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Sample records for quantitative confocal microscopy

  1. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: QA TESTS, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Microscopy System Performance: QA tests, Quantitation and Spectroscopy.

    Robert M. Zucker 1 and Jeremy M. Lerner 2,
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research Development, U.S. Environmen...

  2. Quantitative single-molecule imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vukojevic, Vladana; Heidkamp, Marcus; Ming, Yu; Johansson, Björn; Terenius, Lars; Rigler, Rudolf

    2008-11-25

    A new approach to quantitative single-molecule imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is presented. It relies on fluorescence intensity distribution to analyze the molecular occurrence statistics captured by digital imaging and enables direct determination of the number of fluorescent molecules and their diffusion rates without resorting to temporal or spatial autocorrelation analyses. Digital images of fluorescent molecules were recorded by using fast scanning and avalanche photodiode detectors. In this way the signal-to-background ratio was significantly improved, enabling direct quantitative imaging by CLSM. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by using standard solutions of fluorescent dyes, fluorescently labeled DNA molecules, quantum dots, and the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein in solution and in live cells. The method was verified by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The relevance for biological applications, in particular, for live cell imaging, is discussed.

  3. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: FOUNDATIONS FOR MEASUREMENTS, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of the emitted signal. The accuracy of these measurements demands t...

  4. Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-12-01

    The confocal microscope is appropriate for imaging cells or the measurement of industrial artefacts. However, junior researchers and instrument users sometimes misuse imaging concepts and metrological characteristics, such as position resolution in industrial metrology and scale resolution in bio-imaging. And, metrological characteristics or influence factors in 3D measurement such as height assessment error caused by 3D coupling effect are so far not yet identified. In this book, the authors outline their practices by the working experiences on standardization and system design. This book assumes little previous knowledge of optics, but rich experience in engineering of industrial measurements, in particular with profile metrology or areal surface topography will be very helpful to understand the theoretical concerns and value of the technological advances. It should be useful for graduate students or researchers as extended reading material, as well as microscope users alongside their handbook.

  5. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: FOUNDATIONS FOR CALIBRATION, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of emitted signals. The accuracy of these measurements demands that...

  6. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: SPECTROSCOPY AND FOUNDATIONS FOR QUANTITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The reliability of the CLSM to obtain specific measurements and quantify fluorescence data is dependent on using a correctly aligned machine that contains a stable laser power. For man...

  7. Fluorescence (Multiwave) Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Welzel, J; Kästle, Raphaela; Sattler, Elke C

    2016-10-01

    In addition to reflectance confocal microscopy, multiwave confocal microscopes with different laser wavelengths in combination with exogenous fluorophores allow fluorescence mode confocal microscopy in vivo and ex vivo. Fluorescence mode confocal microscopy improves the contrast between the epithelium and the surrounding soft tissue and allows the depiction of certain structures, like epithelial tumors, nerves, and glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative confocal fluorescence microscopy of dynamic processes by multifocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krmpot, Aleksandar J.; Nikolić, Stanko N.; Vitali, Marco; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Oasa, Sho; Thyberg, Per; Tisa, Simone; Kinjo, Masataka; Nilsson, Lennart; Gehring, Walter J.; Terenius, Lars; Rigler, Rudolf; Vukojevic, Vladana

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging without scanning is developed for the study of fast dynamical processes. The method relies on the use of massively parallel Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (mpFCS). Simultaneous excitation of fluorescent molecules across the specimen is achieved by passing a single laser beam through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to generate a quadratic illumination matrix of 32×32 light sources. Fluorescence from 1024 illuminated spots is detected in a confocal arrangement by a matching matrix detector consisting of the same number of single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs). Software was developed for data acquisition and fast autoand cross-correlation analysis by parallel signal processing using a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). Instrumental performance was assessed using a conventional single-beam FCS instrument as a reference. Versatility of the approach for application in biomedical research was evaluated using ex vivo salivary glands from Drosophila third instar larvae expressing a fluorescently-tagged transcription factor Sex Combs Reduced (Scr) and live PC12 cells stably expressing the fluorescently tagged mu-opioid receptor (MOPeGFP). We show that quantitative mapping of local concentration and mobility of transcription factor molecules across the specimen can be achieved using this approach, which paves the way for future quantitative characterization of dynamical reaction-diffusion landscapes across live cells/tissue with a submillisecond temporal resolution (presently 21 μs/frame) and single-molecule sensitivity.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Subcellular Distribution of the SUMO Conjugation System by Confocal Microscopy Imaging.

    PubMed

    Mas, Abraham; Amenós, Montse; Lois, L Maria

    2016-01-01

    Different studies point to an enrichment in SUMO conjugation in the cell nucleus, although non-nuclear SUMO targets also exist. In general, the study of subcellular localization of proteins is essential for understanding their function within a cell. Fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for studying subcellular protein partitioning in living cells, since fluorescent proteins can be fused to proteins of interest to determine their localization. Subcellular distribution of proteins can be influenced by binding to other biomolecules and by posttranslational modifications. Sometimes these changes affect only a portion of the protein pool or have a partial effect, and a quantitative evaluation of fluorescence images is required to identify protein redistribution among subcellular compartments. In order to obtain accurate data about the relative subcellular distribution of SUMO conjugation machinery members, and to identify the molecular determinants involved in their localization, we have applied quantitative confocal microscopy imaging. In this chapter, we will describe the fluorescent protein fusions used in these experiments, and how to measure, evaluate, and compare average fluorescence intensities in cellular compartments by image-based analysis. We show the distribution of some components of the Arabidopsis SUMOylation machinery in epidermal onion cells and how they change their distribution in the presence of interacting partners or even when its activity is affected.

  10. Three-dimensional visualization and quantitation of fibrin in solid tumors by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Biggerstaff, J; Amirkhosravi, A; Francis, J L

    1997-10-01

    Fibrin forms part of the stroma essential for growth of solid tumors. Anticoagulants reduce primary tumor growth and tumor metastasis in murine and some human tumors. These effects may be partly mediated by reduction of intra-tumor fibrin, although there are no quantitative data to support this hypothesis. We therefore evaluated the effect of warfarin on fibrin deposition in a subcutaneously (s.c.) implanted murine tumor using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). AJ mice received no treatment (n = 6) or sodium warfarin (3.5 mg/L in drinking water, n = 5). All animals received 2 x 10(6) syngeneic Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells s.c. After 14 days, primary tumors were excised and placed in liquid nitrogen. Warfarin treatment resulted in a small, but significant (P < 0.05), decrease in wet tumor weight. Frozen sections (20 microns) were incubated with goat anti-mouse fibrin(ogen) or normal goat serum (isotypic control) and stained with FITC-conjugated rabbit anti-goat antibody. Using a Multiprobe 2001 CLSM (Molecular Dynamics, Sunnyvale, CA), 20 serial optical sections were taken from five, randomly chosen, high power fields (60x objective) for each slide. A threshold excluded all fluorescence except that from structural components within the tumor stroma (fibrin). The volume of fibrin in each section series was determined, and the percentage of tumor volume occupied by fibrin calculated. Intra- and inter-assay variation were assessed on serial frozen tumor sections from an untreated animal. The percentage fibrin volume was not significantly different among or within experiments, indicating that the procedure was reproducible. In controls, the median (range) volume occupied by fibrin was 8.1% (2.4-22.3%), whereas in anticoagulated animals, this was reduced to 3.7% (0.4-14.0%; P < 0.001). This is the first quantitative demonstration that warfarin reduces fibrin deposition in solid tumors. We conclude that three-dimensional CLSM is useful for the quantitation of

  11. Fluorescence confocal microscopy for pathologists.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on

  12. Quantitative spatial distribution of sirolimus and polymers in drug-eluting stents using confocal Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Balss, K M; Llanos, G; Papandreou, G; Maryanoff, C A

    2008-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to differentiate each component found in the CYPHER Sirolimus-eluting Coronary Stent. The unique spectral features identified for each component were then used to develop three separate calibration curves to describe the solid phase distribution found on drug-polymer coated stents. The calibration curves were obtained by analyzing confocal Raman spectral depth profiles from a set of 16 unique formulations of drug-polymer coatings sprayed onto stents and planar substrates. The sirolimus model was linear from 0 to 100 wt % of drug. The individual polymer calibration curves for poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) [PEVA] and poly(n-butyl methacrylate) [PBMA] were also linear from 0 to 100 wt %. The calibration curves were tested on three independent drug-polymer coated stents. The sirolimus calibration predicted the drug content within 1 wt % of the laboratory assay value. The polymer calibrations predicted the content within 7 wt % of the formulation solution content. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra from five formulations confirmed a linear response to changes in sirolimus and polymer content. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quantitative Confocal Microscopy Analysis as a Basis for Search and Study of Potassium Kv1.x Channel Blockers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanov, Alexey V.; Kudryashova, Kseniya S.; Nekrasova, Oksana V.; Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Kuzmenkov, Alexey I.; Korolkova, Yuliya V.; Grishin, Eugene V.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.

    Artificial KcsA-Kv1.x (x = 1, 3) receptors were recently designed by transferring the ligand-binding site from human Kv1.x voltage-gated potassium channels into corresponding domain of the bacterial KscA channel. We found that KcsA-Kv1.x receptors expressed in E. coli cells are embedded into cell membrane and bind ligands when the cells are transformed to spheroplasts. We supposed that E. coli spheroplasts with membrane-embedded KcsA-Kv1.x and fluorescently labeled ligand agitoxin-2 (R-AgTx2) can be used as elements of an advanced analytical system for search and study of Kv1-channel blockers. To realize this idea, special procedures were developed for measurement and quantitative treatment of fluorescence signals obtained from spheroplast membrane using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The worked out analytical "mix and read" systems supported by quantitative CLSM analysis were demonstrated to be reliable alternative to radioligand and electrophysiology techniques in the search and study of selective Kv1.x channel blockers of high scientific and medical importance.

  14. Comparative quantitative assessment of the human corneal sub-basal nerve plexus by in vivo confocal microscopy and histological staining.

    PubMed

    Kowtharapu, B S; Winter, K; Marfurt, C; Allgeier, S; Köhler, B; Hovakimyan, M; Stahnke, T; Wree, A; Stachs, O; Guthoff, R F

    2017-03-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to compare and contrast quantitative data of the human corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SBP) evaluated by two different methods: in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), and immunohistochemical staining of ex vivo donor corneas.MethodsSeven parameters of the SBP in large-scale IVCM mosaicking images from healthy subjects were compared with the identical parameters in ex vivo donor corneas stained by β-III-tubulin immunohistochemistry. Corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), corneal nerve branch density (CNBD), average weighted corneal nerve fiber tortuosity (CNFTo), corneal nerve connection points (CNCP), average corneal nerve single-fiber length (CNSFL), and average weighted corneal nerve fiber thickness (CNFTh) were calculated using a dedicated, published algorithm and compared.ResultsOur experiments showed significantly higher values for CNFL (50.2 vs 21.4 mm/mm 2 ), CNFD (1358.8 vs 277.3 nerve fibers/mm 2 ), CNBD (847.6 vs 163.5 branches/mm 2 ), CNFTo (0.095 vs 0.081 μm -1 ), and CNCP (49.4 vs 21.6 connections/mm 2 ) in histologically staining specimens compared with IVCM images. In contrast, CNSFL values were higher in IVCM images than in histological specimens (32.1 vs 74.1 μm). No significant difference was observed in CNFTh (2.22 vs 2.20 μm) between the two groups.ConclusionsThe results of this study have shown that IVCM has an inherently lower resolution compared with ex vivo immunohistochemical staining of the corneal SBP and that this limitation leads to a systematic underestimation of several SBP parameters. Despite this shortcoming, IVCM is a vital clinical tool for in vivo characterization, quantitative clinical imaging, and evaluation of the human corneal SBP.

  15. Correlative atomic force microscopy quantitative imaging-laser scanning confocal microscopy quantifies the impact of stressors on live cells in real-time.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Supriya V; Sultana, Taranum; Körnig, André; McGrath, Seamus; Shahina, Zinnat; Dahms, Tanya E S

    2018-05-29

    There is an urgent need to assess the effect of anthropogenic chemicals on model cells prior to their release, helping to predict their potential impact on the environment and human health. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have each provided an abundance of information on cell physiology. In addition to determining surface architecture, AFM in quantitative imaging (QI) mode probes surface biochemistry and cellular mechanics using minimal applied force, while LSCM offers a window into the cell for imaging fluorescently tagged macromolecules. Correlative AFM-LSCM produces complimentary information on different cellular characteristics for a comprehensive picture of cellular behaviour. We present a correlative AFM-QI-LSCM assay for the simultaneous real-time imaging of living cells in situ, producing multiplexed data on cell morphology and mechanics, surface adhesion and ultrastructure, and real-time localization of multiple fluorescently tagged macromolecules. To demonstrate the broad applicability of this method for disparate cell types, we show altered surface properties, internal molecular arrangement and oxidative stress in model bacterial, fungal and human cells exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. AFM-QI-LSCM is broadly applicable to a variety of cell types and can be used to assess the impact of any multitude of contaminants, alone or in combination.

  16. Confocal Raman Microscopy for pH-Gradient Preconcentration and Quantitative Analyte Detection in Optically Trapped Phospholipid Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Chris D; Harris, Joel M

    2015-08-04

    The ability of a vesicle membrane to preserve a pH gradient, while allowing for diffusion of neutral molecules across the phospholipid bilayer, can provide the isolation and preconcentration of ionizable compounds within the vesicle interior. In this work, confocal Raman microscopy is used to observe (in situ) the pH-gradient preconcentration of compounds into individual optically trapped vesicles that provide sub-femtoliter collectors for small-volume samples. The concentration of analyte accumulated in the vesicle interior is determined relative to a perchlorate-ion internal standard, preloaded into the vesicle along with a high-concentration buffer. As a guide to the experiments, a model for the transfer of analyte into the vesicle based on acid-base equilibria is developed to predict the concentration enrichment as a function of source-phase pH and analyte concentration. To test the concept, the accumulation of benzyldimethylamine (BDMA) was measured within individual 1 μm phospholipid vesicles having a stable initial pH that is 7 units lower than the source phase. For low analyte concentrations in the source phase (100 nM), a concentration enrichment into the vesicle interior of (5.2 ± 0.4) × 10(5) was observed, in agreement with the model predictions. Detection of BDMA from a 25 nM source-phase sample was demonstrated, a noteworthy result for an unenhanced Raman scattering measurement. The developed model accurately predicts the falloff of enrichment (and measurement sensitivity) at higher analyte concentrations, where the transfer of greater amounts of BDMA into the vesicle titrates the internal buffer and decreases the pH gradient. The predictable calibration response over 4 orders of magnitude in source-phase concentration makes it suitable for quantitative analysis of ionizable compounds from small-volume samples. The kinetics of analyte accumulation are relatively fast (∼15 min) and are consistent with the rate of transfer of a polar aromatic

  17. Confocal microscopy imaging of the biofilm matrix.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Meyer, Rikke L

    2017-07-01

    The extracellular matrix is an integral part of microbial biofilms and an important field of research. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a valuable tool for the study of biofilms, and in particular of the biofilm matrix, as it allows real-time visualization of fully hydrated, living specimens. Confocal microscopes are held by many research groups, and a number of methods for qualitative and quantitative imaging of the matrix have emerged in recent years. This review provides an overview and a critical discussion of techniques used to visualize different matrix compounds, to determine the concentration of solutes and the diffusive properties of the biofilm matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of Gas-Metal-Oxide Mass Transfer in High-Temperature Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piva, Stephano P. T.; Pistorius, P. Chris; Webler, Bryan A.

    2018-05-01

    During high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscopy (HT-CSLM) of liquid steel samples, thermal Marangoni flow and rapid mass transfer between the sample and its surroundings occur due to the relatively small sample size (diameter around 5 mm) and large temperature gradients. The resulting evaporation and steel-slag reactions tend to change the chemical composition in the metal. Such mass transfer effects can change observed nonmetallic inclusions. This work quantifies oxide-metal-gas mass transfer of solutes during HT-CSLM experiments using computational simulations and experimental data for (1) dissolution of MgO inclusions in the presence and absence of slag and (2) Ca, Mg-silicate inclusion changes upon exposure of a Si-Mn-killed steel to an oxidizing gas atmosphere.

  19. Automatic analysis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy using multi-scale quantitative morphology of nerve fibres in corneal confocal microscopy imaging.

    PubMed

    Dabbah, M A; Graham, J; Petropoulos, I N; Tavakoli, M; Malik, R A

    2011-10-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common long term complications of diabetes. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) image analysis is a novel non-invasive technique which quantifies corneal nerve fibre damage and enables diagnosis of DPN. This paper presents an automatic analysis and classification system for detecting nerve fibres in CCM images based on a multi-scale adaptive dual-model detection algorithm. The algorithm exploits the curvilinear structure of the nerve fibres and adapts itself to the local image information. Detected nerve fibres are then quantified and used as feature vectors for classification using random forest (RF) and neural networks (NNT) classifiers. We show, in a comparative study with other well known curvilinear detectors, that the best performance is achieved by the multi-scale dual model in conjunction with the NNT classifier. An evaluation of clinical effectiveness shows that the performance of the automated system matches that of ground-truth defined by expert manual annotation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of emitted signals. The accuracy of these measurements demands that...

  1. Multidepth imaging by chromatic dispersion confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsovsky, Cory A.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Saldua, Meagan A.; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Applegate, Brian E.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2012-03-01

    Confocal microscopy has shown potential as an imaging technique to detect precancer. Imaging cellular features throughout the depth of epithelial tissue may provide useful information for diagnosis. However, the current in vivo axial scanning techniques for confocal microscopy are cumbersome, time-consuming, and restrictive when attempting to reconstruct volumetric images acquired in breathing patients. Chromatic dispersion confocal microscopy (CDCM) exploits severe longitudinal chromatic aberration in the system to axially disperse light from a broadband source and, ultimately, spectrally encode high resolution images along the depth of the object. Hyperchromat lenses are designed to have severe and linear longitudinal chromatic aberration, but have not yet been used in confocal microscopy. We use a hyperchromat lens in a stage scanning confocal microscope to demonstrate the capability to simultaneously capture information at multiple depths without mechanical scanning. A photonic crystal fiber pumped with a 830nm wavelength Ti:Sapphire laser was used as a supercontinuum source, and a spectrometer was used as the detector. The chromatic aberration and magnification in the system give a focal shift of 140μm after the objective lens and an axial resolution of 5.2-7.6μm over the wavelength range from 585nm to 830nm. A 400x400x140μm3 volume of pig cheek epithelium was imaged in a single X-Y scan. Nuclei can be seen at several depths within the epithelium. The capability of this technique to achieve simultaneous high resolution confocal imaging at multiple depths may reduce imaging time and motion artifacts and enable volumetric reconstruction of in vivo confocal images of the epithelium.

  2. Confocal microscopy imaging of solid tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a technique that is capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer acquired images as a virtual 3-dimensional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning ...

  3. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: AXIAL RESOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Confocal Microscopy System Performance: Axial resolution.
    Robert M. Zucker, PhD

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Re...

  4. Confocal filtering in cathodoluminescence microscopy of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narváez, Angela C.; Weppelman, I. Gerward C.; Moerland, Robert J.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Kruit, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy allows optical characterization of nanostructures at high spatial resolution. At the nanoscale, a main challenge of the technique is related to the background CL generated within the sample substrate. Here, we implement confocal detection of the CL signal to minimize the background contribution to the measurement. Nano-phosphors were used as point sources to evaluate the filtering capabilities of our confocal CL system, obtaining an axial intensity profile with 2.7 μm full width at half maximum for the central peak, in good correspondence with theoretical expectations. Considering the electron interaction volume, we found that the confocal filter becomes effective for electron energies above 20 keV, when using a 25 μm pinhole (0.86 Airy units). To illustrate our approach, we present confocal CL imaging of gold nanowires and triangular shaped plates deposited on an indium-tin oxide covered glass substrate, comparing the images with those obtained in standard unfiltered CL detection. The results show that confocal CL microscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of nanostructures on highly cathodoluminescent substrates, widely used in biological and optical applications.

  5. Confocal filtering in cathodoluminescence microscopy of nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Narváez, Angela C., E-mail: a.c.narvaez@tudelft.nl, E-mail: j.p.hoogenboom@tudelft.nl; Weppelman, I. Gerward C.; Moerland, Robert J.

    2014-06-23

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy allows optical characterization of nanostructures at high spatial resolution. At the nanoscale, a main challenge of the technique is related to the background CL generated within the sample substrate. Here, we implement confocal detection of the CL signal to minimize the background contribution to the measurement. Nano-phosphors were used as point sources to evaluate the filtering capabilities of our confocal CL system, obtaining an axial intensity profile with 2.7 μm full width at half maximum for the central peak, in good correspondence with theoretical expectations. Considering the electron interaction volume, we found that the confocal filter becomes effectivemore » for electron energies above 20 keV, when using a 25 μm pinhole (0.86 Airy units). To illustrate our approach, we present confocal CL imaging of gold nanowires and triangular shaped plates deposited on an indium-tin oxide covered glass substrate, comparing the images with those obtained in standard unfiltered CL detection. The results show that confocal CL microscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of nanostructures on highly cathodoluminescent substrates, widely used in biological and optical applications.« less

  6. Correlative Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy and Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Soeller, Christian; Hou, Yufeng; Jayasinghe, Isuru D; Baddeley, David; Crossman, David

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy allows the ability to image fluorescence labeled molecular targets at nanoscale resolution. However, for many biological questions the ability to provide tissue and cellular context in addition to these high resolution data is eminently informative. Here, we describe a procedure to achieve this aim by correlatively imaging human cardiac tissue first at the nanoscale with direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) and then at the diffraction limit with conventional confocal microscopy.

  7. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Lentigo Maligna.

    PubMed

    Gamo, R; Pampín, A; Floristán, U

    2016-12-01

    Lentigo maligna is the most common type of facial melanoma. Diagnosis is complicated, however, as it shares clinical and dermoscopic characteristics with other cutaneous lesions of the face. Reflectance confocal microscopy is an imaging technique that permits the visualization of characteristic features of lentigo maligna. These include a disrupted honeycomb pattern and pagetoid cells with a tendency to show folliculotropism. These cells typically have a dendritic morphology, although they may also appear as round cells measuring over 20μm with atypical nuclei. Poorly defined dermal papillae and atypical cells may be seen at the dermal-epidermal junction and can form bridges resembling mitochondrial structures. Other characteristic findings include junctional swelling with atypical cells located around the follicles, resembling caput medusae. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a very useful tool for diagnosing lentigo maligna. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal pupil design for confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Yogesh G.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2010-02-01

    Confocal reflectance microscopy may enable screening and diagnosis of skin cancers noninvasively and in real-time, as an adjunct to biopsy and pathology. Current instruments are large, complex, and expensive. A simpler, confocal line-scanning microscope may accelerate the translation of confocal microscopy in clinical and surgical dermatology. A confocal reflectance microscope may use a beamsplitter, transmitting and detecting through the pupil, or a divided pupil, or theta configuration, with half used for transmission and half for detection. The divided pupil may offer better sectioning and contrast. We present a Fourier optics model and compare the on-axis irradiance of a confocal point-scanning microscope in both pupil configurations, optimizing the profile of a Gaussian beam in a circular or semicircular aperture. We repeat both calculations with a cylindrical lens which focuses the source to a line. The variable parameter is the fillfactor, h, the ratio of the 1/e2 diameter of the Gaussian beam to the diameter of the full aperture. The optimal values of h, for point scanning are 0.90 (full) and 0.66 for the half-aperture. For line-scanning, the fill-factors are 1.02 (full) and 0.52 (half). Additional parameters to consider are the optimal location of the point-source beam in the divided-pupil configuration, the optimal line width for the line-source, and the width of the aperture in the divided-pupil configuration. Additional figures of merit are field-of-view and sectioning. Use of optimal designs is critical in comparing the experimental performance of the different configurations.

  9. Characterization of Polymer Blends: Optical Microscopy (*Polarized, Interference and Phase Contrast Microscopy*) and Confocal Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan; Darling, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Chapter 15 surveys the characterization of macro, micro and meso morphologies of polymer blends by optical microscopy. Confocal Microscopy offers the ability to view the three dimensional morphology of polymer blends, popular in characterization of biological systems. Confocal microscopy uses point illumination and a spatial pinhole to eliminate out-of focus light in samples that are thicker than the focal plane.

  10. EVALUATION OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: PRETTY PICTURES OR CONFOCAL QA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of confocal microscopy system performance: Pretty pictures or confocal QA?

    Robert M. Zucker

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N...

  11. Determination of the Subcellular Distribution of Liposomes Using Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Melani A

    2017-01-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that therapeutics need to be delivered to specific organelle targets within cells. Liposomes are versatile lipid-based drug delivery vehicles that can be surface-modified to deliver the loaded cargo to specific subcellular locations within the cell. Hence, the development of such technology requires a means of measuring the subcellular distribution possibly by utilizing imaging techniques that can visualize and quantitate the extent of this subcellular localization. The apparent increase of resolution along the Z-axis offered by confocal microscopy makes this technique suitable for such studies. In this chapter, we describe the application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to determine the subcellular distribution of fluorescently labeled mitochondriotropic liposomes.

  12. Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM): Combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Flaberg, Emilie; Sabelström, Per; Strandh, Christer; Szekely, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Background Confocal laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized cell biology. However, the technique has major limitations in speed and sensitivity due to the fact that a single laser beam scans the sample, allowing only a few microseconds signal collection for each pixel. This limitation has been overcome by the introduction of parallel beam illumination techniques in combination with cold CCD camera based image capture. Methods Using the combination of microlens enhanced Nipkow spinning disc confocal illumination together with fully automated image capture and large scale in silico image processing we have developed a system allowing the acquisition, presentation and analysis of maximum resolution confocal panorama images of several Gigapixel size. We call the method Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM). Results We show using the EFLCM technique that it is possible to create a continuous confocal multi-colour mosaic from thousands of individually captured images. EFLCM can digitize and analyze histological slides, sections of entire rodent organ and full size embryos. It can also record hundreds of thousands cultured cells at multiple wavelength in single event or time-lapse fashion on fixed slides, in live cell imaging chambers or microtiter plates. Conclusion The observer independent image capture of EFLCM allows quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensities and morphological parameters on a large number of cells. EFLCM therefore bridges the gap between the mainly illustrative fluorescence microscopy and purely quantitative flow cytometry. EFLCM can also be used as high content analysis (HCA) instrument for automated screening processes. PMID:18627634

  13. Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM): combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy.

    PubMed

    Flaberg, Emilie; Sabelström, Per; Strandh, Christer; Szekely, Laszlo

    2008-07-16

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized cell biology. However, the technique has major limitations in speed and sensitivity due to the fact that a single laser beam scans the sample, allowing only a few microseconds signal collection for each pixel. This limitation has been overcome by the introduction of parallel beam illumination techniques in combination with cold CCD camera based image capture. Using the combination of microlens enhanced Nipkow spinning disc confocal illumination together with fully automated image capture and large scale in silico image processing we have developed a system allowing the acquisition, presentation and analysis of maximum resolution confocal panorama images of several Gigapixel size. We call the method Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM). We show using the EFLCM technique that it is possible to create a continuous confocal multi-colour mosaic from thousands of individually captured images. EFLCM can digitize and analyze histological slides, sections of entire rodent organ and full size embryos. It can also record hundreds of thousands cultured cells at multiple wavelength in single event or time-lapse fashion on fixed slides, in live cell imaging chambers or microtiter plates. The observer independent image capture of EFLCM allows quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensities and morphological parameters on a large number of cells. EFLCM therefore bridges the gap between the mainly illustrative fluorescence microscopy and purely quantitative flow cytometry. EFLCM can also be used as high content analysis (HCA) instrument for automated screening processes.

  14. Automated cellular pathology in noninvasive confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Monica; Krueger, James; Gareau, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    A computer algorithm was developed to automatically identify and count melanocytes and keratinocytes in 3D reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) images of the skin. Computerized pathology increases our understanding and enables prevention of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). Machine learning involved looking at the images to measure the size of cells through a 2-D Fourier transform and developing an appropriate mask with the erf() function to model the cells. Implementation involved processing the images to identify cells whose image segments provided the least difference when subtracted from the mask. With further simplification of the algorithm, the program may be directly implemented on the RCM images to indicate the presence of keratinocytes in seconds and to quantify the keratinocytes size in the en face plane as a function of depth. Using this system, the algorithm can identify any irregularities in maturation and differentiation of keratinocytes, thereby signaling the possible presence of cancer.

  15. Deep stroma investigation by confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Valente, Paola; Ardia, Roberta; Buzzonetti, Luca; Canovetti, Annalisa; Malandrini, Alex; Lenzetti, Ivo; Menabuoni, Luca

    2015-03-01

    Laser assisted keratoplasty is nowadays largely used to perform minimally invasive surgery and partial thickness keratoplasty [1-3]. The use of the femtosecond laser enables to perform a customized surgery, solving the specific problem of the single patient, designing new graft profiles and partial thickness keratoplasty (PTK). The common characteristics of the PTKs and that make them eligible respect to the standard penetrating keratoplasty, are: the preservation of eyeball integrity, a reduced risk of graft rejection, a controlled postoperative astigmatism. On the other hand, the optimal surgical results after these PTKs are related to a correct comprehension of the deep stroma layers morphology, which can help in the identification of the correct cleavage plane during surgeries. In the last years some studies were published, giving new insights about the posterior stroma morphology in adult subjects [4,5]. In this work we present a study performed on two groups of tissues: one group is from 20 adult subjects aged 59 +/- 18 y.o., and the other group is from 15 young subjects, aged 12+/-5 y.o.. The samples were from tissues not suitable for transplant in patients. Confocal microscopy and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were used for the analysis of the deep stroma. The preliminary results of this analysis show the main differences in between young and adult tissues, enabling to improve the knowledge of the morphology and of the biomechanical properties of human cornea, in order to improve the surgical results in partial thickness keratoplasty.

  16. Biological applications of confocal fluorescence polarization microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Chad E.

    Fluorescence polarization microscopy is a powerful modality capable of sensing changes in the physical properties and local environment of fluorophores. In this thesis we present new applications for the technique in cancer diagnosis and treatment and explore the limits of the modality in scattering media. We describe modifications to our custom-built confocal fluorescence microscope that enable dual-color imaging, optical fiber-based confocal spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization imaging. Experiments are presented that indicate the performance of the instrument for all three modalities. The limits of confocal fluorescence polarization imaging in scattering media are explored and the microscope parameters necessary for accurate polarization images in this regime are determined. A Monte Carlo routine is developed to model the effect of scattering on images. Included in it are routines to track the polarization state of light using the Mueller-Stokes formalism and a model for fluorescence generation that includes sampling the excitation light polarization ellipse, Brownian motion of excited-state fluorophores in solution, and dipole fluorophore emission. Results from this model are compared to experiments performed on a fluorophore-embedded polymer rod in a turbid medium consisting of polystyrene microspheres in aqueous suspension. We demonstrate the utility of the fluorescence polarization imaging technique for removal of contaminating autofluorescence and for imaging photodynamic therapy drugs in cell monolayers. Images of cells expressing green fluorescent protein are extracted from contaminating fluorescein emission. The distribution of meta-tetrahydroxypheny1chlorin in an EMT6 cell monolayer is also presented. A new technique for imaging enzyme activity is presented that is based on observing changes in the anisotropy of fluorescently-labeled substrates. Proof-of-principle studies are performed in a model system consisting of fluorescently labeled bovine

  17. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Giulia M.R.; Breedijk, Ronald M.P.; Brandt, Rick A.J.; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H.C.; de Jong, Babette E.; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A.; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required. PMID:24298422

  18. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  19. ConfocalVR: Immersive Visualization Applied to Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Caroline; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Skillman, Thomas

    2018-06-24

    ConfocalVR is a virtual reality (VR) application created to improve the ability of researchers to study the complexity of cell architecture. Confocal microscopes take pictures of fluorescently labeled proteins or molecules at different focal planes to create a stack of 2D images throughout the specimen. Current software applications reconstruct the 3D image and render it as a 2D projection onto a computer screen where users need to rotate the image to expose the full 3D structure. This process is mentally taxing, breaks down if you stop the rotation, and does not take advantage of the eye's full field of view. ConfocalVR exploits consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) systems to fully immerse the user in the 3D cellular image. In this virtual environment the user can: 1) adjust image viewing parameters without leaving the virtual space, 2) reach out and grab the image to quickly rotate and scale the image to focus on key features, and 3) interact with other users in a shared virtual space enabling real-time collaborative exploration and discussion. We found that immersive VR technology allows the user to rapidly understand cellular architecture and protein or molecule distribution. We note that it is impossible to understand the value of immersive visualization without experiencing it first hand, so we encourage readers to get access to a VR system, download this software, and evaluate it for yourself. The ConfocalVR software is available for download at http://www.confocalvr.com, and is free for nonprofits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Digital differential confocal microscopy based on spatial shift transformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Wang, Y; Liu, C; Wilson, T; Wang, H; Tan, J

    2014-11-01

    Differential confocal microscopy is a particularly powerful surface profilometry technique in industrial metrology due to its high axial sensitivity and insensitivity to noise. However, the practical implementation of the technique requires the accurate positioning of point detectors in three-dimensions. We describe a simple alternative based on spatial transformation of a through-focus series of images obtained from a homemade beam scanning confocal microscope. This digital differential confocal microscopy approach is described and compared with the traditional Differential confocal microscopy approach. The ease of use of the digital differential confocal microscopy system is illustrated by performing measurements on a 3D standard specimen. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. 4Pi-confocal microscopy of live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlmann, Karsten; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W.

    2002-06-01

    By coherently adding the spherical wavefronts of two opposing lenses, two-photon excitation 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscopy has achieved three-dimensional imaging with an axial resolution 3-7 times better than confocal microscopy. So far this improvement was possible only in glycerol-mounted, fixed cells. Here we report 4Pi-confocal microscopy of watery objects and its application to the imaging of live cells. Water immersion 4Pi-confocal microscopy of membrane stained live Escherichia coli bacteria attains a 4.3 fold better axial resolution as compared to the best water immersion confocal microscope. The resolution enhancement results into a vastly improved three-dimensional representation of the bacteria. The first images of live biological samples with an all-directional resolution in the 190-280 nm range are presented here, thus establishing a new resolution benchmark in live cell microscopy.

  2. 3D Image Analysis of Geomaterials using Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulukutla, G.; Proussevitch, A.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is one of the most significant advances in optical microscopy of the last century. It is widely used in biological sciences but its application to geomaterials lingers due to a number of technical problems. Potentially the technique can perform non-invasive testing on a laser illuminated sample that fluoresces using a unique optical sectioning capability that rejects out-of-focus light reaching the confocal aperture. Fluorescence in geomaterials is commonly induced using epoxy doped with a fluorochrome that is impregnated into the sample to enable discrimination of various features such as void space or material boundaries. However, for many geomaterials, this method cannot be used because they do not naturally fluoresce and because epoxy cannot be impregnated into inaccessible parts of the sample due to lack of permeability. As a result, the confocal images of most geomaterials that have not been pre-processed with extensive sample preparation techniques are of poor quality and lack the necessary image and edge contrast necessary to apply any commonly used segmentation techniques to conduct any quantitative study of its features such as vesicularity, internal structure, etc. In our present work, we are developing a methodology to conduct a quantitative 3D analysis of images of geomaterials collected using a confocal microscope with minimal amount of prior sample preparation and no addition of fluorescence. Two sample geomaterials, a volcanic melt sample and a crystal chip containing fluid inclusions are used to assess the feasibility of the method. A step-by-step process of image analysis includes application of image filtration to enhance the edges or material interfaces and is based on two segmentation techniques: geodesic active contours and region competition. Both techniques have been applied extensively to the analysis of medical MRI images to segment anatomical structures. Preliminary analysis suggests that there is distortion in the

  3. EVALUATION OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND. The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. Currently there is a subjective nature in the assessment of a confocal microscope's performance by primarily evaluating the system with a specific test slide provided by ea...

  4. Quantification of transendothelial migration using three-dimensional confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cain, Robert J; d'Água, Bárbara Borda; Ridley, Anne J

    2011-01-01

    Migration of cells across endothelial barriers, termed transendothelial migration (TEM), is an important cellular process that underpins the pathology of many disease states including chronic inflammation and cancer metastasis. While this process can be modeled in vitro using cultured cells, many model systems are unable to provide detailed visual information of cell morphologies and distribution of proteins such as junctional markers, as well as quantitative data on the rate of TEM. Improvements in imaging techniques have made microscopy-based assays an invaluable tool for studying this type of detailed cell movement in physiological processes. In this chapter, we describe a confocal microscopy-based method that can be used to assess TEM of both leukocytes and cancer cells across endothelial barriers in response to a chemotactic gradient, as well as providing information on their migration into a subendothelial extracellular matrix, designed to mimic that found in vivo.

  5. Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy of Mung Beanleaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Liu, Dongwu

    Recently, confocal microscope has become a routine technique and indispensable tool for cell biological studies and molecular investigations. The light emitted from the point out-of-focus is blocked by the pinhole and can not reach the detector, which is one of the critical features of the confocal microscope. In present studies, the probes acridine orange (AO) and rhodamine-123 were used to research stoma and mitochondria of mung bean leaves, respectively. The results indicated that the stomatal guard cells and mitochondria were clearly seen in epidermic tissue of mung bean leaves. Taken together, it is a good method to research plant cells with confocal microscope and fluorescence probes.

  6. UNC Pembroke Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-29

    cultures. INVASIVE FIRE ANTS Professor Lisa Kelly of UNC Pembroke has been trained on the new confocal system. Dr. Kelly’s research...interest in the trophic ecology of the invasive fire ant has begun to benefit from the wide field view and long working distances of a confocal imaging...of protein clearance pathways in living brain tissue cultures. INVASIVE FIRE ANTS Professor Lisa Kelly of UNC Pembroke has been trained on

  7. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF RAT FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to study follicular development in millimeter pieces of rat ovary. To use this technology, it is essential to stain the tissue before laser excitation with the confocal microscope. Various fluorescent stains (Yo-Pro, Bo-Pr...

  8. Live-cell confocal microscopy and quantitative 4D image analysis of anchor cell invasion through the basement membrane in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Laura C.; Wang, Zheng; Hagedorn, Elliott J.; Wang, Lin; Shen, Wanqing; Lei, Shijun; Johnson, Sam A.; Sherwood, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) barriers is crucial during development, leukocyte trafficking, and for the spread of cancer. Despite its importance in normal and diseased states, the mechanisms that direct invasion are poorly understood, in large part because of the inability to visualize dynamic cell-basement membrane interactions in vivo. This protocol describes multi-channel time-lapse confocal imaging of anchor cell invasion in live C. elegans. Methods presented include outline slide preparation and worm growth synchronization (15 min), mounting (20 min), image acquisition (20-180 min), image processing (20 min), and quantitative analysis (variable timing). Images acquired enable direct measurement of invasive dynamics including invadopodia formation, cell membrane protrusions, and BM removal. This protocol can be combined with genetic analysis, molecular activity probes, and optogenetic approaches to uncover molecular mechanisms underlying cell invasion. These methods can also be readily adapted for real-time analysis of cell migration, basement membrane turnover, and cell membrane dynamics by any worm laboratory. PMID:28880279

  9. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  10. Model wavefront sensor for adaptive confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Martin J.; Neil, Mark A. A.; Wilson, Tony

    2000-05-01

    A confocal microscope permits 3D imaging of volume objects by the inclusion of a pinhole in the detector path which eliminates out of focus light. This configuration is however very sensitive to aberrations induced by the specimen or the optical system and would therefore benefit from an adaptive optics approach. We present a wavefront sensor capable of measuring directly the Zernike components of an aberrated wavefront and show that it is particularly applicable to the confocal microscope since only those wavefronts originating in the focal region contribute to the measured aberration.

  11. Deep Tissue Fluorescent Imaging in Scattering Specimens Using Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Clendenon, Sherry G.; Young, Pamela A.; Ferkowicz, Michael; Phillips, Carrie; Dunn, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    In scattering specimens, multiphoton excitation and nondescanned detection improve imaging depth by a factor of 2 or more over confocal microscopy; however, imaging depth is still limited by scattering. We applied the concept of clearing to deep tissue imaging of highly scattering specimens. Clearing is a remarkably effective approach to improving image quality at depth using either confocal or multiphoton microscopy. Tissue clearing appears to eliminate the need for multiphoton excitation for deep tissue imaging. PMID:21729357

  12. Quantitative dispersion microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dan; Choi, Wonshik; Sung, Yongjin; Yaqoob, Zahid; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Refractive index dispersion is an intrinsic optical property and a useful source of contrast in biological imaging studies. In this report, we present the first dispersion phase imaging of living eukaryotic cells. We have developed quantitative dispersion microscopy based on the principle of quantitative phase microscopy. The dual-wavelength quantitative phase microscope makes phase measurements at 310 nm and 400 nm wavelengths to quantify dispersion (refractive index increment ratio) of live cells. The measured dispersion of living HeLa cells is found to be around 1.088, which agrees well with that measured directly for protein solutions using total internal reflection. This technique, together with the dry mass and morphology measurements provided by quantitative phase microscopy, could prove to be a useful tool for distinguishing different types of biomaterials and studying spatial inhomogeneities of biological samples. PMID:21113234

  13. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: LASER POWER MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laser power abstract
    The reliability of the confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) to obtain intensity measurements and quantify fluorescence data is dependent on using a correctly aligned machine that contains a stable laser power. The laser power test appears to be one ...

  14. Signal and noise modeling in confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Herberich, Gerlind; Windoffer, Reinhard; Leube, Rudolf E; Aach, Til

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has revolutionized imaging of subcellular structures in biomedical research by enabling the acquisition of 3D time-series of fluorescently-tagged proteins in living cells, hence forming the basis for an automated quantification of their morphological and dynamic characteristics. Due to the inherently weak fluorescence, CLSM images exhibit a low SNR. We present a novel model for the transfer of signal and noise in CLSM that is both theoretically sound as well as corroborated by a rigorous analysis of the pixel intensity statistics via measurement of the 3D noise power spectra, signal-dependence and distribution. Our model provides a better fit to the data than previously proposed models. Further, it forms the basis for (i) the simulation of the CLSM imaging process indispensable for the quantitative evaluation of CLSM image analysis algorithms, (ii) the application of Poisson denoising algorithms and (iii) the reconstruction of the fluorescence signal.

  15. Visualizing Cochlear Mechanics Using Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfendahl, M.; Boutet de Monvel, J.; Fridberger, A.

    2003-02-01

    The sound-evoked vibration pattern of the hearing organ is based on complex mechanical interactions between different cellular structures. To explore the structural changes occurring within the organ of Corti during basilar-membrane motion, stepwise alterations of the scala tympani pressure were applied in an in vitro preparation of the guinea-pig temporal bone. Confocal images were acquired at each pressure level. In this way, the motion of several structures could be simultaneously observed with high resolution in a nearly intact system. Images were analyzed using a novel wavelet-based optical-flow estimation algorithm. Under the present experimental conditions, the reticular lamina moved as a stiff plate with a center of rotation in the region of the inner hair cells. The outer hair cells appeared non-rigid and the basal, synaptic regions of these cells displayed significant radial motion indicative of cellular bending and internal shearing.

  16. Reflectance confocal microscopy of optical phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Steven L.; Wang, Bo; Samatham, Ravikant

    2012-01-01

    A reflectance confocal scanning laser microscope (rCSLM) operating at 488-nm wavelength imaged three types of optical phantoms: (1) 100-nm-dia. polystyrene microspheres in gel at 2% volume fraction, (2) solid polyurethane phantoms (INO BiomimicTM), and (3) common reflectance standards (SpectralonTM). The noninvasive method measured the exponential decay of reflected signal as the focus (zf) moved deeper into the material. The two experimental values, the attenuation coefficient μ and the pre-exponential factor ρ, were mapped into the material optical scattering properties, the scattering coefficient μs and the anisotropy of scattering g. Results show that μs varies as 58, 8–24, and 130–200 cm-1 for phantom types (1), (2) and (3), respectively. The g varies as 0.112, 0.53–0.67, and 0.003–0.26, respectively. PMID:22741065

  17. Spinning-disk confocal microscopy: present technology and future trends.

    PubMed

    Oreopoulos, John; Berman, Richard; Browne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Live-cell imaging requires not only high temporal resolution but also illumination powers low enough to minimize photodamage. Traditional single-point laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) is generally limited by both the relatively slow speed at which it can acquire optical sections by serial raster scanning (a few Hz) and the higher potential for phototoxicity. These limitations have driven the development of rapid, parallel forms of confocal microscopy, the most popular of which is the spinning-disk confocal microscope (SDCM). Here, we briefly introduce the SDCM technique, discuss its strengths and weaknesses against LSCM, and update the reader on some recent developments in SDCM technology that improve its performance and expand its utility for life science research now and in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Methods to calibrate and scale axial distances in confocal microscopy as a function of refractive index.

    PubMed

    Besseling, T H; Jose, J; Van Blaaderen, A

    2015-02-01

    Accurate distance measurement in 3D confocal microscopy is important for quantitative analysis, volume visualization and image restoration. However, axial distances can be distorted by both the point spread function (PSF) and by a refractive-index mismatch between the sample and immersion liquid, which are difficult to separate. Additionally, accurate calibration of the axial distances in confocal microscopy remains cumbersome, although several high-end methods exist. In this paper we present two methods to calibrate axial distances in 3D confocal microscopy that are both accurate and easily implemented. With these methods, we measured axial scaling factors as a function of refractive-index mismatch for high-aperture confocal microscopy imaging. We found that our scaling factors are almost completely linearly dependent on refractive index and that they were in good agreement with theoretical predictions that take the full vectorial properties of light into account. There was however a strong deviation with the theoretical predictions using (high-angle) geometrical optics, which predict much lower scaling factors. As an illustration, we measured the PSF of a correctly calibrated point-scanning confocal microscope and showed that a nearly index-matched, micron-sized spherical object is still significantly elongated due to this PSF, which signifies that care has to be taken when determining axial calibration or axial scaling using such particles. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. Evaluation of confocal microscopy system performance.

    PubMed

    Zucker, R M; Price, O

    2001-08-01

    The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) has been used by scientists to visualize three-dimensional (3D) biological samples. Although this system involves lasers, electronics, optics, and microscopes, there are few published tests that can be used to assess the performance of this equipment. Usually the CLSM is assessed by subjectively evaluating a biological/histological test slide for image quality. Although there is a use for the test slide, there are many other components in the CLSM that need to be assessed. It would be useful if tests existed that produced reference values for machine performance. The aim of this research was to develop quality assurance tests to ensure that the CLSM was stable while delivering reproducible intensity measurements with excellent image quality. Our ultimate research objective was to quantify fluorescence using a CLSM. To achieve this goal, it is essential that the CLSM be stable while delivering known parameters of performance. Using Leica TCS-SP1 and TCS-4D systems, a number of tests have been devised to evaluate equipment performance. Tests measuring dichroic reflectivity, field illumination, lens performance, laser power output, spectral registration, axial resolution, laser stability, photomultiplier tube (PMT) reliability, and system noise were either incorporated from the literature or derived in our laboratory to measure performance. These tests are also applicable to other manufacturer's systems with minor modifications. A preliminary report from our laboratory has addressed a number of the QA issues necessary to achieve CLSM performance. This report extends our initial work on the evaluation of CLSM system performance. Tests that were described previously have been modified and new tests involved in laser stability and sensitivity are described. The QA tests on the CLSM measured laser power, PMT function, dichroic reflection, spectral registration, axial registration, system noise and sensitivity, lens performance

  20. Improved axial resolution of FINCH fluorescence microscopy when combined with spinning disk confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Nisan; Brooker, Gary

    2014-09-22

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. Addition of a Nipkow disk real-time confocal image scanner is shown to reduce the FINCH depth of focus while improving transverse confocal resolution in a combined method called "CINCH".

  1. Improved axial resolution of FINCH fluorescence microscopy when combined with spinning disk confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Nisan; Brooker, Gary

    2014-01-01

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. Addition of a Nipkow disk real-time confocal image scanner is shown to reduce the FINCH depth of focus while improving transverse confocal resolution in a combined method called “CINCH”. PMID:25321701

  2. Quantifying receptor trafficking and colocalization with confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pike, Jeremy A; Styles, Iain B; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Heath, John K

    2017-02-15

    Confocal microscopy is a powerful tool for the study of cellular receptor trafficking and endocytosis. Unbiased and robust image analysis workflows are required for the identification, and study, of aberrant trafficking. After a brief review of related strategies, identifying both good and bad practice, custom workflows for the analysis of live cell 3D time-lapse data are presented. Strategies for data pre-processing, including denoising and background subtraction are considered. We use a 3D level set protocol to accurately segment cells using only the signal from fluorescently labelled receptor. A protocol for the quantification of changes to subcellular receptor distribution over time is then presented. As an example, ligand stimulated trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is shown to be significantly reduced in both AG1478 and Dynasore treated cells. Protocols for the quantitative analysis of colocalization between receptor and endosomes are also introduced, including strategies for signal isolation and statistical testing. By calculating the Manders and Pearson coefficients, both co-occurrence and correlation can be assessed. A statistically significant decrease in the level of ligand induced co-occurrence between EGFR and rab5 positive endosomes is demonstrated for both the AG1478 and Dynasore treated cells relative to a control. Finally, a strategy for the visualisation of co-occurrence is presented, which provides an unbiased alternative to colour overlays. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reflectance confocal microscopy for the evaluation of sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y-F; Yuan, C; Jiang, W-C; Wang, X-L; Humbert, P

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the diagnosis for sensitive skin relies on subjective assessment or on the combination of subjective and objective evaluation. No quantitative evaluation is available. It could be expected that confocal microscopy imaging could be of interest to better define the condition. Total 166 healthy female subjects were recruited in this study. Firstly, all subjects completed the sensitive questionnaire. Then, the cutaneous structures were measured by the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) on the face and fossa cubitalia. The lactic acid sting test was conducted finally. According to the results of self-perception sensitive skin questionnaire and lactic acid stinging test to evaluate facial skin sensitivity the both positive subjects were regarded as sensitive skin group and both negative group as healthy control group. The results of RCM indicating that the proportion of 'disarranged honeycomb pattern' and 'spongiform edema' in the sensitive group and healthy control group were statistically different (P < 0.05), respectively; The following report 'damaged dermal papilla rings' was not a distinctive pattern, with no significant statistical difference (P > 0.05). The epidermal thickness was 38.88 ± 6.81 μm, healthy control group was 40.31 ± 9.37 μm in, respectively, sensitive skin group and healthy control group, there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The honeycomb structure depth of sensitive group was 20.57 ± 4.86 μm. It was for 23.27 ± 6.38 μm, healthy control group the difference being statistically different between the two groups (P < 0.05). Based on the RCM results, 'epidermal honeycomb structure' and 'spongiform edema' may be used as new skin signs of RCM evaluation of sensitive skin effectively. Indeed, sensitive skin honeycomb structure depth was thinner compared with healthy control group. Such a specific pattern has good clinical and monitoring value for the further exploration. RCM could provide

  4. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Interfacial Phenomena Using Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Ian C.

    Surfactants play an integral role in numerous functions ranging from stabilizing the emulsion in a favorite salad dressing to organizing the cellular components that make life possible. We are interested in lung surfactant, which is a mixture of lipids and proteins essential for normal respiration because it modulates the surface tension of the air-liquid interface of the thin fluid lining in the lungs. Through this surface tension modulation, lung surfactant ensures effortless lung expansion and prevents lung collapse during exhalation, thereby effecting proper oxygenation of the bloodstream. The function of lung surfactant, as well as numerous interfacial lipid systems, is not solely dictated by the behavior of materials confined to the two-dimensional interface. Rather, the distributions of materials in the liquid subphase also greatly influence the performance of interfacial films of lung surfactant. Therefore, to better understand the behavior of lung surfactant and other interfacial lipid systems, we require a three-dimensional characterization technique. In this dissertation, we have developed a novel confocal microscopy methodology for investigating the interfacial phenomena of surfactants at the air-liquid interface of a Langmuir trough. Confocal microscopy provides the excellent combination of in situ, fast, three-dimensional visualization of multiple components of the lung surfactant system that other characterization techniques lack. We detail the solutions to the numerous challenges encountered when imaging a dynamic air-liquid interface with a high-resolution technique like confocal microscopy. We then use confocal microscopy to elucidate the distinct mechanisms by which a polyelectrolyte (chitosan) and nonadsorbing polymer (polyethylene glycol) restore the function of lung surfactant under inhibitory conditions mimicking the effects of lung trauma. Beyond this physiological model, we also investigate several one- and two-component interfacial films

  5. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  6. Assessment of nerve ultrastructure by fibre-optic confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cushway, T R; Lanzetta, M; Cox, G; Trickett, R; Owen, E R

    1996-01-01

    Fibre-optic technology combined with confocality produces a microscope capable of optical thin sectioning. In this original study, tibial nerves have been stained in a rat model with a vital dye, 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide, and analysed by fibre-optic confocal microscopy to produce detailed images of nerve ultrastructure. Schwann cells, nodes of Ranvier and longitudinal myelinated sheaths enclosing axons were clearly visible. Single axons appeared as brightly staining longitudinal structures. This allowed easy tracing of multiple signal axons within the nerve tissue. An accurate measurement of internodal lengths was easily accomplished. This technique is comparable to current histological techniques, but does not require biopsy, thin sectioning or tissue fixing. This study offers a standard for further in vivo microscopy, including the possibility of monitoring the progression of nerve regeneration following microsurgical neurorraphy.

  7. Three-color confocal Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer microscopy: Quantitative analysis of protein interactions in the nucleation of actin filaments in live cells.

    PubMed

    Wallrabe, Horst; Sun, Yuansheng; Fang, Xiaolan; Periasamy, Ammasi; Bloom, George S

    2015-06-01

    Experiments using live cell 3-color Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy and corresponding in vitro biochemical reconstitution of the same proteins were conducted to evaluate actin filament nucleation. A novel application of 3-color FRET data is demonstrated, extending the analysis beyond the customary energy-transfer efficiency (E%) calculations. MDCK cells were transfected for coexpression of Teal-N-WASP/Venus-IQGAP1/mRFP1-Rac1, Teal-N-WASP/Venus-IQGAP1/mRFP1-Cdc42, CFP-Rac1/Venus-IQGAP1/mCherry-actin, or CFP-Cdc42/Venus-IQGAP1/mCherry-actin, and with single-label equivalents for spectral bleedthrough correction. Using confirmed E% as an entry point, fluorescence levels and related ratios were correlated at discrete accumulating levels at cell peripheries. Rising ratios of CFP-Rac1:Venus-IQGAP1 were correlated with lower overall actin fluorescence, whereas the CFP-Cdc42:Venus-IQGAP1 ratio correlated with increased actin fluorescence at low ratios, but was neutral at higher ratios. The new FRET analyses also indicated that rising levels of mRFP1-Cdc42 or mRFP1-Rac1, respectively, promoted or suppressed the association of Teal-N-WASP with Venus-IQGAP1. These 3-color FRET assays further support our in vitro results about the role of IQGAP1, Rac1, and Cdc42 in actin nucleation, and the differential impact of Rac1 and Cdc42 on the association of N-WASP with IQGAP1. In addition, this study emphasizes the power of 3-color FRET as a systems biology strategy for simultaneous evaluation of multiple interacting proteins in individual live cells. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  8. Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lue, Niyom; Choi, Wonshik; Popescu, Gabriel; Yaqoob, Zahid; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2009-11-26

    Quantitative chemical analysis has served as a useful tool for understanding cellular metabolisms in biology. Among many physical properties used in chemical analysis, refractive index in particular has provided molecular concentration that is an important indicator for biological activities. In this report, we present a method of extracting full-field refractive index maps of live cells in their native states. We first record full-field optical thickness maps of living cells by Hilbert phase microscopy and then acquire physical thickness maps of the same cells using a custom-built confocal reflectance microscope. Full-field and axially averaged refractive index maps are acquired from the ratio of optical thickness to physical thickness. The accuracy of the axially averaged index measurement is 0.002. This approach can provide novel biological assays of label-free living cells in situ.

  9. The challenge of diagnosing seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, A; Chen, J; Yang, C; Ding, Y; Zeng, Q; Tan, L

    2018-05-24

    Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is one of the most common skin tumors seen by dermatologists. It should be differentiated with many diseases, especially skin tumors. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been applied for evaluation of SK. There are a few studies that describe the RCM of SK. The aim of the study was to find the challenge of diagnosing seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy. A total of 390 patients with a clinical suspicious diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis were enrolled in this study, and lesions from each patient were imaged with RCM. Thirty-seven of these patients performed a biopsy in order to be given a histological diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of RCM diagnosis and histological diagnosis, and then found the RCM characteristics of biopsy-proven lesions. According to RCM images, 258 of 390 (66.2%) patients were diagnosed with SK, 97 of 390 (24.9%) patients could not be diagnosed by the dermatologist according to RCM. Of all 37 biopsied lesions, 23 were SK, 6 were actinic keratosis, 2 were basal cell carcinoma, and 2 were squamous cell carcinoma. It is challenge to diagnose seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy. It may due to the variable clinical and RCM appearances of SK, and limited depth of RCM. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of conjunctival inflammatory status by confocal scanning laser microscopy and conjunctival brush cytology in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC)

    PubMed Central

    Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Okada, Naoko; Kojima, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Ibrahim, Osama M.A.; Adan, Enrique Sato; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Katakami, Chikako; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the status of the conjunctival inflammation in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) using laser scanning confocal microscopy and compare the relevant findings with conjunctival brush cytology in a prospective controlled study. Methods Twenty eyes from 20 AKC patients as well as 16 eyes from 16 age and sex matched normal subjects were studied. The subjects underwent tear film break-up time (BUT), fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining of the ocular surface, conjunctival confocal microscopy, Schirmer test, and brush cytology. Brush cytology specimens and in vivo confocal microscopy scans underwent evaluation for inflammatory cell densities. Results Brush cytology specimens and in vivo confocal microscopy scans from AKC patients revealed significantly higher numbers of inflammatory cells (p<0.05). Conjunctival inflammatory cell density showed a negative correlation with tear stability and a positive correlation with vital staining scores and conjunctival injection grades. The extent of conjunctival inflammation assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy showed a strong positive linear correlation with the inflammation status evaluated by brush cytology. The corneal inflammatory cell density assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy showed a significant negative correlation with tear stability and a positive linear correlation with corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusions Confocal scanning laser microscopy is an efficient, noninvasive, and a promising tool for the quantitative assessment of conjunctival inflammation, a parameter of this new technology which correlated well with subjective and objective ocular surface clinical findings. PMID:19693288

  11. Calcium oxalate crystal growth modification; investigations with confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMulkin, Calum J.; Massi, Massimiliano; Jones, Franca

    2017-06-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM) in combination with a photophysical investigation has been employed to give insight into the interaction between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and a series of tetrazole containing crystal growth modifier's (CGM's), in conjunction with characterisation of morphological changes using scanning electron and optical microscopy. The tetrazole CGM's were found to interact by surface adsorption with minimal morphological changes to the COM crystals however, significant interactions via chemisorption were observed; it was discovered that the chemisorption is sufficiently strong for aggregation of the tetrazole species to occur within the crystal during crystallisation.

