publications on SGAs in Singapore are still too few to confirm an exponential growth of scientific literature. PMID:24452974

  5. Developing Comparative Bibliometric Indicators for Evaluating the Research Performance of Four Academic Nutrition Departments, 1992-1996: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Eric George

    This study develops a set of empirically and theoretically sound citation-based bibliometric indicators of scientific research performance and applies them in an exploratory comparative study of the University of Tennessee-Knoxville's (UTK's) Nutrition Department with three of its peer programs at the University of Florida, the University of…

  6. Bibliometric Analysis of Parasitological Research in Iran and Turkey: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, A; Rahimi, B; Delirrad, M

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was designed to assess and compare the quantity and quality of Iranian and Turkish researchers working in the field of Parasitology from bibliometric point of view. Methods To assess the contributions and achievements of the Iranian and Turkish parasitologists, bibliometric analysis was carried out based on the citation data retrieved from Web of Science. Results The absolute productivity of Turkish and Iranian parasitologists’ papers has almost tripled for Turkey, from 12 papers in 2002 to 36 papers in 2011, and decuple for Iran, from 10 papers to 123 from 2002 to 2010. The average number of citation per article is about 5.8 and 4 for Turkish and Iranian parasitologists’ papers, respectively. The “Veterinary Parasitology” journal was the most cited journal in both countries. The majority (more than 90%) of cited items was foreign journal articles and one half of all references in journals articles dated 11 and 12 years while one half of cited books was dated within 14 to16 years for Turkish and Iranian papers, respectively. Conclusion Based on observed data and applied model, it is anticipated that the total number of Iranian and Turkish parasitologists’ publications in Web of Science will exceed of 2512 and 240 articles per annum for Iranian and Turkish in 2020, respectively. PMID:23914246

  7. Map of Scientific Publication in the Field of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education in Turkey: A Bibliometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çiftçi, Serife Koza; Danisman, Sahin; Yalçin, Mikail; Tosuntas, Sule Betül; Ay, Yusuf; Sölpük, Nihan; Karadag, Engin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to create a map for the scientific publications in the field of educational sciences and teacher education in Turkey. A bibliometric analysis was carried out with 7681 articles published in 32 different peer reviewed journals between 2005 and 2014. The findings show that one third of all articles were published in core journals…

  8. [Research on quality of health care from the Mexican Social Security Institute: a bibliometric study].

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Navarro, Susana; Gómez-Delgado, Alejandro; Riebeling-Navarro, Carlos; López-García, Gloria Araceli; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify studies on quality of health care in the IMSS. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A bibliometric, descriptive cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted, from 1992 to 2011. RESULTS. We identified 881 research studies related to the issue of quality (CI95% 10.6-12.0) of 7 762 studies presented at the annual research meetings. 10 521 articles were published in this period of time and only 946 (CI95% 8.4-9.5) were linked to the issue of quality. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study allowed us to identify the interest about research on quality. Further research is needed to establish what has been the impact on the improvement of quality in health care.

  9. [Trends and evolutions of French breast cancer research: a bibliometric study].

    PubMed

    Thonon, Frédérique; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Nerfie, Alexia; Delaloge, Suzette

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a bibliometric study carried out in order to describe the trends and evolutions of French breast cancer research from 2003 to 2013. The results show an increase in the number of publications, especially international publications coordinated by non-French institutions. The most visible topics, in terms of number of publications by keywords, are related to biology, clinical trials and genetics. Most publications are written by authors affiliated to comprehensive cancer centres, followed by universities, research centres, university hospitals and governmental agencies. The importance of publications by topic varies throughout the years: there has been an increase of the number of publications related to targeted therapies or genomics. The importance of institutions or country affiliation of authors varies with the topics. This study, especially the analysis by keywords, enables the coordinators of research programs to identify the predominant actors and themes.

  10. Bibliometric study of Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 1982-2009.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Colleen; Werner, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    Medical Reference Services Quarterly began publication in 1982, covering topics of current interest and practical value to public services librarians in medical and related specialties. Since then, it has expanded in scope to include more aspects of health sciences librarianship. This article is a systematic study of all 428 peer-reviewed articles published from 1982 through 2009, with a comprehensive description of content and a citation analysis. Content is extensively analyzed for article subject, and cited references are examined for subject, type of cited material, and average age. In addition, author, institutional, and regional productivity is determined and ranked.

  11. Dupuytren's Contracture: A Bibliometric Study of the Most Cited Papers.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Cormac Weekes; Joyce, Kenneth Mary; Rahmani, George; Carroll, Sean Michael; Kelly, Jack Laurence; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-10-01

    The literature on Dupuytren's contracture is vast yet little information is known as to which papers have been the most influential. The purpose of this study was to identify the 50 most cited papers on Dupuytren's contracture and perform a citation analysis. Utilizing the Web of Science, 23 surgical, medical, plastic and hand surgery journals were searched for papers on Dupuytren's contracture. Resulting articles were ranked in order of times cited and each paper was analyzed for article-type, year of publication, country of origin, institution and level of evidence. The 50 most cited articles represent many important landmarks in Dupuytren's treatment and contain several seminal works by experts in the field. Whilst the top 50 list highlights the important papers on the condition, they certainly do not provide information about the quality of the evidence of the research, as most papers presented level 4 or 5 evidence.

  12. Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, Nancy L.; Wiese, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Methods: Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Results: Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5–3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. Conclusions: The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature. PMID:14566374

  13. A Bibliometric and Trend Analysis on the Water-Related Risk Assessment Studies for Cryptosporidium Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; YOUNESIAN, Masuod; NASSERI, Simin; NABIZADEH NODEHI, Ramin; HADI, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The bibliometric methods have been used in many disciplines of sciences to study the scientific production and research trends. In this study, they were used to investigate research trends related to the risk assessment of Cryptosporidium pathogen in water field. Methods: Data were obtained on the Scopus database from 1993 to 2013. Research tendency was investigated by analyzing the distribution of languages, countries, journals, author keywords, authorship pattern and co-authorship relations. Results: The English language was dominant language of all publications (96.36%). Number of articles in this field increased from 2 in 1993 to 29 papers in 2007 and then received to 19 at the end of 2013. United States produced 35.41% of all pertinent articles followed by United Kingdom with 10.76% and Australia with 9.92%. Water Research Journal published the most papers in this field, taking 11.62% of all, followed by Journal of Water and Health (10.92%) and Water Science and Technology (10.21%). The most productive authors were Ashbolt NJ form Canada that accounts about 1.51% of the total publications followed by Rose JB and Haas CN from United States. Authorship pattern analysis results show that literature does follow Lotka’s law (P=0.627). Conclusion: A downward trend in the number of publications is likely to occur in future. The results of this bibliometric analysis may help relevant researchers realize the scope of the microbial risk assessment research of Cryptosporidium, and establish the further research direction. PMID:26622289

  14. [Bibliometrics study on indications of acupuncture therapy based on foreign acupuncture clinical trials].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Kai; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Hong-Cai

    2012-10-01

    In the present paper, the authors make a bibliometrics study on clinical indications of acupuncture therapy based on the published foreign articles about acupuncture clinical trials collected from PubMed database and Excerpta Medica database (EMbase). In 1996, 64 acupuncture indications were declared by WHO in Milan conference. But in recent 15 years, clinical trials have been conducted extensively in the foreign countries. Till now, 77 new indications for acupuncture therapy have been found in the foreign journals. The authors recommended that 29 indications (knee osteoarthritis, critique age problems, muscular fasciae ache, anxiety, etc.) should be added to the first class, 4 indications (irritable bowel syndrome, malposition, backache, simple obesity) should be upgraded from the second class to the first class, and the other 3 indications (childbirth pain, male and female barren) should be upgraded from the third class to the first class due to their application frequency in clinical trials. Increase of clinical indications reflects extensive application of acupuncture therapy and may help providing a better service for people's health.

  15. Research Trends in the Study of ICT Based Learning Communities: A Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Jonathan Bermúdez; Chalela, Salim; Arias, Jackeline Valencia; Arias, Alejandro Valencia

    2017-01-01

    The current opportunities to develop and acquire knowledge in the network, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) play a major role in the learning process. This research offers a bibliometric analysis in order to examine the state of the research activity carried out in relation to the learning communities based on ICT. The indicators…

  16. Trends in performance indicators of neuroimaging anatomy research publications: a bibliometric study of major neuroradiology journal output over four decades based on web of science database.

    PubMed

    Wing, Louise; Massoud, Tarik F

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative, qualitative, and innovative application of bibliometric research performance indicators to anatomy and radiology research and education can enhance cross-fertilization between the two disciplines. We aim to use these indicators to identify long-term trends in dissemination of publications in neuroimaging anatomy (including both productivity and citation rates), which has subjectively waned in prestige during recent years. We examined publications over the last 40 years in two neuroradiological journals, AJNR and Neuroradiology, and selected and categorized all neuroimaging anatomy research articles according to theme and type. We studied trends in their citation activity over time, and mathematically analyzed these trends for 1977, 1987, and 1997 publications. We created a novel metric, "citation half-life at 10 years postpublication" (CHL-10), and used this to examine trends in the skew of citation numbers for anatomy articles each year. We identified 367 anatomy articles amongst a total of 18,110 in these journals: 74.2% were original articles, with study of normal anatomy being the commonest theme (46.7%). We recorded a mean of 18.03 citations for each anatomy article, 35% higher than for general neuroradiology articles. Graphs summarizing the rise (upslope) in citation rates after publication revealed similar trends spanning two decades. CHL-10 trends demonstrated that more recently published anatomy articles were likely to take longer to reach peak citation rate. Bibliometric analysis suggests that anatomical research in neuroradiology is not languishing. This novel analytical approach can be applied to other aspects of neuroimaging research, and within other subspecialties in radiology and anatomy, and also to foster anatomical education.

  17. Yoga as a Therapeutic Intervention: A Bibliometric Analysis of Published Research Studies from 1967 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Slutsky, Jeremiah; Singh, Nilkamal; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: A comprehensive bibliometric analysis was conducted on publications for yoga therapy research in clinical populations. Methods: Major electronic databases were searched for articles in all languages published between 1967 and 2013. Databases included PubMed, PsychInfo, MEDLINE, IndMed, Indian Citation Index, Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region, Web of Knowledge, Embase, EBSCO, and Google Scholar. Nonindexed journals were searched manually. Key search words included yoga, yoga therapy, pranayama, asana. All studies met the definition of a clinical trial. All styles of yoga were included. The authors extracted the data. Results: A total of 486 articles met the inclusion criteria and were published in 217 different peer-reviewed journals from 29 different countries on 28,080 study participants. The primary result observed is the three-fold increase in number of publications seen in the last 10 years, inclusive of all study designs. Overall, 45% of the studies published were randomized controlled trials, 18% were controlled studies, and 37% were uncontrolled studies. Most publications originated from India (n=258), followed by the United States (n=122) and Canada (n=13). The top three disorders addressed by yoga interventions were mental health, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease. Conclusion: A surge in publications on yoga to mitigate disease-related symptoms in clinical populations has occurred despite challenges facing the field of yoga research, which include standardization and limitations in funding, time, and resources. The population at large has observed a parallel surge in the use of yoga outside of clinical practice. The use of yoga as a complementary therapy in clinical practice may lead to health benefits beyond traditional treatment alone; however, to effect changes in health care policy, more high-quality, evidence-based research is needed. PMID:26196166

  18. Regional inequality in radiology research output in the UK: a 5-year bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Yoong, P; Johnson, C A; Rehman, J M; Toms, A P

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the patterns of peer-reviewed general radiology publication rates with reference to deaneries in the UK. This was a retrospective bibliometric analysis of publications in the six highest cited general radiology journals. Publications were identified using a manual search in PubMed between 2005 and 2009. Publications originating from UK radiology departments were identified and subcategorised into primary institution of origin, deanery and publication type. The total number of radiology trainees in each deanery was obtained from the General Medical Council. 913 publications were included in the study. Original papers constituted 48.7% (n=445), review articles 30.3% (n=277) and case reports 17.4% (n=159). The median number of publications in each deanery was 27 [interquartile range (IQR) 11-60], and the median number of publications per trainee was 0.49 (IQR 0.31-0.88). The largest proportion of publications came from the London deanery (n=354, 38.8%), followed by Eastern 86 (9.4%), Oxford and Yorkshire 70 (7.7% each). Relative to the number of trainees within each deanery, Oxford had the highest number of publications per trainee (1.78), followed by East Midlands (1.5), London (1.25) and Eastern (0.99). There was a significantly higher publication rate for those deaneries with academic radiologists (p<0.0001). There is a marked difference in the volume of published work in the general radiology literature among UK deaneries, even accounting for differences in the number of trainees. This probably means that opportunities for training in research are similarly non-uniform.

  19. Community pharmacy-based research in Spain (1995-2005): A bibliometric study

    PubMed Central

    Andrés Iglesias, José Carlos; Andrés Rodríguez, N. Floro; Fornos Pérez, José Antonio

    Only one study evaluated the scientific activity in community pharmacies in Spain, and it was restricted to articles published in just two journals. Objective To assess the scientific activity in community pharmacies in Spain through a bibliometric analysis of the original papers published during the years 1995-2005. Methods IPA, MEDLINE, CSIC database and the journals Seguimiento Farmacoterapéutico y Pharmaceutical Care España were used as data sources. Production indicators, consumption indicators and the impact factor (IF) as a repercussion index were analyzed. Results 122 articles were included in the review. The articles were published in 12 journals, 78.7% of them in Pharmaceutical Care España and Seguimiento Farmacoterapéutico. The mean number of authors per article was 4.2 (SD=2.1). The transitivity index was 71.3%. The total number of references cited in the articles was 2110. The mean number of references per article was 17.3 SD=9.3. The value of the insularity index was 57.6%. Self citation was 6.8% and the Price index was 66.5%. No impact factor was available for 6 journals. Conclusions Publication of articles on community pharmacy-based research in Spain has undergone an important increase in the last 5 years. The existence of authors who publish very few studies, the high insularity index and the lack of randomized, controlled trials may be considered as negative indicators in community pharmacy-based research in Spain. PMID:25214914

  20. Bibliometrics, dermatology and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R

    2008-09-01

    Although the fields of bibliometrics and citation analysis have existed for many years, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the dermatological literature. This article reviews citation-based research in the dermatology journals, with a particular interest in manuscripts that have included Contact Dermatitis as part of their analysis. Overall, it can be seen that the rise of bibliometrics during the mid-20th century and its subsequent application to dermatology has provided an interesting insight into the progression of research within our discipline. Further investigation of citation trends and top-cited papers in skin research periodicals would certainly help complement the current body of knowledge.

  1. A Bibliometric Analysis of Climate Engineering Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belter, C. W.; Seidel, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The past five years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of media and scientific publications on the topic of climate engineering, or geoengineering, and some scientists are increasingly calling for more research on climate engineering as a possible supplement to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. In this context, understanding the current state of climate engineering research can help inform policy discussions and guide future research directions. Bibliometric analysis - the quantitative analysis of publications - is particularly applicable to fields with large bodies of literature that are difficult to summarize by traditional review methods. The multidisciplinary nature of the published literature on climate engineering makes it an ideal candidate for bibliometric analysis. Publications on climate engineering are found to be relatively recent (more than half of all articles during 1988-2011 were published since 2008), include a higher than average percentage of non-research articles (30% compared with 8-15% in related scientific disciplines), and be predominately produced by countries located in the Northern Hemisphere and speaking English. The majority of this literature focuses on land-based methods of carbon sequestration, ocean iron fertilization, and solar radiation management and is produced with little collaboration among research groups. This study provides a summary of existing publications on climate engineering, a perspective on the scientific underpinnings of the global dialogue on climate engineering, and a baseline for quantitatively monitoring the development of climate engineering research in the future.

  2. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina.

  3. Dictionary of Bibliometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil

    This dictionary explains 225 terms used in bibliometrics, and it provides nontechnical definitions of bibliometric concepts and suggests sources where more information can be found about the defined term. Special features include sample references, cross references, variants (synonyms), and an index of names. The introduction relates the terms of…

  4. [Definition and use of bibliometrics in research].

    PubMed

    Sillet, Arnauld

    2013-12-01

    Bibliometrics is a tool used to achieve quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output, teams or even individuals in the field of scientific research. It is also important to know the basics of this method such as the impact factor, the h-index and how journals are evaluated.

  5. [A bibliometrics study of literature on medical image processing for the past ten years].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Yanbin; Ouyang, Zhaolian; Guo, Wenjiao; Chi, Hui

    2014-02-01

    We searched and retrieved literature on the topic of medical image processing published on SCI journals in the past 10 years. We then imported the retrieved literature into TDA for data cleanup before data analysis and pro cessing by EXCLE and UCINET to generate tables and figures that could indicate disciplinary correlation and research hotspots from the perspective of bibliometrics. The results indicated that people in Europe and USA were leading researchers on medical image processing with close international cooperation. Many disciplines contributed to the fast development of medical image processing with intense interdisciplinary researches. The papers that we found show recent research hotspots of the algorithm, system, model, image and segmentation in the field of medical image processing. Cluster analysis on key words of high frequency demonstrated complicated clustering relationship.

  6. Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: a bibliometric analysis of published research studies.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2004-07-01

    Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, it has also been used clinically as a therapeutic intervention. A bibliometric analysis on the biomedical journal literature involving research on the clinical application of yoga has revealed an increase in publication frequency over the past 3 decades with a substantial and growing use of randomized controlled trials. Types of medical conditions have included psychopathological (e.g. depression, anxiety), cardiovascular (e.g. hypertension, heart disease), respiratory (e.g. asthma), diabetes and a variety of others. A majority of this research has been conducted by Indian investigators and published in Indian journals, particularly yoga specialty journals, although recent trends indicate increasing contributions from investigators in the U.S. and England. Yoga therapy is a relatively novel and emerging clinical discipline within the broad category of mind-body medicine, whose growth is consistent with the burgeoning popularity of yoga in the West and the increasing worldwide use of alternative medicine.

  7. A bibliometric study on chemical information and computer sciences focusing on literature of JCICS.

    PubMed

    Onodera, N

    2001-01-01

    A bibliometric approach was used to survey the state-of-the-art of research in the field of chemical information and computer sciences (CICS). By examining the CA database for the articles abstracted under the subsection "Chemical information, documentation, and data processing", Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences (JCICS) was identified to have been the top journal in this subsection for the last 30 years. Based on this result, CA subsections and controlled index terms given to JCICS articles were analyzed to see trends in subjects and topics in the CICS field during the last two decades. These analyses revealed that the subjects of research in CICS have diversified from traditional information science and computer applications to chemistry to "molecular information sciences". The SCISEARCH database was used to grasp interdependency between JCICS and other key journals and also the international nature of JCICS in its publications and citedness.

  8. Bibliometrical Study of the Scientific Production and Citation of Dr. Guillermo Haro Barraza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata-Acosta, V.; Jiménez-Fragozo, M. E.; Figueroa-Servin, R. D.

    2010-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to characterize the bibliometric behavior of the scientific work of Dr. Guillermo Haro (March 21, 1913 - April 26, 1988). Professor Haro's scientific writings spanned from 1944 to 1988. In this paper, we consider citations made up until February 9, 2009. The methodology used is based on the creation of three databases. The first database is composed of a total of 93 articles with their publication data. The second database contains 710 references cited in those articles, and the third database comprises 830 citations retrieved from the NASA Astrophysics Data System, in addition to the archive that contains the complete text of the articles for their thematic analysis. For the interpretation of these data, several indicators and mathematical models were used which give us both the characteristics of the scientific communication of this author over the course of 44 years as well as the characteristics of the citations received.

  9. The evolution of dental journals from 2003 to 2012: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometrics are a set of methods, which can be used to analyze academic literature quantitatively and its changes over time. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate trends related to academic performance of dental journals from 2003 to 2012 using bibliometric indices, and 2) monitor the changes of the five dental journals with the highest and lowest impact factor (IF) published in 2003. Data for the subject category "Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine" was retrieved from the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) published from 2003 to 2012. Linear regressions analysis was used to determine statistical trends over the years with each bibliometric indicator as the dependent variable and the JCR year as the predictor variable. Statistically significant rise in the total number of dental journals, the number of all articles with the steepest rise observed for research articles, the number of citations and the aggregate IF was observed from 2003 to 2012. The analysis of the five top and five bottom-tire dental journals revealed a rise in IF however, with a wide variation in relation to the magnitude of this rise. Although the IF of the top five journals remained relatively constant, the percentile ranks of the four lowest ranking journals in 2003 increased significantly with the sharpest rise being noted for the British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. This study revealed significant growth of dental literature in absolute terms, as well as upward trends for most of the citation-based bibliometric indices from 2003 to 2012.

  10. Universality in bibliometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Kalil, Fahad; de Oliveira, José Palazzo Moreira; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2012-03-01

    Many discussions have enlarged the literature in Bibliometrics since the Hirsch proposal, the so called h-index. Ranking papers according to their citations, this index quantifies a researcher only by its greatest possible number of papers that are cited at least h times. A closed formula for h-index distribution that can be applied for distinct databases is not yet known. In fact, to obtain such distribution, the knowledge of citation distribution of the authors and its specificities are required. Instead of dealing with researchers randomly chosen, here we address different groups based on distinct databases. The first group is composed of physicists and biologists, with data extracted from Institute of Scientific Information (ISI). The second group is composed of computer scientists, in which data were extracted from Google-Scholar system. In this paper, we obtain a general formula for the h-index probability density function (pdf) for groups of authors by using generalized exponentials in the context of escort probability. Our analysis includes the use of several statistical methods to estimate the necessary parameters. Also an exhaustive comparison among the possible candidate distributions are used to describe the way the citations are distributed among authors. The h-index pdf should be used to classify groups of researchers from a quantitative point of view, which is meaningfully interesting to eliminate obscure qualitative methods.

  11. Tracing thought through time and space: a selective review of bibliometrics in social work.

    PubMed

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Bibliometrics is a field of research that examines bodies of knowledge within and across disciplines. Citation analysis, a component of bibliometrics, focuses on the quantitative assessment of citation patterns within a body of literature. Citation analysis has been used in social work to examine the quantity and the impact of the work of individuals and academic institutions. This paper presents a selective review of these uses of bibliometrics within social work.

  12. [Bibliometric study of the activity, structure, and evolution of radiology in Spain].

    PubMed

    Miguel-Dasit, A

    2006-01-01

    From a bibliometric perspective, we reviewed: 1) the scientific activity in the field of diagnostic imaging in Spain, based on the percentage of presentations at the SERAM congresses (1994-1998) later published as articles in scientific journals. The value obtained (15%) is low in comparison with other international congresses, although similar to values for other national congresses in radiology. Both in national and international congresses, collaboration among radiologists from different institutions or countries and between radiologists and clinicians increases the percentage of publications, thus confirming the positive correlation between collaboration and scientific productivity. 2) We also examined the relationship between scientific productivity and the hierarchical structure of Spanish radiology departments (resident, associate, section chief, and department chief). Hierarchical groupings with the participation of residents were found to be more stable from year to year in scientific production, and the group residents + associates had the highest percentage of authorship (21%). 3) Finally, we reviewed the literature to assess the visibility and dissemination of the journal Radiología, estimating the impact factor that the journal would obtain if it were included in the Journal Citation Reports (JRC) database. We emphasize the importance of the inclusion of Radiología both in Medline, the best known and most widely used source of information in the health sciences, and in the JCR.

  13. Bibliometric study of radiation application on microdose useful for new drug development.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Fumio; Suzuki, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Inoue, Tomio

    2009-12-01

    In spite of the sharp increase in both private and government R&D fund, the number of newly approved medicines for market had decreased since the 1990s. This is attributed to a large extent to the bottleneck in the critical path arising from the great disparity between animal model in pre-clinical trial and human model in clinical trial. This bottleneck may be expected to be gotten rid of by change in paradigm of drug development based on microdosing, which is enabled by radiation-related imaging technology. However, this is impossible without being accompanied by interdisciplinary joint researches, in which clinical investigators belonging to medical schools or hospitals play the most decisive role. In this article, authors verify based on bibliometrics that Japan has not employed the opportunity for revitalizing drug research activities because Japanese researchers' attitude toward radiation technology may not be so positive in comparison with the US, and because the role which clinical investigators play in the phase of pre-clinical trial is smaller in Japan than in the US.

  14. Usage Bibliometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Bollen, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Scholarly usage data provides unique opportunities to address the known shortcomings of citation analysis. However, the collection, processing and analysis of usage data remains an area of active research. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art in usage-based informetric, i.e. the use of usage data to study the scholarly process.

  15. Scientific workflows for bibliometrics.

    PubMed

    Guler, Arzu Tugce; Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; Palmblad, Magnus

    Scientific workflows organize the assembly of specialized software into an overall data flow and are particularly well suited for multi-step analyses using different types of software tools. They are also favorable in terms of reusability, as previously designed workflows could be made publicly available through the myExperiment community and then used in other workflows. We here illustrate how scientific workflows and the Taverna workbench in particular can be used in bibliometrics. We discuss the specific capabilities of Taverna that makes this software a powerful tool in this field, such as automated data import via Web services, data extraction from XML by XPaths, and statistical analysis and visualization with R. The support of the latter is particularly relevant, as it allows integration of a number of recently developed R packages specifically for bibliometrics. Examples are used to illustrate the possibilities of Taverna in the fields of bibliometrics and scientometrics.

  16. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  17. Trends in matrix metalloproteinase research from 1986-2007: a bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Robert, Claude; Wilson, Concepción S; Gaudy, Jean-François; Hornebeck, William; Arreto, Charles-Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Using the SCI-expanded database, this study provides a quantitative description of the development of the research involving matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) over a period of 20 years. From 1986 to 2007 the scientific literature related to MMP increased sevenfold (397 papers in 1986-1987 and 2834 in 2006-2007). The number of countries participating in MMP-related research doubled during this period (33 in 1986-1987 to 67 in 2006-2007), and the USA continually remained the leader. Several industrialized nations (Japan, Germany, UK, Canada, and France) also continuously played important roles, with some emerging Asian countries joining the top 10 most productive countries in 2006-2007: China (ranked 5th), South Korea (6th), and Taiwan (10th). The MMP-related literature was distributed among a continuously growing number of journals (188 in 1986-1987, 527 in 1996-1997, and 913 in 2006-2007) and The Journal of Biological Chemistry remained the most prolific throughout the entire period. The development of the research involving MMPs during the past two decades was also characterized by a progressive transfer of interest from basic research to clinical medicine; cell biology and pharmacology were important routes of investigation generally pursued by researchers. Journals dedicated to oncology have progressively risen to the top 8 most prolific journals during the 20 year period analyzed.

  18. Bibliometrics as politics: the case of emerging disciplines.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Academic nurses are increasingly turning to bibliometrics to assess the state and status of research publication in nursing in countries around the world. Early bibliometric studies were carried out by Cattell as part of a project to advance research in psychology in the early decades of the 20th century. There are some echoes in nursing's moves to increase its standing over the last 40 years. The interpretation of bibliometric studies can reveal embedded values about academic disciplinary activity and normative views of scientific work. Patterns of publishing by nurse academics appear increasingly to resemble those in biomedicine as a whole.

  19. What Is Bibliometrics and Why Should You Care?

    SciTech Connect

    McBurney, Melissa K. ); Novak, Pamela L. )

    2002-09-17

    When we help an author publish a book or journal article, is that the end of the job? Viewed in the aggregate, a company's publications represent one of its greatest business assets. Can professionals in the information and communication fields help their company understand the return on its investment in publishing? The field of bibliometrics studies publication patterns by using quantitative analysis and statistics. Bibliometrics can be either descriptive, such as looking at how many articles your organization has published, or evaluative, such as using citation analysis to look at how those articles influenced subsequent research by others. Counting publications can be useful for doing some comparisons, but citation analysis allows you to look at the impact those articles have had on others by determining how often they are cited. Citation analysis can also show what journals, organizations, and even countries have high impact in different fields of research. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) has been a leader in the citation analysis field since 1961, when ISI published the first Science Citation Index. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been using data from ISI for both descriptive and evaluative purposes. This data is used to track what the researchers at the Laboratory are writing and then comparing research groups within the organization over a period of years to identify trends and opportunities. PNNL has also used citation analysis to explore what organizations and academic institutions are doing research in certain fields for partnering opportunities. We have realized that the electronic system PNNL uses to approve and track its publications contains very valuable bibliometric data that can be used to make decisions about business directions for the company.

  20. [Bibliometrics of woody medical plants in China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoquan; Si, Jinping; Zhu, Yuqiu

    2010-03-01

    Using the theory and method of bibliometrics, this paper made statistical analysis on the research papers of 16 main woody medical plants published in the period of 1998-2007, from aspects of years distribution, journals distribution, themes distribution, authors distribution and research institutes distribution, and so on. The results showed the studies, status quto and development potential of woody medical plants.

  1. Climate Change Research in View of Bibliometrics.

    PubMed

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This bibliometric study of a large publication set dealing with research on climate change aims at mapping the relevant literature from a bibliometric perspective and presents a multitude of quantitative data: (1) The growth of the overall publication output as well as (2) of some major subfields, (3) the contributing journals and countries as well as their citation impact, and (4) a title word analysis aiming to illustrate the time evolution and relative importance of specific research topics. The study is based on 222,060 papers (articles and reviews only) published between 1980 and 2014. The total number of papers shows a strong increase with a doubling every 5-6 years. Continental biomass related research is the major subfield, closely followed by climate modeling. Research dealing with adaptation, mitigation, risks, and vulnerability of global warming is comparatively small, but their share of papers increased exponentially since 2005. Research on vulnerability and on adaptation published the largest proportion of very important papers (in terms of citation impact). Climate change research has become an issue also for disciplines beyond the natural sciences. The categories Engineering and Social Sciences show the strongest field-specific relative increase. The Journal of Geophysical Research, the Journal of Climate, the Geophysical Research Letters, and Climatic Change appear at the top positions in terms of the total number of papers published. Research on climate change is quantitatively dominated by the USA, followed by the UK, Germany, and Canada. The citation-based indicators exhibit consistently that the UK has produced the largest proportion of high impact papers compared to the other countries (having published more than 10,000 papers). Also, Switzerland, Denmark and also The Netherlands (with a publication output between around 3,000 and 6,000 papers) perform top-the impact of their contributions is on a high level. The title word analysis shows that

  2. Climate Change Research in View of Bibliometrics

    PubMed Central

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This bibliometric study of a large publication set dealing with research on climate change aims at mapping the relevant literature from a bibliometric perspective and presents a multitude of quantitative data: (1) The growth of the overall publication output as well as (2) of some major subfields, (3) the contributing journals and countries as well as their citation impact, and (4) a title word analysis aiming to illustrate the time evolution and relative importance of specific research topics. The study is based on 222,060 papers (articles and reviews only) published between 1980 and 2014. The total number of papers shows a strong increase with a doubling every 5–6 years. Continental biomass related research is the major subfield, closely followed by climate modeling. Research dealing with adaptation, mitigation, risks, and vulnerability of global warming is comparatively small, but their share of papers increased exponentially since 2005. Research on vulnerability and on adaptation published the largest proportion of very important papers (in terms of citation impact). Climate change research has become an issue also for disciplines beyond the natural sciences. The categories Engineering and Social Sciences show the strongest field-specific relative increase. The Journal of Geophysical Research, the Journal of Climate, the Geophysical Research Letters, and Climatic Change appear at the top positions in terms of the total number of papers published. Research on climate change is quantitatively dominated by the USA, followed by the UK, Germany, and Canada. The citation-based indicators exhibit consistently that the UK has produced the largest proportion of high impact papers compared to the other countries (having published more than 10,000 papers). Also, Switzerland, Denmark and also The Netherlands (with a publication output between around 3,000 and 6,000 papers) perform top—the impact of their contributions is on a high level. The title word analysis shows

  3. Plethora or paucity: a systematic search and bibliometric study of the application and design of qualitative methods in nursing research 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Ball, Elaine; McLoughlin, Moira; Darvill, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Qualitative methodology has increased in application and acceptability in all research disciplines. In nursing, it is appropriate that a plethora of qualitative methods can be found as nurses pose real-world questions to clinical, cultural and ethical issues of patient care (Johnson, 2007; Long and Johnson, 2007), yet the methods nurses readily use in pursuit of answers remains under intense scrutiny. One of the problems with qualitative methodology for nursing research is its place in the hierarchy of evidence (HOE); another is its comparison to the positivist constructs of what constitutes good research and the measurement of qualitative research against this. In order to position and strengthen its evidence base, nursing may well seek to distance itself from a qualitative perspective and utilise methods at the top of the HOE; yet given the relation of qualitative methods to nursing this would constrain rather than broaden the profession in search of answers and an evidence base. The comparison between qualitative and quantitative can be both mutually exclusive and rhetorical, by shifting the comparison this study takes a more reflexive position and critically appraises qualitative methods against the standards set by qualitative researchers. By comparing the design and application of qualitative methods in nursing over a two year period, the study examined how qualitative stands up to independent rather than comparative scrutiny. For the methods, a four-step mixed methods approach newly constructed by the first author was used to define the scope of the research question and develop inclusion criteria. 2. Synthesis tables were constructed to organise data, 3. Bibliometrics configured data. 4. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a critical interpretive synthesis (Dixon-Woods et al., 2006). The paper outlines the research process as well as findings. Results showed of the 240 papers analysed, 27% used ad hoc or no

  4. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion as an Antidote for the Treatment of Acute Poisoning: A Bibliometric Analysis of Human and Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Waring, W Stephen; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Rahhal, Belal; Awang, Rahmat

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the role of intravenous lipid formulations as potential antidotes in patients with severe cardiotoxicity caused by drug toxicity. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of all human and animal studies featuring lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. The Scopus database search was performed on 5 February 2016 to analyse the research output related to intravenous lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. Research indicators used for analysis included total number of articles, date (year) of publication, total citations, value of the h-index, document types, countries of publication, journal names, collaboration patterns and institutions. A total of 594 articles were retrieved from Scopus database for the period of 1955-2015. The percentage share of global intravenous lipid emulsion research output showed that research output was 85.86% in 2006-2015 with yearly average growth in this field of 51 articles per year. The USA, United Kingdom (UK), France, Canada, New Zealand, Germany, Australia, China, Turkey and Japan accounted for 449 (75.6%) of all the publications. The total number of citations for all documents was 9,333, with an average of 15.7 citations per document. The h-index of the retrieved documents for lipid emulsion research as antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning was 49. The USA and the UK achieved the highest h-indices, 34 and 14, respectively. New Zealand produced the greatest number of documents with international collaboration (51.9%) followed by Australia (50%) and Canada (41.4%) out of the total number of publications for each country. In summary, we found an increase in the number of publications in the field of lipid emulsion after 2006. The results of this study demonstrate that the majority of publications in the field of lipid emulsion were published by high-income countries. Researchers from

  5. Bibliometrics: From Curiosity to Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Emilie C.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on applications of bibliometrics (measurement of book or compositional entities according to methods that yield comparable results) in the field of information science. Highlights include quantification and qualification, Bradford's Law of Scattering, applications and classifications of citation analysis, and bibliometrics in library…

  6. Bibliometric indicators for evaluating the quality of scientifc publications.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Medha A

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of quality and quantity of publications can be done using a set of statistical and mathematical indices called bibliometric indicators. Two major categories of indicators are (1) quantitative indicators that measure the research productivity of a researcher and (2) performance indicators that evaluate the quality of publications. Bibliometric indicators are important for both the individual researcher and organizations. They are widely used to compare the performance of the individual researchers, journals and universities. Many of the appointments, promotions and allocation of research funds are based on these indicators. This review article describes some of the currently used bibliometric indicators such as journal impact factor, crown indicator, h-index and it's variants. It is suggested that for comparison of scientific impact and scientific output of researchers due consideration should be given to various factors affecting theses indicators.

  7. Bibliometric study of articles published in a Brazilian journal of pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Vanessa Ceolin; Faraco Junior, Italo Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the abstracts of all articles published in the 'Jornal Brasileiro de Odontopediatria e Odontologia do Bebê' in order to collect data on the study design used, the most researched topics and the Brazilian states with the highest scientific production. Copies were made of the abstracts of each article, totaling 572 abstracts. Data categorization was done by two trained and independent reviewers. The results showed that the most used study design were case report (33%) and cross-sectional study (30%). On the other hand, there were only 2.5% of randomized clinical trials and no systematic review or meta-analysis. The most researched topics were cariology (15%) and restorative dentistry / dental materials (10%). The state with the greatest number of publications was São Paulo (40%), followed by Rio de Janeiro (17%). It was concluded that the majority of the articles published referred to studies with a low potential to establish scientific evidence, indicating a need for conducting research based on better quality methodology. Moreover, it was found that the assessed literature reflected the trends observed in the clinical practice of Pediatric Dentistry in Brazil.

  8. Hotel Cosmopolitan: A Bibliometric Study of Collaboration at Some European Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Goran; Persson, Olle

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the collaborative patterns (internal, national, international, and mixed national and international) of 33 Nordic, United Kingdom, and Netherlands universities by analyzing institutionally co-authored articles from Science Citation Index (1993). Found no major difference between universities in articles with internal,…

  9. A Bibliometric Study of Scholarly Articles Published by Library and Information Science Authors about Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandbois, Jennifer; Beheshti, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to gain a greater understanding of the development of open access practices amongst library and information science authors, since their role is integral to the success of the broader open access movement. Method: Data were collected from scholarly articles about open access by library and information science authors…

  10. Quantitative analysis of PET studies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wolfgang A

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative analysis can be included relatively easily in clinical PET-imaging protocols, but in order to obtain meaningful quantitative results one needs to follow a standardized protocol for image acquisition and data analysis. Important factors to consider are the calibration of the PET scanner, the radiotracer uptake time and the approach for definition of regions of interests. Using such standardized acquisition protocols quantitative parameters of tumor metabolism or receptor status can be derived from tracer kinetic analysis and simplified approaches such as calculation of standardized uptake values (SUVs).

  11. [Scientific production and cancer-related collaboration networks in Peru 2000-2011: a bibliometric study in Scopus and Science Citation Index].

    PubMed

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Huamaní, Charles; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Samanez-Figari, César; González-Alcaide, Gregorio

    2013-03-01

    A bibliometric study was carried out to describe the scientific production on cancer written by Peruvians and published in international health journals, as well as to assess the scientific collaboration networks. It included articles on cancer written in Peru between the years 2000 and 2011 and published in health journals indexed in SCOPUS or Science Citation Index Expanded. In the 358 articles identified, an increase in the production was seen, from 4 articles in 2000 to 57 in 2011.The most studied types were cervical cancer (77 publications); breast cancer (53), and gastric cancer (37). The National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) was the most productive institution (121 articles) and had the highest number of collaborations (180 different institutions). 52 clinical trials were identified, 29 of which had at least one author from INEN. We can conclude that, cancer research is increasing in Peru, the INEN being the most productive institution, with an important participation in clinical trials.

  12. Finite Element Analysis Generates an Increasing Interest in Dental Research: A Bibliometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Abdoulaziz; Mushegyan, Vagan; Naveau, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to provide a longitudinal overview of published studies that use finite element analysis in dental research, by using the SCI-expanded database of Web of Science® (Thomson Reuters). Material and Methods: Eighty publications from 1999-2000 and 473 from 2009-2010 were retrieved. This literature grew faster than the overall dental literature. The number of publishing countries doubled. The main journals were American or English, and dealt with implantology. For the top 10 journals publishing dental finite element papers, the mean impact factor increased by 75% during the decade. Results: Finite elements generate an increasing interest from dental authors and publishers worldwide. PMID:27006722

  13. The Changing Landscape of Neuroscience Research, 2006–2015: A Bibliometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Goto, Tazuko K.; Leung, W. Keung

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is beneficial to evaluate changes in neuroscience research field regarding research directions and topics over a defined period. Such information enables stakeholders to quickly identify the most influential research and incorporate latest evidence into research-informed education. To our knowledge, no study reported changes in neuroscience literature over the last decade. Therefore, the current study determined research terms with highest citation scores, compared publication shares of research areas and contributing countries in this field from 2006 to 2015 and identified the most productive journals. Methods: Data were extracted from Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Only articles and reviews published in journals classified under the JCR “Neurosciences” category over the period of interest were included. Title and abstract fields of each included publication were extracted and analyzed via VOSviewer to identify recurring terms with high relative citation scores. Two term maps were produced for publications over the study period to illustrate the extent of co-occurrence, and the impact of terms was evaluated based on their relative citation scores. To further describe the recent research priority or “hot spots,” 10 terms with the highest relative citation scores were identified annually. In addition, by applying Bradford's law, we identified 10 journals being the most productive journals per annum over the survey period and evaluated their bilbiometric performances. Results: From 2006 to 2015, there were 47 terms involved in the annual lists of top 10 terms with highest relative citation scores. The most frequently recurring terms were autism (8), meta-analysis (7), functional connectivity (6), default mode network (4) and neuroimaging (4). Neuroscience research related to psychology and behavioral sciences showed an increase in publication share over the survey period, and China has become one of the major contributors to

  14. The Changing Landscape of Neuroscience Research, 2006-2015: A Bibliometric Study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Goto, Tazuko K; Leung, W Keung

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is beneficial to evaluate changes in neuroscience research field regarding research directions and topics over a defined period. Such information enables stakeholders to quickly identify the most influential research and incorporate latest evidence into research-informed education. To our knowledge, no study reported changes in neuroscience literature over the last decade. Therefore, the current study determined research terms with highest citation scores, compared publication shares of research areas and contributing countries in this field from 2006 to 2015 and identified the most productive journals. Methods: Data were extracted from Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Only articles and reviews published in journals classified under the JCR "Neurosciences" category over the period of interest were included. Title and abstract fields of each included publication were extracted and analyzed via VOSviewer to identify recurring terms with high relative citation scores. Two term maps were produced for publications over the study period to illustrate the extent of co-occurrence, and the impact of terms was evaluated based on their relative citation scores. To further describe the recent research priority or "hot spots," 10 terms with the highest relative citation scores were identified annually. In addition, by applying Bradford's law, we identified 10 journals being the most productive journals per annum over the survey period and evaluated their bilbiometric performances. Results: From 2006 to 2015, there were 47 terms involved in the annual lists of top 10 terms with highest relative citation scores. The most frequently recurring terms were autism (8), meta-analysis (7), functional connectivity (6), default mode network (4) and neuroimaging (4). Neuroscience research related to psychology and behavioral sciences showed an increase in publication share over the survey period, and China has become one of the major contributors to

  15. [On the proper use of bibliometrics to evaluate physicians and scientists].

    PubMed

    Bach, Jean-François

    2011-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of publications and their citations, a procedure known as bibliometrics, has become increasingly important in the evaluation of scientists and clinicians. In the clinical setting, bibliometrics is used for the calculation of hospital budgets. While bibliometrics is attractive because it rapidly provides numbers that bear a certain relation to scientific productivity, it is often misused. The parameters chosen are questionable and sometimes worthless because of material errors or inappropriate use. More importantly, reducing the activity of a scientist or physician simply to the number of his or her publications or citations, without analyzing the importance and impact of the work itself can lead to serious errors.

  16. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John S. F.; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002–13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009–13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  17. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mursheda; Lewison, Grant; Wright, John S F; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002-13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009-13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals.

  18. Dental research in Spain. A bibliometric analysis on subjects, authors and institutions (1993-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Aguilera, Felipe; Lucena-Martín, Cristina; Pulgar-Encinas, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bibliometrics is defined as the use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Our objective was to characterize Spanish scientific output in Dentistry through the analysis of Web of Science database in a 20-year period. By means of a bibliometric study documents were statistically analyzed using indicators that showed quantitative and qualitative aspects of the production. Specifically, time course of the scientific production within the time span was analysed, as were the journals where the article was published and the categories of Journal Citation Reports (JCR) in which they belong, thematic areas, authorship, and finally authors and institutions with the highest production in Spain. Material and Methods By means of the design of a specific search strategy previously described in the scientific literature, we recovered all citable documents about Dentistry signed by Spanish researchers and included in the WoS database between 1993 and 2012. Results A total of 3006 documents fulfilled the search criteria, of which 2449 (81.5%) were published in journals within the category Dentistry Oral Surgery and Medicine and 557 (18.5%) within other categories of the JCR. During the four quinquenniums studied, the production increased quantitatively (8.6-fold) and qualitatively. Finally, the universities of Granada and Complutense of Madrid were the institutions with the highest production and most prolific authors. Conclusions The Spanish dental production sharply increased in the last two decades, reaching quantitative and qualitative levels similar to those of the other medical specialties in the country. Key words:Dental research, dentistry, publications, Journal impact factor, bibliometrics, biomedical research, Spanish dental production. PMID:26827056

  19. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Charles; Masina, M. H.; Eichelberger, Lillian; Wharton, James D.

    1939-01-01

    A simple isolation of the prostate enabled quantitative collection of prostatic secretion in dogs over periods of months. The secretory stimulant was pilocarpine and 2 similar amounts injected with a 6 hour interval gave smaller amounts at the second testing, suggesting a fatigue effect. The prostate was not absolutely refractory since doubling the amount of alkaloid injected at the second test increased the volume to equal or exceed the preliminary secretion. The depression effect had disappeared at 24 hours. In normal dogs the secretory curves were essentially regular, with occasional prolonged rises or depressions. The amount of secretion did not bear a direct relationship to the weight of the gland in adult dogs. The germinal epithelium of the testis underwent atrophy during the first few weeks of cage life while the prostatic secretion was maintained, showing that the atrophy was differential and did not involve the cells producing the androgenic hormone. The atrophy was reversible and all dogs kept for more than 4 months showed restoration of the germ cells. A few dogs developed atrophy of the germinal cells with cessation of prostatic secretion for many weeks but with final recovery. Removal of the suprarenal glands with suprarenal insufficiency did not produce sterility. The distribution of electrolytes in the prostatic secretion differed from that in the serum-transudate system, although the concentration of osmotically active substances was the same, being made up almost entirely of sodium and chloride. The distribution was not affected by the different physiological procedures used in this study. Protein concentrations were less than 1 per cent. The rate of prostatic atrophy following castration was determined, and cessation of secretion occurred in 7 to 23 days. The restoration of prostatic fluid in castrate dogs following daily injections of testosterone propionate followed a smooth curve to form a plateau which was interrupted occasionally by

  20. Quantitative studies of immunofluorescent staining*

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Ernst H.; Sepulveda, Marion R.; Barnett, Eugene V.

    1968-01-01

    Reproducible titres of indirect immunofluorescent (IF) staining with antinuclear factor (ANF)-containing sera could be obtained with different antihuman IgG conjugates by quantitative adjustments of their characteristics. Conversely, one ANF yielded a broad range of ANF titre (80-640) upon appropriate adjustments of the conjugate characteristics. The same and related characteristics of the conjugates also afforded a basis for quantitatively defining the conditions under which non-specific staining (NSS) appeared. The salient characteristics of the anti-IgG conjugates include: (1) their strength of antiglobulin (expressed as units/ml of precipitating antibody or μg antibody N/ml); (2) their apparent fluorescein concentration (in μg F/ml); (3) their protein concentration (in mg/ml). Optical and immunologic sensitivity ratios are calculated from these conjugate characteristics. Optical sensitivity (expressed as fluorescein concentration to protein concentration (F/P) ratios), immunological sensitivities (expressed as units/1% protein) and the dilution employed serve to characterize quantitatively anti-IgG conjugates adequately to define their specific and non-specific staining properties. PMID:4179321

  1. Quantitative Studies and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Harry S.

    1976-01-01

    Author states that "...quantitative studies have demonstrated the impossibility of understanding the American Revolution without understanding the society in which it emerged. Combining the quantitative studies of early American social structure with the exploration of popular ideology or culture should...make possible a sense of how revolutionary…

  2. Understanding bibliometric parameters and analysis.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Asim F; Siddiqui, Adeel; Khan, Nickalus R; Cohen, Harris L

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometric parameters have become an important part of modern assessment of academic productivity. These parameters exist for the purpose of evaluating authors (publication count, citation count, h-index, m-quotient, hc-index, e-index, g-index, i-10 [i-n] index) and journals (impact factor, Eigenfactor, article influence score, SCImago journal rank, source-normalized impact per paper). Although in recent years there has been a proliferation of bibliometric parameters, the true meaning and appropriate use of these parameters is generally not well understood. Effective use of existing and emerging bibliometric tools can aid in assessment of academic productivity, including readiness for promotions and other awards. However, if not properly understood, the data can be misinterpreted and may be subject to manipulation. Familiarity with bibliometric parameters will aid in their effective implementation in the review of authors-whether individuals or groups-and journals, as well as their possible use in the promotions review process, maximizing the effectiveness of bibliometric analysis.

  3. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Christina H.; Pettibone, Kristianna G.; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in “important” research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research. PMID:26989272

  4. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach.

    PubMed

    Drew, Christina H; Pettibone, Kristianna G; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-03-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in "important" research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research.

  5. The bibliometric analysis of scholarly production: How great is the impact?

    PubMed

    Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A

    Bibliometric methods or "analysis" are now firmly established as scientific specialties and are an integral part of research evaluation methodology especially within the scientific and applied fields. The methods are used increasingly when studying various aspects of science and also in the way institutions and universities are ranked worldwide. A sufficient number of studies have been completed, and with the resulting literature, it is now possible to analyse the bibliometric method by using its own methodology. The bibliometric literature in this study, which was extracted from Web of Science, is divided into two parts using a method comparable to the method of Jonkers et al. (Characteristics of bibliometrics articles in library and information sciences (LIS) and other journals, pp. 449-551, 2012: The publications either lie within the Information and Library Science (ILS) category or within the non-ILS category which includes more applied, "subject" based studies. The impact in the different groupings is judged by means of citation analysis using normalized data and an almost linear increase can be observed from 1994 onwards in the non-ILS category. The implication for the dissemination and use of the bibliometric methods in the different contexts is discussed. A keyword analysis identifies the most popular subjects covered by bibliometric analysis, and multidisciplinary articles are shown to have the highest impact. A noticeable shift is observed in those countries which contribute to the pool of bibliometric analysis, as well as a self-perpetuating effect in giving and taking references.

  6. Bibliometric analysis of output and impact based on CRIS data: a case study on the registered output of a Dutch university.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Thed N; van Wijk, Erik; Wouters, Paul F

    In this study we combine the registered output of a whole university in the Netherlands with data retrieved from the Web of Science. The initial research question was: is it possible to show the impact of the university in its' full broadness, taking into account the variety of disciplines covered in the research profile of the university? In order to answer this question, we analyzed the output of the university as registered in the CRIS system METIS, over the years 2004-2009. The registration covers a wide variety of scholarly outputs, and these are all taken into account in the analysis. In the study we conduct analyses on the coverage of the output of the university, both from the perspective of the output itself, towards the Web of Science ("external"), as well as from the Web of Science perspective itself ("internal"). This provides us with the necessary information to be able to draw clear conclusions on the validity of the usage of standard bibliometric methodologies in the research assessment of universities with such a research profile.

  7. The 100 most-cited original articles in cardiac computed tomography: A bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Michael E; Hanna, Tarek N; Holmes, Davis; Marais, Olivia; Mohammed, Mohammed F; Clark, Sheldon; McLaughlin, Patrick; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Bibliometric analysis is the application of statistical methods to analyze quantitative data about scientific publications. It can evaluate research performance, author productivity, and manuscript impact. To the best of our knowledge, no bibliometric analysis has focused on cardiac computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper was to compile a list of the 100 most-cited articles related to cardiac CT literature using Scopus and Web of Science (WOS). A list of the 100 most-cited articles was compiled by order of citation frequency, as well a list of the top 10 most-cited guideline and review articles and the 20 most-cited articles of the years 2014-2015. The database of 100 most-cited articles was analyzed to identify characteristics of highly cited publications. For each manuscript, the number of authors, study design, size of patient cohort and departmental affiliations were cataloged. The 100 most-cited articles were published from 1990 to 2012, with the majority (53) published between 2005 and 2009. The total number of citations varied from 3354 to 196, and the number of citations per year varied from 9.5 to 129.0 with a median and mean of 30.9 and 38.7, respectively. The majority of publications had a study patients sample size of 200 patients or less. The USA and Germany were the nations with the highest number of frequently cited publications. This bibliometric analysis provides insights on the most-cited articles published on the subject of cardiac CT and calcium volume, thus helping to characterize the field and guide future research.

  8. Scientific research on the pineal gland and melatonin: a bibliometric study for the period 1966-1994.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; Boya, J; Marín, F; Calvo, J L

    1996-04-01

    By means of teledischarge techniques from the database MEDLINE we selected those documents that contained in their title one or several of the following descriptors: pineal*, epiphys*, or melatonin*, in addition to the descriptor pineal-body in the MESH (Medical Subject Headings) section. A total of 7,617 original documents published between 1966 and 1994 were extracted that dealt with any aspect related with the pineal gland or its main secretary product, melatonin. The main bibliometric laws were applied: Price's Law on the increase in scientific literature, Bradford's Law on the dispersion of the scientific literature, and Lotka's Law on the author's productivity. Furthermore, we have analyzed the participation index (PaI) of the main countries within the global production, the productivity index of the authors (PI), and the number of authors/paper index. Our results demonstrate an exponential increase of the scientific literature on the pineal gland ("r" value = 0.983, in contrast with a "r" value = 0.966 after the linear adjustment). The number of publications on melatonin was less than those on other aspects of pineal research until 1991, when this situation was reversed. The journal with the largest number of original papers is Journal of Pineal Research (1st Bradford's zone) with 533 articles, followed by Journal of Neural Transmission (258) and Neuroendocrinology (221), which constituted the 2nd Bradford's zone. The total number of authors is 9,140, responsible for 23,524 authorships. 3.8% of the authors present a PI > or = 1 (large producers), and 64.9% a PI = 0 (occasional authors). Lotka's Law was widely fulfilled in this material since 10.3% of the authors are responsible of 50.2% of all the papers. The average number of authors per paper has changed from 2.29 in 1966 to 3.85 in 1994. The most productive country (during the interval between 1988-1994) was USA (PaI = 30.6), followed by Japan (7.15), United Kingdom (6.45), Germany (6.37), France (6

  9. Scale-Independent Bibliometric Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, J. Sylvan

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique of Anthony F. J. van Raan's article titled, "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure." van Raan makes an excellent case for using bibliometric data to measure some central aspects of scientific research and to construct indicators of…

  10. Next Generation Bibliometrics and the Evolution of the ESO Telescope Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, C.; Grothkopf, U.

    2010-10-01

    Bibliometric studies typically focus on citation and publication analysis. Due to recent advances in web technology along with greater access to web content, bibliometric research can include statistics and measures that were once difficult to obtain. The European Southern Observatory's Telescope Bibliography (ESO telbib), a content management system for refereed articles containing ESO data, provides an excellent test-bed for exploring next generation bibliometrics. Through web services provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Abstract Service among others, previously unavailable information can be imported into telbib where it can be analyzed in further detail. Though some telbib features are still in their infancy, some interesting trends can already be derived.

  11. Reviewers’ Ratings and Bibliometric Indicators: Hand in Hand When Assessing Over Research Proposals?

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas-Clavijo, Álvaro; Robinson-García, Nicolás; Escabias, Manuel; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2013-01-01

    Background The peer review system has been traditionally challenged due to its many limitations especially for allocating funding. Bibliometric indicators may well present themselves as a complement. Objective We analyze the relationship between peers’ ratings and bibliometric indicators for Spanish researchers in the 2007 National R&D Plan for 23 research fields. Methods and Materials We analyze peers’ ratings for 2333 applications. We also gathered principal investigators’ research output and impact and studied the differences between accepted and rejected applications. We used the Web of Science database and focused on the 2002-2006 period. First, we analyzed the distribution of granted and rejected proposals considering a given set of bibliometric indicators to test if there are significant differences. Then, we applied a multiple logistic regression analysis to determine if bibliometric indicators can explain by themselves the concession of grant proposals. Results 63.4% of the applications were funded. Bibliometric indicators for accepted proposals showed a better previous performance than for those rejected; however the correlation between peer review and bibliometric indicators is very heterogeneous among most areas. The logistic regression analysis showed that the main bibliometric indicators that explain the granting of research proposals in most cases are the output (number of published articles) and the number of papers published in journals that belong to the first quartile ranking of the Journal Citations Report. Discussion Bibliometric indicators predict the concession of grant proposals at least as well as peer ratings. Social Sciences and Education are the only areas where no relation was found, although this may be due to the limitations of the Web of Science’s coverage. These findings encourage the use of bibliometric indicators as a complement to peer review in most of the analyzed areas. PMID:23840840

  12. Analysis of bibliometric indicators to determine citation bias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Publications from the 1995 to 2004 period (and cited throughout July 2013) were analyzed to determine if the plant species used in research studies influenced the number of citations that papers received. Bibliometric data of papers from 108 plant species were obtained for the research fields of Gen...

  13. Cell Phones: A Bibliometric Analysis Related to Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent reviews of the literature indicate that the scope of research on cell or mobile phones covers a vast typology (Piotrowski & Kass, 2013). The majority of this research is concentrated in the technology, education, and social sciences fields. However, there is a dearth of bibliometric studies on cell phones related to business. To that…

  14. The Poisson-Lognormal Model for Bibliometric/Scientometric Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Illustrates that the Poisson-lognormal model provides good fits to a diverse set of distributions commonly studied in bibliometrics and scientometrics. Topics discussed include applications to the empirical data sets related to the laws of Lotka, Bradford, and Zipf; causal processes that could generate lognormal distributions; and implications for…

  15. CALL: Past, Present and Future--A Bibliometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Udo O. H.

    2005-01-01

    A bibliometric approach is used not only to sketch out the development of CALL during the last 25 years, but also to assess the contribution of educational technology to 21st century foreign-language teaching and learning. This study is based on the six instalments of the author's International (and multilingual) Bibliography of Computer Assisted…

  16. A Bibliometric Analysis on Cancer Population Science with Topic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ding-Cheng; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Okamoto, Janet; Liu, Hongfang; Leichow, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometric analysis is a research method used in library and information science to evaluate research performance. It applies quantitative and statistical analyses to describe patterns observed in a set of publications and can help identify previous, current, and future research trends or focus. To better guide our institutional strategic plan in cancer population science, we conducted bibliometric analysis on publications of investigators currently funded by either Division of Cancer Preventions (DCP) or Division of Cancer Control and Population Science (DCCPS) at National Cancer Institute. We applied two topic modeling techniques: author topic modeling (AT) and dynamic topic modeling (DTM). Our initial results show that AT can address reasonably the issues related to investigators' research interests, research topic distributions and popularities. In compensation, DTM can address the evolving trend of each topic by displaying the proportion changes of key words, which is consistent with the changes of MeSH headings.

  17. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Igor R C; Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho de; Andrade, Pedro Beraldo de; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometric indexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement.

  18. The evolution of the Journal of Applied Oral Science: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Valéria Cristina Trindade; Amadei, José Roberto Plácido; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make a brief diagnosis of the evolution of the Journal of Applied Oral Science (JAOS) between 2005 and 2007, by reviewing quantitative and qualitative aspects of the articles published in the JAOS within this period. All articles published in the JAOS in the time span established for this survey were analyzed retrospectively and a discussion was undertaken on the data referring to the main bibliometric indexes of production, authorship, bibliographic sources of the published articles, and the most frequently cited scientific journals in the main dental research fields. A total of 247 papers authored and co-authored by 1,139 contributors were reviewed, most of them being original research articles. The number of authors per article was 4.61 on the average. Regarding the geographic distribution, the authors represented almost all of the Brazilian States. Most published articles belonged to the following dental research fields: Endodontics, Restorative Dentistry, Dental Materials and Prosthodontics. The ranking of the most frequently cited scientific journals included the most reputable publications in these dental research fields. In conclusion, between 2005 and 2007, the JAOS either maintained or improved considerably its bibliometric indexes. The analysis of the data retrieved in this study allowed evaluating the journal's current management strategies, and identifying important issues that will help outlining the future directions for the internationalization of this journal.

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF THE JOURNAL OF APPLIED ORAL SCIENCE: A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Valéria Cristina Trindade; Amadei, José Roberto Plácido; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make a brief diagnosis of the evolution of the Journal of Applied Oral Science (JAOS) between 2005 and 2007, by reviewing quantitative and qualitative aspects of the articles published in the JAOS within this period. All articles published in the JAOS in the time span established for this survey were analyzed retrospectively and a discussion was undertaken on the data referring to the main bibliometric indexes of production, authorship, bibliographic sources of the published articles, and the most frequently cited scientific journals in the main dental research fields. A total of 247 papers authored and coauthored by 1,139 contributors were reviewed, most of them being original research articles. The number of authors per article was 4.61 on the average. Regarding the geographic distribution, the authors represented almost all of the Brazilian States. Most published articles belonged to the following dental research fields: Endodontics, Restorative Dentistry, Dental Materials and Prosthodontics. The ranking of the most frequently cited scientific journals included the most reputable publications in these dental research fields. In conclusion, between 2005 and 2007, the JAOS either maintained or improved considerably its bibliometric indexes. The analysis of the data retrieved in this study allowed evaluating the journal's current management strategies, and identifying important issues that will help outlining the future directions for the internationalization of this journal. PMID:19082402

  20. Global Regulatory T-Cell Research from 2000 to 2015: A Bibliometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zongyi, Yin; Dongying, Chen

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the global scientific output of regulatory T-cell (Treg) research and built a model to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate publications from 2000 to 2015. Data were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) of Thomson Reuters on January 1, 2016. The bibliometric method and Citespace III were used to analyze authors, journals, publication outputs, institutions, countries, research areas, research hotspots, and trends. In total, we identified 35,741 publications on Treg research from 2000 to 2015, and observed that the annual publication rate increased with time. The Journal of Immunology published the highest number of articles, the leading country was the USA, and the leading institute was Harvard University. Sakaguchi, Hori, Fontenot, and Wang were the top authors in Treg research. Immunology accounted for the highest number of publications, followed by oncology, experimental medicine, cell biology, and hematology. Keyword analysis indicated that autoimmunity, inflammation, cytokine, gene expression, foxp3, and immunotherapy were the research hotspots, whereas autoimmune inflammation, gene therapy, granzyme B, RORγt, and th17 were the frontiers of Treg research. This bibliometric analysis revealed that Treg-related studies are still research hotspots, and that Treg-related clinical therapies are the research frontiers; however, further study and collaborations are needed worldwide. Overall, our findings provide valuable information for the editors of immunology journals to identify new perspectives and shape future research directions. PMID:27611317

  1. Critical Quantitative Study of Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of critical quantitative research for studies of immigrant students, a large and growing group, whose higher education experience is crucial to the future of the United States. The author outlines some of the distinctions to be made among immigrant students and recommends areas of future inquiry.

  2. Bibliometrics: The best available information?

    PubMed

    Klein, Waldo C; Bloom, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This commentary raises significant cautions related to inherent shortcomings in the use of bibliographic analytic technology, and in particular its use in substantive decision making around promotion and tenure. Questions are raised concerning the continued use of scholarly energy for bibliometric analysis of subtly different settings. The recommendation is offered that future efforts in bibliometrics must target methods to reduce methodological shortcomings. These include clarifying the metric used to count sole/multiple authorship, and to evaluate the"merit" of manuscripts as well as journals in which they appear. Finally, the fundamental meaning of the information produced in these analyses (i.e., the validity of the measure) must be clearly presented in order for it to be credibly used.

  3. Nursing informatics competencies: bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kokol, Peter; Blažun, Helena; Vošner, Janez; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technology is developing rapidly and it is incorporated in many health care processes, but in spite of that fact we can still notice that nursing informatics competencies had received limited attention in basic nursing education curricula in Europe and especially in Eastern European countries. The purpose of the present paper is to present the results of a bibliometric analysis of the nursing informatics competencies scientific literature production. We applied the bibliometrics analysis to the corpus of 332 papers found in SCOPUS, related to nursing informatics competencies. The results showed that there is a positive trend in the number of published papers per year, indicating the increased research interest in nursing informatics competencies. Despite the fact that the first paper was published in Denmark, the most prolific country regarding the research in nursing informatics competencies is United States as are their institutions and authors.

  4. Empirical Laws, Theory Construction and Bibliometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Daniel O.; Voos, Henry

    1981-01-01

    Examines the properties of bibliometric distributions (application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other written communications) in a nontechnical manner, covering similarities of the Lotka, Bradford, and Zipf distributions, the relationship between empirical laws and theories, and bibliometric concepts and theory construction.…

  5. Ascertaining Activities in a Subject Area Through Bibliometric Analysis; Application to "Library Literature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracevic, Tefko; Perk, Lawrence J.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analize the journal articles indexed in one volume of Library Literature.'' This approach, merging bibliometrics and classification, yielded results in such areas as dispersion of articles among journals, frequency of article type and types of subjects covered. (16 references)…

  6. Bibliometric indicators: quality measurements of scientific publication.

    PubMed

    Durieux, Valérie; Gevenois, Pierre Alain

    2010-05-01

    Bibliometrics is a set of mathematical and statistical methods used to analyze and measure the quantity and quality of books, articles, and other forms of publications. There are three types of bibliometric indicators: quantity indicators, which measure the productivity of a particular researcher; quality indicators, which measure the quality (or "performance") of a researcher's output; and structural indicators, which measure connections between publications, authors, and areas of research. Bibliometric indicators are especially important for researchers and organizations, as these measurements are often used in funding decisions, appointments, and promotions of researchers. As more and more scientific discoveries occur and published research results are read and then quoted by other researchers, bibliometric indicators are becoming increasingly important. This article provides an overview of the currently used bibliometric indicators and summarizes the critical elements and characteristics one should be aware of when evaluating the quantity and quality of scientific output.

  7. Rain research with disdrometers: a bibliometric review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Raga, M.; Palencia, C.; Tomas, C.; Calvo, A. I.; Castro, A.; Fraile, R.

    2011-09-01

    This study analyses the research on disdrometers based on published studies. To do so, a wide data base of bibliographic references has been used: the Web of Science (published by Thomson Reuters). The search was carried out for all of the articles whose "TOPIC" was disdrometer. The more than 300 articles found were analysed according to various criteria: countries with research using disdrometers; publication dates; evolution of the number of articles; concepts studied and research lines followed in each article; and finally, a bibliometric analysis of the more than 60 journals where these articles have been published. Since 1963, there has been an increase in the number of articles published on disdrometers, which in the last 20 yr has been more than ten times higher than the increase in the number of articles on meteorology.

  8. Characteristics and popular topics of latest researches into the effects of air particulate matter on cardiovascular system by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers.

  9. The challenge of assessing the impact of science beyond bibliometrics.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Mauricio L

    2013-08-01

    It is hoped that the knowledge produced by scientific research turns into concrete benefits (material or non-material). Bibliometrics, with its various indexes, became the reference of scientific evaluation as an "objective" measure of scientific impact. In Brazil, the evaluation system focused on CAPES has been of great importance for the development of postgraduate studies and research; however changes are necessary, among others, to its bibliometric approach. If we consider the area of health, the challenge of the Unified Health System (SUS) implies the search for scientifically sound alternatives, regarding questions ranging from diagnosis, cure and prevention of a variety of problems, to the organization of a macro-structure capable of giving broad and equal access to the resources required for improving the health of the population. The solutions require expertise and creativity on the part of the researchers and the expected products must include, but are not limited to scientific publications.

  10. How have the Eastern European countries of the former Warsaw Pact developed since 1990? A bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Marcin; Bornmann, Lutz; Leydesdorff, Loet

    Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change international collaboration among researchers from the Eastern European countries? Trying to answer these questions, this study aims to shed light on international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The number of publications and normalized citation impact values are compared for these countries based on InCites (Thomson Reuters), from 1981 up to 2011. The international collaboration by researchers affiliated to institutions in Eastern European countries at the time points of 1990, 2000 and 2011 was studied with the help of Pajek and VOSviewer software, based on data from the Science Citation Index (Thomson Reuters). Our results show that the breakdown of the communist regime did not lead, on average, to a huge improvement in the publication performance of the Eastern European countries and that the increase in international co-authorship relations by the researchers affiliated to institutions in these countries was smaller than expected. Most of the Eastern European countries are still subject to changes and are still awaiting their boost in scientific development.

  11. Spanish personal name variations in national and international biomedical databases: implications for information retrieval and bibliometric studies

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, R.; López-Cózar, E. Delgado; Jiménez-Contreras, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study sought to investigate how Spanish names are handled by national and international databases and to identify mistakes that can undermine the usefulness of these databases for locating and retrieving works by Spanish authors. Methods: The authors sampled 172 articles published by authors from the University of Granada Medical School between 1987 and 1996 and analyzed the variations in how each of their names was indexed in Science Citation Index (SCI), MEDLINE, and Índice Médico Español (IME). The number and types of variants that appeared for each author's name were recorded and compared across databases to identify inconsistencies in indexing practices. We analyzed the relationship between variability (number of variants of an author's name) and productivity (number of items the name was associated with as an author), the consequences for retrieval of information, and the most frequent indexing structures used for Spanish names. Results: The proportion of authors who appeared under more then one name was 48.1% in SCI, 50.7% in MEDLINE, and 69.0% in IME. Productivity correlated directly with variability: more than 50% of the authors listed on five to ten items appeared under more than one name in any given database, and close to 100% of the authors listed on more than ten items appeared under two or more variants. Productivity correlated inversely with retrievability: as the number of variants for a name increased, the number of items retrieved under each variant decreased. For the most highly productive authors, the number of items retrieved under each variant tended toward one. The most frequent indexing methods varied between databases. In MEDLINE and IME, names were indexed correctly as “first surname second surname, first name initial middle name initial” (if present) in 41.7% and 49.5% of the records, respectively. However, in SCI, the most frequent method was “first surname, first name initial second name initial” (48.0% of

  12. The bibliometrics of atmospheric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M.

    Bibliometric analysis is an important tool in the management of a journal. SCOPUS output is used to assess the increase in the quantity of material in Atmospheric Environment and stylistic changes in the way authors choose words and punctuation in titles and assemble their reference lists. Citation analysis is used to consider the impact factor of the journal, but perhaps more importantly the way in which it reflects the importance authors give to papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The impact factor of Atmospheric Environment (2.549 for 2007) from the Journal Citation Reports suggests it performs well within the atmospheric sciences, but it conceals the long term value authors place on papers appearing in the journal. Reference lists show that a fifth come through citing papers more than a decade old.

  13. An analysis of bibliometric indicators to JCR according to Benford's law.

    PubMed

    Alves, Alexandre Donizeti; Yanasse, Horacio Hideki; Soma, Nei Yoshihiro

    Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is the main source of bibliometric indicators known by the scientific community. This paper presents the results of a study of the distributions of the first and second significant digits according to Benford's law (BL) of the number of articles, citations, impact factors, half-life and immediacy index bibliometric indicators in journals indexed in the JCR Sciences and Social Sciences Editions from 2007 to 2014. We also performed the data analysis to country's origin and by journal's category, and we verified that the second digit has a better adherence to BL. The use of the second digit is important since it provides a more sound, complete and consistent analysis of the bibliometric indicators.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the scientific literature on acetaminophen in medicine and biology: a 2003-2005 study.

    PubMed

    Robert, Claude; Saenz-Feijoo, Rosa; Gaudy, Jean-François; Arreto, Charles-Daniel

    2009-04-01

    This study quantifies the utilization of acetaminophen in life sciences and clinical medicine using bibliometric indicators. A total of 1626 documents involving acetaminophen published by 74 countries during 2003-2005 in the Thompson-Scientific Life sciences and Clinical Medicine collections were identified and analyzed. The USA leads in the number of publications followed by the UK, and industrialized countries, including France, Japan and Germany; the presence of countries such as China, India and Turkey among the top 15 countries deserves to be noticed. The European Union stands as a comparable contributor to the USA, both in terms of number of publications and in terms of profile of papers distributed among subcategories of Life Sciences and Clinical Medicine disciplines. All documents were published in 539 different journals. The most prolific journals were related to pharmacology and/or pharmaceutics. All aspects of acetaminophen (chemistry, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, etc.) were studied with primary interest for therapeutic use (42%) and adverse effects (28%) comprising a large part of publications focusing on acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. This quantitative overview provides as to the interest of the scientific community in this analgesic and completes the various review documents that regularly appear in the scientific literature.

  15. Hailpad-based research: A bibliometric review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palencia, Covadonga; Castro, Amaya; Giaiotti, Dario; Stel, Fulvio; Vinet, Freddy; Fraile, Roberto

    This paper is an overview of hailpad research from its origin until today using as a search criterion the bibliographic references on the subject in the Web of Science database (ISI). The search was carried out on 1st September 2008. Among the more than 3·10 7 scientific documents included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) from 1945 to the present, the search engine identified 41 containing the word "hailpad*" (the asterisk is a wildcard for any letter or group of letters). The results have been analyzed according to various criteria: countries with hailpad networks or studies on hailpads; date of the first article; evolution of the number of articles per decade; concepts studied and research lines followed in each article; and finally, a bibliometric analysis of the journals where these articles have been published. It was found that 70% of the articles on hailpads were published in 2 journals: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Atmospheric Research. These two journals also concentrate most of the citations. The number of articles on hailpads and the documents that cite them have grown steadily, and it is expected to grow still further in the present decade if we take into account the trends found.

  16. [Scientometrics and bibliometrics of chronotherapy].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Xu, Ping; Li, Bingyan; Wang, Zhengrong

    2005-02-01

    In order to retrieve Chinese and foreign articles of chronotherapy, we searched Chinese databases of CBM, CMCC and foreign series databases in OVID and hence revealed and assessed the current status, research trend and level of chronotherapy in China and in foreign countries by means of scientometric and bibliometric parameters. ProCite5 software and handsearching were used to manage, check and statistically analyze the searched papers so as to find the parameters which included distributions of databases, years, authors, periodicals, subject headings, organizations and nations. 91 Chinese papers were identified which were distributed in 73 kinds of journals and in subject headings, e.g., Traditional Chinese medicine, cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, asthma, peptic ulcer, diabetes mellitus, general review of chronotherapy, etc. 480 foreign articles were identified which mainly came from EMBASE and MEDLINE and were distributed in 285 types of journals and 35 nations and regions. There were 14 journals which recorded five or more articles. 12 researchers published more than five articles. Paul Brousse Hospital, University of Texas, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Jichi Medical School and University of Minnesota were the core research institutes. There was no core author or core journal or core institute in China up till now. However, core authors, core journals and core research institutes had come into being in foreign countries; they were mainly from the Euro-American developed countries and had done well in chronotherapy.

  17. Quantitative Articles: Developing Studies for Publication in Counseling Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This article is presented as a guide for developing quantitative studies and preparing quantitative manuscripts for publication in counseling journals. It is intended as an aid for aspiring authors in conceptualizing studies and formulating valid research designs. Material is presented on choosing variables and measures and on selecting…

  18. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Igor R C; de Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho; de Andrade, Pedro Beraldo; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometricindexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement. PMID:26107458

  19. Bibliometrics: Help or Hoax for Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galetto, F.

    2014-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions should provide students good teaching with good professors who have good knowledge of the matter they are teaching. Unfortunately, many times, the opposite happens: career leaps depend on "bibliometric indexes" (Impact Points, "h"-index, "s"-index, "RG"-index,…

  20. Bibliometrics as weapons of mass citation.

    PubMed

    Molinié, Antoinette; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of resources for research is increasingly based on so-called 'bibliometrics'. Scientists are now deemed to be successful on the sole condition that their work be abundantly cited. This world-wide trend appears to enjoy support not only by granting agencies (whose task is obviously simplified by extensive recourse to bibliometrics), but also by the scientists themselves (who seem to enjoy their status of celebrities). This trend appears to be fraught with dangers, particularly in the area of social sciences, where bibliometrics are less developed, and where monographs (which are not taken into account in citation indexes) are often more important than articles published in journals. We argue in favour of a return to the values of 'real science', in analogy to the much-promised return to a 'real economy'. While economists may strive towards a more objective evaluation of the prospects of a company, a market, or an industrial sector, we scientists can only base our appraisal on a responsible practice of peer review. Since we fear that decision-takers of granting agencies such as the FNRS, CTI, EPFL, ETHZ, ANR, CNRS, NIH, NSF, DOE, etc. will be too busy to read our humble paper in Chimia, we appeal to scientists of all countries and disciplines to unite against the tyranny of bibliometrics.

  1. A Bibliometric Distribution Which Really Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Generalized Inverse Gaussian-Poisson Distribution is suggested as an all-embracing mathematical model for bibliometric frequency distributions. Twelve examples are given which show that the new model cannot be rejected by virtue of an objective chi-squared test. A mathematical appendix and 20 references are included. (Author/EJS)

  2. Bibliometrics/Theory, Practice and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narin, Francis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Theory behind modern evaluative bibliometric techniques is reviewed at three levels: (1) policy application; (2) strategic analysis; and (3) tactical analysis. New techniques developed at each level and limitations of each approach are discussed. At all levels, the process begins with assembling data and then moves to a data-based evaluation. (SLD)

  3. Understanding Scientific Literatures: A Bibliometric Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Joseph C.

    To operate effectively, libraries must develop methods by which to identify literatures of high utility to their clientele and must acquire and organize these literatures in such a way as to optimize their usefulness. One such method, the bibliometric approach, is based on the assumption of certain regularities in patterns of authorship,…

  4. Quantitative Literacy Provision in the First Year of Medical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a description of and motivation for the quantitative literacy (numeracy) intervention in the first year of medical studies at a South African university. This intervention is a response to the articulation gap between the quantitative literacy of many first-year medical students and the demands of their curriculum.…

  5. Quantitative assessment of scientific quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzl, Harald; Bloching, Philipp

    2012-09-01

    Scientific publications, authors, and journals are commonly evaluated with quantitative bibliometric measures. Frequently-used measures will be reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses will be highlighted. Reflections about conditions for a new, research paper-specific measure will be presented.

  6. The Non-Gaussian Nature of Bibliometric and Scientometric Distributions: A New Approach to Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancheva, Ludmila E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concept of the hyperbolic or skew distribution as a universal statistical law in information science and socioeconomic studies. Topics include Zipf's law; Stankov's universal law; non-Gaussian distributions; and why most bibliometric and scientometric laws reveal characters of non-Gaussian distribution. (Author/LRW)

  7. A Methodological Approach to Developing Bibliometric Models of Types of Humanities Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines a methodological approach to developing bibliometric models of the sources used in different types of humanities scholarship. Identifies five types of scholarship: description of primary sources, editing of primary sources, historical studies, criticism, and theory. Illustrates the approach through an analysis of sources used in 54…

  8. High-Impact Social Work Scholars: A Bibliometric Examination of SSWR and AASWSW Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the bibliometric contributions of high-impact social work faculty. Methods: Toward this end, we used a sample comprising fellows (N = 143) affiliated with the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR) and the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare (AASWSW). To quantify…

  9. Relationships between Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Statistics and Bibliometric Indicators: A Principal Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed 2005-2006 Web of Science bibliometric data from institutions belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and corresponding ARL statistics to find any associations between indicators from the two data sets. Principal components analysis on 36 variables from 103 universities revealed obvious associations between…

  10. A Bibliometric Snapshot of "The Journal of Higher Education" and Its Impact on the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earp, Vanessa J.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades the field of higher education has grown exponentially; however, little research examines a particular journal and its impact on the field. The purpose of this study was to conduct a brief bibliometric analysis and discuss the impact of "The Journal of Higher Education" (1998-2002), a premier journal in the discipline. (Contains 6…

  11. Research Productivity and Performance of Journals in the Creativity Sciences: A Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Yu, Qi; Ding, Ying; Kaufman, James C.

    2014-01-01

    A bibliometric approach was employed to analyze the research productivity and performance of creativity studies between 1965 and 2012. A dataset was constructed using all publications and citations retrieved from four key journals that publish creativity research: "Journal of Creative Behavior" ("JCB"), "Gifted Child…

  12. Growth or Steady State? A Bibliometric Focus on International Comparative Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmützky, Anna; Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The study combines a bibliometric approach with a content analysis of abstracts of articles to explore the patterns of international comparative higher education research in leading international journals. The overall data set covers 4,095 publications from the Web of Science for the period 1992-2012 and the amount of international comparative…

  13. Citation Mining: Integrating Text Mining and Bibliometrics for Research User Profiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; del Rio, J. Antonio; Humenik, James A.; Garcia, Esther Ofilia; Ramirez, Ana Maria

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of identifying the users and impact of research, and describes an approach for identifying the pathways through which research can impact other research, technology development, and applications. Describes a study that used citation mining, an integration of citation bibliometrics and text mining, on articles from the…

  14. Attitudes towards Disability in Education through the SSCI (2000-2011): A Topical and Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Fernandez, Jose Manuel; Ingles, Candido J.; Juan, Maria Vicent; Gonzalvez-Macia, Carolina; Manas-Viejo, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to describe and characterize the international scientific output relating to "attitudes towards disability in education", using a battery of bibliometric indicators that make it possible to analyze and monitor international scientific activity. Method: This "ex post facto"…

  15. [Bibliometric indicators of production and usage of Archivos de Bronchoneumologia].

    PubMed

    García Río, F; Serrano, S; Alvarez-Sala, R; García Tejero, T; Pino García, J; Alvarez-Sala, J L; Villamor León, J

    1996-01-01

    We studied the bibliometric indexes referring to production and scientific output published in ARCHIVOS de BRONCONEUMOLOGIA. All issues published between 1993 and 1994 were studied with the exception of monógraphic or supplementary numbers. For each article we recorded article type, number of authors, authors' place of work, specialty, time until acceptance, time until publication, type of references, language of references, journal and year of references. For each year we calculated the productivity index and the cooperation index, or index of signers per work. We also determined the citation period for references, the Price index, and the insularity index. Productivity index was 1.97 in 1993 and 2.05 in 1994. The cooperation index for the two years reached 4.5 +/- 1.9 (1-10). Authors were widely distributed by provinces and by specialties, although "nuclei" of production could be identified. The citation half-life period was 5.67 years for references in 1993 and 5.94 years in 1994, and the Price index surpassed 40%. The insularity index was very low at 7.76%. In conclusion, the bibliometric indicators for production, readership and obsolescence for the two years analyzed indicate that ARCHIVOS de BRONCONEUMOLOGIA occupies an intermediate position in the ranking of Spanish medical journals.

  16. Geodesy, a Bibliometric Approach for 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G.; Landeros, C. F.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, bibliometric science has been frequently applied in the development and evaluation of scientific research. This work presents a bibliometric analysis for the research work performed in the field of geodesy "science of the measurement and mapping of the earth surface including its external gravity field". The objective of this work is to present a complete overview of the generated research on this field to assemble and study the most important publications occurred during the past seven years. The analysis was performed including the SCOPUS and WEB OF SCIENCE databases for all the geodetic scientific articles published between 2000 and 2006. The search profile was designed considering a strategy to seek for titles and article descriptors using the terms geodesy and geodetic and some other terms associated with the topics: geodetic surfaces, vertical measurements, reference systems and frames, modern space-geodetic techniques and satellite missions. Some preliminary results had been achieved specifically Bradford law of distribution for journals and education institutes, and Lotka's law for authors that also includes the cooperation between countries in terms of writing together scientific articles. In the particular case of distributions, the model suggested by Egghe (2002) was adopted for determining the cores.

  17. A bibliometric analysis of research productivity of emergency medicine researchers in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiun; You, Je Sung; Joo, Young Seon; kong, Taeyoung; Ko, Dong Ryul; Chung, Sung Phil

    2016-01-01

    Objective During the past 20 years, over 1,400 doctors have been certified as emergency physicians in Korea. The number of scientific publications in the field of emergency medicine has also increased. This study aims to evaluate the research productivity of academic emergency physicians in South Korea. Methods Articles published from 1996 to 2015 by authors affiliated with Korean emergency departments were retrieved using Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science. Research productivity was analyzed quantitatively to ascertain the number of articles for publication type and year. The performance of these articles was also analyzed qualitatively using impact factor, citation number, and Hirsch index. Bibliometric analysis was performed by researching Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Results A total of 858 articles with 293 Korean authors as the first or corresponding authors were published across 191 journals. The number of publications increased continuously. The most common publication type was original article (n=618), the most commonly studied research topic was resuscitation medicine (n=110), and the average impact factor of the original articles was 2.158. The highest h-index was 17 and, using Web of Science, the maximum number of citations was found to be 85. Conclusion This study suggests that the research productivity of Korean authors in the emergency medicine field has progressed steadily during the last 10 years. However, qualitative indexes, such as the number of citations and h-index value, remain low. PMID:28168231

  18. The Mozart Effect: A quantitative EEG study.

    PubMed

    Verrusio, Walter; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Vanacore, Nicola; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mecarelli, Oriano

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on brain activity through spectral analysis of the EEG in young healthy adults (Adults), in healthy elderly (Elderly) and in elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). EEG recording was performed at basal rest conditions and after listening to Mozart's K448 or "Fur Elise" Beethoven's sonatas. After listening to Mozart, an increase of alpha band and median frequency index of background alpha rhythm activity (a pattern of brain wave activity linked to memory, cognition and open mind to problem solving) was observed both in Adults and in Elderly. No changes were observed in MCI. After listening to Beethoven, no changes in EEG activity were detected. This results may be representative of the fact that said Mozart's music is able to "activate" neuronal cortical circuits related to attentive and cognitive functions.

  19. Quantitative studies of ribosome conformational dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Christopher S; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic machine that undergoes many conformational rearrangements during the initiation of protein synthesis. Significant differences exist between the process of protein synthesis initiation in eubacteria and eukaryotes. In particular, the initiation of eukaryotic protein synthesis requires roughly an order of magnitude more initiation factors to promote efficient mRNA recruitment and ribosomal recognition of the start codon than are needed for eubacterial initiation. The mechanisms by which these initiation factors promote ribosome conformational changes during stages of initiation have been studied using cross-linking, footprinting, site-directed probing, cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, fluorescence spectroscopy and single-molecule techniques. Here, we review how the results of these different approaches have begun to converge to yield a detailed molecular understanding of the dynamic motions that the eukaryotic ribosome cycles through during the initiation of protein synthesis.

  20. A Bibliometric Analysis of U.S.-Based Research on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, George M.; Gotway Crawford, Carol A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Since Alan Pritchard defined bibliometrics as “the application of statistical methods to media of communication” in 1969, bibliometric analyses have become widespread. To date, however, bibliometrics has not been used to analyze publications related to the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Purpose To determine the most frequently cited BRFSS-related topical areas, institutions, and journals. Methods A search of the Web of Knowledge database in 2013 identified U.S.-published studies related to BRFSS, from its start in 1984 through 2012. Search terms were BRFSS, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, or Behavioral Risk Survey. The resulting 1,387 articles were analyzed descriptively and produced data for VOSviewer, a computer program that plotted a relevance distance–based map and clustered keywords from text in titles and abstracts. Results Topics, journals, and publishing institutions ranged widely. Most research was clustered by content area, such as cancer screening, access to care, heart health, and quality of life. The American Journal of Preventive Medicine and American Journal of Public Health published the most BRFSS-related papers (95 and 70, respectively). Conclusions Bibliometrics can help identify the most frequently published BRFSS-related topics, publishing journals, and publishing institutions. BRFSS data are widely used, particularly by CDC and academic institutions such as the University of Washington and other universities hosting top-ranked schools of public health. Bibliometric analysis and mapping provides an innovative way of quantifying and visualizing the plethora of research conducted using BRFSS data and summarizing the contribution of this surveillance system to public health. PMID:25442231

  1. Research Review: Quantitative Magazine Studies, 1983-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N.

    1994-01-01

    Examines quantitative magazine research studies published in various journals during the period 1983-1993. Questions the heavy reliance on content analysis techniques to study the role of magazines in American society. Calls for a redirection in magazine research, combining media content studies with media effects studies. (SR)

  2. The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Herranz, Andrés; Balk, Lisanne J.; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Saidha, Shiv; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H.; Lagreze, Wolf A.; Schuman, Joel S.; Villoslada, Pablo; Calabresi, Peter; Balcer, Laura; Petzold, Axel; Green, Ari J.; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. Methods: A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group. Results: We provide a 9-point checklist encompassing aspects deemed relevant when reporting quantitative OCT studies. The areas covered are study protocol, acquisition device, acquisition settings, scanning protocol, funduscopic imaging, postacquisition data selection, postacquisition data analysis, recommended nomenclature, and statistical analysis. Conclusions: The Advised Protocol for OCT Study Terminology and Elements recommendations include core items to standardize and improve quality of reporting in quantitative OCT studies. The recommendations will make reporting of quantitative OCT studies more consistent and in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. The recommendations originated from expert consensus and thus represent Class IV evidence. They will need to be regularly adjusted according to new insights and practices. PMID:27225223

  3. Publication Trends in Acupuncture Research: A 20-Year Bibliometric Analysis Based on PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ming; Zhou, Kehua; Mita, Carol; Liu, Jianping; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1995 and 2014 with sufficient information for bibliometric analyses. Rates and patterns of acupuncture publication within the 20 year observational period were estimated, and compared with broader publication rates in biomedicine. Identified eligible publications were further analyzed with respect to study type/design, clinical condition addressed, country of origin, and journal impact factor. Results A total of 13,320 acupuncture-related publications were identified using our search strategy and eligibility criteria. Regression analyses indicated an exponential growth in publications over the past two decades, with a mean annual growth rate of 10.7%. This compares to a mean annual growth rate of 4.5% in biomedicine. A striking trend was an observed increase in the proportion of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), from 7.4% in 1995 to 20.3% in 2014, exceeding the 4.5% proportional growth of RCTs in biomedicine. Over the 20 year period, pain was consistently the most common focus of acupuncture research (37.9% of publications). Other top rankings with respect to medical focus were arthritis, neoplasms/cancer, pregnancy or labor, mood disorders, stroke, nausea/vomiting, sleep, and paralysis/palsy. Acupuncture research was conducted in 60 countries, with the top 3 contributors being China (47.4%), United States (17.5%), and United Kingdom (8.2%). Retrieved articles were published mostly in complementary and

  4. A complex systems approach to bibliometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Michael J.

    Enabled by technological change, we are in the midst of a fundamental shift in how scientific information is produced and communicated. Electronic publishing, preprint archives, blogs, and wikis are emerging as possible viable alternatives to the current journal publishing and peer review system. However, these new technologies flood the environment with information, making it increasingly difficult to find the highest quality and most relevant papers. Additionally, accreditation and quality assessment of published material becomes nearly impossible for agencies interested in funding the research and development that is most likely to succeed. Recently, bibliometric tools have emerged as an effective means for the filtering, accreditation, and assessment of scholarly information. In this thesis, we approach bibliometrics from a complex systems perspective. A unique characteristic of the work presented in this thesis is that we perform empirical validation of bibliometric models using the most comprehensive bibliographic database available. Using these methods, we quantify the dynamics of citations to scientific journals, and investigate the relationship between social network position and research performance.

  5. Association between bibliometric parameters, reporting and methodological quality of randomised controlled trials in vascular and endovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Hajibandeh, Shahab; Hajibandeh, Shahin; Antoniou, George A; Green, Patrick A; Maden, Michelle; Torella, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate association between bibliometric parameters, reporting and methodological quality of vascular and endovascular surgery randomised controlled trials. Methods The most recent 75 and oldest 75 randomised controlled trials published in leading journals over a 10-year period were identified. The reporting quality was analysed using the CONSORT statement, and methodological quality with the Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklist. We used exploratory univariate and multivariable linear regression analysis to investigate associations. Findings Bibliometric parameters such as type of journal, study design reported in title, number of pages; external funding, industry sponsoring and number of citations are associated with reporting quality. Moreover, parameters such as type of journal, subject area and study design reported in title are associated with methodological quality. Conclusions The bibliometric parameters of randomised controlled trials may be independent predictors for their reporting and methodological quality. Moreover, the reporting quality of randomised controlled trials is associated with their methodological quality and vice versa.

  6. An Economist's View on Bibliometrically Measuring Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2005-01-01

    Since the use of bibliometric instruments has grown and will continue to grow in the future, the quality, availability, and accessibility of data on publications and citations is of tantamount importance. But equally important is a correct use of the data. This means that an important task of the bibliometric field is to highlight not only what…

  7. Research Performance Evaluation: Some Critical Thoughts on Standard Bibliometric Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anninos, Loukas N.

    2014-01-01

    The bibliometric methodology is an established technique for research evaluation as it offers an objective determination and comparison of research performance. This paper aims to critically assess some standard bibliometric indicators commonly used (based on publication and citation counts) to evaluate academic units, and examine whether there…

  8. Facing Diversity of Science: A Challenge for Bibliometric Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitt, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Bibliometrics has come of age and is generally accepted, together with peer review, as one way to describe the activity of players in science. Appealing issues in bibliometrics include the characterization of a growth regime of research systems including the trade-offs of production-visibility; the measure of science-technology linkage and…

  9. Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping.

    PubMed

    van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2010-08-01

    We present VOSviewer, a freely available computer program that we have developed for constructing and viewing bibliometric maps. Unlike most computer programs that are used for bibliometric mapping, VOSviewer pays special attention to the graphical representation of bibliometric maps. The functionality of VOSviewer is especially useful for displaying large bibliometric maps in an easy-to-interpret way. The paper consists of three parts. In the first part, an overview of VOSviewer's functionality for displaying bibliometric maps is provided. In the second part, the technical implementation of specific parts of the program is discussed. Finally, in the third part, VOSviewer's ability to handle large maps is demonstrated by using the program to construct and display a co-citation map of 5,000 major scientific journals.

  10. Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping

    PubMed Central

    Waltman, Ludo

    2009-01-01

    We present VOSviewer, a freely available computer program that we have developed for constructing and viewing bibliometric maps. Unlike most computer programs that are used for bibliometric mapping, VOSviewer pays special attention to the graphical representation of bibliometric maps. The functionality of VOSviewer is especially useful for displaying large bibliometric maps in an easy-to-interpret way. The paper consists of three parts. In the first part, an overview of VOSviewer’s functionality for displaying bibliometric maps is provided. In the second part, the technical implementation of specific parts of the program is discussed. Finally, in the third part, VOSviewer’s ability to handle large maps is demonstrated by using the program to construct and display a co-citation map of 5,000 major scientific journals. PMID:20585380

  11. Microfluidics for High-Throughput Quantitative Studies of Early Development.

    PubMed

    Levario, Thomas J; Lim, Bomyi; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Lu, Hang

    2016-07-11

    Developmental biology has traditionally relied on qualitative analyses; recently, however, as in other fields of biology, researchers have become increasingly interested in acquiring quantitative knowledge about embryogenesis. Advances in fluorescence microscopy are enabling high-content imaging in live specimens. At the same time, microfluidics and automation technologies are increasing experimental throughput for studies of multicellular models of development. Furthermore, computer vision methods for processing and analyzing bioimage data are now leading the way toward quantitative biology. Here, we review advances in the areas of fluorescence microscopy, microfluidics, and data analysis that are instrumental to performing high-content, high-throughput studies in biology and specifically in development. We discuss a case study of how these techniques have allowed quantitative analysis and modeling of pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo.

  12. Quantitative proteomics to study carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vishvanath; Tiwari, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, respiratory infections and urinary tract infections. The prevalence of this lethal pathogen increases gradually in the clinical setup where it can grow on artificial surfaces, utilize ethanol as a carbon source. Moreover it resists desiccation. Carbapenems, a β-lactam, are the most commonly prescribed drugs against A. baumannii. Resistance against carbapenem has emerged in Acinetobacter baumannii which can create significant health problems and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. With the development of quantitative proteomics, a considerable progress has been made in the study of carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Recent updates showed that quantitative proteomics has now emerged as an important tool to understand the carbapenem resistance mechanism in Acinetobacter baumannii. Present review also highlights the complementary nature of different quantitative proteomic methods used to study carbapenem resistance and suggests to combine multiple proteomic methods for understanding the response to antibiotics by Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:25309531

  13. Metamorphism of eucrite meteorites studied quantitatively using induced thermoluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelor, J. David; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1991-01-01

    Induced thermoluminescence studies provide a new and quantitative means of determining relative metamorphic intensities for eucrite meteorites, the simplest and most ancient products of basaltic volcanism. Using this technique, it is shown that the eucrites constitute a continuous metamorphic series and not, as commonly assumed, two groups of metamorphosed and nonmetamorphosed meteorites. It is suggested that the method may have applications to other basalts.

  14. A Quantitative Study of High School Yearbook Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krepel, Wayne J.; DuVall, Charles R.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze high school yearbooks, relative to quantitative page allotments, when classified by the size of the community, the type of socioeconomic environment of the school, and the size of the graduating class. A normative survey was conducted using a questionnaire requesting the respondent to furnish a copy of the…

  15. Simulation and the Development of Clinical Judgment: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative pretest posttest quasi-experimental research study was to explore the effect of the NESD on clinical judgment in associate degree nursing students and compare the differences between groups when the Nursing Education Simulation Design (NESD) guided simulation in order to identify educational strategies promoting…

  16. PubChem applications in drug discovery: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tiejun; Pan, Yongmei; Hao, Ming; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis of PubChem applications is presented by reviewing 1132 research articles. The massive volume of chemical structure and bioactivity data in PubChem and its online services have been used globally in various fields including chemical biology, medicinal chemistry and informatics research. PubChem supports drug discovery in many aspects such as lead identification and optimization, compound-target profiling, polypharmacology studies and unknown chemical identity elucidation. PubChem has also become a valuable resource for developing secondary databases, informatics tools and web services. The growing PubChem resource with its public availability offers support and great opportunities for the interrogation of pharmacological mechanisms and the genetic basis of diseases, which are vital for drug innovation and repurposing.