  12. Confocal microscopy patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    González, S; Sánchez, V; González-Rodríguez, A; Parrado, C; Ullrich, M

    2014-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is currently the most promising noninvasive diagnostic tool for studying cutaneous structures between the stratum corneum and the superficial reticular dermis. This tool gives real-time images parallel to the skin surface; the microscopic resolution is similar to that of conventional histology. Numerous studies have identified the main confocal features of various inflammatory skin diseases and tumors, demonstrating the good correlation of these features with certain dermatoscopic patterns and histologic findings. Confocal patterns and diagnostic algorithms have been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Possible present and future applications of this noninvasive technology are wide ranging and reach beyond its use in noninvasive diagnosis. This tool can also be used, for example, to evaluate dynamic skin processes that occur after UV exposure or to assess tumor response to noninvasive treatments such as photodynamic therapy. We explain the characteristic confocal features found in the main nonmelanoma skin tumors and discuss possible applications for this novel diagnostic technique in routine dermatology practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Ex vivo confocal microscopy: a new diagnostic technique for mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, A; Cinotti, E; Labeille, B; Perrot, J L; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Skin-dedicated ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) has so far mainly been employed to identify cutaneous tumours on freshly excised samples. We present two cases where EVCM has been used to diagnose cutaneous mucormycosis. The skin biopsies were evaluated by the skin-dedicated ex vivo confocal microscope VivaScope 2500(®) (MAVIG GmbH, Munich Germany) under both reflectance and fluorescence mode. Conventional direct optical examination on skin scraping and histological examination were later performed. Mucormycetes observed by EVCM presented as hyper-reflective elongated 20 μm in diameter structures with perpendicular ramifications. Fungi were found both under reflectance and fluorescence mode and were better visible with acridine orange under fluorescence EVCM. Conventional direct optical examination on skin scraping and histological examination found the same elongated and branching structures confirming the presence of Mucormycetes. Ex vivo confocal microscopy has both the advantages of being fast as the direct optical examination, and to be able to show the localisation of the fungi in the tissue like the histological examination. In our cases, EVCM allowed to rapidly confirm the clinical diagnosis of mucormycosis, which is essential for the treatment of this fungal infection. Further studies are needed to compare the performance of EVCM with the findings of conventional histological and mycological examinations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Parallel detection experiment of fluorescence confocal microscopy using DMD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gui, Kun; Guo, Hanming; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-05-01

    Parallel detection of fluorescence confocal microscopy (PDFCM) system based on Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is reported in this paper in order to realize simultaneous multi-channel imaging and improve detection speed. DMD is added into PDFCM system, working to take replace of the single traditional pinhole in the confocal system, which divides the laser source into multiple excitation beams. The PDFCM imaging system based on DMD is experimentally set up. The multi-channel image of fluorescence signal of potato cells sample is detected by parallel lateral scanning in order to verify the feasibility of introducing the DMD into fluorescence confocal microscope. In addition, for the purpose of characterizing the microscope, the depth response curve is also acquired. The experimental result shows that in contrast to conventional microscopy, the DMD-based PDFCM system has higher axial resolution and faster detection speed, which may bring some potential benefits in the biology and medicine analysis. SCANNING 38:234-239, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy: an emphasis on squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nathaniel W.; Sensibaugh, Jordan; Ardeshiri, Ardaland; Blanchard, Adam; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Our previous study reported a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.2% in rapidly detecting Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs) when nuclei were stained with acridine orange. Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCCs) and infiltrative BCCs remain difficult to detect. More complete screening can be achieved utilizing both acridine orange for nuclei staining and eosin for cytoplasmic contrast, using two lasers to excite the two stains independently. Nuclear fluorescence is achieved by staining with acridine orange (0.5mM, 60 s), and cytoplasmic fluorescence is achieved by staining with eosin working solution (30 s). This work shows good morphological contrast of SCC and infiltrative BCC with eosin, acridine orange, and reflectance, and presents a means for rapid SCC and infiltrative BCC detection in fresh skin excisions using multimodal confocal microscopy. In addition, digital staining is shown to effectively simulate hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology with confocal mosaics.

  16. Reflectance confocal microscopy features of thin versus thick melanomas.

    PubMed

    Kardynal, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Małgorzata; de Carvalho, Nathalie; Walecka, Irena; Pellacani, Giovanni; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2018-01-24

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) plays an increasingly important role in differential diagnosis of melanoma. The aim of the study was to assess typical confocal features of thin (≤1mm according to Breslow index) versus thick (>1mm) melanomas. 30 patients with histopathologically confirmed cutaneous melanoma were included in the study. Reflectance confocal microscopy was performed with Vivascope equipment prior to excision. Fifteen melanomas were thin (Breslow thickness ≤ 1mm) and 15 were thick melanomas (Breslow thickness >1mm). In the RCM examination, the following features were more frequently observed in thin compared to thick melanomas: edged papillae (26.7% vs 0%, p=0.032) and areas with honeycomb or cobblestone pattern (33.3% vs 6.7%, p=0.068). Both features are present in benign melanocytic lesions, so in melanoma are good prognostic factors. The group of thick melanomas compared to the group of thin melanomas in the RCM images presented with greater frequency of roundish cells (100% vs 40%, p=0.001), non-edged papillae (100% vs 60%, p=0.006), numerous pagetoid cells (73.3% vs 33.3%, p=0.028), numerous atypical cells at dermal-epidermal junction (53.3% vs 20%, p=0.058) and epidermal disarray (93.3% vs 66.7%, p=0.068). Non-invasive imaging methods helps in deepening of knowledge about the evolution and biology of melanoma. The most characteristic features for thin melanomas in confocal examination are: fragments of cobblestone or honeycomb pattern and edged papillae (as good prognostic factors). The features of thick melanomas in RCM examination are: roundish cells, non-edged papillae, numerous pagetoid cells at dermal-epidermal junction and epidermal disarray.

  17. Imaging intracellular protein dynamics by spinning disk confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stehbens, Samantha; Pemble, Hayley; Murrow, Lindsay; Wittmann, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The palette of fluorescent proteins has grown exponentially over the last decade, and as a result live imaging of cells expressing fluorescently tagged proteins is becoming more and more main stream. Spinning disk confocal microscopy (SDC) is a high speed optical sectioning technique, and a method of choice to observe and analyze intracellular fluorescent protein dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. In an SDC system, a rapidly rotating pinhole disk generates thousands of points of light that scan the specimen simultaneously, which allows direct capture of the confocal image with low noise scientific grade cooled charged-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and can achieve frame rates of up 1000 frames per second. In this chapter we describe important components of a state-of-the-art spinning disk system optimized for live cell microscopy, and provide a rationale for specific design choices. We also give guidelines how other imaging techniques such as total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy or spatially controlled photoactivation can be coupled with SDC imaging, and provide a short protocol on how to generate cell lines stably expressing fluorescently tagged proteins by lentivirus-mediated transduction. PMID:22264541

  18. Quantification of confocal fluorescence microscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Sheikhzadeh, Fahime; Ward, Rabab K; Carraro, Anita; Chen, Zhao Yang; van Niekerk, Dirk; Miller, Dianne; Ehlen, Tom; MacAulay, Calum E; Follen, Michele; Lane, Pierre M; Guillaud, Martial

    2015-10-24

    Cervical cancer remains a major health problem, especially in developing countries. Colposcopic examination is used to detect high-grade lesions in patients with a history of abnormal pap smears. New technologies are needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of this technique. We propose to test the potential of fluorescence confocal microscopy to identify high-grade lesions. We examined the quantification of ex vivo confocal fluorescence microscopy to differentiate among normal cervical tissue, low-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), and high-grade CIN. We sought to (1) quantify nuclear morphology and tissue architecture features by analyzing images of cervical biopsies; and (2) determine the accuracy of high-grade CIN detection via confocal microscopy relative to the accuracy of detection by colposcopic impression. Forty-six biopsies obtained from colposcopically normal and abnormal cervical sites were evaluated. Confocal images were acquired at different depths from the epithelial surface and histological images were analyzed using in-house software. The features calculated from the confocal images compared well with those features obtained from the histological images and histopathological reviews of the specimens (obtained by a gynecologic pathologist). The correlations between two of these features (the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and the average of three nearest Delaunay-neighbors distance) and the grade of dysplasia were higher than that of colposcopic impression. The sensitivity of detecting high-grade dysplasia by analysing images collected at the surface of the epithelium, and at 15 and 30 μm below the epithelial surface were respectively 100, 100, and 92 %. Quantitative analysis of confocal fluorescence images showed its capacity for discriminating high-grade CIN lesions vs. low-grade CIN lesions and normal tissues, at different depth of imaging. This approach could be used to help clinicians identify high-grade CIN in clinical

  19. Two-photon confocal microscopy in wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Fernando A.; So, Peter T. C.; Driessen, Antoine; Kropf, Nina; Park, Christine S.; Huertas, Juan C.; Lee, Hoon B.; Orgill, Dennis P.

    2001-04-01

    Advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry have allowed for precise microanatomic detail of tissues. Two Photon Confocal Microscopy (TPCM) is a new technology useful in non-destructive analysis of tissue. Laser light excites the natural florophores, NAD(P)H and NADP+ and the scattering patterns of the emitted light are analyzed to reconstruct microanatomic features. Guinea pig skin was studied using TPCM and skin preparation methods including chemical depilation and tape striping. Results of TPCM were compared with conventional hematoxylin and eosin microscopy. Two-dimensional images were rendered from the three dimensional reconstructions. Images of deeper layers including basal cells and the dermo-epidermal junction improved after removing the stratum corneum with chemical depilation or tape stripping. TCPM allows good resolution of corneocytes, basal cells and collagen fibers and shows promise as a non-destructive method to study wound healing.

  20. [Confocal microscopy findings after endothelial transplant by DSAEK].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Manuel; Ortiz, Claudia; Dewit-Carter, Guillermo; Hernández-Quintela, Everardo

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate early in vivo corneal wound healing findings after Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) by using in vivo confocal microscopy. A total of 15 eyes of 15 patients were included. In vivo confocal microscopy (Confoscan 4, Fortune Technologies, Italy) was performed from 4 to 7 weeks after DSAEK. Measurements were scanned from the corneal endothelium to the corneal surface with a Navis® software (NIDEK, Multi-Instrument Diagnostic System, Japan). Donor-receptor interface was found in an average of 114 ± 12.4 microns. Corneal stromal folds were observed from 111.1 ± 3.5 microns from the endothelium to 286 ± 94 microns (mean 175 ± 90.5 microns of the corneal stroma). Keratocites were activated in the donor tissue from 12 ± 1.4 microns from the endothelium to 105 ± 38.2 microns (mean 93 ± 36.9 microns of the corneal stroma). Donor keratocites are activated up to 7 weeks after DSAEK. Several corneal folds are present in proximity to the donor-receptor interface after DSAEK. Further evaluation of these findings is justified to determine its clinical significance. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  1. Precise colloids with tunable interactions for confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kodger, Thomas E.; Guerra, Rodrigo E.; Sprakel, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Model colloidal systems studied with confocal microscopy have led to numerous insights into the physics of condensed matter. Though confocal microscopy is an extremely powerful tool, it requires a careful choice and preparation of the colloid. Uncontrolled or unknown variations in the size, density, and composition of the individual particles and interactions between particles, often influenced by the synthetic route taken to form them, lead to difficulties in interpreting the behavior of the dispersion. Here we describe the straightforward synthesis of copolymer particles which can be refractive index- and density-matched simultaneously to a non-plasticizing mixture of high dielectric solvents. The interactions between particles are accurately tuned by surface grafting of polymer brushes using Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP), from hard-sphere-like to long-ranged electrostatic repulsion or mixed charge attraction. We also modify the buoyant density of the particles by altering the copolymer ratio while maintaining their refractive index match to the suspending solution resulting in well controlled sedimentation. The tunability of the inter-particle interactions, the low volatility of the solvents, and the capacity to simultaneously match both the refractive index and density of the particles to the fluid opens up new possibilities for exploring the physics of colloidal systems. PMID:26420044

  2. Combined FLIM and reflectance confocal microscopy for epithelial imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Cheng, Shuna; Shrestha, Sebina; Malik, Bilal; Jo, Javier A.; Applegate, Brian; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2012-03-01

    Current methods for detection of oral cancer lack the ability to delineate between normal and precancerous tissue with adequate sensitivity and specificity. The usual diagnostic mechanism involves visual inspection and palpation followed by tissue biopsy and histopathology, a process both invasive and time-intensive. A more sensitive and objective screening method can greatly facilitate the overall process of detection of early cancer. To this end, we present a multimodal imaging system with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for wide field of view guidance and reflectance confocal microscopy for sub-cellular resolution imaging of epithelial tissue. Moving from a 12 x 12 mm2 field of view with 157 ìm lateral resolution using FLIM to 275 x 200 μm2 with lateral resolution of 2.2 μm using confocal microscopy, hamster cheek pouch model is imaged both in vivo and ex vivo. The results indicate that our dual modality imaging system can identify and distinguish between different tissue features, and, therefore, can potentially serve as a guide in early oral cancer detection..

  3. Corneal confocal microscopy detects small fiber neuropathy in CMT1A patients

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Marshall, Andy; Banka, Siddharth; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Fadavi, Hassan; Kingston, Helen; Malik, Rayaz A

    2012-01-01

    Although unmyelinated nerve fibers are affected in CMT1A, they have not been studied in detail due to the invasive nature of the techniques needed to study them. We established alterations in C-fiber bundles of the cornea in patients with CMT1A using non-invasive corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). Twelve patients with CMT1A and twelve healthy control subjects underwent assessment of neuropathic symptoms and deficits, electrophysiology, quantitative sensory testing, corneal sensitivity and corneal confocal microscopy. Corneal sensitivity, corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, corneal nerve fiber length and corneal nerve fiber tortuosity were significantly reduced in CMT1A patients compared to controls. There was a significant correlation between corneal sensation and CCM parameters with the severity of painful neuropathic symptoms, cold and warm thresholds and median nerve CMAP amplitude. CCM demonstrates significant damage to C-fiber bundles, which relates to some measures of neuropathy in CMT1A patients. PMID:22996176

  4. Proposal for an in vivo histopathologic scoring system for skin aging by means of confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Longo, Caterina; Casari, Alice; De Pace, Barbara; Simonazzi, Silvia; Mazzaglia, Giovanna; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Many instrumental devices have been testing in analysing and quantifying the skin aging signs. However, histopathology still remains the only methods that allow a microscopic assessment of the skin. However, a skin biopsy is not feasible in aesthetically critical areas such as the face. Recently, confocal microscopy has been discovered as a noninvasive tool with a nearly histologic resolution. Distinct morphologic confocal aspects on facial skin have been described and correlated with the histopathologic counterparts. In our study we aim to develop an easy to use confocal aging score to quantify the skin aging related signs. A sample of facial skin of fifty volunteers has been subjected to confocal imaging. Combining the previously identified confocal features, three different semi-quantitative scores were calculated: - epidermal disarray score (irregular honeycombed pattern + epidermal thickness + furrow pattern); - epidermal hyperplasia score (mottled pigmentation + extent of polycyclic papillary + epidermal thickness; - collagen score (curled fibers, 2 for huddles of collagen, 1 for coarse collagen structures, and 0 for thin reticulated collagen) The epidermal disarray score showed a stable trend up to 65 years and a dramatic increase in the elderly subjects epidermal. Hyperplasia score was characterized by an ascending trend from younger subjects to middle age. The total collagen score showed a progressive trend with age with a different proportion of distinct collagen type. RCM is a powerful, noninvasive technique that could permit to microscopically quantify the aging signs and to test cosmetic efficacy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Three-dimensional imaging of porous media using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shah, S M; Crawshaw, J P; Boek, E S

    2017-02-01

    In the last decade, imaging techniques capable of reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D) pore-scale model have played a pivotal role in the study of fluid flow through complex porous media. In this study, we present advances in the application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to image, reconstruct and characterize complex porous geological materials with hydrocarbon reservoir and CO 2 storage potential. CLSM has a unique capability of producing 3-D thin optical sections of a material, with a wide field of view and submicron resolution in the lateral and axial planes. However, CLSM is limited in the depth (z-dimension) that can be imaged in porous materials. In this study, we introduce a 'grind and slice' technique to overcome this limitation. We discuss the practical and technical aspects of the confocal imaging technique with application to complex rock samples including Mt. Gambier and Ketton carbonates. We then describe the complete workflow of image processing to filtering and segmenting the raw 3-D confocal volumetric data into pores and grains. Finally, we use the resulting 3-D pore-scale binarized confocal data obtained to quantitatively determine petrophysical pore-scale properties such as total porosity, macro- and microporosity and single-phase permeability using lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations, validated by experiments. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  7. 3D Volumetric Analysis of Fluid Inclusions Using Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proussevitch, A.; Mulukutla, G.; Sahagian, D.; Bodnar, B.

    2009-05-01

    Fluid inclusions preserve valuable information regarding hydrothermal, metamorphic, and magmatic processes. The molar quantities of liquid and gaseous components in the inclusions can be estimated from their volumetric measurements at room temperatures combined with knowledge of the PVTX properties of the fluid and homogenization temperatures. Thus, accurate measurements of inclusion volumes and their two phase components are critical. One of the greatest advantages of the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) in application to fluid inclsion analsyis is that it is affordable for large numbers of samples, given the appropriate software analysis tools and methodology. Our present work is directed toward developing those tools and methods. For the last decade LSCM has been considered as a potential method for inclusion volume measurements. Nevertheless, the adequate and accurate measurement by LSCM has not yet been successful for fluid inclusions containing non-fluorescing fluids due to many technical challenges in image analysis despite the fact that the cost of collecting raw LSCM imagery has dramatically decreased in recent years. These problems mostly relate to image analysis methodology and software tools that are needed for pre-processing and image segmentation, which enable solid, liquid and gaseous components to be delineated. Other challenges involve image quality and contrast, which is controlled by fluorescence of the material (most aqueous fluid inclusions do not fluoresce at the appropriate laser wavelengths), material optical properties, and application of transmitted and/or reflected confocal illumination. In this work we have identified the key problems of image analysis and propose some potential solutions. For instance, we found that better contrast of pseudo-confocal transmitted light images could be overlayed with poor-contrast true-confocal reflected light images within the same stack of z-ordered slices. This approach allows one to narrow

  8. Ex vivo confocal microscopy: an emerging technique in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean Luc; Labeille, Bruno; Cambazard, Frédéric; Rubegni, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to give an overview of the current available applications of ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) in dermatology. EVCM is a relatively new imaging technique that allows microscopic examination of freshly excised unfixed tissue. It enables a rapid examination of the skin sample directly in the surgery room and thus represents an alternative to the intraoperative micrographic control of the surgical margins of cutaneous tumors by standard microscopic examination on cryopreserved sections during Mohs surgery. Although this technique has mainly been developed for the margin’s control of basal cell carcinoma, many other skin tumors have been studied, including melanoma. Use of EVCM is continuing to evolve, and many possible applications are under investigation, such as the study of nails and hair diseases and the diagnosis of skin infections. PMID:29785327

  9. Adaptive optics for confocal laser scanning microscopy with adjustable pinhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Han Woong; van Royen, Martin E.; van Cappellen, Wiggert A.; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Verhaegen, Michel; Schitter, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The pinhole plays an important role in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for adaptive optics (AO) as well as in imaging, where the size of the pinhole denotes a trade-off between out-of-focus rejection and wavefront distortion. This contribution proposes an AO system for a commercial CLSM with an adjustable square pinhole to cope with such a trade-off. The proposed adjustable pinhole enables to calibrate the AO system and to evaluate the imaging performance. Experimental results with fluorescence beads on the coverslip and at a depth of 40 μm in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell spheroid demonstrate that the proposed AO system can improve the image quality by the proposed calibration method. The proposed pinhole intensity ratio also indicates the image improvement by the AO correction in intensity as well as resolution.

  10. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-12-01

    Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  11. Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongkyun; Carruth, Robert W; Kim, Minkyu; Schlachter, Simon C; Shishkov, Milen; Woods, Kevin; Tabatabaei, Nima; Wu, Tao; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2013-01-01

    Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a form of reflectance confocal microscopy that can achieve high imaging speeds using relatively simple probe optics. Previously, the feasibility of conducting large-area SECM imaging of the esophagus in bench top setups has been demonstrated. Challenges remain, however, in translating SECM into a clinically-useable device; the tissue imaging performance should be improved, and the probe size needs to be significantly reduced so that it can fit into luminal organs of interest. In this paper, we report the development of new SECM endoscopic probe optics that addresses these challenges. A custom water-immersion aspheric singlet (NA = 0.5) was developed and used as the objective lens. The water-immersion condition was used to reduce the spherical aberrations and specular reflection from the tissue surface, which enables cellular imaging of the tissue deep below the surface. A custom collimation lens and a small-size grating were used along with the custom aspheric singlet to reduce the probe size. A dual-clad fiber was used to provide both the single- and multi- mode detection modes. The SECM probe optics was made to be 5.85 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, which is small enough for safe and comfortable endoscopic imaging of the gastrointestinal tract. The lateral resolution was 1.8 and 2.3 µm for the single- and multi- mode detection modes, respectively, and the axial resolution 11 and 17 µm. SECM images of the swine esophageal tissue demonstrated the capability of this device to enable the visualization of characteristic cellular structural features, including basal cell nuclei and papillae, down to the imaging depth of 260 µm. These results suggest that the new SECM endoscopic probe optics will be useful for imaging large areas of the esophagus at the cellular scale in vivo.

  12. Effects of benoxinate hydrochloride 0.4% on the morphological appearance of the cornea using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Inma; Hollingsworth, Jo; Efron, Nathan

    2004-03-01

    To investigate whether benoxinate hydrochloride 0.4% used to make confocal microscopy more comfortable alters the morphology of the cornea as viewed with the confocal microscope. Confocal microscopy was performed on both eyes of 10 subjects prior to instillation of either topical anaesthetic or non-preserved sterile saline, on two randomly ordered occasions. Images of all corneal layers were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively in a masked fashion. The images were similar in appearance in 5/10 subjects, there was greater clarity when anaesthetic was instilled in 4/10 subjects, and in the remaining subject there was greater clarity when saline was used. Anaesthetic had no influence on anterior keratocyte density (AKD), posterior keratocyte density (PKD) or endothelial cell density (ECD). Local anaesthetic does not affect corneal morphology as imaged using the confocal microscope. However, failure to use anaesthetic may lead to a degradation of image quality due to patient discomfort and excessive eye movements.

  13. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Confocal Microscopy for Dermatologic and Mohs Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Longo, Caterina; Ragazzi, Moira; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Nehal, Kishwer; Bennassar, Antoni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Malvehy Guilera, Josep

    2016-10-01

    Confocal microscopy is a modern imaging device that has been extensively applied in skin oncology. More specifically, for tumor margin assessment, it has been used in two modalities: reflectance mode (in vivo on skin patient) and fluorescence mode (on freshly excised specimen). Although in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy is an add-on tool for lentigo maligna mapping, fluorescence confocal microscopy is far superior for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma margin assessment in the Mohs setting. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the use of confocal microscopy for skin cancer margin evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Next-generation endomyocardial biopsy: the potential of confocal and super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Crossman, David J; Ruygrok, Peter N; Hou, Yu Feng; Soeller, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy and super-resolution microscopy provide high-contrast and high-resolution fluorescent imaging, which has great potential to increase the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). EMB is currently the gold standard for identification of cardiac allograft rejection, myocarditis, and infiltrative and storage diseases. However, standard analysis is dominated by low-contrast bright-field light and electron microscopy (EM); this lack of contrast makes quantification of pathological features difficult. For example, assessment of cardiac allograft rejection relies on subjective grading of H&E histology, which may lead to diagnostic variability between pathologists. This issue could be solved by utilising the high contrast provided by fluorescence methods such as confocal to quantitatively assess the degree of lymphocytic infiltrate. For infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis, the nanometre resolution provided by EM can be diagnostic in identifying disease-causing fibrils. The recent advent of super-resolution imaging, particularly direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), provides high-contrast imaging at resolution approaching that of EM. Moreover, dSTORM utilises conventional fluorescence dyes allowing for the same structures to be routinely imaged at the cellular scale and then at the nanoscale. The key benefit of these technologies is that the high contrast facilitates quantitative digital analysis and thereby provides a means to robustly assess critical pathological features. Ultimately, this technology has the ability to provide greater accuracy and precision to EMB assessment, which could result in better outcomes for patients.

  15. Multiphoton, confocal, and lifetime microscopy for molecular imaging in cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Krakow, Deborah; Kirilova, Veneta T.; Cohn, Daniel H.; Bertolotto, Cristina; Acuna, Dora; Fang, Qiyin; Krivorov, Nikola; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2005-03-01

    It has recently been shown that mutations in Filamin A and B genes produce a large spectrum of skeletal disorders in developing fetuses. However, high-resolution optical microscopy in cartilage growth plate using fluorescent antibody assays, which should elucidate molecular aspects of these disorders, is extremely difficult due to the high level of autofluoresce in this tissue. We apply multiphoton, confocal, lifetime and spectral microscopy to (i) image and characterize autofluorophores in chondrocytes and subtract their contributions to obtain a corrected antibody-marker fluorescence signal, and (ii) measure the interaction between Filamin A and B proteins by detecting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between markers of the two proteins. Taking advantage of the different fluorescence spectra of the endogenous and exogenous markers, we can significantly reduce the autofluorescence background. Preliminary results of the FRET experiments suggest no interaction between Filamin A and B proteins. However, developing of new antibodies targeting the carboxy-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain may be necessary to confirm this result.

  16. In vivo laser confocal microscopy after non-Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2009-07-01

    To investigate in vivo corneal changes in patients with bullous keratopathy who underwent non-Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK) with the use of laser confocal microscopy. Single-center, prospective clinical study. Ten eyes (10 patients; 3 men and 7 women; mean age, 73.5+/-6.6 years [mean+/-standard deviation]) with bullous keratopathy were evaluated in this study. In vivo laser confocal microscopy was performed before and 1, 3, and 6 months after nDSAEK. Selected confocal images of corneal layers were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for degree of haze and density of deposits. Before surgery, the following were observed in all patients: corneal epithelial edema, subepithelial haze, keratocytes in a honeycomb pattern, and tiny needle-shaped materials in the stroma. After nDSAEK, subepithelial haze, donor-recipient interface haze, and interface particles were observed in all measurable cases; postoperative haze, interface particles, and needle-shaped materials decreased statistically significantly (P<0.05) over the course of follow-up. In addition, hyperreflective giant interface particles were observed after nDSAEK in all patients. In vivo laser confocal microscopy can identify subclinical corneal abnormalities after nDSAEK such as subepithelial haze, host-recipient interface haze, host stromal needle-shaped materials, and host-recipient interface particles with characteristic giant particles. Further studies with this technology in a large number of patients and long-term follow-up are needed to understand fully the long-term corneal stromal changes after nDSAEK.

  17. Diffusion of photoacid generators by laser scanning confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping L.; Webber, Stephen E.; Mendenhall, J.; Byers, Jeffrey D.; Chao, Keith K.

    1998-06-01

    Diffusion of the photogenerated acid during the period of time between exposure and development can cause contrast loss and ultimately loss of the latent image. This is especially relevant for chemically amplified photoresists that require a post-exposure baking step, which in turn facilitates acid diffusion due to the high temperature normally employed. It is thus important to develop techniques with good spatial resolution to monitor the photogeneration of acid. More precisely, we need techniques that provide two distinct types of information: spatial resolution on various length scales within the surface layer and also sufficient depth resolution so that one can observe the transition from very surface layer to bulk structure in the polymer blend coated on silicon substrate. Herein laser scanning confocal microscopy is used to evaluate the resist for the first time. We report the use of the confocal microscopy to map the pag/dye distribution in PHS matrices, with both reflectance images and fluorescence images. A laser beam is focused onto a small 3D volume element, termed a voxel. It is typically 200 nm X 200 nm laterally and 800 nm axially. The illuminated voxel is viewed such that only signals emanating from this voxel are detected, i.e., signal from outside the probed voxel is not detected. By adjusting the vertical position of the laser focal point, the voxel can be moved to the designated lateral plane to produce an image. Contrast caused by topology difference between the exposed and unexposed area can be eliminated. Bis-p-butylphenyl iodonium triflat (7% of polyhydroxystyrene) is used as photoacid generators. 5% - 18% (by weight, PHS Mn equals 13 k) resist in PGMEA solution is spin cast onto the treated quartz disk with thickness of 1.4 micrometers , 5 micrometers space/10 micrometers pitch chrome mask is used to generate the pattern with mercury DUV illumination. Fluoresceinamine, the pH-sensitive dye, is also used to enhance the contrast of

  18. Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Manoj; Santos, Susana I C O; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    In this work we propose and build a multimodal optical workstation that extends a commercially available confocal microscope (Nikon Confocal C1-Si) to include nonlinear/multiphoton microscopy and optical manipulation/stimulation tools such as nanosurgery. The setup allows both subsystems (confocal and nonlinear) to work independently and simultaneously. The workstation enables, for instance, nanosurgery along with simultaneous confocal and brightfield imaging. The nonlinear microscopy capabilities are added around the commercial confocal microscope by exploiting all the flexibility offered by this microscope and without need for any mechanical or electronic modification of the confocal microscope systems. As an example, the standard differential interference contrast condenser and diascopic detector in the confocal microscope are readily used as a forward detection mount for second harmonic generation imaging. The various capabilities of this workstation, as applied directly to biology, are demonstrated using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans.

  19. Ophthalmic applications of confocal microscopy: diagnostics, refractive surgery, and eye banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1990-11-01

    Confocal microscopy of ocular tissue provides two advantages over traditional imaging techniques: increased range and transverse resolution and increased contrast. The semitransparent cornea and ocular lens in the living eye can be optically sectioned and observed by reflected light confocal microscopy. Within the cornea we observed various cell components nerve fibers nerve cell bodies and fibrous networks. The confocal microscopic images from the in-situ ocular lens show the lens capsule the lens epithelium and the individual lens fibrils. All of the reflected light confocal microscopic images have high contrast and high resolution. Some of the applications of confocal imaging in ophthalmology include: diagnostics of the cornea and the ocular lens examination prior to and after refractive surgery examination of intraocular lenses (IOL) and examination of eye bank material. Other ophthalmic uses of confocal imaging include: studies of wound healing therapeutics and the effects of contact lenses on the cornea. The proposed features of a clinical confocal microscope are reviewed. 2.

  20. Managing multiple image stacks from confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbe, Joerg; Goetze, Christian H.; Zuschratter, Werner

    1999-05-01

    A major goal in neuroanatomy is to obtain precise information about the functional organization of neuronal assemblies and their interconnections. Therefore, the analysis of histological sections frequently requires high resolution images in combination with an overview about the structure. To overcome this conflict we have previously introduced a software for the automatic acquisition of multiple image stacks (3D-MISA) in confocal laser scanning microscopy. Here, we describe a Windows NT based software for fast and easy navigation through the multiple images stacks (MIS-browser), the visualization of individual channels and layers and the selection of user defined subregions. In addition, the MIS browser provides useful tools for the visualization and evaluation of the datavolume, as for instance brightness and contrast corrections of individual layers and channels. Moreover, it includes a maximum intensity projection, panning and zoom in/out functions within selected channels or focal planes (x/y) and tracking along the z-axis. The import module accepts any tiff-format and reconstructs the original image arrangement after the user has defined the sequence of images in x/y and z and the number of channels. The implemented export module allows storage of user defined subregions (new single image stacks) for further 3D-reconstruction and evaluation.

  1. A new method for depth profiling reconstruction in confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Rosario; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Mensitieri, Giuseppe

    2018-05-01

    Confocal microscopy is commonly used to reconstruct depth profiles of chemical species in multicomponent systems and to image nuclear and cellular details in human tissues via image intensity measurements of optical sections. However, the performance of this technique is reduced by inherent effects related to wave diffraction phenomena, refractive index mismatch and finite beam spot size. All these effects distort the optical wave and cause an image to be captured of a small volume around the desired illuminated focal point within the specimen rather than an image of the focal point itself. The size of this small volume increases with depth, thus causing a further loss of resolution and distortion of the profile. Recently, we proposed a theoretical model that accounts for the above wave distortion and allows for a correct reconstruction of the depth profiles for homogeneous samples. In this paper, this theoretical approach has been adapted for describing the profiles measured from non-homogeneous distributions of emitters inside the investigated samples. The intensity image is built by summing the intensities collected from each of the emitters planes belonging to the illuminated volume, weighed by the emitters concentration. The true distribution of the emitters concentration is recovered by a new approach that implements this theoretical model in a numerical algorithm based on the Maximum Entropy Method. Comparisons with experimental data and numerical simulations show that this new approach is able to recover the real unknown concentration distribution from experimental profiles with an accuracy better than 3%.

  2. Confocal Raman microscopy of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singamaneni, Srikanth; Gupta, Maneesh; Yang, Rusen; Wang, Zhong; Tsukruk, Vladimir

    2009-03-01

    ZnO nanostructures with various shapes (vertically aligned nanorods, nanobelts, nanohelixes, nanorings) have been synthesized using both vapor phase and solution growth methods. In the simplest example of a nanobelt, the fast growth direction can be either (21 1 0) or (011 0) or (0001). Here, we show that confocal Raman microscopy can be employed as a fast and nondestructive analytical technique to identify the crystal planes and reveal the relative orientation of the ZnO nanostructure. Various features of the Raman spectrum of ZnO nanostructures (presence of the A1(TO) mode, width of the E2 mode) were found to be sensitive to relative orientation of the incident source laser and the crystal plane. Furthermore, owing to the optical anisotropy of ZnO, Raman scattering from the substrate is modulated (either enhanced or suppressed with respect to the background) depending on the polarization of the incident light with respect to orientation of the nanobelt. The results presented here describe a novel method to nondestructively identify the growth, relative orientation, and the waveguiding properties of the ZnO nanostructures.

  3. Scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy for single molecule analysis of nucleotide excision repair complexes.

    PubMed

    Segers-Nolten, G M J; Wyman, C; Wijgers, N; Vermeulen, W; Lenferink, A T M; Hoeijmakers, J H J; Greve, J; Otto, C

    2002-11-01

    We used scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy to observe and analyze individual DNA- protein complexes formed between human nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins and model DNA substrates. For this purpose human XPA protein was fused to EGFP, purified and shown to be functional. Binding of EGFP-labeled XPA protein to a Cy3.5-labeled DNA substrate, in the presence and absence of RPA, was assessed quantitatively by simultaneous excitation and emission detection of both fluorophores. Co-localization of Cy3.5 and EGFP signals within one diffraction limited spot indicated complexes of XPA with DNA. Measurements were performed on samples in a 1% agarose matrix in conditions that are compatible with protein activity and where reactions can be studied under equilibrium conditions. In these samples DNA alone was freely diffusing and protein-bound DNA was immobile, whereby they could be discriminated resulting in quantitative data on DNA binding. On the single molecule level approximately 10% of XPA co-localized with DNA; this increased to 32% in the presence of RPA. These results, especially the enhanced binding of XPA in the presence of RPA, are similar to those obtained in bulk experiments, validating the utility of scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy for investigating functional interactions at the single molecule level.

  4. Detection of desmoplastic melanoma with dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Maher, N G; Solinas, A; Scolyer, R A; Puig, S; Pellacani, G; Guitera, P

    2017-12-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is frequently misdiagnosed clinically and often associated with melanoma in situ (MIS). To improve the detection of DM using dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). A descriptive analysis of DM dermoscopy features and a case-control study within a melanoma population for RCM feature evaluation was performed blindly, using data obtained between 2005 and 2015. After retrospectively identifying all DM cases with RCM data over the study period (n = 16), a control group of non-DM melanoma patients with RCM data, in a ratio of at least 3 : 1, was selected. The control group was matched by age and primary tumour site location, divided into non-DM invasive melanomas (n = 27) and MIS (n = 27). Invasive melanomas were selected according to the melanoma subtypes associated with the DM cases. The main outcomes were the frequency of melanoma-specific features on dermoscopy for DM; and the odds ratios of RCM features to distinguish DM from MIS and/or other invasive melanomas; or MIS from the combined invasive melanoma group. At least one of the 14 melanoma-specific features evaluated on dermoscopy was found in 100% of DMs (n = 15 DM with dermoscopy). Known RCM melanoma predictors were commonly found in the DMs, such as pagetoid cells (100%) and cell atypia (100%). The RCM feature of spindle cells in the superficial dermis was more common in DM compared with the entire melanoma control group (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.01-14.90), and particularly compared to MIS (OR 5.48, 95% CI 1.11-32.36). Nucleated cells in the dermis and the RCM correlate of dermal inflammation were also significant RCM features favouring DM over MIS, as well as invasive melanoma over MIS. Dermoscopy and RCM may be useful tools for the identification of DM. Certain RCM features may help distinguish DM from MIS and other invasive melanomas. Larger studies are warranted. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Aqueous Colloid + Polymer Depletion System for Confocal Microscopy and Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nayoung; Umanzor, Esmeralda J.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2018-05-01

    We developed a model depletion system with colloidal particles that were refractive index- and density-matched to 80 (w/w)% glycerol in water, and characterized the effect of interparticle interactions on the structure and dynamics of non-equilibrium phases. 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate copolymer particles were synthesized following Kodger et al. (Sci. Rep. 5, 14635 (2015)). Particles were dispersed in glycerol/water solutions to generate colloidal suspensions with good control over electrostatic interactions and a moderately high background viscosity of 55 mPa-s. To probe the effects of charge screening and depletion attractions on the suspension phase behavior, we added NaCl and polyacrylamide (M_w = 186 kDa) at various concentrations to particle suspensions formulated at volume fractions of phi = 0.05 and 0.3 and imaged the suspensions using confocal microscopy. The particles were nearly hard spheres at a NaCl concentration of 20 mM, but aggregated when the concentration of NaCl was further increased. Changes in the particle structure and dynamics with increasing concentration of the depletant polyacrylamide followed the trends expected from earlier experiments on depletion-driven gelation. Additionally, we measured the viscosity and corrected first normal stress difference of suspensions formulated at phi = 0.4 with and without added polymer. The solvent viscosity was suitable for rheology measurements without the onset of instabilities such as secondary flows or edge fracture. These results validate this system as an alternative to one common model system, suspensions of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles and polystyrene depletants in organic solvents, for investigating phase behavior and flow properties in attractive colloidal suspensions.

  6. Laser ablation of basal cell carcinomas guided by confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Heidy; Cordova, Miguel; Nehal, Kishwer; Rossi, Anthony; Chen, Chih-Shan Jason; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    Laser ablation offers precise and fast removal of superficial and early nodular types of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Nevertheless, the lack of histological confirmation has been a limitation. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging combined with a contrast agent can offer cellular-level histology-like feedback to detect the presence (or absence) of residual BCC directly on the patient. We conducted an ex vivo bench-top study to provide a set of effective ablation parameters (fluence, number of passes) to remove superficial BCCs while also controlling thermal coagulation post-ablation to allow uptake of contrast agent. The results for an Er:YAG laser (2.9 um and pulse duration 250us) show that with 6 passes of 25 J/cm2, thermal coagulation can be effectively controlled, to allow both the uptake of acetic acid (contrast agent) and detection of residual (or absence) BCCs. Confirmation was provided with histological examination. An initial in vivo study on 35 patients shows that the uptake of contrast agent aluminum chloride) and imaging quality is similar to that observed in the ex vivo study. The detection of the presence of residual tumor or complete clearance was confirmed in 10 wounds with (additional) histology and in 25 lesions with follow-up imaging. Our results indicate that resolution is sufficient but further development and use of appropriate contrast agent are necessary to improve sensitivity and specificity. Advances in RCM technology for imaging of lateral and deep margins directly on the patient may provide less invasive, faster and less expensive image-guided approaches for treatment of BCCs.

  7. Research and application on imaging technology of line structure light based on confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wenfeng; Xiao, Zexin; Wang, Xiaofen

    2009-11-01

    In 2005, the theory of line structure light confocal microscopy was put forward firstly in China by Xingyu Gao and Zexin Xiao in the Institute of Opt-mechatronics of Guilin University of Electronic Technology. Though the lateral resolution of line confocal microscopy can only reach or approach the level of the traditional dot confocal microscopy. But compared with traditional dot confocal microscopy, it has two advantages: first, by substituting line scanning for dot scanning, plane imaging only performs one-dimensional scanning, with imaging velocity greatly improved and scanning mechanism simplified, second, transfer quantity of light is greatly improved by substituting detection hairline for detection pinhole, and low illumination CCD is used directly to collect images instead of photoelectric intensifier. In order to apply the line confocal microscopy to practical system, based on the further research on the theory of the line confocal microscopy, imaging technology of line structure light is put forward on condition of implementation of confocal microscopy. Its validity and reliability are also verified by experiments.

  8. Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy of the normal human corneoscleral limbus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipika V; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2006-07-01

    To elucidate the structure of the human corneoscleral limbus by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy and to correlate limbal epithelial dimensions and density with the central epithelium and in relation to age. Fifty adult subjects were recruited into one of two age groups: younger (age<45 years) and older (age>or=45 years). Fifty left eyes of these 50 healthy subjects were examined by laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy, to assess the basal epithelium of the central cornea and inferior limbus. Mean epithelial cell diameter, area, and density were calculated for the central basal epithelium, limbus-corneal basal epithelium, and limbus-palisade epithelium. Data were analyzed in relation to the two age groups, group A, 30+/-6 years (n=25; mean+/-SD), and group B, 60+/-11 years (n=25; P<0.01). Mean epithelial density in the limbus-cornea and limbus-palisade regions decreased significantly with age: limbus-cornea group A=7253+/-1077 cells/mm2 group B=6614+/-987 cells/mm2, P=0.03; limbus palisade group A=5409+/-799 cells/mm2, group B=5055+/-722 cells/mm2, P=0.03). Central corneal epithelial density did not change with age: group A=6162+/-503 cells/mm2, group B=6362+/-614 cells/mm2, P=0.08. Mean epithelial density was greatest at the limbus-cornea (7010+/-1081 cells/mm2) and lowest at the limbus-palisades (5289+/-847 cells/mm2). The mean width of palisade ridges was 25.0+/-6.3 microm. This is the first study to image clearly the living human corneal limbus by laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy and to demonstrate quantitative changes in the basal epithelium with age.

  9. Improved sampling and analysis of images in corneal confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schaldemose, E L; Fontain, F I; Karlsson, P; Nyengaard, J R

    2017-10-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive clinical method to analyse and quantify corneal nerve fibres in vivo. Although the CCM technique is in constant progress, there are methodological limitations in terms of sampling of images and objectivity of the nerve quantification. The aim of this study was to present a randomized sampling method of the CCM images and to develop an adjusted area-dependent image analysis. Furthermore, a manual nerve fibre analysis method was compared to a fully automated method. 23 idiopathic small-fibre neuropathy patients were investigated using CCM. Corneal nerve fibre length density (CNFL) and corneal nerve fibre branch density (CNBD) were determined in both a manual and automatic manner. Differences in CNFL and CNBD between (1) the randomized and the most common sampling method, (2) the adjusted and the unadjusted area and (3) the manual and automated quantification method were investigated. The CNFL values were significantly lower when using the randomized sampling method compared to the most common method (p = 0.01). There was not a statistical significant difference in the CNBD values between the randomized and the most common sampling method (p = 0.85). CNFL and CNBD values were increased when using the adjusted area compared to the standard area. Additionally, the study found a significant increase in the CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method compared to the automatic method (p ≤ 0.001). The study demonstrated a significant difference in the CNFL values between the randomized and common sampling method indicating the importance of clear guidelines for the image sampling. The increase in CNFL and CNBD values when using the adjusted cornea area is not surprising. The observed increases in both CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method of nerve quantification compared to the automatic method are consistent with earlier findings. This study underlines the importance of improving the analysis of the

  10. Reflectance confocal microscopy of cutaneous melanoma. Correlation with dermoscopy and histopathology*

    PubMed Central

    Rstom, Silvia Arroyo; Libório, Lorena Silva; Paschoal, Francisco Macedo

    2015-01-01

    In vivo Confocal Microscopy is a method for non-invasive, real-time visualization of microscopic structures and cellular details of the epidermis and dermis, which has a degree of resolution similar to that obtained with histology. We present a case of cutaneous melanoma in which diagnosis was aided by confocal microscopy examination. We also correlate the observed features with the dermoscopic and histopathological findings. Confocal microscopy proved to be an useful adjunct to dermoscopy, playing an important role as a method 'between clinical evaluation and histopathology'. PMID:26131877

  11. Simple fiber-optic confocal microscopy with nanoscale depth resolution beyond the diffraction barrier.

    PubMed

    Ilev, Ilko; Waynant, Ronald; Gannot, Israel; Gandjbakhche, Amir

    2007-09-01

    A novel fiber-optic confocal approach for ultrahigh depth-resolution (microscopy beyond the diffraction barrier in the subwavelength nanometric range below 200 nm is presented. The key idea is based on a simple fiber-optic confocal microscope approach that is compatible with a differential confocal microscope technique. To improve the dynamic range of the resolving laser power and to achieve a high resolution in the nanometric range, we have designed a simple apertureless reflection confocal microscope with a highly sensitive single-mode-fiber confocal output. The fiber-optic design is an effective alternative to conventional pinhole-based confocal systems and offers a number of advantages in terms of spatial resolution, flexibility, miniaturization, and scanning potential. Furthermore, the design is compatible with the differential confocal pinhole microscope based on the use of the sharp diffraction-free slope of the axial confocal response curve rather than the area around the maximum of that curve. Combining the advantages of ultrahigh-resolution fiber-optic confocal microscopy, we can work beyond the diffraction barrier in the subwavelength (below 200 nm) nanometric range exploiting confocal nanobioimaging of single cell and intracellular analytes.

  12. Quantitative detection of caffeine in human skin by confocal Raman spectroscopy--A systematic in vitro validation study.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Lutz; Anderski, Juliane; Windbergs, Maike

    2015-09-01

    For rational development and evaluation of dermal drug delivery, the knowledge of rate and extent of substance penetration into the human skin is essential. However, current analytical procedures are destructive, labor intense and lack a defined spatial resolution. In this context, confocal Raman microscopy bares the potential to overcome current limitations in drug depth profiling. Confocal Raman microscopy already proved its suitability for the acquisition of qualitative penetration profiles, but a comprehensive investigation regarding its suitability for quantitative measurements inside the human skin is still missing. In this work, we present a systematic validation study to deploy confocal Raman microscopy for quantitative drug depth profiling in human skin. After we validated our Raman microscopic setup, we successfully established an experimental procedure that allows correlating the Raman signal of a model drug with its controlled concentration in human skin. To overcome current drawbacks in drug depth profiling, we evaluated different modes of peak correlation for quantitative Raman measurements and offer a suitable operating procedure for quantitative drug depth profiling in human skin. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrate the potential of confocal Raman microscopy for quantitative drug depth profiling in human skin as valuable alternative to destructive state-of-the-art techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of whey in fluid milk using confocal Raman microscopy and artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Alves da Rocha, Roney; Paiva, Igor Moura; Anjos, Virgílio; Furtado, Marco Antônio Moreira; Bell, Maria José Valenzuela

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we assessed the use of confocal Raman microscopy and artificial neural network as a practical method to assess and quantify adulteration of fluid milk by addition of whey. Milk samples with added whey (from 0 to 100%) were prepared, simulating different levels of fraudulent adulteration. All analyses were carried out by direct inspection at the light microscope after depositing drops from each sample on a microscope slide and drying them at room temperature. No pre- or posttreatment (e.g., sample preparation or spectral correction) was required in the analyses. Quantitative determination of adulteration was performed through a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). Different ANN configurations were evaluated based on their coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error values, which were criteria for selecting the best predictor model. In the selected model, we observed that data from both training and validation subsets presented R2>99.99%, indicating that the combination of confocal Raman microscopy and ANN is a rapid, simple, and efficient method to quantify milk adulteration by whey. Because sample preparation and postprocessing of spectra were not required, the method has potential applications in health surveillance and food quality monitoring. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Confocal Microscopy of Jammed Matter: From Elasticity to Granular Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorjadze, Ivane

    Packings of particles are ubiquitous in nature and are of interest not only to the scientific community but also to the food, pharmaceutical, and oil industries. In this thesis we use confocal microscopy to investigate packing geometry and stress transmission in 3D jammed particulate systems. By introducing weak depletion attraction we probe the accessible phase-space and demonstrate that a microscopic approach to jammed matter gives validity to statistical mechanics framework, which is intriguing because our particles are not thermally activated. We show that the fluctuations of the local packing parameters can be successfully captured by the recently proposed 'granocentric' model, which generates packing statistics according to simple stochastic processes. This model enables us to calculate packing entropy and granular temperature, the so-called 'compactivity', therefore, providing a basis for a statistical mechanics of granular matter. At a jamming transition point at which there are formed just enough number of contacts to guarantee the mechanical stability, theoretical arguments suggest a singularity which gives rise to the surprising scaling behavior of the elastic moduli and the microstructure, as observed in numerical simulations. Since the contact network in 3D is typically hidden from view, experimental test of the scaling law between the coordination number and the applied pressure is lacking in the literature. Our data show corrections to the linear scaling of the pressure with density which takes into account the creation of contacts. Numerical studies of vibrational spectra, in turn, reveal sudden features such as excess of low frequency modes, dependence of mode localization and structure on the pressure. Chapter four describes the first calculation of vibrational density of states from the experimental 3D data and is in qualitative agreement with the analogous computer simulations. We study the configurational role of the pressure and demonstrate

  15. In vivo confocal microscopy of meibomian glands in primary blepharospasm

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tong; Gong, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological changes of meibomian glands (MGs) in primary blepharospasm (PBS) by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and to investigate the correlations between clinical data of PBS and LSCM parameters of MGs. This prospective and case–control study recruited 30 consecutive PBS patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. After questionnaire assessments of ocular surface disease index (OSDI), Jankovic rating scale, and blepharospasm disability index, all subjects underwent blink rate evaluation, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), Schirmer test, MG expressibility, meibum quality, MG dropout, and LSCM examination of the MGs. The main LSCM outcomes included the mean MG acinar area and density, orifice diameter, meibum secretion reflectivity, acinar irregularity, and inhomogeneity of interstice and acinar wall. The PBS patients had significantly higher blink rate, higher OSDI and CFS scores, lower TBUT and Schirmer test value, and worse MG expressibility than the controls (All P < 0.05), whereas meibum quality showed no difference (P > 0.05). The PBS patients showed lower values of MG acinar area, orifice diameter and meibum secretion reflectivity, and higher scores of acinar irregularity and inhomogeneity of interstices than the controls (All P < 0.05). For the PBS patients, the severity of blepharospasm evaluated by JCR scale was strong correlated with MG acinar area (P < 0.001), orifice diameter (P = 0.002), meibum secretion reflectivity (P = 0.002), and MG acinar irregularity (P = 0.013). The MG expressibility was significantly correlated to MG acinar area (P = 0.039), orifice diameter (P < 0.001), and MG acinar irregularity (P = 0.014). The OSDI score was moderate correlated with MG acinar irregularity (P = 0.016), whereas the TBUT value was positively correlated with MG acinar area (P = 0.045) and negatively correlated to MG acinar

  16. Fused oblique incidence reflectometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risi, Matthew D.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2011-03-01

    Confocal microendoscopy provides real-time high resolution cellular level images via a minimally invasive procedure, but relies on exogenous fluorophores, has a relatively limited penetration depth (100 μm) and field of view (700 μm), and produces a high rate of detailed information to the user. A new catheter based multi-modal system has been designed that combines confocal imaging and oblique incidence reflectometry (OIR), which is a non-invasive method capable of rapidly extracting tissue absorption, μa, and reduced scattering, μ's, spectra from tissue. The system builds on previous developments of a custom slit-scan multi-spectral confocal microendoscope and is designed to rapidly switch between diffuse spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging modes of operation. An experimental proof-of-principle catheter has been developed that consists of a fiber bundle for traditional confocal fluorescence imaging and a single OIR source fiber which is manually redirected at +/- 26 degrees. Diffusely scattered light from each orientation of the source fiber is collected via the fiber bundle, with a frame of data representing spectra collected at a range of distances from the OIR source point. Initial results with intralipid phantoms show good agreement to published data over the 550-650 nm spectral range. We successfully imaged and measured the optical properties of rodent cardiac muscle.

  17. Clinical usefulness of reflectance confocal microscopy in the management of facial lentigo maligna melanoma.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, I; Carrera, C; Puig, S; Malvehy, J

    2014-04-01

    Facial lentigo maligna melanoma can be a diagnostic challenge in daily clinical practice as it has similar clinical and morphological features to other lesions such as solar lentigines and pigmented actinic keratoses. Confocal microscopy is a noninvasive technique that provides real-time images of the epidermis and superficial dermis with cellular-level resolution. We describe 3 cases of suspected facial lentigo maligna that were assessed using dermoscopy and confocal microscopy before histopathology study. In the first case, diagnosed as lentigo maligna melanoma, presurgical mapping by confocal microscopy was performed to define the margins more accurately. In the second and third cases, with a clinical and dermoscopic suspicion of lentigo maligna melanoma, confocal microscopy was used to identify the optimal site for biopsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Ex Vivo (Fluorescence) Confocal Microscopy in Surgical Pathology: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, Moira; Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta

    2016-05-01

    First developed in 1957, confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging tool that can be used to obtain near real-time reflected light images of untreated human tissue with nearly histologic resolution. Besides its research applications, in the last decades, confocal microscopy technology has been proposed as a useful device to improve clinical diagnosis, especially in ophthalmology, dermatology, and endomicroscopy settings, thanks to advances in instrument development. Compared with the wider use of the in vivo tissue assessment, ex vivo applications of confocal microscopy are not fully explored. A comprehensive review of the current literature was performed here, focusing on the reliable applications of ex vivo confocal microscopy in surgical pathology and on some potential evolutions of this new technique from pathologists' viewpoint.

  19. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

  20. WHOLE INSECT AND MAMMALIAN EMBRYO IMAGING WITH CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY: MORPHOLOGY AND APOPTOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: After fluorochromes are incorporated into cells, tissues, and organisms, confocal microscopy can be used to observe three-dimensional structures. LysoTracker Red (LT) is a paraformaldehyde fixable probe that concentrates into acidic compartments of cells and indicates...

  1. High-resolution confocal Raman microscopy using pixel reassignment.

    PubMed

    Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Jesacher, Alexander

    2016-08-15

    We present a practical modification of fiber-coupled confocal Raman scanning microscopes that is able to provide high confocal resolution in conjunction with high light collection efficiency. For this purpose, the single detection fiber is replaced by a hexagonal lenslet array in combination with a hexagonally packed round-to-linear multimode fiber bundle. A multiline detector is used to collect individual Raman spectra for each fiber. Data post-processing based on pixel reassignment allows one to improve the lateral resolution by up to 41% compared to a single fiber of equal light collection efficiency. We present results from an experimental implementation featuring seven collection fibers, yielding a resolution improvement of about 30%. We believe that our implementation represents an attractive upgrade for existing confocal Raman microscopes that employ multi-line detectors.

  2. Corneal wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy: a 3-year confocal microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Erie, Jay C

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To perform a sequential quantitative analysis of corneal wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) by using confocal microscopy in vivo. METHODS: In a prospective, nonrandomized, comparative trial performed in an institutional setting, 24 eyes of 14 patients received PRK to correct refractive errors between -1.25 and -5.75 D. Central corneas were examined preoperatively and at 1 day, 5 days, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after PRK by using confocal microscopy. A masked observer randomly examined 3 to 6 confocal scans per eye per visit to determine epithelial and stromal thickness, keratocyte density in 5 anterior-posterior stromal layers, corneal nerve density in the subbasal region and the stroma, and corneal light backscattering (corneal haze). RESULTS: Epithelial thickness increased 21% (P < .001) by 12 months after PRK and thereafter remained unchanged to 36 months after PRK. There was no change in stromal thickness between 1 and 36 months after PRK (P = .35). The dense keratocyte population in the preoperative anterior 10% of the stroma (32,380 +/- 5,848 cells/mm3) that was partially or completely removed during photoablation was not reconstituted at 36 months in the anterior 10% of the post-PRK stroma (17,720 +/- 4,308 cells/mm3, P < .001). Subbasal nerve fiber bundle density was decreased 60% at 12 months after PRK (P < .001) before returning to densities at 24 and 36 months after PRK that were not significantly different from preoperative values (P = 1.0). Activated keratocytes and corneal haze peaked at 3 months after PRK. CONCLUSIONS: Wounding of the cornea by PRK alters the normal structure, cellularity, and innervation of the cornea for up to 36 months. PMID:14971584

  3. Confocal Raman microscopy for identification of bacterial species in biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, Brooke D.; Quivey, Robert G.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2011-03-01

    Implemented through a confocal microscope, Raman spectroscopy has been used to distinguish between biofilm samples of two common oral bacteria species, Streptococcus sanguinis and mutans, which are associated with healthy and cariogenic plaque, respectively. Biofilms of these species are studied as a model of dental plaque. A prediction model has been calibrated and validated using pure biofilms. This model has been used to identify the species of transferred and dehydrated samples (much like a plaque scraping) as well as hydrated biofilms in situ. Preliminary results of confocal Raman mapping of species in an intact two-species biofilm will be shown.