  17. Research on health inequalities: A bibliometric analysis (1966-2014).

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Louise; Albertini, Marcelo; Batista, Ricardo; de Montigny, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to report on research production and publications on health inequalities through a bibliometric analysis covering publications from 1966 to 2014 and a content analysis of the 25 most-cited papers. A database of 49,294 references was compiled from the search engine Web of Science. The first article appears in 1966 and deals with equality and civil rights in the United States and the elimination of racial discrimination in access to medical care. By 2003, the term disparity has gained in prominence relative to the term inequality which was initially elected by the researchers. Marmot's 1991 article is one of the five papers with the largest number of citations and contributes to the central perspective of social determinants of health and the British influence on the international status of research on social inequalities of health.

  18. PubChem applications in drug discovery: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tiejun; Pan, Yongmei; Hao, Ming; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis of PubChem applications is presented by reviewing 1132 research articles. The massive volume of chemical structure and bioactivity data in PubChem and its online services has been used globally in various fields including chemical biology, medicinal chemistry and informatics research. PubChem supports drug discovery in many aspects such as lead identification and optimization, compound–target profiling, polypharmacology studies and unknown chemical identity elucidation. PubChem has also become a valuable resource for developing secondary databases, informatics tools and web services. The growing PubChem resource with its public availability offers support and great opportunities for the interrogation of pharmacological mechanisms and the genetic basis of diseases, which are vital for drug innovation and repurposing. PMID:25168772

  19. Music and Affective Phenomena: A 20-Year Content and Bibliometric Analysis of Research in Three Eminent Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.; Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish trends in the study of music and affective phenomena through a content and bibliometric analysis of three eminent music research journals, the "Journal of Research in Music Education", "Psychology of Music", and "Music Perception", for the years 1990 through 2009. Excluding…

  20. Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science

    SciTech Connect

    Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1452481

  2. NASA Aeronautics and Space Database for bibliometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, R.; Rudman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors use the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database to perform bibliometric analysis of citations. This paper explains their research methodology and gives some sample results showing collaboration trends between NASA Centers and other institutions.

  3. Characterizing scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals through evaluation of bibliometric indices

    PubMed Central

    Tetè, Stefano; Zizzari, Vincenzo Luca; De Carlo, Alessandro; Lorusso, Felice; Di Nicola, Marta; Piattelli, Adriano; Gherlone, Enrico; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to characterize the scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals by evaluating different bibliometric indices. The bibliometric evaluation was conducted on the Scopus Database upon all the Active Members joining three important Italian scientific societies in Oral Surgery (SIdCO, SIO, and SICOI). The scientific production was analysed by considering the number of total publications, number of total citations, h-index, and hc-index. Moreover, the overall sample was divided into two groups (Academics and Not Academics), according to the fact the professionals had or not a university position, and then into sub-groups according to the different career lengths. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the scientific productivity amongst groups. For all the considered parameters a lack of homogeneity between groups was reported, and significantly greater mean values were recorded for the Academics compared to the Not Academics Group. Moreover, the h-index values increased more regularly as the career length progressed than the hc-index values, even if the last seemed to be less variable. h- and hc-indices are both stable bibliometric parameters, but as the hc-index values are related not only to the number of citation but also to their age, it seems to be less influenced by the authors’ career length. Bibliometric analysis of the scientific production in dentistry may facilitate the recognition of factors that may further enhance research activity and clinical performance and be useful for a comparative assessment of authors or research groups in terms of quality and quantity of the scientific production. PMID:24753798

  4. A Quantitative Study of Bulk Stresses in Nonlinear Microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depuit, Ryan; Squires, Todd

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear microrheology of a simple model system - a spherical probe translating through a dilute suspension of rigid rods - to elucidate a variety of issues inherent in the interpretation of nonlinear microrheology. We have developed a computational system to quantitatively examine the issues present in interpretation of nonlinear microrheology, as originally discussed by Squires (Langmuir, 2008). Following recent work emphasizing the importance of the microstructural behavior in the bulk (Sriram et. al, 2009), we focus our attention on the bulk microstructural deformation, and examine the significance of its (Lagrangian) transient nature, as well as the consequences of the mixed and inhomogeneous flows inherent to nonlinear microrheology. From this quantitative study, we pose solutions for the current theoretical issues facing nonlinear microrheology in interpretation and comparison of the microviscosity with the shear viscosity from traditional bulk rheometry.

  5. Limitations of quantitative research in the study of structural adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lundy, P

    1996-02-01

    Sociologists and, more recently, critical medical anthropologists have been arguing for a refocusing of the analysis of health and health care towards a perspective which considers the broader global political economy. In the context of the debt crisis and IMF/World Bank-inspired structural adjustment policies, the political economy theoretical perspective is becoming even more relevant in the analysis of health underdevelopment in many 'Third World' countries. This study focuses on the direct and indirect effects of the Jamaican debt crisis and structural adjustment programmes on health care services and health standards. In this paper it is argued that there are methodological problems using quantitative data when studying the effects of structural adjustment. In addition to providing a limited account of the effects, it is argued that the basic problem is a matter of the availability and reliability of the quantitative data in many 'Third World' countries. It is argued that some of these problems could be overcome by the application of qualitative micro-level analysis. This type of methodology is important to ascertain the effects of global processes at the grass roots level and to gain insights into what those working in the health sector are experiencing and what they perceive as the effects, if any, of structural adjustment policies. This has often been missing from the impersonal accounts offered by quantitative research on the subject to date.

  6. The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S.; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Elwell, Barbara

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System \\citep{2005JASIS.tmp....2K} permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore various aspects of this new measure. We examine the obsolescence function as measured by actual reads, and show that it can be well fit by the sum of four exponentials with very different time constants. We compare the obsolescence function as measured by readership with the obsolescence function as measured by citations. We find that the citation function is proportional to the sum of two of the components of the readership function. This proves that the normative theory of citation is true in the mean. We further examine in detail the similarities and differences between the citation rate, the readership rate and the total citations for individual articles, and discuss some of the causes. Using the number of reads as a bibliometric measure for individuals, we introduce the read-cite diagram to provide a two-dimensional view of an individual's scientific productivity. We develop a simple model to account for an individual's reads and cites and use it to show that the position of a person in the read-cite diagram is a function of age, innate productivity, and work history. We show the age biases of both reads and cites, and develop two new bibliometric measures which have substantially less age bias than citations: SumProd, a weighted sum of total citations and the readership rate, intended to show the total productivity of an individual; and Read10, the readership rate for papers published in the last ten years, intended to show an individual's current

  7. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  8. Bibliometrics Course Offerings by Library and Information Science Programs in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Ming; Zhao, Dangzhi; Yin, Yali; Yu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report results from a survey of bibliometrics courses offered by LIS programs in mainland China. We found that more than 27% of Chinese LIS programs offer bibliometrics courses. The majority of these programs teach bibliometrics as 2- or 3-credit, required courses to both undergraduate and graduate students, indicating the…

  9. How Implementation of Bibliometric Practice Affects the Role of Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansson, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses potential consequences of implementing bibliometrics as an institutionalized practice in academic libraries. Results are reported from a survey among libraries in Sweden with organized bibliometric activities. Incorporating bibliometric activities is one way of redefining and widening the role of the library. Implementation…

  10. Quantitative Methods in the Study of Local History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Pene

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests how the quantitative analysis of data from census records, assessment roles, and newspapers may be integrated into the classroom. Suggestions for obtaining quantitative data are provided. (DE)

  11. From bibliometric analysis to research policy: the use of SIGAPS in Lille University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Devos, Patrick; Lefranc, Helene; Dufresne, Eric; Beuscart, Regis

    2006-01-01

    In French hospitals, the progressive setting up of the new rating systems has obliged the university hospitals to justify a certain amount of activities such as research, training or moreover recourse, which are specific missions of the university hospitals. In order to justify research activities, the Lille University Hospital has developed for now three years SIGAPS, a full-web bibliometric software which census and analyse, the scientific publications referenced in the Medline database. After data downloading, each article is classified on a 6 levels "quality scale derived from the impact factors. The system then performs, for a researcher or a team, a report allowing a quantitative and qualitative analysis. Started in Lille in November 2004, the inventory and analysis of data is now ending. For the period 2001-2004, 2814 articles have been published in 700 different journals. The total number of articles increased from 688 in 2001 to 757 in 2004. The mean impact factor was equal to 2.26 and 15.5 % of articles were classified as A, 20.9% as B. Those results confirm the high level of research of the University Hospital of Lille, in agreement with two other national studies which ranks our establishment at the 6th position for medical research activities among the French University Hospitals. Currently a similar evaluation has now began in the 9 other university hospital which have subscribed to the SIGAPS project. We works currently on new indicators as patents, thesis or conferences, or access to other databases as Sciencedirect or Scopus via the RIS format. The next step in the project is the implementation of a meta-base which will federate the information provided by each SIGAPS system. This meta-base will then allow us to perform comparisons between different hospitals, determine the national "sites of excellence" and create some clinical and research networks.

  12. Quantitative Courses in a Liberal Education Program: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismath, Shelly L.; Mackay, D. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues for the importance of quantitative reasoning skills as part of a liberal education and describes the successful introduction of a mathematics-based quantitative skills course at a small Canadian university. Today's students need quantitative problem-solving skills, to function as adults, professionals, consumers, and citizens in…

  13. A quantitative study of oxygen as a metabolic regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2003-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to a tissue is associated with metabolic changes aimed at maintaining ATP homeostasis. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). In particular, we are interested in determining mechanisms relating cellular oxygen concentration to observed metabolic responses at the cellular, tissue, organ, and whole body levels and in quantifying how changes in tissue oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics, to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of oxygen as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement--sensitivity analysis--permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and parameters controlling cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The analysis can distinguish between parameters that must be determined accurately and those that require less precision, based on their effects on model predictions. This capability may prove to be important in optimizing experimental design, thus reducing use of animals.

  14. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabera, Marco E.

    2000-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to a tissue is associated with metabolic changes aimed at maintaining ATP homeostasis. However, given the complexity of the human bio-energetic system, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). In particular, we are interested in determining mechanisms relating cellular oxygen concentration to observed metabolic responses at the cellular, tissue, organ, and whole body levels and in quantifying how changes in tissue oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study; we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics, to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of oxygen as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement - sensitivity analysis - permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and parameters controlling cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The analysis can distinguish between parameters that must be determined accurately and those that require less precision, based on their effects on model predictions. This capability may prove to be important in optimizing experimental design, thus reducing use of animals.

  15. Quantitative model studies for interfaces in organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, J. Michael

    2016-11-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes and similar devices, organic semiconductors are typically contacted by metal electrodes. Because the resulting metal/organic interfaces have a large impact on the performance of these devices, their quantitative understanding is indispensable for the further rational development of organic electronics. A study by Kröger et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 113022) of an important single-crystal based model interface provides detailed insight into its geometric and electronic structure and delivers valuable benchmark data for computational studies. In view of the differences between typical surface-science model systems and real devices, a ‘materials gap’ is identified that needs to be addressed by future research to make the knowledge obtained from fundamental studies even more beneficial for real-world applications.

  16. Splash erosion. A bibliometric Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Raga, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    Ellison (1944) developed the splash board as a system for measuring splash erosion that was both cheap and reliable. Bollinne (1975), Morgan (1978, 1981). Mutchler (1967) described another different type of splash detectors according to whether they were passive or could register data. In the study mentioned above these authors included bottles, funnels, glasses, photography, markers. After that several devices has been made up like the splash sampler (Leguedois et al., 2005), soil tray (Van Dijk et al., 2002), splash funnel (Terry, 1989) and several rain cups (Fernandez-Raga et al., 2010; Molina and Llinares, 1996; Torri et al., 1987). Splash erosion research has materialized in the form of a number of papers published in international journals. The database of bibliographic references employed has been one of the most prestigious ones: theWeb of Science (ISI). The search was carried out on January 27th 2012. Among the 3x10^8 scholarly documents included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) 1899 to present , the searching engine located 439 containing the word "splash erosion*", where the asterisk acts as a wildcard for any letter or group of letters. Of these, 383 were classified as articles, 87 as proceeding papers, 5 as editorial material, 2 as notes and 1 as correction. These documents have been published in 163 different journals, although four are particularly recurrent: Earth surface processes and Landforms, Catena, Soil Science Society of America Journal and Hydrological processes, with 41, 35, 35 and 26 published documents respectively. A geographic analysis of these articles has been carried out in an attempt to determine in what parts of the world research projects were making use of splash erosion. The results are that anglo-saxon countries, as USA, England and Australia dominate, particularly USA, with 130 articles. China and Japan are large communities of researches too, and some Central European countries as Belgium, France Germany

  17. Quantitative study on appearance of microvessels in spectral endoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Shiraishi, Yasushi; Arai, Fumihito; Morimoto, Yoshinori; Yuasa, Atsuko

    2015-03-01

    Increase in abnormal microvessels in the superficial mucosa is often relevant to diagnostic findings of neoplasia in digestive endoscopy; hence, observation of superficial vasculature is crucial for cancer diagnosis. To enhance the appearance of such vessels, several spectral endoscopic imaging techniques have been developed, such as narrow-band imaging and blue laser imaging. Both techniques exploit narrow-band blue light for the enhancement. The emergence of such spectral imaging techniques has increased the importance of understanding the relation of the light wavelength to the appearance of superficial vasculature, and thus a new method is desired for quantitative analysis of vessel visibility in relation to the actual structure in the tissue. Here, we developed microvessel-simulating phantoms that allowed quantitative evaluation of the appearance of 15-μm-thick vessels. We investigated the relation between the vascular contrast and light wavelength by the phantom measurements and also verified it in experiments with swine, where the endoscopically observed vascular contrast was investigated together with its real vascular depth and diameter obtained by microscopic observation of fluorescence-labeled vessels. Our study indicates that changing the spectral property even in the wavelength range of blue light may allow selective enhancement of the vascular depth for clinical use.

  18. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-09-01

    This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Arterial vasa vasorum: a quantitative study in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    McGeachie, J; Campbell, P; Simpson, S; Prendergast, F

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the vasa vasorum of common iliac arteries in 20 rats. The number of vasa vasorum per mm2 of arterial wall was extremely variable - from 0 to 124, the mean being 33 . 95 +/- 29 . 86 (S.D.). There was no significant difference in the vasa vasorum vascularity between the right and left common iliac arteries. The mean wall thickness of these arteries was 0 . 085 +/- 0 . 015 (S.D.) mm and 60 +/- 8% (S.D.) of this was made up by the tunica media. Arterial tissue in this study was shown to have approximately 10% of the vascularity of muscle tissue. By relating these data to the 'critical depth' hypothesis, on the nutritional supply of large arteries, it was concluded that the vasa vasorum in the common iliac arteries in rat (major arteries in small animals) probably play an insignificant role in the nutrition of the arterial wall. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7076548

  20. Biblio-MetReS: A bibliometric network reconstruction application and server

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of genes and/or protein networks from automated analysis of the literature is one of the current targets of text mining in biomedical research. Some user-friendly tools already perform this analysis on precompiled databases of abstracts of scientific papers. Other tools allow expert users to elaborate and analyze the full content of a corpus of scientific documents. However, to our knowledge, no user friendly tool that simultaneously analyzes the latest set of scientific documents available on line and reconstructs the set of genes referenced in those documents is available. Results This article presents such a tool, Biblio-MetReS, and compares its functioning and results to those of other user-friendly applications (iHOP, STRING) that are widely used. Under similar conditions, Biblio-MetReS creates networks that are comparable to those of other user friendly tools. Furthermore, analysis of full text documents provides more complete reconstructions than those that result from using only the abstract of the document. Conclusions Literature-based automated network reconstruction is still far from providing complete reconstructions of molecular networks. However, its value as an auxiliary tool is high and it will increase as standards for reporting biological entities and relationships become more widely accepted and enforced. Biblio-MetReS is an application that can be downloaded from http://metres.udl.cat/. It provides an easy to use environment for researchers to reconstruct their networks of interest from an always up to date set of scientific documents. PMID:21975133

  1. [Hot research topics on cardiovascular diseases in occupational population: a bibliometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Zheng, P; Li, C Y; Hu, G P; Jia, G

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the literature characteristics and research topics on cardiovascular diseases in the occupational population quantitatively via a bibliometric analysis, and to provide a reference for the selection of research directions. Methods: A search strategy was developed according to the words in Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) , and PubMed database was searched for articles on cardiovascular diseases in the occupational population published from 2006 to 2015. The information of published year, authors, journals, and MeSH words was extracted, frequently used MeSH words were screened out, and a cluster analysis was performed for frequently used MeSH words. Results: A total of 1 272 articles were found, and about 150 articles were published annually from 2011 to 2015. Most articles were published in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, and the author Tohr Nilsson had the highest number of published articles. The influencing factors mainly included occupational mental stress, smoking, and working system, and the health outcomes attracting the most attention were hypertension, hand-arm vibration, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction. The articles were clustered into 5 types, and 5 hot topics were summarized. Conclusion: The bibliometric analysis of cardiovascular diseases in occupational population shows that hypertension and hand-arm vibration are hot research topics, which can provide a reference to researchers.

  2. Medical informatics and bioinformatics: a bibliometric study

    PubMed Central

    Bansard, Jean-Yves; Rebholz-Schuhman, Dietrich; Cameron, Graham; Clark, Dominic; van Mulligen, Erik; Beltrame, Francesco; Del Hoyo Barbolla, Eva; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Milanesi, Luciano; Tollis, Ioannis; Van der Lei, Johan; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an analysis of the bioinformatics and medical informatics literature with the objective to identify upcoming trends that are shared among both research fields to derive benefits from potential collaborative initiatives for their future. Our results present the main characteristics of the two fields and show that these domains are still relatively separated. PMID:17521073

  3. Research on Health Inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean: Bibliometric Analysis (1971–2000) and Descriptive Content Analysis (1971–1995)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Kawachi, Ichiro; Filho, Alberto Pellegrini; Dachs, J. Norberto W.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a bibliometric and content analysis of research on health inequalities produced in Latin American and Caribbean countries. In our bibliometric analysis (n = 576), we used indexed material published between 1971 and 2000. The content analysis (n = 269) covered the period 1971 to 1995 and included unpublished material. We found recent rapid growth in overall output. Brazil, Chile, and Mexico contributed mostly empirical research, while Ecuador and Argentina produced more conceptual studies. We found, in the literature reviewed, a relative neglect of gender, race, and ethnicity issues. We also found remarkable diversity in research designs, however, along with strong consideration of ecological and ethnographic methods absent in other research traditions. PMID:14652329

  4. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  5. ABRF-PRG07: Advanced Quantitative Proteomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Falick, Arnold M.; Lane, William S.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Phinney, Brett S.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Yates, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for core facilities is determining quantitative protein differences across complex biological samples. Although there are numerous techniques in the literature for relative and absolute protein quantification, the majority is nonroutine and can be challenging to carry out effectively. There are few studies comparing these technologies in terms of their reproducibility, accuracy, and precision, and no studies to date deal with performance across multiple laboratories with varied levels of expertise. Here, we describe an Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Proteomics Research Group (PRG) study based on samples composed of a complex protein mixture into which 12 known proteins were added at varying but defined ratios. All of the proteins were present at the same concentration in each of three tubes that were provided. The primary goal of this study was to allow each laboratory to evaluate its capabilities and approaches with regard to: detection and identification of proteins spiked into samples that also contain complex mixtures of background proteins and determination of relative quantities of the spiked proteins. The results returned by 43 participants were compiled by the PRG, which also collected information about the strategies used to assess overall performance and as an aid to development of optimized protocols for the methodologies used. The most accurate results were generally reported by the most experienced laboratories. Among laboratories that used the same technique, values that were closer to the expected ratio were obtained by more experienced groups. PMID:21455478

  6. Quantitative studies of human urinary excretion of uropontin.

    PubMed

    Min, W; Shiraga, H; Chalko, C; Goldfarb, S; Krishna, G G; Hoyer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Uropontin is the urinary form of osteopontin, an aspartic acid-rich phosphorylated glycoprotein. Uropontin has been previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and the binding of these crystals to renal epithelial cells. Quantitative data defining the excretion of this protein are necessary to determine its role in urinary stone formation. In the present studies, we determined uropontin excretion rates of normal humans. Urine samples were obtained under conditions of known dietary intake from young adult human volunteers with no history, radiographic or laboratory evidence of renal disease. Urinary concentrations of uropontin were measured by a sensitive ELISA employing an affinity purified polyclonal antiserum to uropontin. Thirteen normal subjects ingested a constant diet providing 1 gram of calcium, 1 gram of phosphorus, 150 mEq of sodium and 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body wt per day during an eight day study period. The relationship of urinary volume to uropontin excretion was assessed by varying fluid intake on the last four days of the study to change the mean urine volume/24 hr by > 500 ml. Urine collected in six hour aliquots for eight days was analyzed for uropontin by ELISA, and for calcium, and creatinine. Daily uropontin excretion of 13 individual subjects was 3805 +/- 1805 micrograms/24 hr (mean +/- 1 SD). The mean urinary levels (1.9 micrograms/ml) detected in the present study are sufficient for inhibition of crystallization; our previous studies have demonstrated that the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their binding to renal cells in vitro are inhibited by this concentration of purified uropontin. In contrast to the regular pattern of diurnal variation of calcium excretion seen in most subjects, uropontin excretion showed no regularity of diurnal variation and was not directly related to either calcium or creatinine excretion or changes in

  7. Quantitative structure activity relationship studies of mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chao-Bin; Luo, Wan-Chun; Ding, Qi; Liu, Shou-Zhu; Gao, Xing-Xiang

    2008-05-01

    Here, we report our results from quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on tyrosinase inhibitors. Interactions between benzoic acid derivatives and tyrosinase active sites were also studied using a molecular docking method. These studies indicated that one possible mechanism for the interaction between benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site is the formation of a hydrogen-bond between the hydroxyl (aOH) and carbonyl oxygen atoms of Tyr98, which stabilized the position of Tyr98 and prevented Tyr98 from participating in the interaction between tyrosinase and ORF378. Tyrosinase, also known as phenoloxidase, is a key enzyme in animals, plants and insects that is responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones. In the present study, the bioactivities of 48 derivatives of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and cinnamic acid compounds were used to construct three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models using comparative molecular field (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices (CoMSIA) analyses. After superimposition using common substructure-based alignments, robust and predictive 3D-QSAR models were obtained from CoMFA ( q 2 = 0.855, r 2 = 0.978) and CoMSIA ( q 2 = 0.841, r 2 = 0.946), with 6 optimum components. Chemical descriptors, including electronic (Hammett σ), hydrophobic (π), and steric (MR) parameters, hydrogen bond acceptor (H-acc), and indicator variable ( I), were used to construct a 2D-QSAR model. The results of this QSAR indicated that π, MR, and H-acc account for 34.9, 31.6, and 26.7% of the calculated biological variance, respectively. The molecular interactions between ligand and target were studied using a flexible docking method (FlexX). The best scored candidates were docked flexibly, and the interaction between the benzoic acid derivatives and the tyrosinase active site was elucidated in detail. We believe

  8. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Marcello; Gangeri, Laura; Brunelli, Cinzia; Boeri, Paolo; Borreani, Claudia; Bosisio, Marco; Karmann, Claude Fusco; Greco, Margherita; Miccinesi, Guido; Murru, Luciana; Trimigno, Patrizia

    2003-01-01

    Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT) for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ), a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81%) completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease). Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness). Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions) has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which emerged from this

  9. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    1999-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen (O2) delivery to a tissue is generally associated with a decrease in phosphocreatine, increases in ADP, NADH/NAD, and inorganic phosphate, increased rates of glycolysis and lactate production, and reduced rates of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in tissue O2 availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of O2 as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and in parameters controlling the rate of cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The whole body is described as a bioenergetic system consisting of metabolically distinct tissue/organ subsystems that exchange materials with the blood. In order to study the dynamic response of each subsystem to stimuli, we solve the ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of metabolite levels, given the initial concentrations. The solver used in the present study is the packaged code LSODE, as implemented in the NASA Lewis kinetics and sensitivity analysis code, LSENS. A major advantage of LSENS is the efficient procedures supporting systematic sensitivity analysis, which provides the basic methods for studying parameter sensitivities (i.e., changes in model behavior due to parameter variation

  10. Quantitative thermophoretic study of disease-related protein aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Wolff , Manuel; Mittag, Judith J.; Herling, Therese W.; Genst, Erwin De; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Braun, Dieter; Buell, Alexander K.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are a hallmark of a range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. A detailed understanding of the physico-chemical properties of the different aggregated forms of proteins, and of their interactions with other compounds of diagnostic or therapeutic interest, is crucial for devising effective strategies against such diseases. Protein aggregates are situated at the boundary between soluble and insoluble structures, and are challenging to study because classical biophysical techniques, such as scattering, spectroscopic and calorimetric methods, are not well adapted for their study. Here we present a detailed characterization of the thermophoretic behavior of different forms of the protein α-synuclein, whose aggregation is associated with Parkinson’s disease. Thermophoresis is the directed net diffusional flux of molecules and colloidal particles in a temperature gradient. Because of their low volume requirements and rapidity, analytical methods based on this effect have considerable potential for high throughput screening for drug discovery. In this paper we rationalize and describe in quantitative terms the thermophoretic behavior of monomeric, oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-synuclein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microscale thermophoresis (MST) is a valuable method for screening for ligands and binding partners of even such highly challenging samples as supramolecular protein aggregates. PMID:26984748

  11. Quantitative thermophoretic study of disease-related protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Manuel; Mittag, Judith J; Herling, Therese W; Genst, Erwin De; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Braun, Dieter; Buell, Alexander K

    2016-03-17

    Amyloid fibrils are a hallmark of a range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A detailed understanding of the physico-chemical properties of the different aggregated forms of proteins, and of their interactions with other compounds of diagnostic or therapeutic interest, is crucial for devising effective strategies against such diseases. Protein aggregates are situated at the boundary between soluble and insoluble structures, and are challenging to study because classical biophysical techniques, such as scattering, spectroscopic and calorimetric methods, are not well adapted for their study. Here we present a detailed characterization of the thermophoretic behavior of different forms of the protein α-synuclein, whose aggregation is associated with Parkinson's disease. Thermophoresis is the directed net diffusional flux of molecules and colloidal particles in a temperature gradient. Because of their low volume requirements and rapidity, analytical methods based on this effect have considerable potential for high throughput screening for drug discovery. In this paper we rationalize and describe in quantitative terms the thermophoretic behavior of monomeric, oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-synuclein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microscale thermophoresis (MST) is a valuable method for screening for ligands and binding partners of even such highly challenging samples as supramolecular protein aggregates.

  12. Application study of transport intensity equation in quantitative phase reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaojun; Cheng, Wei; Wei, Chunjuan; Xue, Liang; Liu, Weijing; Bai, Baodan; Chu, Fenghong

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve detection speed and accuracy of biological cells, a quantitative non-interference optical phase recovery method is proposed in commercial microscope, taking the red blood cells as the classical phase objects. Three bright field micrographs were collected in the experiment. Utilizing the transport intensity equation (TIE), the quantitative phase distributions of red blood cell are gained and agree well with the previous optical phase models. Analysis shows that the resolution of introduced system reaches sub-micron. This method not only quickly gives quantitative phase distribution of cells, but also measures a large number of cells simultaneously. So it is potential in the use of real-time observing and quantitative analyzing of cells in vivo.

  13. How international is bioethics? A quantitative retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Studying the contribution of individual countries to leading journals in a specific discipline can highlight which countries have the most impact on that discipline and whether a geographic bias exists. This article aims to examine the international distribution of publications in the field of bioethics. Methods Retrospective quantitative study of nine peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics and medical ethics (Bioethics, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Hastings Center Report, Journal of Clinical Ethics, Journal of Medical Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Nursing Ethics, Christian Bioethics, and Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics). Results In total, 4,029 articles published between 1990 and 2003 were retrieved from the nine bioethical journals under study. The United States (59.3%, n = 2390), the United Kingdom (13.5%, n = 544), Canada (4%, n = 160) and Australia (3.8%, n = 154) had the highest number of publications in terms of absolute number of publications. When normalized to population size, smaller affluent countries, such as New Zealand, Finland and Sweden were more productive than the United States. The number of studies originating from the USA was decreasing in the period between 1990 and 2003. Conclusion While a lot of peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics profile themselves as international journals, they certainly do not live up to what one would expect from an "international" journal. The fact that English speaking countries, and to a larger extent American authors, dominate the international journals in the field of bioethics is a clear geographic bias towards the bioethical discussions that are going on in these journals. PMID:16412229

  14. The Evolution of Solar Flux: Quantitative Estimates for Planetary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claire, M.; Sheets, J.; Cohen, M.; Ribas, I.; Meadows, V. S.; Catling, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Sun has a profound impact on planetary atmospheres, driving such diverse processes as the vertical temperature profile, molecular reaction rates, and atmospheric escape. Understanding the time-dependence of the solar flux is therefore essential to understanding atmospheric evolution of planets and satellites in the solar system. We present numerical models of the solar flux applicable temporally and spatially throughout the solar system (Claire et al. ApJ, 2012, in press.) We combine data from the Sun and solar analogs to estimate enhanced FUV and Xray continuum and strong line fluxes for the young Sun. In addition, we describe a new parameterization for the near UV, where both the chromosphere and photosphere contribute to the flux, and use Kurucz models to estimate variable visible and infrared fluxes. The modeled fluxes are valid at nanometer resolution from 0.1 nm through the infrared, and from 0.6 Gyr through 6.7 Gyr, with extensions from the solar zero age main sequence to 8.0 Gyr (subject to additional uncertainties). This work enables quantitative estimates of the wavelength dependence of solar flux for a range of paleodates that are relevant to studies of the chemical evolution of planetary atmospheres in the solar system (or around other G-type stars). We apply this parameterization to an early Earth photochemical model, which reveals changes in photolysis reaction rates significant larger than the intrinsic model uncertainties.

  15. Doubled Haploids for Studying the Inheritance of Quantitative Characters

    PubMed Central

    Choo, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    By using a doubled-haploid population derived from F2 plants, additive and additive x additive genetic variances, as well as the number of segregating genes, can be estimated. An F2-derived doubled-haploid population may contain almost 50% more of the best recombinant than an F1-derived population. However, the best recombinant occurs in the same frequency in the two populations when there is no linkage between genes. The difference in the frequency of the best recombinant between F2- and F3-derived populations is small. This implies that the doubled-haploid method using F2 plants provides only slightly less opportunity for recombination than the conventional breeding methods of self-pollinating crops. In the absence of additive epistasis, a weighted mean of recombination values can be estimated using an F2-derived population and its parental lines. When additive epistasis is present, it can be estimated from doubled-haploid populations derived from two backcrosses. Studies on the linkage of quantitative characters are needed for determining whether doubled haploids should be produced from F2 or from F1 plants in a breeding program. PMID:7343417

  16. Quantitative methods to study epithelial morphogenesis and polarity.

    PubMed

    Aigouy, B; Collinet, C; Merkel, M; Sagner, A

    2017-01-01

    Morphogenesis of an epithelial tissue emerges from the behavior of its constituent cells, including changes in shape, rearrangements, and divisions. In many instances the directionality of these cellular events is controlled by the polarized distribution of specific molecular components. In recent years, our understanding of morphogenesis and polarity highly benefited from advances in genetics, microscopy, and image analysis. They now make it possible to measure cellular dynamics and polarity with unprecedented precision for entire tissues throughout their development. Here we review recent approaches to visualize and measure cell polarity and tissue morphogenesis. The chapter is organized like an experiment. We first discuss the choice of cell and polarity reporters and describe the use of mosaics to reveal hidden cell polarities or local morphogenetic events. Then, we outline application-specific advantages and disadvantages of different microscopy techniques and image projection algorithms. Next, we present methods to extract cell outlines to measure cell polarity and detect cellular events underlying morphogenesis. Finally, we bridge scales by presenting approaches to quantify the specific contribution of each cellular event to global tissue deformation. Taken together, we provide an in-depth description of available tools and theoretical concepts to quantitatively study cell polarity and tissue morphogenesis over multiple scales.

  17. A descriptive and historical review of bibliometrics with applications to medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis F; Walker, Cheri K

    2015-06-01

    The discipline of bibliometrics involves the application of mathematical and statistical methods to scholarly publications. The first attempts at systematic data collection were provided by Alfred Lotka and Samuel Bradford, who subsequently established the foundational laws of bibliometrics. Eugene Garfield ushered in the modern era of bibliometrics with the routine use of citation analysis and systematized processing. Key elements of bibliometric analysis include database coverage, consistency and accuracy of the data, data fields, search options, and analysis and use of metrics. A number of bibliometric applications are currently being used in medical science and health care. Bibliometric parameters and indexes may be increasingly used by grant funding sources as measures of research success. Universities may build benchmarking standards from bibliometric data to determine academic achievement through promotion and tenure guidelines in the future. This article reviews the history, definition, laws, and elements of bibliometric principles and provides examples of bibliometric applications to the broader health care community. To accomplish this, the Medline (1966-2014) and Web of Science (1945-2014) databases were searched to identify relevant articles; select articles were also cross-referenced. Articles selected were those that provided background, history, descriptive analysis, and application of bibliometric principles and metrics to medical science and health care. No attempt was made to cover all areas exhaustively; rather, key articles were chosen that illustrate bibliometric concepts and enhance the reader's knowledge. It is important that faculty and researchers understand the limitations and appropriate uses of bibliometric data. Bibliometrics has considerable potential as a research area for health care scientists and practitioners that can be used to discover new information about academic trends, pharmacotherapy, disease, and broader health sciences

  18. A historical review and bibliometric analysis of research on estuary pollution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinshui; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-01-01

    A bibliometric method based on Science Citation Index-Expanded published by the Thomson Reuters was used to quantitatively assess the global estuary pollution research from 1991 to 2010. The main results were as follows: there had been a notable growth trend in publication outputs. Marine Pollution Bulletin was the most active journal. Environmental sciences were top popular subject categories. USA produced the most single, internationally collaborative, first authored and corresponding authored articles. The Chinese Academy of Sciences was the most productive institute for the total articles. Sediment was the most active research topic, which ranked 1st in article title, article abstract, author keyword, and KeyWords Plus analysis, respectively. Heavy metals received stable focus on a high degree in the field of estuary pollution research. Mostly refractory organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) became more active. Biomarkers and bioaccumulation both were active issues. Eutrophication of estuarine waters receives increasing concern in estuary pollution research.

  19. A Bibliography of Bibliometrics and Citation Indexing and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerppe, Roland

    More than 2,000 documents about citations, citation analysis, citation indexes, and bibliometrics are cited in this bibliography. Some documents on communication in science, scientometrics, the science of science, and information retrieval have been included where they apply to citation indexing. Although most of the documents cited are in…

  20. "Library Quarterly," 1956-2004: An Exploratory Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Arthur P.

    2006-01-01

    "Library Quarterly's" seventy-fifth anniversary invites an analysis of the journal's bibliometric dimension, including contributor attributes, various author rankings, and citation impact. Eugene Garfield's HistCite software, linked to Thomson Scientific's Web of Science, as made available by Garfield, for the period 1956-2004, was used as the…

  1. Hypersonic and Supersonic Flow Roadmaps Using Bibliometrics and Database Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostoff, R. N.; Eberhart, Henry J.; Toothman, Darrell Ray

    1999-01-01

    Database Tomography (DT) is a textual database-analysis system consisting of algorithms for extracting multiword phrase frequencies and proximities from a large textual database, to augment interpretative capabilities of the expert human analyst. Describes use of the DT process, supplemented by literature bibliometric analyses, to derive technical…

  2. The Evolution of Recent Research on Catalan Literature through the Production of PhD Theses: A Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardanuy, Jordi; Urbano, Cristobal; Quintana, Lluis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper studies the situation of research on Catalan literature between 1976 and 2003 by carrying out a bibliometric and social network analysis of PhD theses defended in Spain. It has a dual aim: to present interesting results for the discipline and to demonstrate the methodological efficacy of scientometric tools in the…

  3. Accrual Patterns for Clinical Studies Involving Quantitative Imaging: Results of an NCI Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Brenda F.; Aggarwal, Sameer; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Mountz, James M.; Linden, Hannah M.; Jones, Ella F.; Bodeker, Kellie L.; Buatti, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Patient accrual is essential for the success of oncology clinical trials. Recruitment for trials involving the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers may face different challenges than treatment trials. This study surveyed investigators and study personnel for evaluating accrual performance and perceived barriers to accrual and for soliciting solutions to these accrual challenges that are specific to quantitative imaging-based trials. Responses for 25 prospective studies were received from 12 sites. The median percent annual accrual attained was 94.5% (range, 3%–350%). The most commonly selected barrier to recruitment (n = 11/25, 44%) was that “patients decline participation,” followed by “too few eligible patients” (n = 10/25, 40%). In a forced choice for the single greatest recruitment challenge, “too few eligible patients” was the most common response (n = 8/25, 32%). Quantitative analysis and qualitative responses suggested that interactions among institutional, physician, and patient factors contributed to accrual success and challenges. Multidisciplinary collaboration in trial design and execution is essential to accrual success, with attention paid to ensuring and communicating potential trial benefits to enrolled and future patients. PMID:28127586

  4. A critical review of the development, current hotspots, and future directions of Lake Taihu research from the bibliometrics perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Yao, Xiaolong; Qin, Boqiang

    2016-07-01

    Lake Taihu, as the important drinking water source of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration and the third largest freshwater lake in China, has experienced serious lake eutrophication and water quality deterioration in the past three decades. Growing scientific, political, and public attention has been given to the water quality of Lake Taihu. This study aimed to conduct a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of the development, current hotspots, and future directions of Lake Taihu research using a bibliometric analysis of eight well-studied lakes (Lake Taihu, Lake Baikal, Lake Biwa, Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario, Lake Superior and Lake Victoria) around the world based on the Science Citation Index (SCI) database. A total of 1582 papers discussing Lake Taihu research were published in 322 journals in the past three decades. However, the first paper about Lake Taihu research was not found in the SCI database until 1989, and there were only zero, one, or two papers each year from 1989 to 1995. There had been rapid development in Lake Taihu research since 1996 and a sharp increase in papers since 2005. A keyword analysis showed that "sediment," "eutrophication", "Microcystis aeruginosa", "cyanobacterial blooms", and "remote sensing" were the most frequently used keywords of the study subject. Owing to its significant impact on aquatic ecosystems, a crucial emphasis has been placed on climate change recently. In addition, the future focuses of research directions, including (1) environmental effects of physical processes; (2) nutrient cycles and control and ecosystem responses; (3) cyanobacteria bloom monitoring, causes, forecast and management; (4) eutrophication and climate change interactions; and (5) ecosystem degradation mechanism and ecological practice of lake restoration, are presented based on the keyword analysis. Through multidisciplinary fields (physics, chemistry, and biology) cross and synthesis study of Lake Taihu, the

  5. [Google Scholar and the h-index in biomedicine: the popularization of bibliometric assessment].

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Clavijo, A; Delgado-López-Cózar, E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the features, benefits and limitations of the new scientific evaluation products derived from Google Scholar, such as Google Scholar Metrics and Google Scholar Citations, as well as the h-index, which is the standard bibliometric indicator adopted by these services. The study also outlines the potential of this new database as a source for studies in Biomedicine, and compares the h-index obtained by the most relevant journals and researchers in the field of intensive care medicine, based on data extracted from the Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Results show that although the average h-index values in Google Scholar are almost 30% higher than those obtained in Web of Science, and about 15% higher than those collected by Scopus, there are no substantial changes in the rankings generated from one data source or the other. Despite some technical problems, it is concluded that Google Scholar is a valid tool for researchers in Health Sciences, both for purposes of information retrieval and for the computation of bibliometric indicators.

  6. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that

  7. Quantitative studies on roast kinetics for bioactives in coffee.

    PubMed

    Lang, Roman; Yagar, Erkan Firat; Wahl, Anika; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Dieminger, Natalie; Eggers, Rudolf; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-12-11

    Quantitative analysis of the bioactives trigonelline (1), N-methylpyridinium (2), caffeine (3), and caffeoylquinic acids (4) in a large set of roasted Arabica (total sample size n = 113) and Robusta coffees (total sample size n = 38) revealed that the concentrations of 1 and 4 significantly correlated with the roasting color (P < 0.001, two tailed), whereas that of 2 significantly correlated inversely with the color (P < 0.001, two tailed). As dark-roasted coffees were rich in N-methylpyridinium whereas light-roasted coffees were rich in trigonelline and caffeoylquinic acids, manufacturing of roast coffees rich in all four bioactives would therefore necessitate blending of two or even more coffees of different roasting colors. Additional experiments on the migration rates during coffee brewing showed that all four bioactives were nearly quantitatively extracted in the brew (>90%) when a water volume/coffee powder ratio of >16 was used.

  8. Bibliometric analysis of the top 100 cited cardiovascular articles.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Waqas; Khan, Muhammad S; Shahid, Hassan; Valdes, Emilio A; Alweis, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The number of citations an article receives is an important indication of its impact and contribution to the clinical world. There is a paucity of literature concerning top article citations in cardiology. The main objective of this investigation was to bridge this gap and to provide readers a practical guide in evaluating the cardiovascular literature. Scopus Library database was searched to determine the citations of all published cardiovascular articles. One hundred two journals were included in our investigation under the Institute of Science Information Web of Science subject category "cardiology, cardiovascular, and heart." We did not apply any time or study-type restriction in our search. The top 100 cited articles were selected and analyzed by 2 independent investigators. The journal with the highest number of top 100 cited articles was Circulation with 36, followed by 28 in the European Heart Journal. A statistically significant association was found between the journal impact factor and the number of top 100 cited articles (p <0.005). United States had the highest number of articles (49). Contrary to bibliometric analyses published in other medical fields, the largest subset of the cardiology articles (n = 42) was published in the 5-year period from 2006 to 2010. General medical journals such as The Lancet (n = 4) and The New England Journal of Medicine (n = 1) contributed only 5 articles to the list despite their extremely high impact factors. In conclusion, our analysis provides an insight on the citation frequency of top cited articles published in cardiovascular medicine to help recognize the quality of the works, discoveries, and the trends steering cardiology.

  9. Vulnerabilities—bibliometric analysis and literature review of evolving concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Biscaro, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    In this work we analyse the evolution of the vulnerability concept in the research streams of climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR). We combine a traditional literature review with data mining procedures applied to bibliographic databases to reconstruct the history of the concept within various research topics, showing its evolution and convergences over time. To do that, we integrate different methods combining machine learning algorithms with network and cluster analyses to examine a set of 3757 articles, analysing their distinctive features and similarities on the basis of their contents as well as co-authorships. Bibliometric analyses enable the identification of different communities of articles, pinpointing key papers and authors, while literature review makes it possible to assess the concept of vulnerability evolved within and beyond research communities and scientific networks. Moreover, this work examines the role played by documents published by UN institutions (UNDRO, UNISDR, IPCC) in contributing to the evolution of vulnerability and related concepts. Results show that signs of convergence are evident between the two research streams, and that the IPCC reports have played a major role in proposing solutions for unifying definitions of vulnerability. We observe that the phases of preparation of the IPCC reports are very rich in methodological and terminological developments, while after publication, the literature shows evident signs of propagation of the proposed concepts. The DRR research stream developed before the research stream on CCA, but the latter flourished rapidly and became much larger in terms of number of publications. Nevertheless, in terms of contents, adaptation studies and the IPCC have shown increasing adoption of the concepts developed within the disaster research stream, in particular with regard to the interpretation of vulnerability as one of the dimensions of risk.

  10. Nuclear dynamics in metastatic cells studied by quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Silvia; Kandel, Mikhail; Sridharan, Shamira; Monroy, Freddy; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    We used a new quantitative high spatiotemporal resolution phase imaging tool to explore the nuclear structure and dynamics of individual cells. We used a novel analysis tool to quantify the diffusion outside and inside the nucleus of live cells. We also obtained information about the nuclear spatio temporal mass density in metastatic cells. The results indicate that in the cytoplasm, the intracellular transport is mainly active (direct, deterministic), while inside the nucleus it is both active and passive (diffusive, random). We calculated the standard deviation of velocities in active transport and the diffusion coefficient for passive transport.

  11. Study of proper conditions for quantitative atom-probe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolander, Ulf; Andrén, Hans-Olof

    1994-03-01

    Atom-probe microanalysis is a truly quantitative method only if certain requirements are fulfilled. Field evaporation must only happen when the detector system is active; ions must travel from specimen to detector without being obstructed; and ions must be detected with the same probability regardless of mass and energy. Designs and methods to achieve these requirements are presented in the paper, such as a controlled high-voltage pulser, a detector with good and variable multi-hit resolution, ion optical alignment procedures, and a method to statistically correct for pile-up in the detector.

  12. Mantle dentine in man--a quantitative microradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Herr, P; Holz, J; Baume, L J

    1986-06-01

    50 microradiographs taken in a standardized manner of midsagittal ground sections of teeth of individuals aged 18 to 56 years were densitometrically evaluated along a track passing through enamel, dentine and an aluminium stepwedge. Semi-quantitative analysis of mineral density uniformly showed an irregular platform representing circumpulpal dentine and a peripheral down slope in the region of the amelodentinal junction, representing mantle dentine. The width of this less mineralized peripheral zone measured on densitometric recordings averaged 150 microns (+/- 50). Quantitative analysis of the two dentinal regions permitted the calculation of the mineral content in terms of volume percentage using both a graphic method and an electronic computer method. The sections were also examined by polarized light microscopy which clearly visualized the presence of peripheral mantle dentine. The mean mineral density of circumpulpal dentine was 46% according to both the graphic and the computer methods; mantle dentine yielded means close to 42% according by both methods. The 4% difference in density between circumpulpal dentine and mantle dentine proved to be statistically significant; there was no significant difference between the means obtained graphically and those obtained electronically. The need for further investigation of this region of the amelodentinal junction was stressed.

  13. [Bibliometrics and web use: the birth of altmetrics].

    PubMed

    Scotti, Valeria

    2015-04-01

    Counting citations that a research article received by other articles was the traditional bibliometric method for the evaluation of a scientific research. Citations have been used both to evaluate a scientific paper - usually in conjunction with the peer review methods - and to determine the quality of a scientific research output. The development of tools even more Web 2.0 oriented has profoundly changed the scientific communication process. In this context, many web tools have emerged including the so-called "social media" (e-i., Facebook, Twitter). Hence the need for new indicators to measure the influence of these tools on the scientific community and the emergence of alternative metrics. Altmetrics combines the traditional bibliometrics tool with the use of the web. Formulated with the purpose to measure new aspects of scientific production, these new metrics are placed in order to complement and supplement the existing indicators rather than act as their replacements.

  14. Bibliometrics, citation indexing, and the journals of nursing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R; Hazelton, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Bibliometric research has risen in popularity during recent years and an increasing number of investigations now have examined the nursing literature. Our article provides a comprehensive overview of citation-based research in the nursing profession, as well as a discussion of bibliometrics, journal impact factors, and international publishing trends. The debate on evidence-based practice and its potential influence and relevance for nursing scholars is also covered. Although journal performance indicators are, no doubt, important for the contemporary nursing academic, it is the core research skills and attributes that nursing scholars, academics, and educators will need to consider more carefully in future if the next generation of professional nurse researchers is to truly flourish.

  15. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods.

    PubMed

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F J; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the 'EPS-HLS interface' is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade.