  4. Reflectance confocal microscopy of tinea nigra: comparing images with dermoscopy and mycological examination results.

    PubMed

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi de; Ferreira, Marcus Antônio Maia de Olivas; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis whose diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the infectious agent Hortae werneckii through mycological examinations. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy, initially used in melanocytic dermatosis, has been used with skin infectious diseases to identify the parasite at the cellular level. We report, for the first time in the scientific literature, the use of reflectance confocal microscopy in a case of tinea nigra and compare its findings to dermoscopy and mycological examination results.

  5. Reflectance confocal microscopy of tinea nigra: comparing images with dermoscopy and mycological examination results*

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, John Verrinder; de Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi; Ferreira, Marcus Antônio Maia de Olivas; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis whose diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the infectious agent Hortae werneckii through mycological examinations. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy, initially used in melanocytic dermatosis, has been used with skin infectious diseases to identify the parasite at the cellular level. We report, for the first time in the scientific literature, the use of reflectance confocal microscopy in a case of tinea nigra and compare its findings to dermoscopy and mycological examination results. PMID:28954116

  6. Confocal Raman Microscopy: new perspective on the weathering of anhydrous cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Carrasco, M.; del Campo, A.; de la Rubia, MA; Reyes, E.; Moragues, A.; Fernández, JF

    2017-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy when is combined with Confocal microscopy is a non-destructive technique that allow us to obtain information in cementitious materials. In this study, we present non-destructive image and structural analysis of anhydrous cement with carbonation evidences by Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM). The results obtained by CRM show a direct relationship between the presence of the weathering processes of an anhydrous cement with the presence of sulphates and surprisingly, with the existence of amorphous carbon in the medium.

  7. Laser scanning confocal microscopy: history, applications, and related optical sectioning techniques.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Stephen W; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2014-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is an established light microscopical technique for imaging fluorescently labeled specimens with significant three-dimensional structure. Applications of confocal microscopy in the biomedical sciences include the imaging of the spatial distribution of macromolecules in either fixed or living cells, the automated collection of 3D data, the imaging of multiple labeled specimens and the measurement of physiological events in living cells. The laser scanning confocal microscope continues to be chosen for most routine work although a number of instruments have been developed for more specific applications. Significant improvements have been made to all areas of the confocal approach, not only to the instruments themselves, but also to the protocols of specimen preparation, to the analysis, the display, the reproduction, sharing and management of confocal images using bioinformatics techniques.

  8. In vivo confocal microscopy of human cornea covered with human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Yamagami, Satoru; Usui, Tomohiko; Honda, Norihiko; Araki, Fumiyuki; Amano, Shiro

    2008-01-01

    Amniotic membrane transplantation has been widely performed to reconstruct the surface of the eye and treat chemical burns or epithelial defects. However, we have difficulty observing the cornea through the opaque transplanted amniotic membrane by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. We investigated the use of confocal microscopy for observation of human corneas covered with amniotic membrane. Human amniotic membrane was placed onto the normal corneas of five volunteers aged 22-24 years. Then, all layers of the covered corneas were observed by in vivo confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy displayed the epithelium, basement membrane, and stroma of the amniotic membrane. It also displayed the corneal epithelium. Furthermore, corneal stromal keratocytes and the corneal endothelium were clearly observed through the amniotic membrane by confocal microscopy. We demonstrated that in vivo confocal microscopy enabled us to observe all layers of corneas covered with amniotic membrane in normal human eyes. Our findings suggest that confocal microscopy may have advantages for clinical examination of the ocular surface, including all layers of the cornea.

  9. Intraoperative confocal microscopy in the visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence in low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Nader; Snyder, Laura A; Honea, Norissa J; Coons, Stephen W; Eschbacher, Jennifer M; Smith, Kris A; Spetzler, Robert F

    2011-10-01

    Greater extent of resection (EOR) for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) corresponds with improved clinical outcome, yet remains a central challenge to the neurosurgical oncologist. Although 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced tumor fluorescence is a strategy that can improve EOR in gliomas, only glioblastomas routinely fluoresce following 5-ALA administration. Intraoperative confocal microscopy adapts conventional confocal technology to a handheld probe that provides real-time fluorescent imaging at up to 1000× magnification. The authors report a combined approach in which intraoperative confocal microscopy is used to visualize 5-ALA tumor fluorescence in LGGs during the course of microsurgical resection. Following 5-ALA administration, patients with newly diagnosed LGG underwent microsurgical resection. Intraoperative confocal microscopy was conducted at the following points: 1) initial encounter with the tumor; 2) the midpoint of tumor resection; and 3) the presumed brain-tumor interface. Histopathological analysis of these sites correlated tumor infiltration with intraoperative cellular tumor fluorescence. Ten consecutive patients with WHO Grades I and II gliomas underwent microsurgical resection with 5-ALA and intraoperative confocal microscopy. Macroscopic tumor fluorescence was not evident in any patient. However, in each case, intraoperative confocal microscopy identified tumor fluorescence at a cellular level, a finding that corresponded to tumor infiltration on matched histological analyses. Intraoperative confocal microscopy can visualize cellular 5-ALA-induced tumor fluorescence within LGGs and at the brain-tumor interface. To assess the clinical value of 5-ALA for high-grade gliomas in conjunction with neuronavigation, and for LGGs in combination with intraoperative confocal microscopy and neuronavigation, a Phase IIIa randomized placebo-controlled trial (BALANCE) is underway at the authors' institution.

  10. Dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy: fluorescence axial imaging without axial scanning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ryoung; Kim, Young-Duk; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Yoo, Hongki

    2013-07-29

    We propose a new method for high-speed, three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging, which we refer to as dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy (DDCFM). In contrast to conventional beam-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy, where the focal spot must be scanned either optically or mechanically over a sample volume to reconstruct a 3-D image, DDCFM can obtain the depth of a fluorescent emitter without depth scanning. DDCFM comprises two photodetectors, each with a pinhole of different size, in the confocal detection system. Axial information on fluorescent emitters can be measured by the axial response curve through the ratio of intensity signals. DDCFM can rapidly acquire a 3-D fluorescent image from a single two-dimensional scan with less phototoxicity and photobleaching than confocal fluorescence microscopy because no mechanical depth scans are needed. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method by phantom studies.

  11. Anti-translational research: from the bedside back to the bench for reflectance confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The reflectance confocal microscope has made translational progress in dermatology. 0.5 micrometer lateral resolution, 0.75mm field-of-view and excellent temporal resolution at ~15 frames/second serve the VivaScope well in the clinic, but it may be overlooked in basic research. This work reviews high spatiotemporal confocal microscopy and presents images acquired of various samples: zebra fish embryo where melanocytes with excellent contrast overly the spinal column, chicken embryo, where myocardium is seen moving at 15 frames/ second, calcium spikes in dendrites (fluorescence mode) just beyond the temporal resolution, and human skin where blood cells race through the artereovenous microvasculature. For an introduction to confocal microscopy, see: http://dangareau.net.s69818.gridserver.com/science/confocal-microscopy

  12. Improving confocal microscopy with solid-state semiconductor excitation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivers, Nelson L.

    To efficiently excite the fluorescent dyes used in imaging biological samples with a confocal microscope, the wavelengths of the exciting laser must be near the fluorochrome absorption peak. However, this causes imaging problems when the fluorochrome absorption and emission spectra overlap significantly, i.e. have small Stokes shifts, which is the case for most fluorochromes that emit in the red to infrared. As a result, the reflected laser excitation cannot be distinguished from the information-containing fluorescence signal. However, cryogenically cooling the exciting laser diode enabled the laser emission wavelengths to be tuned to shorter wavelengths, decreasing the interference between the laser and the fluorochrome's fluorescence. This reduced the amount of reflected laser light in the confocal image. However, the cooled laser diode's shorter wavelength signal resulted in slightly less efficient fluorochrome excitation. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that as the laser diodes were cooled, their output power increased, which more than compensated for the lower fluorochrome excitation and resulted in significantly more intense fluorescence. Thus, by tuning the laser diode emission wavelengths away from the fluorescence signal, less reflected laser light and more fluorescence information reached the detector, creating images with better signal to noise ratios. Additionally, new, high, luminous flux, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now powerful enough to create confocal fluorescence signals comparable to those produced by the traditional laser excitation sources in fluorescence confocal microscopes. The broader LED spectral response effectively excited the fluorochrome, yet was spectrally limited enough for standard filter sets to separate the LED excitation from the fluorochrome fluorescence signal. Spectrophotometric analysis of the excitation and fluorescence spectra of several fluorochromes showed that high-powered, LED-induced fluorescence contained the

  13. Resolution doubling in fluorescence microscopy with confocal spinning-disk image scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Olaf; Pieper, Christoph; Clever, Michaela; Pfaff, Janine; Ruhlandt, Aike; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Wouters, Fred S; Großhans, Jörg; Bunt, Gertrude; Enderlein, Jörg

    2013-12-24

    We demonstrate how a conventional confocal spinning-disk (CSD) microscope can be converted into a doubly resolving image scanning microscopy (ISM) system without changing any part of its optical or mechanical elements. Making use of the intrinsic properties of a CSD microscope, we illuminate stroboscopically, generating an array of excitation foci that are moved across the sample by varying the phase between stroboscopic excitation and rotation of the spinning disk. ISM then generates an image with nearly doubled resolution. Using conventional fluorophores, we have imaged single nuclear pore complexes in the nuclear membrane and aggregates of GFP-conjugated Tau protein in three dimensions. Multicolor ISM was shown on cytoskeletal-associated structural proteins and on 3D four-color images including MitoTracker and Hoechst staining. The simple adaptation of conventional CSD equipment allows superresolution investigations of a broad variety of cell biological questions.

  14. Resolution doubling in fluorescence microscopy with confocal spinning-disk image scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Olaf; Pieper, Christoph; Clever, Michaela; Pfaff, Janine; Ruhlandt, Aike; Kehlenbach, Ralph H.; Wouters, Fred S.; Großhans, Jörg; Bunt, Gertrude; Enderlein, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate how a conventional confocal spinning-disk (CSD) microscope can be converted into a doubly resolving image scanning microscopy (ISM) system without changing any part of its optical or mechanical elements. Making use of the intrinsic properties of a CSD microscope, we illuminate stroboscopically, generating an array of excitation foci that are moved across the sample by varying the phase between stroboscopic excitation and rotation of the spinning disk. ISM then generates an image with nearly doubled resolution. Using conventional fluorophores, we have imaged single nuclear pore complexes in the nuclear membrane and aggregates of GFP-conjugated Tau protein in three dimensions. Multicolor ISM was shown on cytoskeletal-associated structural proteins and on 3D four-color images including MitoTracker and Hoechst staining. The simple adaptation of conventional CSD equipment allows superresolution investigations of a broad variety of cell biological questions. PMID:24324140

  15. Gold nanorods for cell imaging with confocal reflectance microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ji-Yao; Wang, Pei-Nan

    2010-02-01

    Gold nanorods have unique optical properties as their two photon absorption cross sections are very high and their spectral positions of extinction bands can be controlled by their aspect ratio only, so that gold nanorods have been considered as agents for cell imaging. Two-photon photoluminescence imaging could be used to detect the cellular gold nanorods with the high power femto-second (fs) infrared laser, but may cause the photothermal effect melting the rods. The 3-D distribution of gold nanorods in living cells also can be measured by confocal reflectance microscopy with a very low laser power, and thus the cell damaging can be avoided. In this work, these two methods were comparatively studied in living rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells.

  16. Nuclear apoptotic volume decrease in individual cells: Confocal microscopy imaging and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Khalo, Irina V; Konokhova, Anastasiya I; Orlova, Darya Y; Trusov, Konstantin V; Yurkin, Maxim A; Bartova, Eva; Kozubek, Stanislav; Maltsev, Valeri P; Chernyshev, Andrei V

    2018-05-30

    The dynamics of nuclear morphology changes during apoptosis remains poorly investigated and understood. Using 3D time-lapse confocal microscopy we performed a study of early-stage apoptotic nuclear morphological changes induced by etoposide in single living HepG2 cells. These observations provide a definitive evidence that nuclear apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) is occurring simultaneously with peripheral chromatin condensation (so called "apoptotic ring"). In order to describe quantitatively the dynamics of nuclear morphological changes in the early stage of apoptosis we suggest a general molecular kinetic model, which fits well the obtained experimental data in our study. Results of this work may clarify molecular mechanisms of nuclear morphology changes during apoptosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Live Cell Refractometry Using Hilbert Phase Microscopy and Confocal Reflectance Microscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Lue, Niyom; Choi, Wonshik; Popescu, Gabriel; Yaqoob, Zahid; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative chemical analysis has served as a useful tool for understanding cellular metabolisms in biology. Among many physical properties used in chemical analysis, refractive index in particular has provided molecular concentration that is an important indicator for biological activities. In this report, we present a method of extracting full-field refractive index maps of live cells in their native states. We first record full-field optical thickness maps of living cells by Hilbert phase microscopy and then acquire physical thickness maps of the same cells using a custom-built confocal reflectance microscope. Full-field and axially averaged refractive index maps are acquired from the ratio of optical thickness to physical thickness. The accuracy of the axially averaged index measurement is 0.002. This approach can provide novel biological assays of label-free living cells in situ. PMID:19803506

  18. Analysis of Peroxisome Biogenesis in Pollen by Confocal Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Peng-Fei; Li, Hong-Ju; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisome is an essential single-membrane bound organelle in most eukaryotic cells and functions in diverse cellular processes. De novo formation, division, and turnover of peroxisomes contribute to its biogenesis, morphology, and population regulation. In plants, peroxisome plays multiple roles, including metabolism, development, and stress response. Defective peroxisome biogenesis and development retard plant growth, adaption, and reproduction. Through tracing the subcellular localization of fluorescent reporter tagged matrix protein of peroxisome, fluorescence microscopy is a reliable and fast way to detect peroxisome biogenesis. Further fine-structural observation of peroxisome by TEM enables researchers to observe the detailed ultrastructure of its morphology and spatial contact with other organelles. Pollen grain is a specialized structure where two small sperm cells are enclosed in the cytoplasm of a large vegetative cell. Two features make pollen grain a good system to study peroxisome biogenesis: indispensable requirement of peroxisome for germination on the stigma and homogeneity. Here, we describe the methods of studying peroxisome biogenesis in Arabidopsis pollen grains by fluorescent live-imaging with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and by DAB-staining based transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  19. Confocal microscopy for astrocyte in vivo imaging: Recycle and reuse in microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alvarez, Alberto; Araque, Alfonso; Martín, Eduardo D.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo imaging is one of the ultimate and fundamental approaches for the study of the brain. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) constitutes the state-of-the-art technique in current neuroscience to address questions regarding brain cell structure, development and function, blood flow regulation and metabolism. This technique evolved from laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), which impacted the field with a major improvement in image resolution of live tissues in the 1980s compared to widefield microscopy. While nowadays some of the unparalleled features of 2PLSM make it the tool of choice for brain studies in vivo, such as the possibility to image deep within a tissue, LSCM can still be useful in this matter. Here we discuss the validity and limitations of LSCM and provide a guide to perform high-resolution in vivo imaging of the brain of live rodents with minimal mechanical disruption employing LSCM. We describe the surgical procedure and experimental setup that allowed us to record intracellular calcium variations in astrocytes evoked by sensory stimulation, and to monitor intact neuronal dendritic spines and astrocytic processes as well as blood vessel dynamics. Therefore, in spite of certain limitations that need to be carefully considered, LSCM constitutes a useful, convenient, and affordable tool for brain studies in vivo. PMID:23658537

  20. Confocal Microscopy Imaging with an Optical Transition Edge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, D.; Niwa, K.; Hattori, K.; Inoue, S.; Kobayashi, R.; Numata, T.

    2018-05-01

    Fluorescence color imaging at an extremely low excitation intensity was performed using an optical transition edge sensor (TES) embedded in a confocal microscope for the first time. Optical TES has the ability to resolve incident single photon energy; therefore, the wavelength of each photon can be measured without spectroscopic elements such as diffraction gratings. As target objects, animal cells labeled with two fluorescent dyes were irradiated with an excitation laser at an intensity below 1 μW. In our confocal system, an optical fiber-coupled TES device is used to detect photons instead of the pinhole and photomultiplier tube used in typical confocal microscopes. Photons emitted from the dyes were collected by the objective lens, and sent to the optical TES via the fiber. The TES measures the wavelength of each photon arriving in an exposure time of 70 ms, and a fluorescent photon spectrum is constructed. This measurement is repeated by scanning the target sample, and finally a two-dimensional RGB-color image is obtained. The obtained image showed that the photons emitted from the dyes of mitochondria and cytoskeletons were clearly resolved at a detection intensity level of tens of photons. TES exhibits ideal performance as a photon detector with a low dark count rate (< 1 Hz) and wavelength resolving power. In the single-mode fiber-coupled system, the confocal microscope can be operated in the super-resolution mode. These features are very promising to realize high-sensitivity and high-resolution photon spectral imaging, and would help avoid cell damage and photobleaching of fluorescence dyes.

  1. Local delivery of fluorescent dye for fiber-optics confocal microscopy of the living heart.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K; Hitchcock, Robert W; Sachse, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption, and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release vs. foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carriers allowed reliable imaging of 5-9 lines, which is comparable to 4-8 min of continuous dye release. Our study in the living heart revealed that the SNR of FCM images using local and systemic dye delivery is not different. However, we observed differences in the imaged tissue microstructure with the two approaches. Structural features characteristic of microvasculature were solely observed for systemic dye delivery. Our findings suggest that local dye delivery approach for FCM imaging constitutes an important alternative to systemic dye delivery. We suggest that the approach for local dye delivery will facilitate clinical translation of FCM, for instance, for FCM imaging during pediatric heart surgery.

  2. Low-power laser effects at the single-cell level: a confocal microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido M.; Atlamazoglou, Vassilis; Handris, Panagiotis; Kletsas, Dimitris; Loukas, Spyros

    2000-11-01

    Confocal microscopy was used for irradiation and observation of the same area of interest, allowing the imaging of low power laser effects in subcellular components and functions, at the single cell level. Coverslips cultures of human fetal foreskin fibroblasts (HFFF2) were placed in a small incubation chamber for in vivo microscopic observation. Cells were stimulated by the 647 nm line of the Argon- Krypton laser of the confocal microscope (0.1 mW/cm2). Membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential ((delta) Psim), intracellular pHi, calcium alterations and nuclear chromatin accessibility were monitored, at different times after irradiation, using specific fluorescent vital probes. Images were stored to the computer and quantitative evaluation was performed using image- processing software. After irradiation, influx and efflux of the appropriate dyes monitored changes in cell membrane permeability. Laser irradiation caused alkalizatoin of the cytosolic pHi and increase of the mitochondrial membrane potential ((delta) Psim). Temporary global Ca2+ responses were also observed. No such effects were noted in microscopic fields other than the irradiated ones. No toxic effects were observed, during time course of the experiment.

  3. Modeling of Fibrin Gels Based on Confocal Microscopy and Light-Scattering Data

    PubMed Central

    Magatti, Davide; Molteni, Matteo; Cardinali, Barbara; Rocco, Mattia; Ferri, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin gels are biological networks that play a fundamental role in blood coagulation and other patho/physiological processes, such as thrombosis and cancer. Electron and confocal microscopies show a collection of fibers that are relatively monodisperse in diameter, not uniformly distributed, and connected at nodal points with a branching order of ∼3–4. Although in the confocal images the hydrated fibers appear to be quite straight (mass fractal dimension Dm = 1), for the overall system 1confocal images, we developed a method to generate three-dimensional (3D) in silico gels made of cylindrical sticks of diameter d, density ρ, and average length 〈L〉, joined at randomly distributed nodal points. The resulting 3D network strikingly resembles real fibrin gels and can be sketched as an assembly of densely packed fractal blobs, i.e., regions of size ξ, where the fiber concentration is higher than average. The blobs are placed at a distance ξ0 between their centers of mass so that they are overlapped by a factor η = ξ/ξ0 and have Dm ∼1.2–1.6. The in silico gels’ structure is quantitatively analyzed by its 3D spatial correlation function g3D(r) and corresponding power spectrum I(q) = FFT3D[g3D(r)], from which ρ, d, Dm, η, and ξ0 can be extracted. In particular, ξ0 provides an excellent estimate of the gel mesh size. The in silico gels’ I(q) compares quite well with real gels’ elastic light-scattering measurements. We then derived an analytical form factor for accurately fitting the scattering data, which allowed us to directly recover the gels’ structural parameters. PMID:23473498

  4. Cornea and ocular lens visualized with three-dimensional confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1992-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the advantages of three-dimensional reconstruction of the cornea and the ocular crystalline lens by confocal microscopy and volume rendering computer techniques. The advantages of noninvasive observation of ocular structures in living, unstained, unfixed tissue include the following: the tissue is in a natural living state without the artifacts of fixation, mechanical sectioning, and staining; the three-dimensional structure can be observed from any view point and quantitatively analyzed; the dynamics of morphological changes can be studied; and the use of confocal microscopic observation results in a reduction of the number of animals required for ocular morphometric studies. The main advantage is that the dynamic morphology of ocular structures can be investigated in living ocular tissue. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used in the reflected light mode to obtain the two- dimensional images from the cornea and the ocular lens of a freshly enucleated rabbit eye. The light source was an argon ion laser with 488 nm wavelength. The microscope objective was a Leitz 25X, NA 0.6 water immersion lens. The 400 micron thick cornea was optically sectioned into 133, three micron sections. The semi-transparent cornea and the in-situ ocular lens was visualized as high resolution, high contrast two-dimensional images. The under sampling resulted in a three-dimensional visualization rendering in which the corneal thickness (z-axis) is compressed. The structures observed in the cornea include: superficial epithelial cells and their nuclei, basal epithelial cells and their `beaded' cell borders, basal lamina, nerve plexus, nerve fibers, free nerve endings in the basal epithelial cells, nuclei of stromal keratocytes, and endothelial cells. The structures observed in the in-situ ocular lens include: lens capsule, lens epithelial cells, and individual lens fibers.

  5. Superresolution upgrade for confocal spinning disk systems using image scanning microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbaner, Sebastian; Hähnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Confocal Spinning Disk Systems are widely used for 3D cell imaging because they offer the advantage of optical sectioning at high framerates and are easy to use. However, as in confocal microscopy, the imaging resolution is diffraction limited, which can be theoretically improved by a factor of 2 using the principle of Image Scanning Microscopy (ISM) [1]. ISM with a Confocal Spinning Disk setup (CSDISM) has been shown to improve contrast as well as lateral resolution (FWHM) from 201 +/- 20 nm to 130 +/- 10 nm at 488 nm excitation. A minimum total acquisition time of one second per ISM image makes this method highly suitable for 3D live cell imaging [2]. Here, we present a multicolor implementation of CSDISM for the popular Micro-Manager Open Source Microscopy platform. Since changes in the optical path are not necessary, this will allow any researcher to easily upgrade their standard Confocal Spinning Disk system at remarkable low cost ( 5000 USD) with an ISM superresolution option. [1]. Müller, C.B. and Enderlein, J. Image Scanning Microscopy. Physical Review Letters 104, (2010). [2]. Schulz, O. et al. Resolution doubling in fluorescence microscopy with confocal spinning-disk image scanning microscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, 21000-5 (2013).

  6. Mapping owl's eye cells of patients with cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis using in vivo laser confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    To produce a two-dimensional reconstruction map of owl's eye cells using in vivo laser confocal microscopy in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) corneal endotheliitis, and to demonstrate any association between owl's eye cells and coin-shaped lesions observed with slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Two patients (75- and 77-year-old men) with polymerase chain reaction-proven CMV corneal endotheliitis were evaluated in this study. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy were performed. Images of owl's eye cells in the endothelial cell layer were arranged and mapped into subconfluent montages. Montage images of owl's eye cells were then superimposed on a slit-lamp photo of the corresponding coin-shaped lesion. Degree of concordance between the confocal microscopic images and slit-lamp photos was evaluated. In both eyes, a two-dimensional reconstruction map of the owl's eye cells was created by computer software using acquired confocal images; the maps showed circular patterns. Superimposing montage images of owl's eye cells onto the photos of a coin-shaped lesion showed good concordance in the two eyes. This study suggests that there is an association between owl's eye cells observed by confocal microscopy and coin-shaped lesions observed by slit-lamp biomicroscopy in patients with CMV corneal endotheliitis. The use of in vivo laser confocal microscopy may provide clues as to the underlying causes of CMV corneal endotheliitis.

  7. Optimisation approaches for concurrent transmitted light imaging during confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Collings, David A

    2015-01-01

    The transmitted light detectors present on most modern confocal microscopes are an under-utilised tool for the live imaging of plant cells. As the light forming the image in this detector is not passed through a pinhole, out-of-focus light is not removed. It is this extended focus that allows the transmitted light image to provide cellular and organismal context for fluorescence optical sections generated confocally. More importantly, the transmitted light detector provides images that have spatial and temporal registration with the fluorescence images, unlike images taken with a separately-mounted camera. Because plants often provide difficulties for taking transmitted light images, with the presence of pigments and air pockets in leaves, this study documents several approaches to improving transmitted light images beginning with ensuring that the light paths through the microscope are correctly aligned (Köhler illumination). Pigmented samples can be imaged in real colour using sequential scanning with red, green and blue lasers. The resulting transmitted light images can be optimised and merged in ImageJ to generate colour images that maintain registration with concurrent fluorescence images. For faster imaging of pigmented samples, transmitted light images can be formed with non-absorbed wavelengths. Transmitted light images of Arabidopsis leaves expressing GFP can be improved by concurrent illumination with green and blue light. If the blue light used for YFP excitation is blocked from the transmitted light detector with a cheap, coloured glass filters, the non-absorbed green light will form an improved transmitted light image. Changes in sample colour can be quantified by transmitted light imaging. This has been documented in red onion epidermal cells where changes in vacuolar pH triggered by the weak base methylamine result in measurable colour changes in the vacuolar anthocyanin. Many plant cells contain visible levels of pigment. The transmitted light

  8. Unwarping confocal microscopy images of bee brains by nonrigid registration to a magnetic resonance microscopy image.

    PubMed

    Rohlfing, Torsten; Schaupp, Frank; Haddad, Daniel; Brandt, Robert; Haase, Axel; Menzel, Randolf; Maurer, Calvin R

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) is a powerful image acquisition technique that is well established in many biological applications. It provides 3-D acquisition with high spatial resolution and can acquire several different channels of complementary image information. Due to the specimen extraction and preparation process, however, the shapes of imaged objects may differ considerably from their in vivo appearance. Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) is an evolving variant of magnetic resonance imaging, which achieves microscopic resolutions using a high magnetic field and strong magnetic gradients. Compared to CM imaging, MRM allows for in situ imaging and is virtually free of geometrical distortions. We propose to combine the advantages of both methods by unwarping CM images using a MRM reference image. Our method incorporates a sequence of image processing operators applied to the MRM image, followed by a two-stage intensity-based registration to compute a nonrigid coordinate transformation between the CM images and the MRM image. We present results obtained using CM images from the brains of 20 honey bees and a MRM image of an in situ bee brain. Copyright 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  9. Comparison of confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy in mouse cornea in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Seunghun; Gho, Yong Song; Song, In Seok; Tchah, Hungwon; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution imaging of the cornea is important for studying corneal diseases at cellular levels. Confocal microscopy (CM) has been widely used in the clinic, and two-photon microscopy (TPM) has recently been introduced in various pre-clinical studies. We compared the performance of CM and TPM in normal mouse corneas and neovascularized mouse corneas induced by suturing. Balb/C mice and C57BL/6 mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to compare modalities based on intrinsic contrast and extrinsic fluorescence contrast. CM based on reflection (CMR), CM based on fluorescence (CMF), and TPM based on intrinsic/extrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) were compared by imaging the same sections of mouse corneas sequentially in vivo. In normal mouse corneas, CMR visualized corneal cell morphologies with some background noise, and CMF visualized GFP expressing corneal cells clearly. TPM visualized corneal cells and collagen in the stroma based on fluorescence and SHG, respectively. However, in neovascularized mouse corneas, CMR could not resolve cells deep inside the cornea due to high background noise from the effects of increased structural irregularity induced by suturing. CMF and TPM visualized cells and induced vasculature better than CMR because both collect signals from fluorescent cells only. Both CMF and TPM had signal decays with depth due to the structural irregularity, with CMF having faster signal decay than TPM. CMR, CMF, and TPM showed different degrees of image degradation in neovascularized mouse corneas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cornea and anterior eye assessment with slit lamp biomicroscopy, specular microscopy, confocal microscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Raul

    2018-01-01

    Current corneal assessment technologies make the process of corneal evaluation extremely fast and simple, and several devices and technologies show signs that help in identification of different diseases thereby, helping in diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients. The purpose of this review is to present and update readers on the evaluation of cornea and ocular surface. This first part reviews a description of slit lamp biomicroscopy (SLB), endothelial specular microscopy, confocal microscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy examination techniques and the second part describes the corneal topography and tomography, providing up-to-date information on the clinical recommendations of these techniques in eye care practice. Although the SLB is a traditional technique, it is of paramount importance in clinical diagnosis and compulsory when an eye test is conducted in primary or specialist eye care practice. Different techniques allow the early diagnosis of many diseases, especially when clinical signs have not yet become apparent and visible with SLB. These techniques also allow for patient follow-up in several clinical conditions or diseases, facilitating clinical decisions and improving knowledge regarding the corneal anatomy. PMID:29380757

  11. Strip mosaicing confocal microscopy for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeytunge, Sanjee; Li, Yongbiao; Larson, Bjorg; Peterson, Gary; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-03-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy is a developing technology platform for imaging tumor margins directly in fresh tissue, without the processing that is required for conventional pathology. Previously, basal cell carcinoma margins were detected by mosaicing of confocal images of 12 x 12 mm2 of excised tissue from Mohs surgery. This mosaicing took 9 minutes. Recently we reported the initial feasibility of a faster approach called "strip mosaicing" on 10 x 10 mm2 of tissue that was demonstrated in 3 minutes. In this paper we report further advances in instrumentation and software. Rapid mosaicing of confocal images on large areas of fresh tissue potentially offers a means to perform pathology at the bedside. Thus, strip mosaicing confocal microscopy may serve as an adjunct to pathology for imaging tumor margins to guide surgery.

  12. Swept Field Laser Confocal Microscopy for Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Resolution in Live-Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Muñoz, Manuel; Peng, Anthony Wei; Salles, Felipe T.; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy is a broadly used imaging technique that enhances the signal-to-noise ratio by removing out of focal plane fluorescence. Confocal microscopes come with a variety of modifications depending on the particular experimental goals. Microscopes, illumination pathways, and light collection were originally focused upon obtaining the highest resolution image possible, typically on fixed tissue. More recently, live-cell confocal imaging has gained importance. Since measured signals are often rapid or transient, thus requiring higher sampling rates, specializations are included to enhance spatial and temporal resolution while maintaining tissue viability. Thus, a balance between image quality, temporal resolution, and tissue viability is needed. A subtype of confocal imaging, termed swept field confocal (SFC) microscopy, can image live cells at high rates while maintaining confocality. SFC systems can use a pinhole array to obtain high spatial resolution, similar to spinning disc systems. In addition, SFC imaging can achieve faster rates by using a slit to sweep the light across the entire image plane, thus requiring a single scan to generate an image. Coupled to a high-speed charge-coupled device camera and a laser illumination source, images can be obtained at greater than 1,000 frames per second while maintaining confocality. PMID:22831554

  13. Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Longo, Caterina; Lallas, Aimilios; Kyrgidis, Athanassios; Rabinovitz, Harold; Moscarella, Elvira; Ciardo, Silvana; Zalaudek, Iris; Oliviero, Margaret; Losi, Amanda; Gonzalez, Salvador; Guitera, Pascale; Piana, Simonetta; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    The current guidelines for the management of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) suggest a different therapeutic approach according to histopathologic subtype. Although dermatoscopic and confocal criteria of BCC have been investigated, no specific studies were performed to evaluate the distinct reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) aspects of BCC subtypes. To define the specific dermatoscopic and confocal criteria for delineating different BCC subtypes. Dermatoscopic and confocal images of histopathologically confirmed BCCs were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of predefined criteria. Frequencies of dermatoscopic and confocal parameters are provided. Univariate and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Discriminant analyses were performed to define the independent confocal criteria for distinct BCC subtypes. Eighty-eight BCCs were included. Dermatoscopically, superficial BCCs (n=44) were primarily typified by the presence of fine telangiectasia, multiple erosions, leaf-like structures, and revealed cords connected to the epidermis and epidermal streaming upon RCM. Nodular BCCs (n=22) featured the classic dermatoscopic features and well outlined large basaloid islands upon RCM. Infiltrative BCCs (n=22) featured structureless, shiny red areas, fine telangiectasia, and arborizing vessels on dermatoscopy and dark silhouettes upon RCM. The retrospective design. Dermatoscopy and confocal microscopy can reliably classify different BCC subtypes. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Localizing Proteins in Fixed Giardia lamblia and Live Cultured Mammalian Cells by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Skalli, Omar; Estraño, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with a construct encoding a protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein tag allows live cell studies of the subcellular localization of that protein and the monitoring in real time of its trafficking. Immunostaining methods for confocal fluorescence microscopy are also faster and less involved than those for EM allowing rapid optimization of the antibody dilution needed and a determination of whether protein antigenicity is maintained under fixation conditions used for EM immunogold labeling. This chapter details a method to determine by confocal fluorescence microscopy the intracellular localization of a protein by transfecting the organism of interest, in this case Giardia lamblia, with the cDNA encoding the protein of interest and then processing these organisms for double label immunofluorescence staining after chemical fixation. Also presented is a method to identify the organelle targeting information in the presequence of a precursor protein, in this case the presequence of the precursor to the Euglena light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II precursor (pLHCPII), using live cell imaging of mammalian COS7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding a pLHCPII presequence fluorescent protein fusion and stained with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes.

  15. Group refractive index reconstruction with broadband interferometric confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Daniel L.; Schlachter, Simon C.; Zysk, Adam M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel method of measuring the group refractive index of biological tissues at the micrometer scale. The technique utilizes a broadband confocal microscope embedded into a Mach–Zehnder interferometer, with which spectral interferograms are measured as the sample is translated through the focus of the beam. The method does not require phase unwrapping and is insensitive to vibrations in the sample and reference arms. High measurement stability is achieved because a single spectral interferogram contains all the information necessary to compute the optical path delay of the beam transmitted through the sample. Included are a physical framework defining the forward problem, linear solutions to the inverse problem, and simulated images of biologically relevant phantoms. PMID:18451922

  16. Emulation and design of terahertz reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy based on virtual pinhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-fa; Li, Qi

    2014-12-01

    In the practical application of terahertz reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy, the size of detector pinhole is an important factor that determines the performance of spatial resolution characteristic of the microscopic system. However, the use of physical pinhole brings some inconvenience to the experiment and the adjustment error has a great influence on the experiment result. Through reasonably selecting the parameter of matrix detector virtual pinhole (VPH), it can efficiently approximate the physical pinhole. By using this approach, the difficulty of experimental calibration is reduced significantly. In this article, an imaging scheme of terahertz reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopy that is based on the matrix detector VPH is put forward. The influence of detector pinhole size on the axial resolution of confocal scanning microscopy is emulated and analyzed. Then, the parameter of VPH is emulated when the best axial imaging performance is reached.

  17. A novel method for enhancing the lateral resolution and image SNR in confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youhua; Zhu, Dazhao; Fang, Yue; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2017-12-01

    There is always a tradeoff between the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in confocal microscopy. In particular, the pinhole size is very important for maintaining a balance between them. In this paper, we propose a method for improving the lateral resolution and image SNR in confocal microscopy without making any changes to the hardware. By using the fluorescence emission difference (FED) approach, we divide the images acquired by different pinhole sizes into one image acquired by the central pinhole and several images acquired by ring-shaped pinholes. Then, they are added together with the deconvolution method. Simulation and experimental results for fluorescent particles and cells show that our method can achieve a far better resolution than a large pinhole and a higher SNR than a small pinhole. Moreover, our method can improve the performance of classic confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to a certain extent, especially CLSM with a continuously variable pinhole.

  18. Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis using in vivo confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Mori, Natsuko; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To produce a two-dimensional reconstruction map of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) using in vivo confocal microscopy. Methods Four eyes of four patients (mean 65.8 years) with HSK presenting with a dendritic lesion were enrolled. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy were performed. Acquired confocal images at the level of the epithelium were arranged and mapped into subconfluent montages. Changes in the shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits around dendritic lesions as well as other corneal layers were qualitatively evaluated. Results Mapping of dendritic lesion was successful in all cases, and the subconfluent montages clearly showed the larger image of dendritic lesion. In all cases, the dendritic lesion consisted of hyperreflective irregular epithelial cells, and was surrounded by distorted and elongated epithelial cells. In three cases, hyperreflective deposits were noted at the midline of the lesion. The corneal stroma showed a hyperreflective honeycomb pattern. In two cases, inflammatory cells were observed at the level of endothelial cell layer. Conclusion Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with HSK was successful in all patients using in vivo confocal microscopy. Cellular level observation of dendritic lesion at a relatively larger magnification may help understand the in vivo morphological change of HSK. Further study in more patients with HSK and nonherpetic dendritic lesion is needed to utilize confocal microscopy images in differential diagnosis and follow-up of the epithelial lesions with dendrite. PMID:26445524

  19. Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis using in vivo confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Mori, Natsuko; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To produce a two-dimensional reconstruction map of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) using in vivo confocal microscopy. Four eyes of four patients (mean 65.8 years) with HSK presenting with a dendritic lesion were enrolled. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy were performed. Acquired confocal images at the level of the epithelium were arranged and mapped into subconfluent montages. Changes in the shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits around dendritic lesions as well as other corneal layers were qualitatively evaluated. Mapping of dendritic lesion was successful in all cases, and the subconfluent montages clearly showed the larger image of dendritic lesion. In all cases, the dendritic lesion consisted of hyperreflective irregular epithelial cells, and was surrounded by distorted and elongated epithelial cells. In three cases, hyperreflective deposits were noted at the midline of the lesion. The corneal stroma showed a hyperreflective honeycomb pattern. In two cases, inflammatory cells were observed at the level of endothelial cell layer. Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with HSK was successful in all patients using in vivo confocal microscopy. Cellular level observation of dendritic lesion at a relatively larger magnification may help understand the in vivo morphological change of HSK. Further study in more patients with HSK and nonherpetic dendritic lesion is needed to utilize confocal microscopy images in differential diagnosis and follow-up of the epithelial lesions with dendrite.

  20. Measuring skin penetration by confocal Raman microscopy (CRM): correlation to results from conventional experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunter, Dominique; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-03-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy has become an advancing technique in the characterization of drug transport into the skin. In this study the skin penetration of a local anesthetic from a semisolid preparation was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the chemical enhancers propylene glycol and POE-23-lauryl ether on its penetration was investigated. The results show that confocal Raman microscopy may provide detailed information on the penetration of APIs into the skin and may elucidate their distribution within the skin with high resolution. The results of the CRM analysis are fully in line with those of conventional permeation and penetration experiments.

  1. Confocal microscopy to guide laser ablation of basal cell carinoma: a preliminary feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Bjorg A.; Sierra, Heidy; Chen, Jason; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2013-03-01

    Laser ablation may be a promising method for removal of skin lesions, with the potential for better cosmetic outcomes and reduced scarring and infection. An obstacle to implementing laser ablation is that the treatment leaves no tissue for histopathological analysis. Pre-operative and intra-operative mapping of BCCs using confocal microscopy may guide the ablation of the tumor until all tumor is removed. We demonstrate preliminary feasibility of confocal microscopy to guide laser ablation of BCCs in freshly excised tissue from Mohs surgery. A 2940 nm Er:YAG laser provides efficient ablation of tumor with reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue.

  2. Optical coherence tomography and confocal microscopy investigations of dental prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Rominu, Mihai; Todea, Carmen; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    Dental prostheses are very complex systems, heterogenous in structure, made up from various materials, with different physical properties. An essential question mark is on the physical, chemical and mechanical compatibility between these materials. They have to satisfy high stress requirements as well as esthetic challenges. The masticatory stress may induce fractures of the prostheses, which may be triggered by initial materials defects or by alterations of the technological process. The failures of dental prostheses lead to functional, esthetic and phonetic disturbances which finally render the prosthetic treatment inefficient. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capability of en-face optical coherence tomography as a possible non-invasive high resolution method in supplying the necessary information on the material defects of dental prostheses and microleakage at prosthetic interfaces. C-scan and B-scan OCT images as well as confocal images are acquired from a large range of samples. Gaps between the dental interfaces and material defects are clearly exposed. We conclude that OCT can successfully be used as a noninvasive analysis method.

  3. Improving spinning disk confocal microscopy by preventing pinhole cross-talk for intravital imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shimozawa, Togo; Yamagata, Kazuo; Kondo, Takefumi; Hayashi, Shigeo; Shitamukai, Atsunori; Konno, Daijiro; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Takayama, Jun; Onami, Shuichi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Yasuhito; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Fujita, Katsumasa; Mimori-Kiyosue, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    A recent key requirement in life sciences is the observation of biological processes in their natural in vivo context. However, imaging techniques that allow fast imaging with higher resolution in 3D thick specimens are still limited. Spinning disk confocal microscopy using a Yokogawa Confocal Scanner Unit, which offers high-speed multipoint confocal live imaging, has been found to have wide utility among cell biologists. A conventional Confocal Scanner Unit configuration, however, is not optimized for thick specimens, for which the background noise attributed to “pinhole cross-talk,” which is unintended pinhole transmission of out-of-focus light, limits overall performance in focal discrimination and reduces confocal capability. Here, we improve spinning disk confocal microscopy by eliminating pinhole cross-talk. First, the amount of pinhole cross-talk is reduced by increasing the interpinhole distance. Second, the generation of out-of-focus light is prevented by two-photon excitation that achieves selective-plane illumination. We evaluate the effect of these modifications and test the applicability to the live imaging of green fluorescent protein-expressing model animals. As demonstrated by visualizing the fine details of the 3D cell shape and submicron-size cytoskeletal structures inside animals, these strategies dramatically improve higher-resolution intravital imaging. PMID:23401517

  4. Improving spinning disk confocal microscopy by preventing pinhole cross-talk for intravital imaging.

    PubMed

    Shimozawa, Togo; Yamagata, Kazuo; Kondo, Takefumi; Hayashi, Shigeo; Shitamukai, Atsunori; Konno, Daijiro; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Takayama, Jun; Onami, Shuichi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Yasuhito; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Fujita, Katsumasa; Mimori-Kiyosue, Yuko

    2013-02-26

    A recent key requirement in life sciences is the observation of biological processes in their natural in vivo context. However, imaging techniques that allow fast imaging with higher resolution in 3D thick specimens are still limited. Spinning disk confocal microscopy using a Yokogawa Confocal Scanner Unit, which offers high-speed multipoint confocal live imaging, has been found to have wide utility among cell biologists. A conventional Confocal Scanner Unit configuration, however, is not optimized for thick specimens, for which the background noise attributed to "pinhole cross-talk," which is unintended pinhole transmission of out-of-focus light, limits overall performance in focal discrimination and reduces confocal capability. Here, we improve spinning disk confocal microscopy by eliminating pinhole cross-talk. First, the amount of pinhole cross-talk is reduced by increasing the interpinhole distance. Second, the generation of out-of-focus light is prevented by two-photon excitation that achieves selective-plane illumination. We evaluate the effect of these modifications and test the applicability to the live imaging of green fluorescent protein-expressing model animals. As demonstrated by visualizing the fine details of the 3D cell shape and submicron-size cytoskeletal structures inside animals, these strategies dramatically improve higher-resolution intravital imaging.

  5. Development of an add-on kit for scanning confocal microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kaikai; Zheng, Guoan

    2017-03-01

    Scanning confocal microscopy is a standard choice for many fluorescence imaging applications in basic biomedical research. It is able to produce optically sectioned images and provide acquisition versatility to address many samples and application demands. However, scanning a focused point across the specimen limits the speed of image acquisition. As a result, scanning confocal microscope only works well with stationary samples. Researchers have performed parallel confocal scanning using digital-micromirror-device (DMD), which was used to project a scanning multi-point pattern across the sample. The DMD based parallel confocal systems increase the imaging speed while maintaining the optical sectioning ability. In this paper, we report the development of an add-on kit for high-speed and low-cost confocal microscopy. By adapting this add-on kit to an existing regular microscope, one can convert it into a confocal microscope without significant hardware modifications. Compared with current DMD-based implementations, the reported approach is able to recover multiple layers along the z axis simultaneously. It may find applications in wafer inspection and 3D metrology of semiconductor circuit. The dissemination of the proposed add-on kit under $1000 budget could also lead to new types of experimental designs for biological research labs, e.g., cytology analysis in cell culture experiments, genetic studies on multicellular organisms, pharmaceutical drug profiling, RNA interference studies, investigation of microbial communities in environmental systems, and etc.

  6. Sheet-scanned dual-axis confocal microscopy using Richardson-Lucy deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Meza, D; Wang, Y; Gao, L; Liu, J T C

    2014-09-15

    We have previously developed a line-scanned dual-axis confocal (LS-DAC) microscope with subcellular resolution suitable for high-frame-rate diagnostic imaging at shallow depths. Due to the loss of confocality along one dimension, the contrast (signal-to-background ratio) of a LS-DAC microscope is deteriorated compared to a point-scanned DAC microscope. However, by using a sCMOS camera for detection, a short oblique light-sheet is imaged at each scanned position. Therefore, by scanning the light sheet in only one dimension, a thin 3D volume is imaged. Both sequential two-dimensional deconvolution and three-dimensional deconvolution are performed on the thin image volume to improve the resolution and contrast of one en face confocal image section at the center of the volume, a technique we call sheet-scanned dual-axis confocal (SS-DAC) microscopy.

  7. Confocal fluorescence microscopy in a murine model of microdissection testicular sperm extraction to improve sperm retrieval.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan P; Lowe, Greg J; Kavoussi, Parviz K; Steers, William D; Costabile, Raymond A; Herr, John C; Shetty, Jagathpala; Lysiak, Jeffrey J

    2012-05-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction markedly improves the sperm retrieval rates in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. However, localizing sperm foci can be time-consuming and it is not always successful. Fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy offers the advantage of rapid in vivo detection of fluorescently labeled sperm in the seminiferous tubules. After establishing the feasibility of fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy to identify antibody labeled sperm in vivo C57/B6 mice underwent intraperitoneal injection of busulfan to induce azoospermia. During spermatogenesis reestablishment at approximately 16 weeks the mice were anesthetized and the testes were delivered through a low midline incision. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled antibody to intra-acrosomal protein Hs-14 was injected retrograde into a single murine rete testis. The testes were imaged in vivo with fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy and sperm foci were detected. The respective seminiferous tubules were excised and squash prepared for immunofluorescence microscopy. Sperm foci were identified in the testis injected with fluorescently tagged antibody by in vivo fiberoptic confocal fluorescence microscopy. The contralateral control testis of each mouse showed no specific signal. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the excised tubules provided morphological confirmation of the presence of labeled sperm with an absence in controls. Findings were consistent in the feasibility portion of the study and in the busulfan model of nonobstructive azoospermia. Fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy was feasible during microdissection testicular sperm extraction in an azoospermic mouse model to identify fluorescently labeled sperm in vivo. Translation to the clinical setting could decrease operative time and improve the sperm harvest rate. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing Remodeling of Cardiac Tissue: A Comprehensive Approach Based on Confocal Microscopy and 3D Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, F. B.

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural characterization of cardiac tissue and its remodeling in disease is a crucial step in many basic research projects. We present a comprehensive approach for three-dimensional characterization of cardiac tissue at the submicrometer scale. We developed a compression-free mounting method as well as labeling and imaging protocols that facilitate acquisition of three-dimensional image stacks with scanning confocal microscopy. We evaluated the approach with normal and infarcted ventricular tissue. We used the acquired image stacks for segmentation, quantitative analysis and visualization of important tissue components. In contrast to conventional mounting, compression-free mounting preserved cell shapes, capillary lumens and extracellular laminas. Furthermore, the new approach and imaging protocols resulted in high signal-to-noise ratios at depths up to 60 μm. This allowed extensive analyses revealing major differences in volume fractions and distribution of cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and extracellular space in control versus infarct border zone. Our results show that the developed approach yields comprehensive data on microstructure of cardiac tissue and its remodeling in disease. In contrast to other approaches, it allows quantitative assessment of all major tissue components. Furthermore, we suggest that the approach will provide important data for physiological models of cardiac tissue at the submicrometer scale. PMID:26399990

  9. Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the living cornea and ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1991-07-01

    The three-dimensional reconstruction of the optic zone of the cornea and the ocular crystalline lens has been accomplished using confocal microscopy and volume rendering computer techniques. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used in the reflected light mode to obtain the two-dimensional images from the cornea and the ocular lens of a freshly enucleated rabbit eye. The light source was an argon ion laser with a 488 nm wavelength. The microscope objective was a Leitz X25, NA 0.6 water immersion lens. The 400 micron thick cornea was optically sectioned into 133 three micron sections. The semi-transparent cornea and the in-situ ocular lens was visualized as high resolution, high contrast two-dimensional images. The structures observed in the cornea include: superficial epithelial cells and their nuclei, basal epithelial cells and their 'beaded' cell borders, basal lamina, nerve plexus, nerve fibers, nuclei of stromal keratocytes, and endothelial cells. The structures observed in the in- situ ocular lens include: lens capsule, lens epithelial cells, and individual lens fibers. The three-dimensional data sets of the cornea and the ocular lens were reconstructed in the computer using volume rendering techniques. Stereo pairs were also created of the two- dimensional ocular images for visualization. The stack of two-dimensional images was reconstructed into a three-dimensional object using volume rendering techniques. This demonstration of the three-dimensional visualization of the intact, enucleated eye provides an important step toward quantitative three-dimensional morphometry of the eye. The important aspects of three-dimensional reconstruction are discussed.

  10. Clinical applications of in vivo fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chilhwan; Park, Sangyong; Kim, Junhyung; Ha, Seunghan; Park, Gyuman; Lee, Gunwoo; Lee, Onseok; Chun, Byungseon; Gweon, Daegab

    2008-02-01

    Living skin for basic and clinical research can be evaluated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) non-invasively. CLSM imaging system can achieve skin image its native state either "in vivo" or "fresh biopsy (ex vivo)" without fixation, sectioning and staining that is necessary for routine histology. This study examines the potential fluorescent CLSM with a various exogenous fluorescent contrast agent, to provide with more resolution images in skin. In addition, in vivo fluorescent CLSM researchers will be extended a range of potential clinical application. The prototype of our CLSM system has been developed by Prof. Gweon's group. The operating parameters are composed of some units, such as illuminated wavelength 488 nm, argon illumination power up to 20mW on the skin, objective lens, 0.9NA oil immersion, axial resolution 1.0μm, field of view 200μm x 100μm (lateral resolution , 0.3μm). In human volunteer, fluorescein sodium was administrated topically and intradermally. Animal studies were done in GFP transgenic mouse, IRC mouse and pig skin. For imaging of animal skin, fluorescein sodium, acridine orange, and curcumine were used for fluorescein contrast agent. We also used the GFP transgenic mouse for fluorescein CLSM imaging. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. Curcumin is a yellow food dye that has similar fluorescent properties to fluorescein sodium. Acridin Orange can be highlight nuclei in viable keratinocyte. In vivo CLSM of transgenic GFP mouse enable on in vivo, high resolution view of GFP expressing skin tissue. GFP signals are brightest in corneocyte, kertinocyte, hair and eccrine gland. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. In

  11. Reflection imaging of China ink-perfused brain vasculature using confocal laser-scanning microscopy after clarification of brain tissue by the Spalteholz method.

    PubMed

    Gutierre, R C; Vannucci Campos, D; Mortara, R A; Coppi, A A; Arida, R M

    2017-04-01

    Confocal laser-scanning microscopy is a useful tool for visualizing neurons and glia in transparent preparations of brain tissue from laboratory animals. Currently, imaging capillaries and venules in transparent brain tissues requires the use of fluorescent proteins. Here, we show that vessels can be imaged by confocal laser-scanning microscopy in transparent cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar preparations after clarification of China ink-injected specimens by the Spalteholz method. This method may be suitable for global, three-dimensional, quantitative analyses of vessels, including stereological estimations of total volume and length and of surface area of vessels, which constitute indirect approaches to investigate angiogenesis. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  12. Skin aging: in vivo microscopic assessment of epidermal and dermal changes by means of confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Longo, Caterina; Casari, Alice; Beretti, Francesca; Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Skin aging is thought to be a complex biological process that is traditionally classified as intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Several clinical score and instrumental devices have been applied to obtain a precise assessment of skin aging. Among them, confocal microscopy has emerged as a new technique capable of assessing cytoarchitectural changes with a nearly histopathologic resolution. We sought to determine the microscopic skin changes occurring on the face in different age groups by means of confocal microscopy. The skin of the cheek in 63 volunteers belonging to distinct age groups was analyzed by confocal microscopy. In 4 cases, routine histopathology was performed on site-matched surplus areas from routine excisions for obtaining a better comparison with confocal findings. Young skin was characterized by regular polygonal keratinocytes and thin reticulated collagen fibers. With aging, more irregularly shaped keratinocytes and areas with unevenly distributed pigmentation and increased compactness of collagen fibers were observed. In the elderly, thinning of the epidermis, marked keratinocyte alterations, and huddles of collagen and curled fibers, corresponding to elastosis, were present. A side-by-side correlation between confocal descriptors and histopathologic aspects has been provided in a few cases. Reticular dermal changes cannot be assessed because of the limited depth laser penetration. Confocal microscopy was successfully applied to identify in vivo skin changes occurring in aged skin at both the epidermal and dermal levels at histopathologic resolution. This offers the possibility to test cosmetic product efficacy and to identify early signs of sun damage. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffery and Sally D. Perreault

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Prot...

  14. MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES, EMBRYOS AND FETAL LIMBS USING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergence of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of optically generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-stored images as a virtual 3-dimensional structure offers a viable alternative to traditional section...

  15. Confocal microscopy studies of morphology and apoptosis: ovaries, limbs, embryos and insects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a technique that is capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-stored images as a virtual 3-dimensional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning ap...

  16. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: FOUNDATIONS FOR QUANTIFYING CYTOMETRIC APPLICATIONS WITH SPECTROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of the emitted signal. The accuracy of these measurements demands t...

  17. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of apoptosis in organogenesis-stage mouse embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with a vital stain has been used to study apoptosis in organogenesis-stage mouse embryos. In order to achieve optical sectioning through embryos, it was necessary to use low power objectives and to prepare the sample appropriately. Mous...

  18. Confocal microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D visualizaiton of rat kidney glomeruli

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  19. Confocal Microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D Visualization of rat kidney glomeruli

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  20. Direct comparison between confocal and multiphoton microscopy for rapid histopathological evaluation of unfixed human breast tissue

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitake, Tadayuki; Giacomelli, Michael G.; Cahill, Lucas C.; Schmolze, Daniel B.; Vardeh, Hilde; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Rapid histopathological examination of surgical specimen margins using fluorescence microscopy during breast conservation therapy has the potential to reduce the rate of positive margins on postoperative histopathology and the need for repeat surgeries. To assess the suitability of imaging modalities, we perform a direct comparison between confocal fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for imaging unfixed tissue and compare to paraffin-embedded histology. An imaging protocol including dual channel detection of two contrast agents to implement virtual hematoxylin and eosin images is introduced that provides high quality imaging under both one and two photon excitation. Corresponding images of unfixed human breast tissue show that both confocal and multiphoton microscopy can reproduce the appearance of conventional histology without the need for physical sectioning. We further compare normal breast tissue and invasive cancer specimens imaged at multiple magnifications, and assess the effects of photobleaching for both modalities using the staining protocol. The results demonstrate that confocal fluorescence microscopy is a promising and cost-effective alternative to multiphoton microscopy for rapid histopathological evaluation of ex vivo breast tissue. PMID:28032121

  1. Direct comparison between confocal and multiphoton microscopy for rapid histopathological evaluation of unfixed human breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Tadayuki; Giacomelli, Michael G; Cahill, Lucas C; Schmolze, Daniel B; Vardeh, Hilde; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Connolly, James L; Fujimoto, James G

    2016-12-01

    Rapid histopathological examination of surgical specimen margins using fluorescence microscopy during breast conservation therapy has the potential to reduce the rate of positive margins on postoperative histopathology and the need for repeat surgeries. To assess the suitability of imaging modalities, we perform a direct comparison between confocal fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for imaging unfixed tissue and compare to paraffin-embedded histology. An imaging protocol including dual channel detection of two contrast agents to implement virtual hematoxylin and eosin images is introduced that provides high quality imaging under both one and two photon excitation. Corresponding images of unfixed human breast tissue show that both confocal and multiphoton microscopy can reproduce the appearance of conventional histology without the need for physical sectioning. We further compare normal breast tissue and invasive cancer specimens imaged at multiple magnifications, and assess the effects of photobleaching for both modalities using the staining protocol. The results demonstrate that confocal fluorescence microscopy is a promising and cost-effective alternative to multiphoton microscopy for rapid histopathological evaluation of ex vivo breast tissue.