  16. Exploring the Relationship between the Engineering and Physical Sciences and the Health and Life Sciences by Advanced Bibliometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F. J.; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the ‘EPS-HLS interface’ is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade. PMID:25360616

  17. The information value of early career productivity in mathematics: a ROC analysis of prediction errors in bibliometricly informed decision making.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Jonas; Danell, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a framework to evaluate bibliometric indicators as decision support tools from a decision making perspective and to examine the information value of early career publication rate as a predictor of future productivity. We used ROC analysis to evaluate a bibliometric indicator as a tool for binary decision making. The dataset consisted of 451 early career researchers in the mathematical sub-field of number theory. We investigated the effect of three different definitions of top performance groups-top 10, top 25, and top 50 %; the consequences of using different thresholds in the prediction models; and the added prediction value of information on early career research collaboration and publications in prestige journals. We conclude that early career performance productivity has an information value in all tested decision scenarios, but future performance is more predictable if the definition of a high performance group is more exclusive. Estimated optimal decision thresholds using the Youden index indicated that the top 10 % decision scenario should use 7 articles, the top 25 % scenario should use 7 articles, and the top 50 % should use 5 articles to minimize prediction errors. A comparative analysis between the decision thresholds provided by the Youden index which take consequences into consideration and a method commonly used in evaluative bibliometrics which do not take consequences into consideration when determining decision thresholds, indicated that differences are trivial for the top 25 and the 50 % groups. However, a statistically significant difference between the methods was found for the top 10 % group. Information on early career collaboration and publication strategies did not add any prediction value to the bibliometric indicator publication rate in any of the models. The key contributions of this research is the focus on consequences in terms of prediction errors and the notion of transforming uncertainty

  18. A quantitative study of enterotoxin production by sheep milk staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, L; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    1988-01-01

    Of 124 staphylococcal strains isolated from sheep milk, 78 produced enterotoxin A, B, C, or D when evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enterotoxins A and D, elaborated by 44 and 43 strains, respectively, showed the highest incidence. Enterotoxin production by coagulase-negative strains (one Staphylococcus cohnii, three S. epidermidis, five S. haemolyticus, and four S. xylosus) was detected. Linear and logarithmic-logarithmic regressions of optical density on enterotoxin concentration yielded the best-fitting equations for enterotoxin quantitation. A significantly higher incidence of enterotoxin producers and significantly higher levels of enterotoxins produced were recorded for coagulase-positive, thermostable nuclease-positive, hemolysis-positive, or mannitol-positive strains. Mannitol utilization was the best test for discriminating between enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic staphylococci. PMID:3355142

  19. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    PubMed

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  20. Critical review of a quantitative study of a specialty in high energy particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    White, D H; Sullivan, D

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of the authors' series of quantitative, historical, and social studies of the weak interactions of elementary particles. A short intellectual history, the quantitative methodology, and a summary of the papers analyzing specific episodes in this field are presented. The social organization of the field is described, and an overall policy for resource management is discussed. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  2. Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

  3. In situ quantitative study of nanoscale triboelectrification and patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu Sheng; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Guang; Lin, Zong-Hong; Pan, Caofeng; Jing, Qingshen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-06-12

    By combining contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning Kevin probe microscopy (SKPM), we demonstrated an in situ method for quantitative characterization of the triboelectrification process at the nanoscale. We systematically characterized the triboelectric charge distribution, multifriction effect on charge transfer, as well as subsequent charge diffusion on the dielectric surface: (i) the SiO2 surface can be either positively or negatively charged through triboelectric process using Si-based AFM probes with and without Pt coating, respectively; (ii) the triboelectric charges accumulated from multifriction and eventually reached to saturated concentrations of (-150 ± 8) μC/m(2) and (105 ± 6) μC/m(2), respectively; (iii) the charge diffusion coefficients on SiO2 surface were measured to be (1.10 ± 0.03) × 10(-15) m(2)/s for the positive charge and (0.19 ± 0.01) × 10(-15) m(2)/s for the negative charges. These quantifications will facilitate a fundamental understanding about the triboelectric and de-electrification process, which is important for designing high performance triboelectric nanogenerators. In addition, we demonstrated a technique for nanopatterning of surface charges without assistance of external electric field, which has a promising potential application for directed self-assembly of charged nanostructures for nanoelectronic devices.

  4. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on nitrofuranyl antitubercular agents

    PubMed Central

    Hevener, Kirk E.; Ball, David M.; Buolamwini, John K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of nitrofuranylamide and related aromatic compounds displaying potent activity against M. tuberculosis has been investigated utilizing 3-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) techniques. Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) methods were used to produce 3D-QSAR models that correlated the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against M. tuberculosis with the molecular structures of the active compounds. A training set of 95 active compounds was used to develop the models, which were then evaluated by a series of internal and external cross-validation techniques. A test set of 15 compounds was used for the external validation. Different alignment and ionization rules were investigated as well as the effect of global molecular descriptors including lipophilicity (cLogP, LogD), Polar Surface Area (PSA), and steric bulk (CMR), on model predictivity. Models with greater than 70% predictive ability, as determined by external validation, and high internal validity (cross validated r2 > .5) have been developed. Incorporation of lipophilicity descriptors into the models had negligible effects on model predictivity. The models developed will be used to predict the activity of proposed new structures and advance the development of next generation nitrofuranyl and related nitroaromatic anti-tuberculosis agents. PMID:18701298

  5. Azotaemic renal osteodystrophy: a quantitative study on iliac bone.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H A; Peart, K M

    1973-02-01

    The histopathology of bone is described in 60 patients with chronic renal failure due to a variety of renal diseases. Changes of azotaemic renal osteodystrophy included osteitis fibrosa, osteomalacia, and osteosclerosis. Quantitative histology using a point-counting technique revealed a significant increase in total bone, mineralized bone, and osteoid in comparison with a control group of 68 individuals. Osteitis fibrosa due to secondary hyperparathyroidism occurred in 93%, osteomalacia in 40%, and osteosclerosis in 30% of patients. Woven bone formation was a characteristic feature and was related to the severity of osteitis fibrosa. There were significant correlations between the weights of parathyroid glands and the number of osteoclasts, amounts of woven bone, and marrow fibrosis in the ilium. Hyperparathyroidism caused degradation of mineralized bone but the loss was balanced or exceeded by the aggradation of woven mineralized bone. Woven bone formation together with excess osteoid gave rise to osteosclerosis. The histological findings indicate that hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa usually occur early in chronic renal failure and that osteomalacia develops subsequently.

  6. Real-time quantitative phase imaging for cell studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hoa Vinh

    Most biological cells are not clearly visible with a bright field microscope. Several methods have been developed to improve contrast in cell imaging, including use of exogenous contrast agents such as fluorescence microscopy, as well as utilizing properties of light-specimen interaction for optics design, to reveal the endogenous contrast, such as phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Although PCM and DIC methods significantly improve the image contrast without the need for staining agents, they only provide qualitative information about the phase change induced by the cells as light passes through them. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has recently emerged as an effective imaging tool which provides not only better image contrast but also cell-induced phase shifts in the optical pathlength, thus allowing nanometer-scale measurements of structures and dynamics of the cells. Other important aspects of an imaging system are its imaging speed and throughput. High-throughput, high-speed, real-time quantitative phase imaging with high spatial and temporal sensitivity is highly desirable in many applications including applied physics and biomedicine. In this dissertation, to address this need, I discuss the development of such an imaging system that includes the white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a new optical imaging method, and image reconstruction/analysis algorithms using graphics processing units (GPUs). wDPM can measure optical pathlength changes at nanometer scale both spatially and temporally with single-shot image acquisition, enabling very fast imaging. I also exploit the broadband spectrum of white light used as the light source in wDPM to develop a system called spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy (sDPM). This sDPM system allows QPI measurements at several wavelengths, which solves the problem of thickness and refractive index coupling in the phase shifts induced by the cell, and which

  7. Erosion of Terrestrial Rift Flank Topography: A Quantitative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissel, Jeffrey K.

    1999-01-01

    Many rifted or passive continental margins feature a seaward-facing erosional escarpment which abruptly demarcates deeply weathered, low relief, interior uplands from a deeply incised, high relief coastal zone. It is generally accepted that these escarpments originate at the time of continental rifting and propagate inland through the elevated rift flank topography at rates on the order of 1 km/Myr over the course of a margin's history. Considering the length of passive margins worldwide and an average rift flank plateau height of several hundred meters, it is clear that sediment eroded from passive margins is an important component of the mass flux from continents to oceans through geologic time. The overall goal of the research reported here is to develop a quantitative understanding of the kinematics of escarpment propagation across passive margins and the underlying geological processes responsible for this behavior. Plateau-bounding escarpments in general exhibit two basic forms depending on the direction of surface water drainage on the plateau interior relative to the escarpment. Where surface water flows away from the escarpment, the escarpment takes the form of subdued embayments and promontories, such that its overall trend remains fairly straight as it evolves with time. Where upland streams flow across the escarpment, it takes the form of dramatic, narrow gorges whose heads appear to propagate up the plateau drainage systems as large-scale knickpoints. From work on the Colorado Plateau, Schmidt (1987) noted that the Colorado River is located much closer to the Grand Canyon's south rim, a drainage divide escarpment, than to the north rim, which is a gorge-like escarpment. The main implication is that the gorge-like form might be associated with higher long-term average erosion rates compared to the drainage divide escarpment type.

  8. The emerging science of quantitative imaging biomarkers terminology and definitions for scientific studies and regulatory submissions.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Larry G; Barnhart, Huiman X; Buckler, Andrew J; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Kondratovich, Marina V; Toledano, Alicia; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Filice, Ross; Zhang, Zheng; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    The development and implementation of quantitative imaging biomarkers has been hampered by the inconsistent and often incorrect use of terminology related to these markers. Sponsored by the Radiological Society of North America, an interdisciplinary group of radiologists, statisticians, physicists, and other researchers worked to develop a comprehensive terminology to serve as a foundation for quantitative imaging biomarker claims. Where possible, this working group adapted existing definitions derived from national or international standards bodies rather than invent new definitions for these terms. This terminology also serves as a foundation for the design of studies that evaluate the technical performance of quantitative imaging biomarkers and for studies of algorithms that generate the quantitative imaging biomarkers from clinical scans. This paper provides examples of research studies and quantitative imaging biomarker claims that use terminology consistent with these definitions as well as examples of the rampant confusion in this emerging field. We provide recommendations for appropriate use of quantitative imaging biomarker terminological concepts. It is hoped that this document will assist researchers and regulatory reviewers who examine quantitative imaging biomarkers and will also inform regulatory guidance. More consistent and correct use of terminology could advance regulatory science, improve clinical research, and provide better care for patients who undergo imaging studies.

  9. Interactions among Online Learners: A Quantitative Interdisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Pawan; Jain, Sachin; Jain, Smita

    2011-01-01

    This study concerns the design and development of online instruction and specifically targets interaction and communication between online learners. Facilitating appropriate and meaningful interactions in designing instruction is a major goal for anyone developing a course, especially an online class. The data for this study came from the online…

  10. Bibliometric approach of factors affecting scientific productivity in environmental sciences and ecology.

    PubMed

    Dragos, Cristian Mihai; Dragos, Simona Laura

    2013-04-01

    Different academic bibliometric studies have measured the influence of economic, political and linguistic factors in the academic output of countries. Separate analysis in different fields can reveal specific incentive factors. Our study proves that the Environmental Performance Index, computed by Yale University, is highly significant (p<0.01) for the productivity of research and development activities in environmental sciences and ecology. The control variables like education financing, publishing of ISI Thomson domestic journals and the English language are also significant. The methodology uses Ordinary Least Squares multiple regressions with convincing results (R(2)=0.752). The relative positions of the 92 countries in the sample are also discussed. We draw up a ranking of the countries' concern for the environment, considering evenly the scientific productivity and the environment quality. We notice huge differences concerning the number of inhabitants and population income between the countries that dominate the classification and those occupying the last positions.

  11. A Bibliometric Analysis of PubMed Literature on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengting; Chen, Yongdi; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Liu, Kui; Chen, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Gu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), a pandemic threat to human beings, has aroused huge concern worldwide, but no bibliometric studies have been conducted on MERS research. The aim of this study was to map research productivity on the disease based on the articles indexed in PubMed. The articles related to MERS dated from 2012 to 2015 were retrieved from PubMed. The articles were classified into three categories according to their focus. Publication outputs were assessed and frequently used terms were mapped using the VOS viewer software. A total of 443 articles were included for analysis. They were published in 162 journals, with Journal of Virology being the most productive (44 articles; 9.9%) and by six types of organizations, with universities being the most productive (276 articles; 62.4%).The largest proportion of the articles focused on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (47.2%) and those on prevention and control ranked third (26.2%), with those on other focuses coming in between (26.6%). The articles on prevention and control had the highest mean rank for impact factor (IF) (226.34), followed by those on basic medical sciences and clinical studies (180.23) and those on other focuses (168.03). The mean rank differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Besides, “conronavirus”, “case”, “transmission” and “detection” were found to be the most frequently used terms. The findings of this first bibliometric study on MERS suggest that the prevention and control of the disease has become a big concern and related research should be strengthened. PMID:27304963

  12. Quantitative evaluation of wrist posture and typing performance: A comparative study of 4 computer keyboards

    SciTech Connect

    Burastero, S.

    1994-05-01

    The present study focuses on an ergonomic evaluation of 4 computer keyboards, based on subjective analyses of operator comfort and on a quantitative analysis of typing performance and wrist posture during typing. The objectives of this study are (1) to quantify differences in the wrist posture and in typing performance when the four different keyboards are used, and (2) to analyze the subjective preferences of the subjects for alternative keyboards compared to the standard flat keyboard with respect to the quantitative measurements.

  13. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  14. Commercial Activities in Primary Schools: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The commercialisation of schools is a controversial issue, but very little is known about the actual situation in UK schools. The aim of this study was to investigate, with particular reference to health education and health promotion, commercial activities and their regulation in primary schools in the Yorkshire and Humber region of the UK. A…

  15. Service Learning, Phonemic Perception, and Learner Motivation: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Almitra; Gordon, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week empirical study of 25 adults in a second language (L2) Spanish phonetics course explored whether students' participation in service-learning language exchange sessions with native Spanish speakers outside of class influenced learners' (1) motivation for foreign language learning and (2) phonemic perception in Spanish. Divided…

  16. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Soltis, R.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy's cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  17. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    SciTech Connect

    Soltis, R.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy`s cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  18. An Approach to the Quantitative Study of Sea Floor Topography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    the result of igneous , sedimentary and tectonic processes, and must, when collectively dealt with, have nonstationary statistics. For these two reasons...Continental Rise by Deep Geostrophic Contour Currents. Science, v. 152, p. 1126-1149. Hess, H. H. (1962). History of Ocean Basins. In: Petrological Studies: A...estimates of ship’s speed of advance (SOA), which could easily be as high as 10% in older data, but is most likely on the order of 1-2% for present

  19. Twins born following fertility treatment: implications for quantitative genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Goody, Adam; Rice, Frances; Boivin, Jacky; Harold, Gordon T; Hay, Dale F; Thapar, Anita

    2005-08-01

    The rate of multiple births is substantially elevated in women who have had assisted reproduction treatment (ART; approximately 26%) compared to the general population ( approximately 1%), and these offspring are usually included in twin studies. Several studies have attempted to identify possible consequences of undergoing ART on the subsequent offspring. However, most studies have only included singleton births. We first examined whether twins born by ART differed from other twins on measures of childhood psychopathology, putative risk factors and correlates, and secondly tested for differences in the degree of twin similarity for available outcome measures. From a population-based twin sample, 101 families with dizygotic (DZ) twins conceived via ART were identified and compared with 1073 naturally conceived (NC) control DZ twin pairs. Analyses performed were (1) univariate and multivariate comparisons of between-group mean differences; and (2) comparison of twin 1-twin 2 correlations between the groups. The groups differed significantly on demographic factors (parental age, family size and social class) and pregnancy variables (smoking during pregnancy and birthweight) but did not differ on family conflict scores or in the frequency of obstetric complications. Family cohesion was higher in the ART group but this was accounted for by demographic factors. For child psychopathology there was a difference between the groups only for teacher-rated ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). Differences were also found between groups for twin correlations. The differences found between ART and NC twins on group means and twin correlations suggest that researchers should be aware that including ART twins may influence results from twin studies.

  20. QUANTITATIVE CT ANALYSIS, AIRFLOW OBSTRUCTION AND LUNG CANCER IN THE PITTSBURGH LUNG SCREENING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O; Leader, Joseph K; Fuhrman, Carl R; Reilly, John J; Sciurba, Frank C.; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2011-01-01

    Background To study the relationship between emphysema, airflow obstruction and lung cancer in a high risk population we performed quantitative analysis of screening computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods Subjects completed questionnaires, spirometry and low-dose helical chest CT. Analyses compared cases and controls according to automated quantitative analysis of lung parenchyma and airways measures. Results Our case-control study of 117 matched pairs of lung cancer cases and controls did not reveal any airway or lung parenchymal findings on quantitative analysis of screening CT scans that were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Airway measures including wall area %, lumen perimeter, lumen area and average wall HU, and parenchymal measures including lung fraction < −910 Hounsfield Units (HU), were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions The relationship between visual assessment of emphysema and increased lung cancer risk could not be verified by quantitative analysis of low-dose screening CT scans in a high risk tobacco exposed population. PMID:21610523

  1. A quantitative study of a physics-first pilot program

    SciTech Connect

    Pasero, Spencer Lee; /Northern Illinois U.

    2008-09-01

    Hundreds of high schools around the United States have inverted the traditional core sequence of high school science courses, putting physics first, followed by chemistry, and then biology. A quarter-century of theory, opinion, and anecdote are available, but the literature lacks empirical evidence of the effects of the program. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of the program on science achievement gain, growth in attitude toward science, and growth in understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. One hundred eighty-five honor students participated in this quasi-experiment, self-selecting into either the traditional or inverted sequence. Students took the Explore test as freshmen, and the Plan test as sophomores. Gain scores were calculated for the composite scores and for the science and mathematics subscale scores. A two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) on course sequence and cohort showed significantly greater composite score gains by students taking the inverted sequence. Participants were administered surveys measuring attitude toward science and understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge twice per year. A multilevel growth model, compared across program groups, did not show any significant effect of the inverted sequence on either attitude or understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. The sole significant parameter showed a decline in student attitude independent of course sequence toward science over the first two years of high school. The results of this study support the theory that moving physics to the front of the science sequence can improve achievement. The importance of the composite gain score on tests vertically aligned with the high-stakes ACT is discussed, and several ideas for extensions of the current study are offered.

  2. Three quantitative studies of gender and identity in psychotherapy consultations.

    PubMed

    Langs, R; Rapp, P E; Pinto, A; Cramer, G; Badalamenti, A

    1992-04-01

    This paper details the application of three distinctive approaches to the analysis of line-by-line scores for themes of gender and identity in recorded psychotherapy consultations conducted by three male analysts with a female patient. The first method involved commonly used statistical comparisons of the frequency with which gender subthemes and allusions to identity appeared in each consultation session. The results of this study indicate three significantly different patterns of gender material in the communications from the patient with each of the analysts who interviewed her--and from each analyst and patient/analyst system as well. Therapist dominance in this area appeared to be quite strong. The second study involved measures of overall informational complexity for various aspects of the gender/identity sequence of communications. Here too, individual differences emerged. They not only add to the evidence for therapist dominance in these protocols, but also provide indications that sessions differ in respect to the extent to which the information they contain is ordered and repetitive or redundant, as compared to disordered, complex, and varied. The third study availed itself of stochastic methods in which the Box-Jenkins models were used to define mathematically and post hoc, the deeper structure of aspects of the vicissitudes of gender/identity expressions in the course of these consultations. The main finding was that change in speaker role in respect to these themes accelerated in response to random interventional shocks to the system that occurred at the time of measurement and inversely with shocks to the system sustained the previous second. This look into the deeper structure of these sequences revealed considerable sensitivity to recent shocks to the patient/therapist system, much underlying instability, and strong tendencies toward establishing stability or equilibrium when the system destabilized. Of note is the finding that all three

  3. A Kernel-based Account of Bibliometric Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahiko; Shimbo, Masashi; Kudo, Taku; Matsumoto, Yuji

    The application of kernel methods to citation analysis is explored. We show that a family of kernels on graphs provides a unified perspective on the three bibliometric measures that have been discussed independently: relatedness between documents, global importance of individual documents, and importance of documents relative to one or more (root) documents (relative importance). The framework provided by the kernels establishes relative importance as an intermediate between relatedness and global importance, in which the degree of `relativity,' or the bias between relatedness and importance, is naturally controlled by a parameter characterizing individual kernels in the family.

  4. Quantitative studies of bird movement: a methodological review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Kaiser, A.

    1999-01-01

    The past several years have seen development of a number of statistical models and methods for drawing inferences about bird movement using data from marked individuals. It can be difficult to keep up with this rapid development of new methods, so our purpose here is to categorize and review methods for drawing inferences about avian movement. We also outline recommendations about future work dealing both with methods development and actual studies directed at hypotheses about bird movement of interest from conservation, management, or ecological perspectives.

  5. Quantitative studies of bird movement: A methodological review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Kaiser, A.

    1999-01-01

    The past several years have seen the development of a number of statistical models and methods for drawing inferences about bird movement using data from marked individuals. It can be difficult to keep up with this rapid development of new methods, so our purpose here is to categorize and review methods for drawing inferences about avian movement. We also outline recommendations about future work, dealing both with methodological developments and with studies directed at hypotheses about bird movement of interest from conservation, management, or ecological perspectives.

  6. A Quantitative Study of Magnetic Flux Transport on the Sun,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-15

    the Sun . Using Kitt Peak magnetograms as input, as have determined a best-fit diffusion constant by comparing the computed and observed fields at later times. This paper presents the initial results of a project to simulate the transport of solar magnetic flux using diffusion, differential rotation, and meridional flow. The study concerns the evolution of large-scale fields on a time scale of weeks of years, and ignores the rapid changes that accompany the emergence of new magnetic regions and the day-to-day changes of the supergranular network

  7. New methods for quantitative and qualitative facial studies: an overview.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I T; Hintz, R J; Frias, J L

    1989-01-01

    The clinical study of birth defects has traditionally followed the Gestalt approach, with a trend, in recent years, toward more objective delineation. Data collection, however, has been largely restricted to measurements from X-rays and anthropometry. In other fields, new techniques are being applied that capitalize on the use of modern computer technology. One such technique is that of remote sensing, of which photogrammetry is a branch. Cartographers, surveyors and engineers, using specially designed cameras, have applied geometrical techniques to locate points on an object precisely. These techniques, in their long-range application, have become part of our industrial technology and have assumed great importance with the development of satellite-borne surveillance systems. The close-range application of similar techniques has the potential for extremely accurate clinical measurement. We are currently evaluating the application of remote sensing to facial measurement using three conventional 35 mm still cameras. The subject is photographed in front of a carefully measured grid, and digitization is then carried out on 35-mm slides specific landmarks on the cranioface are identified, along with points on the background grid and the four corners of the slide frame, and are registered as xy coordinates by a digitizer. These coordinates are then converted into precise locations in object space. The technique is capable of producing measurements to within 1/100th of an inch. We suggest that remote sensing methods such as this may well be of great value in the study of congenital malformations.

  8. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles under Sintering Conditions: A Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    Silencieux, Fanny; Bouchoucha, Meryem; Mercier, Olivier; Turgeon, Stéphane; Chevallier, Pascale; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Thin films made of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are finding new applications in catalysis, optics, as well as in biomedicine. The fabrication of MSNs thin films requires a precise control over the deposition and sintering of MSNs on flat substrates. In this study, MSNs of narrow size distribution (150 nm) are synthesized, and then assembled onto flat silicon substrates, by means of a dip-coating process. Using concentrated MSN colloidal solutions (19.5 mg mL(-1) SiO2), withdrawal speed of 0.01 mm s(-1), and well-controlled atmospheric conditions (ambient temperature, ∼ 70% of relative humidity), monolayers are assembled under well-structured compact patterns. The thin films are sintered up to 900 °C, and the evolution of the MSNs size distributions are compared to those of their pore volumes and densities. Particle size distributions of the sintered thin films were precisely fitted using a model specifically developed for asymmetric particle size distributions. With increasing temperature, there is first evidence of intraparticle reorganization/relaxation followed by intraparticle sintering followed by interparticle sintering. This study is the first to quantify the impact of sintering on MSNs assembled as thin films.

  9. A Quantitative Study of Right Dislocation in Cantonese Spoken Discourse.

    PubMed

    Lai, Christy Choi-Ting; Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2017-01-01

    Right Dislocation (RD) has been suggested to be a focus marking device carrying an affective function motivated by limited planning time in conversation. The current study investigated the effects of genre type, planning load and affective function on the use of RD in Cantonese monologues. Discourse data were extracted from a recently developed corpus of oral narratives in Cantonese Chinese containing language samples from 144 native Cantonese speakers evenly distributed in age, education levels and gender. Three genre types representing different structures, styles and degrees of topic familiarity were chosen for an RD analysis: procedural description, story-telling and recount of personal event. The results revealed that genre types and planning load influenced the rate of RD occurrence. (1) Specifically, the lowest proportion of RD occurred in procedural description, assumed to be the most structured genre; whereas the highest rate was found in personal event recount, considered to be the most stylized and less structured genre. (2) The highest proportion of RD appeared near the end of a narrative, where heavier cognitive load is demanded compared with the beginning of a narrative; moreover, RD also tended to co-occur with disfluency. (3) There was a high percentage of RD tokens in the personal event recount for expressing explicit emotions; and (4) a lower rate of occurrence of RD was found in monologues than previous studies based on conversations. The overall findings suggest that the use of RD is sensitive to genre structure and style, as well as planning load effects.

  10. Conformational stability of dimeric proteins: quantitative studies by equilibrium denaturation.

    PubMed Central

    Neet, K. E.; Timm, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The conformational stability of dimeric globular proteins can be measured by equilibrium denaturation studies in solvents such as guanidine hydrochloride or urea. Many dimeric proteins denature with a 2-state equilibrium transition, whereas others have stable intermediates in the process. For those proteins showing a single transition of native dimer to denatured monomer, the conformational stabilities, delta Gu (H2O), range from 10 to 27 kcal/mol, which is significantly greater than the conformational stability found for monomeric proteins. The relative contribution of quaternary interactions to the overall stability of the dimer can be estimated by comparing delta Gu (H2O) from equilibrium denaturation studies to the free energy associated with simple dissociation in the absence of denaturant. In many cases the large stabilization energy of dimers is primarily due to the intersubunit interactions and thus gives a rationale for the formation of oligomers. The magnitude of the conformational stability is related to the size of the polypeptide in the subunit and depends upon the type of structure in the subunit interface. The practical use, interpretation, and utility of estimation of conformational stability of dimers by equilibrium denaturation methods are discussed. PMID:7756976

  11. [Qualitative and quantitative studies of autofluorescence in fungi].

    PubMed

    Graf, B; Göbel, U B; Adam, T

    1998-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an important method in mycology. It is a common procedure used in immunology or histology and more recently in modern techniques of molecular biology like in-situ hybridization. Since several molds and yeasts show autofluorescence, an interference of this phenomenon with the detection method cannot be excluded. Therefore, we studied autofluorescence in fungi in more detail, in particular with respect to the dependence of this phenomenon from growth conditions, fixing method or mounting medium used. Here we show that moulds cultivated in a liquid medium are strongly autofluorescent which could be considerably reduced by repetitive washing. In moulds, we did not find important differences in autofluorescence levels with the three fixing methods under study. However, this finding cannot be generalized. Thus, in the yeast Candida albicans we found the autofluorescence pattern being largely dependent from the fixing method and the excitation wave length, respectively. In particular, with green excitation we could show that aceton fixation resulted in strong fluorescence of individual cells within a vast population of cells showing little or no autofluorescence. In addition, we could demonstrate that mounting media are able to strongly modify autofluorescence in fungi. Using digital image acquisition with a cooled CCD camera we were able to quantify the influence of different mounting media on fluorescence intensities of Aspergillus fumigatus.

  12. Study on global cloud computing research trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Feicheng; Zhan, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Since "cloud computing" was put forward by Google , it quickly became the most popular concept in IT industry and widely permeated into various areas promoted by IBM, Microsoft and other IT industry giants. In this paper the methods of bibliometric analysis were used to investigate the global cloud computing research trend based on Web of Science (WoS) database and the Engineering Index (EI) Compendex database. In this study, the publication, countries, institutes, keywords of the papers was deeply studied in methods of quantitative analysis, figures and tables are used to describe the production and the development trends of cloud computing.

  13. Public health research in India in the new millennium: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Anuska; Shinde, Sachin; Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Background Public health research has gained increasing importance in India's national health policy as the country seeks to address the high burden of disease and its inequitable distribution, and embarks on an ambitious agenda towards universalising health care. Objective This study aimed at describing the public health research output in India, its focus and distribution, and the actors involved in the research system. It makes recommendations for systematically promoting and strengthening public health research in the country. Design The study was a bibliometric analysis of PubMed and IndMed databases for years 2000–2010. The bibliometric data were analysed in terms of biomedical focus based on the Global Burden of Disease, location of research, research institutions, and funding agencies. Results A total of 7,893 eligible articles were identified over the 11-year search period. The annual research output increased by 42% between 2000 and 2010. In total, 60.8% of the articles were related to communicable diseases, newborn, maternal, and nutritional causes, comparing favourably with the burden of these causes (39.1%). While the burdens from non-communicable diseases and injuries were 50.2 and 10.7%, respectively, only 31.9 and 7.5% of articles reported research for these conditions. The north-eastern states and the Empowered-Action-Group states of India were the most under-represented for location of research. In total, 67.2% of papers involved international collaborations and 49.2% of these collaborations were with institutions in the UK or USA; 35.4% of the publications involved international funding and 71.2% of funders were located in the UK or USA. Conclusions While public health research output in India has increased significantly, there are marked inequities in relation to the burden of disease and the geographic distribution of research. Systematic priority setting, adequate funding, and institutional capacity building are needed to address these

  14. Assessing urology and nephrology research activity in Arab countries using ISI web of science bibliometric database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bibliometric analysis is increasingly being used for research assessment. The main objective of this study was to assess research output in Urology and Nephrology subject from the Arab countries. Original scientific articles or reviews published from the 21 Arab countries in “Urology and Nephrology” subject were screened using the ISI Web of Science database. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analyzing the annual productivity, names of journals, citations; top 10 active institution and authors as well as country contribution to Urology and Nephrology research. Results Three thousand and seventy six documents in “urology and nephrology” subject category were retrieved from 104 journals. This represents 1.4% of the global research output in “urology and nephrology”. Four hundred and two documents (12.66%) were published in Annales D Urologie Journal. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 57. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 30401 with an average citation of 9.57 per document. Egypt, with a total publication of 1284 (40.43%) ranked first among the Arab countries in “urology and nephrology” subject category. Mansoura University in Egypt was the most productive institution with a total of 561 (15.33%) documents. Arab researchers collaborated most with researchers from the United States of America (226; 7.12%) in urology and nephrology research. Conclusion The present data reveals a good contribution of some Arab countries to the field of “urology and nephrology”. More efforts are needed by some other Arab countries to bridge the gap in urology and nephrology research. Overall, the quality of urology/nephrology research is considered relatively high as measured by h-index. Cooperation in urology/nephrology research should be encouraged in the Arab world to bridge the gap with that from developed countries. PMID:24758477

  15. A Quantitative Study of Simulated Bicuspid Aortic Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kai; Nguyen, Tran; Rodriguez, Javier; Pastuszko, Peter; Nigam, Vishal; Lasheras, Juan

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that congentially bicuspid aortic valves develop degenerative diseases earlier than the standard trileaflet, but the causes are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that the asymmetrical flow patterns and turbulence found in the bileaflet valves together with abnormally high levels of strain may result in an early thickening and eventually calcification and stenosis. Central to this hypothesis is the need for a precise quantification of the differences in the strain rate levels between bileaflets and trileaflet valves. We present here some in-vitro dynamic measurements of the spatial variation of the strain rate in pig aortic vales conducted in a left ventricular heart flow simulator device. We measure the strain rate of each leaflet during the whole cardiac cycle using phase-locked stereoscopic three-dimensional image surface reconstruction techniques. The bicuspid case is simulated by surgically stitching two of the leaflets in a normal valve.

  16. A Quantitative Study of Michigan's Criminal HIV Exposure Law

    PubMed Central

    Galletly, Carol L.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the project were 1) to determine the extent to which HIV-positive persons living in Michigan were aware of and understood Michigan's criminal HIV exposure law, 2) to examine whether awareness of the law was associated with seropositive status disclosure to prospective sex partners, and, 3) to examine whether awareness of the law was associated with potential negative effects of the law on persons living with HIV (PLWH) including heightened HIV-related stigma, perceived societal hostility toward PLWH, and perceived need to conceal one's HIV infection. The study design was cross-sectional. A statewide sample of 384 PLWH in Michigan completed anonymous pen and paper surveys in 1 of 25 data collection sessions. A majority of participants were aware of Michigan's HIV exposure law. Awareness of the law was not associated with increased seropositive status disclosure to all prospective sex partners, decreased HIV transmission risk behavior, or increased perceived responsibility for HIV transmission prevention. However, awareness of the law was significantly associated with disclosure to a greater proportion of sex partners prior to respondents’ first sexual interaction with that partner. Awareness of the law was not associated with increased HIV-related stigma, perceived societal hostility toward PLWH, or decreased comfort with seropositive status disclosure. Evidence of an effect of Michigan's HIV exposure law on seropositive status disclosure was mixed. Further research is needed to examine the various forms of HIV exposure laws among diverse groups of persons living with or at increased risk of acquiring HIV. PMID:21861631

  17. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell. Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.

  18. Quantitative study of salivary secretion in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tumilasci, Omar R; Cersósimo, M G; Belforte, Juan E; Micheli, Federico E; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Pazo, Jorge H

    2006-05-01

    We examined basal and reflex salivary flow rate and composition in 46 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both in off and on conditions, compared to 13 age-matched controls without underlying disease or treatment affecting autonomic function. Whole saliva was collected 12 hours after withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs and at the peak of levodopa-induced motor improvement. Twenty-three of the 46 PD patients had received domperidone a week before the study. Basal salivary flow rate was significantly lower in PD patients in the off state compared to controls (P<0.005). Levodopa increased salivary flow rate (P<0.05) both in the domperidone-pretreated and untreated groups. Citric acid stimulated salivary flow rate in both the off and on states in PD patients. This effect was higher in the domperidone-pretreated patients. Salivary concentration of sodium, chloride, and amylase was higher in PD patients than in controls and was not affected by levodopa or domperidone treatment. Levodopa stimulates both basal and reflex salivary flow rate in PD. The mechanism appears to be central, as the effect is not blocked by domperidone. Domperidone may have a peripheral effect that potentiates reflex salivary secretion. Salivary composition is abnormal in PD and is not affected by levodopa treatment.

  19. Quantitative study of the enhancement of bulk nonlinearities in metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Alec; Larouche, Stephane; Smith, David R.

    2011-11-15

    Artificially structured metamaterials offer a means to enhance the weak optical nonlinearities of natural materials. The enhancement results from the inhomogeneous nature of the metamaterial unit cell, over which the local field distribution can likewise be strongly inhomogeneous, with highly localized and concentrated field regions. We investigate the nonlinear enhancement effect in metamaterials through a numerical study of four nonlinear metamaterial designs comprising arrays of metallic structures embedded in nonlinear dielectrics and operating around 10 THz. Through full-wave simulations and by employing an extended version of the transfer-matrix-based nonlinear parameter retrieval method, we confirm and quantify the enhanced nonlinearities, showing bulk quadratic nonlinear properties that are up to two orders of magnitude larger, and cubic nonlinear properties that are up to four orders of magnitude larger than the bulk nonlinear dielectric alone. Furthermore, the proposed nonlinear metamaterials support a variety of configurable nonlinear properties and regimes, including electric, magnetic, broadband, and low loss, depending on the particular geometry chosen. Finally, we use the retrieved parameters in a coupled-mode theory to predict the optimal crystal lengths and conversion efficiencies of these structures, displaying the possibility of efficient and subwavelength nonlinear devices based on metamaterials.

  20. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  1. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    DOE PAGES

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell.more » Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.« less

  2. Perinatal hemochromatosis. Clinical, morphologic, and quantitative iron studies.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M. M.; Beverley, D. W.; Valberg, L. S.; Cutz, E.; Phillips, M. J.; Shaheed, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sibling and two isolated-case perinates (4 newborn, 1 stillborn) died with siderotic cirrhosis and widespread parenchymal siderosis, the latter similar to that seen in both hereditary and secondary hemochromatosis. Reticuloendothelial siderosis was absent, as occurs in primary hemochromatosis. Studies of iron metabolism were performed antemortem in two of the siblings and ante-, post- and internatally in their mother, who showed hyperferremia antenatally. The only finding in the affected family suggestive of hereditary hemochromatosis was the commonly associated HLA haplotype (A3, B7) in the mother and an infant. Liver morphology, including immunocytochemistry and ultrastructure, was similar in the 5 infants and suggested that liver disease commenced as massive necrosis in midfetal life. Histologic grading and chemical assays for iron and copper on liver and spleen of the 5 index cases were compared with 26 controls; placentas were compared with 12 control placentas. Hepatic iron concentration, but not hepatic copper concentration, was significantly increased in index cases, compared with controls. Hepatic iron to copper ratio was significantly increased in index cases, compared with controls, but this ratio was unaltered in spleen and placenta. Total hepatic iron, but not total hepatic copper, was significantly increased in index cases, compared with a subgroup of 11 controls of low gestational age, similar to the fetal stage when liver disease commenced in utero. The results suggest that, irrespective of the fetal liver disease being genetic or acquired, hepatic iron overload was directly involved in pathogenesis. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3307444

  3. Quantitative Study of Vulnerability / Damage Curves in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pule, Tebogo

    2014-05-01

    Southern Africa is considered a stable continental region in spite of several cases of reported earthquakes, which caused considerable damage and casualties particularly in the mining industry. Most buildings and structures in South Africa are not designed to resist any intensity of earthquake and most architects, engineers and builders in the country do not consider seismic resistance as a design requirement. This is mainly because the region has not experienced any large and serious destructive earthquake in recent years. The most destructive earthquake recorded in South Africa is the Ceres earthquake of 1969. The earthquake with a magnitude of 6.3 occurred on September 29, 1969 in the Ceres-Tulbagh region of the Western Cape Province about 100 km northeast of Cape Town. Serious damage occurred to certain buildings in the area (amounting to a total of U.S. 24 million). The structural damage varied from almost total destruction of old and poorly constructed buildings to large cracks in the better-built ones, twelve people were killed and many more were injured. Another event that caused severe damage to infrastructure occurred on March 9, 2005 at Stilfontein near Klerksdorp. It is known that up to 40 or more tremors are recorded monthly in Southern Africa, the locations are predominantly in the places surrounding the gold mining areas with many events around the Carletonville and Klerksdorp areas. Recent years have seen at least four mining induced tremors causing significant damage (Welkom 1976, Klerksdorp 1977, Welkom 1989 and Carletonville 1992). Such events show that it is very necessary to take seismic events into account in the design of any infrastructure. Assessing and understanding the risk facing the South African cities as a result of major seismic activity has been paid little attention. The main focus of this study is to use results of a deterministic hazard assessment to develop the most suitable damage curves for twelve of the most common building

  4. A quantitative study of the geoeffectiveness of interplanetary structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.

    2001-05-01

    The time-integrated values of the injection function F(E) necessary to observe variations in the Dst index during the main phase of intense magnetic storms at levels of -50, -75, -100, -125 and -150 nT, were estimated for a set of 12 interplanetary coronal mass ejections events. The dataset was classified into four groups concerning the occurrence of sheath fields just behind the shock and the polarity of the magnetic clouds: (i) magnetic clouds with polarity NS, (ii) magnetic clouds with SN polarity, (iii) magnetic clouds with southward field (Y polarity) and (iv) sheath fields. The injection function was estimated using two models of the evolution of the Dst. The time-integrated values estimated for the subset of Y clouds were found to be greater than for the other subsets. This occurs as a consequence of the slow increase of the Bs for Y clouds that leads to a smaller difference between the energy injection and the loss in the ring current that for the other groups. It is important to remember that while the energy injection is driven by the dawn-dusk component of the interplanetary electric field, the energy loss is proportional to the ring current population, with a decay time τ that varies from 3 to 20 h. The time-integrated values estimated for the subset of NS were found to be high. This is also associated to the profile of the Bs. Otherwise, sheath field and the SN magnetic cloud events seems to have shorter time-integrated values as a consequence of the sharp variation of the Bs component. In this case the energy injection is much greater than the loss energy during the main phase. These results have shown that, for the dataset studied, different structures of the interplanetary events are associated to different main phase development of the ring current. We would like to acknowledge the Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo for the financial support. Project numbers 98/04734-4 and 98/15959-0.

  5. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping.

    PubMed

    Geaney, Fiona; Scutaru, Cristian; Kelly, Clare; Glynn, Ronan W; Perry, Ivan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors' affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139). The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2%) and Japan (7.7%). Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237). Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%). The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues.

  6. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Geaney, Fiona; Scutaru, Cristian; Kelly, Clare; Glynn, Ronan W.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors’ affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139). The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2%) and Japan (7.7%). Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237). Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%). The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues. PMID:26208117

  7. Mapping patient safety: a large-scale literature review using bibliometric visualisation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, S P; van Eck, N J; Waltman, L; Jansen, F W

    2014-01-01

    Background The amount of scientific literature available is often overwhelming, making it difficult for researchers to have a good overview of the literature and to see relations between different developments. Visualisation techniques based on bibliometric data are helpful in obtaining an overview of the literature on complex research topics, and have been applied here to the topic of patient safety (PS). Methods On the basis of title words and citation relations, publications in the period 2000–2010 related to PS were identified in the Scopus bibliographic database. A visualisation of the most frequently cited PS publications was produced based on direct and indirect citation relations between publications. Terms were extracted from titles and abstracts of the publications, and a visualisation of the most important terms was created. The main PS-related topics studied in the literature were identified using a technique for clustering publications and terms. Results A total of 8480 publications were identified, of which the 1462 most frequently cited ones were included in the visualisation. The publications were clustered into 19 clusters, which were grouped into three categories: (1) magnitude of PS problems (42% of all included publications); (2) PS risk factors (31%) and (3) implementation of solutions (19%). In the visualisation of PS-related terms, five clusters were identified: (1) medication; (2) measuring harm; (3) PS culture; (4) physician; (5) training, education and communication. Both analysis at publication and term level indicate an increasing focus on risk factors. Conclusions A bibliometric visualisation approach makes it possible to analyse large amounts of literature. This approach is very useful for improving one's understanding of a complex research topic such as PS and for suggesting new research directions or alternative research priorities. For PS research, the approach suggests that more research on implementing PS improvement initiatives

  8. Substance use disorders in Arab countries: research activity and bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders, which include substance abuse and substance dependence, are present in all regions of the world including Middle Eastern Arab countries. Bibliometric analysis is an increasingly used tool for research assessment. The main objective of this study was to assess research productivity in the field of substance use disorders in Arab countries using bibliometric indicators. Methodology Original or review research articles authored or co-authored by investigators from Arab countries about substance use disorders during the period 1900 – 2013 were retrieved using the ISI Web of Science database. Research activity was assessed by analyzing the annual research productivity, contribution of each Arab country, names of journals, citations, and types of abused substances. Results Four hundred and thirteen documents in substance use disorders were retrieved. Annual research productivity was low but showed a significant increase in the last few years. In terms of quantity, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (83 documents) ranked first in research about substance use disorders while Lebanon (17.4 documents per million) ranked first in terms of number of documents published per million inhabitants. Retrieved documents were found in different journal titles and categories, mostly in Drug and Alcohol Dependence Journal. Authors from USA appeared in 117 documents published by investigators from Arab countries. Citation analysis of retrieved documents showed that the average citation per document was 10.76 and the h - index was 35. The majority of retrieved documents were about tobacco and smoking (175 documents) field while alcohol consumption and abuse research was the least with 69 documents. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that research in this field was largely neglected in the past. However, recent research interest was observed. Research output on tobacco and smoking was relatively high compared to other substances of abuse like illicit drugs

  9. Epistasis and Quantitative Traits: Using Model Organisms to Study Gene-Gene Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The role of epistasis in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial, despite the biological plausibility that non-linear molecular interactions underpin the genotype-phenotype map. This controversy arises because most genetic variation for quantitative traits is additive. However, additive variance is consistent with pervasive epistatic gene action. Here, I discuss experimental designs to detect the contribution of epistasis to quantitative trait phenotypes in model organisms. These studies indicate that epistatic gene action is common, and that additivity can be an emergent property of underlying genetic interaction networks. Epistasis causes hidden quantitative genetic variation in natural populations and could be responsible for the small additive effects, missing heritability and lack of replication typically observed for human complex traits. PMID:24296533

  10. Women's Selection of Quantitative Undergraduate Fields of Study: Direct and Indirect Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethington, Corinna A.; Wolfle, Lee M.

    1988-01-01

    Factors influencing women's decisions to pursue undergraduate degrees in quantitative fields were studied, using a structural equation model. Significant factors in High School and Beyond study data included courses taken in high school, student socioeconomic status, parental attitudes, and choice of study field as a high school sophomore. (TJH)

  11. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided.

  12. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165

  13. 'Stories' or 'snapshots'? A study directed at comparing qualitative and quantitative approaches to curriculum evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pateman, B; Jinks, A M

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a study designed to explore the validity of quantitative approaches of student evaluation in a pre-registration degree programme. As managers of the students' education we were concerned that the quantitative method, which used lecturer criteria, may not fully represent students' views. The approach taken is that of a process-type strategy for curriculum evaluation as described by Parlett and Hamilton (1972). The aim of the study is to produce illuminative data, or students' 'stories' of their educational experiences through use of semi-structured interviews. The results are then compared to the current quantitative measurement tools designed to obtain 'snapshots' of the educational effectiveness of the curriculum. The quantitative measurement tools use Likert scale measurements of teacher-devised criterion statements. The results of the study give a rich source of qualitative data which can be used to inform future curriculum development. However, complete validation of the current quantitative instruments used was not achieved in this study. Student and teacher agendas in respect of important issues pertaining to the course programme were found to differ. Limitations of the study are given. There is discussion of the options open to the management team with regard to future development of curriculum evaluation systems.

  14. Shallow science or meta-cognitive insights: a few thoughts on reflection via bibliometrics.

    PubMed

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    The authors conclude this special issue by responding to the commentaries of their colleagues and reviewing relevant scholarship that appeared in the bibliometric literature since their literature reviews for the initial three articles in this issue were completed. They conclude, in part, that examination of bibliometric data regarding the entry of an article into the profession's knowledge base, and its ongoing life therein, may provide insights about the scientific communication process that lead to improvements of that process.

  15. Bibliometric mapping: eight decades of analytical chemistry, with special focus on the use of mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; Palmblad, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In this Feature we use automatic bibliometric mapping tools to visualize the history of analytical chemistry from the 1920s until the present. In particular, we have focused on the application of mass spectrometry in different fields. The analysis shows major shifts in research focus and use of mass spectrometry. We conclude by discussing the application of bibliometric mapping and visualization tools in analytical chemists' research.

  16. Quantitative Correlational Study: Emotional Intelligence and Project Outcomes among Hispanics in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trejo, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The present quantitative correlational research study explored relationships between Emotional Intelligence (EI) competencies, such as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management, and project management outcomes: scope creep, in-budget project cost, and project timeliness. The study was conducted within the…

  17. Leadership Trust in Virtual Teams Using Communication Tools: A Quantitative Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to address leadership trust in virtual teams using communication tools in a small south-central, family-owned pharmaceutical organization, with multiple dispersed locations located in the United States. The results of the current research study could assist leaders to develop a communication…

  18. A Quantitative Study of Cohesion in Chinese Graduate Students' Writing: Variations across Genres and Proficiency Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Wenjun

    This study presents a quantitative analysis of cohesion of the academic writing of Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) graduate students by applying Halliday and Hansen's (1976) model. Six Chinese graduate students from a Midwestern university were selected for the study, representing two proficiency levels in written English--advanced and…

  19. A Quantitative Comparative Study Measuring Consumer Satisfaction Based on Health Record Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Vivianne E.

    2013-01-01

    This research study used a quantitative comparative method to investigate the relationship between consumer satisfaction and communication based on the format of health record. The central problem investigated in this research study related to the format of health record used and consumer satisfaction with care provided and effect on communication…

  20. Emotional Intelligence, Career Decision Difficulties, and Student Retention: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiljanen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between emotional intelligence (EI), career decision making difficulties, and student retention. The participants included freshmen students (N = 98) in a private Midwestern university. This quantitative study compared the scores on an assessment of EI, the Emotional Quotient Inventory (BarOn EQ-i), with the…

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

    2012-01-01

    There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…

  2. A Quantitative Study: Enhancing the Productivity of the Emotionally Challenged High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, John

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, causal-comparative study examined the degree of influence the parent teacher relationship can make on the grade point averages and graduation rates of students in an alternative school setting. Findings of this study revealed that the active parent teacher communication had direct relationship with the success rate of…

  3. Reverse Brain Drain of South Asian IT Professionals: A Quantitative Repatriation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppiah, Nithiyananthan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present quantitative correlational study was to examine if a relationship existed between the RBD phenomenon and cultural, economic, or political factors of the native countries of South Asian IT professionals living in the United States. The study on reverse brain drain was conducted to explore a growing phenomenon in the…

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Remedial Reading Courses at Community Colleges: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavonier, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of two instructional approaches for remedial reading courses at a community college. The instructional approaches were strategic reading and traditional, textbook-based instruction. The two research questions that guided the quantitative, quasi-experimental study were: (a) what is the effect of…

  5. Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches in Studying Student Perceptions of Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Fisher, Darrell L.