  2. Direct comparison between confocal and multiphoton microscopy for rapid histopathological evaluation of unfixed human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitake, Tadayuki; Giacomelli, Michael G.; Cahill, Lucas C.; Schmolze, Daniel B.; Vardeh, Hilde; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid histopathological examination of surgical specimen margins using fluorescence microscopy during breast conservation therapy has the potential to reduce the rate of positive margins on postoperative histopathology and the need for repeat surgeries. To assess the suitability of imaging modalities, we perform a direct comparison between confocal fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for imaging unfixed tissue and compare to paraffin-embedded histology. An imaging protocol including dual channel detection of two contrast agents to implement virtual hematoxylin and eosin images is introduced that provides high quality imaging under both one and two photon excitation. Corresponding images of unfixed human breast tissue show that both confocal and multiphoton microscopy can reproduce the appearance of conventional histology without the need for physical sectioning. We further compare normal breast tissue and invasive cancer specimens imaged at multiple magnifications, and assess the effects of photobleaching for both modalities using the staining protocol. The results demonstrate that confocal fluorescence microscopy is a promising and cost-effective alternative to multiphoton microscopy for rapid histopathological evaluation of ex vivo breast tissue.

  3. Association between dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopy features of cutaneous melanoma with BRAF mutational status.

    PubMed

    Bombonato, C; Ribero, S; Pozzobon, F C; Puig-Butille, J A; Badenas, C; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Moscarella, E; Lallas, A; Piana, S; Puig, S; Argenziano, G; Longo, C

    2017-04-01

    Melanomas harbouring common genetic mutations might share certain morphological features detectable with dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy. BRAF mutational status is crucial for the management of metastatic melanoma. To correlate the dermoscopic characteristics of primary cutaneous melanomas with BRAF mutational status. Furthermore, a subset of tumours has also been analysed for the presence of possible confocal features that might be linked with BRAF status. Retrospectively acquired dermoscopic and confocal images of patients with melanoma in tertiary referral academic centres: Skin Cancer Unit in Reggio Emilia and at the Melanoma Unit in Barcelona. Kruskal-Wallis test, logistic regressions, univariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to find dermoscopic and confocal features significantly correlated with BRAF mutational status. Dermoscopically, the presence of irregular peripheral streaks and ulceration were positive predictors of BRAF-mutated melanomas with a statistically significance value, while dotted vessels were more represented in wild-type melanomas. None of the evaluated reflectance confocal microscopy features were correlated with genetic profiling. Ulceration and irregular peripheral streaks represent dermoscopic feature indicative for BRAF-mutated melanoma, while dotted vessels are suggestive for wild-type melanoma. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel S.; Karen, Julie K.; Dusza, Stephen W.; Tudisco, Marie; Nehal, Kishwer S.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy to rapidly detect basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) directly in thick and fresh Mohs surgical excisions. Mosaics of confocal images display large areas of tissue with high resolution and magnification equivalent to 2×, which is the standard magnification when examining pathology. Comparison of mosaics to Mohs frozen histopathology was shown to be excellent for all types of BCCs. However, comparisons in the previous studies were visual and qualitative. In this work, we report the results of a semiquantitative preclinical study in which 45 confocal mosaics are blindly evaluated for the presence (or absence) of BCC tumor. The evaluations are made by two clinicians: a senior Mohs surgeon with prior expertise in interpreting confocal images, and a novice Mohs fellow with limited experience. The blinded evaluation is compared to the gold standard of frozen histopathology. BCCs are detected with an overall sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 89.2%, positive predictive value of 93.0%, and negative predictive value of 94.7%. The results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of confocal mosaicing microscopy toward rapid surgical pathology at the bedside to expedite and guide surgery.

  5. Dimensional metrology of lab-on-a-chip internal structures: a comparison of optical coherence tomography with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Reyes, D R; Halter, M; Hwang, J

    2015-07-01

    The characterization of internal structures in a polymeric microfluidic device, especially of a final product, will require a different set of optical metrology tools than those traditionally used for microelectronic devices. We demonstrate that optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is a promising technique to characterize the internal structures of poly(methyl methacrylate) devices where the subsurface structures often cannot be imaged by conventional wide field optical microscopy. The structural details of channels in the devices were imaged with OCT and analyzed with an in-house written ImageJ macro in an effort to identify the structural details of the channel. The dimensional values obtained with OCT were compared with laser-scanning confocal microscopy images of channels filled with a fluorophore solution. Attempts were also made using confocal reflectance and interferometry microscopy to measure the channel dimensions, but artefacts present in the images precluded quantitative analysis. OCT provided the most accurate estimates for the channel height based on an analysis of optical micrographs obtained after destructively slicing the channel with a microtome. OCT may be a promising technique for the future of three-dimensional metrology of critical internal structures in lab-on-a-chip devices because scans can be performed rapidly and noninvasively prior to their use. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review.

    PubMed

    Guthoff, Rudolf F; Zhivov, Andrey; Stachs, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The demands of modern ophthalmology have evolved from descriptive findings from the slit lamp to in vivo assessment of cellular level changes. Nowadays, the latter can be provided by in vivo confocal microscopy. This article gives an overview of confocal principles using tandem scanning, scanning slit and laser scanning techniques used in ophthalmology. The main part of the paper describes the clinical applications emphasizing the anatomy of the normal and pathological cornea, and illustrates side-effects of topical medication, contact lens wear, cross-linking and refractive surgery. Finally, a summary about experimental applications, including animal studies, surface characterization and volume rendering as well as future developments, is given.

  7. A new diagnostic technique for tinea incognito: in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy. Report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Turan, Enver; Erdemir, Asli Turgut; Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Yurt, Nurdan

    2013-02-01

    In vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a modern non-invasive method for investigation of the skin that allows real-time visualization of individual cells and subcellular structures with the highest resolution imaging comparable to the routine histopathology. Our aim was to demonstrate the potential of CLSM for non-invasive diagnosis of difficult tinea incognito cases. Clinically atypical lesions in five cases of tinea incognito due to dermatophyte spp. were demonstrated using reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy (RCM), parallel to KOH preparation and fungal culture of skin scrapings performed in the same patients. The morphological features characteristic for tinea incognito, namely linear branched hyphae in the intercellular area of the stratum corneum, were readily detectable by means of CLSM. In vivo tissue imaging were performed at three different wavelengths (785, 658, 445 nm) and the best images of fungal elements were obtained at 445 nm. All of our five cases had similar reflectance confocal microscopical findings. Our findings suggest the potential of CLSM as a non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of tinea incognito having atypical clinical appearance. Although at present the reflectance confocal microscopy cannot replace the current diagnostic standards for tinea incognito, it may be successfully used as in vivo non-invasive screening tool to facilitate the diagnosis and point to the need for further investigation of the patient. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of Thygeson superficial punctate keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2011-06-01

    We looked for microstructural corneal characteristics of Thygeson superficial punctate keratitis (TSPK) in an in vivo investigation using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Five patients (3 men and 2 women; mean age, 51.8 years) with clinically diagnosed TSPK were enrolled in this study. All patients were examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy. Deposits in selected confocal images of all corneal layers were evaluated qualitatively for shape and degree of light reflection. The most characteristic finding was aggregates of highly reflective deposits with a starburst-like appearance that corresponded with epithelial punctate lesions identified by slit-lamp biomicroscopy; the aggregates were sporadically observed in all cases at the superficial and basal epithelial cell layers. Subepithelial haze was observed in all cases. Langerhans cells were also sporadically observed in all cases at the basal epithelial layer. Bowman layer abnormalities were observed in 3 of 5 cases; all these patients had a long history of TSPK (eg, more than 1 year). In addition, the 3 patients had highly reflective, tiny, needle-shaped materials in the corneal stroma. In vivo laser confocal microscopy is capable of identifying characteristic corneal microstructural changes related to TSPK with a higher resolution than is available with slit-lamp biomicroscopy. It may also be a valuable tool for further research to elucidate both pathogenesis and the natural course of TSPK.

  9. Application of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy to Heat and Mass Transport Modeling in Porous Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Jochen; Milos, Frank; Fredrich, Joanne; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) has been used to obtain digital images of the complicated 3-D (three-dimensional) microstructures of rigid, fibrous thermal protection system (TPS) materials. These orthotropic materials are comprised of refractory ceramic fibers with diameters in the range of 1 to 10 microns and have open porosities of 0.8 or more. Algorithms are being constructed to extract quantitative microstructural information from the digital data so that it may be applied to specific heat and mass transport modeling efforts; such information includes, for example, the solid and pore volume fractions, the internal surface area per volume, fiber diameter distributions, and fiber orientation distributions. This type of information is difficult to obtain in general, yet it is directly relevant to many computational efforts which seek to model macroscopic thermophysical phenomena in terms of microscopic mechanisms or interactions. Two such computational efforts for fibrous TPS materials are: i) the calculation of radiative transport properties; ii) the modeling of gas permeabilities.

  10. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Early Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Neuropathy After Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Mitu-Pretorian, Maria; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Fadavi, Hassan; Asghar, Omar; Alam, Uazman; Ponirakis, Georgios; Jeziorska, Maria; Marshall, Andy; Efron, Nathan; Boulton, Andrew J.; Augustine, Titus; Malik, Rayaz A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To date, limited data in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes demonstrate nerve fiber repair after intervention. This may reflect a lack of efficacy of the interventions but may also reflect difficulty of the tests currently deployed to adequately assess nerve fiber repair, particularly in short-term studies. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) represents a novel noninvasive means to quantify nerve fiber damage and repair. Fifteen type 1 diabetic patients undergoing simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation (SPK) underwent detailed assessment of neurologic deficits, quantitative sensory testing (QST), electrophysiology, skin biopsy, corneal sensitivity, and CCM at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after successful SPK. At baseline, diabetic patients had a significant neuropathy compared with control subjects. After successful SPK there was no significant change in neurologic impairment, neurophysiology, QST, corneal sensitivity, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). However, CCM demonstrated significant improvements in corneal nerve fiber density, branch density, and length at 12 months. Normalization of glycemia after SPK shows no significant improvement in neuropathy assessed by the neurologic deficits, QST, electrophysiology, and IENFD. However, CCM shows a significant improvement in nerve morphology, providing a novel noninvasive means to establish early nerve repair that is missed by currently advocated assessment techniques. PMID:23002037

  11. Time-Lapse, in Situ Imaging of Ice Crystal Growth Using Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ice crystals nucleate and grow when a water solution is cooled below its freezing point. The growth velocities and morphologies of the ice crystals depend on many parameters, such as the temperature of ice growth, the melting temperature, and the interactions of solutes with the growing crystals. Three types of morphologies may appear: dendritic, cellular (or fingerlike), or the faceted equilibrium form. Understanding and controlling which type of morphology is formed is essential in several domains, from biology to geophysics and materials science. Obtaining, in situ, three dimensional observations without introducing artifacts due to the experimental technique is nevertheless challenging. Here we show how we can use laser scanning confocal microscopy to follow in real-time the growth of smoothed and faceted ice crystals in zirconium acetate solutions. Both qualitative and quantitative observations can be made. In particular, we can precisely measure the lateral growth velocity of the crystals, a measure otherwise difficult to obtain. Such observations should help us understand the influence of the parameters that control the growth of ice crystals in various systems. PMID:27917410

  12. Hematopoiesis in 3 dimensions: human and murine bone marrow architecture visualized by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Takaku, Tomoiku; Malide, Daniela; Chen, Jichun; Calado, Rodrigo T; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S

    2010-10-14

    In many animals, blood cell production occurs in the bone marrow. Hematopoiesis is complex, requiring self-renewing and pluripotent stem cells, differentiated progenitor and precursor cells, and supportive stroma, adipose tissue, vascular structures, and extracellular matrix. Although imaging is a vital tool in hematology research, the 3-dimensional architecture of the bone marrow tissue in situ remains largely uncharacterized. The major hindrance to imaging the intact marrow is the surrounding bone structures are almost impossible to cut/image through. We have overcome these obstacles and describe a method whereby whole-mounts of bone marrow tissue were immunostained and imaged in 3 dimensions by confocal fluorescence and reflection microscopy. We have successfully mapped by multicolor immunofluorescence the localization pattern of as many as 4 cell features simultaneously over large tiled views and to depths of approximately 150 μm. Three-dimensional images can be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively to appreciate the distribution of cell types and their interrelationships, with minimal perturbations of the tissue. We demonstrate its application to normal mouse and human marrow, to murine models of marrow failure, and to patients with aplastic anemia, myeloid, and lymphoid cell malignancies. The technique should be generally adaptable for basic laboratory investigation and for clinical diagnosis of hematologic diseases.

  13. Time-Lapse, in Situ Imaging of Ice Crystal Growth Using Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Marcellini, Moreno; Noirjean, Cecile; Dedovets, Dmytro; Maria, Juliette; Deville, Sylvain

    2016-11-30

    Ice crystals nucleate and grow when a water solution is cooled below its freezing point. The growth velocities and morphologies of the ice crystals depend on many parameters, such as the temperature of ice growth, the melting temperature, and the interactions of solutes with the growing crystals. Three types of morphologies may appear: dendritic, cellular (or fingerlike), or the faceted equilibrium form. Understanding and controlling which type of morphology is formed is essential in several domains, from biology to geophysics and materials science. Obtaining, in situ, three dimensional observations without introducing artifacts due to the experimental technique is nevertheless challenging. Here we show how we can use laser scanning confocal microscopy to follow in real-time the growth of smoothed and faceted ice crystals in zirconium acetate solutions. Both qualitative and quantitative observations can be made. In particular, we can precisely measure the lateral growth velocity of the crystals, a measure otherwise difficult to obtain. Such observations should help us understand the influence of the parameters that control the growth of ice crystals in various systems.

  14. Frequency domain phase-shifted confocal microscopy (FDPCM) with array detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Baoliang; Huang, Yujia; Fang, Yue; Kuang, Cuifang; Xiu, Peng; Liu, Xu

    2017-09-01

    We proposed a novel method to reconstruct images taken by array detected confocal microscopy without prior knowledge about its detector distribution. The proposed frequency domain phase-shifted confocal microscopy (FDPCM) shifts the image from each detection channel to its corresponding place by substituting the phase information in Fourier domain. Theoretical analysis shows that our method could approach the resolution nearly twofold of wide-field microscopy. Simulation and experiment results are also shown to verify the applicability and effectiveness of our method. Compared to Airyscan, our method holds the advantage of simplicity and convenience to be applied to array detectors with different structure, which makes FDPCM have great potential in the application of biomedical observation in the future.

  15. Cement paste surface roughness analysis using coherence scanning interferometry and confocal microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Apedo, K.L., E-mail: apedo@unistra.fr; Munzer, C.; He, H.

    2015-02-15

    Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy have been used for several decades to better understand the microstructure of cementitious materials. Very limited work has been performed to date to study the roughness of cementitious materials by optical microscopy such as coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) and chromatic confocal sensing (CCS). The objective of this paper is to better understand how CSI can be used as a tool to analyze surface roughness and topography of cement pastes. Observations from a series of images acquired using this technique on both polished and unpolished samples are described. The results from CSI are comparedmore » with those from a STIL confocal microscopy technique (SCM). Comparison between both optical techniques demonstrates the ability of CSI to measure both polished and unpolished cement pastes. - Highlights: • Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) was used to analyze cement paste surfaces. • The results from the CSI were compared with those from a confocal microscopy. • 3D roughness parameters were obtained using the window resizing method. • Polished and unpolished cement pastes were studied.« less

  16. Confocal Microscopy and Flow Cytometry System Performance: Assessment of QA Parameters that affect data Quanitification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow and image cytometers can provide useful quantitative fluorescence data. We have devised QA tests to be used on both a flow cytometer and a confocal microscope to assure that the data is accurate, reproducible and precise. Flow Cytometry: We have provided two simple perform...

  17. Confocal reflectance quantitative phase microscope system for cellular membranes dynamics study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay Raj; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) techniques developed so far primarily belongs to high speed transmitted light based systems that has enough sensitivity to resolve membrane fluctuations and dynamics, but has no depth resolution. Therefore, most biomechanics studies using QPM today is confined to simple cells, such as RBCs, without internal organelles. An important instrument that will greatly extend the biomedical applications of QPM is to develop next generation microscope with 3D capability and sufficient temporal resolution to study biomechanics of complex eukaryotic cells including the mechanics of their internal compartments. For eukaryotic cells, the depth sectioning capability is critical and should be sufficient to distinguish nucleic membrane fluctuations from plasma membrane fluctuations. Further, this microscope must provide high temporal resolution since typical eukaryotes membranes are substantially stiffer than RBCs. A confocal reflectance quantitative phase microscope is presented based on multi-pinhole scanning, with the capabilities of higher temporal resolution and sensitivity for nucleic and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. System hardware is developed based on an array of confocal pinhole generated by using the `ON' state of subset of micro-mirrors of digital micro-mirror device (DMD, from Texas Instruments) and high-speed raster scanning provides 14ms imaging speed in wide-field mode. A common path interferometer is integrated at the imaging arm for detection of specimens' quantitative phase information. Theoretical investigation of quantitative phase reconstructed from system is investigated and application of system is presented for dimensional fluctuations measurements of both cellular plasma and nucleic membranes of embryonic stem cells.

  18. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of porcine skin: implications for human wound healing studies

    PubMed Central

    VARDAXIS, N. J.; BRANS, T. A.; BOON, M. E.; KREIS, R. W.; MARRES, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of porcine skin as examined by light microscopy is reviewed and its similarities to and differences from human skin are highlighted. Special imaging techniques and staining procedures are described and their use in gathering morphological information in porcine skin is discussed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was employed to examine the structure of porcine skin and the findings are presented as an adjunct to the information already available in the literature. It is concluded that CLSM provides valuable additional morphological information to material examined by conventional microscopy and is useful for wound healing studies in the porcine model. PMID:9183682

  19. Use of a white light supercontinuum laser for confocal interference-reflection microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, L-D; Su, L; Reichelt, S; Amos, WB

    2012-01-01

    Shortly after its development, the white light supercontinuum laser was applied to confocal scanning microscopy as a more versatile substitute for the multiple monochromatic lasers normally used for the excitation of fluorescence. This light source is now available coupled to commercial confocal fluorescence microscopes. We have evaluated a supercontinuum laser as a source for a different purpose: confocal interferometric imaging of living cells and artificial models by interference reflection. We used light in the range 460–700 nm where this source provides a reasonably flat spectrum, and obtained images free from fringe artefacts caused by the longer coherence length of conventional lasers. We have also obtained images of cytoskeletal detail that is difficult to see with a monochromatic laser. PMID:22432542

  20. Parallel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime confocal microscopy for live cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Li, Yu; Peng, Leilei

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) method that surpasses current FLIM techniques in multiplexing capability. The method employs Fourier multiplexing to simultaneously acquire confocal fluorescence lifetime images of multiple excitation wavelength and emission color combinations at 44,000 pixels/sec. The system is built with low-cost CW laser sources and standard PMTs with versatile spectral configuration, which can be implemented as an add-on to commercial confocal microscopes. The Fourier lifetime confocal method allows fast multiplexed FLIM imaging, which makes it possible to monitor multiple biological processes in live cells. The low cost and compatibility with commercial systems could also make multiplexed FLIM more accessible to biological research community. PMID:24921725

  1. CINCH (confocal incoherent correlation holography) super resolution fluorescence microscopy based upon FINCH (Fresnel incoherent correlation holography)

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Nisan; Storrie, Brian; Bruce, Marc

    2016-01-01

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates high resolution super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. The simple addition of a real-time Nipkow disk confocal image scanner in a conjugate plane of this incoherent holographic system is shown to reduce the depth of focus, and the combination of both techniques provides a simple way to enhance the axial resolution of FINCH in a combined method called “CINCH”. An important feature of the combined system allows for the simultaneous real-time image capture of widefield and holographic images or confocal and confocal holographic images for ready comparison of each method on the exact same field of view. Additional GPU based complex deconvolution processing of the images further enhances resolution. PMID:26839443

  2. CINCH (confocal incoherent correlation holography) super resolution fluorescence microscopy based upon FINCH (Fresnel incoherent correlation holography).

    PubMed

    Siegel, Nisan; Storrie, Brian; Bruce, Marc; Brooker, Gary

    2015-02-07

    FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates high resolution super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. The simple addition of a real-time Nipkow disk confocal image scanner in a conjugate plane of this incoherent holographic system is shown to reduce the depth of focus, and the combination of both techniques provides a simple way to enhance the axial resolution of FINCH in a combined method called "CINCH". An important feature of the combined system allows for the simultaneous real-time image capture of widefield and holographic images or confocal and confocal holographic images for ready comparison of each method on the exact same field of view. Additional GPU based complex deconvolution processing of the images further enhances resolution.

  3. Parallel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime confocal microscopy for live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Li, Yu; Peng, Leilei

    2014-05-05

    We present a novel excitation-emission multiplexed fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) method that surpasses current FLIM techniques in multiplexing capability. The method employs Fourier multiplexing to simultaneously acquire confocal fluorescence lifetime images of multiple excitation wavelength and emission color combinations at 44,000 pixels/sec. The system is built with low-cost CW laser sources and standard PMTs with versatile spectral configuration, which can be implemented as an add-on to commercial confocal microscopes. The Fourier lifetime confocal method allows fast multiplexed FLIM imaging, which makes it possible to monitor multiple biological processes in live cells. The low cost and compatibility with commercial systems could also make multiplexed FLIM more accessible to biological research community.

  4. Corneal collagen cross-linking: a confocal, electron, and light microscopy study of eye bank corneas.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet S; Kaufman, Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate morphological changes induced by corneal collagen cross-linking in a human ex vivo cornea, using confocal, electron, and light microscopy. The central epithelium was partially removed from ex vivo human corneal buttons. Riboflavin 0.1% solution was applied before ultraviolet A light treatment and then for every 2 minutes for 30 minutes while the corneas were exposed to ultraviolet A light at a wavelength of 370 nm and intensity of 3 mW/cm(2). Each cornea was evaluated using confocal, electron, and light microscopy. Confocal microscopy demonstrated normal-appearing corneas on their initial pretreatment examination, with reduced stromal detail. After treatment, a superficial layer of highly reflective spherical structures (4-10 microm) was observed. Many of these hyperreflective structures appeared up to a depth of 300 microm. The remainder of the corneal stroma and endothelium appeared normal. Electron microscopy showed keratocyte apoptotic changes to a depth of 300 microm. No observable pathologic changes were seen on histology. Based on clinical studies, corneal cross-linking is a promising treatment that appears to be safe and to halt ectatic corneal disease progression. Initial European studies used animal models to extrapolate human protocols. In conjunction with clinical studies, we believe that human ex vivo corneal studies provide a means to evaluate the structural and morphological changes associated with this procedure, within human corneas, in a manner that cannot be accomplished in vivo.

  5. Integral refractive index imaging of flowing cell nuclei using quantitative phase microscopy combined with fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dardikman, Gili; Nygate, Yoav N; Barnea, Itay; Turko, Nir A; Singh, Gyanendra; Javidi, Barham; Shaked, Natan T

    2018-03-01

    We suggest a new multimodal imaging technique for quantitatively measuring the integral (thickness-average) refractive index of the nuclei of live biological cells in suspension. For this aim, we combined quantitative phase microscopy with simultaneous 2-D fluorescence microscopy. We used 2-D fluorescence microscopy to localize the nucleus inside the quantitative phase map of the cell, as well as for measuring the nucleus radii. As verified offline by both 3-D confocal fluorescence microscopy and 2-D fluorescence microscopy while rotating the cells during flow, the nucleus of cells in suspension that are not during division can be assumed to be an ellipsoid. The entire shape of a cell in suspension can be assumed to be a sphere. Then, the cell and nucleus 3-D shapes can be evaluated based on their in-plain radii available from the 2-D phase and fluorescent measurements, respectively. Finally, the nucleus integral refractive index profile is calculated. We demonstrate the new technique on cancer cells, obtaining nucleus refractive index values that are lower than those of the cytoplasm, coinciding with recent findings. We believe that the proposed technique has the potential to be used for flow cytometry, where full 3-D refractive index tomography is too slow to be implemented during flow.

  6. Real-time, non-invasive microscopic confirmation of clinical diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ardigò, M; Agozzino, M; Amorosi, B; Moscarella, E; Cota, C; de Abreu, L; Berardesca, E

    2014-05-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune disease affecting prevalently the elder. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy is a non-invasive technique for real-time imaging of the skin with cellular-level resolution. No previous data has been reported about confocal microscopy of bullous pemphigoid. Aim of this preliminary study is the evaluation of the potential of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy for real-time, microscopical confirmation of clinical bullous pemphigoid diagnosis. A total of nine lesions from patients affected by pemphigoid underwent in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy before histological examination. In our preliminary study, confocal microscopy showed high grade of correspondence to histopathology. In particular, presence of sub-epidermal cleft and variable amount of oedema of the upper dermis associated with inflammatory cells infiltration were seen as prevalent confocal features in the bullous lesions considered. Differently, in urticarial lesions, no specific features could be appreciated at confocal analysis beside the presence of signs of spongiosis and perivascular inflammation. Confocal microscopy seems to be useful for in vivo, microscopical confirmation of the clinical suspect of bullous pemphigoid and for biopsy site selection in urticarial lesions to obtain a more significant specimen for histopathological examination. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of a cornea with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Higashide, Tomomi; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Masaki, Toshinori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    To report the in vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of a cornea with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with special attention to the abnormality of Bowman's layer and sub-Bowman's fibrous structures (K-structures). Two patients (67-year-old male and his 26-year-old son) with OI type I were included in this study. Slit lamp biomicroscopic and in vivo laser confocal microscopic examinations were performed for both patients. Central corneal thickness and central endothelial cell density were also measured. Although the corneas looked clear with normal endothelial density for both eyes in both patients, they were quite thin (386 μm oculus dexter (OD) (the right eye) and 384 μm oculus sinister (OS) (the left eye) in the father and 430 μm OD and 425 μm OS in the son). In both patients, slit lamp biomicroscopic and in vivo laser confocal microscopic examination showed similar results. Anterior corneal mosaics produced by rubbing the eyelid under fluorescein were completely absent in both eyes. In vivo laser confocal microscopy revealed an absent or atrophic Bowman's layer; a trace of a presumed Bowman's layer and/or basement membrane was barely visible with high intensity. Additionally, K-structures were completely absent in both eyes. The absence of K-structures and fluorescein anterior corneal mosaics strongly suggested an abnormality of Bowman's layer in these OI patients.

  8. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of a cornea with osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Akira; Higashide, Tomomi; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Masaki, Toshinori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report the in vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of a cornea with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with special attention to the abnormality of Bowman’s layer and sub-Bowman’s fibrous structures (K-structures). Patients and methods Two patients (67-year-old male and his 26-year-old son) with OI type I were included in this study. Slit lamp biomicroscopic and in vivo laser confocal microscopic examinations were performed for both patients. Central corneal thickness and central endothelial cell density were also measured. Results Although the corneas looked clear with normal endothelial density for both eyes in both patients, they were quite thin (386 μm oculus dexter (OD) (the right eye) and 384 μm oculus sinister (OS) (the left eye) in the father and 430 μm OD and 425 μm OS in the son). In both patients, slit lamp biomicroscopic and in vivo laser confocal microscopic examination showed similar results. Anterior corneal mosaics produced by rubbing the eyelid under fluorescein were completely absent in both eyes. In vivo laser confocal microscopy revealed an absent or atrophic Bowman’s layer; a trace of a presumed Bowman’s layer and/or basement membrane was barely visible with high intensity. Additionally, K-structures were completely absent in both eyes. Conclusion The absence of K-structures and fluorescein anterior corneal mosaics strongly suggested an abnormality of Bowman’s layer in these OI patients. PMID:24591812

  9. Rapid Screening of Cancer Margins in Tissue with Multimodal Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Daniel S.; Jeon, Hana; Nehal, Kishwer S.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-01-01

    Background Complete and accurate excision of cancer is guided by the examination of histopathology. However, preparation of histopathology is labor intensive and slow, leading to insufficient sampling of tissue and incomplete and/or inaccurate excision of margins. We demonstrate the potential utility of multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy for rapid screening of cancer margins, directly in fresh surgical excisions, without the need for conventional embedding, sectioning or processing. Materials/Methods A multimodal confocal mosaicing microscope was developed to image basal cell carcinoma margins in surgical skin excisions, with resolution that shows nuclear detail. Multimodal contrast is with fluorescence for imaging nuclei and reflectance for cellular cytoplasm and dermal collagen. Thirtyfive excisions of basal cell carcinomas from Mohs surgery were imaged, and the mosaics analyzed by comparison to the corresponding frozen pathology. Results Confocal mosaics are produced in about 9 minutes, displaying tissue in fields-of-view of 12 mm with 2X magnification. A digital staining algorithm transforms black and white contrast to purple and pink, which simulates the appearance of standard histopathology. Mosaicing enables rapid digital screening, which mimics the examination of histopathology. Conclusions Multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy offers a technology platform to potentially enable real-time pathology at the bedside. The imaging may serve as an adjunct to conventional histopathology, to expedite screening of margins and guide surgery toward more complete and accurate excision of cancer. PMID:22721570

  10. In-vivo immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of herpes simplex virus type 1 keratitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Stephen C.; Laird, Jeffery A.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    1996-05-01

    The white-light confocal microscope offers an in vivo, cellular-level resolution view of the cornea. This instrument has proven to be a valuable research and diagnostic tool for the study of infectious keratitis. In this study, we investigate the direct visualization of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected corneal epithelium, with in vivo confocal microscopy, using HSV-1 immunofluorescent antibodies. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with McKrae strain of HSV-1 in one eye; the other eye of each rabbit was used as an uninfected control. Four days later, the rabbits were anesthetized and a cellulose sponge was applied to each cornea, and a drop of direct HSV fluorescein-tagged antibody was placed on each sponge every 3 to 5 minutes for 1 hour. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was then performed. The HSV-infected corneas showed broad regions of hyperfluorescent epithelial cells. The uninfected corneas revealed no background fluorescence. Thus, using the confocal microscope with a fluorescent cube, we were able to visualize HSV-infected corneal epithelial cells tagged with a direct fluorescent antibody. This process may prove to be a useful clinical tool for the in vivo diagnosis of HSV keratitis.

  11. High speed quantitative digital microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; Price, K. H.; Eskenazi, R.; Ovadya, M. M.; Navon, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Modern digital image processing hardware makes possible quantitative analysis of microscope images at high speed. This paper describes an application to automatic screening for cervical cancer. The system uses twelve MC6809 microprocessors arranged in a pipeline multiprocessor configuration. Each processor executes one part of the algorithm on each cell image as it passes through the pipeline. Each processor communicates with its upstream and downstream neighbors via shared two-port memory. Thus no time is devoted to input-output operations as such. This configuration is expected to be at least ten times faster than previous systems.

  12. In-planta detection and monitorization of endophytic colonization by a Beauveria bassiana strain using a new-developed nested and quantitative PCR-based assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Landa, B B; López-Díaz, C; Jiménez-Fernández, D; Montes-Borrego, M; Muñoz-Ledesma, F J; Ortiz-Urquiza, A; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2013-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip obtained from larvae of the opium poppy stem gall Iraella luteipes endophytically colonizes opium poppy plants and protect it against this pest. Development of a specific, rapid and sensitive technique that allows accurately determining the process and factors leading to the establishment of this strain in opium poppy plants would be essential to achieve its efficient control in a large field scale. For that purpose in the present study, species-specific primers that can be used in conventional or quantitative PCR protocols were developed for specifically identification and detection of B. bassiana in plant tissues. The combination of the designed BB.fw/BB.rv primer set with the universal ITS1-F/ITS4 primer set in a two-step nested-PCR approach, has allowed the amplification of up to 10fg of B. bassiana. This represented an increase in sensitivity of 10000- and 1000-fold of detection than when using the BB.fw/BB.rv primers in a single or single-tube semi-nested PCR approaches, respectively. The BB.fw and BB.rv primer set were subsequently optimized to be used in real time quantitative PCR assays and allowed to accurately quantify B. bassiana DNA in different plant DNA backgrounds (leaves and seeds) without losing accuracy and efficiency. The qPCR protocol was used to monitor the endophytic colonization of opium poppy leaves byB. bassiana after inoculation with the strain EABb 04/01-Tip, detecting as low as 26fg of target DNA in leaves and a decrease in fungal biomass over time. PCR quantification data were supported in parallel with CLMS by the monitoring of spatial and temporal patterns of leaf and stem colonization using a GFP-tagged transformant of the B. bassiana EABb 04/01-Tip strain, which enabled to demonstrate that B. bassiana effectively colonizes aerial tissues of opium poppy plants mainly through intercellular spaces and even leaf trichomes. A decline in endophytic colonization was also observed by the last sampling

  13. Confocal Raman microscopy to monitor extracellular matrix during dental pulp stem cells differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Hamideh; Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.

    2015-07-01

    Regenerative medicine brings promising applications for mesenchymal stem cells, such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Confocal Raman microscopy, a noninvasive technique, is used to study osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Integrated Raman intensities in the 2800 to 3000 cm-1 region (C-H stretching) and the 960 cm-1 peak (ν1 PO43-) were collected (to image cells and phosphate, respectively), and the ratio of two peaks 1660 over 1690 cm-1 (amide I bands) to measure the collagen cross-linking has been calculated. Raman spectra of DPSCs after 21 days differentiation reveal several phosphate peaks: ν1 (first stretching mode) at 960 cm-1, ν2 at 430 cm-1, and ν4 at 585 cm-1 and collagen cross-linking can also be calculated. Confocal Raman microscopy enables monitoring osteogenic differentiation in vitro and can be a credible tool for clinical stem cell based research.

  14. Fibered Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy for the Noninvasive Imaging of Langerhans Cells in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Biliana; Salabert, Nina; Tricot, Sabine; Boisgard, Raphaël; Rathaux, Mélanie; Le Grand, Roger; Chapon, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    We developed a new approach to visualize skin Langerhans cells by in vivo fluorescence imaging in nonhuman primates. Macaques were intradermally injected with a monoclonal, fluorescently labeled antibody against HLA-DR molecule and were imaged for up to 5 days by fibered confocal microscopy (FCFM). The network of skin Langerhans cells was visualized by in vivo fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy. Quantification of Langerhans cells revealed no changes to cell density with time. Ex vivo experiments confirmed that injected fluorescent HLA-DR antibody specifically targeted Langerhans cells in the epidermis. This study demonstrates the feasibility of single-cell, in vivo imaging as a noninvasive technique to track Langerhans cells in nontransgenic animals.

  15. Combining total internal reflection sum frequency spectroscopy spectral imaging and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Allgeyer, Edward S; Sterling, Sarah M; Gunewardene, Mudalige S; Hess, Samuel T; Neivandt, David J; Mason, Michael D

    2015-01-27

    Understanding surface and interfacial lateral organization in material and biological systems is critical in nearly every field of science. The continued development of tools and techniques viable for elucidation of interfacial and surface information is therefore necessary to address new questions and further current investigations. Sum frequency spectroscopy (SFS) is a label-free, nonlinear optical technique with inherent surface specificity that can yield critical organizational information on interfacial species. Unfortunately, SFS provides no spatial information on a surface; small scale heterogeneities that may exist are averaged over the large areas typically probed. Over the past decade, this has begun to be addressed with the advent of SFS microscopy. Here we detail the construction and function of a total internal reflection (TIR) SFS spectral and confocal fluorescence imaging microscope directly amenable to surface investigations. This instrument combines, for the first time, sample scanning TIR-SFS imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  16. Evaluation of human sclera after femtosecond laser ablation using two photon and confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald; Juhasz, Tibor

    2012-08-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial thickness intrascleral channels can be created with a femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm. Such channels have the potential to increase outflow facility and reduce elevated IOP. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in human cadaver eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such channels. This demonstrates that concept of integrating femtosecond laser surgery, and two-photon and confocal imaging has the future potential for image-guided high-precision surgery in transparent and translucent tissue.

  17. In vivo confocal microscopy in dermatology: from research to clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Martina; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Susanne

    2013-06-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) represents an emerging technique for the noninvasive histomorphological analysis of skin in vivo and has shown its applicability for dermatological research as well as its value as an adjunct tool in the clinical management of skin cancer patients. Herein, we aim to give an overview on the current clinical indications for CLSM in dermatology and also highlight the diverse applications of CLSM in dermatological research.

  18. Template confined synthesis of amorphous carbon nanotubes and its confocal Raman microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Maity, Supratim; Roychowdhury, Tuhin; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar, E-mail: kalyan-chattopadhyay@yahoo.com

    2014-04-24

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (aCNTs) were synthesized by AAO (anodic aluminum oxide) template at a temperature 500 °C in nitrogen atmosphere using the citric acid as a carbon source without the help of any catalyst particles. Morphological analysis of the as prepared samples was carried out by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Confocal Raman imaging has been studied and an attempt has been made to find out the graphitic (sp{sup 2}) and disordered phase of the CNTs.

  19. Chondrocytes provide a model for in-situ confocal microscopy and 3D reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michelle S.; Svoboda, Kathy K. H.

    1994-04-01

    Hyaline cartilage is composed of chondrocytes that reside in lacunae surrounded by extracellular matrix molecules. Microscopic and histochemical features of cartilage have been studied with many techniques. Many of these techniques can be time consuming and may alter natural cartilage characteristics. In addition, the orientation and order of sectioned tissue must be maintained to create 3D reconstructions. We show that confocal laser scanning microscopy may replace traditional methods for studying cartilage.

  20. Application of confocal laser microscopy for monitoring mesh implants in herniology

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, V P; Belokonev, V I; Bratchenko, I A

    2011-04-30

    The state of the surface of mesh implants and their encapsulation region in herniology is investigated by laser confocal microscopy. A correlation between the probability of developing relapses and the size and density of implant microdefects is experimentally shown. The applicability limits of differential reverse scattering for monitoring the post-operation state of implant and adjacent tissues are established based on model numerical experiments. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  1. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Corneal Nerve Damage in Patients Admitted With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan; Akhtar, Naveed; Kamran, Saadat; Ponirakis, Georgios; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Tunio, Nahel A; Dargham, Soha R; Imam, Yahia; Sartaj, Faheem; Parray, Aijaz; Bourke, Paula; Khan, Rabia; Santos, Mark; Joseph, Sujatha; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Malik, Rayaz A

    2017-11-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy can identify corneal nerve damage in patients with peripheral and central neurodegeneration. However, the use of corneal confocal microscopy in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke is unknown. One hundred thirty patients (57 without diabetes mellitus [normal glucose tolerance], 32 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 41 with type 2 diabetes mellitus) admitted with acute ischemic stroke, and 28 age-matched healthy control participants underwent corneal confocal microscopy to quantify corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, and corneal nerve fiber length. There was a significant reduction in corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, and corneal nerve fiber length in stroke patients with normal glucose tolerance ( P <0.001, P <0.001, P <0.001), impaired glucose tolerance ( P =0.004, P <0.001, P =0.002), and type 2 diabetes mellitus ( P <0.001, P <0.001, P <0.001) compared with controls. HbA1c and triglycerides correlated with corneal nerve fiber density ( r =-0.187, P =0.03; r =-0.229 P =0.01), corneal nerve fiber length ( r =-0.228, P =0.009; r =-0.285; P =0.001), and corneal nerve branch density ( r =-0.187, P =0.033; r =-0.229, P =0.01). Multiple linear regression showed no independent associations between corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, and corneal nerve fiber length and relevant risk factors for stroke. Corneal confocal microscopy is a rapid noninvasive ophthalmic imaging technique that identifies corneal nerve fiber loss in patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Revealing the chemical changes of tea cell wall induced by anthracnose with confocal Raman microscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-li; Luo, Liu-bin; Hu, Xiao-qian; Lou, Bing-gan; He, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Healthy tea and tea infected by anthracnose were first studied by confocal Raman microscopy to illustrate chemical changes of cell wall in the present paper. Firstly, Raman spectra of both healthy and infected sample tissues were collected with spatial resolution at micron-level, and ultrastructure of healthy and infected tea cells was got from scanning electron microscope. These results showed that there were significant changes in Raman shift and Raman intensity between healthy and infected cell walls, indicating that great differences occurred in chemical compositions of cell walls between healthy and infected samples. In details, intensities at many Raman bands which were closely associated with cellulose, pectin, esters were reduced after infection, revealing that the content of chemical compounds such as cellulose, pectin, esters was decreased after infection. Subsequently, chemical imaging of both healthy and infected tea cell walls were realized based on Raman fingerprint spectra of cellulose and microscopic spatial structure. It was found that not only the content of cellulose was reduced greatly after infection, but also the ordered structure of cellulose was destroyed by anthracnose infection. Thus, confocal Raman microscopy was shown to be a powerful tool to detect the chemical changes in cell wall of tea caused by anthracnose without any chemical treatment or staining. This research firstly applied confocal Raman microscopy in phytopathology for the study of interactive relationship between host and pathogen, and it will also open a new way for intensive study of host-pathogen at cellular level.

  4. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    PubMed

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning reflectance confocal microscopy of melanocytic skin lesions through histopathologic transversal sections.

    PubMed

    Braga, Juliana Casagrande Tavoloni; Macedo, Mariana Petaccia; Pinto, Clovis; Duprat, João; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Pellacani, Giovanni; Rezze, Gisele Gargantini

    2013-01-01

    Histopathologic interpretation of dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) features of cutaneous melanoma was timidly carried out using perpendicular histologic sections, which does not mimic the same plane of the image achieved at both techniques (horizontal plane). The aim of this study was to describe the transverse histologic sections research technique and correlate main dermoscopic features characteristic of cutaneous melanoma (atypical network, irregular globules and pseudopods) with RCM and histopathology in perpendicular and transverse sections in order to offer a more precise interpretation of in vivo detectable features. Four melanomas and 2 nevi with different dermoscopic clues have been studied. Lesion areas that showed characteristic dermoscopic features were imaged by dermoscopy and confocal microscopy and directly correlated with histopathology in perpendicular and transverse sections. We presented the possibility to perform transverse sections as a new approach to understand RCM features. Atypical network showed different aspects in the 2 melanomas: in one case it was characterized by pleomorphic malignant melanocytes with tendency to form aggregates, whereas in the other elongated dendritic cells crowded around dermal papillae, some of them forming bridges that resembled the mitochondrial aspect at confocal and histopathology transversal sections. Pigment globules in melanomas and nevi differed for the presence of large atypical cells in the former, and pseudopods showed up as elongated nests protruded toward the periphery of the lesion. Transverse histologic research sections have a consistent dermoscopic and confocal correlate, and it may represent an help in confocal feature interpretation and an advance in improving melanoma diagnosis and knowledge of the biology of melanocytic lesions.

  6. Evaluation of the therapeutic results of actinic keratosis treated with topical 5% fluorouracil by reflectance confocal laser microscopy: preliminary study*

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Priscila; Maia, Marcus; Rodrigues, Sarita Bartholomei; Marta, Alessandra Cristina; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Topical treatment for actinic keratosis with 5% fluorouracil has a recurrence rate of 54% in 12 months of follow-up. This study analyzed thirteen actinic keratoses on the upper limbs through confocal microscopy, at the time of clinical diagnosis and after 4 weeks of treatment with fluorouracil. After the treatment was established and evidence of clinical cure was achieved, in two of the nine actinic keratoses, confocal microscopy enabled visualization of focal areas of atypical honeycomb pattern in the epidermis indicating therapeutic failure. Preliminary data suggest the use of confocal microscopy as a tool for diagnosis and therapeutic control of actinic keratosis. PMID:26131881

  7. In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-04-01

    We developed dual-modality microscope integrating photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) to noninvasively image hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO₂) and oxygen partial pressure (pO₂) in vivo in single blood vessels with high spatial resolution. While PAM measures sO₂ by imaging hemoglobin optical absorption at two wavelengths, FCM quantifies pO₂ using phosphorescence quenching. The variations of sO₂ and pO₂ values in multiple orders of vessel branches under hyperoxic (100% oxygen) and normoxic (21% oxygen) conditions correlate well with the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, the total concentration of hemoglobin is imaged by PAM at an isosbestic wavelength.

  8. Modulated-alignment dual-axis (MAD) confocal microscopy for deep optical sectioning in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Steven Y.; Chen, Ye; Liu, Jonathan T.C.

    2014-01-01

    A strategy is presented to enable optical-sectioning microscopy with improved contrast and imaging depth using low-power (0.5 - 1 mW) diode laser illumination. This technology combines the inherent strengths of focal-modulation microscopy and dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy for rejecting out-of-focus and multiply scattered background light in tissues. The DAC architecture is unique in that it utilizes an intersecting pair of illumination and collection beams to improve the spatial-filtering and optical-sectioning performance of confocal microscopy while focal modulation selectively ‘labels’ in-focus signals via amplitude modulation. Simulations indicate that modulating the spatial alignment of dual-axis beams at a frequency f generates signals from the focal volume of the microscope that are modulated at 2f with minimal modulation of background signals, thus providing nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement in optical-sectioning contrast compared to DAC microscopy alone. Experiments show that 2f lock-in detection enhances contrast and imaging depth within scattering phantoms and fresh tissues. PMID:24940534

  9. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings of radial keratoneuritis in patients with early stage Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Ishibashi, Yasuhisa; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Tokoro, Masaharu; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-07-01

    To investigate in vivo corneal changes of keratoneuritis in early stage Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) using in vivo laser confocal microscopy. Single-center, prospective, clinical study. Thirteen eyes (12 patients; 5 men and 7 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 22.3 ± 4.2 years) with keratoneuritis resulting from early stage AK were included in this study. In vivo laser confocal microscopy was performed, paying special attention to keratoneuritis. Selected confocal images of corneal layers were evaluated qualitatively for shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits. In all patients, Acanthamoeba cysts were observed clearly in the basal epithelial cell layer as highly reflective round particles with a diameter of 10 to 20 μm. Bowman's layer infiltration of Acanthamoeba cysts was observed in only 1 case, and no cases showed stromal or nerve infiltration of Acanthamoeba cysts. In the stroma, all cases showed highly reflective activated keratocytes forming a honeycomb pattern; these changes were significant around the keratoneuritis. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, possibly polymorphonuclear cells, was observed along with keratocyte bodies in all cases. Numerous highly reflective spindle-shaped materials were observed around the keratoneuritis. Most notably, highly reflective patchy lesions were observed around the keratoneuritis in 11 cases (84.6%). Inflammatory cells also were observed in the endothelial cell layer in 4 cases (30.8%). In vivo laser confocal microscopy identified consistent corneal abnormalities around keratoneuritis in early stage AK patients, of which highly reflective patchy lesions may be characteristic of keratoneuritis. Further morphologic studies of corneas with early stage AK in a larger number of patients may elucidate the clinical significance of radial keratoneuritis and may help us to understand the interaction between Acanthamoeba organisms and host corneal cells or nerves. Copyright © 2013 American

  10. Non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of actinic cheilitis with reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, M; González, S; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B; Roewert-Huber, J; Sterry, W; Stockfleth, E; Astner, S

    2011-03-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) represents the equivalent of actinic keratosis on the lip. Various treatment modalities are available and the efficacy of diclofenac in hyaluronic acid has recently been described. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive imaging technique which has recently been applied for the diagnosis of actinic keratoses. Herein, we describe the applicability of RCM for the diagnosis of AC and for monitoring of treatment response of AC to diclofenac in hyaluronic acid. Ten Caucasian patients with clinical suspicion for AC were included in this study. To obtain a non-invasive diagnosis, RCM was performed at baseline, followed by biopsy and respective confocal-histopathological correlation. Six patients with a histological diagnosis of AC were treated with diclofenac in hyaluronic acid, whereby monitoring was performed by RCM. Reflectance confocal microscopy was able to correctly identify 6/7 cases of AC and 3/3 cases of benign lesions. The most important RCM criteria for diagnosis of AC were cellular atypia at the stratum spinosum and granulosum with atypical honeycomb pattern. One patient with AC was misclassified as inflammatory cheilitis by RCM as it showed marked inflammatory response and lacked clear signs of cellular atypia on RCM imaging. Following topical treatment with diclofenac gel, 5/6 patients (83%) showed a good treatment response with regression of dysplasia on consecutive RCM examination. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a promising tool for the non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of actinic cheilitis. However, marked inflammation represents a potential diagnostic pitfall. In this regard, biopsy should be performed in doubtful cases. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Dye-enhanced reflectance and fluorescence confocal microscopy as an optical pathology tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Salomatina, Elena; Novak, John; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Castano, Ana; Hamblin, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Early detection and precise excision of neoplasms are imperative requirements for successful cancer treatment. In this study we evaluated the use of dye-enhanced confocal microscopy as an optical pathology tool in the ex vivo trial with fresh thick non-melanoma skin cancer excisions and in vivo trial with B16F10 melanoma cancer in mice. For the experiments the tumors were rapidly stained using aqueous solutions of either toluidine blue or methylene blue and imaged using multimodal confocal microscope. Reflectance images were acquired at the wavelengths of 630nm and 650 nm. Fluorescence was excited at 630 nm and 650 nm. Fluorescence emission was registered in the range between 680 nm and 710 nm. The images were compared to the corresponding en face frozen H&E sections. The results of the study indicate confocal images of stained cancerous tissue closely resemble corresponding H&E sections both in vivo and in vitro. This remarkable similarity enables interpretation of confocal images in a manner similar to that of histopathology. The developed technique may provide an efficient real-time optical tool for detecting skin pathology.

  12. Dual-slit confocal light sheet microscopy for in vivo whole-brain imaging of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhe; Mei, Li; Xia, Fei; Luo, Qingming; Fu, Ling; Gong, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In vivo functional imaging at single-neuron resolution is an important approach to visualize biological processes in neuroscience. Light sheet microscopy (LSM) is a cutting edge in vivo imaging technique that provides micron-scale spatial resolution at high frame rate. Due to the scattering and absorption of tissue, however, conventional LSM is inadequate to resolve cells because of the attenuated signal to noise ratio (SNR). Using dual-beam illumination and confocal dual-slit detection, here a dual-slit confocal LSM is demonstrated to obtain the SNR enhanced images with frame rate twice as high as line confocal LSM method. Through theoretical calculations and experiments, the correlation between the slit’s width and SNR was determined to optimize the image quality. In vivo whole brain structural imaging stacks and the functional imaging sequences of single slice were obtained for analysis of calcium activities at single-cell resolution. A two-fold increase in imaging speed of conventional confocal LSM makes it possible to capture the sequence of the neurons’ activities and help reveal the potential functional connections in the whole zebrafish’s brain. PMID:26137381

  13. Fast imaging with inelastically scattered electrons by off-axis chromatic confocal electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Changlin; Zhu, Ye; Lazar, Sorin; Etheridge, Joanne

    2014-04-25

    We introduce off-axis chromatic scanning confocal electron microscopy, a technique for fast mapping of inelastically scattered electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope without a spectrometer. The off-axis confocal mode enables the inelastically scattered electrons to be chromatically dispersed both parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis. This enables electrons with different energy losses to be separated and detected in the image plane, enabling efficient energy filtering in a confocal mode with an integrating detector. We describe the experimental configuration and demonstrate the method with nanoscale core-loss chemical mapping of silver (M4,5) in an aluminium-silver alloy and atomic scale imaging of the low intensity core-loss La (M4,5@840  eV) signal in LaB6. Scan rates up to 2 orders of magnitude faster than conventional methods were used, enabling a corresponding reduction in radiation dose and increase in the field of view. If coupled with the enhanced depth and lateral resolution of the incoherent confocal configuration, this offers an approach for nanoscale three-dimensional chemical mapping.

  14. Towards real-time image deconvolution: application to confocal and STED microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, R.; Zanghirati, G.; Cavicchioli, R.; Zanni, L.; Boccacci, P.; Bertero, M.; Vicidomini, G.

    2013-01-01

    Although deconvolution can improve the quality of any type of microscope, the high computational time required has so far limited its massive spreading. Here we demonstrate the ability of the scaled-gradient-projection (SGP) method to provide accelerated versions of the most used algorithms in microscopy. To achieve further increases in efficiency, we also consider implementations on graphic processing units (GPUs). We test the proposed algorithms both on synthetic and real data of confocal and STED microscopy. Combining the SGP method with the GPU implementation we achieve a speed-up factor from about a factor 25 to 690 (with respect the conventional algorithm). The excellent results obtained on STED microscopy images demonstrate the synergy between super-resolution techniques and image-deconvolution. Further, the real-time processing allows conserving one of the most important property of STED microscopy, i.e the ability to provide fast sub-diffraction resolution recordings. PMID:23982127

  15. In vivo Clonal Tracking of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Marked by Five Fluorescent Proteins using Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Malide, Daniela; Métais, Jean-Yves; Dunbar, Cynthia E.

    2014-01-01

    We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. Vectors encoding five different FPs: Cerulean, EGFP, Venus, tdTomato, and mCherry were used to concurrently transduce HSPCs, creating a diverse palette of color marked cells. Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. Live studies combining video-rate multiphoton and confocal time-lapse imaging in 4D demonstrate the possibility of dynamic cellular and clonal tracking in a quantitative manner. PMID:25145579

  16. Fast Two-Dimensional Bubble Analysis of Biopolymer Filamentous Networks Pore Size from Confocal Microscopy Thin Data Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Molteni, Matteo; Magatti, Davide; Cardinali, Barbara; Rocco, Mattia; Ferri, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The average pore size ξ0 of filamentous networks assembled from biological macromolecules is one of the most important physical parameters affecting their biological functions. Modern optical methods, such as confocal microscopy, can noninvasively image such networks, but extracting a quantitative estimate of ξ0 is a nontrivial task. We present here a fast and simple method based on a two-dimensional bubble approach, which works by analyzing one by one the (thresholded) images of a series of three-dimensional thin data stacks. No skeletonization or reconstruction of the full geometry of the entire network is required. The method was validated by using many isotropic in silico generated networks of different structures, morphologies, and concentrations. For each type of network, the method provides accurate estimates (a few percent) of the average and the standard deviation of the three-dimensional distribution of the pore sizes, defined as the diameters of the largest spheres that can be fit into the pore zones of the entire gel volume. When applied to the analysis of real confocal microscopy images taken on fibrin gels, the method provides an estimate of ξ0 consistent with results from elastic light scattering data. PMID:23473499

  17. In vivo confocal microscopy of the cornea: New developments in image acquisition, reconstruction and analysis using the HRT-Rostock Corneal Module

    PubMed Central

    Petroll, W. Matthew; Robertson, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    The optical sectioning ability of confocal microscopy allows high magnification images to be obtained from different depths within a thick tissue specimen, and is thus ideally suited to the study of intact tissue in living subjects. In vivo confocal microscopy has been used in a variety of corneal research and clinical applications since its development over 25 years ago. In this article we review the latest developments in quantitative corneal imaging with the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph with Rostock Corneal Module (HRT-RCM). We provide an overview of the unique strengths and weaknesses of the HRT-RCM. We discuss techniques for performing 3-D imaging with the HRT-RCM, including hardware and software modifications that allow full thickness confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF) of the cornea, which can provide quantitative measurements of corneal sublayer thicknesses, stromal cell and extracellular matrix backscatter, and depth dependent changes in corneal keratocyte density. We also review current approaches for quantitative imaging of the subbasal nerve plexus, which require a combination of advanced image acquisition and analysis procedures, including wide field mapping and 3-D reconstruction of nerve structures. The development of new hardware, software, and acquisition techniques continues to expand the number of applications of the HRT-RCM for quantitative in vivo corneal imaging at the cellular level. Knowledge of these rapidly evolving strategies should benefit corneal clinicians and basic scientists alike. PMID:25998608

  18. Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeytunge, Sanjee; Li, Yongbiao; Larson, Bjorg; Peterson, Gary; Seltzer, Emily; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2013-06-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy is a developing technology platform for imaging tumor margins directly in freshly excised tissue, without the processing required for conventional pathology. Previously, mosaicing on 12-×-12 mm2 of excised skin tissue from Mohs surgery and detection of basal cell carcinoma margins was demonstrated in 9 min. Last year, we reported the feasibility of a faster approach called "strip mosaicing," which was demonstrated on a 10-×-10 mm2 of tissue in 3 min. Here we describe further advances in instrumentation, software, and speed. A mechanism was also developed to flatten tissue in order to enable consistent and repeatable acquisition of images over large areas. We demonstrate mosaicing on 10-×-10 mm2 of skin tissue with 1-μm lateral resolution in 90 s. A 2.5-×-3.5 cm2 piece of breast tissue was scanned with 0.8-μm lateral resolution in 13 min. Rapid mosaicing of confocal images on large areas of fresh tissue potentially offers a means to perform pathology at the bedside. Imaging of tumor margins with strip mosaicing confocal microscopy may serve as an adjunct to conventional (frozen or fixed) pathology for guiding surgery.

  19. Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongbiao; Larson, Bjorg; Peterson, Gary; Seltzer, Emily; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Confocal mosaicing microscopy is a developing technology platform for imaging tumor margins directly in freshly excised tissue, without the processing required for conventional pathology. Previously, mosaicing on 12-×-12  mm2 of excised skin tissue from Mohs surgery and detection of basal cell carcinoma margins was demonstrated in 9 min. Last year, we reported the feasibility of a faster approach called “strip mosaicing,” which was demonstrated on a 10-×-10  mm2 of tissue in 3 min. Here we describe further advances in instrumentation, software, and speed. A mechanism was also developed to flatten tissue in order to enable consistent and repeatable acquisition of images over large areas. We demonstrate mosaicing on 10-×-10  mm2 of skin tissue with 1-μm lateral resolution in 90 s. A 2.5-×-3.5  cm2 piece of breast tissue was scanned with 0.8-μm lateral resolution in 13 min. Rapid mosaicing of confocal images on large areas of fresh tissue potentially offers a means to perform pathology at the bedside. Imaging of tumor margins with strip mosaicing confocal microscopy may serve as an adjunct to conventional (frozen or fixed) pathology for guiding surgery. PMID:23389736

  20. Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) for subsurface microscopy of the colon in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, P M; King, R G; Lambert, J R; Harris, M R

    1994-01-01

    Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) is a new type of microscopy which has been recently developed (Delaney et al. 1993). In contrast to conventional light microscopy, FOCI and other confocal techniques allow clear imaging of subsurface structures within translucent objects. However, unlike conventional confocal microscopes which are bulky (because of a need for accurate alignment of large components) FOCI allows the imaging end to be miniaturised and relatively mobile. FOCI is thus particularly suited for clear subsurface imaging of structures within living animals or subjects. The aim of the present study was to assess the suitability of using FOCI for imaging of subsurface structures within the colon, both in vitro (human and rat biopsies) and in vivo (in rats). Images were obtained in fluorescence mode (excitation 488 nm, detection above 515 nm) following topical application of fluorescein. By this technique the glandular structure of the colon was imaged. FOCI is thus suitable for subsurface imaging of the colon in vivo. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8157487

  1. In vitro excystation of Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) metacercariae assessed by light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Souza, Joyce; Garcia, Juberlan; Neves, Renata H; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2013-12-01

    Trypsin and bile salts have been identified as important triggers for excystation of Echinostoma metacercariae. Although excystation in trematodes is a well-known phenomenon, some morphological developmental changes remain to be elucidated. In order to gain further insight into the in vitro development of metacercariae, we assayed different cultivating conditions: 0.5% trypsin and 0.5% bile salts; 1% trypsin and 1% bile salts; 1% trypsin and 0.5% bile salts; 0.5% bile salts; or 0.5% trypsin. By means of light microscopy and confocal microscopy, we characterized each encysted, activated, breached and excysted stage based on the morphological features. However, breached and excysted stages were not revealed in both bile salts and trypsin-free medium. Excretory concretions (25 ± 3.9) were visualized within excretory tubules, close to the ventral sucker and genital anlage. The oral sucker armed with spines and digestive system was similar to those of adult worms. The reproductive system is composed of a genital anlage and the cirrus sac primordium. In short, trypsin and bile salts associated were fundamental for the in vitro metacercariae excystation of Echinostoma paraensei. This article presents the first detailed information of all stages of metacercariae excystation obtained through light and confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Multispectral confocal microscopy images and artificial neural nets to monitor the photosensitizer uptake and degradation in Candida albicans cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Renan A.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; da Silva, Ana P.; Kurachi, Cristina; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    This study clearly demonstrates that multispectral confocal microscopy images analyzed by artificial neural networks provides a powerful tool to real-time monitoring photosensitizer uptake, as well as photochemical transformations occurred.

  3. High temporal and spatial resolution studies of bone cells using real-time confocal reflection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Boyde, A; Vesely, P; Gray, C; Jones, S J

    1994-01-01

    Chick and rat bone-derived cells were mounted in sealed coverslip-covered chambers; individual osteoclasts (but also osteoblasts) were selected and studied at 37 degrees C using three different types of high-speed scanning confocal microscopes: (1) A Noran Tandem Scanning Microscope (TSM) was used with a low light level, cooled CCD camera for image transfer to a Noran TN8502 frame store-based image analysing computer to make time lapse movie sequences using 0.1 s exposure periods, thus losing some of the advantage of the high frame rate of the TSM. Rapid focus adjustment using computer controlled piezo drivers permitted two or more focus planes to be imaged sequentially: thus (with additional light-source shuttering) the reflection confocal image could be alternated with the phase contrast image at a different focus. Individual cells were followed for up to 5 days, suggesting no significant irradiation problem. (2) Exceptional temporal and spatial resolution is available in video rate laser confocal scanning microscopes (VRCSLMs). We used the Noran Odyssey unitary beam VRCSLM with an argon ion laser at 488 nm and acousto-optic deflection (AOD) on the line axis: this instrument is truly and adjustably confocal in the reflection mode. (3) We also used the Lasertec 1LM11 line scan instrument, with an He-Ne laser at 633 nm, and AOD for the frame scan. We discuss the technical problems and merits of the different approaches. The VRCSLMs documented rapid, real-time oscillatory motion: all the methods used show rapid net movement of organelles within bone cells. The interference reflection mode gives particularly strong contrasts in confocal instruments. Phase contrast and other interference methods used in the microscopy of living cells can be used simultaneously in the TSM.

  4. Investigation of phosphatidylcholine enhancing FITC-insulin across buccal mucosa by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Weiqun; Su, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Gao, Qiuhua; Xu, Huibi

    2002-04-01

    The aim was to characterize the transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran and insulin with different resoluble compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration rate of insulin molecules through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the rabbit buccal mucosa epithelium, using confocal laser scanning microscopy for visualizing permeation pathways. The confocal images of the distribution pattern of FITC-dextran and FITC-insulin showed that the paracellular route is the major pathway of FITC-dextran through buccal mucosa epithelium, the intra-cellular route is the major pathway of FITC-insulin through buccal mucosa epithelium. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC).

  5. Advances in combined endoscopic fluorescence confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risi, Matthew D.

    Confocal microendoscopy provides real-time high resolution cellular level images via a minimally invasive procedure. Results from an ongoing clinical study to detect ovarian cancer with a novel confocal fluorescent microendoscope are presented. As an imaging modality, confocal fluorescence microendoscopy typically requires exogenous fluorophores, has a relatively limited penetration depth (100 μm), and often employs specialized aperture configurations to achieve real-time imaging in vivo. Two primary research directions designed to overcome these limitations and improve diagnostic capability are presented. Ideal confocal imaging performance is obtained with a scanning point illumination and confocal aperture, but this approach is often unsuitable for real-time, in vivo biomedical imaging. By scanning a slit aperture in one direction, image acquisition speeds are greatly increased, but at the cost of a reduction in image quality. The design, implementation, and experimental verification of a custom multi-point-scanning modification to a slit-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope is presented. This new design improves the axial resolution while maintaining real-time imaging rates. In addition, the multi-point aperture geometry greatly reduces the effects of tissue scatter on imaging performance. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has seen wide acceptance and FDA approval as a technique for ophthalmic retinal imaging, and has been adapted for endoscopic use. As a minimally invasive imaging technique, it provides morphological characteristics of tissues at a cellular level without requiring the use of exogenous fluorophores. OCT is capable of imaging deeper into biological tissue (˜1-2 mm) than confocal fluorescence microscopy. A theoretical analysis of the use of a fiber-bundle in spectral-domain OCT systems is presented. The fiber-bundle enables a flexible endoscopic design and provides fast, parallelized acquisition of the optical coherence tomography

  6. Physicochemical composition of osteoporotic bone in the trichothiodystrophy premature aging mouse determined by confocal Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    van Apeldoorn, Aart A; de Boer, Jan; van Steeg, Harry; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Otto, Cees; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A

    2007-01-01

    Although it has been established that premature aging trichothiodystrophy (TTD) mice display typical signs of osteoporosis, exact changes in physicochemical properties of these mice have not been elucidated. We used confocal Raman microscopy and histology to study femora of TTD mice. We measured femora isolated from xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA)/TTD double mutant mice to establish that Raman microscopy can be applied to measure differences in bone composition. Raman data from XPA/TTD mice showed remarkable changes in bone mineral composition. Moreover, we observed a severe form of osteoporosis, with strongly reduced cortical bone thickness. We used Raman microscopy to analyze bone composition in eight wild-type and eight TTD animals, and observed decreased levels of phosphate and carbonate in the cortex of femora isolated from TTD mice. In contrast, the bands representing the bone protein matrix were not affected in these mice.

  7. Rapid diagnosis of tinea incognito using handheld reflectance confocal microscopy: a paradigm shift in dermatology?

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Dechent, Cristián; Bajaj, Shirin; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Marchetti, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Dermatophytoses are common skin infections. Traditional diagnostic tests such as skin scrapings for light microscopy examination, fungal cultures and biopsies remain imperfect due to false-negative test results, cost, time required to perform the procedure, time delays in test results and/or a requirement for an invasive procedure. Herein, we present a case of an 80-year-old female whose tinea incognito was non-invasively diagnosed within seconds using handheld reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). As non-invasive skin imaging continues to improve, we expect light-based office microscopy to be replaced with technologies such as RCM, which has multiple and continually expanding diagnostic applications. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Identification of nodal tissue in the living heart using rapid scanning fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K; Hitchcock, Robert W; Sachse, Frank B

    2013-09-01

    Risks associated with pediatric reconstructive heart surgery include injury of the sinoatrial node (SAN) and atrioventricular node (AVN), requiring cardiac rhythm management using implantable pacemakers. These injuries are the result of difficulties in identifying nodal tissues intraoperatively. Here we describe an approach based on confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores to quantify tissue microstructure and identify nodal tissue. Using conventional 3-dimensional confocal microscopy we investigated the microstructural arrangement of SAN, AVN, and atrial working myocardium (AWM) in fixed rat heart. AWM exhibited a regular striated arrangement of the extracellular space. In contrast, SAN and AVN had an irregular, reticulated arrangement. AWM, SAN, and AVN tissues were beneath a thin surface layer of tissue that did not obstruct confocal microscopic imaging. Subsequently, we imaged tissues in living rat hearts with real-time fiber-optics confocal microscopy. Fiber-optics confocal microscopy images resembled images acquired with conventional confocal microscopy. We investigated spatial regularity of tissue microstructure from Fourier analysis and second-order image moments. Fourier analysis of fiber-optics confocal microscopy images showed that the spatial regularity of AWM was greater than that of nodal tissues (37.5 ± 5.0% versus 24.3 ± 3.9% for SAN and 23.8 ± 3.7% for AVN; P<0.05). Similar differences of spatial regularities were revealed from second-order image moments (50.0 ± 7.3% for AWM versus 29.3 ± 6.7% for SAN and 27.3 ± 5.5% for AVN; P<0.05). The study demonstrates feasibility of identifying nodal tissue in living heart using extracellular fluorophores and fiber-optics confocal microscopy. Application of the approach in pediatric reconstructive heart surgery may reduce risks of injuring nodal tissues.

  9. Correlative imaging of biological tissues with apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stanciu, Stefan G.; Tranca, Denis E.; Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (ASNOM) has attracted considerable interest over the past years as a result of its valuable contrast mechanisms and capabilities for optical resolutions in the nanoscale range. However, at this moment the intersections between ASNOM and the realm of bioimaging are scarce, mainly due to data interpretation difficulties linked to the limited body of work performed so far in this field and hence the reduced volume of supporting information. We propose an imaging approach that holds significant potential for alleviating this issue, consisting of correlative imaging of biological specimens using a multimodal system that incorporates ASNOM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which allows placing near-field data into a well understood context of anatomical relevance. We demonstrate this approach on zebrafish retinal tissue. The proposed method holds important implications for the in-depth understanding of biological items through the prism of ASNOM and CLSM data complementarity. PMID:29296474

  10. Probing the compressibility of tumor cell nuclei by combined atomic force-confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Marina; te Riet, Joost; Wolf, Katarina

    2013-12-01

    The cell nucleus is the largest and stiffest organelle rendering it the limiting compartment during migration of invasive tumor cells through dense connective tissue. We here describe a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)-confocal microscopy approach for measurement of bulk nuclear stiffness together with simultaneous visualization of the cantilever-nucleus contact and the fate of the cell. Using cantilevers functionalized with either tips or beads and spring constants ranging from 0.06-10 N m-1, force-deformation curves were generated from nuclear positions of adherent HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell populations at unchallenged integrity, and a nuclear stiffness range of 0.2 to 2.5 kPa was identified depending on cantilever type and the use of extended fitting models. Chromatin-decondensating agent trichostatin A (TSA) induced nuclear softening of up to 50%, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach. Finally, using a stiff bead-functionalized cantilever pushing at maximal system-intrinsic force, the nucleus was deformed to 20% of its original height which after TSA treatment reduced further to 5% remaining height confirming chromatin organization as an important determinant of nuclear stiffness. Thus, combined AFM-confocal microscopy is a feasible approach to study nuclear compressibility to complement concepts of limiting nuclear deformation in cancer cell invasion and other biological processes.

  11. Spatially-controlled illumination with rescan confocal microscopy enhances image quality, resolution and reduces photodamage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswami, Venkataraman; De Luca, Giulia M. R.; Breedijk, Ronald M. P.; Van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Manders, Erik M. M.; Hoebe, Ron A.

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an important tool in biomedical imaging. An inherent trade-off lies between image quality and photodamage. Recently, we have introduced rescan confocal microscopy (RCM) that improves the lateral resolution of a confocal microscope down to 170 nm. Previously, we have demonstrated that with controlled-light exposure microscopy, spatial control of illumination reduces photodamage without compromising image quality. Here, we show that the combination of these two techniques leads to high resolution imaging with reduced photodamage without compromising image quality. Implementation of spatially-controlled illumination was carried out in RCM using a line scanning-based approach. Illumination is spatially-controlled for every line during imaging with the help of a prediction algorithm that estimates the spatial profile of the fluorescent specimen. The estimation is based on the information available from previously acquired line images. As a proof-of-principle, we show images of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells, obtained by this new setup with reduced illumination dose, improved resolution and without compromising image quality.

  12. High speed wavefront sensorless aberration correction in digital micromirror based confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, P; Wilding, D; Soloviev, O; Verstraete, H; Bliek, L; Vdovin, G; Verhaegen, M

    2017-01-23

    The quality of fluorescence microscopy images is often impaired by the presence of sample induced optical aberrations. Adaptive optical elements such as deformable mirrors or spatial light modulators can be used to correct aberrations. However, previously reported techniques either require special sample preparation, or time consuming optimization procedures for the correction of static aberrations. This paper reports a technique for optical sectioning fluorescence microscopy capable of correcting dynamic aberrations in any fluorescent sample during the acquisition. This is achieved by implementing adaptive optics in a non conventional confocal microscopy setup, with multiple programmable confocal apertures, in which out of focus light can be separately detected, and used to optimize the correction performance with a sampling frequency an order of magnitude faster than the imaging rate of the system. The paper reports results comparing the correction performances to traditional image optimization algorithms, and demonstrates how the system can compensate for dynamic changes in the aberrations, such as those introduced during a focal stack acquisition though a thick sample.

  13. A rapid method for the assessment of bone architecture by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, M H; Bruining, H G; Cody, S H; Brankov, B; Wood, D J; Papadimitriou, J M

    1997-08-01

    Conventional ways of demonstrating and analysing the components of osseous tissue have always been hampered by the difficulty of physically sectioning bone. In this study, we have used Acridine Orange staining of 100-micron-thick unembedded bone slices and then assessed the cellular and tissue architecture by confocal microscopy. The result showed the Acridine Orange, by differential staining of the cellular nucleic acids, permits ready assessment of cell shape and cell organization as well as variations in growth patterns. Our studies have provided a new and relatively easy way of assessing the morphology of bone specimens by rendering unnecessary the need for embedding, decalcification and thin sectioning of the osseous tissue.

  14. The Role of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Clinical Trials for Tumor Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Guilera, Josep Malvehy; Barreiro Capurro, Alicia; Carrera Alvárez, Cristina; Puig Sardá, Susana

    2016-10-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows the evaluation with superb accuracy of some skin tumors before, during, and after treatment. In clinical trials RCM has been shown to provide useful information for evaluation of efficacy of topical or systemic medication. With the recent introduction of handheld RCM a fast examination of the tumor can be done in minutes. In patients treated with surgery RCM plays a unique role to precisely map margins of the tumor in the skin surface and for the detection of subclinical recurrences. This article reviews the use of RCM in the research of different skin cancer tumor treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. High-speed bioimaging with frequency-division-multiplexed fluorescence confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Harmon, Jeffrey; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    We present methods of fluorescence confocal microscopy that enable unprecedentedly high frame rate of > 10,000 fps. The methods are based on a frequency-division multiplexing technique, which was originally developed in the field of communication engineering. Specifically, we achieved a broad bandwidth ( 400 MHz) of detection signals using a dual- AOD method and overcame limitations in frame rate, due to a scanning device, by using a multi-line focusing method, resulting in a significant increase in frame rate. The methods have potential biomedical applications such as observation of sub-millisecond dynamics in biological tissues, in-vivo three-dimensional imaging, and fluorescence imaging flow cytometry.

  16. Insights into esophagus tissue architecture using two-photon confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nenrong; Wang, Yue; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, microstructures of human esophageal mucosa were evaluated using the two-photon laser scanning confocal microscopy (TPLSCM), based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). The distribution of epithelial cells, muscle fibers of muscularis mucosae has been distinctly obtained. Furthermore, esophageal submucosa characteristics with cancer cells invading into were detected. The variation of collagen, elastin and cancer cells is very relevant to the pathology in esophagus, especially early esophageal cancer. Our experimental results indicate that the MPM technique has the much more advantages for label-free imaging, and has the potential application in vivo in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of early esophageal cancer.

  17. Fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of the mycotoxin citrinin in condensed phase and hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Milena H; Gehlen, Marcelo H; de Jesus, Karen; Berlinck, Roberto G S

    2014-05-01

    The emission spectra, quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes of citrinin in organic solvents and hydrogel films have been determined. Citrinin shows complex fluorescence decays due to the presence of two tautomers in solution and interconversion from excited-state double proton transfer (ESDPT) process. The fluorescence decay times associated with the two tautomers have values near 1 and 5 ns depending on the medium. In hydrogel films of agarose and alginate, fluorescence imaging showed that citrinin is not homogeneously dispersed and highly emissive micrometer spots may be formed. Fluorescence spectrum and decay analysis are used to recognize the presence of citrinin in hydrogel films using confocal fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy.

  18. Exploiting chromatic aberration to spectrally encode depth in reflectance confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Shelton, Ryan L.; Olsovsky, Cory; Saldua, Meagan; Applegate, Brian E.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2011-06-01

    We present chromatic confocal microscopy as a technique to axially scan the sample by spectrally encoding depth information to avoid mechanical scanning of the lens or sample. We have achieved an 800 μm focal shift over a range of 680-1080 nm using a hyperchromat lens as the imaging lens. A more complex system that incorporates a water immersion objective to improve axial resolution was built and tested. We determined that increasing objective magnification decreases chromatic shift while improving axial resolution. Furthermore, collimating after the hyperchromat at longer wavelengths yields an increase in focal shift.

  19. Through the looking glass: Basics and principles of reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Que, Syril Keena T; Fraga-Braghiroli, Naiara; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Scope, Alon

    2015-08-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offers high-resolution, noninvasive skin imaging and can help avoid obtaining unnecessary biopsy specimens. It can also increase efficiency in the surgical setting by helping to delineate tumor margins. Diagnostic criteria and several RCM algorithms have been published for the differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasms. We provide an overview of the basic principles of RCM, characteristic RCM features of normal skin and cutaneous neoplasms, and the limitations and future directions of RCM. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Re-description of Craspodema reflectans (Nematoda, Cyatholaimidae) using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Semprucci, Federica; Burattini, Sabrina

    2015-06-12

    Craspodema reflectans, erected by Gerlach 1964, is here re-described from some specimens recently found in the Maldivian archipelago and the implication of the new findings for the taxonomy of the Craspodema genus is discussed. Accordingly, an emended diagnosis of Craspodema genus and C. reflectans species are proposed. New data are also provided with the aid of the confocal laser scanning microscopy, using the natural fluorescence of the nematodes. The approach described here lays new foundations for the study of Museum collection material and it may be decisive for capture of new morphological details.

  1. Ray tracing matrix approach for refractive index mismatch aberrations in confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nastyshyn, S Yu; Bolesta, I M; Lychkovskyy, E; Vankevych, P I; Yakovlev, M Yu; Pansu, B; Nastishin, Yu A

    2017-03-20

    The 2×2 ray tracing matrix (RTM) method is employed for the description of optical aberrations caused by the refractive index mismatch (RIM) in fluorescent confocal polarization microscopy. We predict and experimentally confirm that due to the RIM a liquid crystal layer with highly non-uniform director distribution appears to be imaged as a layer with non-uniform thickness, which shows up in the roughness of the rear surface. For the off-axial focusing of the probing beam in a droplet dispersed in an immiscible liquid, we have developed an extended method still keeping the 2×2 dimensionality of the RTM.

  2. Target-locking acquisition with real-time confocal (TARC) microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peter J; Sims, Peter A; Oki, Hidekazu; Macarthur, James B; Weitz, David A

    2007-07-09

    We present a real-time target-locking confocal microscope that follows an object moving along an arbitrary path, even as it simultaneously changes its shape, size and orientation. This Target-locking Acquisition with Realtime Confocal (TARC) microscopy system integrates fast image processing and rapid image acquisition using a Nipkow spinning-disk confocal microscope. The system acquires a 3D stack of images, performs a full structural analysis to locate a feature of interest, moves the sample in response, and then collects the next 3D image stack. In this way, data collection is dynamically adjusted to keep a moving object centered in the field of view. We demonstrate the system's capabilities by target-locking freely-diffusing clusters of attractive colloidal particles, and activelytransported quantum dots (QDs) endocytosed into live cells free to move in three dimensions, for several hours. During this time, both the colloidal clusters and live cells move distances several times the length of the imaging volume.

  3. The application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, W. Z.; Xu, A. E.; Xu, J.; Bi, Z. G.; Shang, Y. B.; Ren, Q. S.

    2010-08-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows noninvasive visualization of human skin in vivo, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanocytes and pigmented keratinocytes at the level of the basal layer form bright dermal papillary rings which are readily amenable to identify in confocal images. Our purpose was to explore the role of dermal papillary rings in assessment of lesion location, the diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. Seventy-one patients were imaged with the VivaScope 1500 reflectance confocal microscope provided by Lucid, Inc. The results indicate that dermal papillary rings can assess the location of lesion; the application of dermal papillary rings can provide diagnostic support and differential diagnosis for vitiligo, nevus depigmentosus, tinea versicolor, halo nevus, common nevi, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of NBUVB phototherapy plus topical 0.1 percent tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dermal papillary rings play an important role in the assessment the location of lesion, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. CLSM may be a promising tool for noninvasive examination in dermatology. However, larger studies are needed to expand the application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology.

  4. Simultaneous confocal fluorescence microscopy and optical coherence tomography for drug distribution and tissue integrity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, Matthew T.; LaCroix, Jeffrey; Henderson, Marcus; Katz, David; Wax, Adam

    2011-03-01

    The effectiveness of microbicidal gels, topical products developed to prevent infection by sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, is governed by extent of gel coverage, pharmacokinetics of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and integrity of vaginal epithelium. While biopsies provide localized information about drug delivery and tissue structure, in vivo measurements are preferable in providing objective data on API and gel coating distribution as well as tissue integrity. We are developing a system combining confocal fluorescence microscopy with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to simultaneously measure local concentrations and diffusion coefficients of APIs during transport from microbicidal gels into tissue, while assessing tissue integrity. The confocal module acquires 2-D images of fluorescent APIs multiple times per second allowing analysis of lateral diffusion kinetics. The custom Fourier domain OCT module has a maximum a-scan rate of 54 kHz and provides depth-resolved tissue integrity information coregistered with the confocal fluorescence measurements. The combined system is validated by imaging phantoms with a surrogate fluorophore. Time-resolved API concentration measured at fixed depths is analyzed for diffusion kinetics. This multimodal system will eventually be implemented in vivo for objective evaluation of microbicide product performance.

  5. Confocal fluorescence microscopy for rapid evaluation of invasive tumor cellularity of inflammatory breast carcinoma core needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Jessica; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Kyrish, Matthew; Benveniste, Ana Paula; Yang, Wei; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Tissue sampling is a problematic issue for inflammatory breast carcinoma, and immediate evaluation following core needle biopsy is needed to evaluate specimen adequacy. We sought to determine if confocal fluorescence microscopy provides sufficient resolution to evaluate specimen adequacy by comparing invasive tumor cellularity estimated from standard histologic images to invasive tumor cellularity estimated from confocal images of breast core needle biopsy specimens. Grayscale confocal fluorescence images of breast core needle biopsy specimens were acquired following proflavine application. A breast-dedicated pathologist evaluated invasive tumor cellularity in histologic images with hematoxylin and eosin staining and in grayscale and false-colored confocal images of cores. Agreement between cellularity estimates was quantified using a kappa coefficient. 23 cores from 23 patients with suspected inflammatory breast carcinoma were imaged. Confocal images were acquired in an average of less than 2 min per core. Invasive tumor cellularity estimated from histologic and grayscale confocal images showed moderate agreement by kappa coefficient: κ = 0.48 ± 0.09 (p < 0.001). Grayscale confocal images require less than 2 min for acquisition and allow for evaluation of invasive tumor cellularity in breast core needle biopsy specimens with moderate agreement to histologic images. We show that confocal fluorescence microscopy can be performed immediately following specimen acquisition and could indicate the need for additional biopsies at the initial visit.

  6. Electron microscopy of intermediate filaments: teaming up with atomic force and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kreplak, Laurent; Richter, Karsten; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) were originally discovered and defined by electron microscopy in myoblasts. In the following it was demonstrated and confirmed that they constitute, in addition to microtubules and microfilaments, a third independent, general filament system in the cytoplasm of most metazoan cells. In contrast to the other two systems, IFs are present in cells in two principally distinct cytoskeletal forms: (i) extended and free-running filament arrays in the cytoplasm that are integrated into the cytoskeleton by associated proteins of the plakin type; and (ii) a membrane- and chromatin-bound thin 'lamina' of a more or less regular network of interconnected filaments made from nuclear IF proteins, the lamins, which differ in several important structural aspects from cytoplasmic IF proteins. In man, more than 65 genes code for distinct IF proteins that are expressed during embryogenesis in various routes of differentiation in a tightly controlled manner. IF proteins exhibit rather limited sequence identity implying that the different types of IFs have distinct biochemical properties. Hence, to characterize the structural properties of the various IFs, in vitro assembly regimes have been developed in combination with different visualization methods such as transmission electron microscopy of fixed and negatively stained samples as well as methods that do not use staining such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and cryoelectron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy. Moreover, with the generation of both IF-type specific antibodies and chimeras of fluorescent proteins and IF proteins, it has become possible to investigate the subcellular organization of IFs by correlative fluorescence and electron microscopic methods. The combination of these powerful methods should help to further develop our understanding of nuclear architecture, in particular how nuclear subcompartments are organized and in which way lamins are involved.

  7. Programmable Illumination and High-Speed, Multi-Wavelength, Confocal Microscopy Using a Digital Micromirror

    PubMed Central

    Martial, Franck P.; Hartell, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is routinely used for high-resolution fluorescence imaging of biological specimens. Most standard confocal systems scan a laser across a specimen and collect emitted light passing through a single pinhole to produce an optical section of the sample. Sequential scanning on a point-by-point basis limits the speed of image acquisition and even the fastest commercial instruments struggle to resolve the temporal dynamics of rapid cellular events such as calcium signals. Various approaches have been introduced that increase the speed of confocal imaging. Nipkov disk microscopes, for example, use arrays of pinholes or slits on a spinning disk to achieve parallel scanning which significantly increases the speed of acquisition. Here we report the development of a microscope module that utilises a digital micromirror device as a spatial light modulator to provide programmable confocal optical sectioning with a single camera, at high spatial and axial resolution at speeds limited by the frame rate of the camera. The digital micromirror acts as a solid state Nipkov disk but with the added ability to change the pinholes size and separation and to control the light intensity on a mirror-by-mirror basis. The use of an arrangement of concave and convex mirrors in the emission pathway instead of lenses overcomes the astigmatism inherent with DMD devices, increases light collection efficiency and ensures image collection is achromatic so that images are perfectly aligned at different wavelengths. Combined with non-laser light sources, this allows low cost, high-speed, multi-wavelength image acquisition without the need for complex wavelength-dependent image alignment. The micromirror can also be used for programmable illumination allowing spatially defined photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. We demonstrate the use of this system for high-speed calcium imaging using both a single wavelength calcium indicator and a genetically encoded, ratiometric, calcium

  8. Programmable illumination and high-speed, multi-wavelength, confocal microscopy using a digital micromirror.

    PubMed

    Martial, Franck P; Hartell, Nicholas A

    2012-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is routinely used for high-resolution fluorescence imaging of biological specimens. Most standard confocal systems scan a laser across a specimen and collect emitted light passing through a single pinhole to produce an optical section of the sample. Sequential scanning on a point-by-point basis limits the speed of image acquisition and even the fastest commercial instruments struggle to resolve the temporal dynamics of rapid cellular events such as calcium signals. Various approaches have been introduced that increase the speed of confocal imaging. Nipkov disk microscopes, for example, use arrays of pinholes or slits on a spinning disk to achieve parallel scanning which significantly increases the speed of acquisition. Here we report the development of a microscope module that utilises a digital micromirror device as a spatial light modulator to provide programmable confocal optical sectioning with a single camera, at high spatial and axial resolution at speeds limited by the frame rate of the camera. The digital micromirror acts as a solid state Nipkov disk but with the added ability to change the pinholes size and separation and to control the light intensity on a mirror-by-mirror basis. The use of an arrangement of concave and convex mirrors in the emission pathway instead of lenses overcomes the astigmatism inherent with DMD devices, increases light collection efficiency and ensures image collection is achromatic so that images are perfectly aligned at different wavelengths. Combined with non-laser light sources, this allows low cost, high-speed, multi-wavelength image acquisition without the need for complex wavelength-dependent image alignment. The micromirror can also be used for programmable illumination allowing spatially defined photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. We demonstrate the use of this system for high-speed calcium imaging using both a single wavelength calcium indicator and a genetically encoded, ratiometric, calcium

  9. Rapid detection of biofilms and adherent pathogens using scanning confocal laser microscopy and episcopic differential interference contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Keevil, C W

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of biofilm structure and function has changed significantly in the last few years due to advances in light microscopy. One pertinent example is the use of scanning confocal laser microscopy (SCLM) to visualise corrosion pits caused by the biofilm mosaic footprint on corroding metal surfaces. Nevertheless, SCLM has some limitations as to its widespread use, including cost, inability to observe motile bacteria and eukaryotic grazers within biofilms, and difficulty to scan a curved surface. By contrast, episcopic differential interference contrast (EDIC) microscopy has provided a rapid, real time analysis of biofilms on opaque, curved, natural or man-made surfaces without the need for cover slips and oil. EDIC, coupled with epi-fluorescence (EDIC/EF), microscopy has been used successfully to visualise the 3-D biofilm structure, physiological niches, protozoal grazing and iron biomineralization, and the location of specific pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila, Campylobacter jejuni and Cryptosporidium parvum. These species were identified using gold nanoparticles or fluorophores coupled to monoclonal antibodies or 16S rRNA probes, respectively. Among its many potential uses, the EDIC technique will provide a rapid procedure to facilitate the calibration of the modern generation of biofilm-sensing electrodes.

  10. Iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae as revealed by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy : In vivo iris ultrastructure in patients with Synechiae by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Cheng, Hongbo; Guo, Ping; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Song; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-04-26

    Iris plays important roles in ocular physiology and disease pathogenesis. Currently it is technically challenging to noninvasively examine the human iris ultrastructure in vivo. The purpose of the current study is to reveal human iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae by using noninvasive in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The ultrastructure of iris in thirty one patients, each with synechiae but transparent cornea, was examined by in vivo LSCM. Five characteristic iris ultrastructures was revealed in patients with synechiae by in vivo LSCM, which include: 1. tree trunk-like structure; 2. tree branch/bush-like structure; 3. Fruit-like structure; 4. Epithelioid-like structure; 5. deep structure. Pigment granules can be observed as a loose structure on the top of the arborization structure. In iris-associated diseases with Tyndall's Phenomenon and keratic precipitates, the pigment particles are more likely to fall off from the arborization structure. The ultrastructure of iris in patients with synechiae has been visualized using in vivo LSCM. Five iris ultrastructures can be clearly observed, with some of the structures maybe disease-associated. The fall-off of the pigment particles may cause the Tyndall's Phenomenon positive. In vivo LSCM provides a non-invasive approach to observe the human iris ultrastructure under certain eye disease conditions, which sets up a foundation to visualize certain iris-associated diseases in the future.

  11. Sensitivity and Specificity of Cardiac Tissue Discrimination Using Fiber-Optics Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Sachse, Frank B; Hitchcock, Robert W; Kaza, Aditya K

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances of the cardiac conduction system constitute a major risk after surgical repair of complex cases of congenital heart disease. Intraoperative identification of the conduction system may reduce the incidence of these disturbances. We previously developed an approach to identify cardiac tissue types using fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores. Here, we applied this approach to investigate sensitivity and specificity of human and automated classification in discriminating images of atrial working myocardium and specialized tissue of the conduction system. Two-dimensional image sequences from atrial working myocardium and nodal tissue of isolated perfused rodent hearts were acquired using a fiber-optics confocal microscope (Leica FCM1000). We compared two methods for local application of extracellular fluorophores: topical via pipette and with a dye carrier. Eight blinded examiners evaluated 162 randomly selected images of atrial working myocardium (n = 81) and nodal tissue (n = 81). In addition, we evaluated the images using automated classification. Blinded examiners achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 99.2 ± 0.3% and 98.0 ± 0.7%, respectively, with the dye carrier method of dye application. Sensitivity and specificity was similar for dye application via a pipette (99.2 ± 0.3% and 94.0 ± 2.4%, respectively). Sensitivity and specificity for automated methods of tissue discrimination were similarly high. Human and automated classification achieved high sensitivity and specificity in discriminating atrial working myocardium and nodal tissue. We suggest that our findings facilitate clinical translation of fiber-optics confocal microscopy as an intraoperative imaging modality to reduce the incidence of conduction disturbances during surgical correction of congenital heart disease.

  12. Confocal Microscopy and Molecular-Specific Optical Contrast Agents for the Detection of Oral Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Alicia L.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Williams, Michelle D.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Richards-Kortum, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    Using current clinical diagnostic techniques, it is difficult to visualize tumor morphology and architecture at the cellular level, which is necessary for diagnostic localization of pathologic lesions. Optical imaging techniques have the potential to address this clinical need by providing real-time, sub-cellular resolution images. This paper describes the use of dual mode confocal microscopy and optical molecular-specific contrast agents to image tissue architecture, cellular morphology, and sub-cellular molecular features of normal and neoplastic oral tissues. Fresh tissue slices were prepared from 33 biopsies of clinically normal and abnormal oral mucosa obtained from 14 patients. Reflectance confocal images were acquired after the application of 6% acetic acid, and fluorescence confocal images were acquired after the application of a fluorescence contrast agent targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The dual imaging modes provided images similar to light microscopy of hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining, but from thick fresh tissue slices. Reflectance images provided information on the architecture of the tissue and the cellular morphology. The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio from the reflectance images was at least 7.5 times greater for the carcinoma than the corresponding normal samples, except for one case of highly keratinized carcinoma. Separation of carcinoma from normal and mild dysplasia was achieved using this ratio (p<0.01). Fluorescence images of EGFR expression yielded a mean fluorescence labeling intensity (FLI) that was at least 2.7 times higher for severe dysplasia and carcinoma samples than for the corresponding normal sample, and could be used to distinguish carcinoma from normal and mild dysplasia (p<0.01). Analyzed together, the N/C ratio and the mean FLI may improve the ability to distinguish carcinoma from normal squamous epithelium. PMID:17877424

  13. Semi-automated scoring of triple-probe FISH in human sperm using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Branch, Francesca; Nguyen, GiaLinh; Porter, Nicholas; Young, Heather A; Martenies, Sheena E; McCray, Nathan; Deloid, Glen; Popratiloff, Anastas; Perry, Melissa J

    2017-09-01

    Structural and numerical sperm chromosomal aberrations result from abnormal meiosis and are directly linked to infertility. Any live births that arise from aneuploid conceptuses can result in syndromes such as Kleinfelter, Turners, XYY and Edwards. Multi-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is commonly used to study sperm aneuploidy, however manual FISH scoring in sperm samples is labor-intensive and introduces errors. Automated scoring methods are continuously evolving. One challenging aspect for optimizing automated sperm FISH scoring has been the overlap in excitation and emission of the fluorescent probes used to enumerate the chromosomes of interest. Our objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of combining confocal microscopy and spectral imaging with high-throughput methods for accurately measuring sperm aneuploidy. Our approach used confocal microscopy to analyze numerical chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm using enhanced slide preparation and rigorous semi-automated scoring methods. FISH for chromosomes X, Y, and 18 was conducted to determine sex chromosome disomy in sperm nuclei. Application of online spectral linear unmixing was used for effective separation of four fluorochromes while decreasing data acquisition time. Semi-automated image processing, segmentation, classification, and scoring were performed on 10 slides using custom image processing and analysis software and results were compared with manual methods. No significant differences in disomy frequencies were seen between the semi automated and manual methods. Samples treated with pepsin were observed to have reduced background autofluorescence and more uniform distribution of cells. These results demonstrate that semi-automated methods using spectral imaging on a confocal platform are a feasible approach for analyzing numerical chromosomal aberrations in sperm, and are comparable to manual methods. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017

  14. Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for fast evaluation of tumour margins during Mohs surgery.

    PubMed

    Bennàssar, A; Vilata, A; Puig, S; Malvehy, J

    2014-02-01

    Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) enables real-time imaging of skin morphology directly in freshly excised tissue. FCM displays wide field-of-view mosaics with cellular resolution, thus enabling a rapid bedside pathology. An application of interest is rapid detection of residual basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in skin excisions during Mohs surgery. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ex vivo imaging with FCM for the detection of residual BCC in Mohs tissue excisions, and to calculate the time invested up to the diagnosis for both FCM and frozen sections. Eighty consecutive BCCs were prospectively collected and the margins scanned with ex vivo FCM, including excisions with and without residual BCC of all major subtypes. Each mosaic was divided into two or four, resulting in 480 submosaics for study. Every confocal submosaic was assessed for the presence or absence of BCC and compared with standard frozen sections as the gold standard. Furthermore, the time spent for each technique was calculated and compared. The overall sensitivity and specificity of detecting residual BCC were 88% and 99%, respectively. Moreover, the new technique reduced by almost two-thirds the time invested when compared with the processing of a frozen section (P < 0·001). The results demonstrate the feasibility of confocal mosaicing microscopy in fresh tissue for rapid surgical pathology, potentially to expedite and guide Mohs surgery with high accuracy. This observation is an important step towards the goal of using real-time surgical pathology for skin tumours. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Multiple excitation nano-spot generation and confocal detection for far-field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2010-03-01

    An imaging technique is developed for the controlled generation of multiple excitation nano-spots for far-field microscopy. The system point spread function (PSF) is obtained by interfering two counter-propagating extended depth-of-focus PSF (DoF-PSF), resulting in highly localized multiple excitation spots along the optical axis. The technique permits (1) simultaneous excitation of multiple planes in the specimen; (2) control of the number of spots by confocal detection; and (3) overcoming the point-by-point based excitation. Fluorescence detection from the excitation spots can be efficiently achieved by Z-scanning the detector/pinhole assembly. The technique complements most of the bioimaging techniques and may find potential application in high resolution fluorescence microscopy and nanoscale imaging.

  16. Imaging rat esophagus using combination of reflectance confocal and multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Jiang, X. S.; Lu, K. C.; Xie, S. S.

    2008-08-01

    We combine reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) with multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to image rat esophagus. The two imaging modalities allow detection of layered-resolved complementary information from esophagus. In the keratinizing layer, the keratinocytes boundaries can be characterized by RCM, while the keratinocytes cytoplasm (keratin) can be further imaged by multiphoton autofluorescence signal. In the epithelium, the epithelial cellular boundaries and nucleus can be detected by RCM, and MPM can be used for imaging epithelial cell cytoplasm and monitoring metabolic state of epithelium. In the stroma, multiphoton autofluorescence signal is used to image elastin and second harmonic generation signal is utilized to detect collagen, while RCM is used to determine the optical property of stroma. Overall, these results suggest that the combination of RCM and MPM has potential to provide more important and comprehensive information for early diagnosis of esophageal cancer.

  17. Multiple excitation nano-spot generation and confocal detection for far-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2010-03-01

    An imaging technique is developed for the controlled generation of multiple excitation nano-spots for far-field microscopy. The system point spread function (PSF) is obtained by interfering two counter-propagating extended depth-of-focus PSF (DoF-PSF), resulting in highly localized multiple excitation spots along the optical axis. The technique permits (1) simultaneous excitation of multiple planes in the specimen; (2) control of the number of spots by confocal detection; and (3) overcoming the point-by-point based excitation. Fluorescence detection from the excitation spots can be efficiently achieved by Z-scanning the detector/pinhole assembly. The technique complements most of the bioimaging techniques and may find potential application in high resolution fluorescence microscopy and nanoscale imaging.

  18. Methods of Hematoxylin and Erosin Image Information Acquisition and Optimization in Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Woong Bae; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Kwang Gi; Choi, Yongdoo; Chang, Hee Jin; Sohn, Dae Kyung

    2016-07-01

    We produced hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining-like color images by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which can obtain the same or more information in comparison to conventional tissue staining. We improved images by using several image converting techniques, including morphological methods, color space conversion methods, and segmentation methods. An image obtained after image processing showed coloring very similar to that in images produced by H&E staining, and it is advantageous to conduct analysis through fluorescent dye imaging and microscopy rather than analysis based on single microscopic imaging. The colors used in CLSM are different from those seen in H&E staining, which is the method most widely used for pathologic diagnosis and is familiar to pathologists. Computer technology can facilitate the conversion of images by CLSM to be very similar to H&E staining images. We believe that the technique used in this study has great potential for application in clinical tissue analysis.

  19. Remote focusing in confocal microscopy by means of a modified Alvarez lens.

    PubMed

    Bawart, M; Jesacher, A; Bernet, S; Ritsch-Marte, M

    2018-06-22

    Alvarez lenses are actuated lens-pairs which allow one to tune the optical power by mechanical displacement of subelements. Here, we show that a recently realized modified Alvarez lens design which does not require mechanical actuation can be integrated into a confocal microscope. Instead of mechanically moving them, the sublenses are imaged onto each other in a 4f-configuration, where the lateral image shift leading to a change in optical power is created by a galvo-mirror. The avoidance of mechanical lens shifts leads to a large speed gain for axial (and hence also 3D) image scans compared to classical Alvarez lenses. We demonstrate that the suggested operation principle is compatible with confocal microscopy. In order to optimize the system, we have drawn advantage of the flexibility a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator offers for the implementation. For given specifications, dedicated diffractive optical elements or freeform elements can be used in combination with resonant galvo-scanners or acousto-optic beam deflectors, to achieve even faster z-scans than reported here, reaching video rate. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Characterization of particle deformation during compression measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, H X; Heinämäki, J; Yliruusi, J

    1999-09-20

    Direct compression of riboflavin sodium phosphate tablets was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The technique is non-invasive and generates three-dimensional (3D) images. Tablets of 1% riboflavin sodium phosphate with two grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were individually compressed at compression forces of 1.0 and 26.8 kN. The behaviour and deformation of drug particles on the upper and lower surfaces of the tablets were studied under compression forces. Even at the lower compression force, distinct recrystallized areas in the riboflavin sodium phosphate particles were observed in both Avicel PH-101 and Avicel PH-102 tablets. At the higher compression force, the recrystallization of riboflavin sodium phosphate was more extensive on the upper surface of the Avicel PH-102 tablet than the Avicel PH-101 tablet. The plastic deformation properties of both MCC grades reduced the fragmentation of riboflavin sodium phosphate particles. When compressed with MCC, riboflavin sodium phosphate behaved as a plastic material. The riboflavin sodium phosphate particles were more tightly bound on the upper surface of the tablet than on the lower surface, and this could also be clearly distinguished by CLSM. Drug deformation could not be visualized by other techniques. Confocal laser scanning microscopy provides valuable information on the internal mechanisms of direct compression of tablets.

  1. Investigation of the confocal wavefront sensor and its application to biological microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Michael; O'Holleran, Kevin; Paterson, Carl

    2013-08-12

    Wavefront sensing in the presence of background light sources is complicated by the need to restrict the effective depth of field of the wavefront sensor. This problem is particularly significant in direct wavefront sensing adaptive optic (AO) schemes for correcting imaging aberrations in biological microscopy. In this paper we investigate how a confocal pinhole can be used to reject out of focus light whilst still allowing effective wavefront sensing. Using a scaled set of phase screens with statistical properties derived from measurements of wavefront aberrations induced by C. elegans specimens, we investigate and quantify how the size of the pinhole and the aberration amplitude affect the transmitted wavefront. We suggest a lower bound for the pinhole size for a given aberration strength and quantify the optical sectioning provided by the system. For our measured aberration data we find that a pinhole of size approximately 3 Airy units represents a good compromise, allowing effective transmission of the wavefront and thin optical sections. Finally, we discuss some of the practical implications of confocal wavefront sensing for AO systems in microscopy.

  2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate nanoparticles' human skin penetration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Celli, Anna; Zhu, Hanjiang; Elmahdy, Akram; Cao, Yachao; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-01-01

    With rapid development of nanotechnology, there is increasing interest in nanoparticle (NP) application and its safety and efficacy on human skin. In this study, we utilized confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate NP skin penetration. Three different-sized polystyrene NPs marked with red fluorescence were applied to human skin, and Calcium Green 5N was used as a counterstain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol were used as alternative vehicles for NPs. Tape stripping was utilized as a barrier-damaged skin model. Skin biopsies dosed with NPs were incubated at 4°C or 37°C for 24 hours and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. NPs were localized in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles without penetrating the epidermis/dermis. Barrier alteration with tape stripping and change in incubation temperature did not induce deeper penetration. DMSO enhanced NP SC penetration but ethanol did not. Except with DMSO vehicle, these hydrolyzed polystyrene NPs did not penetrate intact or barrier-damaged human "viable" epidermis. For further clinical relevance, in vivo human skin studies and more sensitive analytic chemical methodology are suggested.

  3. Three-dimensional simultaneous optical coherence tomography and confocal fluorescence microscopy for investigation of lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Maria; Cimalla, Peter; Meissner, Sven; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Koch, Edmund

    2012-07-01

    Although several strategies exist for a minimal-invasive treatment of patients with lung failure, the mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome still reaches 30% at minimum. This striking number indicates the necessity of understanding lung dynamics on an alveolar level. To investigate the dynamical behavior on a microscale, we used three-dimensional geometrical and functional imaging to observe tissue parameters including alveolar size and length of embedded elastic fibers during ventilation. We established a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy system that is able to monitor the distension of alveolar tissue and elastin fibers simultaneously within three dimensions. The OCT system can laterally resolve a 4.9 μm line pair feature and has an approximately 11 μm full-width-half-maximum axial resolution in air. confocal fluorescence microscopy visualizes molecular properties of the tissue with a resolution of 0.75 μm (laterally), and 5.9 μm (axially) via fluorescence detection of the dye sulforhodamine B specifically binding to elastin. For system evaluation, we used a mouse model in situ to perform lung distension by application of different constant pressure values within the physiological regime. Our method enables the investigation of alveolar dynamics by helping to reveal basic processes emerging during artificial ventilation and breathing.

  4. Evaluating ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy images of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excised tissue.

    PubMed

    Longo, C; Rajadhyaksha, M; Ragazzi, M; Nehal, K; Gardini, S; Moscarella, E; Lallas, A; Zalaudek, I; Piana, S; Argenziano, G; Pellacani, G

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging technology for rapid imaging of excised tissue, without the need for frozen- or fixed-section processing. Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) can be detected in Mohs excisions although few studies have described the major BCC findings as seen on FCM. To describe the major BCC findings of excised tissue during Mohs surgery and to correlate them with histopathology. Freshly excised tumours and frozen-thawed discarded tissue of BCC during Mohs surgery were analysed by means of FCM. A side-by-side correlation between FCM images and histological sections was performed. The FCM features of overlying skin and adnexal structures were also described. Sixty-four BCC cases were analysed. Distinct BCC types appeared unique in terms of shape and size of tumour islands [bigger in nodular (18/25), smaller and rounded in micronodular (7/7) and tiny cords for infiltrative ones (24/30)] and for the presence of clefting, palisading and increased nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. An excellent correlation was found between FCM and histological findings (Cohen's κ statistics = 0·9). In six cases, the presence of sebaceous glands and intense stroma reaction represented possible confounders. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is a fast and new imaging technique that allows an excellent visualization of skin structures and BCC findings during Mohs surgery. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Systematic study of alginate-based microcapsules by micropipette aspiration and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kleinberger, Rachelle M; Burke, Nicholas A D; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Stöver, Harald D H

    2013-10-01

    Micropipette aspiration and confocal fluorescence microscopy were used to study the structure and mechanical properties of calcium alginate hydrogel beads (A beads), as well as A beads that were additionally coated with poly-L-lysine (P) and sodium alginate (A) to form, respectively, AP and APA hydrogels. A beads were found to continue curing for up to 500 h during storage in saline, due to residual calcium chloride carried over from the gelling bath. In subsequent saline washes, micropipette aspiration proved to be a sensitive indicator of gel weakening and calcium loss. Aspiration tests were used to compare capsule stiffness before and after citrate extraction of calcium. They showed that the initial gel strength is largely due to the calcium alginate gel cores, while the long term strength is solely due to the poly-L-lysine-alginate polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) shells. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that calcium chloride exposure after PLL deposition led to PLL redistribution into the hydrogel bead, resulting in thicker but more diffuse and weaker PEC shells. Adding a final alginate coating to form APA capsules did not significantly change the PEC membrane thickness and stiffness, but did speed the loss of calcium from the bead core. © 2013.

  6. Imaging of Scleral Collagen Deformation Using Combined Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy and Polarized Light Microscopy Techniques.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Nilay; Wang, Mian; Solocinski, Jason; Kim, Wonsuk; Argento, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optospectroscopic characterization technique for soft tissue microstructure using site-matched confocal Raman microspectroscopy and polarized light microscopy. Using the technique, the microstructure of soft tissue samples is directly observed by polarized light microscopy during loading while spatially correlated spectroscopic information is extracted from the same plane, verifying the orientation and arrangement of the collagen fibers. Results show the response and orientation of the collagen fiber arrangement in its native state as well as during tensile and compressive loadings in a porcine sclera model. An example is also given showing how the data can be used with a finite element program to estimate the strain in individual collagen fibers. The measurements demonstrate features that indicate microstructural reorganization and damage of the sclera's collagen fiber arrangement under loading. The site-matched confocal Raman microspectroscopic characterization of the tissue provides a qualitative measure to relate the change in fibrillar arrangement with possible chemical damage to the collagen microstructure. Tests and analyses presented here can potentially be used to determine the stress-strain behavior, and fiber reorganization of the collagen microstructure in soft tissue during viscoelastic response.

  7. High throughput, detailed, cell-specific neuroanatomy of dendritic spines using microinjection and confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dumitriu, Dani; Rodriguez, Alfredo; Morrison, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Morphological features such as size, shape and density of dendritic spines have been shown to reflect important synaptic functional attributes and potential for plasticity. Here we describe in detail a protocol for obtaining detailed morphometric analysis of spines using microinjection of fluorescent dyes, high resolution confocal microscopy, deconvolution and image analysis using NeuronStudio. Recent technical advancements include better preservation of tissue resulting in prolonged ability to microinject, and algorithmic improvements that compensate for the residual Z-smear inherent in all optical imaging. Confocal imaging parameters were probed systematically for the identification of both optimal resolution as well as highest efficiency. When combined, our methods yield size and density measurements comparable to serial section transmission electron microscopy in a fraction of the time. An experiment containing 3 experimental groups with 8 subjects in each can take as little as one month if optimized for speed, or approximately 4 to 5 months if the highest resolution and morphometric detail is sought. PMID:21886104

  8. In vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy: indocyanine green enhances the contrast of epidermal and dermal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvara, Hans; Kittler, Harald; Schmid, Johannes A.; Plut, Ulrike; Jonak, Constanze

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, in vivo skin imaging devices have been successfully implemented in skin research as well as in clinical routine. Of particular importance is the use of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) that enable visualization of the tissue with a resolution comparable to histology. A newly developed commercially available multi-laser device in which both technologies are integrated now offers the possibility to directly compare RCM with FCM. The fluorophore indocyanine green (ICG) was intradermally injected into healthy forearm skin of 10 volunteers followed by in vivo imaging at various time points. In the epidermis, accurate assessment of cell morphology with FCM was supplemented by identification of pigmented cells and structures with RCM. In dermal layers, only with FCM connective tissue fibers were clearly contoured down to a depth of more than 100 μm. The fluorescent signal still provided a favorable image contrast 24 and 48 hours after injection. Subsequently, ICG was applied to different types of skin diseases (basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, seborrhoeic keratosis, and psoriasis) in order to demonstrate the diagnostic benefit of FCM when directly compared with RCM. Our data suggest a great impact of FCM in combination with ICG on clinical and experimental dermatology in the future.

  9. Metabolic changes of cultured DRG neurons induced by adenosine using confocal microscopy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liqin; Huang, Yimei; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Yanding; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    Adenosine exerts multiple effects on pain transmission in the peripheral nervous system. This study was performed to use confocal microscopy to evaluate whether adenosine could affect dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro and test which adenosine receptor mediates the effect of adenosine on DRG neurons. After adding adenosine with different concentration, we compared the metabolic changes by the real time imaging of calcium and mitochondria membrane potential using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the effect of 500 μM adenosine on the metabolic changes of DRG neurons was more significant than others. Furthermore, four different adenosine receptor antagonists were used to study which receptor mediated the influences of adenosine on the cultured DRG neurons. All adenosine receptor antagonists especially A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX) had effect on the Ca2+ and mitochondria membrane potential dynamics of DRG neurons. The above studies demonstrated that the effect of adenosine which may be involved in the signal transmission on the sensory neurons was dose-dependent, and all the four adenosine receptors especially the A1R may mediate the transmission.

  10. Determination of nitric oxide mediating intracellular Ca2+ release on neurons based on confocal microscopy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liqin; Wang, Yuhua; He, Yipeng; Zeng, Yixiu; Zhang, Yanding; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    The gas NO is a ubiquitous intercellular messenger that modulates a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological functions. But few studies were made to study the role of NO in the Ca2+ release in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by confocal microscopy. Thus the objective of this study was to assess if NO has a role in Ca2+ signaling in DRG neurons using confocal microscopy combined with special fluorescence probe Fluo-3/AM. A 100 μM concentration of the NO donors (Sodium Nitroprusside, Dihydrate, SNP) and NO synthase inhibitor (NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine, Monoacetate salt, L-NMMA) was used in the study. Results showed that the fluorescence intensity increased rapidly after injecting SNP, which indicated that SNP could enhance intracellular Ca2+ release. And the fluorescence intensity shrank gradually with time and kept at a low level for quite a long period after loading with L-NMMA which indicated that L-NMMA could block intracellular Ca2+ release. All these results demonstrated that NO was involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ release in the DRG neurons.

  11. Confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate nanoparticles’ human skin penetration in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Elmahdy, Akram; Cao, Yachao; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Objective With rapid development of nanotechnology, there is increasing interest in nanoparticle (NP) application and its safety and efficacy on human skin. In this study, we utilized confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate NP skin penetration. Methods Three different-sized polystyrene NPs marked with red fluorescence were applied to human skin, and Calcium Green 5N was used as a counterstain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol were used as alternative vehicles for NPs. Tape stripping was utilized as a barrier-damaged skin model. Skin biopsies dosed with NPs were incubated at 4°C or 37°C for 24 hours and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results NPs were localized in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles without penetrating the epidermis/dermis. Barrier alteration with tape stripping and change in incubation temperature did not induce deeper penetration. DMSO enhanced NP SC penetration but ethanol did not. Conclusion Except with DMSO vehicle, these hydrolyzed polystyrene NPs did not penetrate intact or barrier-damaged human “viable” epidermis. For further clinical relevance, in vivo human skin studies and more sensitive analytic chemical methodology are suggested. PMID:29184403

  12. Biomimetic Coating on Porous Alumina for Tissue Engineering: Characterisation by Cell Culture and Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kolos, Elizabeth; Ruys, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    In this study porous alumina samples were prepared and then coated using the biomimetic coating technique using a five times Simulated Body Fluid (5.0SBF) as the growth solution. A coating was achieved after pre-treatment with concentrated acid. From elemental analysis, the coating contained calcium and phosphorous, but also sodium and chlorine. Halite was identified by XRD, a sodium chloride phase. Sintering was done to remove the halite phase. Once halite was burnt off, the calcium phosphate crystals were not covered with halite and, therefore, the apatite phases can be clearly observed. Cell culturing showed sufficient cell attachment to the less porous alumina, Sample B, that has more calcium phosphate growth, while the porous alumina, Sample A, with minimal calcium phosphate growth attained very little cell attachment. This is likely due to the contribution that calcium phosphate plays in the attachment of bone-like cells to a bioinert ceramic such as alumina. These results were repeated on both SEM and confocal microscopy analysis. Confocal microscopy was a novel characterisation approach which gave useful information and was a visual aid.