    A cross-national study of learning environments in Taiwan and Australia is one example of research that employs both qualitative and quantitative methods. This paper describes the part of that study related to the development and validation of an instrument called the Teacher Student Interaction (TSI) which assess student perceptions of teacher…

  6. A quantitative analysis of qualitative studies in clinical journals for the 2000 publishing year

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2004-01-01

    Background Quantitative studies are becoming more recognized as important to understanding health care with all of its richness and complexities. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the qualitative studies published in 170 core clinical journals for 2000. Methods All identified studies that used qualitative methods were reviewed to ascertain which clinical journals publish qualitative studies and to extract research methods, content (persons and health care issues studied), and whether mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative methods) were used. Results 60 330 articles were reviewed. 355 reports of original qualitative studies and 12 systematic review articles were identified in 48 journals. Most of the journals were in the discipline of nursing. Only 4 of the most highly cited health care journals, based on ISI Science Citation Index (SCI) Impact Factors, published qualitative studies. 37 of the 355 original reports used both qualitative and quantitative (mixed) methods. Patients and non-health care settings were the most common groups of people studied. Diseases and conditions were cancer, mental health, pregnancy and childbirth, and cerebrovascular disease with many other diseases and conditions represented. Phenomenology and grounded theory were commonly used; substantial ethnography was also present. No substantial differences were noted for content or methods when articles published in all disciplines were compared with articles published in nursing titles or when studies with mixed methods were compared with studies that included only qualitative methods. Conclusions The clinical literature includes many qualitative studies although they are often published in nursing journals or journals with low SCI Impact Factor journals. Many qualitative studies incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:15271221

  7. Is the promotion of research reflected in bibliometric data? A network analysis of highly cited papers on the Clusters of Excellence supported under the Excellence Initiative in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bornmann, Lutz

    Under the Excellence Initiative, a number of Clusters of Excellence in Germany have been supported since 2006 and 2007-including each a limited number of cooperating institutions. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether support for Clusters of Excellence since 2006 and 2007 is reflected in bibliometric network data. For this purpose, a comparison is made between network data in the period before support started (2003-2005) and in the period after support started (2009-2011). For these two periods, a co-authorship network is generated (based on the funded institutions). This is based on publications which are among the 1 % most frequently cited publications in their respective fields and publication year and which have at least one author from Germany. As the results show, the outcomes this yields for life sciences and natural sciences differ from each other. Whereas natural sciences display an effect of establishment of Clusters of Excellence on the bibliometric networks, this was not true of life sciences. After establishment of the Clusters of Excellence, the network in natural sciences not only contained more institutions of a Cluster of Excellence, but these institutions were distributed across fewer bibliometric clusters in the network than before establishment. In other words the structure of the Clusters of Excellence was better reflected in the network.

  8. Rating and Ranking the Role of Bibliometrics and Webometrics in Nursing and Midwifery

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Patricia M.; Newton, Phillip J.; Ferguson, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bibliometrics are an essential aspect of measuring academic and organizational performance. Aim. This review seeks to describe methods for measuring bibliometrics, identify the strengths and limitations of methodologies, outline strategies for interpretation, summarise evaluation of nursing and midwifery performance, identify implications for metric of evaluation, and specify the implications for nursing and midwifery and implications of social networking for bibliometrics and measures of individual performance. Method. A review of electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, and Scopus was undertaken using search terms such as bibliometrics, nursing, and midwifery. The reference lists of retrieved articles and Internet sources and social media platforms were also examined. Results. A number of well-established, formal ways of assessment have been identified, including h- and c-indices. Changes in publication practices and the use of the Internet have challenged traditional metrics of influence. Moreover, measuring impact beyond citation metrics is an increasing focus, with social media representing newer ways of establishing performance and impact. Conclusions. Even though a number of measures exist, no single bibliometric measure is perfect. Therefore, multiple approaches to evaluation are recommended. However, bibliometric approaches should not be the only measures upon which academic and scholarly performance are evaluated. PMID:24550691

  9. A high throughput geocomputing system for remote sensing quantitative retrieval and a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Ziqiang; Xu, Hui; Ai, Jianwen; Jiang, Shuzheng; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Ying; Guang, Jie; Mei, Linlu; Jiao, Xijuan; He, Xingwei; Hou, Tingting

    2011-12-01

    The quality and accuracy of remote sensing instruments have been improved significantly, however, rapid processing of large-scale remote sensing data becomes the bottleneck for remote sensing quantitative retrieval applications. The remote sensing quantitative retrieval is a data-intensive computation application, which is one of the research issues of high throughput computation. The remote sensing quantitative retrieval Grid workflow is a high-level core component of remote sensing Grid, which is used to support the modeling, reconstruction and implementation of large-scale complex applications of remote sensing science. In this paper, we intend to study middleware components of the remote sensing Grid - the dynamic Grid workflow based on the remote sensing quantitative retrieval application on Grid platform. We designed a novel architecture for the remote sensing Grid workflow. According to this architecture, we constructed the Remote Sensing Information Service Grid Node (RSSN) with Condor. We developed a graphic user interface (GUI) tools to compose remote sensing processing Grid workflows, and took the aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval as an example. The case study showed that significant improvement in the system performance could be achieved with this implementation. The results also give a perspective on the potential of applying Grid workflow practices to remote sensing quantitative retrieval problems using commodity class PCs.

  10. [Bibliometric indexes of the editions, publishing the articles on the problems of morphology, and some bibliometric parameters of the authors of morphological publications].

    PubMed

    Shevliuk, N N

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a comparative assessment of some bibliometric parameters of national journals, publishing the articles on the problems of morphological scientific disciplines, and concise analysis of the publication activity of morphologists. The data are given on the application of bibliometric indexes for the evaluation of the scientific contribution of national researchers to the field of morphology. The information contained in the national database-- Russian Index of Scientific Citation, and that collected by means of selected overview of the national and foreign medical and biological journals, publishing the articles on various problems of morphological sciences during the last 20 years, served as the basis for the analysis. It is noted that the authors should consider the bibliometric indexes of the journals to which they submit their articles.

  11. A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Leadership Practice and Strategic Intentions to Use Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Alan F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational cross-sectional research study was to examine a theoretical model consisting of leadership practice, attitudes of business process outsourcing, and strategic intentions of leaders to use cloud computing and to examine the relationships between each of the variables respectively. This study…

  12. Identifying the Effective Instructor: A Review of the Quantitative Studies. 1900-1952.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsh, Joseph E.; Wilder, Eleanor W.

    This research review contains summary and synthesis of 360 references selected from over 900 in 1) Education Index, 2) Psychological Abstracts, and 3) some 40 reviews and bibliographies, 28 of which were selected for inclusion in the 392-item bibliography at the end of this review. Principal findings of the cited quantitative research studies are…

  13. A Study to Formulate Quantitative Guidelines for the Audio-Visual Communications Field. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Gene; Sherman, Mendel

    Quantitative guidelines for use in determining the audiovisual (AV) needs of educational institutions were developed by the Octobe r 14-16, 1965 Seminar of the NDEA (National Defense Education Act), Faris-Sherman study. The guidelines that emerged were based in part on a review of past efforts and existing standards but primarily reflected the…

  14. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  15. Trilingual Code-Switching Using Quantitative Lenses: An Exploratory Study on Hokaglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a quantitative approach, this paper highlights findings of an exploratory study on Hokaglish, initially describing it as a trilingual code-switching phenomenon involving Hokkien, Tagalog, and English in a Filipino-Chinese enclave in Binondo, Manila, the Philippines. Departing from the (socio)linguistic landscape of the archipelagic…

  16. A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a quantitative method to estimate chemical-specific pesticide exposures in a large prospective cohort study of over 58,000 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. An enrollment questionnaire was administered to applicators to collect basic time- and inten...

  17. An Exploratory Study of "Quantitative Linguistic Feedback": Effect of LENA Feedback on Adult Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dana; Leffel, Kristin R.; Hernandez, Marc W.; Sapolich, Shannon G.; Suskind, Elizabeth; Kirkham, Erin; Meehan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A child's early language environment is critical to his or her life-course trajectory. Quantitative linguistic feedback utilizes the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) technology as a tool to analyze verbal interactions and reinforce behavior change. This exploratory pilot study evaluates the feasibility and efficacy of a novel behavior-change…

  18. Effect of Professional Development on Drama in Education Implementation: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative study with a correlational design was to determine the relationship between professional development and the use of drama in education techniques in the general education classroom as a tool to increase students' critical thinking ability. Teachers from four different schools on Long Island were asked to participate…

  19. Leadership Styles at Middle- and Early-College Programs: A Quantitative Descriptive Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berksteiner, Earl J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational study was to determine if associations existed between middle- and early-college (MEC) principals' leadership styles, teacher motivation, and teacher satisfaction. MEC programs were programs designed to assist high school students who were not served well in a traditional setting (Middle…

  20. Effects of Drawing on Alpha Activity: A Quantitative EEG Study with Implications for Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkofer, Christopher M.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Konopka, Lukasz M.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists as to how materials used in art therapy affect the brain and its neurobiological functioning. This pre/post within-groups study utilized the quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) to measure residual effects in the brain after 20 minutes of drawing. EEG recordings were conducted before and after participants (N =…

  1. Measuring the Beginning: A Quantitative Study of the Transition to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooman, Simon; Darwent, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study measures change in certain factors known to influence success of first-year students during the transition to higher education: self-efficacy, autonomous learning and social integration. A social integration scale was developed with three subscales: "sense of belonging", "relationship with staff" and…

  2. A Quantitative Study of the Effectiveness of Teacher Recruitment Strategies in a Rural Midwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Rose Etta

    2010-01-01

    A problem in American education is that rural schools have difficulty recruiting licensed teachers. Teacher shortages in mathematics, science, foreign language, and special education are more acute in rural areas. The purpose of this quantitative descriptive survey study was to examine specific recruiting strategies and newly hired licensed…

  3. Academic Advising and First-Generation College Students: A Quantitative Study on Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swecker, Hadyn K.; Fifolt, Matthew; Searby, Linda

    2014-01-01

    For this quantitative study, we used a multiple logistic regression technique to investigate the relationship between the number of meetings with an academic advisor and retention of first-generation students, as represented by enrollment status and academic standing at a large, public research institution in the Southeast. Consistent with…

  4. Quantitative radiomics studies for tissue characterization: a review of technology and methodological procedures.

    PubMed

    Larue, Ruben T H M; Defraene, Gilles; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Lambin, Philippe; van Elmpt, Wouter

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative analysis of tumour characteristics based on medical imaging is an emerging field of research. In recent years, quantitative imaging features derived from CT, positron emission tomography and MR scans were shown to be of added value in the prediction of outcome parameters in oncology, in what is called the radiomics field. However, results might be difficult to compare owing to a lack of standardized methodologies to conduct quantitative image analyses. In this review, we aim to present an overview of the current challenges, technical routines and protocols that are involved in quantitative imaging studies. The first issue that should be overcome is the dependency of several features on the scan acquisition and image reconstruction parameters. Adopting consistent methods in the subsequent target segmentation step is evenly crucial. To further establish robust quantitative image analyses, standardization or at least calibration of imaging features based on different feature extraction settings is required, especially for texture- and filter-based features. Several open-source and commercial software packages to perform feature extraction are currently available, all with slightly different functionalities, which makes benchmarking quite challenging. The number of imaging features calculated is typically larger than the number of patients studied, which emphasizes the importance of proper feature selection and prediction model-building routines to prevent overfitting. Even though many of these challenges still need to be addressed before quantitative imaging can be brought into daily clinical practice, radiomics is expected to be a critical component for the integration of image-derived information to personalize treatment in the future.

  5. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  6. Electrochemical power text mining using bibliometrics and database tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; Tshiteya, Rene; Pfeil, Kirstin M.; Humenik, James A.

    Database tomography (DT) is a textual database analysis system consisting of two major components: (1) algorithms for extracting multi-word phrase frequencies and phrase proximities (physical closeness of the multi-word technical phrases) from any type of large textual database, to augment (2) interpretative capabilities of the expert human analyst. DT was used to derive technical intelligence from an electrochemical power database derived from the science citation index (SCI). Phrase frequency analysis by the technical domain experts provided the pervasive technical themes of the electrochemical power database, and the phrase proximity analysis provided the relationships among the pervasive technical themes. Bibliometric analysis of the electrochemical power literature supplemented the DT results with author/journal/institution publication and citation data.

  7. Cardiovascular disease research in Latin America: A comparative bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Eiman; Comandé, Daniel; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the number of publications in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and the Caribbean over the last decade. METHODS: We performed a bibliometric analysis in PubMed from 2001 to 2010 for Latin America and the Caribbean, the United States, Canada, Europe, China, and India. RESULTS: Latin America published 4% of articles compared with 26% from the United States/Canada and 42% from Europe. In CVD, Latin America published 4% of articles vs 23% from the United States/Canada and 40% from Europe. The number of publications in CVD in Latin America increased from 41 in 2001 to 726 in 2010. CONCLUSION: Latin America, while publishing more articles than previously, lags behind developed countries. Further advances in research infrastructure are necessary to develop prevention strategies for this region. PMID:22216374

  8. Quantitative Phase Imaging Techniques for the Study of Cell Pathophysiology: From Principles to Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KyeoReh; Kim, Kyoohyun; Jung, Jaehwang; Heo, JiHan; Cho, Sangyeon; Lee, Sangyun; Chang, Gyuyoung; Jo, YoungJu; Park, Hyunjoo; Park, YongKeun

    2013-01-01

    A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:23539026

  9. Domestic violence against women in India: A systematic review of a decade of quantitative studies

    PubMed Central

    Kalokhe, Ameeta; del Rio, Carlos; Dunkle, Kristin; Stephenson, Rob; Metheny, Nicholas; Paranjape, Anuradha; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is prevalent among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical health. We performed a systematic review of 137 quantitative studies published in the prior decade that directly evaluated the DV experiences of Indian women to summarise the breadth of recent work and identify gaps in the literature. Among studies surveying at least two forms of abuse, a median 41% of women reported experiencing DV during their lifetime and 30% in the past year. We noted substantial inter-study variance in DV prevalence estimates, attributable in part to different study populations and settings, but also to a lack of standardisation, validation, and cultural adaptation of DV survey instruments. There was paucity of studies evaluating the DV experiences of women over age 50, residing in live-in relationships, same-sex relationships, tribal villages, and of women from the northern regions of India. Additionally, our review highlighted a gap in research evaluating the impact of DV on physical health. We conclude with a research agenda calling for additional qualitative and longitudinal quantitative studies to explore the DV correlates proposed by this quantitative literature to inform the development of a culturally tailored DV scale and prevention strategies. PMID:26886155

  10. Domestic violence against women in India: A systematic review of a decade of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Kalokhe, Ameeta; Del Rio, Carlos; Dunkle, Kristin; Stephenson, Rob; Metheny, Nicholas; Paranjape, Anuradha; Sahay, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is prevalent among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical health. We performed a systematic review of 137 quantitative studies published in the prior decade that directly evaluated the DV experiences of Indian women to summarise the breadth of recent work and identify gaps in the literature. Among studies surveying at least two forms of abuse, a median 41% of women reported experiencing DV during their lifetime and 30% in the past year. We noted substantial inter-study variance in DV prevalence estimates, attributable in part to different study populations and settings, but also to a lack of standardisation, validation, and cultural adaptation of DV survey instruments. There was paucity of studies evaluating the DV experiences of women over age 50, residing in live-in relationships, same-sex relationships, tribal villages, and of women from the northern regions of India. Additionally, our review highlighted a gap in research evaluating the impact of DV on physical health. We conclude with a research agenda calling for additional qualitative and longitudinal quantitative studies to explore the DV correlates proposed by this quantitative literature to inform the development of a culturally tailored DV scale and prevention strategies.

  11. Worldwide research productivity in the field of electronic cigarette: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette (EC) is an emerging phenomenon that is becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. There is a lack of data concerning the evaluation of research productivity in the field of EC originating from the world. The main objectives of this study were to analyse worldwide research output in EC field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database. Methods Data were searched for documents with specific words regarding EC as “keywords” in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on the methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by investigation: (a) total and trends of contributions in EC research during all previous years up to the date of data analysis (June 13, 2014); (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) countries contribution; and (d) citations received by the publications. Results Three hundred and fifty-six documents were retrieved comprising 31.5% original journal articles, 16% letters to the editor, 7.9% review articles, and 44.6% documents that were classified as other types of publications, such as notes or editorials or opinions. The retrieved documents were published in 162 peer-reviewed journals. All retrieved documents were published from 27 countries. the largest number of publications in the field of EC was from the United States of America (USA); (33.7%), followed by the United Kingdom (UK); (11.5%), and Italy (8.1%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis was 2.277, with an average of 6.4 citations per document and median (interquartile range) of 0.0 (0.0–5.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 27. The most productive institutions were Food and Drug Administration, USA (4.2% of total publications) followed by Universita degli Studi di Catania, Italy (3.9%), University of California, San Francisco, USA (3.7%). Conclusions This bibliometric study is a testament to the progress in EC research from

  12. Quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kyani, Anahita; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Jenssen, Håvard

    2012-02-01

    Defining the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine pathogenesis could lead to the application of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists as novel migraine therapeutics. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of biological activities of a large range of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists was performed using a panel of physicochemical descriptors. The computational studies evaluated different variable selection techniques and demonstrated shuffling stepwise multiple linear regression to be superior over genetic algorithm-multiple linear regression. The linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model revealed better statistical parameters of cross-validation in comparison with the non-linear support vector regression technique. Implementing only five peptide descriptors into this linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model resulted in an extremely robust and highly predictive model with calibration, leave-one-out and leave-20-out validation R(2) of 0.9194, 0.9103, and 0.9214, respectively. We performed docking of the most potent calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists with the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor and demonstrated that peptide antagonists act by blocking access to the peptide-binding cleft. We also demonstrated the direct contact of residues 28-37 of the calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists with the receptor. These results are in agreement with the conclusions drawn from the quantitative structure-activity relationship model, indicating that both electrostatic and steric factors should be taken into account when designing novel calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists.

  13. Exploring the use of storytelling in quantitative research fields using a multiple case study method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lori N. Hamlet

    The purpose of this study was to explore the emerging use of storytelling in quantitative research fields. The focus was not on examining storytelling in research, but rather how stories are used in various ways within the social context of quantitative research environments. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven professionals who had experience using storytelling in their work and my personal experience with the subject matter was also used as a source of data according to the notion of researcher-as-instrument. This study is qualitative in nature and is guided by two supporting theoretical frameworks, the sociological perspective and narrative inquiry. A multiple case study methodology was used to gain insight about why participants decided to use stories or storytelling in a quantitative research environment that may not be traditionally open to such methods. This study also attempted to identify how storytelling can strengthen or supplement existing research, as well as what value stories can provide to the practice of research in general. Five thematic findings emerged from the data and were grouped under two headings, "Experiencing Research" and "Story Work." The themes were found to be consistent with four main theoretical functions of storytelling identified in existing scholarly literature: (a) sense-making; (b) meaning-making; (c) culture; and (d) communal function. The five thematic themes that emerged from this study and were consistent with the existing literature include: (a) social context; (b) quantitative versus qualitative; (c) we think and learn in terms of stories; (d) stories tie experiences together; and (e) making sense and meaning. Recommendations are offered in the form of implications for various social contexts and topics for further research are presented as well.

  14. Journal bibliometrics indicators and citation ethics: a discussion of current issues.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Science has recently been accelerating at a fast rate, resulting in what has been called "information overload" and more recently "filter failure". In this perspective, journal performance indicators can play an important role in journal evaluation. Opinions on the appropriate use of journal-level bibliometrics indicators can be divided but they have now long been used as measures in research evaluation, and many editors see it as part of their editorial duty to try and improve bibliometrics indicators and rankings for their journal. There are various techniques through which this can be attempted, some more ethical than others. Some editors may try to boost the bibliometrics performance of their journals through gratuitous citations. This is problematic because citations are meant to provide useful references, scientifically justifiable, to previously published literature. As such citations can be used as widely accepted measures of scientific impact. Therefore, superfluous citations can distort the validity of bibliometrics indicators. It might be tempting to try to improve a journal's bibliometrics rankings at all costs, but these are only as meaningful as the data that feed into them. Exceedingly inflated indicators due to unethical behaviours can damage the reputation of a journal and its editors, and can lead to a loss of quality manuscript submissions, which in turn is likely to affect the journal's future citation impact.

  15. Quantitative study of the myenteric plexus of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, C E; Miranda-Neto, M H; Molinari, S L; Zanoni, J N

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the morphological and quantitative alterations of the myenteric plexus neurons of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetes and compare them to those of non-diabetic animals. Samples from the body of the stomach were used for whole-mount preparations stained with NADH-diaphorase and for histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. It was observed that diabetes cause a significant decrease on the number of neurons.

  16. Quantitative study of FORC diagrams in thermally corrected Stoner- Wohlfarth nanoparticles systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasi, E.; Curiale, J.; Zysler, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    The use of FORC diagrams is becoming increasingly popular among researchers devoted to magnetism and magnetic materials. However, a thorough interpretation of this kind of diagrams, in order to achieve quantitative information, requires an appropriate model of the studied system. For that reason most of the FORC studies are used for a qualitative analysis. In magnetic systems thermal fluctuations "blur" the signatures of the anisotropy, volume and particle interactions distributions, therefore thermal effects in nanoparticles systems conspire against a proper interpretation and analysis of these diagrams. Motivated by this fact, we have quantitatively studied the degree of accuracy of the information extracted from FORC diagrams for the special case of single-domain thermal corrected Stoner- Wohlfarth (easy axes along the external field orientation) nanoparticles systems. In this work, the starting point is an analytical model that describes the behavior of a magnetic nanoparticles system as a function of field, anisotropy, temperature and measurement time. In order to study the quantitative degree of accuracy of our model, we built FORC diagrams for different archetypical cases of magnetic nanoparticles. Our results show that from the quantitative information obtained from the diagrams, under the hypotheses of the proposed model, is possible to recover the features of the original system with accuracy above 95%. This accuracy is improved at low temperatures and also it is possible to access to the anisotropy distribution directly from the FORC coercive field profile. Indeed, our simulations predict that the volume distribution plays a secondary role being the mean value and its deviation the only important parameters. Therefore it is possible to obtain an accurate result for the inversion and interaction fields despite the features of the volume distribution.

  17. Bibliometrics of systematic reviews: analysis of citation rates and journal impact factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are important for informing clinical practice and health policy. The aim of this study was to examine the bibliometrics of systematic reviews and to determine the amount of variance in citations predicted by the journal impact factor (JIF) alone and combined with several other characteristics. Methods We conducted a bibliometric analysis of 1,261 systematic reviews published in 2008 and the citations to them in the Scopus database from 2008 to June 2012. Potential predictors of the citation impact of the reviews were examined using descriptive, univariate and multiple regression analysis. Results The mean number of citations per review over four years was 26.5 (SD ±29.9) or 6.6 citations per review per year. The mean JIF of the journals in which the reviews were published was 4.3 (SD ±4.2). We found that 17% of the reviews accounted for 50% of the total citations and 1.6% of the reviews were not cited. The number of authors was correlated with the number of citations (r = 0.215, P < 0.001). Higher numbers of citations were associated with the following characteristics: first author from the United States (36.5 citations), an ICD-10 chapter heading of Neoplasms (31.8 citations), type of intervention classified as Investigation, Diagnostics or Screening (34.7 citations) and having an international collaboration (32.1 citations). The JIF alone explained more than half of the variation in citations (R2 = 0.59) in univariate analysis. Adjusting for both JIF and type of intervention increased the R2 value to 0.81. Fourteen percent of reviews published in the top quartile of JIFs (≥ 5.16) received citations in the bottom quartile (eight or fewer), whereas 9% of reviews published in the lowest JIF quartile (≤ 2.06) received citations in the top quartile (34 or more). Six percent of reviews in journals with no JIF were also in the first quartile of citations. Conclusions The JIF predicted over half of the variation in citations to the

  18. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  19. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  20. Quantitative analysis of anions in glycosaminoglycans and application in heparin stability studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2014-06-15

    The sulfo groups of glycosaminoglycans contribute to their high charge densities, and are critical for the role they play in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Unfortunately, the sulfo groups can be hydrolyzed to inorganic sulfate. Thus, it is important to monitor the presence of these sulfo groups. In addition, free anions, including chloride, sulfate and acetate, are often present in glycosaminoglycans as a result of multiple purification steps, and their presence also needs to be monitored. In this report, ion chromatography with conductivity detection is used to analyze the anions present in glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. This method allows quantitation over a wide range of concentrations, affording a limit of quantitation of 0.1 ppm and a limit of detection of 0.05 ppm for most anions of interest. The stability of heparin was also studied, providing data on the formation of both sulfate and acetate anions.

  1. Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-11-01

    We present for the first time in vivo full three-dimensional (3-D) photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of the distal interphalangeal joint in a human subject. Both absorbed energy density and absorption coefficient images of the joint are quantitatively obtained using our finite-element-based photoacoustic image reconstruction algorithm coupled with the photon diffusion equation. The results show that major anatomical features in the joint along with the side arteries can be imaged with a 1-MHz transducer in a spherical scanning geometry. In addition, the cartilages associated with the joint can be quantitatively differentiated from the phalanx. This in vivo study suggests that the 3-D PAT method described has the potential to be used for early diagnosis of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Supernova Cosmology Project; Nugent, Peter E; Garavini, G.; Folatelli, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Bronder, J.; Burns, M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Thomas, R. C.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.

    2008-03-24

    We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.

  3. [Study of infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis method for methane gas based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Ju

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring of methane gas is one of the important factors affecting the coal mine safety. The online real-time monitoring of the methane gas is used for the mine safety protection. To improve the accuracy of model analysis, in the present paper, the author uses the technology of infrared spectroscopy to study the gas infrared quantitative analysis algorithm. By data mining technology application in multi-component infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis algorithm, it was found that cluster analysis partial least squares algorithm is obviously superior to simply using partial least squares algorithm in terms of accuracy. In addition, to reduce the influence of the error on the accuracy of model individual calibration samples, the clustering analysis was used for the data preprocessing, and such denoising method was found to improve the analysis accuracy.

  4. Top-100 cited articles on Guillain-Barré syndrome: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Young; Bae, Jong Seok

    2016-12-01

    Since the first description of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) 100 years ago, the concept of this syndrome has changed remarkably. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize the most-cited articles that have contributed to advancing the understanding of GBS. Based on the database of Journal Citation Reports, we selected 554 journals that were considered as potential sources of reports on studies related to clinical neurology and general medicine. The Web of Science search tools were used to identify the most-cited articles relevant to GBS or other variants in the selected journals. Of the selected articles, 18 were review articles and the remainder were original articles or included only a few case series. Among the original articles, 13 described basic research associated with immunological pathogenesis involving anti-ganglioside antibodies. Most of the original studies (42/64, 66%) published after 1990 evaluated anti-ganglioside antibodies that mediated axonal GBS or Miller Fisher syndrome, with only a small number of the papers involving electrodiagnostic medicine (n = 4). Our bibliometric analysis has yielded a detailed list of the top-100 cited articles in the field of GBS.

  5. Economic Evaluation in Global Perspective: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Catherine; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara

    2016-02-01

    We present a bibliometric analysis of recently published full economic evaluations of health interventions and reflect critically on the implications of our findings for this growing field. We created a database drawing on 14 health, economic, and/or general literature databases for articles published between 1 January 2012 and 3 May 2014 and identified 2844 economic evaluations meeting our criteria. We present findings regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and added value of searches in the different databases. We examine the distribution of publications between countries, regions, and health areas studied and compare the relative volume of research with disease burden. We analyse authors' country and institutional affiliations, journals and journal type, language, and type of economic evaluation conducted. More than 1200 economic evaluations were published annually, of which 4% addressed low-income countries, 4% lower-middle-income countries, 14% upper-middle-income countries, and 83% high-income countries. Across country income levels, 53, 54, 86, and 100% of articles, respectively, included an author based in a country within the income level studied. Biomedical journals published 74% of economic evaluations. The volume of research across health areas correlates more closely with disease burden in high-income than in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings provide an empirical basis for further study on methods, research prioritization, and capacity development in health economic evaluation.

  6. The mapping of Spanish social psychology through its conferences: a bibliometric perspective.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez-Rueda, Lupicinio; Martínez-Martínez, Luz María; Muñoz-Justicia, Juan Manuel; Peñaranda-Cólera, Ma Carmen; Sahagún-Padilla, Miguel Angel; Alvarado, José Gerardo

    2008-05-01

    This study of papers gathered from the proceedings presented at Spanish social psychology conferences explores the use of bibliometrics for studying scientific disciplines. A reference database of all the papers included in the conference proceedings of events held from 1983 to 2000 was generated and classified by thematic area, paper type and author institutional affiliation. The references were laid out on contingency tables and mapped with correspondence analysis. The results show that there is a growing number of co-authored papers and a predominance of empirical over theoretical paper types. Some institutions have a higher concentration of theoretical papers while others work mostly in the areas of organizational and health psychology. In terms of empirical papers, there is a tendency towards generating more qualitative-based studies over the span of time captured by this work. There are also a number of papers written about such areas as cultural psychology that points to the emergence of an interest in critical social psychology. Concluding remarks underline the role of conferences and scientific meetings as an important indicator of the dynamic development of a scientific discipline.

  7. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  8. Comparative quantitative study of astrocytes and capillary distribution in optic nerve laminar regions.

    PubMed

    Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Kang, Min H; Yu, Paula; Chan, Geoffrey; Morgan, William H; Cringle, Stephen J; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal structure and function in the optic nerve head (ONH) is predominantly supported by astrocytes and capillaries. There is good experimental evidence to demonstrate that RGC axons are perturbed in a non-uniform manner following ONH injury and it is likely that the pattern of RGC axonal modification bears some correlation with the quantitative properties of astrocytes and capillaries within laminar compartments. Although there have been some excellent topographic studies concerning glial and microvascular networks in the ONH our knowledge regarding the quantitative properties of these structures are limited. This report is an in-depth quantitative, structural analysis of astrocytes and capillaries in the pre laminar, lamina cribrosa and post laminar compartments of the ONH. 49 optic nerves from human (n = 10), pig (n = 12), horse (n = 6), rat (n = 11) and rabbit (n = 10) eyes are studied. Immunohistochemical and high-magnification confocal microscopy techniques are used to co-localise astrocytes, capillaries and nuclei in the mid-portion of the optic nerve. Quantitative methodology is used to determine the area occupied by astrocyte processes, microglia processes, nuclei density and the area occupied by capillaries in each laminar compartment. Comparisons are made within and between species. Relationships between ONH histomorphometry and astrocyte-capillary constitution are also explored. This study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the quantitative properties of capillaries and astrocytes between the laminar compartments of the human ONH. Astrocyte processes occupied the greatest area in the lamina cribrosa compartment of the human ONH implicating it as an area of great metabolic demands. Microglia were found to occupy only a small proportion of tissue in the rat, rabbit and pig optic nerve suggesting that the astrocyte is the predominant glia cell type in the optic nerve. This study also demonstrates

  9. Genome-Wide Pathway Association Studies of Multiple Correlated Quantitative Phenotypes Using Principle Component Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Guo, Xiong; Wu, Shixun; Han, Jing; Liu, Yongjun; Shen, Hui; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide pathway association studies provide novel insight into the biological mechanism underlying complex diseases. Current pathway association studies primarily focus on single important disease phenotype, which is sometimes insufficient to characterize the clinical manifestations of complex diseases. We present a multi-phenotypes pathway association study(MPPAS) approach using principle component analysis(PCA). In our approach, PCA is first applied to multiple correlated quantitative phenotypes for extracting a set of orthogonal phenotypic components. The extracted phenotypic components are then used for pathway association analysis instead of original quantitative phenotypes. Four statistics were proposed for PCA-based MPPAS in this study. Simulations using the real data from the HapMap project were conducted to evaluate the power and type I error rates of PCA-based MPPAS under various scenarios considering sample sizes, additive and interactive genetic effects. A real genome-wide association study data set of bone mineral density (BMD) at hip and spine were also analyzed by PCA-based MPPAS. Simulation studies illustrated the performance of PCA-based MPPAS for identifying the causal pathways underlying complex diseases. Genome-wide MPPAS of BMD detected associations between BMD and KENNY_CTNNB1_TARGETS_UP as well as LONGEVITYPATHWAY pathways in this study. We aim to provide a applicable MPPAS approach, which may help to gain deep understanding the potential biological mechanism of association results for complex diseases. PMID:23285279

  10. Lemont B. Kier: a bibliometric exploration of his scientific production and its use.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Llanos, Eugenio J; Silva, Adriana E

    2013-12-01

    We thought an appropriate way to celebrate the seminal contribution of Kier is to explore his influence on science, looking for the impact of his research through the citation of his scientific production. From a bibliometric approach the impact of Kier's work is addressed as an individual within a community. Reviewing data from his curriculum vitae, as well as from the ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI), his role within the scientific community is established and the way his scientific results circulate is studied. His curriculum vitae is explored emphasising the approaches he used in his research activities and the social ties with other actors of the community. The circulation of Kier's publications in the ISI is studied as a means for spreading and installing his discourse within the community. The citation patterns found not only show the usage of Kier's scientific results, but also open the possibility to identify some characteristics of this discursive community, such as a common vocabulary and common research goals. The results show an interdisciplinary research work that consolidates a scientific community on the topic of drug discovery.

  11. The top cited clinical research articles on sepsis: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the most highly cited clinical research articles published on sepsis. Methods A comprehensive list of citation classics in sepsis was generated by searching the database of Web of Science-Expanded (1970 to present) using keywords 'sepsis' or 'septic shock'. The top 50 cited clinical research papers were retrieved by reading the abstract or full text if needed. Each eligible article was reviewed for basic information, including country of origin, article type, journals, authors, and funding sources. Results A total of 2,151 articles were cited more than 100 times; the 50 top-cited clinical articles were published between 1974 and 2008. The number of citations ranged from 372 to 2,932, with a mean of 678 citations per article. These citation classics came from nine countries, of which 26 articles came from the United States. Rush University and the University of Pittsburgh lead the list of classics with six papers each. The 50 top-cited articles were published in 17 journals, with the New England Journal of Medicine and Journal of the American Medical Association topping the list. The top 50 articles consisted of 21 clinical trials and 29 observational studies. Conclusions Our bibliometric analysis provides a historical perspective on the progress of clinical research on sepsis. Articles originating from the United States and published in high-impact journals are most likely to be cited in the field of sepsis research. PMID:22731930

  12. Mapping of drinking water research: a bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992-2011.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2013-01-15

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from the Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and tendencies of the global drinking water from 1992 to 2011. Study emphases included performance of publication covering annual outputs, mainstream journals, Web of Science categories, leading countries, institutions, research tendencies and hotspots. The results indicated that annual output of the related scientific articles increased steadily. Water Research, Environmental Science & Technology, and Journal American Water Works Association were the three most common journals in drinking water research. The USA took a leading position out of 168 countries/territories, followed by Japan and Germany. A summary of the most frequently used keywords obtained from words in paper title analysis, author keyword analysis and KeyWords Plus analysis provided the clues to discover the current research emphases. The mainstream research related to drinking water was water treatment methods and the related contaminants. Disinfection process and consequent disinfection by-products attracted much attention. Ozonation and chlorination in disinfection, and adsorption were common techniques and are getting popular. Commonly researched drinking water contaminants concerned arsenic, nitrate, fluoride, lead, and cadmium, and pharmaceuticals emerged as the frequently studied contaminants in recent years. Disease caused by contaminants strongly promoted the development of related research.

  13. On the bibliometric coordinates of four different research fields in Geography.

    PubMed

    Gorraiz, Juan; Gumpenberger, Christian; Glade, Thomas

    This study is a bibliometric analysis of the highly complex research discipline Geography. In order to identify the most popular and most cited publication channels, to reveal publication strategies, and to analyse the discipline's coverage within publications, the three main data sources for citation analyses, namely Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar, have been utilized. This study is based on publication data collected for four individual evaluation exercises performed at the University of Vienna and related to four different subfields: Geoecology, Social and Economic Geography, Demography and Population Geography, and Economic Geography. The results show very heterogeneous and individual publication strategies, even in the same research fields. Monographs, journal articles and book chapters are the most cited document types. Differences between research fields more related to the natural sciences than to the social sciences are clearly visible, but less considerable when taking into account the higher number of co-authors. General publication strategies seem to be established for both natural science and social sciences, however, with significant differences. While in natural science mainly publications in international peer-reviewed scientific journals matter, the focus in social sciences is rather on book chapters, reports and monographs. Although an "iceberg citation model" is suggested, citation analyses for monographs, book chapters and reports should be conducted separately and should include complementary data sources, such as Google Scholar, in order to enhance the coverage and to improve the quality of the visibility and impact analyses. This is particularly important for social sciences related research within Geography.

  14. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  15. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis. Part I: heterogeneity study of illicit drugs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dujourdy, L; Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Franc, A; Nagy, J

    2013-09-10

    Sampling of illicit drugs for qualitative and quantitative analysis would normally be considered as routine and comparable tasks in forensic drugs laboratories and previously similar statistical sampling approaches have been applied. However, we believe that two different sampling approaches, based on two different theoretical and statistical backgrounds are more appropriate. Furthermore the application of the qualitative sampling approach can be impractical for quantitative sampling as it could generate many analytical samples from a single seizure. In some countries the purity of the illicit drug in a seizure may affect the criminal sentence and therefore, reliable results for quantitative analysis are crucial. It was decided to investigate a new approach, which although incorporating some statistics also took account of our background knowledge about the composition of the drugs we were analysing. The ultimate goal was to produce recommendations for a practical sampling plan for quantitative analysis. It was found that the two key factors which had a significant effect on obtaining a representative analytical sample from a bulk seizure were the heterogeneity of the drug powder and the particle sizes of its components. This article concentrates on drug heterogeneity. Particle size effects will be addressed in part II of this study. A sampling plan was devised for a range of drug seizure types and asked ENFSI member laboratories to use it when analysing real drug seizures to provide heterogeneity data for the most common illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA and cannabis (herbal and resin)). It was found that for routine quantitative drugs analysis, the sampling problems caused by heterogeneity can be solved by using an incremental sampling protocol. Furthermore, the number of increments that need to be taken for a particular drug is dependent on the relative standard deviation (RSD) required by an individual laboratory and the analytical method that

  16. Validation of internal reference genes for relative quantitation studies of gene expression in human laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Wang, Wei; Ren, Ming; Gao, Sujie; Zhao, Guanjie

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the expression stabilities of 12 common internal reference genes for the relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in human laryngeal cancer. Methods Hep-2 cells and 14 laryngeal cancer tissue samples were investigated. The expression characteristics of 12 internal reference gene candidates (18S rRNA, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, RPL29, HMBS, PPIA, ALAS1, TBP, PUM1, GUSB, and B2M) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The data were analyzed by three commonly used software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results The use of the combination of four internal reference genes was more appropriate than the use of a single internal reference gene. The optimal combination was PPIA + GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 for both the cell line and tissues; while the most appropriate combination was GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 + HMBS for the tissues. Conclusions Our recommended internal reference genes may improve the accuracy of relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by the RT-qPCR method in further gene expression research on laryngeal tumors. PMID:27957397

  17. Quantitative study of cellular heterogeneity in doxorubicin uptake and its pharmacological effect on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Zhou, Zi-Hao; Liu, Yi-Meng; Yang, Xi-Liang; Song, Jian; Xiao, Yu-Xiu

    2014-10-01

    Cellular heterogeneity in doxorubicin (DOX) uptake and its relationship with pharmacological effect on cancer cells were quantitatively investigated for the first time. An in vitro experimental model was established by treating human leukemia K562 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with different schedules of DOX with or without surface P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil (VER). The cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake was quantitatively examined by single-cell analysis using capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The corresponding cytotoxic effect was tested by cellular morphology, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium and flow cytometry assays. The expression of cellular membrane surface P-gp was determined by flow cytometry. Results showed that the cellular heterogeneity exists in DOX uptake. The single-high DOX schedule leads to lower uptake heterogeneity and higher mean drug uptake. The cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake was found to be negatively correlated with drug cytotoxicity and surface P-gp expression, with r = -0.7680 to ~ -0.9587. VER reduces the cellular variation in DOX uptake, suggesting that surface P-gp may be one of the causes of the cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake. This research demonstrates the importance of quantitative study of cellular heterogeneity in drug uptake and its potential application in drug schedule design, response prediction and therapy modulation.

  18. [The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study.

  19. Results of Studying Astronomy Students’ Science Literacy, Quantitative Literacy, and Information Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Follette, Katherine B.; Dokter, Erin F.; McCarthy, Don; Vezino, Beau; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.; Brock, Laci; Neiberding, Megan; Prather, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    Introductory astronomy courses often serve as terminal science courses for non-science majors and present an opportunity to assess non future scientists’ attitudes towards science as well as basic scientific knowledge and scientific analysis skills that may remain unchanged after college. Through a series of studies, we have been able to evaluate students’ basic science knowledge, attitudes towards science, quantitative literacy, and informational literacy. In the Fall of 2015, we conducted a case study of a single class administering all relevant surveys to an undergraduate class of 20 students. We will present our analysis of trends of each of these studies as well as the comparison case study. In general we have found that students basic scientific knowledge has remained stable over the past quarter century. In all of our studies, there is a strong relationship between student attitudes and their science and quantitative knowledge and skills. Additionally, students’ information literacy is strongly connected to their attitudes and basic scientific knowledge. We are currently expanding these studies to include new audiences and will discuss the implications of our findings for instructors.

  20. [Scientometrics and bibliometrics of biomedical engineering periodicals and papers].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Xu, Ping; Li, Bingyan; Wang, Zhengrong

    2003-09-01

    This investigation was made to reveal the current status, research trend and research level of biomedical engineering in Chinese mainland by means of scientometrics and to assess the quality of the four domestic publications by bibliometrics. We identified all articles of four related publications by searching Chinese and foreign databases from 1997 to 2001. All articles collected or cited by these databases were searched and statistically analyzed for finding out the relevant distributions, including databases, years, authors, institutions, subject headings and subheadings. The source of sustentation funds and the related articles were analyzed too. The results showed that two journals were cited by two foreign databases and five Chinese databases simultaneously. The output of Journal of Biomedical Engineering was the highest. Its quantity of original papers cited by EI, CA and the totality of papers sponsored by funds were higher than those of the others, but the quantity and percentage per year of biomedical articles cited by EI were decreased in all. Inland core authors and institutions had come into being in the field of biomedical engineering. Their research topics were mainly concentrated on ten subject headings which included biocompatible materials, computer-assisted signal processing, electrocardiography, computer-assisted image processing, biomechanics, algorithms, electroencephalography, automatic data processing, mechanical stress, hemodynamics, mathematical computing, microcomputers, theoretical models, etc. The main subheadings were concentrated on instrumentation, physiopathology, diagnosis, therapy, ultrasonography, physiology, analysis, surgery, pathology, method, etc.

  1. Anatomy of the ICDS series: A bibliometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel; Marxa, Werner

    2007-12-01

    In this article, the proceedings of the International Conferences on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS) have been analyzed by bibliometric methods. The papers of these conferences have been published as articles in regular journals or special proceedings journals and in books with diverse publishers. The conference name/title changed several times. Many of the proceedings did not appear in the so-called “source journals” covered by the Thomson/ISI citation databases, in particular by the Science Citation Index (SCI). But the number of citations within these source journals can be determined using the Cited Reference Search mode under the Web of Science (WoS) and the SCI offered by the host STN International. The search functions of both systems were needed to select the papers published as different document types and to cover the full time span of the series. The most cited ICDS papers were identified, and the overall numbers of citations as well as the time-dependent impact of these papers, of single conferences, and of the complete series, was established. The complete of citing papers was analyzed with respect to the countries of the citing authors, the citing journals, and the ISI subject categories.

  2. Bibliometric Analyses of Physical and Occupational Therapy Faculty across Canada Indicate Productivity and Impact of Rehabilitation Research

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Eunice H.; Law, Mary

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study examines physical and occupational therapy faculty across Canada, using bibliometrics and federal funding as indicators of academic impact, and considers the validity of various bibliometric indices. Methods: Faculty members were identified and their rank, professional designation, and department obtained from faculty Web sites. Bibliometric indicators were determined using Publish or Perish software. An independent author (not a faculty member) inspected the data to remove any incorrectly attributed publications. The h-index, citation years, g-index, and total number of citations for each faculty member were retrieved. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funding database was used to determine the amount of research funding provided to each faculty member as a principal investigator (PI) and his or her total CIHR funding received. Mean faculty indicators by university, rank, gender, and profession were determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect differences by rank and gender, and measures of association (Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression) were used to identify factors that affected h-index and PI funding received. Results: A total of 347 physical and occupational therapy faculty were identified. The median h-index was 5 (inter-quartile range [IQR] 2–8) for assistant professors, 11 (IQR 7–15) for associate professors, and 18 (IQR 12–26) for full professors. ANOVA indicated no significant differences between male and female faculty in terms of h-index or funding received. Regression analysis indicated that 58% of h-index variance could be explained by gender (p=0.039), appointment within a department that provides a (rehabilitation science) PhD programme (p<0.001), rank (p<0.001), CIHR PI funding (p=0.001), or total CIHR funding (p<0.001). Significant predictors of the amount of CIHR funding received as a PI included h-index (p<0.001) and total number of citations (p=0

  3. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Gigi; Green, David W.; Abutalebi, Jubin; Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model based on a qualitative analysis [Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557–582.]. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, ten neuroimaging studies met our inclusion criteria and in each study, bilinguals switched between languages in response to cues. We isolated regions involved in voluntary language switching, by including reported contrasts between the switching conditions and high level baseline conditions involving similar tasks but requiring the use of only one language. Eight brain regions showed significant and reliable activation: left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, midline pre-SMA and bilateral caudate nuclei. This quantitative result is consistent with bilingual aphasia studies that report switching deficits associated with lesions to the caudate nuclei or prefrontal cortex. It also extends the previously reported qualitative model. We discuss the implications of the findings for accounts of bilingual cognitive control. PMID:24795491

  4. The brain network for deductive reasoning: a quantitative meta-analysis of 28 neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jérôme; Chadha, Angad; Booth, James R

    2011-11-01

    Over the course of the past decade, contradictory claims have been made regarding the neural bases of deductive reasoning. Researchers have been puzzled by apparent inconsistencies in the literature. Some have even questioned the effectiveness of the methodology used to study the neural bases of deductive reasoning. However, the idea that neuroimaging findings are inconsistent is not based on any quantitative evidence. Here, we report the results of a quantitative meta-analysis of 28 neuroimaging studies of deductive reasoning published between 1997 and 2010, combining 382 participants. Consistent areas of activations across studies were identified using the multilevel kernel density analysis method. We found that results from neuroimaging studies are more consistent than what has been previously assumed. Overall, studies consistently report activations in specific regions of a left fronto-parietal system, as well as in the left BG. This brain system can be decomposed into three subsystems that are specific to particular types of deductive arguments: relational, categorical, and propositional. These dissociations explain inconstancies in the literature. However, they are incompatible with the notion that deductive reasoning is supported by a single cognitive system relying either on visuospatial or rule-based mechanisms. Our findings provide critical insight into the cognitive organization of deductive reasoning and need to be accounted for by cognitive theories.

  5. Studying the relationship between redox and cell growth using quantitative phase imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Leslie, Matthew T.; Bapst, Natalya; Smith, John; Gaskins, H. Rex; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging has been used in the past to study the dry mass of cells and study cell growth under various treatment conditions. However, the relationship between cellular redox and growth rates has not yet been studied in this context. This study employed the recombinant Glrx-roGFP2 redox biosensor targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or cytosolic compartments of A549 lung epithelial carcinoma cells. The Glrx-roGFP2s biosensor consists of a modified GFP protein containing internal cysteine residues sensitive to the local redox environment. The formation/dissolution of sulfide bridges contorts the internal chromophore, dictating corresponding changes in florescence emission that provide direct measures of the local redox potential. Combining 2-channel florescent imaging of the redox sensor with quantitative phase imaging allowed observation of redox homeostasis alongside measurements of cellular mass during full cycles of cellular division. The results indicate that mitochondrial redox showed a stronger inverse correlation with cell growth than cytoplasmic redox states; although redox changes are restricted to a 5% range. We are now studying the relationship between mitochondrial redox and cell growth in an isogenic series of breast cell lines built upon the MCF-10A genetic background that vary both in malignancy and metastatic potential.

  6. A bibliometric analysis of the development of next generation active nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, Arho; Li, Yin; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Delineating the emergence of nanotechnologies that offer new functionalities is an important element in an anticipatory approach to the governance of nanotechnology and its potential impacts. This paper examines the transition to next generation active nanotechnologies which incorporate functions that respond to the environment or systems concepts that combine devices and structures that are dynamic and which may change their states in use. We develop an approach to identifying these active nanotechnologies and then use bibliometric analysis to examine the extent of research papers and patents involving these concepts. We also examine references to environmental, health, and safety concepts in these papers, given that these next generation nanotechnologies are likely to have risk profiles that are different from those of first-generation passive nanomaterials. Our results show a steady growth overall in focus on active nanotechnologies in the research literature and in patents over the study period of 1990-2010. We also find an increase in consideration given to environmental, health, and safety topics. While gaps are highlighted in our understanding of research and innovation in active nanotechnologies, the results suggest that there is beginning to be a shift to active nanotechnologies, with the implication that governance processes need to be conscious of this shift and to prepare for it.

  7. [Bibliometrics analysis on researches of illness spectrum for acu-moxibustion therapy and prospect].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Xiao; Zhao, Ling; Yang, Jie; Cao, Xin-Xin; Yu, Zu-Nian; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2014-06-01

    The research on indications of acu-moxibustion is very important for effectively guiding clinical practice. In the present paper, the authors retrieved domestic literature about researches on the disease-spectrum or indications of acu-moxibustion therapy in recent 10 years, and made a bibliometrics analysis according to the described research methods, publishing year, quantity and their proportionate relationship. A total of 18 qualified original papers involving 414 illnesses or clinical conditions were included in the present paper. Among the 414 kinds of clinical conditions or illnesses, 72 were considered to be suitable candidates for acu-moxibustion therapy, including functional dyspepsia, herpes zoster, irritable bowel syndrome, gastrointestinal dysfunction, scapulohumeral periarthritis, cervical syndrome, dyssomnia, acne (cyst type), chronic urticaria, regional neurodermatitis, pain, itching, etc. which belong to illness-spectrum grade-I. Generally, the acu-moxibustion therapy is, in clinical effects, relatively poorer for structural diseases which are attributed to grade-II or grade-III type. Nevertheless, the diversity of clinical indications of acu-moxibustion has been confirmed nowadays. Current studies on illness-spectrum are of certain uniformity and comprehensiveness, but need further extending and perfecting, and need more standardized methods corresponding to principles of the evidence-based medicine.

  8. Bibliometric analysis of nanotechnology applied in oncology from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xifeng; Qiu, Xiao-chun; Liu, Qian; Jia, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Innovation in the last decade has endowed nanotechnology with an assortment of tools for drug delivery system, imaging, and sensing in cancer research. These rapidly emerging tools are indicative of a burgeoning field ready to expand into medical applications. The aim of this study is to analyze the applications of nanotechnology in oncology with bibliometric methods and evaluate development in this field. Literature search was performed using PubMed search engines with MeSH terms (all)--nanotechnology, nanomedicine, nanoparticle, nanocapsules, micellar systems, and oncology or cancer or neoplasms. Within 2,543 articles from 2002 to 2011 in over 50 medical magazines from over 30 countries, we did a series analysis on these articles' countries, keywords, and authors. Our results show that articles in nanotechnology in oncology are increasing year by year, especially in recent years. Quantity and quality of the articles are becoming more and influential. In the global research, the USA is leading in this field, accounting for half above of the whole articles, followed by countries like Japan, Germany, and France and also some emerging nations like China, in the second place, and India. Subjects like nanoparticles, tumor marker, and drug delivery are the common research focus. So, with more and more scientists' interests and attention drawn to this field, it is likely to make major breakthroughs in the coming years.

  9. [Application Status of Evaluation Methodology of Electronic Medical Record: Evaluation of Bibliometric Analysis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Jialin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yong; Huang, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    In order to provide a reference and theoretical guidance of the evaluation of electronic medical record (EMR) and establishment of evaluation system in China, we applied a bibliometric analysis to assess the application of methodologies used at home and abroad, as well as to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of them. We systematically searched international medical databases of Ovid-MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, EI, EMBASE, PubMed, IEEE, and China's medical databases of CBM and CNKI between Jan. 1997 and Dec. 2012. We also reviewed the reference lists of articles for relevant articles. We selected some qualified papers according to the pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria, and did information extraction and analysis to the papers. Eventually, 1 736 papers were obtained from online database and other 16 articles from manual retrieval. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were retrieved and assessed. In the evaluation of EMR, US counted for 54.28% in the leading place, and Canada and Japan stood side by side and ranked second with 8.58%, respectively. For the application of evaluation methodology, Information System Success Model, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Innovation Diffusion Model and Cost-Benefit Access Model were widely applied with 25%, 20%, 12.5% and 10%, respectively. In this paper, we summarize our study on the application of methodologies of EMR evaluation, which can provide a reference to EMR evaluation in China.

  10. Bibliometric analysis of research on regenerative periodontal surgery during the last 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Vela, María M.; Díaz-Haro, Ana; Berbel-Salvador, Sonia; Lucero-Sánchez, Aldo; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objectics: The evolution of research activity during the last thirty years on regenerative periodontal surgery is studied. Results: A small number of authors are highly productive with more than 10 publications on the subject each. 79,6% of authors have only produced one article on the subject. The co-authorship average is of 2,68 authors per paper, with a collaboration between 2 and 6 authors. Main journals on the field of regenerative periodontal surgery are Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Clinical Periodontology, which are ranked 14th and 1st in their category according to the Journal Citations Reports. The most used language is English, followed by Japanese and Italian, Spanish occupying the eighth position. Conclusions: A significant increase on scientific literature is observed, similar to the one Dentistry has had. A reduced number of authors account for most production. In the same token, there is a scarce professionalization of researchers in this field, where most of the authors are occasional. On the other hand, there are two very specialized journals on this topic. Key words:Bibliometrics, scientometrics periodontal regeneration, surgical periodontal treatment, scientific literature, scopus, scientific output. PMID:24558535

  11. An agent-based model for the bibliometric h-index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Georgia; Chopard, Bastien

    2013-10-01

    We model a virtual scientific community in which authors publish and cite articles. Citations are attributed according to a preferential attachment mechanism. From the numerical simulations, the h-index can be computed. This bottom-up approach reproduces well real bibliometric data. We consider two versions of our model. (1) The single-scientist is controlled by two parameters which can be tuned to reproduce the value of the h-index of many real scientists. Moreover, this model shows how the h-index grows with the number of citations, for a fixed number of articles. We also define an average h-index that can be used to compare the scientific productivity of institutions of different sizes. (2) The multi-scientist model considers a population of scientists and allows us to study the impact of removing citations from the low h-index researchers on the community. Simulations on real bibilometric data, as well as the predictions of the model, show that the h-index eco-system can be strongly affected by such a filtering.

  12. Mapping the scientific research on non-point source pollution: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Beibei; Huang, Kai; Sun, Dezhi; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to examine the progress and future research trends of non-point source (NPS) pollution during the years 1991-2015 based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) of Web of Science (WoS). The publications referencing NPS pollution were analyzed including the following aspects: document type, publication language, publication output and characteristics, subject category, source journal, distribution of country and institution, author keywords, etc. The results indicate that the study of NPS pollution demonstrated a sharply increasing trend since 1991. Article and English were the most commonly used document type and language. Environmental sciences and ecology, water resources, and engineering were the top three subject categories. Water science and technology ranked first in distribution of journal, followed by Science of the total environment and Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. The USA took a leading position in both quantity and quality, playing an important role in the research field of NPS pollution, followed by the UK and China. The most productive institution was the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Acad Sci), followed by Beijing Normal University and US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS). The analysis of author keywords indicates that the major hotspots of NPS pollution from 1991 to 2015 contained "water," "model," "agriculture," "nitrogen," "phosphorus," etc. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of NPS pollution research and help readers to establish the future research directions.

  13. Trends in the growth of literature of telemedicine: A bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Ting; Iqbal, Usman; Ching, Jack Horn-Yu; Ting, Jonathan Bee-Shen; Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Tamashiro, Hiko; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the use of telemedicine as a way to provide medical services has grown as communication technologies advance and patients seek more convenient ways to receive care. Because developments within this field are still rapidly evolving, identifying trends within telemedicine literature is an important task to help delineate future directions of telemedicine research. In this study, we analyzed 7960 telemedicine-related publication records found in the Science Citations Index - Expanded database between 1993 and 2012. Bibliometric analyses revealed that while the total growth in telemedicine literature has been significant in the last twenty years, the publication activity per country and over time has been variable. While the United States led the world in the cumulative number of telemedicine publications, Norway ranked highest when we ordered countries by publications per capita. We also saw that the growth in the number of publications per year has been inconsistent over the past two decades. Our results identified that neuroscience neurology and nursing as two fields of research in telemedicine that have seen considerable growth in interest in this field, and are poised to be the focus of research activity in the near future.

  14. Twenty years of global groundwater research: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based bibliometric survey (1993-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Beibei; Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Wang, Zhen; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate groundwater research from different perspectives in the period 1993-2012 based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database. The bibliometric analysis summarizes output, categorical, geographical, and institutional patterns, as well as research hotspots in global groundwater studies. Groundwater research experienced notable growth in the past two decades. “Environmental sciences”, “water resources” and “multidisciplinary geosciences” were the three major subject categories. The Journal of Hydrology published the largest number of groundwater-related publications in the surveyed period. Major author clusters and research regions are located in the United States, Western Europe, Eastern and Southern Asia, and Eastern Australia. The United States was a leading contributor to global groundwater research with the largest number of independent and collaborative papers, its dominance affirmed by housing 12 of the top 20 most active institutions reporting groundwater-related research. The US Geological Survey, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service were the three institutions with the largest number of groundwater-related publications. A keywords analysis revealed that groundwater quality and contamination, effective research technologies, and treatment technologies for water-quality improvement were the main research areas in the study period. Several keywords such as “arsenic”, “climate change”, “fluoride”, “groundwater management”, “hydrogeochemistry”, “uncertainty”, “numerical modeling”, “seawater intrusion”, “adsorption”, “remote sensing”, “land use”, “USA”(as study site), and “water supply” received dramatically increased attention during the study period, possibly signaling future research trends.

  15. Quantitative structure-activity studies of octopaminergic agonists and antagonists against nervous system of Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, A; Pan, C; Shinkai, K; Tomita, J; Kuwano, E; Taniguchi, E; Eto, M

    1998-07-01

    The quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) of octopaminergic agonists and antagonists against the thoracic nerve cord of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L., was analyzed using physicochemical parameters and regression analysis. The hydrophobic effect, dipole moment, and shape index were important in terms of Ki: the more hydrophobic, the greater dipole moment, and the smaller shape index of the molecules, the greater the activity. A receptor surface model (RSM) was generated using some subset of the most active structures. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from RSM/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in QSAR analysis. This data set was studied further using molecular shape analysis.

  16. Ground state atomic oxygen in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering: a quantitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britun, Nikolay; Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Silva, Tiago; Snyders, Rony

    2017-02-01

    The ground state density of oxygen atoms in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges has been studied quantitatively. Both time-resolved and space-resolved measurements were conducted. The measurements were performed using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF), and calibrated by optical emission actinometry with multiple Ar emission lines. The results clarify the dynamics of the O ground state atoms in the discharge afterglow significantly, including their propagation and fast decay after the plasma pulse, as well as the influence of gas pressure, O2 admixture, etc.

  17. [The study of tomato fruit weight quantitative trait locus and its application in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan

    2015-08-01

    The classical research cases, which have greatly promoted the development of genetics in history, can be combined with the content of courses in genetics teaching to train students' ability of scientific thinking and genetic analysis. The localization and clone of gene controlling tomato fruit weight is a pioneer work in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies and represents a complete process of QTL research in plants. Application of this integrated case in genetics teaching, which showed a wonderful process of scientific discovery and the fascination of genetic research, has inspired students' interest in genetics and achieved a good teaching effect.

  18. A computational quantitative structure-activity relationship study of carbamate anticonvulsants using quantum pharmacological methods.

    PubMed

    Knight, J L; Weaver, D F

    1998-10-01

    A pattern recognition quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study has been performed to determine the molecular features of carbamate anticonvulsants which influence biological activity. Although carbamates, such as felbamate, have been used to treat epilepsy, their mechanisms of efficacy and toxicity are not completely understood. Quantum and classical mechanics calculations have been exploited to describe 46 carbamate drugs. Employing a principal component analysis and multiple linear regression calculations, five crucial structural descriptors were identified which directly relate to the bioactivity of the carbamate family. With the resulting mathematical model, the biological activity of carbamate analogues can be predicted with 85-90% accuracy.

  19. Application of multispectral imaging in quantitative immunohistochemistry study of breast cancer: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Lou; Wang, Lin-Wei; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Xiang, Qing-Ming; Yang, Gui-Fang; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) based on imaging and spectroscopy, as relatively novel to the field of histopathology, has been used in biomedical multidisciplinary researches. We analyzed and compared the utility of multispectral (MS) versus conventional red-green-blue (RGB) images for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining to explore the advantages of MSI in clinical-pathological diagnosis. The MS images acquired of IHC-stained membranous marker human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytoplasmic marker cytokeratin5/6 (CK5/6), and nuclear marker estrogen receptor (ER) have higher resolution, stronger contrast, and more accurate segmentation than the RGB images. The total signal optical density (OD) values for each biomarker were higher in MS images than in RGB images (all P < 0.05). Moreover, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that a greater area under the curve (AUC), higher sensitivity, and specificity in evaluation of HER2 gene were achieved by MS images (AUC = 0.91, 89.1 %, 83.2 %) than RGB images (AUC = 0.87, 84.5, and 81.8 %). There was no significant difference between quantitative results of RGB images and clinico-pathological characteristics (P > 0.05). However, by quantifying MS images, the total signal OD values of HER2 positive expression were correlated with lymph node status and histological grades (P = 0.02 and 0.04). Additionally, the consistency test results indicated the inter-observer agreement was more robust in MS images for HER2 (inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.95, r s = 0.94), CK5/6 (ICC = 0.90, r s = 0.88), and ER (ICC = 0.94, r s = 0.94) (all P < 0.001) than that in RGB images for HER2 (ICC = 0.91, r s = 0.89), CK5/6 (ICC = 0.85, r s = 0.84), and ER (ICC = 0.90, r s = 0.89) (all P < 0.001). Our results suggest that the application of MS images in quantitative IHC analysis could obtain higher accuracy, reliability, and more

  20. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study.

    PubMed

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther; Lutti, Antoine; Draganski, Bodgan

    2016-05-01

    The high gray-white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1-weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1-weighted images (R1 (=1/T1), R2 *, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18-87 years). Synthetic T1-weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features-gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue-myelination, iron, and water content-on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801-1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p<0.01; d>0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  2. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie‐Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The high gray‐white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1‐weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1‐weighted images (R 1 (=1/T1), R 2*, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18–87 years). Synthetic T1‐weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features—gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue—myelination, iron, and water content—on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801–1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876452

  3. The renal quantitative scintillation camera study for determination of renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, I.M. Jr.; Boineau, F.G.; Evans, B.B.; Schlegel, J.U.

    1983-03-01

    The renal quantitative scintillation camera study assesses glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow based upon renal uptake of 99mtechnetium-iron ascorbate and 131iodine-hippuran, respectively. The method was compared to inulin, para-aminohippuric acid and creatinine clearance studies in 7 normal subjects and 9 patients with various degrees of reduced renal function. The reproducibility of the technique was determined in 15 randomly selected pediatric patients. The values of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow were not significantly different from those of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. The reproducibility of the technique was comparable to that of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. Patient acceptance of the technique is excellent and the cost is minimal. Renal morphology and excretory dynamics also are demonstrated. The technique is advocated as a clinical measure of renal function.

  4. Quantitative study of temperature-dependent order in thin films of cylindrical morphology block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vindhya; Kramer, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Disordering and defect generation in block copolymer systems at high temperatures is of significance to get a better understanding of the physics governing these systems, which can also direct efforts to minimize them. We have studied the smectic-nematic-isotropic transition in confined monolayers and bilayers of cylindrical morphology poly (styrene-b-2vinyl pyridine) diblock copolymer. Previous studies of melting phenomena in block copolymer thin films have relied on quantitative AFM studies alone. We have supplemented AFM studies with grazing incidence small angle X-ray diffraction lineshape analysis to quantify the decay of translational and orientational order with increasing temperature. The results have been interpreted in the context of the Toner-Nelson theory of melting for layered systems.

  5. A quantitative study of the distribution of IgG sub-classes in a group of normal human sera.

    PubMed

    Shakib, F; Stanworth, D R; Drew, R; Catty, D

    1975-01-01

    The radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini has been applied to quantitative study of IgG subclasses in a normal population. The method was assessed in terms of both reproducibility and antiserum consumption. The distribution of IgG subclasses in a group of normal individuals was studied, and compared with their incidence in a series of monoclonal proteins investigated by previous workers and particularly with other quantitative studies on groups of normal individual's sera.

  6. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  7. A quantitative Kirkpatrick Level 1 and 2 study of equipment specialist apprentice operations training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Dirk D.

    The primary purpose of the quantitative experimental study is to compare employee-learning outcomes for a course of study that is offered in two formats: explicit and tacit instructor led and explicit e-learning operations training. A Kirkpatrick Level 2 course examination is used to establish a pretest knowledge baseline and to measure posttest learning outcomes for each instructional format. A secondary purpose is to compare responses of the two groups using a Kirkpatrick Level 1 customer satisfaction index survey. Several authors reported the United States electric utility industry would have an employee attrition issue during the 2010 through 2015 period. This is at the same time the industry will be experiencing an increased demand for electricity. There now is a demand for highly training powerplant operators. A review of literature yielded few studies comparing instructor led training and e-based training. Though the Electric Power Research Institute stated the two training modes would be acceptable instruction, the organization did not develop a quantifiable justified recommendation as to the training. Subjects participated in a basic operations course and decided to take either the instructor led or e-based training course. Results of the study concluded that both instructor led and e-based training provided significant learning to the participants. The Kirkpatrick Level 1 results indicated significantly better results for instructor led training. There was not a significant difference in the Kirkpatrick Level 2 results between the two training modalities. Recommendation for future research include conducting a quantitative studies including a Phillips Level 5 study and qualitative studies including a more detailed examination of the customer satisfaction survey (Kirkpatrick Level 1).

  8. Quantitative study of the interactome of PKCζ involved in the EGF-induced tumor cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruibing; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Fei; Shieh, Chia-Hui Paul; Yang, De; Zhang, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Chemotaxis plays an important role in metastasis. In our previous studies, we reported that protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) mediated cancer cell chemotaxis by regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. To further study the molecular mechanism of chemotaxis, mass spectrometry-based approaches were employed to investigate the interactome of PKCζ and its changes upon stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF). As a result, 233 proteins were identified as potential PKCζ binding partners. Label free quantification was applied to examine the quantitative changes of these interactions involved in the EGF induced chemotaxis. Fifteen identified proteins were enriched and 9 proteins were reduced in the presence of EGF (≥ 1.5 folds, p ≤ 0.05). The interaction between cofilin-1 (CFL1) and PKCζ was evidenced and this interaction was enhanced in the EGF induced chemotaxis signaling transduction. In addition, novel PKCζ interacting proteins potentially related with chemotaxis were characterized, such as isoform 1 of nucleophosmin (NPM1). Furthermore, Western blotting and chemotaxis assays were also applied to validate the proteomics result and explore its biological implications. Collectively, the combination of quantitative proteomics and biological assays provides a powerful strategy for elucidating the signaling pathway of tumor cell chemotaxis.

  9. Quantitative imaging of the human upper airway: instrument design and clinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, M. S.; Armstrong, J. J.; Paduch, A.; Sampson, D. D.; Walsh, J. H.; Hillman, D. R.; Eastwood, P. R.

    2006-08-01

    Imaging of the human upper airway is widely used in medicine, in both clinical practice and research. Common imaging modalities include video endoscopy, X-ray CT, and MRI. However, no current modality is both quantitative and safe to use for extended periods of time. Such a capability would be particularly valuable for sleep research, which is inherently reliant on long observation sessions. We have developed an instrument capable of quantitative imaging of the human upper airway, based on endoscopic optical coherence tomography. There are no dose limits for optical techniques, and the minimally invasive imaging probe is safe for use in overnight studies. We report on the design of the instrument and its use in preliminary clinical studies, and we present results from a range of initial experiments. The experiments show that the instrument is capable of imaging during sleep, and that it can record dynamic changes in airway size and shape. This information is useful for research into sleep disorders, and potentially for clinical diagnosis and therapies.

  10. Quantitative study of Xanthosoma violaceum leaf surfaces using RIMAPS and variogram techniques.

    PubMed

    Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O; Molina, Ana M

    2006-08-01

    Two new imaging techniques (rotated image with maximum averaged power spectrum (RIMAPS) and variogram) are presented for the study and description of leaf surfaces. Xanthosoma violaceum was analyzed to illustrate the characteristics of both techniques. Both techniques produce a quantitative description of leaf surface topography. RIMAPS combines digitized images rotation with Fourier transform, and it is used to detect patterns orientation and characteristics of surface topography. Variogram relates the mathematical variance of a surface with the area of the sample window observed. It gives the typical scale lengths of the surface patterns. RIMAPS detects the morphological variations of the surface topography pattern between fresh and dried (herbarium) samples of the leaf. The variogram method finds the characteristic dimensions of the leaf microstructure, i.e., cell length, papillae diameter, etc., showing that there are not significant differences between dry and fresh samples. The results obtained show the robustness of RIMAPS and variogram analyses to detect, distinguish, and characterize leaf surfaces, as well as give scale lengths. Both techniques are tools for the biologist to study variations of the leaf surface when different patterns are present. The use of RIMAPS and variogram opens a wide spectrum of possibilities by providing a systematic, quantitative description of the leaf surface topography.

  11. A relative quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique: animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Xuefang; Zhou, Kenneth J.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique in swine model. Numerous techniques based on the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) Hounsfield Unit (HU) density have emerged. Although these methods proposed to be able to assess haemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis, their limitations are noticed. There are still needs to develop some new techniques. Experiments were performed upon five (5) closed-chest swine. Balloon catheters were placed into the coronary artery to simulate different degrees of luminal stenosis. Myocardial Blood Flow (MBF) was measured using color microsphere technique. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) was measured using pressure wire. CT examinations were performed twice during First-pass phase under adenosine-stress condition. CT HU Density (HUDCT) and CT HU Density Ratio (HUDRCT) were calculated using the acquired CT images. Our study presents that HUDRCT shows a good (y=0.07245+0.09963x, r2=0.898) correlation with MBF and FFR. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, HUDRCT provides excellent diagnostic performance for the detection of significant ischemia during adenosine-stress as defined by FFR indicated by the value of Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.927. HUDRCT has the potential to be developed as a useful indicator of quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion.

  12. A Comparison of Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: A Bibliometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Karina; Whitham, Elizabeth A.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric education needs to expose students to a broad range of topics. One resource for psychiatric education, both during initial training and in later continuing medical education, is the scientific literature, as published in psychiatric journals. The authors assessed current research trends in psychiatric journals, as compared…

  13. [Study of Cervical Exfoliated Cell's DNA Quantitative Analysis Based on Multi-Spectral Imaging Technology].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng; Zeng, Li-bo; Wu, Qiong-shui

    2016-02-01

    The conventional cervical cancer screening methods mainly include TBS (the bethesda system) classification method and cellular DNA quantitative analysis, however, by using multiple staining method in one cell slide, which is staining the cytoplasm with Papanicolaou reagent and the nucleus with Feulgen reagent, the study of achieving both two methods in the cervical cancer screening at the same time is still blank. Because the difficulty of this multiple staining method is that the absorbance of the non-DNA material may interfere with the absorbance of DNA, so that this paper has set up a multi-spectral imaging system, and established an absorbance unmixing model by using multiple linear regression method based on absorbance's linear superposition character, and successfully stripped out the absorbance of DNA to run the DNA quantitative analysis, and achieved the perfect combination of those two kinds of conventional screening method. Through a series of experiment we have proved that between the absorbance of DNA which is calculated by the absorbance unmixxing model and the absorbance of DNA which is measured there is no significant difference in statistics when the test level is 1%, also the result of actual application has shown that there is no intersection between the confidence interval of the DNA index of the tetraploid cells which are screened by using this paper's analysis method when the confidence level is 99% and the DNA index's judging interval of cancer cells, so that the accuracy and feasibility of the quantitative DNA analysis with multiple staining method expounded by this paper have been verified, therefore this analytical method has a broad application prospect and considerable market potential in early diagnosis of cervical cancer and other cancers.

  14. Green initiative impact on stock prices: A quantitative study of the clean energy industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurisich, John M.

    The purpose of this quantitative ex post facto research study was to explore the relationship between green initiative expense disclosures and stock prices of 46 NASDAQ listed Clean Edge Green Energy global companies from 2007 to 2010. The independent variables were sales and marketing, environmental, customer and supplier, community, and corporate governance practices that were correlated with the dependent variable in the study of stock prices. Expense disclosures were examined in an effort to measure the impact of green initiative programs and to expose the interrelationships between green initiative expense disclosures and fluctuations of stock prices. The data for the research was secondary data from existing annual reports. A statistically significant relationship was revealed between environmental practices and changes in stock prices. The study results also provided substantial evidence for leadership and managerial decision making to reduce or increase green initiative practices to maximize shareholder wealth of their respective organizations.

  15. Marriage Patterns and Childbearing: Results From a Quantitative Study in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Ebadi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Social changes have rapidly removed arranged marriages and it seems the change in marriage pattern has played a role in childbearing. On the other hand, there is a great reduction in population in many countries which requires a comprehensive policy to manage the considerable drop in population. To achieve this goal, initially, the factors affecting fertility must be precisely identified. This study aims to examine the role of marriage patterns in childbearing. In this cross-sectional quantitative study, 880 married women 15-49 years old, living in the north of Iran were studied using a cluster sampling strategy. The results showed that there are no significant differences in reproductive behaviors of three patterns of marriage in Bobol city of Iran. It seems there is a convergence in childbearing due to the different patterns of marriage and Policymakers should pay attention to other determinants of reproductive behaviors in demographic planning. PMID:26493414

  16. Quantitative assessment of the benefits of specific information technologies applied to clinical studies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Avilés, William; Ortega, Oscar; Kuan, Guillermina; Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva

    2008-02-01

    Clinical studies and trials require accessibility of large amounts of high-quality information in a timely manner, often daily. The integrated application of information technologies can greatly improve quality control as well as facilitate compliance with established standards such as Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). We have customized and implemented a number of information technologies, such as personal data assistants (PDAs), geographic information system (GIS), and barcode and fingerprint scanning, to streamline a pediatric dengue cohort study in Managua, Nicaragua. Quantitative data was obtained to assess the actual contribution of each technology in relation to processing time, accuracy, real-time access to data, savings in consumable materials, and time to proficiency in training sessions. In addition to specific advantages, these information technologies benefited not only the study itself but numerous routine clinical and laboratory processes in the health center and laboratories of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health.

  17. Marriage Patterns and Childbearing: Results From a Quantitative Study in North of Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Ebadi, Abbas

    2015-09-22

    Social changes have rapidly removed arranged marriages and it seems the change in marriage pattern has played a role in childbearing. On the other hand, there is a great reduction in population in many countries which requires a comprehensive policy to manage the considerable drop in population. To achieve this goal, initially, the factors affecting fertility must be precisely identified. This study aims to examine the role of marriage patterns in childbearing. In this cross-sectional quantitative study, 880 married women 15-49 years old, living in the north of Iran were studied using a cluster sampling strategy. The results showed that there are no significant differences in reproductive behaviors of three patterns of marriage in Bobol city of Iran. It seems there is a convergence in childbearing due to the different patterns of marriage and Policymakers should pay attention to other determinants of reproductive behaviors in demographic planning.

  18. Heritability of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measures in healthy adults from the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Choh, Audrey C; Towne, Bradford; Demerath, Ellen W; Chumlea, Wm Cameron; Sun, Shumei S; Siervogel, Roger M

    2004-11-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone have been reported to predict osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women and older men. Although many studies have examined the heritability of bone mineral density (BMD), few studies have estimated the heritability of calcaneal QUS phenotypes. In the present study, we examined the genetic regulation of calcaneal QUS parameters in individuals from nuclear and extended families. The study population includes 260 men and 295 women aged 18-91 years (mean+/-SD: 46+/-16 years) who belong to 111 pedigrees in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Three measures of calcaneal structure were collected from both the right and left heel using the Sahara bone sonometer. These measures included broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and the quantitative ultrasound index (QUI). We used a variance components based maximum likelihood method to estimate the heritability of QUS parameters while simultaneously adjusting for covariate effects. Additionally, we used bivariate extensions of these methods to calculate additive genetic and random environmental correlations among QUS measures. All phenotypes demonstrated statistically significant heritabilities (P<0.0000001). Heritabilities in the right heel (h2+/-SE) were h2=0.59+/-0.10 for BUA, h2=0.73+/-0.09 for SOS, and h2=0.72+/-0.09 for QUI. Similarly, heritabilities for the left heel were h2=0.52+/-0.10, h2=0.75+/-0.10, and h2=0.70+/0.10, respectively. There was evidence for significant genetic and environmental correlations among these six QUS measures. Combinations of QUS measures in the right and left heel demonstrated genetic correlations of 0.94-0.99 and all were significantly different from one indicating at least a partially unique genetic architecture for each of these measures. This study demonstrates that QUS measures of the calcaneus among healthy men and women are heritable, and there are large shared additive genetic effects among all of the traits

  19. Bibliometric Models for Management of an Information Store. I. Differential Utility Among Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ralph H.

    1982-01-01

    Uses bibliometric techniques in the development of a model of the distribution of demand for items in an information store. The hypothesis of hyperbolic distribution and an index of differential demand are also discussed. One table, two figures, and a 10-item reference list accompany the text. (Author/JL)

  20. Bibliometrics and social work: a two-edged sword can still be a blunt instrument.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Jan; Thyer, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the productivity and impact of social work scholarship, the profession must look beyond bibliometrics to other issues that must be considered. These include the lag time between acceptance and publication of articles, the quality of peer review experienced by social work authors, and the overabundance of journals being published in social work.

  1. Inciting the Metric Oriented Humanist: Teaching Bibliometrics in a Faculty of Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuccala, Alesia

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades the core of bibliometrics has predominantly been "scientometric" in nature, due to the first commercial citation index having been created for scientific journals and articles. The production of citation indexes for books implies that proper education related to their use is now becoming critical. A new breed of…

  2. Research on Social Work Practice: A Bibliometric Evaluation of the First Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Lioi, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article describes a bibliometric analysis of articles appearing in the journal "Research on Social Work Practice" (RSWP). Method: Descriptive and predictive analyses for the sample of 322 articles are presented. Results: The typical RSWP article was 15 pages long, had two authors and 28 references, and was cited for the first time…

  3. Some Limitations of the "H" Index: A Commentary on Ruscio and Colleagues' Analysis of Bibliometric Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltman, Ludo; Costas, Rodrigo; van Eck, Nees Jan

    2012-01-01

    The literature on bibliometric indices for assessing scholarly impact, in particular the "h" index (Hirsch, 2005) and its many variants, is extensive, but nevertheless Ruscio and colleagues (this issue) succeed in making a valuable contribution. They have made the effort of collecting publication and citation data for no less than 1,750…

  4. Using Citation Indexes, Citation Searching, and Bibliometrics to Improve Chemistry Scholarship, Research, and Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buntrock, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Citation searching and bibliometrics are terms foreign to many chemists and educators, yet well-known and used by librarians and information specialists. This article aims to help chemistry students, educators, and other readers of this "Journal" to better appreciate and use these powerful and profound methods. Although these subjects…

  5. [An analysis to the focus of (American Journal of Epidemiology) research with bibliometrics methods].

    PubMed

    Cui, L

    1996-06-01

    Using bibliometric method, the author counted the citation of papers published in American Journal of Epidemiology in the last 3 years. The highly cited papers and books were presented and the focus of recent years on American Journal of Epidemiology outlined.

  6. The Use of Bibliometrics to Measure Research Performance in Education Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Andrea; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the fitness-for-purpose and soundness of bibliometric parameters for measuring and elucidating the research performance of individual researchers in the field of education sciences in Switzerland. In order to take into account the specificities of publication practices of researchers in education sciences, the analyses are…

  7. Data Set Isolation for Bibliometric Online Analyses of Research Publications: Fundamental Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwersen, Peter; Christensen, Finn Hjortgaard

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the retrieval dimensions of data collection activity online and their influence on the research evaluation outcome to reinforce the link between online retrieval and bibliometrics. Topics include publication counts; citation analyses; citation databases from the Institute for Scientific Information; and data set isolation. (Author/LRW)

  8. On the Growth of Bibliographies with Time: An Exercise in Bibliometric Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Quentin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of bibliometrics focuses on methods of predicting the number of new journals carrying relevant articles in the future, using both established parametric approaches and newer empirical methods. Parametric models and empirical Bayes models are used to compare examples using previous bibliographies compiled by Bradford and Kendall. (13…

  9. Open-Access Mega-Journals: A Bibliometric Profile

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Peter; Creaser, Claire; Fry, Jenny; Pinfield, Stephen; Spezi, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive bibliometric analysis of eleven open-access mega-journals (OAMJs). OAMJs are a relatively recent phenomenon, and have been characterised as having four key characteristics: large size; broad disciplinary scope; a Gold-OA business model; and a peer-review policy that seeks to determine only the scientific soundness of the research rather than evaluate the novelty or significance of the work. Our investigation focuses on four key modes of analysis: journal outputs (the number of articles published and changes in output over time); OAMJ author characteristics (nationalities and institutional affiliations); subject areas (the disciplinary scope of OAMJs, and variations in sub-disciplinary output); and citation profiles (the citation distributions of each OAMJ, and the impact of citing journals). We found that while the total output of the eleven mega-journals grew by 14.9% between 2014 and 2015, this growth is largely attributable to the increased output of Scientific Reports and Medicine. We also found substantial variation in the geographical distribution of authors. Several journals have a relatively high proportion of Chinese authors, and we suggest this may be linked to these journals’ high Journal Impact Factors (JIFs). The mega-journals were also found to vary in subject scope, with several journals publishing disproportionately high numbers of articles in certain sub-disciplines. Our citation analsysis offers support for Björk & Catani’s suggestion that OAMJs’s citation distributions can be similar to those of traditional journals, while noting considerable variation in citation rates across the eleven titles. We conclude that while the OAMJ term is useful as a means of grouping journals which share a set of key characteristics, there is no such thing as a “typical” mega-journal, and we suggest several areas for additional research that might help us better understand the current and future role of

  10. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research. PMID:23497410

  11. Open-Access Mega-Journals: A Bibliometric Profile.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Simon; Willett, Peter; Creaser, Claire; Fry, Jenny; Pinfield, Stephen; Spezi, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive bibliometric analysis of eleven open-access mega-journals (OAMJs). OAMJs are a relatively recent phenomenon, and have been characterised as having four key characteristics: large size; broad disciplinary scope; a Gold-OA business model; and a peer-review policy that seeks to determine only the scientific soundness of the research rather than evaluate the novelty or significance of the work. Our investigation focuses on four key modes of analysis: journal outputs (the number of articles published and changes in output over time); OAMJ author characteristics (nationalities and institutional affiliations); subject areas (the disciplinary scope of OAMJs, and variations in sub-disciplinary output); and citation profiles (the citation distributions of each OAMJ, and the impact of citing journals). We found that while the total output of the eleven mega-journals grew by 14.9% between 2014 and 2015, this growth is largely attributable to the increased output of Scientific Reports and Medicine. We also found substantial variation in the geographical distribution of authors. Several journals have a relatively high proportion of Chinese authors, and we suggest this may be linked to these journals' high Journal Impact Factors (JIFs). The mega-journals were also found to vary in subject scope, with several journals publishing disproportionately high numbers of articles in certain sub-disciplines. Our citation analsysis offers support for Björk & Catani's suggestion that OAMJs's citation distributions can be similar to those of traditional journals, while noting considerable variation in citation rates across the eleven titles. We conclude that while the OAMJ term is useful as a means of grouping journals which share a set of key characteristics, there is no such thing as a "typical" mega-journal, and we suggest several areas for additional research that might help us better understand the current and future role of OAMJs in

  12. Bibliometric assessment of cancer research in Puerto Rico, 1903–2005

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Ana P.; Calo, William A.; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos; Maura-Sardo, Mariano; Suárez, Erick

    2010-01-01

    Objective The analysis of scientific production in Puerto Rico is largely unexplored. The main aim of this study is to present the characteristics and trends of cancer publications in Puerto Rico’s biomedical journals and their relationship with the island’s cancer mortality. Methods A PubMed and a hard-copy search were performed to retrieve cancer-related articles published in the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal and the Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico from 1903 to 2005. Bibliometric indicators studied included the number of authors and references by article, first author’s institutional affiliation and country, document type, and language. The study type and tumor classification were also recorded. Cancer proportional mortality (M%) in Puerto Rico and the proportion of cancer-related articles (P%) published were also evaluated. The annual percent change (APC) was estimated to assess trends. Results A total of 369 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were universities (39.6%), English was the predominant publication language (72.1%), and the principal document type was original papers (69.6%). Epidemiologic studies were the dominant study type (62.1%), and the most studied cancers were digestive (15.4%) and gynecologic (9.6%). Although the P% has increased since 1913 (APC = 1.2%), the M% increased at a faster pace (APC = 2.7%). Conclusions Although a growth in the number of cancer publications is observed in these journals, it does not parallel the increase in proportional mortality. A better understanding of the cancer publications in Puerto Rico is essential to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop cancer control strategies. PMID:19531324

  13. Quantitative Study of Cell Invasion Process under Extracellular Stimulation of Cytokine in a Microfluidic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Tseng, Hsueh-Peng; Lee, Chia-Yi; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Cell invasion is the first step of cancer metastasis that is the primary cause of death for cancer patients and defined as cell movement through extracellular matrix (ECM). Investigation of the correlation between cell invasive and extracellular stimulation is critical for the inhabitation of metastatic dissemination. Conventional cell invasion assay is based on Boyden chamber assay, which has a number of limitations. In this work, a microfluidic device incorporating with impedance measurement technique was developed for quantitative investigation of cell invasion process. The device consisted of 2 reservoirs connecting with a microchannel filled with hydrogel. Malignant cells invaded along the microchannel and impedance measurement was concurrently conducted by measuring across electrodes located at the bottom of the microchannel. Therefore, cell invasion process could be monitored in real-time and non-invasive manner. Also, cell invasion rate was then calculated to study the correlation between cell invasion and extracellular stimulation, i.e., IL-6 cytokine. Results showed that cell invasion rate was directly proportional to the IL-6 concentration. The microfluidic device provides a reliable and convenient platform for cell-based assays to facilitate more quantitative assessments in cancer research.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Protein Expression to Study Lineage Specification in Mouse Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Nestor; Kang, Minjung; Schrode, Nadine; Lou, Xinghua; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2016-01-01

    This protocol presents a method to perform quantitative, single-cell in situ analyses of protein expression to study lineage specificationin mouse preimplantation embryos. The procedures necessary for embryo collection, immunofluorescence, imaging on a confocal microscope, and image segmentation and analysis are described. This method allows quantitation of the expression of multiple nuclear markers and the spatial (XYZ) coordinates of all cells in the embryo. It takes advantage of MINS, an image segmentation software tool specifically developed for the analysis of confocal images of preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cell (ESC) colonies. MINS carries out unsupervised nuclear segmentation across the X, Y and Z dimensions, and produces information on cell position in three-dimensional space, as well as nuclear fluorescence levels for all channels with minimal user input. While this protocol has been optimized for the analysis of images of preimplantation stage mouse embryos, it can easily be adapted to the analysis of any other samples exhibiting a good signal-to-noise ratio and where high nuclear density poses a hurdle to image segmentation (e.g., expression analysis of embryonic stem cell (ESC) colonies, differentiating cells in culture, embryos of other species or stages, etc.). PMID:26967230

  15. Quantitative microplate assay for studying mesenchymal stromal cell-induced neuropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Aizman, Irina; McGrogan, Michael; Case, Casey C

    2013-03-01

    Transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or their derivatives in a neurodegenerative environment is believed to be beneficial because of the trophic support, migratory guidance, and neurogenic stimuli they provide. There is a growing need for in vitro models of mesenchymal-neural cell interactions to enable identification of mediators of the MSC activity and quantitative assessment of neuropoietic potency of MSC preparations. Here, we characterize a microplate-format coculture system in which primary embryonic rat cortex cells are directly cocultured with human MSCs on cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In this system, expression levels of the rat neural stem/early progenitor marker nestin, as well as neuronal and astrocytic markers, directly depended on MSC dose, whereas an oligodendrogenic marker exhibited a biphasic MSC-dose response, as measured using species-specific quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in total cell lysates and confirmed using immunostaining. Both neural cell proliferation and differentiation contributed to the MSC-mediated neuropoiesis. ECM's heparan sulfate proteoglycans were essential for the growth of the nestin-positive cell population. Neutralization studies showed that MSC-derived fibroblast growth factor 2 was a major and diffusible inducer of rat nestin, whereas MSC-derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), particularly, BMP4, were astrogenesis mediators, predominantly acting in a coculture setting. This system enables analysis of multifactorial MSC-neural cell interactions and can be used for elucidating the neuropoietic potency of MSCs and their derivative preparations.

  16. Quantitative Study of Cell Invasion Process under Extracellular Stimulation of Cytokine in a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin Fong; Tseng, Hsueh-Peng; Lee, Chia-Yi; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-05-06

    Cell invasion is the first step of cancer metastasis that is the primary cause of death for cancer patients and defined as cell movement through extracellular matrix (ECM). Investigation of the correlation between cell invasive and extracellular stimulation is critical for the inhabitation of metastatic dissemination. Conventional cell invasion assay is based on Boyden chamber assay, which has a number of limitations. In this work, a microfluidic device incorporating with impedance measurement technique was developed for quantitative investigation of cell invasion process. The device consisted of 2 reservoirs connecting with a microchannel filled with hydrogel. Malignant cells invaded along the microchannel and impedance measurement was concurrently conducted by measuring across electrodes located at the bottom of the microchannel. Therefore, cell invasion process could be monitored in real-time and non-invasive manner. Also, cell invasion rate was then calculated to study the correlation between cell invasion and extracellular stimulation, i.e., IL-6 cytokine. Results showed that cell invasion rate was directly proportional to the IL-6 concentration. The microfluidic device provides a reliable and convenient platform for cell-based assays to facilitate more quantitative assessments in cancer research.

  17. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret; Loai, Yasir; Beaumont, Marine; Farhat, Walid A

    2010-08-01

    Bladder acellular matrices (ACMs) derived from natural tissue are gaining increasing attention for their role in tissue engineering and regeneration. Unlike conventional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers or gels, ACMs possess native biomechanical and many acquired biologic properties. Efforts to optimize ACM-based scaffolds are ongoing and would be greatly assisted by a noninvasive means to characterize scaffold properties and monitor interaction with cells. MRI is well suited to this role, but research with MRI for scaffold characterization has been limited. This study presents initial results from quantitative MRI measurements for bladder ACM characterization and investigates the effects of incorporating hyaluronic acid, a natural biomaterial useful in tissue-engineering and regeneration. Measured MR relaxation times (T(1), T(2)) and diffusion coefficient were consistent with increased water uptake and glycosaminoglycan content observed on biochemistry in hyaluronic acid ACMs. Multicomponent MRI provided greater specificity, with diffusion data showing an acellular environment and T(2) components distinguishing the separate effects of increased glycosaminoglycans and hydration. These results suggest that quantitative MRI may provide useful information on matrix composition and structure, which is valuable in guiding further development using bladder ACMs for organ regeneration and in strategies involving the use of hyaluronic acid.

  18. Clinical study of quantitative diagnosis of early cervical cancer based on the classification of acetowhitening kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So-Fan; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2010-03-01

    A quantitative colposcopic imaging system for the diagnosis of early cervical cancer is evaluated in a clinical study. This imaging technology based on 3-D active stereo vision and motion tracking extracts diagnostic information from the kinetics of acetowhitening process measured from the cervix of human subjects in vivo. Acetowhitening kinetics measured from 137 cervical sites of 57 subjects are analyzed and classified using multivariate statistical algorithms. Cross-validation methods are used to evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithms. The results show that an algorithm for screening precancer produced 95% sensitivity (SE) and 96% specificity (SP) for discriminating normal and human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected tissues from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. For a diagnostic algorithm, 91% SE and 90% SP are achieved for discriminating normal tissue, HPV infected tissue, and low-grade CIN lesions from high-grade CIN lesions. The results demonstrate that the quantitative colposcopic imaging system could provide objective screening and diagnostic information for early detection of cervical cancer.

  19. Study of the cellular sociology through quantitative microscopy and topographical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussert, Christophe; Palmari, Jacqueline; Rasigni, Monique; Kopp, Francis; Berthois, Yolande; Dong, Xue-Fen; Isnardon, Daniel; Rasigni, Georges; Martin, Pierre-Marie

    1992-06-01

    We have developed a methodology to quantitatively study tumor cell heterogeneity from a topographical point of view through the concept of a minimal spanning tree graph. This concept is applied to the quantitation of the degree of order that may exist in a cell population, and by combining biological and mathematical approaches, to the analysis of dynamic and metabolic interactions responsible for this topographical organization. The method is used to analyze the cell cycle phases in tumor cell lines: the cells are detected from an optical microscopy image of the preparation by using algorithms that preserve the cell topography. The cells appear to be differently, and non-randomly, spatially distributed depending on the cycle phase in which they fall. Those topographical behaviors allow us to deduce some unexpected proliferating characteristics of the cells and to compare them to a numerical model of the cell cycle in an interactive population, developed from the cellular automata theory. The method may as well be applied to the topographical analysis of the cells expressing hormone receptors (namely, oestrogenic ones). More generally it may be used to analyze and quantify the cellular sociology both in its normal (morphogenesis) and pathological (cancer, therapeutic responses, ...) aspects.

  20. Quantitative correlation of rainfall and earth surface displacements for slope stability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Apostolou, Evangelia; Papavgeri, Georgia; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas

    2015-06-01

    It is common sense that the possibility of a rockfall increases after an intense rainfall and it is well documented that rainfalls accelerate earth surface displacements such as landslides and rockfalls. This qualitative correlation is highly affected by the geology and climate condition of the area under consideration. The research project entitled "Development of an integrated system for rockfall identification in highways", funded by the Operational Program Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship (co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)) aims to develop an operational system for early warning of rockfalls that occur along transportation corridors. To accomplish this goal the influence and the time gap between triggering mechanisms and rockfall incidents is investigated. In this work, previous studies towards quantitative correlation of rainfall magnitude and earth surface displacements are briefly presented. Based on these works, and taking into account that rockfall incidents, in the majority of Mediterranean countries, are not well-documented, data obtained by a slope stability monitoring network are used to quantitatively determine the magnitude of the rainfall that caused the slope's movement.

  1. Quantitative and empirical demonstration of the Matthew effect in a study of career longevity

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The Matthew effect refers to the adage written some two-thousand years ago in the Gospel of St. Matthew: “For to all those who have, more will be given.” Even two millennia later, this idiom is used by sociologists to qualitatively describe the dynamics of individual progress and the interplay between status and reward. Quantitative studies of professional careers are traditionally limited by the difficulty in measuring progress and the lack of data on individual careers. However, in some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, success, and prowess, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. Here we demonstrate testable evidence of the age-old Matthew “rich get richer” effect, wherein the longevity and past success of an individual lead to a cumulative advantage in further developing his or her career. We develop an exactly solvable stochastic career progress model that quantitatively incorporates the Matthew effect and validate our model predictions for several competitive professions. We test our model on the careers of 400,000 scientists using data from six high-impact journals and further confirm our findings by testing the model on the careers of more than 20,000 athletes in four sports leagues. Our model highlights the importance of early career development, showing that many careers are stunted by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience. PMID:21173276

  2. Mechanisms of cortical neural synchronization related to healthy and impaired consciousness: evidence by quantitative electroencephalographic studies.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Buffo, Paola; Iacoboni, Marco; Pistoia, Francesca; Sacco, Simona; Sara, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the contribution of our research group to the study of human consciousness by quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques. We posit that EEG techniques can be extremely useful for a direct measurement of brain electrophysiological activity related to human consciousness for their unsurpassable high temporal resolution (milliseconds). This activity can be expressed in terms of event-related potentials as well as changes of EEG rhythms of interest, for example the dominant alpha rhythms (about 8-12 Hz). The results of our studies, and those of several independent groups, lead support to the hypothesis that these techniques provide important insights about the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying cortical neural synchronization/desynchronization and the regulation of neuromodulatory systems (e.g. dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, etc.) at the basis of brain arousal and consciousness in healthy subjects and in patients with impairment of the consciousness. A possible interaction of these mechanisms and the drugs administered to patients with consciousness disorders is discussed.

  3. Sexual dimorphism in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells: a quantitative Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Caminero, A A; Segovia, S; Guillamón, A

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dendritic field of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells in rats and to investigate the effects of male orchidectomy and female androgenization on the day of birth upon this dendritic field. The rapid Golgi method was used to conduct a quantitative study of various characteristics of the dendritic field of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells. The results indicated greater values for males than females for the following characteristics: (i) somatic area; (ii) degree of branching in the dendritic field; (iii) total dendritic length; and (iv) dendritic density around the neuronal soma. Orchidectomy of males, as well as androgenization of females, on the day of birth inverted these differences.