  13. Corneal confocal microscopy following conventional, transepithelial, and accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking procedures for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Touboul, David; Efron, Nathan; Smadja, David; Praud, Delphine; Malet, Florence; Colin, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    To compare early corneal healing following conventional, transepithelial, and accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) protocols. Twenty-four patients with progressive keratoconus were divided into three groups to receive conventional, transepithelial, or accelerated CXL. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy was performed on each patient preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Closure of the epithelial wound was complete 3 days following conventional and accelerated CXL. The subbasal nerve plexus was essentially obliterated immediately following conventional and accelerated CXL, and virtually no nerve fibers had regenerated by 6 months. The anterior stroma showed significant changes 1 month following conventional CXL; these changes were similar but more pronounced following accelerated CXL. Observed stromal changes included complete obliteration of keratocytes, increased tissue reflectivity, a honeycomb-like appearance, and circular lacunae. Some recovery of keratocyte density was noted after 6 months. These changes were less pronounced in the mid-stroma, and there were no apparent changes to the posterior stroma or endothelium. The cornea appeared to be unaltered following transepithelial CXL. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy analysis of the postoperative impact of CXL on the cornea revealed clear differences among conventional, accelerated, and transepithelial CXL protocols. Accelerated CXL had a greater impact than conventional CXL on the anterior cornea, whereas transepithelial CXL did not appear to alter corneal morphology. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Quantitative imaging of bilirubin by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Noninvasive detection of both bilirubin concentration and its distribution is important for disease diagnosis. Here we implemented photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin distribution. We first demonstrate that our PAM system can measure the absorption spectra of bilirubin and blood. We also image bilirubin distributions in tissuemimicking samples, both without and with blood mixed. Our results show that PAM has the potential to quantitatively image bilirubin in vivo for clinical applications.

  15. A comparison of image restoration approaches applied to three-dimensional confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Verveer, P. J; Gemkow, M. J; Jovin, T. M

    1999-01-01

    We have compared different image restoration approaches for fluorescence microscopy. The most widely used algorithms were classified with a Bayesian theory according to the assumed noise model and the type of regularization imposed. We considered both Gaussian and Poisson models for the noise in combination with Tikhonov regularization, entropy regularization, Good's roughness and without regularization (maximum likelihood estimation). Simulations of fluorescence confocal imaging were used to examine the different noise models and regularization approaches using the mean squared error criterion. The assumption of a Gaussian noise model yielded only slightly higher errors than the Poisson model. Good's roughness was the best choice for the regularization. Furthermore, we compared simulated confocal and wide-field data. In general, restored confocal data are superior to restored wide-field data, but given sufficient higher signal level for the wide-field data the restoration result may rival confocal data in quality. Finally, a visual comparison of experimental confocal and wide-field data is presented.

  16. Correlating confocal microscopy and atomic force indentation reveals metastatic cancer cells stiffen during invasion into collagen I matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Jack R.; Doss, Bryant L.; Lindsay, Stuart; Ros, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interactions between cells and their microenvironment dictate cell phenotype and behavior, calling for cell mechanics measurements in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM). Here we describe a novel technique for quantitative mechanical characterization of soft, heterogeneous samples in 3D. The technique is based on the integration of atomic force microscopy (AFM) based deep indentation, confocal fluorescence microscopy, finite element (FE) simulations and analytical modeling. With this method, the force response of a cell embedded in 3D ECM can be decoupled from that of its surroundings, enabling quantitative determination of the elastic properties of both the cell and the matrix. We applied the technique to the quantification of the elastic properties of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells invading into collagen hydrogels. We found that actively invading and fully embedded cells are significantly stiffer than cells remaining on top of the collagen, a clear example of phenotypical change in response to the 3D environment. Treatment with Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor significantly reduces this stiffening, indicating that actomyosin contractility plays a major role in the initial steps of metastatic invasion.

  17. The potential role of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy for evaluating oral cavity lesions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Gentile, Enrica; Romano, Antonio; Maio, Claudio; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Since the early 2000s, several studies have examined the application of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) to the oral cavity. This review gives an overview of the literature on reflectance confocal microscopy analysis of the oral cavity in vivo and identifies flaws in the studies, providing guidance to improve reflectance confocal microscopy applications and inform the design of future studies. The PubMed, ISI, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for publications on RCM using the terms 'reflectance confocal microscopy' in combination with 'mouth' and other terms related to the topic of interest. The search gave 617 results. Seventeen studies were included in our final analysis. We decided to organize the selected articles according to four topics: healthy mucosa, autoimmune diseases, cancer and precancerous lesions, and hard dental tissues. Although reflectance confocal microscopy is promising for diagnosing and monitoring oral pathology, it has shortcomings and there are still too few publications on this topic. Further studies are needed to increase the quantity and quality of the results, to translate research into clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Confocal mosaicing microscopy of basal-cell carcinomas ex vivo: progress in digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Jason; Spain, James; Nehal, Kishwer; Hazelwood, Vikki; DiMarzio, Charles; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-03-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue, without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. Using acridine orange (1 milliMolar, 20 seconds) to stain nuclei, basal cell carcinomas were detected in fluorescence confocal mosaics of Mohs surgical excisions with sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 89.2%. A possible barrier toward clinical acceptance is that confocal mosaics are based on a single mode of contrast and appear in grayscale, whereas histology is based on two (hematoxylin for nuclei, eosin for cellular cytoplasm and dermis) and appears purple-and-pink. Toward addressing this barrier, we report progress in developing a multispectral analytical model for digital staining: fluorescence confocal mosaics, which show only nuclei, are digitally stained purple and overlaid on reflectance confocal mosaics, which show only cellular cytoplasm and dermis, and digitally stained pink, to mimic the appearance of histology. Comparison of digitally stained confocal mosaics by our Mohs surgeon to the corresponding Mohs histology shows good correlation for normal and tumor detail. Digitally stained confocal mosaicing microscopy may allow direct examination of freshly excised tissue and serve as an adjunct for rapid pathology at-the-bedside.

  19. Cell differentiation in cardiac myxomas: confocal microscopy and gene expression analysis after laser capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Angela; Mattioli, Claudia; Matteucci, Marco; Lorenzini, Daniele; Panvini, Francesca; Pacini, Simone; Ippolito, Chiara; Celiento, Michele; De Martino, Andrea; Dolfi, Amelio; Belgio, Beatrice; Bortolotti, Uberto; Basolo, Fulvio; Bartoloni, Giovanni

    2018-05-22

    Cardiac myxomas are rare tumors with a heterogeneous cell population including properly neoplastic (lepidic), endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The assessment of neoplastic (lepidic) cell differentiation pattern is rather difficult using conventional light microscopy immunohistochemistry and/or whole tissue extracts for mRNA analyses. In a preliminary study, we investigated 20 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cardiac myxomas by means of conventional immunohistochemistry; in 10/20 cases, cell differentiation was also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR after laser capture microdissection of the neoplastic cells, whereas calretinin and endothelial antigen CD31 immunoreactivity was localized in 4/10 cases by double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Gene expression analyses of α-smooth muscle actin, endothelial CD31 antigen, alpha-cardiac actin, matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-1 (TIMP1) was performed on cDNA obtained from either microdissected neoplastic cells or whole tumor sections. We found very little or absent CD31 and α-Smooth Muscle Actin expression in the microdissected cells as compared to the whole tumors, whereas TIMP1 and MMP2 genes were highly expressed in both ones, greater levels being found in patients with embolic phenomena. α-Cardiac Actin was not detected. Confocal microscopy disclosed two different signals corresponding to calretinin-positive myxoma cells and to endothelial CD31-positive cells, respectively. In conclusion, the neoplastic (lepidic) cells showed a distinct gene expression pattern and no consistent overlapping with endothelial and smooth muscle cells or cardiac myocytes; the expression of TIMP1 and MMP2 might be related to clinical presentation; larger series studies using also systematic transcriptome analysis might be useful to confirm the present results.

  20. Epithelial innervation of human cornea: a three-dimensional study using confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guthoff, Rudolf F; Wienss, Holger; Hahnel, Christian; Wree, Andreas

    2005-07-01

    Evaluation of a new method to visualize distribution and morphology of human corneal nerves (Adelta- and C-fibers) by means of fluorescence staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Trephinates of corneas with a diagnosis of Fuchs corneal dystrophy were sliced into layers of 200 microm thickness using a Draeger microkeratome (Storz, Germany). The anterior lamella was stained with the Life/Dead-Kit (Molecular Probes Inc.), examined by the confocal laser scanning microscope "Odyssey XL," step size between 0.5 and 1 microm, and optical sections were digitally 3D-reconstructed. Immediate staining of explanted corneas by the Life/Dead-Kit gave a complete picture of the nerves in the central human cornea. Thin nerves running parallel to the Bowman layer in the subepithelial plexus perforate the Bowman layer orthogonally through tube-like structures. Passing the Bowman layer, Adelta- and C-fibers can be clearly distinguished by fiber diameter, and, while running in the basal epithelial plexus, by their spatial arrangement. Adelta-fibers run straight and parallel to the Bowman layer underneath the basal cell layer. C-fibers, after a short run parallel to the Bowman layer, send off multiple branches penetrating epithelial cell layers orthogonally, ending blindly in invaginations of the superficial cells. In contrast to C-fibers, Adelta-fibers show characteristic bulbous formations when kinking into the basal epithelial plexus. Ex-vivo fluorescence staining of the cornea and 3D reconstructions of confocal scans provide a fast and easily reproducible tool to visualize nerves of the anterior living cornea at high resolution. This may help to clarify gross variations of nerve fiber patterns under various clinical and experimental conditions.

  1. Dynamic Real-time Microscopy of the Urinary Tract Using Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Katherine; Liu, Jen-Jane; Adams, Winifred; Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Pan, Ying; Beck, Andrew H.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To develop the diagnostic criteria for benign and neoplastic conditions of the urinary tract using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), a new technology for dynamic, in vivo imaging with micron-scale resolution. The suggested diagnostic criteria will formulate a guide for pCLE image interpretation in urology. METHODS Patients scheduled for transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) or nephrectomy were recruited. After white-light cystoscopy (WLC), fluorescein was administered as contrast. Different areas of the urinary tract were imaged with pCLE via direct contact between the confocal probe and the area of interest. Confocal images were subsequently compared with standard hematoxylin and eosin analysis. RESULTS pCLE images were collected from 66 participants, including 2 patients who underwent nephrectomy. We identified key features associated with different anatomic landmarks of the urinary tract, including the kidney, ureter, bladder, prostate, and urethra. In vivo pCLE of the bladder demonstrated distinct differences between normal mucosa and neoplastic tissue. Using mosaicing, a post hoc image-processing algorithm, individual image frames were juxtaposed to form wideangle views to better evaluate tissue microarchitecture. CONCLUSIONS In contrast to standard pathologic analysis of fixed tissue with hematoxylin and eosin, pCLE provides real time microscopy of the urinary tract to enable dynamic interrogation of benign and neoplastic tissues in vivo. The diagnostic criteria developed in this study will facilitate adaptation of pCLE for use in conjunction with WLC to expedite diagnosis of urinary tract pathology, particularly bladder cancer. PMID:21601243

  2. Confocal Raman Microscopy for in Situ Measurement of Phospholipid-Water Partitioning into Model Phospholipid Bilayers within Individual Chromatographic Particles.

    PubMed

    Kitt, Jay P; Bryce, David A; Minteer, Shelley D; Harris, Joel M

    2018-06-05

    The phospholipid-water partition coefficient is a commonly measured parameter that correlates with drug efficacy, small-molecule toxicity, and accumulation of molecules in biological systems in the environment. Despite the utility of this parameter, methods for measuring phospholipid-water partition coefficients are limited. This is due to the difficulty of making quantitative measurements in vesicle membranes or supported phospholipid bilayers, both of which are small-volume phases that challenge the sensitivity of many analytical techniques. In this work, we employ in situ confocal Raman microscopy to probe the partitioning of a model membrane-active compound, 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid or ibuprofen, into both hybrid- and supported-phospholipid bilayers deposited on the pore walls of individual chromatographic particles. The large surface-area-to-volume ratio of chromatographic silica allows interrogation of a significant lipid bilayer area within a very small volume. The local phospholipid concentration within a confocal probe volume inside the particle can be as high as 0.5 M, which overcomes the sensitivity limitations of making measurements in the limited membrane areas of single vesicles or planar supported bilayers. Quantitative determination of ibuprofen partitioning is achieved by using the phospholipid acyl-chains of the within-particle bilayer as an internal standard. This approach is tested for measurements of pH-dependent partitioning of ibuprofen into both hybrid-lipid and supported-lipid bilayers within silica particles, and the results are compared with octanol-water partitioning and with partitioning into individual optically trapped phospholipid vesicle membranes. Additionally, the impact of ibuprofen partitioning on bilayer structure is evaluated for both within-particle model membranes and compared with the structural impacts of partitioning into vesicle lipid bilayers.

  3. Quantitative Live-Cell Confocal Imaging of 3D Spheroids in a High-Throughput Format.

    PubMed

    Leary, Elizabeth; Rhee, Claire; Wilks, Benjamin T; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2018-06-01

    Accurately predicting the human response to new compounds is critical to a wide variety of industries. Standard screening pipelines (including both in vitro and in vivo models) often lack predictive power. Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems of human cells, a more physiologically relevant platform, could provide a high-throughput, automated means to test the efficacy and/or toxicity of novel substances. However, the challenge of obtaining high-magnification, confocal z stacks of 3D spheroids and understanding their respective quantitative limitations must be overcome first. To address this challenge, we developed a method to form spheroids of reproducible size at precise spatial locations across a 96-well plate. Spheroids of variable radii were labeled with four different fluorescent dyes and imaged with a high-throughput confocal microscope. 3D renderings of the spheroid had a complex bowl-like appearance. We systematically analyzed these confocal z stacks to determine the depth of imaging and the effect of spheroid size and dyes on quantitation. Furthermore, we have shown that this loss of fluorescence can be addressed through the use of ratio imaging. Overall, understanding both the limitations of confocal imaging and the tools to correct for these limits is critical for developing accurate quantitative assays using 3D spheroids.

  4. Confocal raman microscopy as a non-invasive tool to investigate the phase composition of frozen complex cryopreservation media.

    PubMed

    Kreiner-Møller, A; Stracke, F; Zimmermann, H

    2013-01-01

    Various cryoprotective agents (CPA) are added to cell media in order to avoid cell injury during cryo preservation. The resulting complex environment of the preserved cell, consisting of crystalline and liquid phases can however not be investigated non-invasively by established methods in cryobiology. This study shows how scanning confocal Raman microscopy can non-invasively extract information on chemical composition, phase domain and distribution at cryogenic temperatures. The formation of the salt hydrate, hydrohalite NaCl∙H2O, in solutions comprised of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) is studied in particular. Scanning confocal Raman microscopy can be used to unambiguously identify hydrohalite in a medium containing DMSO and saline. The confocal Raman microscopy imaging along with differential scanning calorimetric measurements further show that the hydrohalite is formed without eutectic formation. This method also allows for discrimination between closely packed hydrohalite crystals that are oriented differently.

  5. Photothermal confocal multicolor microscopy of nanoparticles and nanodrugs in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Foster, Stephen; Nima, Zeid A.; Biris, Alexandru S.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2018-01-01

    Growing biomedical applications of non-fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for molecular imaging, disease diagnosis, drug delivery, and theranostics require new tools for real-time detection of nanomaterials, drug nano-carriers and NP-drug conjugates (nanodrugs) in complex biological environments without additional labeling. Photothermal (PT) microscopy (PTM) has an enormous potential for absorption-based identification and quantification of non-fluorescent molecules and NPs at a single molecule and 1.4 nm gold NP level. Recently, we have developed confocal PTM providing three-dimensional (3-D) mapping and spectral identification of multiple chromophores and fluorophores in live cells. Here, we summarize recent advances in the application of confocal multicolor PTM for 3-D visualization of single and clustered NPs, alone and in individual cells. In particular, we demonstrate identification of functionalized magnetic and gold-silver NPs, as well as graphene and carbon nanotubes in cancer cells and among blood cells. The potentials to use PTM for super-resolution imaging (down to 50nm), real-time NP tracking, guidance of PT nanotherapy and multiplex cancer markers targeting, as well as analysis of nonlinear PT phenomena and amplification of nanodrug efficacy through NP clustering and nanobubble formation are also discussed. PMID:26133539

  6. Chromatic confocal microscopy for multi-depth imaging of epithelial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Olsovsky, Cory; Shelton, Ryan; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Applegate, Brian E.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel chromatic confocal microscope capable of volumetric reflectance imaging of microstructure in non-transparent tissue. Our design takes advantage of the chromatic aberration of aspheric lenses that are otherwise well corrected. Strong chromatic aberration, generated by multiple aspheres, longitudinally disperses supercontinuum light onto the sample. The backscattered light detected with a spectrometer is therefore wavelength encoded and each spectrum corresponds to a line image. This approach obviates the need for traditional axial mechanical scanning techniques that are difficult to implement for endoscopy and susceptible to motion artifact. A wavelength range of 590-775 nm yielded a >150 µm imaging depth with ~3 µm axial resolution. The system was further demonstrated by capturing volumetric images of buccal mucosa. We believe these represent the first microstructural images in non-transparent biological tissue using chromatic confocal microscopy that exhibit long imaging depth while maintaining acceptable resolution for resolving cell morphology. Miniaturization of this optical system could bring enhanced speed and accuracy to endomicroscopic in vivo volumetric imaging of epithelial tissue. PMID:23667789

  7. Design and demonstration of multimodal optical scanning microscopy for confocal and two-photon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Wanhee; Do, Dukho; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2013-01-01

    We developed a multimodal microscopy based on an optical scanning system in order to obtain diverse optical information of the same area of a sample. Multimodal imaging researches have mostly depended on a commercial microscope platform, easy to use but restrictive to extend imaging modalities. In this work, the beam scanning optics, especially including a relay lens, was customized to transfer broadband (400-1000 nm) lights to a sample without any optical error or loss. The customized scanning optics guarantees the best performances of imaging techniques utilizing the lights within the design wavelength. Confocal reflection, confocal fluorescence, and two-photon excitation fluorescence images were obtained, through respective implemented imaging channels, to demonstrate imaging feasibility for near-UV, visible, near-IR continuous light, and pulsed light in the scanning optics. The imaging performances for spatial resolution and image contrast were verified experimentally; the results were satisfactory in comparison with theoretical results. The advantages of customization, containing low cost, outstanding combining ability and diverse applications, will contribute to vitalize multimodal imaging researches.

  8. Two-photon microscopy and spectroscopy based on a compact confocal scanning head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaspro, Alberto; Chirico, Giberto; Federici, Federico; Cannone, Fabio; Beretta, Sabrina; Robello, Mauro; Olivini, Francesca; Ramoino, Paola

    2001-07-01

    We have combined a confocal laser scanning head modified for TPE (two-photon excitation) microscopy with some spectroscopic modules to study single molecules and molecular aggregates. The behavior of the TPE microscope unit has been characterized by means of point spread function measurements and of the demonstration of its micropatterning abilities. One-photon and two-photon mode can be simply accomplished by switching from a mono-mode optical fiber (one-photon) coupled to conventional laser sources to an optical module that allows IR laser beam (two- photon/TPE) delivery to the confocal laser scanning head. We have then described the characterization of the two-photon microscope for spectroscopic applications: fluorescence correlation, lifetime and fluorescence polarization anisotropy measurements. We describe the measurement of the response of the two-photon microscope to the light polarization and discuss fluorescence polarization anisotropy measurements on Rhodamine 6G as a function of the viscosity and on a globular protein, the Beta-lactoglobulin B labeled with Alexa 532 at very high dilutions. The average rotational and translational diffusion coefficients measured with fluorescence polarization anisotropy and fluorescence correlation methods are in good agreement with the protein size, therefore validating the use of the microscope for two-photon spectroscopy on biomolecules.

  9. Structure and chemical composition of the dentin-enamel junction analyzed by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desoutter, A.; Salehi, H.; Slimani, A.; Marquet, P.; Jacquot, B.; Tassery, H.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.

    2014-02-01

    The structure and chemical composition of the human dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) was studied using confocal Raman microscopy - a chemical imaging technique. Slices of non-fixed, sound teeth were prepared with an Isomet diamond saw and scanned with Witec Alpha300R system. The combination of different characteristics peaks of phosphate, carbonate and organic matrix (respectively 960, 1072 and 1545 cm-1), generates images representing the chemical composition of the DEJ area. Images are also calculated using peak ratios enabling precise determination of the chemical composition across the DEJ. Then, with two characterized peaks, different pictures are calculated to show the ratio of two components. The images of the spatial distribution of mineral phosphate (960cm-1) to organic matrix (1545 cm-1) ratios, mineral carbonates (1072cm-1) to mineral phosphate ratios; and mineral carbonates to organic matrix ratios were reconstructed. Cross sectional and calculated graphic profile show the variations of the different chemical component ratios through the enamel and the dentin. Phosphate to organic ratio shows an accumulation of organic material under the enamel surface. The cross sectional profile of these pictures shows a high phosphate content compared to enamel in the vicinity of the DEJ. The Confocal Raman imaging technique can be used to further provide full chemical imaging of tooth, particularly of the whole DEJ and to study enamel and dentin decay.

  10. In-situ detection of drugs-of-abuse on clothing using confocal Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ali, Esam M A; Edwards, Howell G M; Hargreaves, Michael D; Scowen, Ian J

    2008-05-12

    This study describes the application of confocal Raman microscopy to the detection and identification of drugs-of-abuse in situ on undyed natural synthetic fibres, and coloured textile specimens. Raman spectra were obtained from drug particles trapped between the fibres of the specimens. Pure samples of cocaine hydrochloride and N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine HCl (MDMA-HCl) were used in this study. Raman spectra were collected from drug particles of an average size in the range 5-15 microm. Despite the presence of spectral bands arising from the natural and synthetic polymer and dyed textiles, the drugs could be identified by their characteristic Raman bands. If necessary, interfering bands could be successfully removed by spectral subtraction. Furthermore, Raman spectra were recorded from drug particles trapped between the fibres of highly fluorescent specimens. Interference from the fibres, including background fluorescence, was overcome by careful focusing of the confocal beam and the resulting spectra allow ready differentiation from interference from the fibres substrate bands. Spectra of several drugs-of-abuse on dyed and undyed clothing substrates were readily obtained within 3 min with little or no sample preparation and with no alteration of the evidential material.

  11. Confocal microscopy and 3-D distribution of dead cells in cryopreserved pancreatic islets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Fatima A.; Aggarwal, Shanti J.; Diller, Kenneth R.; Bartels, Keith A.; Bovik, Alan C.

    1992-06-01

    Our laboratory is involved in studies of changes in shape and size of biological specimens under osmotic stress at ambient and sub-zero temperatures. This paper describes confocal microscopy, image processing and analysis of 3-D distribution of cells in acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) fluorescent stained frozen-thawed islet of Langerhans. Isolated and cultured rat pancreatic islets were frozen and thawed in 2 M dimethylsulfoxide and examined under a Zeiss laser scanning confocal microscope. Two micrometers to five micrometers serial sections of the islets were obtained and processed to obtain high contrast images which were later processed in two steps. The first step consisted of the isolation of the region of interest by template masking followed by grey level thresholding to obtain a binary image. Three-dimensional blob coloring algorithm was applied and the number of voxels in each region and the number of regions were counted. The volumetric distribution of the dead cells in the islets was computed by calculating the distance from the center of each blob to the centroid of the 3-D image. An increase in the number of blobs moving from the center toward the periphery of the islet was observed indicating that the freeze damage was more concentrated in the outer edges of the islet.

  12. Impaired Intracellular Ca2+ Dynamics in Live Cardiomyocytes Revealed by Rapid Line Scan Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, David M.; Sussman, Mark A.

    2005-06-01

    Altered intracellular Ca2+ dynamics are characteristically observed in cardiomyocytes from failing hearts. Studies of Ca2+ handling in myocytes predominantly use Fluo-3 AM, a visible light excitable Ca2+ chelating fluorescent dye in conjunction with rapid line-scanning confocal microscopy. However, Fluo-3 AM does not allow for traditional ratiometric determination of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and has required the use of mathematic correction factors with values obtained from separate procedures to convert Fluo-3 AM fluorescence to appropriate Ca2+ concentrations. This study describes methodology to directly measure intracellular Ca2+ levels using inactivated, Fluo-3-AM-loaded cardiomyocytes equilibrated with Ca2+ concentration standards. Titration of Ca2+ concentration exhibits a linear relationship to increasing Fluo-3 AM fluorescence intensity. Images obtained from individual myocyte confocal scans were recorded, average pixel intensity values were calculated, and a plot is generated relating the average pixel intensity to known Ca2+ concentrations. These standard plots can be used to convert transient Ca2+ fluorescence obtained with experimental cells to Ca2+ concentrations by linear regression analysis. Standards are determined on the same microscope used for acquisition of unknown Ca2+ concentrations, simplifying data interpretation and assuring accuracy of conversion values. This procedure eliminates additional equipment, ratiometric imaging, and mathematic correction factors and should be useful to investigators requiring a straightforward method for measuring Ca2+ concentrations in live cells using Ca2+-chelating dyes exhibiting variable fluorescence intensity.

  13. Lithographically-fabricated channel arrays for confocal x-ray fluorescence microscopy and XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woll, Arthur R.; Agyeman-Budu, David; Choudhury, Sanjukta; Coulthard, Ian; Finnefrock, Adam C.; Gordon, Robert; Hallin, Emil; Mass, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Confocal X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (CXRF) employs overlapping focal regions of two x-ray optics—a condenser and collector—to directly probe a 3D volume. The minimum-achievable size of this probe volume is limited by the collector, for which polycapillaries are generally the optic of choice. Recently, we demonstrated an alternative collection optic for CXRF, consisting of an array of micron-scale collimating channels, etched in silicon, and arranged like spokes of a wheel directed towards a single source position. The optic, while successful, had a working distance of only 0.2 mm and exhibited relatively low total collection efficiency, limiting its practical application. Here, we describe a new design in which the collimating channels are formed by a staggered array of pillars whose side-walls taper away from the channel axis. This approach improves both collection efficiency and working distance, while maintaining excellent spatial resolution. We illustrate these improvements with confocal XRF data obtained at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 20-ID-B.

  14. Intraoperative diagnosis of nonpigmented nail tumours with ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy: 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Debarbieux, S; Gaspar, R; Depaepe, L; Dalle, S; Balme, B; Thomas, L

    2015-04-01

    Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) permits real-time imaging of freshly excised skin tissues. Its usefulness as a time-sparing alternative to frozen sections in Mohs surgery of basal cell carcinoma is well documented. The purpose of this study was to describe the ex vivo FCM features of a series of benign and malignant nonpigmented tumours of the nail unit, and to correlate them with conventional histopathology. Nail apparatus tumours from 10 patients were imaged during surgical exploration using ex vivo FCM after immersion in acridine orange. Confocal mosaics of the freshly performed biopsies were evaluated in real time and retrospectively compared with haematoxylin and eosin sections. Our series included two invasive epithelial tumours (Group 1), four in situ or minimally invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) (Group 2), three benign epithelial tumours (Group 3) and one nodular melanoma (Group 4). The correlation was excellent for malignant epithelial tumours exhibiting marked cytological and architectural atypias (Bowen disease, invasive SCC and onycholemmal carcinoma). Onychomatricomas exhibited a very peculiar aspect with densely cellular papillae. The correlation was less favourable for minimally invasive well-differentiated SCCs with slight cytological atypias. The correlation was poor for our case of amelanotic invasive subungual melanoma. Ex vivo FCM could be a useful tool to shorten management of nonpigmented nail tumours: in the case of a malignant tumour, it could indeed lead to performing wide excision during the same surgical procedure and possibly assessing the surgical margins. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Probing effects of pressure release on virus capture during virus filtration using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dishari, Shudipto K; Venkiteshwaran, Adith; Zydney, Andrew L

    2015-10-01

    Virus filtration is used to ensure drug safety in the production of biotherapeutics. Several recent studies have shown a dramatic decrease in virus retention as a result of a process disruption, e.g., a transient pressure release. In this work, a novel two-label fluorescence technique was developed to probe virus capture within virus filtration membranes using confocal microscopy. Experiments were performed with Ultipor® DV20, Viresolve® Pro, and Viresolve® NFP membranes using bacteriophage φx174 as a model virus. The filters were challenged with two batches of fluorescently labeled phage: one labeled with red dye (Cy5) and one with green dye (SYBR Gold) to visualize captured phage from before and after the pressure release. The capture patterns seen in the confocal images were a strong function of the underlying membrane morphology and pore structure. The DV20 and Viresolve® NFP showed migration of previously captured phage further into the filter, consistent with the observed loss of virus retention after the pressure release. In contrast, there was no migration of captured virus in the Viresolve® Pro membranes, and these filters were also the only ones to show stable virus retention after a pressure release. The direct visualization of virus capture using the two-label fluorescence technique provides unique insights into the factors controlling the retention characteristics of virus filters with different pore structure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Confocal Raman microscopy for monitoring chemical reactions on single optically trapped, solid-phase support particles.

    PubMed

    Houlne, Michael P; Sjostrom, Christopher M; Uibel, Rory H; Kleimeyer, James A; Harris, Joel M

    2002-09-01

    Optical trapping of small structures is a powerful tool for the manipulation and investigation of colloidal and particulate materials. The tight focus excitation requirements of optical trapping are well suited to confocal Raman microscopy. In this work, an inverted confocal Raman microscope is developed for studies of chemical reactions on single, optically trapped particles and applied to reactions used in solid-phase peptide synthesis. Optical trapping and levitation allow a particle to be moved away from the coverslip and into solution, avoiding fluorescence interference from the coverslip. More importantly, diffusion of reagents into the particle is not inhibited by a surface, so that reaction conditions mimic those of particles dispersed in solution. Optical trapping and levitation also maintain optical alignment, since the particle is centered laterally along the optical axis and within the focal plane of the objective, where both optical forces and light collection are maximized. Hour-long observations of chemical reactions on individual, trapped silica particles are reported. Using two-dimensional least-squares analysis methods, the Raman spectra collected during the course of a reaction can be resolved into component contributions. The resolved spectra of the time-varying species can be observed, as they bind to or cleave from the particle surface.

  17. New telemedicine techniques in dermatology - evaluation with reflectance confocal microscopy via cloud-based platform.

    PubMed

    Łudzik, Joanna; Witkowski, Alexander Michael; Roterman-Konieczna, Irena

    Dermoscopically equivocal skin lesions may present a diagnostic challenge in daily clinical practice and are regularly sent for second expert opinion. We present a new approach to handling these cases in a consultation referral system that enables communication between the initial doctor at the image upload site and dermatology experts at a distance via cloud-based telemedicine. In our study we retrospectively evaluated 100 equivocal cases with complete digital dermoscopy-reflectance confocal microscopy image sets and compared suggested management of the initial doctor to a second expert confocal reader. We evaluated the effect of reader concordance on final management of these lesions resulting in a single reader overall sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 66% and double reader concordance method sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 54%. In conclusion, we found that application of double reader evaluation of these image sets with automatic referral of lesions for removal in the case of discordant diagnosis between two doctors improved the sensitivity of diagnosis in this subset of lesions and may increase the safety threshold of management choice reducing potential misdiagnosis in telemedicine settings. This paper concerns the application of telemedicine in practical medicine.

  18. Visualization and quantification of GPCR trafficking in mammalian cells by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nooh, Mohammed M; Bahouth, Suleiman W

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are recognized as one of the most fruitful group of therapeutic targets, accounting for more than 40% of all approved pharmaceuticals on the market. Therefore, the search for selective agents that affect GPCR function is of major interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This chapter describes methods for measuring agonist-promoted GPCR trafficking, which involves the internalization of the GPCR and its subsequent recycling back to the plasma membrane or retention and eventual degradation. These pathways will be analyzed by confocal cellular imaging, using the β 1 -adrenergic receptor (β 1 -AR) as a primary model. A major problem encountered in studying GPCR trafficking is the unavailability of antibodies that would recognize the native receptor in cells or tissues. Therefore, wild-type, point mutants, and β 1 -AR chimeras are generated as epitope-tagged proteins, which are stably- or transiently expressed in mammalian cells. GPCR are labeled with a fluorophore-conjugated antibody directed against the N-terminal epitope tag. The trafficking of the fluorophore-tagged GPCR between divergent trafficking pathways that result in retention and eventual degradation or recycling and reinsertion into the plasma membrane can be followed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy techniques outlined in this review. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A confocal microscopy based method to monitor extracellular pH in fungal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Kamp, Anja; Garcia, Javier E

    2018-04-19

    pH in fungal biofilms is important for a variety of fungal infections and industrial applications involving fungal biofilms, but to date, it has never been measured directly inside the biofilm matrix. In the present study, a new methodology was developed allowing for confocal microscopy based monitoring of extracellular pH inside fungal biofilms. Monospecies biofilms of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Cryptococcus neoformans were stained with the pH dependent ratiometric probe C-SNARF-4, imaged with a confocal microscope, and a digital image analysis procedure was developed to determine pH in the extracellular matrix. As a proof of concept, pH developments at the biofilm-substratum interface were monitored for one h after exposure to glucose. Observed pH drops differed considerably between the different species and also between replicate biofilms of the same species. C. albicans biofilms showed the highest acidogenicity, with pH drops occurring much faster than in planktonic culture. pH ratiometry with C-SNARF-4 is a valuable tool to get insight into fungal biofilm metabolism and may shed new light on both disease-related and industrially relevant processes in fungal biofilms.

  20. Localization of puroindoline-a and lipids in bread dough using confocal scanning laser microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dubreil, Laurence; Biswas, Samares C; Marion, Didier

    2002-10-09

    Puroindolines are lipid-binding proteins from wheat flour that play a significant role in bread crumb texture. The localization of wheat flour lipids and puroindoline-a (PIN-a) in bread dough was studied by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Wheat lipids were located around gas cells (GC) and embedded within the protein-starch matrix (SPM) of the dough. PIN-a was mainly located in the matrix of dough, where it was associated with lipids. In contrast, in defatted dough, PIN-a was found around GC. Addition of puroindolines in bread dough induced a defatting of the gas bubble surface and a decrease of the lipid vesicles and/or droplet size embedded within the SPM. Therefore, puroindolines control the lipid partitioning within the different phases of dough, a phenomenon that should have important consequence on the gas bubble expansion and GC formation in the further stages (fermentation, baking) of the bread-making process.

  1. Visual Understanding of Light Absorption and Waveguiding in Standing Nanowires with 3D Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are promising building blocks for next-generation photonics. Indirect proofs of large absorption cross sections have been reported in nanostructures with subwavelength diameters, an effect that is even more prominent in vertically standing nanowires. In this work we provide a three-dimensional map of the light around vertical GaAs nanowires standing on a substrate by using fluorescence confocal microscopy, where the strong long-range disruption of the light path along the nanowire is illustrated. We find that the actual long-distance perturbation is much larger in size than calculated extinction cross sections. While the size of the perturbation remains similar, the intensity of the interaction changes dramatically over the visible spectrum. Numerical simulations allow us to distinguish the effects of scattering and absorption in the nanowire leading to these phenomena. This work provides a visual understanding of light absorption in semiconductor nanowire structures, which is of high interest for solar energy conversion applications. PMID:28966933

  2. Separation of ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons in confocal Light-Sheet Microscopy of Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    Meinert, Tobias; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus J.; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Image quality in light-sheet fluorescence microscopy is strongly affected by the shape of the illuminating laser beam inside embryos, plants or tissue. While the phase of Gaussian or Bessel beams propagating through thousands of cells can be partly controlled holographically, the propagation of fluorescence light to the detector is difficult to control. With each scatter process a fluorescence photon loses information necessary for the image generation. Using Arabidopsis root tips we demonstrate that ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons can be separated by analyzing the image spectra in each plane without a priori knowledge. We introduce a theoretical model allowing to extract typical scattering parameters of the biological material. This allows to attenuate image contributions from diffusive photons and to amplify the relevant image contributions from ballistic photons through a depth dependent deconvolution. In consequence, image contrast and resolution are significantly increased and scattering artefacts are minimized especially for Bessel beams with confocal line detection. PMID:27553506

  3. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of melanocytic skin lesions: consensus terminology glossary and illustrative images.

    PubMed

    Scope, Alon; Benvenuto-Andrade, Cristiane; Agero, Anna-Liza C; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Busam, Klaus J; Marra, Diego E; Torres, Abel; Propperova, Iva; Langley, Richard G; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Pellacani, Giovanni; Seidenari, Stefania; Halpern, Allan C; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2007-10-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been used for over 10 years for in vivo skin imaging. However, to date no standard RCM terminology has been published. To establish a glossary of terms for RCM evaluation of melanocytic lesions. Prominent RCM researchers were presented with RCM images of melanocytic lesions. Reviewers evaluated RCM images for image quality, lesion architecture, and cellular details. Reviewers could utilize published descriptors or contribute unpublished terminology to describe lesion attributes. An online meeting was conducted to reach consensus that integrates and defines existing and new RCM descriptive terms. We present a glossary with descriptors of image quality, normal skin morphology, lesion architecture, and cellular details for RCM evaluation of melanocytic lesions. Usefulness of the glossary in RCM diagnosis of melanocytic lesions needs to be assessed. Standardization of terminology is important toward implementation of RCM in the clinical setting.

  4. [In Vivo Study of Chitin in Fungal Hyphae Based on Confocal Raman Microscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-li; Luo, Liu-bin; Zhou, Bin-xiong; Hu, Xiao-qian; Sun, Chan-jun; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is an important structural polysaccharide of fungal cell wall. In this paper, aerial hyphae of Colletotrichum camelliae Massee was first studied by confocal Raman microscopy in vivo. Firstly, the optimal experimental parameters of hyphae for collecting the Raman spectra were determined, and the typical Raman spectra of hyphae, chitin standard and background were acquired. By comparing analysis, characteristic peaks of chitin were found in hyphae. Then, a region of interesting on hyphae was selected for Raman scanning. Through principal component analysis, the Raman signal of hyphae and background in the scanning area can be separated clearly. Combined with loading weight plot, two main characteristic peaks of hyphae were obtained, 1 622 cm(-1) was belong to chitin and 1 368 cm(-1) was assigned to pectic polysaccharide. Finally, two and three dimension chemical images of fungal hyphae were realized based on Raman fingerprint spectra of chitin in a nondestructive way.

  5. Dual-model automatic detection of nerve-fibres in corneal confocal microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Dabbah, M A; Graham, J; Petropoulos, I; Tavakoli, M; Malik, R A

    2010-01-01

    Corneal Confocal Microscopy (CCM) imaging is a non-invasive surrogate of detecting, quantifying and monitoring diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This paper presents an automated method for detecting nerve-fibres from CCM images using a dual-model detection algorithm and compares the performance to well-established texture and feature detection methods. The algorithm comprises two separate models, one for the background and another for the foreground (nerve-fibres), which work interactively. Our evaluation shows significant improvement (p approximately 0) in both error rate and signal-to-noise ratio of this model over the competitor methods. The automatic method is also evaluated in comparison with manual ground truth analysis in assessing diabetic neuropathy on the basis of nerve-fibre length, and shows a strong correlation (r = 0.92). Both analyses significantly separate diabetic patients from control subjects (p approximately 0).

  6. An Effective Histological Staining Process to Visualize Bone Interstitial Fluid Space Using Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Cesare; Doty, Stephen B.; Fritton, Susannah P.

    2009-01-01

    Bone is a composite porous material with two functional levels of porosity: the vascular porosity that surrounds blood vessels and the lacunar-canalicular porosity that surrounds the osteocytes. Both the vascular porosity and lacunar-canalicular porosity are directly involved in interstitial fluid flow, thought to play an important role in bone’s maintenance. Because of the small dimensions of the lacunar-canalicular porosity, interstitial fluid space has been difficult to visualize and quantify. We report a new staining protocol that is reliable and easily reproducible, using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as a probe visualized by confocal microscopy. Reconstructed FITC-stained cross sections enable effective visualization of bone microstructure and microporosities. This new staining process can be used to analyze interstitial fluid space, providing high-resolution quantification of the vascular pores and the lacunar-canalicular network of cortical and cancellous bone. PMID:19442607

  7. Visualisation of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance in bacteria using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Norman, Christel; Liu, Zhen-Wei; Rigby, Paul; Raso, Albert; Petrov, Yevgeniy; Martinac, Boris

    2005-07-01

    The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) plays an important role in the survival of bacterial cells to hypo-osmotic shock. This channel has been extensively studied and its sequence, structure and electrophysiological characteristics are well known. Here we present a method to visualise MscL in living bacteria using confocal microscopy. By creating a gene fusion between mscl and the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) we were able to express the fusion protein MscL-GFP in bacteria. We show that MscL-GFP is present in the cytoplasmic membrane and forms functional channels. These channels have the same characteristics as wild-type MscL, except that they require more pressure to open. This method could prove an interesting, non-invasive, tool to study the localisation and the regulation of expression of MscL in bacteria.

  8. Separation of ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons in confocal Light-Sheet Microscopy of Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Meinert, Tobias; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus J; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2016-08-24

    Image quality in light-sheet fluorescence microscopy is strongly affected by the shape of the illuminating laser beam inside embryos, plants or tissue. While the phase of Gaussian or Bessel beams propagating through thousands of cells can be partly controlled holographically, the propagation of fluorescence light to the detector is difficult to control. With each scatter process a fluorescence photon loses information necessary for the image generation. Using Arabidopsis root tips we demonstrate that ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons can be separated by analyzing the image spectra in each plane without a priori knowledge. We introduce a theoretical model allowing to extract typical scattering parameters of the biological material. This allows to attenuate image contributions from diffusive photons and to amplify the relevant image contributions from ballistic photons through a depth dependent deconvolution. In consequence, image contrast and resolution are significantly increased and scattering artefacts are minimized especially for Bessel beams with confocal line detection.

  9. Visual Understanding of Light Absorption and Waveguiding in Standing Nanowires with 3D Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Rune; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Matteini, Federico; Martinez, Karen L; Fontcuberta I Morral, Anna; Alarcon-Llado, Esther

    2017-09-20

    Semiconductor nanowires are promising building blocks for next-generation photonics. Indirect proofs of large absorption cross sections have been reported in nanostructures with subwavelength diameters, an effect that is even more prominent in vertically standing nanowires. In this work we provide a three-dimensional map of the light around vertical GaAs nanowires standing on a substrate by using fluorescence confocal microscopy, where the strong long-range disruption of the light path along the nanowire is illustrated. We find that the actual long-distance perturbation is much larger in size than calculated extinction cross sections. While the size of the perturbation remains similar, the intensity of the interaction changes dramatically over the visible spectrum. Numerical simulations allow us to distinguish the effects of scattering and absorption in the nanowire leading to these phenomena. This work provides a visual understanding of light absorption in semiconductor nanowire structures, which is of high interest for solar energy conversion applications.

  10. Imaging Chromosome Separation in Mouse Oocytes by Responsive 3D Confocal Timelapse Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lane, Simon I R; Crouch, Stephen; Jones, Keith T

    2017-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation is necessary so that genetic material is equally shared among daughter cells. However, maturing mammalian oocytes are particularly prone to chromosome segregation errors, making them a valuable tool for identifying the causes of mis-segregation. Factors such as aging, cohesion loss, DNA damage, and the roles of a plethora of kinetochore and cell cycle-related proteins are involved. To study chromosome segregation in oocytes in a live setting is an imaging challenge that requires advanced techniques. Here we describe a method for examining chromosomes in live oocytes in detail as they undergo maturation. Our method is based on tracking the "center of brightness" of fluorescently labeled chromosomes. Here we describe how to set up our software and run experiments on a Leica TCS SP8 confocal microscope, but the method would be transferable to other microscopes with computer-aided microscopy.

  11. Bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy using a double aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Behan, Gavin; Kirkland, Angus I; Nellist, Peter D; Cosgriff, Eireann C; D'Alfonso, Adrian J; Morgan, Andrew J; Allen, Leslie J; Hashimoto, Ayako; Takeguchi, Masaki; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) offers a mechanism for three-dimensional imaging of materials, which makes use of the reduced depth of field in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The simplest configuration of SCEM is the bright-field mode. In this paper we present experimental data and simulations showing the form of bright-field SCEM images. We show that the depth dependence of the three-dimensional image can be explained in terms of two-dimensional images formed in the detector plane. For a crystalline sample, this so-called probe image is shown to be similar to a conventional diffraction pattern. Experimental results and simulations show how the diffracted probes in this image are elongated in thicker crystals and the use of this elongation to estimate sample thickness is explored. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Confocal laser scanning microscopy detection of chlorophylls and carotenoids in chloroplasts and chromoplasts of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Lucio; Amenós, Montse; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells are unique among eukaryotic cells because of the presence of plastids, including chloroplasts and chromoplasts. Chloroplasts are found in green tissues and harbor the photosynthetic machinery (including chlorophyll molecules), while chromoplasts are present in non-photosynthetic tissues and accumulate large amounts of carotenoids. During tomato fruit development, chloroplasts are converted into chromoplasts that accumulate high levels of lycopene, a linear carotenoid responsible for the characteristic red color of ripe fruit. Here, we describe a simple and fast method to detect both types of fully differentiated plastids (chloroplasts and chromoplasts), as well as intermediate stages, in fresh tomato fruits. The method is based on the differential autofluorescence of chlorophylls and carotenoids (lycopene) detected by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.

  13. Elastomeric photo-actuators and their investigation by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaniková, Klaudia; Ilčíková, Markéta; Krupa, Igor; Mičušík, Matej; Kasák, Peter; Pavlova, Ewa; Mosnáček, Jaroslav; Chorvát, Dušan, Jr.; Omastová, Mária

    2013-10-01

    The photo-actuation behavior of nanocomposites based on ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) block copolymer filled with well-dispersed and modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is discussed in this paper. The nanocomposites were prepared by casting from solution. To improve the dispersion of the MWCNTs in EVA, the MWCNT surface was modified with a non-covalent surfactant, cholesteryl 1-pyrenecarboxylate (PyChol). To prepare SIS nanocomposites, the MWCNT surface was covalently modified with polystyrene chains. The good dispersion of the filler was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Special, custom-made punch/die molds were used to create a Braille element (BE)-like shape, which under shear forces induces a uniaxial orientation of the MWCNTs within the matrix. The uniaxial orientation of MWCNTs is an essential precondition to ensure the photo-actuating behavior of MWCNTs in polymeric matrices. The orientation of the MWCNTs within the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanocomposite BEs were illuminated from the bottom by a red light-emitting diode (LED), and the photo-actuation was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). When the BEs were exposed to light, a temporary increase in the height of the element was detected. This process was observed to be reversible: after switching off the light, the BEs returned to their original shape and height.

  14. Combined use of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and Raman microscopy (RM): investigations on EPS-Matrix.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael; Ivleva, Natalia P; Haisch, Christoph; Niessner, Reinhard; Horn, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied in combination with Raman microscopy (RM) for the characterization of heterotrophic biofilms. Compared to CLSM, RM allows for a deeper insight into the chemical structure of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the biofilm matrix. A low load of glucose (2 g m(-2)d(-1)) was applied as substrate to ensure small growth rates of the heterotrophic biofilm. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the chemical composition of EPS, a three funnel flow system was used, wherein biofilms were grown at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 2500 and 4000, respectively. 31 and 92 days after inoculation with activated sludge supernatant RM was applied as an additional technique to standard CLSM measurements for a more detailed analysis of the biofilm matrix. Polysaccharide-related Raman bands are in good agreement with the lectin binding analysis from CLSM. For the older biofilm, lectin binding analysis showed no change in the composition of EPS, whereas Raman spectra pointed out a change of EPS composition from predominantly polysaccharides to predominantly (glyco) proteins. For the applied substrate condition no significant influence of the Reynolds number on the chemical properties was observed.

  15. Reflectance confocal microscopy vs. standardized skin surface biopsy for measuring the density of Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Turgut Erdemir, A; Gurel, M S; Koku Aksu, A E; Bilgin Karahalli, F; Incel, P; Kutlu Haytoğlu, N S; Falay, T

    2014-11-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been recently shown to be effective for measuring the Demodex mite density. To compare and demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of standardized skin surface biopsy (SSSB) and RCM for measuring the density of Demodex mites. Forty-eight patients (30 female, 18 male) and 47 healthy controls (30 female, 17 male) were enrolled in the study. The patients diagnoses were pityriasis folliculorum (n = 40), papulopustulary rosecea (n = 7) and erythema-telengiectatic rosacea (n = 1). The area with the most intense erythema on the right cheek was selected for imaging with RCM (VivaScope 3000) and SSSB. Forty-two patients demonstrated high Demodex density [(Dd) > 5 mites/cm(2) ] with SSSB (85.7%). RCM identified demodicosis in 48 patients (100%). The mean Dd measured with RCM (409.8 ± 209.2) was significantly higher than SSSB (15.33 ± 18.1) (P < 0.001). In the patients, RCM demonstrated the mean number of mites 40.90 ± 20.9 and 4.11 ± 6.4 in the controls per 10 mm(2) area. The corresponding mean number of 2.63 ± 0.77 mites was detected in the infested follicles per area of view compared to a mean of 0.77 ± 0.98 mites in the infested follicles in the controls (P < 0.001). Reflectance confocal microscopy is a fast, direct and noninvasive method for Demodex-associated diseases and it is superior to SSSB for Demodex mite detection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in contact lens discomfort patients.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Aysun Sanal; Gurdal, Canan; Arslan, Nese

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in patients with contact lens discomfort. The study included 3 groups of participants: Contact lens wearers using silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses who are symptomatic (CLD, n=15) or asymptomatic (ACL, n=11) and non-wearers as controls (n=14). Duration of contact lens wear, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire responses, fluorescein tear break-uptime (FBUT), and corneal confocal microscopy findings were recorded. Mean age was 25.7±8.2 years and male/female ratio was 7/33. Demographic findings were similar regarding the groups. CLD patients had a longer lens use history than ACL (median 5 vs 2 years, p<0.001). OSDI scores were higher in CLD group than ACL or controls (p<0.001, p=0.002). FBUT was significantly lowest in CLD group, compared to controls and ACL (p<0.001, p=0.039). FBUT was also lower in ACL patients compared to controls (p=0.036). There was no difference between basal epithelium cell counts between all 3 groups. Anterior stromal activated keratocyte numbers were similar between contact lens using groups but was lower in controls (p=0.005). However, dendritiform cells in the sub-basal nerve layer were higher in CLD group compared to controls but similar to ACL (p<0.001, p=0.058). Graded sub-basal nerve tortuosity was more prominent in CLD group than the ACL (p=0.014). Patients with CLD had been wearing contact lenses for longer than those without symptoms. OSDI and FBUT scores were worse in CLD patients. In contact lens discomfort patients, there were increased dendritiform cells, indicating intensified inflammatory status of the cornea. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light.

  18. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Ocular Surface: From Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Edoardo; Baudouin, Christophe; Efron, Nathan; Hamrah, Pedram; Kojima, Takashi; Patel, Sanjay V.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Zhivov, Andrey; Dogru, Murat

    2014-01-01

    In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is an emerging technology that provides minimally invasive, high resolution, steady-state assessment of the ocular surface at the cellular level. Several challenges still remain but, at present, IVCM may be considered a promising technique for clinical diagnosis and management. This mini-review summarizes some key findings in IVCM of the ocular surface, focusing on recent and promising attempts to move “from bench to bedside”. IVCM allows prompt diagnosis, disease course follow-up, and management of potentially blinding atypical forms of infectious processes, such as acanthamoeba and fungal keratitis. This technology has improved our knowledge of corneal alterations and some of the processes that affect the visual outcome after lamellar keratoplasty and excimer keratorefractive surgery. In dry eye disease, IVCM has provided new information on the whole-ocular surface morphofunctional unit. It has also improved understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms and helped in the assessment of prognosis and treatment. IVCM is particularly useful in the study of corneal nerves, enabling description of the morphology, density, and disease- or surgically induced alterations of nerves, particularly the subbasal nerve plexus. In glaucoma, IVCM constitutes an important aid to evaluate filtering blebs, to better understand the conjunctival wound healing process, and to assess corneal changes induced by topical antiglaucoma medications and their preservatives. IVCM has significantly enhanced our understanding of the ocular response to contact lens wear. It has provided new perspectives at a cellular level on a wide range of contact lens complications, revealing findings that were not previously possible to image in the living human eye. The final section of this mini-review provides a focus on advances in confocal microscopy imaging. These include 2D wide-field mapping, 3D reconstruction of the cornea and automated image analysis. PMID

  19. Penetration pattern of rhodamine dyes into enamel and dentin: confocal laser microscopy observation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S R; Wertz, P W; Li, Y; Chan, D C N

    2012-02-01

    Enamel and dentin are susceptible to extrinsic and intrinsic stains. The purposes of this study were to determine the penetration pattern of Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B into the enamel and dentin as observed by confocal laser microscopy and to relate it to the penetration pattern of hydrogen peroxide commonly used as an active ingredient in tooth-whitening agents and high-molecular-weight staining molecules. Eighteen recently extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were used. Teeth were cleaned and painted with nail varnish except for the crown area above the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The painted teeth were then immersed in Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B (70 000 MW) for 4, 7, 10 and 15 days. Teeth were sliced to 3 mm thickness in transverse plane and mounted on a glass slide just prior to observation with confocal laser microscopy. Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B readily penetrated into the enamel and dentin when exposed for 4 and 7 days, respectively. Rhodamine B penetrated along the interprismatic spaces of the enamel into the dentin. The penetration was accentuated in sections with existing crack lines in the enamel. Rhodamine B was readily absorbed into the dentinal tubules at the dentino-enamel junction and continued to penetrate through the dentin via the dentinal tubules into the pre-dentin. Within the limitations of this study, it is concluded that Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B when applied to the external surface of the tooth readily penetrate into the enamel and dentin via the interprismatic spaces in the enamel and dentinal tubules in the dentin, suggesting that stain molecules and bleaching agents possibly exhibit similar penetration pathways. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Spectrally Encoded Confocal Microscopy (SECM) for Diagnosing of Breast Cancer in Excision and Margin Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Brachtel, Elena F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Huck, Amelia E.; Rice-Stitt, Travis L.; Vangel, Mark G.; Smith, Barbara L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Kang, Dongkyun

    2016-01-01

    A large percentage of breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgery need to undergo multiple surgeries due to positive margins found during post-operative margin assessment. Carcinomas could be removed completely during the initial surgery and additional surgery avoided if positive margins can be determined intra-operatively. Spectrally-encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has a potential to rapidly image the entire surgical margin at sub-cellular resolution and accurately determine margin status intra-operatively. In this paper, in order to test feasibility of using SECM for intra-operative margin assessment, we have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SECM for detecting various types of breast cancers. Forty-six surgically-removed breast specimens were imaged with a SECM system. Side-by-side comparison between SECM and histologic images showed that SECM images can visualize key histomorphologic patterns of normal/benign and malignant breast tissues. Small (500 µm × 500 µm) spatially-registered SECM and histologic images (n=124 for each) were diagnosed independently by three pathologists with expertise in breast pathology. Diagnostic accuracy of SECM for determining malignant tissues was high, average sensitivity of 0.91, specificity of 0.93, positive predictive value of 0.95, and negative predictive value of 0.87. Intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement for SECM were also high, 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. Results from this study suggest that SECM may be developed into an intra-operative margin assessment tool for guiding breast cancer excisions. PMID:26779830

  1. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) for rapid assessment of breast excision specimens (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachtel, Elena F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Huck, Amelia E.; Rice-Stitt, Travis L.; Vangel, Mark G.; Smith, Barbara L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Kang, DongKyun

    2016-03-01

    Unacceptably large percentage (20-40%) of breast cancer lumpectomy patients are required to undergo multiple surgeries when positive margins are found upon post-operative histologic assessment. If the margin status can be determined during surgery, surgeon can resect additional tissues to achieve tumor-free margin, which will reduce the need for additional surgeries. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has a potential to image the entire surgical margin within a short procedural time. Previously, SECM was shown to rapidly image a large area (10 mm by 10 mm) of human esophageal tissue within a short procedural time (15 seconds). When used in lumpectomy, SECM will be able to image the entire margin surface of ~30 cm2 in around 7.5 minutes. SECM images will then be used to determine margin status intra-operatively. In this paper, we present results from a study of testing accuracy of SECM for diagnosing malignant breast tissues. We have imaged freshly-excised breast specimens (N=46) with SECM. SECM images clearly visualized histomorphologic features associated with normal/benign and malignant breast tissues in a similar manner to histologic images. Diagnostic accuracy was tested by comparing SECM diagnoses made by three junior pathologists with corresponding histologic diagnoses made by a senior pathologist. SECM sensitivity and specificity were high, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement were also high, 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. Results from this study showed that SECM has a potential to accurately determine margin status during breast cancer lumpectomy.

  2. A virtual size-variable pinhole for single photon confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guangjun; Khoobehi, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    Pinhole is a critical device in single photon confocal microscopy (SPCM) owning to its ability to block the background noise scattered from back and forth of the focal plane. Without pinhole, the sectioning ability of SPCM will be degraded and many background noise signals will occurred together with useful signals, and sometimes these bad noises can submerge the details that we are interested in. However a pinhole with too small diameter will block both background noises and part of signals and decrease the intensity of the image. Therefore in many cases pinhole size should be selected carefully. Unfortunately because of constrains in mechanics, a pinhole that can change its size continuously, for example from 10 μm to 100 μm, is unavailable. For most commercial confocal microscopies, only several discrete pinhole sizes are provided, such as 10 μm, 30 μm, 60 μm etc. Things will be even harder for some imaging systems which use the input interface of a single mode fiber as the pinhole of SPCM, and then the pinhole size of these systems will be fixed, which far limit the optimization of systems' performance. In this paper, we design a size-variable pinhole setup that can offer a virtual pinhole with its diameter adjustable, which includes a physical pinhole (or single mode fiber) and a fine designed zoom relay (ZR) optical system. The magnification ratio of this ZR can vary smoothly while keeping the conjugation distance unchanged. The aberrations of the ZR are well balanced and diffraction-limited image performance are obtained so that the virtual pinhole can block background scattering noise and pass the in-focus signal effectively and accurately. Simulation results are also provided and discussed.