  4. Quantitative study of polymer conformation and dynamics by single-particle tracking.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, H; Elson, E L

    1999-01-01

    We present a new method for analyzing the dynamics of conformational fluctuations of individual flexible polymer molecules. In single-particle tracking (SPT), one end of the polymer molecule is tethered to an immobile substratum. A microsphere attached to the other end serves as an optical marker. The conformational fluctuations of the polymer molecule can be measured by optical microscopy via the motion of the microsphere. The bead-and-spring theory for polymer dynamics is further developed to account for the microsphere, and together the measurement and the theory yield quantitative information about molecular conformations and dynamics under nonperturbing conditions. Applying the method to measurements carried out on DNA molecules provides information complementary to recent studies of single DNA molecules under extensional force. Combining high precision measurements with the theoretical analysis presented here creates a powerful tool for studying conformational dynamics of biological and synthetic macromolecules at the single-molecule level. PMID:10049340

  5. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (II) Bibliometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Contreras, E; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Ruiz Pérez, R

    1997-08-01

    National and international diffusion, composition of the collective of authors who publish in the journal, and cocitation were studies for the journal An. Med. Interna. Diffusion was analyzed by examining the presence of the journal in medical data bases and specialized libraries in Spain. The institutional affiliations and geographical location of authors were determined on the basis of the affiliations given in the article by-lines. The journal is included in the major medical data bases and in approximately 80% of the libraries studied. The predominant professional affiliation among authors was clinical (hospital); the geographical origin of the authors (expressed as a percentage of all authors) approximately paralleled the volume of scientific publications generated by each of Spain's 17 autonomous regions. The cocitation study showed that An. Med. Interna ranked somewhere in the middle of the group' of 38 Spanish medical journals considered representative of research being done in Spain.

  6. Quantitative muscle strength assessment in duchenne muscular dystrophy: longitudinal study and correlation with functional measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment using Quantitative Muscle Testing (QMT) in a cohort of ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the results of QMT with functional measures. This study is to date the most thorough long-term evaluation of QMT in a cohort of DMD patients correlated with other measures, such as the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) or thee 6-min walk test (6MWT). Methods This is a single centre, prospective, non-randomised, study assessing QMT using the Kin Com® 125 machine in a study cohort of 28 ambulant DMD boys, aged 5 to 12 years. This cohort was assessed longitudinally over a 12 months period of time with 3 monthly assessments for QMT and with assessment of functional abilities, using the NSAA and the 6MWT at baseline and at 12 months only. QMT was also used in a control group of 13 healthy age-matched boys examined at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was an increase in QMT over 12 months in boys below the age of 7.5 years while in boys above the age of 7.5 years, QMT showed a significant decrease. All the average one-year changes were significantly different than those experienced by healthy controls. We also found a good correlation between quantitative tests and the other measures that was more obvious in the stronger children. Conclusion Our longitudinal data using QMT in a cohort of DMD patients suggest that this could be used as an additional tool to monitor changes, providing additional information on segmental strength. PMID:22974002

  7. How fast is fisheries-induced evolution? Quantitative analysis of modelling and empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Kuparinen, Anna; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    A number of theoretical models, experimental studies and time-series studies of wild fish have explored the presence and magnitude of fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). While most studies agree that FIE is likely to be happening in many fished stocks, there are disagreements about its rates and implications for stock viability. To address these disagreements in a quantitative manner, we conducted a meta-analysis of FIE rates reported in theoretical and empirical studies. We discovered that rates of phenotypic change observed in wild fish are about four times higher than the evolutionary rates reported in modelling studies, but correlation between the rate of change and instantaneous fishing mortality (F) was very similar in the two types of studies. Mixed-model analyses showed that in the modelling studies traits associated with reproductive investment and growth evolved slower than rates related to maturation. In empirical observations age-at-maturation was changing faster than other life-history traits. We also found that, despite different assumption and modelling approaches, rates of evolution for a given F value reported in 10 of 13 modelling studies were not significantly different. PMID:23789026

  8. Developing a Quantitative Measure of Alcohol Consumption for Genomic Studies on Prospective Cohorts*

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Grant, Julia D.; Littlefield, Andrew; Waldron, Mary; Pergadia, Michele L.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Todorov, Alexandre; Trull, Timothy; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Todd, Richard D.; Sher, Kenneth; Heath, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative measure of alcohol consumption for gene-mapping studies. Method: Using a sample of 3,787 young-adult twin women and an independent sample of 489 men and women from a college drinking study, we developed an alcohol-consumption factor score indexed by (1) maximum typical consumption (log-transformed quantity frequency [LQNTFRQ]), (2) maximum drinks in a 24-hours period (LMAXALC), (3) frequency of drinking five or more drinks per day (FIVE), and (4) frequency of drinking to intoxication (INTOX). We tested (1) for factorial and psychometric equivalence across samples and genders; (2) for construct validity and its equivalence, across samples and genders, using measures of tobacco and cannabis use and family history of alcoholism; and (3) to determine the heritability of the alcohol-consumption factor score using a genetic psychometric model. Results: A single-factor model fit well with factor loadings ranging from .60 to .90. With rare exception, we found support for measurement invariance across the two samples and across genders. Measures of nicotine and cannabis use as well as family history of alcoholism were associated, to a similar extent across samples and genders, with the underlying alcohol-consumption factor. Psychometric twin modeling revealed that each of the alcohol-consumption measures (h 2 = 34%-47%) and the underlying factor score (h 2 = 50%) were heritable, with the remainder of the variance attributable to individual-specific environmental factors. This moderately heritable alcohol-consumption factor also accounted for a majority of the genetic variance in LQNTFRQ, LMAXALC, FIVE, and INTOX. Conclusions: Quantitative measures of alcohol consumption with the favorable attributes of measurement invariance, construct validity, and moderate heritability can greatly enhance future gene-mapping efforts, supplementing information afforded by conventional diagnostic measures of alcohol abuse

  9. Lifelong bound feet in China: a quantitative ultrasound and lifestyle questionnaire study in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Mian; Lao, Hanchang; O'Laughlin, Michael C; Tong, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Hung, VWY; Cheng, JCY; Guo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The phenomenon of foot binding, also known as ‘lotus feet’, has an enduring and influential history in China. To achieve a man-made smaller foot size, lifelong foot binding may have had adverse effects on the skeleton. We investigated bone properties in postmenopausal women with bound feet, which may provide new information for developing countermeasures for prevention of fragility fractures. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants This study involved 254 postmenopausal women aged 65–80, including 172 with bound feet and 82 age- and gender-matched control subjects, living in a remote region of China. Outcomes Anthropometric, SF-36 Lifestyle Questionnaire and heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) data were collected for the whole study population. A small subset of two cases was also invited for assessment of bone mineral density and microarchitecture at the distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) and gait and balance tests. Results Women with bound feet had significantly lower QUS values than age-matched women with normal feet; this was supported by HR-pQCT data. However, SF-36 Questionnaire results did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any categorical responses, including physical functioning, general health vitality and physical component summary score, and number of previous fractures. No impairment of body balance was found in the small subset. Conclusions The man-made changes caused by foot binding led to reduced physical activity, making the subjects prone to osteoporosis. Women with bound feet and osteoporosis did not have a higher incidence of fragility fractures than controls. This might be explained by compensation in physical activity to improve body balance, implying the importance of improving or maintaining body balance in overall prevention strategies against fragility fractures. PMID:25783423

  10. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  11. Quantitative cardiac SPECT in three dimensions: validation by experimental phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Z.; Ye, J.; Cheng, J.; Li, J.; Harrington, D.

    1998-04-01

    A mathematical framework for quantitative SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) reconstruction of the heart is presented. An efficient simultaneous compensation approach to the reconstruction task is described. The implementation of the approach on a digital computer is delineated. The approach was validated by experimental data acquired from chest phantoms. The phantoms consisted of a cylindrical elliptical tank of Plexiglass, a cardiac insert made of Plexiglass, a spine insert of packed bone meal and lung inserts made of styrofoam beads alone. Water bags were added to simulate different body characteristics. Comparison between the quantitative reconstruction and the conventional FBP (filtered backprojection) method was performed. The FBP reconstruction had a poor quantitative accuracy and varied for different body configurations. Significant improvement in reconstruction accuracy by the quantitative approach was demonstrated with a moderate computing time on a currently available desktop computer. Furthermore, the quantitative reconstruction was robust for different body characteristics. Therefore, the quantitative approach has the potential for clinical use.

  12. Quantitative HPLC analysis of sunscreens and caffeine during in vitro percutaneous penetration studies.

    PubMed

    Potard, G; Laugel, C; Baillet, A; Schaefer, H; Marty, J P

    1999-11-05

    This report describes rapid analytical HPLC for the quantification of five UV filters (octyl methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-4, octyl triazone and octocrylene) and of caffeine in various skin layers (stratum corneum, dermis, epidermis and receptor fluid) and in cosmetic preparations. The predominant purpose of the study was to establish standard operating procedures for rapid analysis of the compounds in various skin samples. Particular attention was paid to the preparation of biological samples whose natural constitution could interfere with the quantitative analysis. Our methods used the isocratic chromatographic mode in an RP-HPLC with UV detection and did not involve centrifugation or evaporation. Our results were validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantification. The first results, obtained after in vitro experiments, are presented in this report.

  13. [Study on temperature correctional models of quantitative analysis with near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan

    2005-06-01

    Effect of enviroment temperature on near infrared spectroscopic quantitative analysis was studied. The temperature correction model was calibrated with 45 wheat samples at different environment temperaturs and with the temperature as an external variable. The constant temperature model was calibated with 45 wheat samples at the same temperature. The predicted results of two models for the protein contents of wheat samples at different temperatures were compared. The results showed that the mean standard error of prediction (SEP) of the temperature correction model was 0.333, but the SEP of constant temperature (22 degrees C) model increased as the temperature difference enlarged, and the SEP is up to 0.602 when using this model at 4 degrees C. It was suggested that the temperature correctional model improves the analysis precision.

  14. A quantitative μNRA study of helium intergranular and volume diffusion in sintered UO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Desgardin, P.; Sauvage, T.; Garcia, P.; Carlot, G.; Khodja, H.; Barthe, M. F.

    2006-08-01

    To understand the mechanisms related to helium migration in nuclear oxide fuels, 3He was implanted at 2 × 1016 at. cm-2 in UO2 sintered disks. The samples were then annealed at temperatures ranging between 800 °C and 1300 °C. Changes in helium concentrations were investigated using two nuclear reaction analysis techniques based on the 3He(d, α)1H reaction. The first technique uses a macrobeam in order to measure helium depth profiles averaged over a 500 × 500 μm2 area. The second technique uses a microbeam and provides a quantitative two-dimensional helium concentration cartography, for which each pixel corresponds to a depth integrated helium signal. The analysed zones were optically characterised which enabled a detailed analysis of the impact of the material microstructure on helium release from the samples, with an emphasis on the study of grain boundary effects.

  15. [Fuzzy mathematic quantitative law of composing principle in the study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Gao, Yue; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Bo-li

    2009-01-01

    This study is to analyze microcosmic significance of Chinese medicine composing principle "principal, assistant, complement and mediating guide" and it's fuzzy mathematic quantitative law. According to molecular biology and maximal membership principle, fuzzy subset and membership functions were proposed. Using in vivo experiment on the effects of SiWu Decoction and its ingredients on mice with radiation-induced blood deficiency, it is concluded that DiHuang and DangGui belonged to the principal and assistant subset, BaiShao belonged to the contrary complement subset, ChuanXiong belonged to the mediating guide subset by maximal membership principle. It is discussed that traditional Chinese medicine will be consummate medical science when its theory can be described by mathematic language.

  16. CNS effects of citalopram, a new serotonin inhibitor antidepressant (a quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalography study).

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Menon, G N; Bozak, M M; Itil, K Z

    1984-01-01

    Citalopram, a new phthalane derivative and a specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitor in animal pharmacological tests, was evaluated in a double-blind, crossover, quantitative pharmaco-EEG (QPEEGTM) study in healthy human volunteers. The CNS effects of citalopram are linear, dose- and time-related, can statistically be differentiated from placebo, and indicate a rapid onset of effects with short duration. According to the Computer Data Bank, citalopram has a mode of action similar to mood elevators (antidepressants) with fewer sedative properties. Thus the therapeutic action of citalopram is predicted to be similar to desipramine and protriptyline from the tricyclics, and fluvoxamine from non-tricyclics. According to data bank assessment, it is hypothesized that the single antidepressant dose of citalopram is to be more than 25 mg, which should be given t.i.d. in clinical trials.

  17. Fitness to drive in cognitive impairment--a quantitative study of GPs' experience.

    PubMed

    Doherty, U; Hawke, A L; Kearns, J; Kelly, M

    2015-04-01

    Assessing fitness to drive is part of the role of general practitioners. Cognitive impairment may affect an individual's ability to drive safely. The aims of our study were to question GPs about their experience of assessing patients with cognitive impairment for driving fitness and to explore their attitudes to this role. We carried out a quantitative cross-sectional anonymous postal survey of 200 GPs in counties Galway, Mayo and Roscommon. Ethical approval was obtained from the Irish College of General Practitioners. Data was analysed using Epi Info. The response rate was 62.5% (n=125). 86 (68.8%) GPs used guidelines when assessing fitness to drive in cognitive impairment. 83 (66.4%) respondents formally assess cognitive function. 52 (41.6%) GPs would certify someone as fit to drive with verbal restrictions. 102 (81.6%) respondents feel confident in assessing fitness to drive. 98 (78.4%) GPs have referred patients for further assessment.

  18. Inferring Quantitative Trait Pathways Associated with Bull Fertility from a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Weigel, Kent A.; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Khatib, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome association studies typically focus on genetic markers with the strongest evidence of association. However, single markers often explain only a small component of the genetic variance and hence offer a limited understanding of the trait under study. As such, the objective of this study was to perform a pathway-based association analysis in Holstein dairy cattle in order to identify relevant pathways involved in bull fertility. The results of a single-marker association analysis, using 1,755 bulls with sire conception rate data and genotypes for 38,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were used in this study. A total of 16,819 annotated genes, including 2,767 significantly associated with bull fertility, were used to interrogate a total of 662 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 248 InterPro (IP) entries using a test of proportions based on the cumulative hypergeometric distribution. After multiple-testing correction, 20 GO categories and one IP entry showed significant overrepresentation of genes statistically associated with bull fertility. Several of these functional categories such as small GTPases mediated signal transduction, neurogenesis, calcium ion binding, and cytoskeleton are known to be involved in biological processes closely related to male fertility. These results could provide insight into the genetic architecture of this complex trait in dairy cattle. In addition, this study shows that quantitative trait pathways inferred from single-marker analyses could enhance our interpretations of the results of genome-wide association studies. PMID:23335935

  19. The assessment of regional skeletal metabolism: studies of osteoporosis treatments using quantitative radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Blake, Glen M; Frost, Michelle L; Moore, Amelia E B; Siddique, Musib; Fogelman, Ignac

    2011-01-01

    Studies of bone remodeling using bone biopsy and biochemical markers of bone turnover play an important role in research studies to investigate the effect of new osteoporosis treatments on bone quality. Quantitative radionuclide imaging using either positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 sodium fluoride or gamma camera studies with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate provides a novel tool for studying bone metabolism that complements conventional methods, such as bone turnover markers (BTMs). Unlike BTMs, which measure the integrated response to treatment across the whole skeleton, radionuclide imaging can distinguish the changes occurring at sites of particular clinical interest, such as the spine or proximal femur. Radionuclide imaging can be used to measure either bone uptake or (if done in conjunction with blood sampling) bone plasma clearance. Although the latter is more complicated to perform, unlike bone uptake, it provides a measurement that is specific to the bone metabolic activity at the measurement site. Treatment with risedronate was found to cause a decrease in bone plasma clearance, whereas treatment with the bone anabolic agent teriparatide caused an increase. Studies of teriparatide are of particular interest because the treatment has different effects at different sites in the skeleton, with a substantially greater response in the flat bone of the skull and cortical bone in the femur compared with the lumbar spine. Future studies should include investigations of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical fractures of the femur to examine the associated regional changes in bone metabolism and to throw light on the underlying pathologies.

  20. Application of multicriteria decision analysis in health care: a systematic review and bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Xiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in health care has become common. However, the literature lacks systematic review trend analysis on the application of MCDA in health care. Aim To systematically identify applications of MCDA to the areas of health care, and to report on publication trends. Methods English language studies published from January 1, 1980 until October 1, 2013 were included. Electronic databases searches were supplemented by searching conference proceedings and relevant journals. Studies considered for inclusion were those using MCDA techniques within the areas of health care, and involving the participation of decision makers. A bibliometric analysis was undertaken to present the publication trends. Results A total of 66 citations met the inclusion criteria. An increase in publication trend occurred in the years 1990, 1997, 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2012. For the remaining years, the publication trend was either steady or declining. The trend shows that the number of publications reached its highest peak in 2012 (n = 9). Medical Decision Making was the dominant with the highest number published papers (n = 7). The majority of the studies were conducted in the US (n = 29). Medical Decision Making journal published the highest number of articles (n = 7). Analytic Hierarchy Process (n = 33) was the most used MCDA technique. Cancer was the most researched disease topic (n = 12). The most covered area of application was diagnosis and treatment (n = 26). Conclusion The review shows that MCDA has been applied to a broad range of areas in the health care, with the use of a variety of methodological approaches. Further research is needed to develop practice guidelines for the appropriate application and reporting of MCDA methods. PMID:25327341

  1. Presentation of psoriatic arthritis in the literature: a twenty-year bibliometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Ahmad-Reza; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Nikou, Mohammadali; Habibi, Gholamreza; Mardani, Amirhossein; Ghaemi, Marjan

    2013-02-01

    Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis disabling patients with psoriasis. Bibliometric studies are tools for evaluating scientific productions in different countries, universities as well as publications related to a special topic. We aimed to perform a scientometric study to evaluate articles published under "Psoriatic arthritis" topic and also attempted to compare publications of different authors, countries, universities, and journals related to this topic. Study was performed on all articles published between 1989 and 2009. The ISI web of science was our main source. Two key words, "Psoriatic arthritis" and "Psoriatic arthropathy," were used to conduct search. Original articles were subject of further evaluation. A whole number of 3,727 article was result of our search. From this number, 1,961 (52.6 %) were original articles. Whole original articles were cited 38,613 times with average citations per item of 19.69. Gladman DD was the most popular author in this field. Articles were mostly in English (91.3 %). USA was the leading country in producing article under this topic with 463 (23.6 %) publications. University of Toronto was the first rank institution while publishing 125 (6.4 %) articles. More than half of articles were published under "Rheumatology" subject. "Journal of Rheumatology," "Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases," and "Arthritis and Rheumatism" were three journals with highest number of articles on this topic. There has been growing interest in psoriatic arthritis subject during these two decades. Between countries, institutions and journals; USA, university of Toronto, "Journal of Rheumatology," "Annals of The Rheumatic Diseases," and "Arthritis and Rheumatism" have special contributions to body of literature published under this topic, respectively.

  2. Quantitative electron microscopic study of the intracellular localization of wheat germ agglutinin in retinal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.H.; Stieber, A.; Gonatas, N.K.

    1986-12-15

    Previous work has established that, following endocytosis, wheat germ agglutinin, like a number of other plasma membrane bound ligands, is transported to the Golgi apparatus-complex. Previous studies that provided qualitative information about the intracellular distribution of internalized wheat germ agglutinin used techniques that precluded any quantitative conclusions about the relative magnitude of the labeling of endosomes, lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus-complex. Using quantitative ultrastructural autoradiography, this study compares the time course and relative magnitude of labeling of various intracellular compartments to the labeling in the Golgi area. Fifteen minutes after intraocular injection, wheat germ agglutinin is confined to the inner surface of the retina and the immediate subsurface neuropil with little labeling of the retinal ganglion cell perikarya. Thirty minutes after injection, the plasma membrane (6.97 +/- 1.17), endosomes (10.27 +/- 3.98), smooth vesicles and tubules (1.94 +/- 1.66), and lysosomes (2.42 +/- 1.21) of the retinal ganglion cells are labeled, while the Golgi apparatus-complex is not labeled (0.29 +/- 0.25). The relative labeling density of the plasma membrane and endosomes decreases somewhat during the next 90 minutes (plasma membrane, 4.76 +/- 0.67; endosomes, 7.23 +/- 2.02), while the labeling density of smooth vesicles and tubules and of lysosomes rises (smooth vesicles and tubules, 5.56 +/- 0.94; lysosomes, 7.76 +/- 1.56). The Golgi apparatus-complex, which is unlabeled at 30 minutes, is weakly labeled at 2 hours (1.26 +/- 0.28).

  3. Quantitative EOH and FEM hybrid study of vibration characteristics of avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leak, Chris E.; Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    1995-06-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of avionics is the requirement to assure their reliable functionality while subjected to the actual operating conditions which are static and dynamic in nature. Of particular interest to the developments presented in this paper are the dynamic loading conditions. Because the avionics have certain mass and elasticity, they respond to the loads encountered during operation with a specific vibration behavior. Therefore, development of reliable avionics packages depends upon our ability to determine the dynamic characteristics which define and control their vibration behavior, particularly as it relates to the dynamic environment within an aircraft which is a major contributor to the failure of airborne avionic systems. In this paper, computational and experimental hybrid methodolgy is used to quantitatively study the vibration characteristics of avionics. The computational methodology is based on the finite element method. The experimental methodology is based on the electro-optic holography method, which allows direct electro- optic recording, processing, and display of the laser holograms at the rate of 30 holograms per second, making it capable of producing quantitative data in nearly real-time. Using the electro- optic holography method, displacement magnitudes in the submicron range are measured noninvasively over the full field of view, as a function of the resonance frequencies. Although some of the experimentally observed mode shapes were not predicted using the computational model employed in this study, the correlation between the results obtained using the finite element and the electro-optic holography methods was otherwise good and the agreement between the corresponding resonance frequencies was within 2%.

  4. A procedure for quantitation of total oxidized uranium for bioremediation studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Senko, John M.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure was developed for the quantitation of complexed U(VI) during studies on U(VI) bioremediation. These studies typically involve conversion of soluble or complexed U(VI) (oxidized) to U(IV) (the reduced form which is much less soluble). Since U(VI) freely exchanges between material adsorbed to the solid phase and the dissolved phase, uranium bioremediation experiments require a mass balance of U in both its soluble and adsorbed forms as well as in the reduced sediment bound phase. We set out to optimize a procedure for extraction and quantitation of sediment bound U(VI). Various extractant volumes to sediment ratios were tested and it was found that between 1:1 to 8:1 ratios (v/w) there was a steady increase in U(VI) recovered, but no change with further increases in v/w ratio.Various strengths of NaHCO3, Na-EDTA, and Na-citrate were used to evaluate complexed U(VI) recovery, while the efficiency of a single versus repeated extraction steps was compared with synthesized uranyl-phosphate and uranyl-hydroxide. Total recovery with 1 M NaHCO3 was 95.7% and 97.9% from uranyl-phosphate and uranyl-hydroxide, respectively, compared to 80.7% and 89.9% using 450 mM NaHCO3. Performing the procedure once yielded an efficiency of 81.1% and 92.3% for uranyl-phosphate and uranyl-hydroxide, respectively, as compared to three times. All other extractants yielded 7.9–82.0% in both experiments.

  5. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology.

    PubMed

    Kolasinski, James; Stagg, Charlotte J; Chance, Steven A; Deluca, Gabriele C; Esiri, Margaret M; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A; McNab, Jennifer A; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  6. Understanding metal homeostasis in primary cultured neurons. Studies using single neuron subcellular and quantitative metallomics.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Robert A; Lai, Barry; Holmes, William R; Lee, Daewoo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how single cell quantitative and subcellular metallomics inform us about both the spatial distribution and cellular mechanisms of metal buffering and homeostasis in primary cultured neurons from embryonic rat brain, which are often used as models of human disease involving metal dyshomeostasis. The present studies utilized synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and focused primarily on zinc and iron, two abundant metals in neurons that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Total single cell contents for calcium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and nickel were determined. Resting steady state zinc showed a diffuse distribution in both soma and processes, best defined by the mass profile of the neuron with an enrichment in the nucleus compared with the cytoplasm. Zinc buffering and homeostasis was studied using two modes of cellular zinc loading - transporter and ionophore (pyrithione) mediated. Single neuron zinc contents were shown to statistically significantly increase by either loading method - ionophore: 160 million to 7 billion; transporter 160 million to 280 million atoms per neuronal soma. The newly acquired and buffered zinc still showed a diffuse distribution. Soma and processes have about equal abilities to take up zinc via transporter mediated pathways. Copper levels are distributed diffusely as well, but are relatively higher in the processes relative to zinc levels. Prior studies have observed iron puncta in certain cell types, but others have not. In the present study, iron puncta were characterized in several primary neuronal types. The results show that iron puncta could be found in all neuronal types studied and can account for up to 50% of the total steady state content of iron in neuronal soma. Although other metals can be present in iron puncta, they are predominantly iron containing and do not appear to be

  7. A Quantitative Study Investigating Supervisory Style, Satisfaction with Supervision and Self-Efficacy among Female Clinical Training Supervisees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova-Nirenberg, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    This non-experimental quantitative study investigated the relationship between supervisory style, satisfaction with supervision, and the level of self-efficacy reported by the study participants. The study was based on counselor supervision theories found in the literature. The study investigated whether there was a difference between traditional…

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technology in the analysis of Chinese Medicine Formulas: A bibliometric analysis (1997-2015).

    PubMed

    He, Xi-Ran; Li, Chun-Guang; Zhu, Xiao-Shu; Li, Yuan-Qing; Jarouche, Mariam; Bensoussan, Alan; Li, Ping-Ping

    2017-01-01

    There is a recognized challenge in analyzing traditional Chinese medicine formulas because of their complex chemical compositions. The application of modern analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry has improved the characterization of various compounds from traditional Chinese medicine formulas significantly. This study aims to conduct a bibliometric analysis to recognize the overall trend of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry approaches in the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine formulas, its significance and possible underlying interactions between individual herbs in these formulas. Electronic databases were searched systematically, and the identified studies were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Access 2010, Graph Pad 5.0 software and Ucinet software package. 338 publications between 1997 and 2015 were identified, and analyzed in terms of annual growth and accumulated publications, top journals, forms of traditional Chinese medicine preparations and highly studied formulas and single herbs, as well as social network analysis of single herbs. There is a significant increase trend in using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry related techniques in analysis of commonly used forms of traditional Chinese medicine formulas in the last 3 years. Stringent quality control is of great significance for the modernization and globalization of traditional Chinese medicine, and this bibliometric analysis provided the first and comprehensive summary within this field.

  9. Bibliometric analysis of literature on antifungal triazole resistance: 1980 – 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sweileh, Waleed M.; Sawalha, Ansam F.; Al-Jabi, Samah; Zyoud, Sa’ed H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Triazole antifungal agents play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of fungal infections. Little is known about antifungal triazole drug resistance when compared to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, this study was carried out to give a bibliometric overview of literature on triazole antifungal drug resistance. Methods Keywords related to triazole drug class and resistance were used in a search query in the Scopus search engine. The time span was set from 1980 to 2015. Data pertaining to growth of publications, the most active countries and institutions, the most cited articles, and mapping of molecular mechanisms of resistance were analyzed. Results A total of 1648 journal articles were retrieved with an average of 20.46 citations per article. Annual growth of triazole resistance showed an increasing pattern during the study period. The United States of America (n=446; 27.06%) ranked first in productivity followed by the United Kingdom (UK) (n=176; 10.68%), and China (n=133; 8.07%). Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (n=69, 4.19%) in the Netherlands ranked first in productivity, while the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ranked first (n=255; 15.47%) in publishing articles on triazole resistance. Mapping mechanisms of resistance showed that efflux pump and mutations in target enzyme are major mechanisms described in resistance to triazoles. Conclusion There was a growth of publications on triazole resistance in the past two decades with the bulk of publications on triazole resistance in Candida species. The data presented here will serve as baseline information for future comparative purposes. PMID:28331838

  10. Global Myeloma Research Clusters, Output, and Citations: A Bibliometric Mapping and Clustering Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jens Peter; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Morgan, Gareth J.; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Einsele, Hermann; San Miguel, Jesús; Palumbo, Antonio; Sonneveld, Pieter; Johnsen, Hans Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background International collaborative research is a mechanism for improving the development of disease-specific therapies and for improving health at the population level. However, limited data are available to assess the trends in research output related to orphan diseases. Methods and Findings We used bibliometric mapping and clustering methods to illustrate the level of fragmentation in myeloma research and the development of collaborative efforts. Publication data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science were retrieved for 2005–2009 and followed until 2013. We created a database of multiple myeloma publications, and we analysed impact and co-authorship density to identify scientific collaborations, developments, and international key players over time. The global annual publication volume for studies on multiple myeloma increased from 1,144 in 2005 to 1,628 in 2009, which represents a 43% increase. This increase is high compared to the 24% and 14% increases observed for lymphoma and leukaemia. The major proportion (>90% of publications) was from the US and EU over the study period. The output and impact in terms of citations, identified several successful groups with a large number of intra-cluster collaborations in the US and EU. The US-based myeloma clusters clearly stand out as the most productive and highly cited, and the European Myeloma Network members exhibited a doubling of collaborative publications from 2005 to 2009, still increasing up to 2013. Conclusion and Perspective Multiple myeloma research output has increased substantially in the past decade. The fragmented European myeloma research activities based on national or regional groups are progressing, but they require a broad range of targeted research investments to improve multiple myeloma health care. PMID:25629620

  11. The top 100 articles in the radiology of trauma: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Ryan Scott; Hanna, Tarek N; Warraich, Gohar Javed; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the 100 top-cited articles in the radiology of trauma, analyze the resulting database to understand factors resulting in highly cited works, and establish trends in trauma imaging. An initial database was created via a Web of Science (WOS) search of all scientific journals using the search terms "trauma" and either "radiology" or a diagnostic modality. Articles were ranked by citation count and screened by two attending radiologists plus a tiebreaker for appropriateness. The following information was collected from each article: WOS all database citations, year, journal, authors, department affiliation, study type and design, sample size, imaging modality, subspecialty, organ, and topic. Citations for the top 100 articles ranged from 82-252, and citations per year ranged from 2.6-37.2. A plurality of articles were published in the 1990s (n = 45) and 1980s (n = 31). Articles were published across 24 journals, most commonly Radiology (n = 31) and Journal of Trauma-Injury, Infection, and Critical Care (n = 28). Articles had an average of five authors and 35 % of first authors were affiliated with a department other than radiology. Forty-six articles had sample sizes of 100 or fewer. Computed tomography (CT) was the most common modality (n = 67), followed by magnetic resonance (MR; n = 22), and X-ray (XR; n = 11). Neuroradiology (n = 48) and abdominal radiology (n = 36) were the most common subspecialties. The 100 top-cited articles in the radiology of trauma are diverse. Subspecialty bibliometric analyses identify the most influential articles of a particular field, providing more implications to clinical radiologists, trainees, researchers, editors, and reviewers than radiology-wide lists.

  12. Quantitative Fluorescence Studies in Living Cells: Extending Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy to Peripheral Membrane Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Elizabeth Myhra

    The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with both membrane lipids and proteins are vital for many cellular processes including membrane trafficking, cellular signaling, and cell growth/regulation. Building accurate biophysical models of these processes requires quantitative characterization of the behavior of peripheral membrane proteins, yet methods to quantify their interactions inside living cells are very limited. Because peripheral membrane proteins usually exist both in membrane-bound and cytoplasmic forms, the separation of these two populations is a key challenge. This thesis aims at addressing this challenge by extending fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) to simultaneously measure the oligomeric state of peripheral membrane proteins in the cytoplasm and at the plasma membrane. We developed a new method based on z-scan FFS that accounts for the fluorescence contributions from cytoplasmic and membrane layers by incorporating a fluorescence intensity z-scan through the cell. H-Ras-EGFP served as a model system to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. The resolvability and stability of z-scanning was determined as well as the oligomeric state of H-Ras-EGFP at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. Further, we successfully characterized the binding affinity of a variety of proteins to the plasma membrane by quantitative analysis of the z-scan fluorescence intensity profile. This analysis method, which we refer to as z-scan fluorescence profile deconvoution, was further used in combination with dual-color competition studies to determine the lipid specificity of protein binding. Finally, we applied z-scan FFS to provide insight into the early assembly steps of the HTLV-1 retrovirus.

  13. The Quantitative Ethology of the Zebra Finch: A Study in Comparative Psychometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative ethogram was developed for the zebra finch, using one-zero focal animal sampling on an ethologically comprehensive checklist of 52 behavioral items, and it was assessed for interobserver reliability and construct validity. Applying the quantitative methods of psychometrics allows verification of ethological theory and testing of…

  14. Effects of Quantitative Linguistic Feedback to Caregivers of Young Children: A Pilot Study in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yiwen; Xu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Fan; Gilkerson, Jill; Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Harnsberger, James; Topping, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in natural language environments of families receiving quantitative language feedback in Shanghai were investigated. Volunteer parents of 22 children aged 5 to 30 months were recruited from a hospital and a learning center. Quantitative measures of adult word count and conversational turns with children were collected regularly over 6…

  15. Pedagogical implications of approaches to study in distance learning: developing models through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Carnwell, R

    2000-05-01

    The need for flexibility in the delivery of nurse education has been identified by various initiatives including: widening the entry gate; continuous professional development; and the specialist practitioner. Access to degree level programmes is creating the need to acquire academic credit through flexible learning. The aim of this study was to further develop relationships between the need for guidance, materials design and learning styles and strategies and how these impact upon the construction of meaning. The study is based on interviews of 20 female community nurses purposively selected from the 96 respondents who had previously completed a survey questionnaire. The interviews were underpinned by theories relating to learning styles and approaches to study. Of particular concern was how these variables are mediated by student context, personal factors and materials design, to influence the need for support and guidance. The interview transcripts were first analysed using open and axial coding. Three approaches to study emerged from the data - systematic waders, speedy-focusers and global dippers - which were linked to other concepts and categories. Categories were then assigned numerical codes and subjected to logistical regression analysis. The attributes of the three approaches to study, arising from both qualitative and quantitative analysis, are explained in detail. The pedagogical implications of the three approaches to study are explained by their predicted relationships to other variables, such as support and guidance, organization of study, materials design and role of the tutor. The global dipper approach is discussed in more detail due to its association with a variety of predictor variables, not associated with the other two approaches to study. A feedback model is then developed to explore the impact of guidance on the global dipper approach. The paper makes recommendations for guidance to students using different approaches to study in distance

  16. A Bibliometric Analysis of the 100 Most-cited Articles in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Fahad M.; Spence, John N.; Richard, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Citation analysis aims to quantify the importance and influence of a published article within its field. We performed a bibliometric analysis to determine the most highly cited articles within rhinoplasty and their impact on current practice. Methods: The 100 most-cited articles relating to rhinoplasty, between and inclusive of January 1864 to September 2015, were extracted from Web of Science in October 2015. Title, source journal, publication year, total citations, average citations/year, type of article, level of evidence, country of origin, main focus, use of outcome measures, incorporation into “Selected Readings in Plastic Surgery,” and funding status were recorded. Results: The total number of citations per article ranged from 61 to 276 (1.5–12.1 average citations per year). Surgical technique was the focus of 53% of articles, particularly those for reconstruction (75%). The United States produced 72% of articles compared with 8% from the United Kingdom. The top 100 articles were published within 20 journals; “Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons” contributed the most articles (n = 57). None of the articles achieved level 1 or 2 of evidence (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine levels of evidence, 2011), with most achieving level 4 evidence (n = 64). Case-series were the most popular methodology (n = 37). Few articles used validated outcome measures (n = 21). Twenty-nine percent were referenced in “selected readings.” Eighty-nine percent were unfunded studies. Conclusions: These top 100 articles are used in current teaching material and underpin surgical decision making. Developing and using validated objective assessment tools will benefit surgeons, patients, and the greater scientific community in objectively evaluating techniques with the most favorable results. PMID:27536499

  17. The evolution of environmental metalloproteomics over the last 15 years through bibliometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lopes, Renato Matos; Mota, Fábio Batista; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2017-06-01

    Metalloproteomic studies in environmental scenarios are of significant value in elucidating metal uptake, trafficking, accumulation and metabolism linked to biomolecules in biological systems. The advent of this field occurred in the early 2000s, and it has since become an interesting and growing area of interdisciplinary research, although the number of publications in Environmental Metalloprotemics is still very low compared to other metallomic areas. In this context, the evolution of Environmental Metalloprotemics in the last decades was evaluated herein through the use of bibliometric techniques, identifying variables that may aid researchers in this area to form collaborative networks with established scientists in this regard, such as main authors, published articles, institutions, countries and established collaborations involved in academic research on this subject. Results indicate a growing trend of publications over time, reflecting the interest of the scientific community in Environmental Metalloprotemics, but also demonstrated that the research interactions in this field are still country- and organization-specific. Higher amounts of publications are observed from the late 2000's onwards, related to the increasing technological advances in the area, such as the development of techniques combining atomic spectroscopy and biochemical or proteomic techniques. The retrieved publications also indicate that the recent advances in genomic, proteomic and metallomic areas have allowed for extended applications of Environmental Metalloprotemics in non-model organisms. The results reported herein indicate that Environmental Metalloprotemics seems to now be reaching a more mature stage, in which analytical techniques are now well established and can be routinely applied in environmental scenarios, benefitting researchers and allowing for further insights into this fascinating field.

  18. Balkanized research in ecological engineering revealed by a bibliometric analysis of earthworms and ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  19. Estimates of Arab world research productivity associated with groundwater: a bibliometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyoud, Shaher H.; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The sustainable management of groundwater resources is a pressing necessity for most countries. As most of the Arab world is facing severe water scarcity, threats of depletion of non-renewable groundwater, and problems of pollution and salt-water intrusions into groundwater aquifers, much effort should be devoted to eliminate these dangers in advance. This work was devoted to bring up insights into Arab world research activities in groundwater, which is a crucial task to identify their status and can help in shaping up and improving future research activities. A bibliometric analysis has been conducted to track these activities. The study identified 1417 documents which represent 3.3% of global research productivity. Egypt was the most productive country (313; 22.1%), followed by Saudi Arabia (254; 17.9%). Total citations were 9720 with an average of 6.9. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39, and the highest one was 22 for Egypt. The most common subject category was Environmental Science, and the most productive journal was Arabian Journal of Geosciences (99; 7.0%). In international research collaboration, France was the most collaborated country with Arab world (125; 8.8%), followed by the United States (113; 8.0%). The most productive institution was King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia (66; 4.7%). The outcomes shows remarkable improvements in groundwater research activities originated from the Arab world. Even though, constructive efforts should be pursued vigorously to bridge the gaps in groundwater-based research. Moreover, promotion of better evaluation tools to assess the risks arising from the mismanagement of groundwater resources is required urgently.

  20. A bibliometric analysis of the 100 most influential papers on COPD

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wenchao; Yuan, Yaping; Yang, Hua; Qi, Guangsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Yan, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to identify the 100 top-cited articles published on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to analyze their characteristics so as to provide information on the achievement and development in COPD research over the past decades. Methods and materials A comprehensive list of citation classics in COPD was generated by searching the Science Citation Index expanded database, using the keywords “COPD” or “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease” or “chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases”. The 100 top-cited research papers were retrieved by reading the abstract or full text if needed. All eligible articles were read for basic information, including country of origin, organizations, article type, journals, research field, and authors. Results The 100 top-cited articles on COPD were published between 1966 and 2010. The number of citations ranged from 254 to 2,164, with a mean of 450 citations for each article. These citation classics were from 32 countries, with 38 from the United States. The Imperial College London led the list of classics, with 16 papers. The 100 top-cited articles were distributed in 18 journals, with the American Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care Medicine, and Journal of the American Medical Association topping the list. Among the various fields, both respiratory system (63%) and general internal medicine (63%) were the most common fields of study for the 100 articles. Conclusion Our bibliometric analysis provides a historical perspective on the progress of scientific research on COPD. Articles originating from the United States and published in high-impact specialized respiratory journals are most likely to be cited in the field of COPD research. PMID:25848243

  1. A bibliometric and visual analysis of global geo-ontology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Haihong; Ying, Shen; Luo, Qinyao; Luo, Heng; Kuai, Xi; Xia, Hui; Shen, Hang

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the results of a bibliometric and visual analysis of geo-ontology research articles collected from the Web of Science (WOS) database between 1999 and 2014 are presented. The numbers of national institutions and published papers are visualized and a global research heat map is drawn, illustrating an overview of global geo-ontology research. In addition, we present a chord diagram of countries and perform a visual cluster analysis of a knowledge co-citation network of references, disclosing potential academic communities and identifying key points, main research areas, and future research trends. The International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Progress in Human Geography, and Computers & Geosciences are the most active journals. The USA makes the largest contributions to geo-ontology research by virtue of its highest numbers of independent and collaborative papers, and its dominance was also confirmed in the country chord diagram. The majority of institutions are in the USA, Western Europe, and Eastern Asia. Wuhan University, University of Munster, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences are notable geo-ontology institutions. Keywords such as "Semantic Web," "GIS," and "space" have attracted a great deal of attention. "Semantic granularity in ontology-driven geographic information systems, "Ontologies in support of activities in geographical space" and "A translation approach to portable ontology specifications" have the highest cited centrality. Geographical space, computer-human interaction, and ontology cognition are the three main research areas of geo-ontology. The semantic mismatch between the producers and users of ontology data as well as error propagation in interdisciplinary and cross-linguistic data reuse needs to be solved. In addition, the development of geo-ontology modeling primitives based on OWL (Web Ontology Language)and finding methods to automatically rework data in Semantic Web are needed. Furthermore, the topological

  2. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO2 or SnO2 nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  3. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  4. Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

  5. A Quantitative Study of the Internationalization of the Academics and Research Productivity: Case Study of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xian, Wu

    2015-01-01

    With the significant rise in China's economic strength, more students and scholars have returned to China recently. But there is limited literature examining academics with foreign degrees and their research productivity. Using the data of the Changing Academic Profession in Asia (APA) survey, which was exercised in 2012, this study expands the…

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Janani; Wang, Qingyu; Le, Thanh; Pizzo, Lucilla; Grönke, Sebastian; Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Imai, Yuzuru; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Troisí, Beatriz Llamusí; Mardon, Graeme; Artero, Ruben; Jackson, George R.; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Partridge, Linda; Lu, Bingwei; Kumar, Justin P.; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net), to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions. PMID:26994292

  7. Which Psychological Factors are Related to HIV Testing? A Quantitative Systematic Review of Global Studies.

    PubMed

    Evangeli, Michael; Pady, Kirsten; Wroe, Abigail L

    2016-04-01

    Deciding to test for HIV is necessary for receiving HIV treatment and care among those who are HIV-positive. This article presents a systematic review of quantitative studies on relationships between psychological (cognitive and affective) variables and HIV testing. Sixty two studies were included (fifty six cross sectional). Most measured lifetime testing. HIV knowledge, risk perception and stigma were the most commonly measured psychological variables. Meta-analysis was carried out on the relationships between HIV knowledge and testing, and HIV risk perception and testing. Both relationships were positive and significant, representing small effects (HIV knowledge, d = 0.22, 95 % CI 0.14-0.31, p < 0.001; HIV risk perception, OR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.26-1.67, p < 0.001). Other variables with a majority of studies showing a relationship with HIV testing included: perceived testing benefits, testing fear, perceived behavioural control/self-efficacy, knowledge of testing sites, prejudiced attitudes towards people living with HIV, and knowing someone with HIV. Research and practice implications are outlined.

  8. A population-based study of quantitative sensory testing in adolescents with and without chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Tham, See Wan; Palermo, Tonya M; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Zhou, Chuan; Stubhaug, Audun; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been used to characterize pain sensitivity in individuals with and without pain conditions. Research remains limited in pediatric populations, hindering the ability to expand the utility of QST toward its potential application in clinical settings and clinical predictive value. The aims of this study were to examine pain sensitivity using QST in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain and identify predictors of pain sensitivity. A population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2011 provided data on 941 adolescents, 197 were classified as having chronic pain and 744 were classified without chronic pain. Self-reported data on pain characteristics, psychological functioning, and QST responses were examined. The findings revealed lower pressure pain threshold and tolerance on the trapezius (P's = 0.03) in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain, but no differences on heat or cold-pressor pain tasks. Female sex (P's = 0.02) and poorer psychological functioning (P's = 0.02) emerged as significant predictors of greater pain sensitivity across all pain modalities. Exploratory analyses revealed several associations between clinical pain characteristics and QST responses within the chronic pain cohort. Findings from this large pediatric sample provide comprehensive data that could serve as normative data on QST responses in adolescents with and without chronic pain. These findings lay the groundwork toward developing future QST research and study protocols in pediatric populations, taking into consideration sex and psychological distress.

  9. Quantitative study on guinea pig spermatogenesis shows a relative high percentage of early meiotic prophase stages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosana E; Wettstein, Rodolfo M

    2004-05-01

    Meiosis is the special double cellular division characterized by the reduction of chromosome number of the final products and recombination of genetic information present in maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Early stages of meiotic prophase, leptotene and zygotene (L/Z), are functionally important since homologous chromosomes recognize, align, and pair during them. They are poorly represented in the seminiferous tubules of mammalian species, and this fact turns studies focused on these stages difficult to perform. As a consequence, the molecular bases of these important events are so far poorly known and understood in higher eukaryotes. The purpose of this work was to provide an advantageous experimental mammalian model (with a reasonable number of cells) for biochemical and molecular analysis of early meiotic prophase stages. Here, we present the results of our quantitative study on testes material of both immature and adult guinea pig specimens (Cavia porcellus). We show that their seminiferous tubules contain a comparatively high percentage of L/Z spermatocytes, as well as a very conspicuous chromosome bouquet at the L/Z transition, which points out this species as a well-suited one to address studies on such stages in mammals.

  10. Cone snail milked venom dynamics--a quantitative study of Conus purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Chun, Joycelyn B S; Baker, Margaret R; Kim, Do H; Leroy, Majdouline; Toribo, Priamo; Bingham, Jon-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Milked venom from cone snails represent a novel biological resource with a proven track record for drug discovery. To strengthen this correlation, we undertook a chromatographic and mass spectrometric study of individual milked venoms from Conus purpurascens. Milked venoms demonstrate extensive peptide differentiation amongst individual specimens and during captivity. Individual snails were found to lack a consistent set of described conopeptides, but instead demonstrated the ability to change venom expression, composition and post-translational modification incorporation; all variations contribute to an increase in chemical diversity and prey targeting strategies. Quantitative amino acid analysis revealed that milked venom peptides are expressed at ranges up to 3.51-121.01 μM within single milked venom samples. This provides for a 6.37-20,965 fold-excess of toxin to induce apparent IC₅₀ for individual conopeptides identified in this study. Comparative molecular mass analysis of duct venom, milked venom and radula tooth extracts from single C. purpurascens specimens demonstrated a level of peptide continuity. Numerous highly abundant and unique conopeptides remain to be characterized. This study strengthens the notion that approaches in conopeptide drug lead discovery programs will potentially benefit from a greater understanding of the toxinological nature of the milked venoms of Conus.

  11. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study using refractotopological state atom index on some neonicotinoid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Bikash; Gayen, Shovanlal; Basu, Anindya; Ghosh, Balaram; Srikanth, Kolluru; Jha, Tarun

    2004-12-01

    Importance of atom-level topological descriptors like electrotopological state atom (E-state) index in QSAR study is increasing. These descriptors help to relate structure and activity at atomic/fragmental level. In view of the earlier success of E-state index on some azidopyridinyl neonicotinoid insecticides, a relatively new atom-level topological descriptor; refractotopological state atom (R-state) index was used in this work. This was used to identify the important atoms/fragments related to dispersive/van der Waals interactions of neonicotinoids with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). This study showed the structural requirements for the mammal alpha(4)beta(2) and Drosophila nAChR agonistic activity. It also revealed that substituted imine, nitromethylene at X-position were selective to the insecticidal activity. Azido substitution at pyridine ring of neonicotinoids disfavored the binding with the receptors. This study confirmed the validity of the R-state index as a new tool for quantitative structure-activity relationships. It has the ability to find out the required structural features as well as to predict the activity of the neonicotinoids.