  3. Confocal microscopy and electrophysiological study of single patient corneal endothelium cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatini, Francesca; Rossi, Francesca; Coppi, Elisabetta; Magni, Giada; Fusco, Irene; Menabuoni, Luca; Pedata, Felicita; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pini, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of the ion channels in corneal endothelial cells and the elucidation of their involvement in corneal pathologies would lead to the identification of new molecular target for pharmacological treatments and to the clarification of corneal physiology. The corneal endothelium is an amitotic cell monolayer with a major role in preserving corneal transparency and in regulating the water and solute flux across the posterior surface of the cornea. Although endothelial cells are non-excitable, they express a range of ion channels, such as voltage-dependent Na+ channels and K+ channels, L-type Ca2 channels and many others. Interestingly, purinergic receptors have been linked to a variety of conditions within the eye but their presence in the endothelium and their role in its pathophysiology is still uncertain. In this study, we were able to extract endothelial cells from single human corneas, thus obtaining primary cultures that represent the peculiarity of each donor. Corneas were from tissues not suitable for transplant in patients. We characterized the endothelial cells by confocal microscopy, both within the intact cornea and in the primary endothelial cells cultures. We also studied the functional role of the purinergic system (adenosine, ATP and their receptors) by means of electrophysiological recordings. The experiments were performed by patch clamp recordings and confocal time-lapse microscopy and our results indicate that the application of purinergic compounds modulates the amplitude of outward currents in the isolated endothelial cells. These findings may lead to the proposal of new therapies for endothelium-related corneal diseases.

  4. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy and image deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Swedlow, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative imaging and image deconvolution have become standard techniques for the modern cell biologist because they can form the basis of an increasing number of assays for molecular function in a cellular context. There are two major types of deconvolution approaches--deblurring and restoration algorithms. Deblurring algorithms remove blur but treat a series of optical sections as individual two-dimensional entities and therefore sometimes mishandle blurred light. Restoration algorithms determine an object that, when convolved with the point-spread function of the microscope, could produce the image data. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed in this chapter. Image deconvolution in fluorescence microscopy has usually been applied to high-resolution imaging to improve contrast and thus detect small, dim objects that might otherwise be obscured. Their proper use demands some consideration of the imaging hardware, the acquisition process, fundamental aspects of photon detection, and image processing. This can prove daunting for some cell biologists, but the power of these techniques has been proven many times in the works cited in the chapter and elsewhere. Their usage is now well defined, so they can be incorporated into the capabilities of most laboratories. A major application of fluorescence microscopy is the quantitative measurement of the localization, dynamics, and interactions of cellular factors. The introduction of green fluorescent protein and its spectral variants has led to a significant increase in the use of fluorescence microscopy as a quantitative assay system. For quantitative imaging assays, it is critical to consider the nature of the image-acquisition system and to validate its response to known standards. Any image-processing algorithms used before quantitative analysis should preserve the relative signal levels in different parts of the image. A very common image-processing algorithm, image deconvolution, is used

  5. Preparation of HIV monoclonal antibody-conjugated pulchellin in order to study its intracellular trafficking pathway in HIV-infected cells by confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadraeian, M.; Tsutae, F. M.; Moreira, H. H. T.; Araujo, A. P. U.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Pincus, S. H.

    2015-06-01

    Pulchellin is a type 2 of ribosome-inactivating proteins isolated from some seeds significantly growing in Brazil. It is a potent agent to inhibit the protein synthesis in cancer cells and also HIV-infected cells. Pulchellin can be conjugated to HIV monoclonal antibodies to specifically target the HIV-infected cells. To analyze the protein synthesis inhibition by Pulchellin, the intracellular localization of the immunoconjugate should be compared to Pulchellin. In this case, the intracellular trafficking of this protein in cells can be determined by confocal microscopy. In our study, we utilized Pulchellin to construct HIV monoclonal antibody-conjugated Pulchellin A chain in order to target HIV-infected lymphocyte cells. Afterward the conjugation was labeled with the superior Alexa Fluor 488 dye. As a subsequent step, we are interested in studying the intracellular trafficking pathway of this novel conjugation in HIV-infected cells by confocal microscopy. Moreover, possible quantitative methods for fluorescent labeling of the immunoconjugate during confocal microscopy will be investigated.

  6. Roughness of biopores and cracks in Bt-horizons by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Martin; Gerke, Horst H.

    2016-04-01

    During preferential flow events in structured soils, the movement of water and reactive solutes is mostly restricted to larger inter-aggregate pores, cracks, and biopores. The micro-topography of such macropores in terms of pore shapes, geometry, and roughness is crucial for describing the exchange of water and solutes between macropores and the soil matrix. The objective of this study was to determine the surface roughness of intact structural surfaces from the Bt-horizon of Luvisols by confocal laser scanning microscopy. For this purpose, samples with the structural surface types including cracks with and without clay-organic coatings from Bt-horizons developed on loess and glacial till were compared. The surface roughness of these structures was calculated in terms of three parameters from selected surface regions of 0.36 mm² determined with a confocal laser scanning microscope of the type Keyence VK-X100K. These data were evaluated in terms of the root-mean-squared roughness, Rq, the curvature, Rku, and the ratio between surface area and base area, RA. Values of Rq and RA were smaller for coated as compared to uncoated cracks and earthworm burrows of the Bt-horizons from both parent materials. The results indicated that the illuviation of clayey material led to a "smoothing" of the crack surfaces, which was similar for the coarser textured till-Bt and the finer-textured loess-Bt surfaces. The roughness indicated by Rq and RA values was only slightly smaller and that indicated by Rku slightly higher for the structural surfaces from the loess as compared to those from the glacial till. These results suggest a minor importance of the parent material on the roughness of structural surfaces in the Bt-horizon. The similarity of Rq, RA, and Rku values between surfaces of earthworm burrows and uncoated cracks did not confirm an expected smoothing effect of the burrow walls by the earthworm. In contrast to burrow walls, root channels from the loess-Bt were smoother

  7. Quantification of Cardiomyocyte Alignment from Three-Dimensional (3D) Confocal Microscopy of Engineered Tissue.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, William J; Yuan, Fangping; Nakane, Takeichiro; Masumoto, Hidetoshi; Dwenger, Marc; Ye, Fei; Tinney, Joseph P; Keller, Bradley B

    2017-08-01

    Biological tissues have complex, three-dimensional (3D) organizations of cells and matrix factors that provide the architecture necessary to meet morphogenic and functional demands. Disordered cell alignment is associated with congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and neurodegenerative diseases and repairing or replacing these tissues using engineered constructs may improve regenerative capacity. However, optimizing cell alignment within engineered tissues requires quantitative 3D data on cell orientations and both efficient and validated processing algorithms. We developed an automated method to measure local 3D orientations based on structure tensor analysis and incorporated an adaptive subregion size to account for multiple scales. Our method calculates the statistical concentration parameter, κ, to quantify alignment, as well as the traditional orientational order parameter. We validated our method using synthetic images and accurately measured principal axis and concentration. We then applied our method to confocal stacks of cleared, whole-mount engineered cardiac tissues generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells or embryonic chick cardiac cells and quantified cardiomyocyte alignment. We found significant differences in alignment based on cellular composition and tissue geometry. These results from our synthetic images and confocal data demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of our method to measure alignment in 3D tissues.

  8. Quantitative Aspects of Single Molecule Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ober, Raimund J.; Tahmasbi, Amir; Ram, Sripad; Lin, Zhiping; Ward, E. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule microscopy is a relatively new optical microscopy technique that allows the detection of individual molecules such as proteins in a cellular context. This technique has generated significant interest among biologists, biophysicists and biochemists, as it holds the promise to provide novel insights into subcellular processes and structures that otherwise cannot be gained through traditional experimental approaches. Single molecule experiments place stringent demands on experimental and algorithmic tools due to the low signal levels and the presence of significant extraneous noise sources. Consequently, this has necessitated the use of advanced statistical signal and image processing techniques for the design and analysis of single molecule experiments. In this tutorial paper, we provide an overview of single molecule microscopy from early works to current applications and challenges. Specific emphasis will be on the quantitative aspects of this imaging modality, in particular single molecule localization and resolvability, which will be discussed from an information theoretic perspective. We review the stochastic framework for image formation, different types of estimation techniques and expressions for the Fisher information matrix. We also discuss several open problems in the field that demand highly non-trivial signal processing algorithms. PMID:26167102

  9. The application of laser scanning confocal microscopy to the examination of hairs and textile fibers: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride, K Paul; Tridico, Silvana R

    2010-02-25

    An initial investigation of the application of laser scanning confocal microscopy to the examination of hairs and fibers has been conducted. This technique allows the production of virtual transverse and longitudinal cross-sectional images of a wide range of hairs and fibers. Special mounting techniques are not required; specimens that have been mounted for conventional microscopy require no further treatment. Unlike physical cross-sectioning, in which it is difficult to produce multiple cross-sections from a single hair or fiber and the process is destructive, confocal microscopy allows the examiner to image the cross-section at any point in the field of view along the hair or fiber and it is non-destructive. Confocal microscopy is a fluorescence-based technique. The images described in this article were collected using only the autofluorescence exhibited by the specimen (i.e. fluorescence staining was not necessary). Colorless fibers generally and hairs required excitation at 405 nm in order to stimulate useful autofluorescence; longer wavelength excitation was suitable for dyed fibers. Although confocal microscopy was found to be generally applicable to the generation virtual transverse cross-sections from a wide range of hairs and fibers, on some occasions the autofluorescence signal was attenuated by heavy pigmentation or the presence of an opaque medulla in hairs, and by heavy delustering or the presence of air-filled voids in the case of fibers. In these situations only partial cross-sections were obtained. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of breast tissue with confocal strip-mosaicking microscopy: a test approach emulating pathology-like examination

    PubMed Central

    Abeytunge, Sanjee; Larson, Bjorg; Peterson, Gary; Morrow, Monica; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Confocal microscopy is an emerging technology for rapid imaging of freshly excised tissue without the need for frozen- or fixed-section processing. Initial studies have described imaging of breast tissue using fluorescence confocal microscopy with small regions of interest, typically 750×750  μm2. We present exploration with a microscope, termed confocal strip-mosaicking microscope (CSM microscope), which images an area of 2×2  cm2 of tissue with cellular-level resolution in 10 min of excision. Using the CSM microscope, we imaged 34 fresh, human, large breast tissue specimens from 18 patients, blindly analyzed by a board-certified pathologist and subsequently correlated with the corresponding standard fixed histopathology. Invasive tumors and benign tissue were clearly identified in CSM strip-mosaic images. Thirty specimens were concordant for image-to-histopathology correlation while four were discordant. PMID:28327961

  11. Assessing Strain Mapping by Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Confocal Raman Microscopy Using Wedge-indented Si

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA-AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2 × 10−4 in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. PMID:26939030

  12. Electron microscopic diagnosis of human flavivirus encephalitis: use of confocal microscopy as an aid.

    PubMed

    Chu, C T; Howell, D N; Morgenlander, J C; Hulette, C M; McLendon, R E; Miller, S E

    1999-10-01

    The distinction between intracranial viral infections and inflammatory conditions requiring immunosuppression is important. Although specific laboratory reagents are readily available for some viruses, diagnosis of arbovirus infection is more difficult. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) theoretically allows identification of viral particles independent of reagent availability, but it has limited sensitivity. We report two cases of human flavivirus encephalitis diagnosed by TEM. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used in one case to survey unembedded tissue slices for focal abnormalities, from which fragments smaller than 1 mm2 were excised for epoxy embedding. This facilitated TEM identification of intracytoplasmic, budding, 35-40 nm spherical virus particles, confirmed by serology as St. Louis encephalitis. In contrast to mosquitoes and newborn mice, in which high viral loads are associated with minimal tissue responses, these biopsies showed florid angiodestructive inflammation and microgliosis, with rare virions in necrotic perivascular cells and astrocytes. To our knowledge, this represents the first ultrastructural study of St. Louis encephalitis in humans, indicating the potential value of LSCM-aided TEM.

  13. Methods of Hematoxylin and Erosin Image Information Acquisition and Optimization in Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Woong Bae; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Kwang Gi; Choi, Yongdoo; Chang, Hee Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We produced hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining-like color images by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which can obtain the same or more information in comparison to conventional tissue staining. Methods We improved images by using several image converting techniques, including morphological methods, color space conversion methods, and segmentation methods. Results An image obtained after image processing showed coloring very similar to that in images produced by H&E staining, and it is advantageous to conduct analysis through fluorescent dye imaging and microscopy rather than analysis based on single microscopic imaging. Conclusions The colors used in CLSM are different from those seen in H&E staining, which is the method most widely used for pathologic diagnosis and is familiar to pathologists. Computer technology can facilitate the conversion of images by CLSM to be very similar to H&E staining images. We believe that the technique used in this study has great potential for application in clinical tissue analysis. PMID:27525165

  14. Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kress, Alla; Wang, Xiao; Ranchon, Hubert; Savatier, Julien; Rigneault, Hervé; Ferrand, Patrick; Brasselet, Sophie

    2013-07-02

    Fluorescence anisotropy and linear dichroism imaging have been widely used for imaging biomolecular orientational distributions in protein aggregates, fibrillar structures of cells, and cell membranes. However, these techniques do not give access to complete orientational order information in a whole image, because their use is limited to parts of the sample where the average orientation of molecules is known a priori. Fluorescence anisotropy is also highly sensitive to depolarization mechanisms such as those induced by fluorescence energy transfer. A fully excitation-polarization-resolved fluorescence microscopy imaging that relies on the use of a tunable incident polarization and a nonpolarized detection is able to circumvent these limitations. We have developed such a technique in confocal epifluorescence microscopy, giving access to new regions of study in the complex and heterogeneous molecular organization of cell membranes. Using this technique, we demonstrate morphological changes at the subdiffraction scale in labeled COS-7 cell membranes whose cytoskeleton is perturbed. Molecular orientational order is also seen to be affected by cholesterol depletion, reflecting the strong interplay between lipid-packing regions and their nearby cytoskeleton. This noninvasive optical technique can reveal local organization in cell membranes when used as a complement to existing methods such as generalized polarization. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of wood cell wall porosity using small carbohydrate molecules and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; Kroese, H W; Hill, S J; Franich, R A

    2015-09-01

    A novel approach to nanoscale detection of cell wall porosity using confocal fluorescence microscopy is described. Infiltration of cell walls with a range of nitrophenyl-substituted carbohydrates of different molecular weights was assessed by measuring changes in the intensity of lignin fluorescence, in response to the quenching effect of the 4-nitrophenyl group. The following carbohydrates were used in order of increasing molecular weight; 4-nitrophenyl β-D-glucopyrano-side (monosaccharide), 4-nitrophenyl β-D-lactopyranoside (disaccharide), 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl β-D-maltotrioside (trisaccharide), and 4-nitrophenyl α-D-maltopentaoside (pentasaccharide). This technique was used to compare cell wall porosity in wood which had been dewatered to 40% moisture content using supercritical CO2, where cell walls remain fully hydrated, with kiln dried wood equilibrated to 12% moisture content. Infiltration of cell walls as measured by fluorescence quenching, was found to decrease with increasing molecular weight, with the pentasaccharide being significantly excluded compared to the monosaccharide. Porosity experiments were performed on blocks and sections to assess differences in cell wall accessibility. Dewatered and kiln dried wood infiltrated as blocks showed similar results, but greater infiltration was achieved by using sections, indicating that not all pores were easily accessible by infiltration from the lumen surface. In wood blocks infiltrated with 4-nitrophenyl α-D-maltopentaoside, quenching of the secondary wall was quite variable, especially in kiln dried wood, indicating limited connectivity of pores accessible from the lumen surface. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Hydrohalite spatial distribution in frozen cell cultures measured using confocal Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kreiner-Møller, Asger; Stracke, Frank; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2014-08-01

    Hydrohalite, a crystalline rock salt hydrate, (NaCl·2H2O), can form in cryopreservation samples under certain circumstances changing the local chemical environment of the preserved cells. Evidence of this crystalline phase was recently found by microspectroscopy measurements, and believed to form exclusively extracellular. We have studied the spatial distribution of hydrohalite in frozen mouse fibroblast cell samples by means of confocal Raman scanning microscopy (CRM). Hydrohalite has a unique Raman spectrum with several bands in the high frequency tail of the OH-stretching band which can be used for unambiguous identification. Hydrohalite can only form through eutectic crystallization in saline solutions without any cryoprotective agents and the spatial distribution thus gives a more detailed view on this crystallization process. This is important since eutectic crystallization has been empirically correlated to cell death, but the exact injury mechanism is unclear. By the means of colocalization of Raman bands we show that hydrohalite can indeed form intracellularly and is not a strictly extracellular phenomenon. We furthermore found that intracellular ice and intracellular hydrohalite very often coincide. Finally we show that the addition of 0.5 wt.% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) inhibits formation of hydrohalite. This study shows how Raman microscopy and successive analysis can be employed non-invasively within cryobiology to give additional chemical and structural information compared to conventional imaging techniques. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical significance of owl eye morphologic features by in vivo laser confocal microscopy in patients with cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Higashide, Tomomi; Nitta, Koji; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-03-01

    To demonstrate the clinical significance of owl eye morphologic features observed by in vivo laser confocal microscopy in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) corneal endotheliitis. Observational case series. participants: Six eyes of 6 patients (6 men; mean age, 73.3 years) with cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis diagnosed by clinical manifestations together with polymerase chain reaction from aqueous humor samples. intervention: All patients were examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy. main outcome measures: Clinical manifestations were summarized by reviewing medical records. Selected confocal images of corneal layers were evaluated qualitatively for shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits. All patients had long histories of anterior uveitis with intraocular pressure elevation, corneal edema with keratic precipitates, and decrease of endothelial cell densities. Coin-shaped lesions were observed by slit lamp only in 1 patient at the first visit and in 2 additional patients at subsequent follow-up. In all patients, confocal microscopy demonstrated reduced subepithelial nerves, subepithelial opacity, increased reflectivity of keratocytes, highly reflective dots, and needle-shaped bodies. Owl eye morphologic features were observed consistently in all patients at the initial visit, and highly reflective round bodies were detected in 5 patients; most notably, these confocal features were reversible after resolution of endotheliitis. Owl eye morphologic features and highly reflective round bodies observed by confocal microscopy may be useful as an adjunct for the noninvasive diagnosis of cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis. Reversibility of these features after resolution of endotheliitis may be useful for monitoring the therapeutic effects without multiple anterior chamber tap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Coralie; Gilles, Jean-François; Heck, Nicolas; Dos Santos, Marc; Schwartzmann, Richard; Cannaya, Vidjeacoumary; Morel, Marie-Pierre; Davidson, Robert Stephen; Trembleau, Alain; Bolte, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR) are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF), a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK) with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

  19. Improving Axial Resolution in Confocal Microscopy with New High Refractive Index Mounting Media

    PubMed Central

    Fouquet, Coralie; Gilles, Jean-François; Heck, Nicolas; Dos Santos, Marc; Schwartzmann, Richard; Cannaya, Vidjeacoumary; Morel, Marie-Pierre; Davidson, Robert Stephen; Trembleau, Alain; Bolte, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR) are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF), a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK) with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required. PMID:25822785

  20. Laser-induced cartilage damage: an ex-vivo model using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenz, Martin; Zueger, Benno J.; Monin, D.; Weiler, C.; Mainil-Varlet, P. M.; Weber, Heinz P.; Schaffner, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    Although there is an increasing popularity of lasers in orthopedic surgery, there is a growing concern about negative side effects of this therapy e.g. prolonged restitution time, radiation damage to adjacent cartilage or depth effects like bone necrosis. Despite case reports and experimental investigations over the last few years little is known about the extent of acute cartilage damage induced by different lasers types and energies. Histological examination offers only limited insights in cell viability and metabolism. Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lasers emitting at 2.1 micrometer and 2.94 micrometer, respectively, are ideally suited for tissue treatment because these wavelengths are strongly absorbed in water. The Purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of laser type and energy on chondrocyte viability in an ex vivo model. Free running Er:YAG (E equals 100 and 150 mJ) and Ho:YAG (E equals 500 and 800 mJ) lasers were used at different energy levels using a fixed pulse length of 400 microseconds. The energy was delivered at 8 Hz through optical fibers. Fresh bovine hyaline cartilage samples were mounted in a water bath at room temperature and the fiber was positioned at 30 degree and 180 degree angles relative to the tissue surface. After laser irradiation the samples were assessed by a life-dead cell viability test using a confocal microscope and by standard histology. Thermal damage was much deeper with Ho:YAG (up to 1800 micrometer) than with the Er:YAG laser (up to 70 micrometer). The cell viability test revealed a damage zone about twice the one determined by standard histology. Confocal microscopy is a powerful tool for assessing changes in tissue structure after laser treatment. In addition this technique allows to quantify these alterations without necessitating time consuming and expensive animal experiments.

  1. Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy for Ex Vivo Diagnosis of Conjunctival Tumors: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Iovieno, Alfonso; Longo, Caterina; De Luca, Mariacarla; Piana, Simonetta; Fontana, Luigi; Ragazzi, Moira

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potential use of fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) for ex vivo diagnosis and excision margin assessment of conjunctival neoplasms. Validity study. setting: Single institution. Consecutive patients with clinically suspicious conjunctival lesions. Conjunctival lesions were excised in toto using a standard "no-touch technique" by a single surgeon (A.I.). Collected specimens were examined with a commercially available laser scanning fluorescence confocal microscope after immersion in a 0.6 mM solution of acridine orange dye for 10-20 seconds. Specimens were subsequently processed with standard histologic analysis. FCM diagnosis of the nature and extension of conjunctival lesions. Sixteen consecutive patients were included in the study (11 male, 5 female; mean age 58.1 ± 26.1 years, range 10-90 years). The median time needed to process and analyze a sample with FCM was 15 minutes. Eleven of 16 lesions were identified by FCM as squamous (2 benign papillomas, 2 grade 2 conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasias, 7 in situ squamous carcinomas) and 5 as nonsquamous (1 pingueculum, 1 dermolipoma, 2 melanocytic nevi, 1 melanoma). In all cases FCM was able to detect horizontal and vertical extension of the lesion. All FCM findings were confirmed by corresponding subsequent histologic examination. FCM provides a fast ex vivo preliminary diagnosis of suspicious conjunctival lesions with good histologic details and margin assessment, and may represent a novel tool for intraoperative and postsurgical management of conjunctival tumors. This is the first study to investigate ex vivo FCM application in ophthalmology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, a New In Vivo Diagnostic Tool for Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Holtfreter, Martha Charlotte; Nohr-Łuczak, Constanze; Guthoff, Rudolf Friedrich; Reisinger, Emil Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background The gold standard for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is the detection of the parasite's characteristic eggs in urine, stool, or rectal and bladder biopsy specimens. Direct detection of eggs is difficult and not always possible in patients with low egg-shedding rates. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) permits non-invasive cell imaging in vivo and is an established way of obtaining high-resolution images and 3-dimensional reconstructions. Recently, CLSM was shown to be a suitable method to visualize Schistosoma mansoni eggs within the mucosa of dissected mouse gut. In this case, we evaluated the suitability of CLSM to detect eggs of Schistosoma haematobium in a patient with urinary schistosomiasis and low egg-shedding rates. Methodology/Principal Findings The confocal laser scanning microscope used in this study was based on a scanning laser system for imaging the retina of a living eye, the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II, in combination with a lens system (image modality). Standard light cystoscopy was performed using a rigid cystoscope under general anaesthesia. The CLSM endoscope was then passed through the working channel of the rigid cystoscope. The mucosal tissue of the bladder was scanned using CLSM. Schistoma haematobium eggs appeared as bright structures, with the characteristic egg shape and typical terminal spine. Conclusion/Significance We were able to detect schistosomal eggs in the urothelium of a patient with urinary schistosomiasis. Thus, CLSM may be a suitable tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in humans, especially in cases where standard diagnostic tools are not suitable. PMID:22529947

  3. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Any Way You Slice It—A Comparison of Confocal Microscopy Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Jonkman, James

    2015-01-01

    The confocal fluorescence microscope has become a popular tool for life sciences researchers, primarily because of its ability to remove blur from outside of the focal plane of the image. Several different kinds of confocal microscopes have been developed, each with advantages and disadvantages. This article will cover the grid confocal, classic confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM), the resonant scanning-CLSM, and the spinning-disk confocal microscope. The way each microscope technique works, the best applications the technique is suited for, the limitations of the technique, and new developments for each technology will be presented. Researchers who have access to a range of different confocal microscopes (e.g., through a local core facility) should find this paper helpful for choosing the best confocal technology for specific imaging applications. Others with funding to purchase an instrument should find the article helpful in deciding which technology is ideal for their area of research. PMID:25802490

  5. Thermal maturity of Tasmanites microfossils from confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kus, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    We report here, for the first time, spectral properties of Tasmanites microfossils determined by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (CLSM, using Ar 458 nm excitation). The Tasmanites occur in a well-characterized natural maturation sequence (Ro 0.48–0.74%) of Devonian shale (n = 3 samples) from the Appalachian Basin. Spectral property λmax shows excellent agreement (r2 = 0.99) with extant spectra from interlaboratory studies which used conventional fluorescence microscopy techniques. This result suggests spectral measurements from CLSM can be used to infer thermal maturity of fluorescent organic materials in geologic samples. Spectra of regions with high fluorescence intensity at fold apices and flanks in individual Tasmanites are blue-shifted relative to less-deformed areas in the same body that have lower fluorescence intensity. This is interpreted to result from decreased quenching moiety concentration at these locations, and indicates caution is needed in the selection of measurement regions in conventional fluorescence microscopy, where it is common practice to select high intensity regions for improved signal intensity and better signal to noise ratios. This study also documents application of CLSM to microstructural characterization of Tasmanites microfossils. Finally, based on an extant empirical relation between conventional λmax values and bitumen reflectance, λmax values from CLSM of Tasmanites microfossils can be used to calculate a bitumen reflectance equivalent value. The results presented herein can be used as a basis to broaden the future application of CLSM in the geological sciences into hydrocarbon prospecting and basin analysis.

  6. Association of Myosin Va and Schwann cells-derived RNA in mammal myelinated axons, analyzed by immunocytochemistry and confocal FRET microscopy.

    PubMed

    Canclini, Lucía; Wallrabe, Horst; Di Paolo, Andrés; Kun, Alejandra; Calliari, Aldo; Sotelo-Silveira, José Roberto; Sotelo, José Roberto

    2014-03-15

    Evidence from multiple sources supports the hypothesis that Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system transfer messenger RNA and ribosomes to the axons they ensheath. Several technical and methodological difficulties exist for investigators to unravel this process in myelinated axons - a complex two-cell unit. We present an experimental design to demonstrate that newly synthesized RNA is transferred from Schwann cells to axons in association with Myosin Va. The use of quantitative confocal FRET microscopy to track newly-synthesized RNA and determine the molecular association with Myosin Va, is described in detail. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the Surface Characteristics of Various Implant Abutment Materials Using Confocal Microscopy and White Light Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Beom; Yang, Seung-Min; Ko, Youngkyung

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface characteristics of various implant abutment materials, such as of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V; Ma), machined cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloy (CCM), titanium nitride coating on a titanium alloy disc (TiN), anodic oxidized titanium alloy disc (AO), composite resin coating on a titanium alloy disc (Res), and zirconia disc (Zr), using confocal microscopy and white light interferometry. Measurements from the 2 methods were evaluated to see if these methods would give equivalent results. The precision of measurements were evaluated by the coefficient of variation. Five discs each of Ma, CCM, TiN, AO, Res, and Zr were used. The surface roughness was evaluated by confocal laser microscopy and white light interferometry. Confocal microscopy showed that the Res group showed significantly greater Ra, Rq, Rz, Sa, Sq, and Sz values compared with those of the Ma group (P < 0.05). The white light interferometry results showed that the Res group had significantly higher Ra, Rq, Rz, Rt, Sa, Sq, Sz, and Sdr values compared with the Ma group (P < 0.05). All the roughness parameters obtained from the 2 methods differed, and the Sa values of the Zr group from confocal microscopy were greater by 0.163 μm than those obtained by white light interferometry. Least difference was seen in the TiN group where the difference was 0.058 μm. Roughness parameters of different abutment materials varied significantly. Precision of measurement differed according to the characteristics of the material used. White light interferometry could be recommended for measurement of TiN and AO. Confocal microscopy gave more precise measurements for Ma and CCM groups. The optical characteristics of the surface should be considered before choosing the examination method.

  8. Using corneal confocal microscopy to track changes in the corneal layers of dry eye patients after autologous serum treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahelkova, Gabriela; Jirsova, Katerina; Seidler Stangova, Petra; Palos, Michalis; Vesela, Viera; Fales, Ivan; Jiraskova, Nada; Dotrelova, Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    In vivo corneal confocal microscopy allows the examination of each layer of the cornea in detail and the identification of pathological changes at the cellular level. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible effects of a three-month treatment with autologous serum eye-drops in different corneal layers of patients with severe dry eye disease using corneal confocal microscopy. Twenty-six patients with dry eye disease were included in the study. Corneal fluorescein staining was performed. The corneas of the right eyes were examined using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy before and after a three-month treatment with autologous serum drops. The densities of superficial and basal epithelial cells, Langerhans cells, the keratocytes and activated keratocytes, the density of endothelial cells and the status of the sub-basal nerve plexus fibres were evaluated. A significant decrease in corneal fluorescein staining was found after the three-month autologous serum treatment (p = 0.0006). The basal epithelial cell density decreased significantly (p = 0.001), while the density of superficial epithelial cells did not change significantly (p = 0.473) nor did the number of Langerhans cells or activated keratocytes (p = 0.223; p = 0.307, respectively). There were no differences in the other corneal cell layers or in the status of the nerve fibres. The results demonstrate the ability of corneal confocal microscopy to evaluate an improvement in the basal epithelial cell layer of the cornea after autologous serum treatment in patients with dry eye disease. More studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to elucidate the suitability of corneal confocal microscopy to follow the effect of autologous serum treatment on nerve fibres or other corneal layers in dry eye disease patients. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  9. 'En face' ex vivo reflectance confocal microscopy to help the surgery of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid.

    PubMed

    Espinasse, Marine; Cinotti, Elisa; Grivet, Damien; Labeille, Bruno; Prade, Virginie; Douchet, Catherine; Cambazard, Frédéric; Thuret, Gilles; Gain, Philippe; Perrot, Jean Luc

    2017-07-01

    Ex vivo confocal microscopy is a recent imaging technique for the perioperative control of skin tumour margins. Up to date, it has been used in the fluorescence mode and with vertical sections of the specimen margins. The aim of this study was to evaluate its use in the reflectance mode and with a horizontal ('en face') scanning of the surgical specimen in a series of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid. Prospective consecutive cohort study was performed at the University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, France. Forty-one patients with 42 basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid participated in this study. Basal cell carcinomas were excised with a 2-mm-wide clinically safe margin. The surgical specimens were analysed under ex vivo confocal microscopy in the reflectance mode and with an en face scanning in order to control at a microscopic level if the margins were free from tumour invasion. Histopathogical examination was later performed in order to compare the results. Sensitivity and specificity of ex vivo confocal microscopy for the presence of tumour-free margins. Ex vivo confocal microscopy results were consistent with histopathology in all cases (tumour-free margins in 40 out of 42 samples; sensitivity and specificity of 100%). Ex vivo confocal microscopy in the reflectance mode with an 'en face' scanning can control tumour margins of eyelid basal cell carcinomas and optimize their surgical management. This procedure has the advantage on the fluorescent mode of not needing any contrast agent to examine the samples. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. Blinking correlation in nanocrystal quantum dots probed with novel laser scanning confocal microscopy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefti, Ryan Alf

    Semiconductor quantum dots have a vast array of applications: as fluorescent labels in biological systems, as physical or chemical sensors, as components in photovoltaic technology, and in display devices. An attribute of nearly every quantum dot is its blinking, or fluorescence intermittency, which tends to be a disadvantage in most applications. Despite the fact that blinking has been a nearly universal phenomenon among all types of fluorescent constructs, it is more prevalent in quantum dots than in traditional fluorophores. Furthermore, no unanimously accepted model of quantum dot blinking yet exists. The work encompassed by this dissertation began with an in-depth study of molecular motor protein dynamics in a variety of environments using two specially developed techniques, both of which feature applicability to live cell systems. Parked-beam confocal microscopy was utilized to increase temporal resolution of molecular motor motion dynamics by an order of magnitude over other popular methods. The second technique, fast-scanning confocal microscopy (FSCM), was used for long range observation of motor proteins. While using FSCM on motor protein assays, we discovered an unusual phenomenon. Single quantum dots seemingly communicated with neighboring quantum dots, indicated by a distinct correlation in their blinking patterns. In order to explain this novel correlation phenomenon, the majority of blinking models developed thus far would suggest a dipole-dipole interaction or a Coulomb interaction between singly charged quantum dots. However, our results indicate that the interaction energy is higher than supported by current models, thereby prompting a renewed examination. We propose that the blinking correlation we observed is due to a Coulomb interaction on the order of 3-4 elementary charges per quantum dot and that multiple charging of individual quantum dots may be required to plunge them into a non-emissive state. As a result of charging, charge carriers are

  11. Imaging genes, chromosomes, and nuclear structures using laser-scanning confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Stephen G.

    1990-08-01

    For 350 years, the optical microscope has had a powerful symbiotic relationship with biology. Until this century, optical microscopy was the only means of examining cellular structure; in return, biologists have contributed greatly to the evolution of microscope design and technique. Recent advances in the detection and processing of optical images, together with methods for labelling specific biological molecules, have brought about a resurgence in the application of optical microscopy to the biological sciences. One of the areas in which optical microscopy is breaking new ground is in elucidating the large scale organization of chromatin in chromosomes and cell nuclei. Nevertheless, imaging the contents of the cell nucleus is a difficult challenge for light microscopy, for two principal reasons. First, the dimensions of all but the largest nuclear structures (nucleoli, vacuoles) are close to or below the resolving power of far field optics. Second, the native optical contrast properties of many important chromatin structures (eg. chromosome domains, centromere regions) are very weak, or essentially zero. As an extreme example, individual genes probably have nothing to distinguish them other than their sequence of DNA bases, which cannot be directly visualized with any current form of microscopy. Similarly, the interphase nucleus shows no direct visible evidence of focal chromatin domains. Thus, imaging of such entities depends heavily on contrast enhancement methods. The most promising of these is labelling DNA in situ using sequence-specific probes that may be visualized using fluorescent dyes. We have applied this method to detecting individual genes in metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei, and to imaging a number of DNA-containing structures including chromosome domains, metaphase chromosomes and centromere regions. We have also demonstrated the applicability of in situ fluorescent labelling to detecting numerical and structural abnormalities both in

  12. Confocal Raman microscopy of morphological changes in poly(ethylene terephthalate) film induced by supercritical CO(2).

    PubMed

    Fleming, Oliver S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2004-04-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was exposed to supercritical (sc) CO(2) and confocal Raman microscopy was used to investigate the morphological changes induced. The study evaluates the use of oil and dry objectives in confocal mode to obtain depth profiles of PET film. These results were compared with the data obtained by mapping of the film cross-section. A significant gradient of degree of crystallinity normal to the surface of PET film down to 60 microm has been observed. The gradient of the degree of morphological changes are functions of exposure time and pressure.

  13. Smartphone confocal microscopy for imaging cellular structures in human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Esther E; Semeere, Aggrey; Osman, Hany; Peterson, Gary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; González, Salvador; Martin, Jeffery N; Anderson, R Rox; Tearney, Guillermo J; Kang, Dongkyun

    2018-04-01

    We report development of a low-cost smartphone confocal microscope and its first demonstration of in vivo human skin imaging. The smartphone confocal microscope uses a slit aperture and diffraction grating to conduct two-dimensional confocal imaging without using any beam scanning devices. Lateral and axial resolutions of the smartphone confocal microscope were measured as 2 and 5 µm, respectively. In vivo confocal images of human skin revealed characteristic cellular structures, including spinous and basal keratinocytes and papillary dermis. Results suggest that the smartphone confocal microscope has a potential to examine cellular details in vivo and may help disease diagnosis in resource-poor settings, where conducting standard histopathologic analysis is challenging.

  14. Smartphone confocal microscopy for imaging cellular structures in human skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Esther E.; Semeere, Aggrey; Osman, Hany; Peterson, Gary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; González, Salvador; Martin, Jeffery N.; Anderson, R. Rox; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Kang, Dongkyun

    2018-01-01

    We report development of a low-cost smartphone confocal microscope and its first demonstration of in vivo human skin imaging. The smartphone confocal microscope uses a slit aperture and diffraction grating to conduct two-dimensional confocal imaging without using any beam scanning devices. Lateral and axial resolutions of the smartphone confocal microscope were measured as 2 and 5 µm, respectively. In vivo confocal images of human skin revealed characteristic cellular structures, including spinous and basal keratinocytes and papillary dermis. Results suggest that the smartphone confocal microscope has a potential to examine cellular details in vivo and may help disease diagnosis in resource-poor settings, where conducting standard histopathologic analysis is challenging. PMID:29675328

  15. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.

    2014-10-28

    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materialsmore » characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900 °C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.« less

  16. Femtosecond laser subsurface scleral treatment in cadaver human sclera and evaluation using two-photon and confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yan, Ying; Lian, Fuqiang; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial-thickness drainage channels can be created with femtosecond laser in the translucent sclera for the potential treatment of glaucoma. We demonstrate the creation of partial-thickness subsurface drainage channels with the femtosecond laser in the cadaver human eyeballs and describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. A femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm was scanned along a rectangular raster pattern to create the partial thickness subsurface drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such partial thickness subsurface scleral channels. Our studies suggest that the confocal and two-photon microscopy can be used to investigate femtosecond-laser created partial-thickness drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes.

  17. Implementation of fluorescence confocal mosaicking microscopy by ``early adopter'' Mohs surgeons and dermatologists: recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Manu; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Nehal, Kishwer

    2017-02-01

    Confocal mosaicking microscopy (CMM) enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue ex vivo without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. When performed in fluorescence mode using acridine orange (nuclear specific dye), it enhances nuclei-to-dermis contrast that enables detection of all types of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), including micronodular and thin strands of infiltrative types. So far, this technique has been mostly validated in research settings for the detection of residual BCC tumor margins with high sensitivity of 89% to 96% and specificity of 99% to 89%. Recently, CMM has advanced to implementation and testing in clinical settings by "early adopter" Mohs surgeons, as an adjunct to frozen section during Mohs surgery. We summarize the development of CMM guided imaging of ex vivo skin tissues from bench to bedside. We also present its current state of application in routine clinical workflow not only for the assessment of residual BCC margins in the Mohs surgical setting but also for some melanocytic lesions and other skin conditions in clinical dermatology settings. Last, we also discuss the potential limitations of this technology as well as future developments. As this technology advances further, it may serve as an adjunct to standard histology and enable rapid surgical pathology of skin cancers at the bedside.

  18. Progress in reflectance confocal microscopy for imaging oral tissues in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Gary; Zanoni, Daniella K.; Migliacci, Jocelyn; Cordova, Miguel; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Patel, Snehal

    2016-02-01

    We report progress in development and feasibility testing of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for imaging in the oral cavity of humans. We adapted a small rigid relay telescope (120mm long x 14mm diameter) and a small water immersion objective lens (12mm diameter, NA 0.7) to a commercial handheld RCM scanner (Vivascope 3000, Caliber ID, Rochester NY). This scanner is designed for imaging skin but we adapted the front end (the objective lens and the stepper motor that axially translates) for intra-oral use. This adaption required a new approach to address the loss of the automated stepper motor for acquisition of images in depth. A helical spring-like cap (with a coverslip to contact tissue) was designed for approximately 150 um of travel. Additionally other methods for focusing optics were designed and evaluated. The relay telescope optics is being tested in a clinical setting. With the capture of video and "video-mosaicing", extended areas can be imaged. The feasibility of imaging oral tissues was initially investigated in volunteers. RCM imaging in buccal mucosa in vivo shows nuclear and cellular detail in the epithelium and epithelial junction, and connective tissue and blood flow in the underlying lamina propria. Similar detail, including filiform and fungiform papillae, can be seen on the tongue in vivo. Clinical testing during head and neck surgery is now in progress and patients are being imaged for both normal tissue and cancerous margins in lip and tongue mucosa.

  19. [In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy in dermatology: a proposal concerning French terminology].

    PubMed

    Kanitakis, J; Bahadoran, P; Braun, R; Debarbieux, S; Labeille, B; Perrot, J-L; Vabres, P

    2013-11-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a recently introduced non-invasive imaging technique allowing real-time examination of the skin in vivo. Whereas a substantial literature concerning RCM exists in English, so far there is no official terminology in French, despite the fact that an ever-growing number of French-speaking dermatologists now use this new imaging technique. The aim of the present study is to propose a French terminology for RCM in order to allow French-speaking dermatologists to communicate in a precise and homogeneous language on this topic. A group of French-speaking dermatologists with solid experience of RCM, members of the Non-invasive Cutaneous Imaging group of the French Society of Dermatology, endeavored to suggest terms in French concerning RCM. Each group member dealt with a specific paragraph. The members exchanged comments via email and the terminology was finalized during a meeting of the group members in Paris in June 2012. Descriptive terms referring to the RCM aspects of normal and diseased skin were proposed. Some of these already existed, being used in routine dermatopathology, while other specific terms were created or adapted from the English terminology. This terminology will allow French-speaking dermatologists using RCM to communicate their findings in a homogeneous language. It may be enriched in the future by the introduction of additional terms describing new aspects of both normal and, especially, diseased skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Applicability of confocal laser scanning microscopy for evaluation and monitoring of cutaneous wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange-Asschenfeldt, Susanne; Bob, Adrienne; Terhorst, Dorothea; Ulrich, Martina; Fluhr, Joachim; Mendez, Gil; Roewert-Huber, Hans-Joachim; Stockfleth, Eggert; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    There is a high demand for noninvasive imaging techniques for wound assessment. In vivo reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) represents an innovative optical technique for noninvasive evaluation of normal and diseased skin in vivo at near cellular resolution. This study was designed to test the feasibility of CLSM for noninvasive analysis of cutaneous wound healing in 15 patients (7 male/8 female), including acute and chronic, superficial and deep dermal skin wounds. A commercially available CLSM system was used for the assessment of wound bed and wound margins in order to obtain descriptive cellular and morphological parameters of cutaneous wound repair noninvasively and over time. CLSM was able to visualize features of cutaneous wound repair in epidermal and superficial dermal wounds, including aspects of inflammation, neovascularisation, and tissue remodelling in vivo. Limitations include the lack of mechanic fixation of the optical system on moist surfaces restricting the analysis of chronic skin wounds to the wound margins, as well as a limited optical resolution in areas of significant slough formation. By describing CLSM features of cutaneous inflammation, vascularisation, and epithelialisation, the findings of this study support the role of CLSM in modern wound research and management.

  1. Noninvasive in situ observation of the crystallization kinetics of biological macromolecules by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mühlig, P; Klupsch, Th; Kaulmann, U; Hilgenfeld, R

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a powerful tool for in situ observation and analysis of protein crystal growth kinetics. Because the resolution of CLSM is not diffraction-limited by the object, it is possible to visualize, under certain conditions, objects in molecular dimensions. A modified batch technique is applied which allows the growth kinetics of sufficiently small crystallites fixed at the lower side of a cover glass, within a hanging drop, to be studied in reflected light near the total reflection angle. A gap, or cavity, filled with solution is formed between the cover glass and the upper crystal face, which acts to fix small crystallites by hydrodynamic friction forces. The cavity height enables the propagation of molecular steps across the upper crystal face without constraint, so that the propagation velocity and geometrical parameters can be measured by CLSM. The layer growth kinetics of monoclinic crystallites of a long-acting insulin derivative (Insulin Glargine) is investigated. For a twofold supersaturation of the solution, the growth is governed by 2D nucleation at the edges of the crystallites followed by a spreading of molecular steps. The layer growth kinetics are well fitted by the simple cubic kinetic lattice model. We find that only about one of a thousand solute (protein) molecules which push a kink place due to their Brownian motion becomes really incorporated into the growing crystal.

  2. A four-phase strategy for the implementation of reflectance confocal microscopy in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Hoogedoorn, L; Gerritsen, M J P; Wolberink, E A W; Peppelman, M; van de Kerkhof, P C M; van Erp, P E J

    2016-08-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is gradually implemented in dermatology. Strategies for further implementation and practical 'hands on' guidelines are lacking. The primary outcome was to conduct a general strategy for further implementation of RCM. The secondary outcome was the diagnosis of psoriasis and differentiation of stable from unstable psoriatic plaques by means of the 'hands on' protocol, derived from the strategy. We used a four-phased model; an exploring phase, a systematic literature search, a clinical approach and, finally, an integration phase to develop a clinical guideline for RCM in psoriasis. Receiver operating characteristic curve statistics was applied to define the accuracy for the diagnosis of unstable psoriasis. A general strategy for further implementation of RCM and practical approach was developed to examine psoriasis by RCM and to distinguish stable from unstable psoriasis. Unstable psoriasis was diagnosed by epidermal inflammatory cell counts with a sensitivity and specificity of 91.7% and 98.3%, respectively, and with an accuracy of 0.92 (area under the curve). In addition, a monitoring model was proposed. This is the first study that shows a method for implementation of RCM in dermatology. The strategy and hands on protocol for psoriasis may serve as a model for other dermatological entities and additionally may lead to specialized ready-to-use RCM protocols for clinical dermatological practice. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Demeclocycline as a contrast agent for detecting brain neoplasms using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Dennis; Smith, Thomas W.; Moser, Richard; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2015-04-01

    Complete resection of brain tumors improves life expectancy and quality. Thus, there is a strong need for high-resolution detection and microscopically controlled removal of brain neoplasms. The goal of this study was to test demeclocycline as a contrast enhancer for the intraoperative detection of brain tumors. We have imaged benign and cancerous brain tumors using multimodal confocal microscopy. The tumors investigated included pituitary adenoma, meningiomas, glioblastomas, and metastatic brain cancers. Freshly excised brain tissues were stained in 0.75 mg ml-1 aqueous solution of demeclocyline. Reflectance images were acquired at 402 nm. Fluorescence signals were excited at 402 nm and registered between 500 and 540 nm. After imaging, histological sections were processed from the imaged specimens and compared to the optical images. Fluorescence images highlighted normal and cancerous brain cells, while reflectance images emphasized the morphology of connective tissue. The optical and histological images were in accordance with each other for all types of tumors investigated. Demeclocyline shows promise as a contrast agent for intraoperative detection of brain tumors.

  4. Implementation of fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy by "early adopter" Mohs surgeons: a review of recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Manu; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Nehal, Kishwer

    2016-03-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy (CMM) enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue ex vivo without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. When performed with fluorescence mode using acridine orange (nuclear specific dye) it enhances nuclei-to-dermis contrast that enables detection of all types of BCCs including thin strands of infiltrative basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Thus far, this technique has been mostly validated in research setting for the analysis of BCC tumor margins. Recently, CMM has been adopted and implemented in real clinical settings by some surgeons as an alternative tool to frozen section (FS) during Mohs surgery. In this review article we summarize the development of CMM guided imaging of ex vivo tissues from bench to bedside. We also present its current state of application in routine clinical workflow not only for the assessment of BCC margin but also for other skin cancers such as melanoma, SCC, and some infectious diseases where FS is not routinely performed. Lastly, we also discuss the potential limitations of this technology as well as future developments. As this technology advances further, it may serve as an adjunct to standard histology and enable rapid surgical pathology of skin cancers at the bedside.

  5. Feasibility of intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Eileen S.; Cordova, Miguel; Kose, Kivanc; Phillips, William; Nehal, Kishwer; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2014-03-01

    Mohs surgery for the removal of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) is performed in stages, while being guided by the examination for residual tumor with frozen pathology. However, preparation of frozen pathology at each stage is timeconsuming and labor-intensive. Real-time intraoperative reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may enable rapid detection of residual tumor directly in surgical wounds on patients. We report initial feasibility on twenty-one patients, using 35% AlCl3 for nuclear contrast. Imaging was performed in quadrants in the wound, to simulate the Mohs surgeon's examination of pathology. Images and videos of the epidermal and dermal margins were found to be of clinically acceptable quality. Bright nuclear morphology was identified at the epidermal margin. The presence of residual BCC/SCC tumor and normal skin features could be detected in the peripheral and deep dermal margins. Nuclear morphology was detectable in residual BCC/SCC tumors. Intraoperative RCM imaging may enable detection of residual tumor, directly on Mohs patients, and may serve as an adjunct for frozen pathology. However, a stronger source of contrast will be necessary, and also a smaller device with an automated approach for imaging in the entire wound in a rapid and controlled manner for clinical utility.

  6. Intraoperative imaging during Mohs surgery with reflectance confocal microscopy: initial clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Eileen S.; Cordova, Miguel; Kose, Kivanc; Phillips, William; Rossi, Anthony; Nehal, Kishwer; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2015-06-01

    Mohs surgery for the removal of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) is performed in stages, while being guided by the examination for residual tumor with frozen pathology. However, preparation of frozen pathology at each stage is time consuming and labor intensive. Real-time intraoperative reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), combined with video mosaicking, may enable rapid detection of residual tumor directly in the surgical wounds on patients. We report our initial experience on 25 patients, using aluminum chloride for nuclear contrast. Imaging was performed in quadrants in the wound to simulate the Mohs surgeon's examination of pathology. Images and videos of the epidermal and dermal margins were found to be of clinically acceptable quality. Bright nuclear morphology was identified at the epidermal margin and detectable in residual NMSC tumors. The presence of residual tumor and normal skin features could be detected in the peripheral and deep dermal margins. Intraoperative RCM imaging may enable detection of residual tumor directly on patients during Mohs surgery, and may serve as an adjunct for frozen pathology. Ultimately, for routine clinical utility, a stronger tumor-to-dermis contrast may be necessary, and also a smaller microscope with an automated approach for imaging in the entire wound in a rapid and controlled manner.

  7. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Corneal Nerves in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cruzat, Andrea; Qazi, Yureeda; Hamrah, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is becoming an indispensable tool for studying corneal physiology and disease. Enabling the dissection of corneal architecture at a cellular level, this technique offers fast and noninvasive in vivo imaging of the cornea with images comparable to that of ex vivo histochemical techniques. Corneal nerves bear substantial relevance to clinicians and scientists alike, given their pivotal roles in regulation of corneal sensation, maintenance of epithelial integrity, and proliferation and promotion of wound healing. Thus, IVCM offers a unique method to study corneal nerve alterations in a myriad of conditions, such as ocular and systemic diseases and following corneal surgery, without altering the tissue microenvironment. Of particular interest has been the correlation of corneal subbasal nerves to their function, which has been studied in normal eyes, contact lens wearers, and patients with keratoconus, infectious keratitis, corneal dystrophies, and neurotrophic keratopathy. Longitudinal studies have applied IVCM to investigate the effects of corneal surgery on nerves, demonstrating their regenerative capacity. IVCM is increasingly important in the diagnosis and management of systemic conditions such as peripheral diabetic neuropathy and, more recently, in ocular diseases. In this review, we outline the principles and applications of IVCM in the study of corneal nerves in various ocular and systemic diseases. PMID:27771327

  8. Wavelet-based statistical classification of skin images acquired with reflectance confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Halimi, Abdelghafour; Batatia, Hadj; Le Digabel, Jimmy; Josse, Gwendal; Tourneret, Jean Yves

    2017-01-01

    Detecting skin lentigo in reflectance confocal microscopy images is an important and challenging problem. This imaging modality has not yet been widely investigated for this problem and there are a few automatic processing techniques. They are mostly based on machine learning approaches and rely on numerous classical image features that lead to high computational costs given the very large resolution of these images. This paper presents a detection method with very low computational complexity that is able to identify the skin depth at which the lentigo can be detected. The proposed method performs multiresolution decomposition of the image obtained at each skin depth. The distribution of image pixels at a given depth can be approximated accurately by a generalized Gaussian distribution whose parameters depend on the decomposition scale, resulting in a very-low-dimension parameter space. SVM classifiers are then investigated to classify the scale parameter of this distribution allowing real-time detection of lentigo. The method is applied to 45 healthy and lentigo patients from a clinical study, where sensitivity of 81.4% and specificity of 83.3% are achieved. Our results show that lentigo is identifiable at depths between 50μm and 60μm, corresponding to the average location of the the dermoepidermal junction. This result is in agreement with the clinical practices that characterize the lentigo by assessing the disorganization of the dermoepidermal junction. PMID:29296480

  9. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Fea, Antonio M; Aragno, Vittoria; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.

  10. A confocal microscopy-based atlas of tissue architecture in the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Rozario, Tania; Newmark, Phillip A

    2015-11-01

    Tapeworms are pervasive and globally distributed parasites that infect millions of humans and livestock every year, and are the causative agents of two of the 17 neglected tropical diseases prioritized by the World Health Organization. Studies of tapeworm biology and pathology are often encumbered by the complex life cycles of disease-relevant tapeworm species that infect hosts such as foxes, dogs, cattle, pigs, and humans. Thus, studies of laboratory models can help overcome the practical, ethical, and cost-related difficulties faced by tapeworm parasitologists. The rat intestinal tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is easily reared in the laboratory and has the potential to enable modern molecular-based experiments that will greatly contribute to our understanding of multiple aspects of tapeworm biology, such as growth and reproduction. As part of our efforts to develop molecular tools for experiments on H. diminuta, we have characterized a battery of lectins, antibodies, and common stains that label different tapeworm tissues and organ structures. Using confocal microscopy, we have assembled an "atlas" of H. diminuta organ architecture that will be a useful resource for helminthologists. The methodologies we describe will facilitate characterization of loss-of-function perturbations using H. diminuta. This toolkit will enable a greater understanding of fundamental tapeworm biology that may elucidate new therapeutic targets toward the eradication of these parasites. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of domain walls in PPLN by confocal raman microscopy and PCA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Bourson, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is a powerful tool for investigation of ferroelectric domains. Mechanical stresses and electric fields existed in the vicinity of neutral and charged domain walls modify frequency, intensity and width of spectral lines [1], thus allowing to visualize micro- and nanodomain structures both at the surface and in the bulk of the crystal [2,3]. Stresses and fields are naturally coupled in ferroelectrics due to inverse piezoelectric effect and hardly can be separated in Raman spectra. PCA is a powerful statistical method for analysis of large data matrix providing a set of orthogonal variables, called principal components (PCs). PCA is widely used for classification of experimental data, for example, in crystallization experiments, for detection of small amounts of components in solid mixtures etc. [4,5]. In Raman spectroscopy PCA was applied for analysis of phase transitions and provided critical pressure with good accuracy [6]. In the present work we for the first time applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method for analysis of Raman spectra measured in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). We found that principal components demonstrate different sensitivity to mechanical stresses and electric fields in the vicinity of the domain walls. This allowed us to separately visualize spatial distribution of fields and electric fields at the surface and in the bulk of PPLN.

  12. Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdobnov, Anton Yu; Tuchin, Valery V.; Lademann, Juergen; E Darvin, Maxim

    2017-07-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is employed to study the skin physiology, drug permeation and skin disease monitoring. In order to increase the depth of investigations, the effect of optical clearing was observed on porcine ear skin ex vivo. The optical clearing agents (OCAs) glycerol and iohexol (Omnipaque™) were applied to the porcine ear skin and investigated by CRM after 30 and 60 min of treatment. The extent of optical clearing by utilizing concentrations of 70% glycerol and 100% Omnipaque™ was evaluated. The intensity of the skin-related Raman peaks significantly increased starting from the depth 160 µm for Omnipaque™ and 40 µm for glycerol (p  ⩽  0.05) after 60 min of treatment. The OCAs’ influence on the collagen hydration in the deep-located dermis was investigated. Both OCAs induce skin dehydration, but the effect of glycerol treatment (30 min and 60 min) is stronger. The obtained results demonstrate that with increasing the treatment time, both glycerol and Omnipaque™ solutions improve the optical clearing of porcine skin making the deep-located dermal regions able for investigations. At the used concentrations and time intervals, glycerol is more effective than Omnipaque™. However, Omnipaque™ is more promising than glycerol for future in vivo applications as it is an already approved pharmaceutic substance without any known impact on the skin structure.

  13. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications. PMID:27200376

  14. Fluorescence lifetime imaging and reflectance confocal microscopy for multiscale imaging of oral precancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Cheng, Shuna; Malik, Bilal H.; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Jo, Javier A.; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2013-04-01

    Optical imaging techniques using a variety of contrast mechanisms are under evaluation for early detection of epithelial precancer; however, tradeoffs in field of view (FOV) and resolution may limit their application. Therefore, we present a multiscale multimodal optical imaging system combining macroscopic biochemical imaging of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with subcellular morphologic imaging of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The FLIM module images a 16×16 mm2 tissue area with 62.5 μm lateral and 320 ps temporal resolution to guide cellular imaging of suspicious regions. Subsequently, coregistered RCM images are acquired at 7 Hz with 400 μm diameter FOV, <1 μm lateral and 3.5 μm axial resolution. FLIM-RCM imaging was performed on a tissue phantom, normal porcine buccal mucosa, and a hamster cheek pouch model of oral carcinogenesis. While FLIM is sensitive to biochemical and macroscopic architectural changes in tissue, RCM provides images of cell nuclear morphology, all key indicators of precancer progression.