  12. Future Time Perspective in the Work Context: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Hélène; Zacher, Hannes; Desmette, Donatienne

    2017-01-01

    A core construct in the lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity, future time perspective (FTP) refers to individuals’ perceptions of their remaining time in life. Its adaptation to the work context, occupational future time perspective (OFTP), entails workers’ perceptions of remaining time and opportunities in their careers. Over the past decade, several quantitative studies have investigated antecedents and consequences of general FTP and OFTP in the work context (i.e., FTP at work). We systematically review and critically discuss this literature on general FTP (k = 17 studies) and OFTP (k = 16 studies) and highlight implications for future research and practice. Results of our systematic review show that, in addition to its strong negative relationship with age, FTP at work is also associated with other individual (e.g., personality traits) and contextual variables (e.g., job characteristics). Moreover, FTP at work has been shown to mediate and moderate relationships of individual and contextual antecedents with occupational well-being, as well as motivational and behavioral outcomes. As a whole, findings suggest that FTP at work is an important variable in the field of work and aging, and that future research should improve the ways in which FTP at work is measured and results on FTP at work are reported.

  13. Quantitative studies of animal colour constancy: using the chicken as model.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Peter; Wilby, David; Kelber, Almut

    2016-05-11

    Colour constancy is the capacity of visual systems to keep colour perception constant despite changes in the illumination spectrum. Colour constancy has been tested extensively in humans and has also been described in many animals. In humans, colour constancy is often studied quantitatively, but besides humans, this has only been done for the goldfish and the honeybee. In this study, we quantified colour constancy in the chicken by training the birds in a colour discrimination task and testing them in changed illumination spectra to find the largest illumination change in which they were able to remain colour-constant. We used the receptor noise limited model for animal colour vision to quantify the illumination changes, and found that colour constancy performance depended on the difference between the colours used in the discrimination task, the training procedure and the time the chickens were allowed to adapt to a new illumination before making a choice. We analysed literature data on goldfish and honeybee colour constancy with the same method and found that chickens can compensate for larger illumination changes than both. We suggest that future studies on colour constancy in non-human animals could use a similar approach to allow for comparison between species and populations.

  14. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes.

  15. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes. PMID:27242878

  16. Production of isotopically-labeled standards from a uniformly labeled precursor for quantitative volatile metabolomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cortés, Pilar; Brenna, J. Thomas; Sacks, Gavin L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal accuracy and precision in small molecule profiling by mass spectrometry generally requires isotopically labeled standards chemically representative of all compounds of interest. However, preparation of mixed standards from commercially available pure compounds is often prohibitively expensive and time consuming, and many labeled compounds are not available in pure form. We used a single prototype uniformly labeled [U-13C]-compound to generate [U-13C]-volatile standards for use in subsequent experimental profiling studies. [U-13C]-α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, ALA) was thermally oxidized to produce labeled lipid degradation volatiles which were subsequently characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. Twenty-five [U-13C]-labeled volatiles were identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS) by comparison of spectra with unlabeled volatiles. Using 250 μL starting sample, labeled volatiles were quantified by a reverse isotope dilution procedure. Using the [U-13C]-labeled standards, limits of detection comparable to or better than previous HS-SPME reports were achieved, 0.010–1.04 ng/g. The performance of the [U-13C]-volatile standards was evaluated using a commodity soybean oil (CSO) oxidized at 60°C from 0 to 15 d. Relative responses of n-decane, an unlabeled internal standard otherwise absent from the mixture, and [U-13C]-oxidation products changed by up to 8-fold as the CSO matrix was oxidized, demonstrating that reliance on a single standard in volatile profiling studies yields inaccurate results due to changing matrix effects. The [U-13C]-standard mixture was used to quantify 25 volatiles in oxidized CSO and low-ALA soybean oil with an average relative standard deviation of 8.5%. Extension of this approach to other labeled substrates, e.g., [U-13C]-sugars and amino acids, for profiling studies should be feasible and can dramatically improve quantitative results compared to

  17. [Quantitative study of immunoglobulins A and G in the salivary secretion of asthmatic patients].

    PubMed

    Frouchtman, R; Viñas, J; Rodríguez, J L; Olivé, A

    1975-01-01

    "Quantitative study of IgG and IgA in the saliva of asthmatics." In this paper the data obtained from the quantitative determination of the IgG and IgA contents of saliva in a group of 56 asthmatic patients of different ages and a group of 54 non-asthmatic healthy controls are compared and discussed. The method of Mancini has been used for measuring the contents of IgG and IgM, both in serum and saliva, the correction proposed by Hobbs has been applied to these values. The following findings are reported: 1. The IgG and IgA levels in the saliva of asthmatic patients (both children and adults) showed a trend to an increased dispersion, when compared with the values observed in the corresponding normal healthy controls. 2. In the group of asthmatic children studied, the measurement of the concentration of these immunoglobulins in saliva showed, as a whole, a significative decrease of IgA (p less than 0,001) and an increase of IgG (p less than 0,01). It is not possible, however, from this data to infer any type of correlation between the concentration of IgA or IgG in saliva and etiology or clinical picture. On the other hand, no statistical difference could be demonstrated between the concentration of these immunoglobulins in the saliva of the group of adult asthmatic patients and the corresponding healthy controls. 3. The present data does not support the existence of any correlation between the concentration of these immunoglobulins in saliva and serum in a group of asthmatic patients. It is of interest to point out, however, that the only three adult asthamtic patients with an IgA serum concentration higher than 400 mg/100 ml. show increased IgA levels in saliva. The authors are planning to proceed this study adding in furture cases the measurement of IgE and IgD with the purpose of confirming the difference found between the concentrations of IgA and IgG in the saliva of asthmatic children versus healthy controls, and of looking at the existence of other

  18. Quantitative In Situ TEM Studies of Small-Scale Plasticity in Irradiated and Unirradiated Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Claire

    mechanical data, as the two defect conditions exhibit similar yield strengths, ultimate tensile strengths, and number and size of load-drops. This similarity implies that, even if materials contain dissimilar individual defects, the collective defect behavior can result in similar mechanical properties. Thus, the origin of mechanical properties can be ambiguous and caution should be taken when extrapolating to different size scales. Furthermore, such similarities highlight the importance of in-situ observation during deformation. These experiments provide a key test of theory, by providing a local test of behavior, which is much more stringent than testing behaviors averaged over many regions. Advanced electron microscopy imaging techniques and quantitative in-situ TEM tensile tests are performed with Au thin-film as a model FCC structural material. These investigations highlight the various hurdles experimental studies must overcome in order to probe defect behavior at a fundamental level. Two novelly-applied strain mapping techniques are performed to directly measure the matrix strain around helium bubbles in He1+ implanted Au thin-film. Dark-field inline holography (DFIH) is applied here for the first time to a metal, and nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED) transient strain mapping is shown to be experimentally feasible using the high frame rate Gatan K2 camera. The K2 camera reduces scan times from ˜18 minutes to 82 seconds for a 128x256 pixel scan at 400 fps. Both methods measure a peak strain around 10 nm bubbles of 0.7%, correlating to an internal pressure of 580 MPa, or a vacancy to helium ion ratio of 1V:2.4He. Previous studies have relied on determining the appropriate equation of state to relate measured or approximated helium density to internal bubble pressure and thus strain. Direct measurement of the surrounding matrix strain through DFIH and NBED methods effectively bypasses this step, allowing for easier defect interaction modeling as the bubble can be

  19. Quantitative skeletal evaluation based on cervical vertebral maturation: a longitudinal study of adolescents with normal occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Liu, J; Xu, T; Long, X; Lin, J

    2010-07-01

    The study aims were to investigate the correlation between vertebral shape and hand-wrist maturation and to select characteristic parameters of C2-C5 (the second to fifth cervical vertebrae) for cervical vertebral maturation determination by mixed longitudinal data. 87 adolescents (32 males, 55 females) aged 8-18 years with normal occlusion were studied. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs were taken annually for 6 consecutive years. Lateral cephalograms were divided into 11 maturation groups according to Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators (SMI). 62 morphological measurements of C2-C5 at 11 different developmental stages (SMI1-11) were measured and analysed. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, correlation coefficient analysis and variable cluster analysis were used for statistical analysis. Of the 62 cervical vertebral parameters, 44 were positively correlated with SMI, 6 were negatively correlated and 12 were not correlated. The correlation coefficients between cervical vertebral parameters and SMI were relatively high. Characteristic parameters for quantitative analysis of cervical vertebral maturation were selected. In summary, cervical vertebral maturation could be used reliably to evaluate the skeletal stage instead of the hand-wrist radiographic method. Selected characteristic parameters offered a simple and objective reference for the assessment of skeletal maturity and timing of orthognathic surgery.

  20. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime

    PubMed Central

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78) though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media), increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point). Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast) modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks). PMID:26418016

  1. Career interest, self-efficacy, and perception in undecided and nursing undergraduate students: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Fillman, Valentina M

    2015-01-01

    Career choice variables of career interest, self-efficacy, and perception were chosen based upon Social Cognitive Career Theory concepts for study between nursing and undecided undergraduate student groups. Components of the Career Search Questionnaire and Perceptions of Professional Nursing instruments were combined and adapted to form the Career Choice Survey for use in this research. This web-based survey totaling 40 questions was sent to 577 undergraduate students with a 12% response rate (N=68). Due to the need to increase nursing recruitment and retention, hypotheses were developed that distinguish if any relationship existed between groups. Findings of this quantitative study resulted in statistically significant results on two of the three variable hypotheses (p=.006 for career interest, p=.002 for self-efficacy, p=.395 for perception), aligning with previous research and provide insight into the change in nursing perception. Overall, scores for each subscale were encouraging to current nurses and expected from undecided students. Implications for practice include increases in accurate nursing portrayal in the media and early career counseling to younger populations. Nurse educators can further research in career choice with focus on continuing education for current nurses and recruitment of young nursing hopefuls.

  2. Neuroticism and the brain: a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies investigating emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Servaas, Michelle N; van der Velde, Jorien; Costafreda, Sergi G; Horton, Paul; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

    2013-09-01

    Neuroticism is a robust personality trait that constitutes a risk factor for mood disorders. Neuroimaging findings related to neuroticism have been inconsistent across studies and hardly integrated in order to construct a model of the underlying neural correlates of neuroticism. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide a quantitative summary of the literature, using a parametric coordinate-based meta-analysis (PCM) approach. Data were pooled for emotion processing tasks investigating the contrasts (negative>neutral) and (positive>neutral) to identify brain regions that are consistently associated with neuroticism across studies. Significant negative and positive correlations with neuroticism were found only for the contrast (negative>neutral) after multiple comparisons correction. Differences in brain activation were found to be associated with neuroticism during fear learning, anticipation of aversive stimuli and the processing and regulation of emotion. The relationship between neuroticism and these three psychological processes and their corresponding neural correlates is discussed. Furthermore, the meta-analytic findings are incorporated into a general model of emotion processing in neuroticism.

  3. Quantitative estimation of temperature variations in plantar angiosomes: a study case for diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Peregrina-Barreto, H; Morales-Hernandez, L A; Rangel-Magdaleno, J J; Avina-Cervantes, J G; Ramirez-Cortes, J M; Morales-Caporal, R

    2014-01-01

    Thermography is a useful tool since it provides information that may help in the diagnostic of several diseases in a noninvasive and fast way. Particularly, thermography has been applied in the study of the diabetic foot. However, most of these studies report only qualitative information making it difficult to measure significant parameters such as temperature variations. These variations are important in the analysis of the diabetic foot since they could bring knowledge, for instance, regarding ulceration risks. The early detection of ulceration risks is considered an important research topic in the medicine field, as its objective is to avoid major complications that might lead to a limb amputation. The absence of symptoms in the early phase of the ulceration is conceived as the main disadvantage to provide an opportune diagnostic in subjects with neuropathy. Since the relation between temperature and ulceration risks is well established in the literature, a methodology that obtains quantitative temperature differences in the plantar area of the diabetic foot to detect ulceration risks is proposed in this work. Such methodology is based on the angiosome concept and image processing.

  4. A quantitative multiplexed mass spectrometry assay for studying the kinetic of residue-specific histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yin-Ming; Henry, Ryan A; Andrews, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Histone acetylation is involved in gene regulation and, most importantly, aberrant regulation of histone acetylation is correlated with major human diseases. Although many lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) have been characterized as being capable of acetylating multiple lysine residues on histones, how different factors such as enzyme complexes or external stimuli (e.g. KAT activators or inhibitors) alter KAT specificity remains elusive. In order to comprehensively understand how the homeostasis of histone acetylation is maintained, a method that can quantitate acetylation levels of individual lysines on histones is needed. Here we demonstrate that our mass spectrometry (MS)-based method accomplishes this goal. In addition, the high throughput, high sensitivity, and high dynamic range of this method allows for effectively and accurately studying steady-state kinetics. Based on the kinetic parameters from in vitro enzymatic assays, we can determine the specificity and selectivity of a KAT and use this information to understand what factors influence histone acetylation. These approaches can be used to study the enzymatic mechanisms of histone acetylation as well as be adapted to other histone modifications. Understanding the post-translational modification of individual residues within the histones will provide a better picture of chromatin regulation in the cell.

  5. Rationing of nursing care and nurse-patient outcomes: a systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Andreou, Panayiota; Efstathiou, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Bedside rationing in nursing care refers to withholding or failure to carry out certain aspects of care because of limited resources such as time, staffing or skill mix. The absence of previous systematic reviews on nursing care rationing leads to a gap of synthesized knowledge on the factors and processes related to rationing and the potential negative consequences on both patients and nurses. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors and processes related to nursing care rationing. Selected papers were methodologically assessed based on their design, sampling, measurement and statistical analysis. Seventeen quantitative studies were reviewed, and findings were categorized into four themes: elements of nursing care being rationed, causes of rationing, nurse outcomes and patient outcomes. Results revealed that communication with patients and families, patient ambulation, and mouth care were common elements of rationed care. Nurse-patient workload and communication barriers were reported as potential causes of rationing. Patient-related outcomes included patient falls, nosocomial infections and low patient satisfaction levels. Nurse-related outcomes included low job and occupational satisfaction. In addition, rationing appears to be an important organizational variable linked with patient safety and quality of care. This review increases understanding of what is actually occurring at the point of care delivery so that managers will be able to improve processes that lead to high quality of care and better patient and nurse outcomes.

  6. The Relationship Between Online Social Networking and Depression: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Baker, David A; Algorta, Guillermo Perez

    2016-11-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace are used by billions of people every day to communicate and interact with others. There has been increasing interest in the potential impact of online social networking on wellbeing, with a broadening body of new research into factors associated with both positive and negative mental health outcomes such as depression. This systematic review of empirical studies (n = 30) adds to existing research in this field by examining current quantitative studies focused on the relationship between online social networking and symptoms of depression. The academic databases PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched systematically using terms related to online social networking and depression. Reporting quality was critically appraised and the findings discussed with reference to their wider implications. The findings suggest that the relationship between online social networking and symptoms of depression may be complex and associated with multiple psychological, social, behavioral, and individual factors. Furthermore, the impact of online social networking on wellbeing may be both positive and negative, highlighting the need for future research to determine the impact of candidate mediators and moderators underlying these heterogeneous outcomes across evolving networks.

  7. How to use linear regression and correlation in quantitative method comparison studies.

    PubMed

    Twomey, P J; Kroll, M H

    2008-04-01

    Linear regression methods try to determine the best linear relationship between data points while correlation coefficients assess the association (as opposed to agreement) between the two methods. Linear regression and correlation play an important part in the interpretation of quantitative method comparison studies. Their major strength is that they are widely known and as a result both are employed in the vast majority of method comparison studies. While previously performed by hand, the availability of statistical packages means that regression analysis is usually performed by software packages including MS Excel, with or without the software programe Analyze-it as well as by other software packages. Such techniques need to be employed in a way that compares the agreement between the two methods examined and more importantly, because we are dealing with individual patients, whether the degree of agreement is clinically acceptable. Despite their use for many years, there is a lot of ignorance about the validity as well as the pros and cons of linear regression and correlation techniques. This review article describes the types of linear regression and regression (parametric and non-parametric methods) and the necessary general and specific requirements. The selection of the type of regression depends on where one has been trained, the tradition of the laboratory and the availability of adequate software.

  8. Quantitative study of molecular transport due to electroporation: uptake of bovine serum albumin by erythrocyte ghosts.

    PubMed Central

    Prausnitz, M R; Milano, C D; Gimm, J A; Langer, R; Weaver, J C

    1994-01-01

    Electroporation is believed to involve the creation of aqueous pathways in lipid bilayer membranes by transient elevation of the transmembrane voltage to approximately 1 V. Here, results are presented for a quantitative study of the number of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules transported into erythrocyte ghosts caused by electroportion. 1) Uptake of BSA was found to plateau at high field strength. However, this was not necessarily an absolute maximum in transport. Instead, it represented the maximum effect of increasing field strength for a particular pulse protocol. 2) Maximum uptake under any conditions used in this study corresponded to approximately one-fourth of apparent equilibrium with the external solution. 3) Multiple and longer pulses each increased uptake of BSA, where the total time integral of field strength correlated with uptake, independent of inter-pulse spacing. 4) Pre-pulse adsorption of BSA to ghost membranes appears to have increased transport. 5) Most transport of BSA probably occurred by electrically driven transport during pulses; post-pulse uptake occurred, but to a much lesser extent. Finally, approaches to increasing transport are discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:8061201

  9. Quantitative methods for reconstructing tissue biomechanical properties in optical coherence elastography: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Sudheendran, Narendran; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the accuracy of five different methods for extracting the biomechanical properties of soft samples using optical coherence elastography (OCE). OCE is an emerging noninvasive technique, which allows assessing biomechanical properties of tissues with a micrometer spatial resolution. However, in order to accurately extract biomechanical properties from OCE measurements, application of proper mechanical model is required. In this study, we utilize tissue-mimicking phantoms with controlled elastic properties and investigate the feasibilities of four available methods for reconstructing elasticity (Young’s modulus) based on OCE measurements of an air-pulse induced elastic wave. The approaches are based on the shear wave equation (SWE), the surface wave equation (SuWE), Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE), and finite element method (FEM), Elasticity values were compared with uniaxial mechanical testing. The results show that the RLFE and the FEM are more robust in quantitatively assessing elasticity than the other simplified models. This study provides a foundation and reference for reconstructing the biomechanical properties of tissues from OCE data, which is important for the further development of noninvasive elastography methods. PMID:25860076

  10. Quantitation and pharmacokinetic modeling of therapeutic antibody quality attributes in human studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinyin; Monine, Michael; Huang, Yu; Swann, Patrick; Nestorov, Ivan; Lyubarskaya, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A thorough understanding of drug metabolism and disposition can aid in the assessment of efficacy and safety. However, analytical methods used in pharmacokinetics (PK) studies of protein therapeutics are usually based on ELISA, and therefore can provide a limited perspective on the quality of the drug in concentration measurements. Individual post-translational modifications (PTMs) of protein therapeutics are rarely considered for PK analysis, partly because it is technically difficult to recover and quantify individual protein variants from biological fluids. Meanwhile, PTMs may be directly linked to variations in drug efficacy and safety, and therefore understanding of clearance and metabolism of biopharmaceutical protein variants during clinical studies is an important consideration. To address such challenges, we developed an affinity-purification procedure followed by peptide mapping with mass spectrometric detection, which can profile multiple quality attributes of therapeutic antibodies recovered from patient sera. The obtained data enable quantitative modeling, which allows for simulation of the PK of different individual PTMs or attribute levels in vivo and thus facilitate the assessment of quality attributes impact in vivo. Such information can contribute to the product quality attribute risk assessment during manufacturing process development and inform appropriate process control strategy. PMID:27216574

  11. Novel quantitative metabolomic approach for the study of stress responses of plant root metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Kefeng; Wang, Xu; Pidatala, Venkataramana R; Chang, Chi-Peng; Cao, Xiaohong

    2014-12-05

    Quantitative metabolomics (qMetabolomics) is a powerful tool for understanding the intricate metabolic processes involved in plant abiotic stress responses. qMetabolomics is hindered by the limited coverage and high cost of isotopically labeled standards. In this study, we first selected 271 metabolites which might play important roles in abiotic stress responses as the targets and established a comprehensive LC-MS/MS based qMetabolomic method. We then developed a novel metabolic labeling method using E. coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-step cultivation for the production of uniformly (13)C-labeled metabolites as internal standards. Finally, we applied the developed qMetabolomic method to investigate the influence of Pb stress on maize root metabolism. The absolute concentration of 226 metabolites in maize roots was accurately quantified in a single run within 30 min. Our study also revealed that glycolysis, purine, pyrimidine, and phospholipids were the main metabolic pathways in maize roots involved in Pb stress response. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive qMetabolomic method for plant metabolomics thus far. We developed a simple and inexpensive metabolic labeling method which dramatically expanded the availability of uniformly (13)C labeled metabolites. Our findings also provided new insights of maize metabolic responses to Pb stress.

  12. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime.

    PubMed

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78) though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media), increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point). Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast) modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks).

  13. Study on the use of quantitative ultrasound evaluation of diabetic neuropathy in the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunxia; Hu, Bing; Zhu, Jiaan

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound is an effective tool for peripheral disease with direct imaging of morphological and echogenic changes, but it has limitations when applied to evaluation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to assess the role of ultrasound to quantitatively evaluate diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rat sciatic nerve. In our experiments, ultrasound imaging and electrophysiological examination testing of sciatic nerves were monitored in diabetic and control rats at the period of 1st and 4th month of hyperglycemia. Cross sectional area, intraneural echo intensity, inner diameter, motor nerve conduction velocity, and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control groups. Intraneural hyperechoic were observed in the diabetic rats, and the echo intensity of the sciatic nerve was increased in diabetic rats rather than control lean rats at 4th month of hyperglycemia (p < 0.05), which has shown a similar correlation with functional deficit and histological changes based on the severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We conclude that the echo intensity is potentially useful in detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which can pave the way for more accurate and efficient diagnosis in clinical study.

  14. A quantitative-metallographic study of the sintering behaviour of dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Yeprem, H.A.; Tueredi, E.; Karagoez, S. . E-mail: karagoez@kou.edu.tr

    2004-07-15

    Grain growth of the MgO phase during sintering of natural dolomite from Selcuklu-Konya in Turkey was studied in the temperature range 1600-1700 deg. C. For comparison purposes, iron oxide (98.66% mill scale) was added up to 1.5%. The compositions of the phases formed during sintering were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Quantitative-metallographic analyses were performed on images taken by SEM. For the automatic image analysis of dolomite microstructures, material (atomic number) contrast with backscattered electrons (BSEs) was utilized because it yields higher phase contrast compared to secondary electrons (SEs). Iron oxide additions to dolomite result in dense dolomite structures at given sintering temperatures, where phases with low melting temperatures are developed. During liquid phase sintering, periclase is enriched with iron, which destabilizes the MgO phase. The relevant kinetic exponents for MgO in the natural doloma and 0.5% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} added doloma were 6 and 2, and the activation energies were 108 and 243 kJ/mol, respectively.

  15. Chronic Spinal Compression Model in Minipigs: A Systematic Behavioral, Qualitative, and Quantitative Neuropathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Roman; Juhas, Stefan; Keshavarzi, Sassan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Johe, Karl; Marsala, Silvia; Scadeng, Miriam; Lazar, Peter; Tomori, Zoltan; Schulteis, Gery; Beattie, Michael; Ciacci, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The goal of the present study was to develop a porcine spinal cord injury (SCI) model, and to describe the neurological outcome and characterize the corresponding quantitative and qualitative histological changes at 4–9 months after injury. Adult Gottingen-Minnesota minipigs were anesthetized and placed in a spine immobilization frame. The exposed T12 spinal segment was compressed in a dorso-ventral direction using a 5-mm-diameter circular bar with a progressively increasing peak force (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 kg) at a velocity of 3 cm/sec. During recovery, motor and sensory function were periodically monitored. After survival, the animals were perfusion fixed and the extent of local SCI was analyzed by (1) post-mortem MRI analysis of dissected spinal cords, (2) qualitative and quantitative analysis of axonal survival at the epicenter of injury, and (3) defining the presence of local inflammatory changes, astrocytosis, and schwannosis. Following 2.5-kg spinal cord compression the animals demonstrated a near complete loss of motor and sensory function with no recovery over the next 4–9 months. Those that underwent spinal cord compression with 2 kg force developed an incomplete injury with progressive partial neurological recovery characterized by a restricted ability to stand and walk. Animals injured with a spinal compression force of 1.5 kg showed near normal ambulation 10 days after injury. In fully paralyzed animals (2.5 kg), MRI analysis demonstrated a loss of spinal white matter integrity and extensive septal cavitations. A significant correlation between the magnitude of loss of small and medium-sized myelinated axons in the ventral funiculus and neurological deficits was identified. These data, demonstrating stable neurological deficits in severely injured animals, similarities of spinal pathology to humans, and relatively good post-injury tolerance of this strain of minipigs to spinal trauma, suggest that this model can successfully be used

  16. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Leischow, Scott J.; Lando, Harry A.; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2014-01-01

    Background: During recent years, there have been many advances in different types of pharmacological and non-pharmacological tobacco control treatments. In this study, we aimed to identify the most effective smoking cessation methods used in quit based upon a review of the literature. Methods: We did a search of PubMed, limited to English publications from 2000 to 2012. Two trained reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts and full texts of articles after a pilot inter-rater reliability assessment which was conducted by the author (GH). The total number of papers and their conclusions including recommendation of that method (positive) or not supporting (negative) was computed for each method. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones for each method. In cases of inconsistency between the two reviewers, these were adjudicated by author. Results: Of the 932 articles that were critically assessed, 780 studies supported quit smoking methods. In 90 studies, the methods were not supported or rejected and in 62 cases the methods were not supported. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), Champix and Zyban with 352, 117 and 71 studies respectively were the most supported methods and e-cigarettes and non-Nicotine medications with one case were the least supported methods. Finally, NRT with 39 and Champix and education with 36 scores were the most supported methods. Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation. PMID:25013685

  17. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús Aguiar, Pablo; Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor; Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel; Pombar, Miguel; Ruibal, Álvaro

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  18. Genetic Studies of Quantitative MCI and AD Phenotypes in ADNI: Progress, Opportunities, and Plans

    PubMed Central

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Yao, Xiaohui; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Risacher, Shannon L.; Ramanan, Vijay K.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Faber, Kelly M.; Sarwar, Nadeem; Munsie, Leanne M.; Hu, Xiaolan; Soares, Holly D.; Potkin, Steven G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Kauwe, John S.K.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Green, Robert C.; Toga, Arthur W.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Genetic data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has been crucial in advancing the understanding of AD pathophysiology. Here we provide an update on sample collection, scientific progress and opportunities, conceptual issues, and future plans. METHODS Lymphoblastoid cell lines and DNA and RNA samples from blood have been collected and banked, and data and biosamples have been widely disseminated. To date, APOE genotyping, genome-wide association study (GWAS), and whole exome and whole genome sequencing (WES, WGS) data have been obtained and disseminated. RESULTS ADNI genetic data have been downloaded thousands of times and over 300 publications have resulted, including reports of large scale GWAS by consortia to which ADNI contributed. Many of the first applications of quantitative endophenotype association studies employed ADNI data, including some of the earliest GWAS and pathway-based studies of biospecimen and imaging biomarkers, as well as memory and other clinical/cognitive variables. Other contributions include some of the first WES and WGS data sets and reports in healthy controls, MCI, and AD. DISCUSSION Numerous genetic susceptibility and protective markers for AD and disease biomarkers have been identified and replicated using ADNI data, and have heavily implicated immune, mitochondrial, cell cycle/fate, and other biological processes. Early sequencing studies suggest that rare and structural variants are likely to account for significant additional phenotypic variation. Longitudinal analyses of transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and epigenomic changes will also further elucidate dynamic processes underlying preclinical and prodromal stages of disease. Integration of this unique collection of multi-omics data within a systems biology framework will help to separate truly informative markers of early disease mechanisms and potential novel therapeutic targets from the vast background of less relevant biological

  19. Is It Science? A Study of the Attitudes of Medical Trainees and Physicians toward Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation.…

  20. The Relationship between Shyness and Internet Addiction: A Quantitative Study on Middle and Post Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, W. Craig

    2005-01-01

    This small scale quantitative study looks into the relationship between shyness and internet addiction in middle school students. This study has been conducted on the belief that shyness is a possible predictor of Internet Addiction. To prove this hypothesis a questionnaire was created and distributed to 53 middle school students and 159 post…

  1. A Quantitative Study of Teacher Readiness to Teach School-Based HIV/AIDS Education in Kenyan Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang'at, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' self-perceived readiness to teach school-based HIV/AIDS Awareness and Prevention education in Kenyan primary schools based on their knowledge, attitudes and instructional confidence. This research utilized a non-experimental quantitative approach with a…

  2. Analysis of Various Bibliometric Indicators for the Evaluation of Scientific Journals and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, A. N.; Rushchitsky, J. J.

    2013-05-01

    Features of applying bibliometric indicators for scientific journals and scientists are discussed using, as examples, scientists of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics and the journal Prikladnaya Mekhanika ( International Applied Mechanics), which is published by the institute in Russian and by Springer in English. Old and new scientific databases are described and commented on. Consideration is given to citation as the most popular parameter for bibliometric indicators, the Hirsch and Egghe indices as criteria for the evaluation of scientists, the Hirsch index, Impact-Factor, SJR, SNIP, and RIP as criteria for the evaluation of scientific journals, and a new approach to evaluation based on full-text article requests. In 1991-2011, Prikladnaya Mekhanika ( International Applied Mechanics) had highest indicators among all Ukrainian scientific journals: Impact-Factor = 1.740 in 2005, SJR = 0.240 in 2006, RIP = 1.76 in 2006, SNIP = 2.45 in 2011

  3. A bibliometric analysis of the 50 most cited papers in cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Nicola A; Joyce, Cormac W

    2015-02-01

    Citation analysis is an established bibliometric method which catalogues papers according to the number of times they have been referenced. It is believed that the total number of citations an article receives reflects its importance among its peers. Never before has a bibliometric analysis been performed in the area of Cleft Lip and Palate. Our citation analysis creates a comprehensive list of the 50 most influential papers in this field. Journals specializing in Cleft Palate, Craniofacial, Plastic Surgery, Maxillofacial Surgery, Aesthetics and Radiology were searched to establish which articles most enriched the specialty over the past 70 years. The results show an interesting collection of papers which reveal developing trends in surgical techniques. These landmark papers mould and influence management and decision-making today.

  4. The quantitative analysis of OH in vesuvianite: a polarized FTIR and SIMS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellatreccia, Fabio; della Ventura, Giancarlo; Ottolini, Luisa; Libowitzky, Eugen; Beran, Anton

    2005-05-01

    A well-characterized suite of vesuvianite samples from the volcanic ejecta (skarn or syenites) from Latium (Italy) was studied by single-crystal, polarized radiation, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and secondary-ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS). OH-stretching FTIR spectra consist of a rather well-defined triplet of broad bands at higher-frequency (3,700 3,300 cm-1) and a very broad composite absorption below 3,300 cm-1. Measurements with E//c or E⊥c show that all bands are strongly polarized with maximum absorption for E//c. They are in agreement with previous band assignments (Groat et al. Can Mineral 33:609, 1995) to the two O(11) H(1) and O(10) H(2) groups in the structure. Pleochroic measurements with changing direction of the E vector of the incident radiation show that the orientation of the O(11) H(1) dipole is OH∧c~35°, in excellent agreement with the neutron data of Lager et al. (Can Mineral 37:763, 1999). A SIMS-based calibration curve at ~10% rel. accuracy has been worked out and used as reference for the quantitative analysis of H2O in vesuvianite by FTIR. Based on previous SIMS results for silicate minerals (Ottolini and Hawthorne in J Anal At Spectrom 16:1266, 2001; Ottolini et al. in Am Mineral 87:1477, 2002) the SiO2 and FeO content of the matrix were assumed as the major factors to be considered at a first approximation in the selection of the standards for H. The lack of vesuvianite standards for quantitative SIMS analysis of H2O has been here overcome by selecting low-silica elbaite crystals (Ottolini et al. in Am Mineral 87:1477, 2002). The resulting integrated molar absorption FTIR coefficient for vesuvianite is ɛi=100.000±2.000 l mol-1 cm-2. SIMS data for Li, B, F, Sr, Y, Be, Ba REE, U and Th are also provided in the paper.

  5. Quantitative studies of chicken somatotrophs during growth and development by morphometry, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Deaver, D; Perez, F; Radecki, S; Gibney, J; Scanes, C G

    1997-10-01

    Changes in the male chicken somatotroph during growth and maturation have been examined by morphometric and immunocytochemical (ICC) analysis of serial sections of the anterior pituitary gland and by flow cytometry of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. ICC showed that somatotrophs are confined to the middle and caudal thirds of the anterior pituitary gland at all ages from 5 to 26 weeks. At a given age somatotrophs are of equal size at all positions along the cephalocaudal axis of the anterior pituitary gland. However, there are age-related changes: from 5 to 11 weeks rises occur in both the mean total somatotroph volume per gland (64%) and the mean number of somatotrophs (78%), while the mean volume of the single somatotroph is unchanged. From 11 to 18 weeks the mean volume of the single somatotroph decreases 41%. From 18 to 26 weeks the mean volume of the somatotroph, the mean total somatotroph volume, and the mean number per gland do not change. Flow cytometry studies suggested that somatotrophs from adults have less growth hormone (GH) than somatotrophs from young birds. The increases in total somatotroph volume and number from 5 to 11 weeks are consistent with the rise in anterior pituitary GH reported previously. Basic quantitative morphological information about age-related changes in somatotrophs is reported here. When combined with additional facts from future work, they may explain the well-documented sharp decline in circulating GH from 5 to 11 weeks.

  6. Study the multi-band co-caliber infrared system optimize design and quantitative measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ju guang; Ma, Yong hui; Yang, Zhi hui

    2016-10-01

    The main optical system of multi-band co-caliber infrared system is designed by using a Cassegrain telescope whose primary mirror (PM) and secondary mirror (SM) are aspherical form, and the structure of which is using total reflection system for the former level, the refractive lens group for the stage. After the target radiation to reach the primary mirror, reflecting onto the secondary mirror, and on top of toggling the spectral radiometric flux , respectively, which is reflected by different spectrum region, transmit to infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) for each other imaging detector. Then, photoelectric converse those information which were received by IRFPA. The output signal of detectors are processed and displayed by Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC). We are confirming the image quality of different bands during system model optimization design. According to the specification of design system, establishing the measurement program of quantitative study. The results experimental measurement shows that the optimized design of the optical system has good validity.

  7. Quantitative study of ruthenium cross-over in direct methanol fuel cells during early operation hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoekel, A.; Melke, J.; Bruns, M.; Wippermann, K.; Kuppler, F.; Roth, C.

    2016-01-01

    In direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), ruthenium cross-over is an important degradation phenomenon. The loss of ruthenium from the anode, its transport through the membrane and its deposition onto the cathode are detrimental to the fuel cell performance and limit the fuel cell's lifetime. Here we present a quantitative study on the fraction of ruthenium being transferred from the anode to the cathode during early operation hours (0-100 h) of a DMFC. Already during fabrication of the MEA ruthenium is transferred to the cathode. In our pristine MEAs about 0.024 wt% Ru could be found in the cathode catalyst. The cell potential during operation seems to have only a minor influence on the dissolution process. In contrast, the operation time appears to be much more important. Our data hint at two dissolution processes: a fast process dominating the first hours of operation and a slower process, which is responsible for the ongoing ruthenium transfer during the fuel cell lifetime. After 2 h held at open circuit conditions the Ru content of the cathode side was 10 times higher than in the pristine MEA. In contrast, the slower process increased that amount only by a factor of two over the course of another 100 h.

  8. [Psychosocial Stress, Stress Perception and Stress Management of Students of Social Work: a Quantitative Study].

    PubMed

    Kriener, C; Schwertfeger, A; Deimel, D; Köhler, T

    2016-06-17

    In this quantitative study, data on 746 students of social work were collected regarding their current sense of stress, experience of psychosocial drain as well as their use of specific coping strategies. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (TICS) were used. The results show that one out of 3 students suffer from a lot of to extreme stress. One-fourth of the students report feeling overworked and socially overburdened. More than half of the students are exposed to psychosocial drain as a consequence of past events in their biography (e. g. death or mental illness of a close relative). Despite these obvious burdens, only one-fourth made use of professional aid or counseling. Students who are primarily using functional coping strategies have a lower sensibility to stress and feel less overworked than students primarily using dysfunctional coping strategies. In the university setting, the theoretically and empirically sound knowledge based on this report can be used profitably: The increasing implementation of seminars on coping with stress at universities itself suggests that learning and utilizing functional coping strategies can contribute to a reduction of stress and strain among students.

  9. Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R.; Frost, C.; Collins, R.; Appleby, P.; Peto, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative importance of dietary fatty acids and dietary cholesterol to blood concentrations of total, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies of solid food diets in healthy volunteers. SUBJECTS: 395 dietary experiments (median duration 1 month) among 129 groups of individuals. RESULTS: Isocaloric replacement of saturated fats by complex carbohydrates for 10% of dietary calories resulted in blood total cholesterol falling by 0.52 (SE 0.03) mmol/l and low density lipoprotein cholesterol falling by 0.36 (0.05) mmol/l. Isocaloric replacement of complex carbohydrates by polyunsaturated fats for 5% of dietary calories resulted in total cholesterol falling by a further 0.13 (0.02) mmol/l and low density lipoprotein cholesterol falling by 0.11 (0.02) mmol/l. Similar replacement of carbohydrates by monounsaturated fats produced no significant effect on total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Avoiding 200 mg/day dietary cholesterol further decreased blood total cholesterol by 0.13 (0.02) mmol/l and low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.10 (0.02) mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: In typical British diets replacing 60% of saturated fats by other fats and avoiding 60% of dietary cholesterol would reduce blood total cholesterol by about 0.8 mmol/l (that is, by 10-15%), with four fifths of this reduction being in low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:9006469

  10. A Quantitative Study of the Quasistatic Tensioning Process of a Drumhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Stephen Garrett

    A system to extract quantitative measurements of the axial forces and resulting in-plane displacements of Mylar and latex drumheads undergoing a tuning procedure was developed and implemented as a step towards understanding the effect of detailed drumhead tension on drum acoustics. This system encompasses a combination of specialized hardware, software, experimental methods, and post-processing techniques. A customized test apparatus was implemented to quantify axial forces while simultaneously performing Digital Image Correlation studies on a drumhead to quantify the in-plane drumhead displacement. Axial forces in the ranges of 5--100 lbf and 5--35 lbf were developed in the tensioning members of said apparatus, in various radial configurations, such to produce in-plane radial displacement distributions with maximum values of 0.01 inches and 0.60 inches during the tensioning of Mylar and latex drumheads, respectively. The viability of the Digital Image Correlation method for this application was assessed extensively, and has proven to be a valid method for quantifying the displacement of latex drumheads. This system was less effective in quantifying the displacements of Mylar drumheads; it is believed that certain optical parameters require further optimization in order to improve the validity of the displacement data that can be extracted from these drumheads.

  11. A quantitative study relating observed shear in photospheric magnetic fields to repeated flaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper a quantitative evaluation of the shear in the magnetic field along the neutral line in an active region during an epoch of flare activity is presented. Shear is defined as the angular difference in the photosphere between the potential magnetic field, which fits the boundary conditions imposed by the observed line-of-sight field, and the observed magnetic field. For the active region studied, this angular difference (shear) is non-uniform along the neutral line with maxima occurring at the locations of repeated flare onsets. It is suggested that continued magnetic evolution causes the field's maximum shear to exceed a critical value of shear, resulting in a flare around the site of maximum shear. Evidently, the field at the site of the flare must relax to a state of shear somewhat below the critical value (but still far from potential), with subsequent evolution returning the field to the critical threshold. This inference is drawn because several flares occured at sites of maximum photospheric shear which were persistent in location.

  12. Paradoxical Effect of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio of GRAPPA Calibration Lines: A Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu; Xue, Hui; Ahmad, Rizwan; Chang, Ti-chiun; Ting, Samuel T.; Simonetti, Orlando P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intuitively, GRAPPA auto-calibration signal (ACS) lines with higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may be expected to boost the accuracy of kernel estimation and increase the SNR of GRAPPA reconstructed images. Paradoxically, Sodickson and his colleagues pointed out that using ACS lines with high SNR may actually lead to lower SNR in the GRAPPA reconstructed images. A quantitative study of how the noise in the ACS lines affects the SNR of the GRAPPA reconstructed images is presented. Methods In a phantom, the singular values of the GRAPPA encoding matrix and the root-mean-square error of GRAPPA reconstruction were evaluated using multiple sets of ACS lines with variant SNR. In volunteers, ACS lines with high and low SNR were estimated, and the SNR of corresponding TGRAPPA reconstructed images was evaluated. Results We show that the condition number of the GRAPPA kernel estimation equations is proportional to the SNR of the ACS lines. In dynamic image series reconstructed with TGRAPPA, high SNR ACS lines result in reduced SNR if appropriate regularization is not applied. Conclusion Noise has a similar effect to Tikhonov regularization. Without appropriate regularization, a GRAPPA kernel estimated from ACS lines with higher SNR amplifies random noise in the GRAPPA reconstruction. PMID:25078425

  13. Quantitative study of mesangial injury with proteinuria induced by monoclonal antibody 1-22-3.

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, H; Oite, T; Shimizu, F

    1993-01-01

    Murine MoAb 1-22-3 has already been reported to bind to the mesangial cell surface and to cause transient proteinuria and mesangial morphological changes characterized by mesangiolysis, subsequent mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial matrix increase by a single i.v. injection. In this study, MoAb-induced glomerulopathy was quantitatively analysed. No correlation between the severity of mesangial morphological changes and the degree of proteinuria was detected (r = 0.190). The minimum dose injected to induce abnormal proteinuria was 25 micrograms. This dose corresponded to 1.79 micrograms/2 kidneys 30 min after MoAb injection. The highest average level of proteinuria was observed in rats injected with 500 micrograms of MoAb, and less proteinuria was observed in rats injected with 10.0, 5.0 and 2.0 mg. Although the amounts of kidney-fixing MoAb and the subsequent deposition of rat C3 in the high-dose-injected group were larger than in the 500 micrograms injected group, the numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells were the same in both groups. No correlations between the degrees of such mediators and proteinuria were observed. PMID:8485919

  14. Quantitative ARG microimaging studies of two muscarinic antagonist isomers: Blocking and the effects of cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Wang, G.J.; Oster, Z.H.

    1994-05-01

    The distribution of the racemic mixture of IQNP(1-Azabicyclo [2-2-2] oct-3-yl alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(1-iodo-propen-3-yl)-alpha-phenylacetate), a muscarinic antagonist was described earlier. Recently, the radioiodinated Z and E-(R,R) IQNP isomers have been prepared. Quantitative ARG studies using the Z and E isomers were performed in control rats and after pretreatment with ({plus_minus}) QNB or cocaine. High uptake of (Z)-IQNP was seen in the heart and brain with GI and urinary excretion. Lung uptake was lower than with the racemic IQNP. (Z)-IQNP uptake was maximal at 15 min p.i. with homogeneous distribution in the heart. In the brain, highest uptake was in the caudate, cortex, hippocampus, pons and thalamus. (Z)-IQNP showed higher cerebellar uptake and lower cortical uptake compared to (E)-IQNP. Clearance from brain was slower than bean. Heart and brain uptake of (E)-IQNP were markedly lower than the Z isomer. After QNB pretreatment, almost complete blocking of (Z)-IQNP uptake in heart and brain occurred. Cocaine did not significantly affect the distribution of IQNP. These data indicate that (Z)-IQNP has high affinity for the M2 muscarinic receptor with potential for brain and heart imaging. Cocaine appears to have little effect on the muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in the brain and heart.

  15. Quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction for identification of counterfeit medicines: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Chiaki C. E.; O'Flynn, Daniel; Sidebottom, Aiden; Speller, Robert D.

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of counterfeit and substandard medicines has been growing rapidly over the past decade, and fast, nondestructive techniques for their detection are urgently needed to counter this trend. In this study, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) combined with chemometrics was assessed for its effectiveness in quantitative analysis of compressed powder mixtures. Although EDXRD produces lower-resolution diffraction patterns than angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD), it is of interest for this application as it carries the advantage of allowing the analysis of tablets within their packaging, due to the higher energy X-rays used. A series of caffeine, paracetamol and microcrystalline cellulose mixtures were prepared with compositions between 0 - 100 weight% in 20 weight% steps (22 samples in total, including a centroid mixture), and were pressed into tablets. EDXRD spectra were collected in triplicate, and a principal component analysis (PCA) separated these into their correct positions in the ternary mixture design. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model calibrated using this training set was validated using both segmented cross-validation, and with a test set of six samples (mixtures in 8:1:1 and 5⅓:2⅓:2⅓ ratios) - the latter giving a root-mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.30, 2.25 and 2.03 weight% for caffeine, paracetamol and cellulose respectively. These initial results are promising, with RMSEP values on a par with those reported in the ADXRD literature.

  16. A quantitative study on accumulation of age mass around stagnation points in nested flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Ge, Shemin; Cao, Guo-Liang; Hou, Guang-Cai; Hu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong; Liang, Si-Hai

    2012-12-01

    The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little quantitative research has been devoted to prove this assumption. In this paper, the transport of age mass is used as an example to demonstrate that transported matter could accumulate around stagnation points. The spatial distribution of model age is analyzed in a series of drainage basins of different depths. We found that groundwater age has a local or regional maximum value around each stagnation point, which proves the accumulation of age mass. In basins where local, intermediate and regional flow systems are all well developed, the regional maximum groundwater age occurs at the regional stagnation point below the basin valley. This can be attributed to the long travel distances of regional flow systems as well as stagnancy of the water. However, when local flow systems dominate, the maximum groundwater age in the basin can be located around the local stagnation points due to stagnancy, which are far away from the basin valley. A case study is presented to illustrate groundwater flow and age in the Ordos Plateau, northwestern China. The accumulation of age mass around stagnation points is confirmed by tracer age determined by 14C dating in two boreholes and simulated age near local stagnation points under different dispersivities. The results will help shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of groundwater age, hydrochemistry, mineral resources, and hydrocarbons in drainage basins.

  17. Enhancing local action planning through quantitative flood risk analysis: a case study in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Jesica Tamara; Escuder-Bueno, Ignacio; Perales-Momparler, Sara; Ramón Porta-Sancho, Juan

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a method to incorporate and promote quantitative risk analysis to support local action planning against flooding. The proposed approach aims to provide a framework for local flood risk analysis, combining hazard mapping with vulnerability data to quantify risk in terms of expected annual affected population, potential injuries, number of fatalities, and economic damages. Flood risk is estimated combining GIS data of loads, system response, and consequences and using event tree modelling for risk calculation. The study area is the city of Oliva, located on the eastern coast of Spain. Results from risk modelling have been used to inform local action planning and to assess the benefits of structural and non-structural risk reduction measures. Results show the potential impact on risk reduction of flood defences and improved warning communication schemes through local action planning: societal flood risk (in terms of annual expected affected population) would be reduced up to 51 % by combining both structural and non-structural measures. In addition, the effect of seasonal population variability is analysed (annual expected affected population ranges from 82 to 107 %, compared with the current situation, depending on occupancy rates in hotels and campsites). Results highlight the need for robust and standardized methods for urban flood risk analysis replicability at regional and national scale.

  18. Quantitative Proteomics Study of Larval Settlement in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wong, Yue Him; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite. PMID:24551147

  19. Extension Trial of Qigong for Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary; Marcon, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ) training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60 min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65%) who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N = 5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N = 8 trial completers and N = 7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes. PMID:24069054

  20. Genetic susceptibility variants for lung cancer: replication study and assessment as expression quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    Pintarelli, Giulia; Cotroneo, Chiara Elisabetta; Noci, Sara; Dugo, Matteo; Galvan, Antonella; Delli Carpini, Simona; Citterio, Lorena; Manunta, Paolo; Incarbone, Matteo; Tosi, Davide; Santambrogio, Luigi; Dragani, Tommaso A.; Colombo, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with lung cancer but lack confirmation and functional characterization. We retested the association of 56 candidate SNPs with lung adenocarcinoma risk and overall survival in a cohort of 823 Italian patients and 779 healthy controls, and assessed their function as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). In the replication study, eight SNPs (rs401681, rs3019885, rs732765, rs2568494, rs16969968, rs6495309, rs11634351, and rs4105144) associated with lung adenocarcinoma risk and three (rs9557635, rs4105144, and rs735482) associated with survival. Five of these SNPs acted as cis-eQTLs, being associated with the transcription of IREB2 (rs2568494, rs16969968, rs11634351, rs6495309), PSMA4 (rs6495309) and ERCC1 (rs735482), out of 10,821 genes analyzed in lung. For these three genes, we obtained experimental evidence of differential allelic expression in lung tissue, pointing to the existence of in-cis genomic variants that regulate their transcription. These results suggest that these SNPs exert their effects on cancer risk/outcome through the modulation of mRNA levels of their target genes. PMID:28181565