  15. Two-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy image correlation for nanoparticle flow velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Brian; Giarra, Matthew; Golz, Brian; Main, Russell; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-11-01

    We present a methodology to mitigate the major sources of error associated with two-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of nanoparticles flowing through a microfluidic channel. The correlation-based velocity measurements from CLSM images are subject to random error due to the Brownian motion of nanometer-sized tracer particles, and a bias error due to the formation of images by raster scanning. Here, we develop a novel ensemble phase correlation with dynamic optimal filter that maximizes the correlation strength, which diminishes the random error. In addition, we introduce an analytical model of CLSM measurement bias error correction due to two-dimensional image scanning of tracer particles. We tested our technique using both synthetic and experimental images of nanoparticles flowing through a microfluidic channel. We observed that our technique reduced the error by up to a factor of ten compared to ensemble standard cross correlation (SCC) for the images tested in the present work. Subsequently, we will assess our framework further, by interrogating nanoscale flow in the cell culture environment (transport within the lacunar-canalicular system) to demonstrate our ability to accurately resolve flow measurements in a biological system.

  16. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy to probe the milk fat globule membrane and associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Gragson, Derek; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael; Everett, David

    2010-04-14

    The bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is an important, biologically relevant membrane due to its functional and health properties. Its composition has been thoroughly studied, but its structure, especially the lateral organization of its components, still remains unclear. We have used confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to investigate the surface structure of the MFGM in globules with different degrees of processing using two types of fluorescently labeled phospholipid probes and a protein dye. Using this technique, we have observed heterogeneities in the distribution of MFGM lipids and proteins relating to the processing and size of the globules. The effect of pretreating the milk (centrifugation, pasteurization-homogenization and churning) was studied by double-staining the surface of the milk fat globules, followed by observation using CLSM, and by determining the phospholipid profile of raw milk, raw cream, processed milk and buttermilk powder. Our findings agree with other techniques by showing that the composition of the MFGM changes with processing through the loss of phospholipids and the adsorption of caseins and whey proteins onto the surface.

  17. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy of Skin In Vivo: From Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Marghoob, Ashfaq; Rossi, Anthony; Halpern, Allan C; Nehal, Kishwer S.

    2017-01-01

    Following more than two decades of effort, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging of skin was granted codes for reimbursement by the US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dermatologists in the USA have started billing and receiving reimbursement for the imaging procedure and for the reading and interpretation of images. RCM imaging combined with dermoscopic examination is guiding the triage of lesions into those that appear benign, which are being spared from biopsy, against those that appear suspicious, which are then biopsied. Thus far, a few thousand patients have been spared from biopsy of benign lesions. The journey of RCM imaging from bench to bedside is certainly a success story, but still much more work lies ahead toward wider dissemination, acceptance, and adoption. We present a brief review of RCM imaging and highlight key challenges and opportunities. The success of RCM imaging paves the way for other emerging optical technologies, as well—and our bet for the future is on multimodal approaches. PMID:27785781

  18. A model system using confocal fluorescence microscopy for examining real-time intracellular sodium ion regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacqueline A; Collings, David A; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-15

    The gills of euryhaline fish are the ultimate ionoregulatory tissue, achieving ion homeostasis despite rapid and significant changes in external salinity. Cellular handling of sodium is not only critical for salt and water balance but is also directly linked to other essential functions such as acid-base homeostasis and nitrogen excretion. However, although measurement of intracellular sodium ([Na(+)]i) is important for an understanding of gill transport function, it is challenging and subject to methodological artifacts. Using gill filaments from a model euryhaline fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus), the suitability of the fluorescent dye CoroNa Green as a probe for measuring [Na(+)]i in intact ionocytes was confirmed via confocal microscopy. Cell viability was verified, optimal dye loading parameters were determined, and the dye-ion dissociation constant was measured. Application of the technique to freshwater- and 100% seawater-acclimated inanga showed salinity-dependent changes in branchial [Na(+)]i, whereas no significant differences in branchial [Na(+)]i were determined in 50% seawater-acclimated fish. This technique facilitates the examination of real-time changes in gill [Na(+)]i in response to environmental factors and may offer significant insight into key homeostatic functions associated with the fish gill and the principles of sodium ion transport in other tissues and organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of PHA granules in Cupriavidus necator as seen by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mravec, Filip; Obruca, Stanislav; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Hrubanova, Kamila; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Nebesarova, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Many bacteria are capable of accumulating intracellular granules of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). In this work, we developed confocal microscopy analysis of bacterial cells to study changes in the diameters of cells as well as PHA granules during growth and PHA accumulation in the bacterium Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha). The cell envelope was stained by DiD(®) fluorescent probe and PHA granules by Nile Red. Signals from both probes were separated based on their spectral and fluorescence life-time properties. During growth and PHA accumulation, bacterial cells increased their length but the width of the cells remained constant. The volume fraction of PHA granules in cells increased during PHA accumulation, nevertheless, its value did not exceed 40 vol. % regardless of the PHA weight content. It seems that bacterial cultures lengthen the cells in order to control the PHA volume portion. However, since similar changes in cell length were also observed in a PHA non-accumulating mutant, it seems that there is no direct control mechanism, which regulates the prolongation of the cells with respect to PHA granules volume. It is more likely that PHA biosynthesis and the length of cells are influenced by the same external stimuli such as nutrient limitation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Peng; Tan, Gan Liang; Low, Su Ying; Takano, Angela; Ng, Yuen Li; Anantham, Devanand

    2016-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to both therapeutic decisions and prognostication in interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, surgical lung biopsies carry high complication rates. Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) offers an alternative as it can visualize lung tissue in vivo at the cellular level with minimal adverse events. We wanted to investigate the diagnostic utility, and safety of using FCFM for patients with ILD. In patients with suspected ILD, FCFM images were obtained from multiple bronchopulmonary segments using a miniprobe inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope. The procedure was performed under moderate sedation in an outpatient setting. Morphometric measurements and fibre pattern analyses were co-related with computed tomography (CT) findings and patients' final diagnoses based on multi-disciplinary consensus. One hundred and eighty four segments were imaged in 27 patients (18 males) with a median age of 67 years (range, 24-79 years). They were grouped into chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia (16 patients) and other ILDs. Six distinct FCFM patterns were observed: normal, increased fibres, densely packed fibres, hypercellular, thickened fibres and others/non-specific. The pattern resembling densely packed fibres was seen in at least one segment in 68.8% patients with chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, but only 36.4% in other ILD (P=0.097). An association between inflammatory patterns on CT and a hypercellular pattern on FCFM was also found (P<0.001). Our study shows the potential of FCFM in classifying ILD, but its role in further diagnosis remains limited.

  1. Real-time monitoring of magnetic drug targeting using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; Mei, Kuo-Ching; Al-Jamal, Wafa T; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2016-12-28

    Magnetic drug targeting has been proposed as means of concentrating therapeutic agents at a target site and the success of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of studies. However, the behavior of magnetic carriers in blood vessels and tumor microcirculation still remains unclear. In this work, we utilized polymeric magnetic nanocapsules (m-NCs) for magnetic targeting in tumors and dynamically visualized them within blood vessels and tumor tissues before, during and after magnetic field exposure using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM). Our results suggested that the distribution of m-NCs within tumor vasculature changed dramatically, but in a reversible way, upon application and removal of a magnetic field. The m-NCs were concentrated and stayed as clusters near a blood vessel wall when tumors were exposed to a magnetic field but without rupturing the blood vessel. The obtained FCFM images provided in vivo in situ microvascular observations of m-NCs upon magnetic targeting with high spatial resolution but minimally invasive surgical procedures. This proof-of-concept descriptive study in mice is envisaged to track and quantify nanoparticles in vivo in a non-invasive manner at microscopic resolution. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Validating Intravascular Imaging with Serial Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Pier-Luc; Bertrand, Marie-Jeanne; Abran, Maxime; Castonguay, Alexandre; Lefebvre, Joël; Stähli, Barbara E; Merlet, Nolwenn; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Geoffroy, Pascale; Mecteau, Mélanie; Busseuil, David; Ni, Feng; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; Rhéaume, Éric; L'Allier, Philippe; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lesage, Frédéric

    2016-12-15

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are characterized by the formation of a plaque in the arterial wall. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides high-resolution images allowing delineation of atherosclerotic plaques. When combined with near infrared fluorescence (NIRF), the plaque can also be studied at a molecular level with a large variety of biomarkers. In this work, we present a system enabling automated volumetric histology imaging of excised aortas that can spatially correlate results with combined IVUS/NIRF imaging of lipid-rich atheroma in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Pullbacks in the rabbit aortas were performed with a dual modality IVUS/NIRF catheter developed by our group. Ex vivo three-dimensional (3D) histology was performed combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy, providing high-resolution anatomical and molecular information, respectively, to validate in vivo findings. The microscope was combined with a serial slicer allowing for the imaging of the whole vessel automatically. Colocalization of in vivo and ex vivo results is demonstrated. Slices can then be recovered to be tested in conventional histology.

  3. Characterization of Protein-Excipient Microheterogeneity in Biopharmaceutical Solid-State Formulations by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Koshari, Stijn H S; Ross, Jean L; Nayak, Purnendu K; Zarraga, Isidro E; Rajagopal, Karthikan; Wagner, Norman J; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2017-02-06

    Protein-stabilizer microheterogeneity is believed to influence long-term protein stability in solid-state biopharmaceutical formulations and its characterization is therefore essential for the rational design of stable formulations. However, the spatial distribution of the protein and the stabilizer in a solid-state formulation is, in general, difficult to characterize because of the lack of a functional, simple, and reliable characterization technique. We demonstrate the use of confocal fluorescence microscopy with fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments (Fabs) to directly visualize three-dimensional particle morphologies and protein distributions in dried biopharmaceutical formulations, without restrictions on processing conditions or the need for extensive data analysis. While industrially relevant lyophilization procedures of a model IgG1 mAb generally lead to uniform protein-excipient distribution, the method shows that specific spray-drying conditions lead to distinct protein-excipient segregation. Therefore, this method can enable more definitive optimization of formulation conditions than has previously been possible.

  4. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of capillaries in normal and psoriatic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archid, Rami; Patzelt, Alexa; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard; Ahmad, Sufian S.; Ulrich, Martina; Stockfleth, Eggert; Philipp, Sandra; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2012-10-01

    An important and most likely active role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been attributed to changes in cutaneous blood vessels. The purpose of this study was to use confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) to investigate dermal capillaries in psoriatic and normal skin. The structures of the capillary loops in 5 healthy participants were compared with those in affected skin of 13 psoriasis patients. The diameters of the capillaries and papillae were measured for each group with CLSM. All investigated psoriasis patients showed elongated, widened, and tortuous microvessels in the papillary dermis, whereas all healthy controls showed a single capillary loop in each dermal papilla. The capillaries of the papillary loop and the dermal papilla were significantly enlarged in the psoriatic skin lesions (diameters 24.39±2.34 and 146.46±28.52 μm, respectively) in comparison to healthy skin (diameters 9.53±1.8 and 69.48±17.16 μm, respectively) (P<0.001). CLSM appears to represent a promising noninvasive technique for evaluating dermal capillaries in patients with psoriasis. The diameter of the vessels could be seen as a well-quantifiable indicator for the state of psoriatic skin. CLSM could be useful for therapeutic monitoring to delay possible recurrences.

  5. In vivo assessment of the structure of skin microcirculation by reflectance confocal-laser-scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugata, Keiichi; Osanai, Osamu; Kawada, Hiromitsu

    2012-02-01

    One of the major roles of the skin microcirculation is to supply oxygen and nutrition to the surrounding tissue. Regardless of the close relationship between the microcirculation and the surrounding tissue, there are few non-invasive methods that can evaluate both the microcirculation and its surrounding tissue at the same site. We visualized microcapillary plexus structures in human skin using in vivo reflectance confocal-laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM), Vivascope 3000® (Lucid Inc., USA) and Image J software (National Institutes of Health, USA) for video image processing. CLSM is a non-invasive technique that can visualize the internal structure of the skin at the cellular level. In addition to internal morphological information such as the extracellular matrix, our method reveals capillary structures up to the depth of the subpapillary plexus at the same site without the need for additional optical systems. Video images at specific depths of the inner forearm skin were recorded. By creating frame-to-frame difference images from the video images using off-line video image processing, we obtained images that emphasize the brightness depending on changes of intensity coming from the movement of blood cells. Merging images from different depths of the skin elucidates the 3-dimensional fine line-structure of the microcirculation. Overall our results show the feasibility of a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging technique to characterize the skin microcirculation and the surrounding tissue.

  6. Confocal Microscopy for the Histological Fluorescence Pattern of a Recurrent Atypical Meningioma: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Wesley J.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Harris, Brent T.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Importance Fluorescence-guided resection with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), which has shown promising results in the resection of malignant gliomas, has been used for meningioma resection in an attempt to more clearly delineate the tumor margin. However, no article has investigated the fluorescence pattern of meningiomas on a histological level. Understanding the microscopic pattern of fluorescence could help assess the precision and utility of using 5-ALA for these tumors. We present the case of a recurrent atypical meningioma operated on with 5-ALA fluorescence-guided resection for delineation of tumor tissue from surrounding uninvolved dura. Clinical Presentation A 53-year-old woman presented with recurrent atypical meningioma of the falx. Prior treatment included surgical resection 6 years earlier with subsequent fractionated radiation therapy and radiosurgery for tumor progression. The patient was given 5-ALA 20 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 100 mL water 3 hours before induction of anesthesia. Intraoperative fluorescence was coregistered with preoperative imaging. Neuropathological analysis of the resected falx with confocal microscopy enabled correlation of fluorescence with the extent of tumor on a histological level. Conclusion Fluorescence guidance allowed clear intraoperative delineation of tumor tissue from adjacent, uninvolved dura. On a microscopic level, there was a very close correlation of fluorescence with tumor, but some tumor cells did not fluoresce. PMID:21389893

  7. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy evaluation of cheilitis glandularis: a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Silvia V; Kos, Eliana; Borguezan Nunes, Thais; Bologna, Sheyla B; Sangueza, Martin; Nico, Marcello M S

    2015-03-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is an uncommon condition of unknown origin; it is clinically characterized by variable degrees of macrocheilia associated with red dilated ostia of minor salivary glands on the vermilion area, which secrete viscous saliva. Histopathological characteristics of CG are comprised of chronic sialadenitis with engorged acinar lobules and dilated ducts; CG also features chronic sun damage (actinic cheilitis and squamous cell carcinoma). These changes may be localized, and a punch biopsy specimen might fail to reveal enough criteria to support the diagnosis of CG. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive imaging technique that enables an in vivo en face visualization of tissues with a resolution close to conventional histopathology. Its use allows analysis of the entire lip, without excision. We reported the evaluation of 5 cases of CG based on clinical RCM and histopathological correlation. RCM examination of the lip vermilion mainly revealed a bright aspect of the superficial epithelial layers, which corresponded to labial keratosis. Alteration of the classical epithelial honeycomb pattern was observed in RCM, which corresponded to epithelial changes in actinic cheilitis at histopathology. Round, dark empty spaces intermingling the epithelium, corresponded to the ectopic excretory salivary gland ducts that open their ostia within the lip vermilion. In the lamina propria, the most striking feature was superficial salivary gland lobules, seen as dark gray lobular structures. Our study, demonstrated the use of RCM in the evaluation of CG, showing that a correlation between the clinical, digital RCM images and histopathology improved the diagnostic skills in CG evaluation.

  8. Evaluation of Yogurt Microstructure Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Skytte, Jacob L; Ghita, Ovidiu; Whelan, Paul F; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming; Dahl, Anders B; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-06-01

    The microstructure of protein networks in yogurts defines important physical properties of the yogurt and hereby partly its quality. Imaging this protein network using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) has shown good results, and CSLM has become a standard measuring technique for fermented dairy products. When studying such networks, hundreds of images can be obtained, and here image analysis methods are essential for using the images in statistical analysis. Previously, methods including gray level co-occurrence matrix analysis and fractal analysis have been used with success. However, a range of other image texture characterization methods exists. These methods describe an image by a frequency distribution of predefined image features (denoted textons). Our contribution is an investigation of the choice of image analysis methods by performing a comparative study of 7 major approaches to image texture description. Here, CSLM images from a yogurt fermentation study are investigated, where production factors including fat content, protein content, heat treatment, and incubation temperature are varied. The descriptors are evaluated through nearest neighbor classification, variance analysis, and cluster analysis. Our investigation suggests that the texton-based descriptors provide a fuller description of the images compared to gray-level co-occurrence matrix descriptors and fractal analysis, while still being as applicable and in some cases as easy to tune. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. A statistical pixel intensity model for segmentation of confocal laser scanning microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Calapez, Alexandre; Rosa, Agostinho

    2010-09-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has been widely used in the life sciences for the characterization of cell processes because it allows the recording of the distribution of fluorescence-tagged macromolecules on a section of the living cell. It is in fact the cornerstone of many molecular transport and interaction quantification techniques where the identification of regions of interest through image segmentation is usually a required step. In many situations, because of the complexity of the recorded cellular structures or because of the amounts of data involved, image segmentation either is too difficult or inefficient to be done by hand and automated segmentation procedures have to be considered. Given the nature of CLSM images, statistical segmentation methodologies appear as natural candidates. In this work we propose a model to be used for statistical unsupervised CLSM image segmentation. The model is derived from the CLSM image formation mechanics and its performance is compared to the existing alternatives. Results show that it provides a much better description of the data on classes characterized by their mean intensity, making it suitable not only for segmentation methodologies with known number of classes but also for use with schemes aiming at the estimation of the number of classes through the application of cluster selection criteria.

  10. Videodermoscopy compared to reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of scabies.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, E; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F; Biron, A C; Chol, C; Leclerq, A; Jaffelin, C; Perrot, J L

    2016-09-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and dermoscopy have recently been suggested for non-invasive diagnosis of scabies. However, there are large studies on diagnostic accuracy for scabies only with dermoscopy at low (10×) and high (100-1000×) magnification. Our study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy, for the diagnosis of scabies, of RCM and videodermoscopy at intermediate (20× and 70×) magnification, which is usually found in commercially available videodermoscopes. Patients with a presumptive diagnosis of scabies were prospectively enrolled during 20 months and examined by RCM and videodermoscopy at intermediate magnification. The specificity of RCM was considered 100% because RCM can identify the anatomical details of the parasites. A total of 148 patients were enrolled. Videodermoscopy showed a higher sensitivity for scabies than RCM (95% vs. 92%) and a specificity of 97%. Videodermoscopy at intermediate magnification, and RCM are both highly accurate for the diagnosis of scabies. If the two devices are available, it would be better to perform videodermoscopy first, that is more sensitive, and then RCM to confirm the diagnosis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Application of gold nanoparticles as contrast agents in confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelle, A.; Veksler, B.; Kozhevnikov, I. S.; Akchurin, G. G.; Piletsky, S. A.; Meglinski, I.

    2009-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a modern high-resolution optical technique providing detailed image of tissue structure with high (down to microns) spatial resolution. Aiming at a concurrent improvement of imaging depth and image quality the CLSM requires the use of contrast agents. Commonly employed fluorescent contrast agents, such as fluorescent dyes and proteins, suffer from toxicity, photo-bleaching and overlapping with the tissues autofluorescence. Gold nanoparticles are potentially highly attractive to be applied as a contrast agent since they are not subject to photo-bleaching and can target biochemical cells markers associated with the specific diseases. In current report we consider the applicability of gold nano-spheres as a contrast agent to enhance quality of CLSM images of skin tissues in vitro versus the application of optical clearing agent, such as glycerol. The enhancement of CLSM image contrast was observed with an application of gold nano-spheres diffused within the skin tissues. We show that optical clearing agents such as a glycerol provide better CLSM image contrast than gold nano-spheres.

  12. Reflectance confocal microscopy-guided laser ablation of basal cell carcinomas: initial in vivo results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Heidy; Cordova, Miguel; Yelamos, Oriol; Chen, Chih-Shan Jason; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2017-02-01

    Laser ablation offers a procedure for precise, fast and minimally invasive removal of superficial and early nodular basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). However, the lack of histopathological confirmation has been a limitation toward widespread use in the clinic. A reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging-guided laser ablation approach offers cellular-level histopathology-like feedback directly on the patient, which may guide and help improve the efficacy of this procedure. We performed an initial study on 44 BCCs on 21 patients in vivo (based in an ex vivo bench-top study reported in our earlier papers), using a pulsed erbium: ytterbium aluminum garnet laser and a contrast agent (aluminum chloride). Initial 10 lesions, the RCM imaging-guided detection of either presence of residual tumor or complete clearance was immediately confirmed with histopathology. Additionally, 34 BCCs on 15 patients were treated with RCM imaging-guided laser ablation, and the clearance of tumor is currently being monitored with follow-up imaging (i. e., no histopathology) at 3, 6 and 18 months. Thus far, the imaging resolution appears to be sufficient and consistent for monitoring efficacy in the wound, both immediately post-ablation and subsequently during recovery. The efficacy appears to be promising. However, further investigation and optimization to image over the entire wound (without missing any areas) need to be investigated.

  13. Localization of extracellular matrix components in developing mouse salivary glands by confocal microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in developing organisms is well established. Proteoglycans and interstitial collagens are required for the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of epithelial organs and the distribution of these molecules has been described. However, much less is known about other ECM macromolecules in developing epithelial organs. We used confocal microscopy to examine the distribution of laminin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, fibronectin, and collagen types I, IV, and V, in mouse embryonic salivary glands. Organ rudiments were isolated from gestational day 13 mouse embryos and cultured for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Whole mounts were stained by indirect immunofluorescence and then examined using a Zeiss Laser Scan Microscope. We found that each ECM component examined had a distinct distribution and that the distribution of some molecules varied with culture time. Laminin was mainly restricted to the basement membrane. BM-1 proteoglycan was concentrated in the basement membrane and also formed a fine network throughout the mesenchyme. Type IV collagen was mainly located in the basement membrane of the epithelium, but it was also present throughout the mesenchyme. Type V collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at 24 hours, but at 48 hours was principally located in the basement membrane. Type I collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at all culture times, and accumulated in the clefts and particularly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface as time in culture increased. Fibronectin was observed throughout the mesenchyme at all times.

  14. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and laser tweezers based experiments to understand dentine-bacteria interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sum Chee; Mohanty, Samarendra; Gupta, P. K.; Kishen, Anil

    2007-02-01

    Failure of endodontic treatment is commonly due to Enterococcal infection. In this study influence of chemical treatments of type-I collagen membrane by chemical agents commonly used in endodontic treatment on Enterococcus faecalis cell adherence was evaluated. In order to determine the change in number of adhering bacteria after chemical treatment, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used. For this, overnight culture of E faecalis in All Culture broth was applied to chemically treated type-I collagen membrane. It was found that Ca(OH) II treated groups had statistically significant (p value=0.05) increase in population of bacteria adherence. The change in adhesion force between bacteria and collagen was determined by using optical tweezers (1064 nm). For this experiment, Type-I collagen membrane was soaked for 5 mins in a media that contained 50% all culture media and 50% saturated Ca(OH) II . The membrane was spread on the coverslip, on which diluted bacterial suspension was added. The force of laser tweezers on the bacteria was estimated at different trap power levels using viscous drag method and trapping stiffness was calculated using Equipartition theorem method. Presence of Ca(OH) II was found to increase the cell-substrate adherence force from 0.38pN to >2.1pN. Together, these experiments show that it was highly probable that the increase in adherence to collagen was due to a stronger adhesion in the presence of Ca (OH) II.

  15. Cross-Linking Cellulosic Fibers with Photoreactive Polymers: Visualization with Confocal Raman and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Janko, Marek; Jocher, Michael; Boehm, Alexander; Babel, Laura; Bump, Steven; Biesalski, Markus; Meckel, Tobias; Stark, Robert W

    2015-07-13

    The properties of paper sheets can be tuned by adjusting the surface or bulk chemistry using functional polymers that are applied during (online) or after (offline) papermaking processes. In particular, polymers are widely used to enhance the mechanical strength of the wet state of paper sheets. However, the mechanical strength depends not only on the chemical nature of the polymeric additives but also on the distribution of the polymer on and in the lignocellulosic paper. Here, we analyze the photochemical attachment and distribution of hydrophilic polydimethylacrylamide-co-methacrylate-benzophenone P(DMAA-co-MABP) copolymers with defined amounts of photoreactive benzophenone moieties in model paper sheets. Raman microscopy was used for the unambiguous identification of P(DMAA-co-MABP) and cellulose specific bands and thus the copolymer distribution within the cellulose matrix. Two-dimensional Raman spectral maps at the intersections of overlapping cellulose fibers document that the macromolecules only partially surround the cellulose fibers, favor to attach to the fiber surface, and connect the cellulose fibers at crossings. Moreover, the copolymer appears to accumulate preferentially in holes, vacancies, and dips on the cellulose fiber surface. Correlative brightfield, Raman, and confocal laser scanning microscopy finally reveal a reticular three-dimensional distribution of the polymer and show that the polymer is predominately deposited in regions of high capillarity (i.e., in proximity to fine cellulose fibrils). These data provide deeper insights into the effects of paper functionalization with a copolymer and aid in understanding how these agents ultimately influence the local and overall properties of paper.

  16. Diagnosis of thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia using confocal and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Saira; Bilal, Muhammad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Firdous, Shamaraz; Aziz, Uzma; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2017-11-01

    Anemia is the most prevalent blood disorder, categorized into thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. In anemia, the morphology of erythrocytes is disturbed, thus leading to abnormal functioning of the erythrocytes. Globally, thalassemia affects 1.3% of individuals and is one of the most widespread monogenic disorders in Pakistan. All over the World, women and children are most frequently affected by a type of nutritional deficiency known as iron deficiency anemia. The morphological changes that occur in erythrocytes due to these diseases are investigated in this study at the nano-scale level. Fifty samples of blood from individuals suffering from thalassemia or iron deficiency anemia were obtained from different hospitals in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The blood samples were scanned using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to check the morphological changes in both types of anemia. According to the present study, thalassemia is most prevalent in females in the age group between 5 and 15 years old, and iron deficiency is most prevalent in females in the age groups of 16-25 and 36-45 years old. Erythrocyte morphology is the significant determinant for diagnosing and discriminating between these two types of diseases. The study reports deformed erythrocytes in anemic patients, which were different from the ones that existed in the control. Thalassemia erythrocytes showed a crenated shape, iron deficiency anemia erythrocytes showed an elliptocyte shape and healthy erythrocytes showed a biconcave disk shape when using AFM and LSCM. These techniques seem to be very promising, cheap and less time consuming in determining the structure-function relationship of erythrocytes of thalassemic and iron deficiency anemic patients. The results of LSCM and AFM are quite useful in determining the morphological changes in erythrocytes and to study the disease at the molecular level within short period of time. Hence, we encourage employing

  17. Imaging Amyloid Tissues Stained with Luminescent Conjugated Oligothiophenes by Hyperspectral Confocal Microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Sofie; Bäck, Marcus; Nilsson, K Peter R; Hammarström, Per

    2017-10-20

    Proteins that deposit as amyloid in tissues throughout the body can be the cause or consequence of a large number of diseases. Among these we find neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease afflicting primarily the central nervous system, and systemic amyloidosis where serum amyloid A, transthyretin and IgG light chains deposit as amyloid in liver, carpal tunnel, spleen, kidney, heart, and other peripheral tissues. Amyloid has been known and studied for more than a century, often using amyloid specific dyes such as Congo red and Thioflavin T (ThT) or Thioflavin (ThS). In this paper, we present heptamer-formyl thiophene acetic acid (hFTAA) as an example of recently developed complements to these dyes called luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs). hFTAA is easy to use and is compatible with co-staining in immunofluorescence or with other cellular markers. Extensive research has proven that hFTAA detects a wider range of disease associated protein aggregates than conventional amyloid dyes. In addition, hFTAA can also be applied for optical assignment of distinct aggregated morphotypes to allow studies of amyloid fibril polymorphism. While the imaging methodology applied is optional, we here demonstrate hyperspectral imaging (HIS), laser scanning confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). These examples show some of the imaging techniques where LCOs can be used as tools to gain more detailed knowledge of the formation and structural properties of amyloids. An important limitation to the technique is, as for all conventional optical microscopy techniques, the requirement for microscopic size of aggregates to allow detection. Furthermore, the aggregate should comprise a repetitive β-sheet structure to allow for hFTAA binding. Excessive fixation and/or epitope exposure that modify the aggregate structure or conformation can render poor hFTAA binding and hence pose limitations to accurate imaging.

  18. Visualization and quantitation of abundant macroautophagy in virus-infected cells by confocal three-dimensional fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Wallen; Yamada, Masaki; Moninger, Thomas; Grose, Charles

    2013-10-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox), a viremic illness typified by an exanthem consisting of several hundred vesicles. When VZV reactivates from latency in the spinal ganglia during late adulthood, the emerging virus causes a vesicular dermatomal rash (herpes zoster or shingles). To expand investigations of autophagy during varicella and zoster, newer 3D imaging technology was combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy to provide animations of autophagosomes in the vesicular rash. First, the cells were immunolabeled with antibodies against VZV proteins and the LC3 protein, an integral autophagosomal protein. Antibody reagents lacking activity against the human blood group A1 antigen were selected. After laser excitation of the samples, optimized emission detection bandwidths were configured by Zeiss Zen control software. Confocal Z-stacks comprising up to 40 optical slices were reconstructed into 3D animations with the aid of Imaris software. With this imaging technology, individual autophagosomes were clearly detectable as spheres within each vesicular cell. To enumerate the number of autophagosomes, data sets from 50 cells were reconstructed as 3D fluorescence images and analyzed with MeasurementPro software. The mean number of autophagosomes per infected vesicular cell was >100, although over 200 autophagosomes were seen in a few cells. In summary, macroautophagy was easily quantitated within VZV-infected cells after immunolabeling and imaging by 3D confocal animation technology. These same 3D imaging techniques will be applicable for investigations of autophagy in other virus-infected cells. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo Confocal Microscopy Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Dry Eye Patients with Different Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jing-Yao; Wang, Yu-Qian; Lin, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Shen

    2016-11-05

    Dry eye patients suffer from all kinds of symptoms. Sometimes, the clinical signs evaluation does not disclose any obvious difference in routine examination; in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a powerful tool for ocular surface disease. This study aimed to clarify meibomian gland (MG) alterations in dry eye patients with different symptoms and to compare the findings using IVCM. A total of sixty patients were recruited, all subjected to Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ), and questionnaires for the assessment of dry eye symptoms before clinical sign examinations were given to the patients. Finally, IVCM was applied to observe MG's structure. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman correlation analysis. The differences were statistically significant when P< 0.05. In the severe symptom group, OSDI and SEEQ scores were significantly higher (P< 0.05) compared with the mild symptoms group. All other clinical sign examinations had no statistical difference in the two groups (P> 0.05). However, all the IVCM-observed data showed that patients with severe symptoms had more significant fibrosis in MG (acinar unit area 691.87 ± 182.01 μm2 for the severe, 992.17 ± 170.84 μm2 for the mild; P< 0.05) and severer decrease in the size of MG acinar units than those observed in patients with mild symptoms (MG acinar unit density [MGAUD] 70.08 ± 18.78 glands/mm2, MG acinar unit longest diameter [MGALD] 51.50 ± 15.51 μm, MG acinar unit shortest diameter [MGASD] 20.30 ± 11.85 μm for the severe, MGAUD 89.53 ± 39.88 glands/mm2, MGALD 81.57 ± 21.14 μm, MGASD 42.37 ± 14.55 μm for the mild;P< 0.05). Dry eye symptoms were negatively correlated with MG confocal microscopic parameters and positively correlated with conjunctival inflammatory cells and Langerhans cells (P< 0.05). IVCM application provides a strong support to differentiate dry eye patients with different symptoms

  20. Confocal microscopy of corneal stroma and endothelium after LASIK and PRK.

    PubMed

    Amoozadeh, Javad; Aliakbari, Soheil; Behesht-Nejad, Amir-Houshang; Seyedian, Mohammad-Amin; Rezvan, Bijan; Hashemi, Hassan

    2009-10-01

    To compare with confocal microscopy the changes in stromal keratocyte density and endothelial cell count due to photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK. In this prospective study, 32 eyes (16 myopic patients) were examined with the NIDEK Confoscan 3 confocal microscope before and 6 months after PRK and LASIK. The preoperative mean myopia was -2.85+/-0.99 diopters (D) (range: -1.00 to -4.00 D) in 24 eyes that underwent PRK and -2.94+/-0.96 D (range: -2.00 to -4.25 D) in 8 eyes that underwent LASIK. Keratocyte density in the anterior and posterior stroma and the endothelial cell count were measured. Statistically significant changes were assessed using the t test. P<.05 was considered statistically significant. Preoperative hexagonal cell percentage in the LASIK group was 52.17+/-11.43 and 51.33+/-10.98 in the PRK group. Postoperatively, the percentages were 52.96+/-7.55 and 53.34+/-10.2, respectively. Six months postoperatively, keratocyte density changed by 367.12+/-103.35 cells/mm(2) (34.7% reduction) in the anterior stroma (P<.05) and 9.25+/-28.28 cells/mm(2) (1.31% reduction) in the posterior stroma (P>.05) for the LASIK group. In the PRK group, these values were 319.71+/-83.45 cells/mm(2) (31.13% reduction) in the anterior stroma (P<.05) and 0.17+/-38.97 cells/mm(2) (0.02% reduction) in the posterior stroma (P>.05). The changes in keratocyte densities were not statistically significant between groups (P>.05). The mean number of keratocytes decreased by 37.2% in the retroablation zone of the LASIK group (P<.05). No changes were noted in endothelial cell counts. A significant decrease occurred in the number of stromal keratocytes in the anterior stroma. Despite differences in surgery, the change in keratocyte density and endothelial cell counts were similar between LASIK and PRK groups (P>.05). Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Interfacing 3D magnetic twisting cytometry with confocal fluorescence microscopy to image force responses in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuejin; Wei, Fuxiang; Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Jia, Qiong; Chen, Junjian; Chen, Junwei; Luo, Junyu; Yao, Wenting; Zhou, Wenwen; Huang, Wei; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Cells and tissues can undergo a variety of biological and structural changes in response to mechanical forces. Only few existing techniques are available for quantification of structural changes at high resolution in response to forces applied along different directions. Three dimensional-Magnetic Twisting Cytometry (3D-MTC) is a technique for applying local mechanical stresses on living cells. Here we describe a protocol for interfacing 3D-MTC with confocal fluorescence microscopy. In 3D-MTC, ferromagnetic beads are bound to the cell surface via surface receptors followed by their magnetization in any desired direction. A magnetic twisting field in a different direction is then applied to generate rotational shear stresses in any desired direction. This protocol describes how to combine magnetic field-induced mechanical stimulation with confocal fluorescence microscopy and provides an optional extension for super resolution imaging using stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy. This technology allows for rapid real time acquisition of a living cell’s mechanical responses to forces via specific receptors and for quantifying structural and biochemical changes in the same cell using confocal fluorescence microscopy or STED. The integrated 3D-MTC – microscopy platform takes around 20 days to construct and the experimental procedures require ~4 days when carried out by a life sciences graduate student. PMID:28686583

  2. Interfacing 3D magnetic twisting cytometry with confocal fluorescence microscopy to image force responses in living cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuejin; Wei, Fuxiang; Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Jia, Qiong; Chen, Junjian; Chen, Junwei; Luo, Junyu; Yao, Wenting; Zhou, Wenwen; Huang, Wei; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Ning

    2017-07-01

    Cells and tissues can undergo a variety of biological and structural changes in response to mechanical forces. Only a few existing techniques are available for quantification of structural changes at high resolution in response to forces applied along different directions. 3D-magnetic twisting cytometry (3D-MTC) is a technique for applying local mechanical stresses to living cells. Here we describe a protocol for interfacing 3D-MTC with confocal fluorescence microscopy. In 3D-MTC, ferromagnetic beads are bound to the cell surface via surface receptors, followed by their magnetization in any desired direction. A magnetic twisting field in a different direction is then applied to generate rotational shear stresses in any desired direction. This protocol describes how to combine magnetic-field-induced mechanical stimulation with confocal fluorescence microscopy and provides an optional extension for super-resolution imaging using stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy. This technology allows for rapid real-time acquisition of a living cell's mechanical responses to forces via specific receptors and for quantifying structural and biochemical changes in the same cell using confocal fluorescence microscopy or STED. The integrated 3D-MTC-microscopy platform takes ∼20 d to construct, and the experimental procedures require ∼4 d when carried out by a life sciences graduate student.

  3. Fast evaluation of 69 basal cell carcinomas with ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy: criteria description, histopathological correlation, and interobserver agreement.

    PubMed

    Bennàssar, Antoni; Carrera, Cristina; Puig, Susana; Vilalta, Antoni; Malvehy, Josep

    2013-07-01

    Fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) represents a first step toward a rapid "bedside pathology" in the Mohs surgery setting and in other fields of general pathology. To describe and validate FCM criteria for the main basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtypes and to demonstrate the overall agreement with classic pathologic analysis of hematoxylin-eosin-stained samples. DESIGN A total of 69 BCCs from 66 patients were prospectively imaged using ex vivo FCM. Confocal mosaics were evaluated in real time and compared with classic pathologic analysis. Department of Dermatology, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, between November 2010 and July 2011. Patients with BCC attending the Mohs Surgery Unit. Presence or absence of BCC and histological subtype (superficial, nodular, and infiltrating) in the confocal mosaics. Eight criteria for BCC were described, evaluated, and validated. Although there were minor differences among BCC subtypes, the most BCC-defining criteria were peripheral palisading, clefting, nuclear pleomorphism, and presence of stroma. These criteria were validated with independent observers (κ values >0.7 [corrected] for most criteria). We herein propose, describe, and validate FCM criteria for BCC diagnosis. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is an attractive alternative to histopathologic analysis of frozen sections during Mohs surgery because large areas of freshly excised tissue can be assessed in real time without the need for tissue processing while minimizing labor and costs.

  4. ATP concentration as possible marker of liver damage at leukaemia treatment: confocal microscopy-based experimental study and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashchenko, V.; Zyubin, A.; Babak, S.; Lavrova, A.

    2017-04-01

    We consider the method of confocal microscopy as a convenient instrument for determination of chemical compounds in biological tissues and cells. In particular, we study the dynamics of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that could be used as a bio-marker of energy metabolism pathologies at the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). On the basis of data obtained by the confocal microscopy, the values of ATP concentration have been calculated for each case. Possible correlations with other characteristics of pathology processes obtained from plasma of leukemia patients show that ATP value could be a prognostic factor of the treatment success. The role of ATP in the drug metabolism switching is also discussed within the context of kinetic modelling of metabolism processes leading to the production of 6-Thioguanosine monophosphate, which is a principal acting agent in chemotherapy.

  5. Usefulness of confocal microscopy in distinguishing between basal cell carcinoma and intradermal melanocytic nevus on the face.

    PubMed

    Gamo, R; Floristan, U; Pampín, A; Caro, D; Pinedo, F; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2015-10-01

    The clinical distinction between basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and intradermal melanocytic nevus lesions on the face can be difficult, particularly in young patients or patients with multiple nevi. Dermoscopy is a useful tool for analyzing characteristic dermoscopic features of BCC, such as cartwheel structures, maple leaf-like areas, blue-gray nests and dots, and ulceration. It also reveals arborizing telangiectatic vessels and prominent curved vessels, which are typical of BCC, and comma vessels, which are typical of intradermal melanocytic nevi. It is, however, not always easy to distinguish between these 2 conditions, even when dermoscopy is used. We describe 2 facial lesions that posed a clinical and dermoscopic challenge in two 38-year-old patients; confocal microscopy showed separation between tumor nests and stroma and polarized nuclei, which are confocal microscopy features of basal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  6. 3D imaging of cement-based materials at submicron resolution by combining laser scanning confocal microscopy with serial sectioning.

    PubMed

    Yio, M H N; Mac, M J; Wong, H S; Buenfeld, N R

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to reconstruct large volumes of nontransparent porous materials at submicron resolution. The proposed method combines fluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy with serial sectioning to produce a series of overlapping confocal z-stacks, which are then aligned and stitched based on phase correlation. The method can be extended in the XY plane to further increase the overall image volume. Resolution of the reconstructed image volume does not degrade with increase in sample size. We have used the method to image cementitious materials, hardened cement paste and concrete and the results obtained show that the method is reliable. Possible applications of the method such as three-dimensional characterization of the pores and microcracks in hardened concrete, three-dimensional particle shape characterization of cementitious materials and three-dimensional characterization of other porous materials such as rocks and bioceramics are discussed. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Nondestructive 3D confocal laser imaging with deconvolution of seven whole stardust tracks with complementary XRF and quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.; Ebel, D.S.

    2009-03-19

    We present a nondestructive 3D system for analysis of whole Stardust tracks, using a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy and synchrotron XRF. 3D deconvolution is used for optical corrections, and results of quantitative analyses of several tracks are presented. The Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 trapped many cometary and ISM particles in aerogel, leaving behind 'tracks' of melted silica aerogel on both sides of the collector. Collected particles and their tracks range in size from submicron to millimeter scale. Interstellar dust collected on the obverse of the aerogel collector is thought to have an average track length ofmore » {approx}15 {micro}m. It has been our goal to perform a total non-destructive 3D textural and XRF chemical analysis on both types of tracks. To that end, we use a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy (LCSM) and X Ray Florescence (XRF) spectrometry. Utilized properly, the combination of 3D optical data and chemical data provides total nondestructive characterization of full tracks, prior to flattening or other destructive analysis methods. Our LCSM techniques allow imaging at 0.075 {micro}m/pixel, without the use of oil-based lenses. A full textural analysis on track No.82 is presented here as well as analysis of 6 additional tracks contained within 3 keystones (No.128, No.129 and No.140). We present a method of removing the axial distortion inherent in LCSM images, by means of a computational 3D Deconvolution algorithm, and present some preliminary experiments with computed point spread functions. The combination of 3D LCSM data and XRF data provides invaluable information, while preserving the integrity of the samples for further analysis. It is imperative that these samples, the first extraterrestrial solids returned since the Apollo era, be fully mapped nondestructively in 3D, to preserve the maximum amount of information prior to other, destructive analysis.« less

  8. Corneal confocal microscopy alterations in Sjögren's syndrome dry eye.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Michele; Iaccarino, Stefania; Varricchi, Gilda; D'Errico, Tito; Gironi Carnevale, Ugo Antonello; Bifani, Mario

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate light backscattering (LB) in corneal layers in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) utilizing in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) and to determine the eventual association with the lacrimal functional test values. A complete ophthalmic evaluation, Schirmer test with and without stimulation, break-up time (BUT) and IVCM were performed on 55 patients affected by SSDE and in an age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy participants (HP). Light backscattering, measures as light reflectivity unit (LRU), detected by IVCM at Bowman's membrane (BM) at 50 μm, at 100 μm and at 200 μm deeper than BM was compared in the two groups. The correlations between LB values and lacrimal function results were evaluated. In patients affected by SSDE, LB was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in each corneal layer examined (+14 ± 6.33 LRU at BM), compared with HP. A good reverse correlation between the light reflectivity measures at BM with Schirmer test with (r = -0.91) and without (r = -0.90) stimulation and BUT (r = -0.88) was found. Correlations were lower in the deeper corneal layers. Even if our results should be confirmed in further studies with a larger population, these findings show that IVCM is a device able to detect alterations in corneal layers in SSDE patients related to the lacrimal function. Light backscattering (LB) could be very useful for clinical diagnosis and management of SSDE. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of S. epidermidis biofilms exposed to farnesol, vancomycin and rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Cerca, Nuno; Gomes, Fernanda; Pereira, Sofia; Teixeira, Pilar; Oliveira, Rosário

    2012-05-16

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the major bacterial species found in biofilm-related infections on indwelling medical devices. Microbial biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilms have been associated with increased antibiotic tolerance to the immune system. This increased resistance to conventional antibiotic therapy has lead to the search for new antimicrobial therapeutical agents. Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule in Candida albicans, has been described as impairing growth of several different microorganisms and we have previously shown its potential as an adjuvant in antimicrobial therapy against S. epidermidis. However, its mechanism of action in S. epidermidis is not fully known. In this work we better elucidate the role of farnesol against S: epidermidis biofilms using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). 24 h biofilms were exposed to farnesol, vancomycin or rifampicin and were analysed by CLSM, after stained with a Live/Dead stain, a known indicator of cell viability, related with cell membrane integrity. Biofilms were also disrupted by sonication and viable and cultivable cells were quantified by colony forming units (CFU) plating. Farnesol showed a similar effect as vancomycin, both causing little reduction of cell viability but at the same time inducing significant changes in the biofilm structure. On the other hand, rifampicin showed a distinct action in S. epidermidis biofilms, by killing a significant proportion of biofilm bacteria. While farnesol is not very efficient at killing biofilm bacteria, it damages cell membrane, as determined by the live/dead staining, in a similar way as vancomycin. Furthermore, farnesol might induce biofilm detachment, as determined by the reduced biofilm biomass, which can partially explain the previous findings regarding its role as a possible chemotherapy adjuvant.

  10. Folliculotropism in pigmented facial macules: Differential diagnosis with reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Persechino, Flavia; De Carvalho, Nathalie; Ciardo, Silvana; De Pace, Barbara; Casari, Alice; Chester, Johanna; Kaleci, Shaniko; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Longo, Caterina; Farnetani, Francesca; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2018-03-01

    Pigmented facial macules are common on sun damage skin. The diagnosis of early stage lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) is challenging. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been proven to increase diagnostic accuracy of facial lesions. A total of 154 pigmented facial macules, retrospectively collected, were evaluated for the presence of already-described RCM features and new parameters depicting aspects of the follicle. Melanocytic nests, roundish pagetoid cells, follicular infiltration, bulgings from the follicles and many bright dendrites and infiltration of the hair follicle (ie, folliculotropism) were found to be indicative of LM/LMM compared to non-melanocytic skin neoplasms (NMSNs), with an overall sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 83%. Concerning NMSNs, solar lentigo and lichen planus-like keratosis resulted better distinguishable from LM/LMM because usually lacking malignant features and presenting characteristic diagnostic parameters, such as epidermal cobblestone pattern and polycyclic papillary contours. On the other hand, distinction of pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) resulted more difficult, and needing evaluation of hair follicle infiltration and bulging structures, due to the frequent observation of few bright dendrites in the epidermis, but predominantly not infiltrating the hair follicle (estimated specificity for PAK 53%). A detailed evaluation of the components of the folliculotropism may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy. The classification of the type, distribution and amount of cells, and the presence of bulging around the follicles seem to represent important tools for the differentiation between PAK and LM/LMM at RCM analysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. In vivo confocal microscopy appearance of Fusarium and Aspergillus species in fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Jaya Devi; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Larke, Natasha; Macleod, David; Srikanthi, Palepu; Lanjewar, Shruti; Shah, Manisha; Lalitha, Prajna; Elakkiya, Shanmugam; Burton, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Clinical outcomes in fungal keratitis vary between Fusarium and Aspergillus spp, therefore distinguishing between species using morphological features such as filament branching angles, sporulation along filaments (adventitious sporulation) or dichotomous branching may be useful. In this study, we assessed these three features within Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images from culture-positive Fusarium and Aspergillus spp keratitis participants. Prospective observational cohort study in Aravind Eye Hospital (February 2011-February 2012). Eligibility criteria: age ≥18 years, stromal infiltrate ≥3 mm diameter, Fusarium or Aspergillus spp culture-positive. previous/current herpetic keratitis, visual acuity <6/60 in fellow eye, >80% corneal thinning. IVCM was performed and images analysed for branch angle, presence/absence of adventitious sporulation or dichotomous branching by a grader masked to the microbiological diagnosis. 98 participants were included (106 eligible, 8 excluded as no measurable branch angles); 68 were positive for Fusarium spp, 30 for Aspergillus spp. Mean branch angle for Fusarium spp was 59.7° (95% CI 57.7° to 61.8°), and for Aspergillus spp was 63.3° (95% CI 60.8° to 65.8°), p=0.07. No adventitious sporulation was detected in Fusarium spp ulcers. Dichotomous branching was detected in 11 ulcers (7 Aspergillus spp, 4 Fusarium spp). There was very little difference in the branching angle of Fusarium and Aspergillus spp. Adventitious sporulation was not detected and dichotomous branching was infrequently seen. Although IVCM remains a valuable tool to detect fungal filaments in fungal keratitis, it cannot be used to distinguish Fusarium from Aspergillus spp and culture remains essential to determine fungal species. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. [Confocal laser scanning electron microscopy for assessment of vaginal Lactobacillus crispatus biofilm].

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-jie; Wang, Ben; Liao, Qin-ping; Zhang, Rui

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the female vaginal Lactobacillus crispatus biofilm by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM),thus revealing the formation of biofilm. The cover slide biofilm culture approach in vitro was employed for induction of the vaginal Lactobacillus crispatus biofilm formation. Following the culture for 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours, the cover slide was removed for subsequent staining with the fluoresce in isothiocyanate-conjugated concanavalin A(FITC-ConA) and propidium (PI).This was followed by determination of the formation and characteristics of the vaginal Lactobacillus crispatus biofilm by using CLSM. The CLSM images of biofilm formation at different time points were captured, suggesting that the vaginal Lactobacillus crispatus adhesion occurred at h 4, which was in reversible attachment, then more and more Lactobacillus crispatus aggregated at h 8 to h 20, which was in irreversible attachment.Lactobacillus crispatus clustered at h 20, with early development of biofilm architecture.Then the biofilm with extracellular matrix around the bacteria was set up at h 24,with gradual matureation at h 24 to h 48.The biofilm dispersed at h 72. The biofilm density of cultivating for 20 hours was 42.7 × 10⁻³ ± 6.8 × 10⁻³ ,and for 24 hours increased to 102.5 × 10⁻³ ± 23.1 × 10⁻³, suggesting a significant difference, P<0.05. This meant that mature biofilm was formed at h 24. The vaginal Lactobacillus crispatus is able to form typical biofilm with distinct developmental phases and architecture characteristics.Mature biofilm is formed at h 24 to h 48, then the biofilm begins to disperse.

  13. Waterproofing in Arabidopsis: Following Phenolics and Lipids In situ by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Hauser, Marie Theres; Heredia, Antonio; Gierlinger, Notburga

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of the aerial organs of plants imposed a big evolutionary step during the colonization of the terrestrial environment. The main plant polymers responsible of water repelling are lipids and lignin, which play also important roles in the protection against biotic/abiotic stresses, regulation of flux of gases and solutes, and mechanical stability against negative pressure, among others. While the lipids, non-polymerized cuticular waxes together with the polymerized cutin, protect the outer surface, lignin is confined to the secondary cell wall within mechanical important tissues. In the present work a micro cross-section of the stem of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to track in situ the distribution of these non-carbohydrate polymers by Confocal Raman Microscopy. Raman hyperspectral imaging gives a molecular fingerprint of the native waterproofing tissues and cells with diffraction limited spatial resolution (~300 nm) at relatively high speed and without any tedious sample preparation. Lipids and lignified tissues as well as their effect on water content was directly visualized by integrating the 1299, 1600, and 3400 cm−1 band, respectively. For detailed insights into compositional changes of these polymers vertex component analysis was performed on selected sample positions. Changes have been elucidated in the composition of lignin within the lignified tissues and between interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. Hydrophobizing changes were revealed from the epidermal layer to the cuticle as well as a change in the aromatic composition within the cuticle of trichomes. To verify Raman signatures of different waterproofing polymers additionally Raman spectra of the cuticle and cutin monomer from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as well as aromatic model polymers (milled wood lignin and dehydrogenation polymer of coniferyl alcohol) and phenolic acids were acquired. PMID:26973831

  14. Small fiber neuropathy in Parkinson's disease: A clinical, pathological and corneal confocal microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Kass-Iliyya, Lewis; Javed, Saad; Gosal, David; Kobylecki, Christopher; Marshall, Andrew; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Ponirakis, Georgios; Tavakoli, Mitra; Ferdousi, Maryam; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray; Jeziorska, Maria; Malik, Rayaz A; Silverdale, Monty A

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic and somatic denervation is well established in Parkinson's disease (PD). (1) To determine whether corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) can non-invasively demonstrate small nerve fiber damage in PD. (2) To identify relationships between corneal nerve parameters, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) and clinical features of PD. Twenty-six PD patients and 26 controls underwent CCM of both eyes. 24/26 PD patients and 10/26 controls underwent skin biopsies from the dorsa of both feet. PD patients underwent assessment of parasympathetic function [deep breathing heart rate variability (DB-HRV)], autonomic symptoms [scale for outcomes in Parkinson's disease - autonomic symptoms (SCOPA-AUT)], motor symptoms [UPDRS-III "ON"] and cumulative Levodopa dose. PD patients had significantly reduced corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD) with increased corneal nerve branch density (CNBD) and corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) compared to controls. CNBD and CNFL but not CNFD correlated inversely with UPDRS-III and SCOPA-AUT. All CCM parameters correlated strongly with DB-HRV. There was no correlation between CCM parameters and disease duration, cumulative Levodopa dose or pain. IENFD was significantly reduced in PD compared to controls and correlated with CNFD and UPDRS-III. However, unlike CCM measures, IENFD correlated with disease duration and cumulative Levodopa dose but not with autonomic dysfunction. CCM identifies corneal nerve fiber pathology, which correlates with autonomic symptoms, parasympathetic deficits and motor scores in patients with PD. IENFD is also reduced and correlates with CNFD and motor symptoms but not parasympathetic deficits, indicating it detects different aspects of peripheral nerve pathology in PD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Second Harmonic Generation Confocal Microscopy of Collagen Type I from Rat Tendon Cryosections

    PubMed Central

    Theodossiou, Theodossis A.; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Ekwobi, Chidi; Becker, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We performed second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of collagen in rat-tendon cryosections, using femtosecond laser scanning confocal microscopy, both in backscattering and transmission geometries. SHG transmission images of collagen fibers were spatially resolved due to a coherent, directional SHG component. This effect was enhanced with the use of an index-matching fluid (ni = 1.52). The average SHG intensity oscillated with wavelength in the backscattered geometry (isotropic SHG component), whereas the spectral profile was consistent with quasi-phase-matching conditions in transmission geometry (forward propagating, coherent SHG component) around 440 nm (λp = 880 nm). Collagen type I from bovine Achilles tendon was imaged for SHG in the backscattered geometry and its first-order effective nonlinear coefficient was determined (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\vert}d_{{\\mathrm{eff}}}{\\vert}\\approx 0.085({\\pm}0.025){\\times}10^{-12}{\\mathrm{mV}}^{-1}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) by comparison to samples of inorganic materials with known effective nonlinear coefficients (LiNbO3 and LiIO3). The SHG spectral response of collagen type I from bovine Achilles tendon matched that of the rat-tendon cryosections in backscattered geometry. Collagen types I, II, and VI powders (nonfibrous) did not show any detectable SHG, indicating a lack of noncentrosymmetric crystalline structure at the molecular level. The various stages of collagen thermal denaturation were investigated in rat-tendon cryosections using SHG and bright-field imaging. Thermal denaturation resulted in the gradual destruction of the SHG signal. PMID:17130233

  16. Waterproofing in Arabidopsis: Following phenolics and lipids in situ by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Heredia, Antonio; Gierlinger, Notburga

    2016-02-01

    Waterproofing of the aerial organs of plants imposed a big evolutionary step during the colonization of the terrestrial environment. The main plant polymers responsible of water repelling are lipids and lignin, which play also important roles in the protection against biotic/abiotic stresses, regulation of flux of gases and solutes and mechanical stability against negative pressure, among others. While the lipids, non-polymerized cuticular waxes together with the polymerized cutin, protect the outer surface, lignin is confined to the secondary cell wall within mechanical important tissues. In the present work a micro cross-section of the stem of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to track in situ the distribution of these non-carbohydrate polymers by Confocal Raman Microscopy. Raman hyperspectral imaging gives a molecular fingerprint of the native waterproofing tissues and cells with diffraction limited spatial resolution (~300 nm) at relatively high speed and without any tedious sample preparation. Lipids and lignified tissues as well as their effect on water content was directly visualized by integrating the 1299 cm-1, 1600 cm-1 and 3400 cm-1 band, respectively. For detailed insights into compositional changes of these polymers vertex component analysis was performed on selected sample positions. Changes have been elucidated in the composition of lignin within the lignified tissues and between interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. Hydrophobising changes were revealed from the epidermal layer to the cuticle as well as a change in the aromatic composition within the cuticle of trichomes. To verify Raman signatures of different waterproofing polymers additionally Raman spectra of the cuticle and cutin monomer from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as well as aromatic model polymers (milled wood lignin and dehydrogenation polymer of coniferyl alcohol) and phenolic acids were acquired. Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, lignin, cutin, wax, Raman, cuticle, waterproofing

  17. Effect of bleaching on sound enamel and with early artificial caries lesions using confocal laser microscopy.

    PubMed

    Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Pavan, Sabrina; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Giannini, Marcelo; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of bleaching agents on sound enamel (SE) and enamel with early artificial caries lesions (CL) using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Eighty blocks (4 x 5 x 5 mm) of bovine enamel were used and half of them were submitted to a pH cycling model to induce CL. Eight experimental groups were obtained from the treatments and mineralization level of the enamel (SE or CL) (n=10). SE groups: G1 - unbleached (control); G2 - 4% hydrogen peroxide (4 HP); G3 - 4 HP containing 0.05% Ca (Ca); G4 - 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (7.5 HP) containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). CL groups: G5 - unbleached; G6 - 4 HP; G7 - 4 HP containing Ca; G8 - 7.5 HP ACP. G2, G3, G6, G7 were treated with the bleaching agents for 8 h/day during 14 days, while G4 and G8 were exposed to the bleaching agents for 30 min twice a day during 14 days. The enamel blocks were stained with 0.1 mM rhodamine B solution and the demineralization was quantified using fluorescence intensity detected by CLSM. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's tests (α=0.05). For the SE groups, the bleaching treatments increased significantly the demineralization area when compared with the unbleached group. In the CL groups, no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05).The addition of ACP or Ca in the composition of the whitening products did not overcome the effects caused by bleaching treatments on SE and neither was able to promote remineralization of CL.

  18. Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Peng; Low, Su Ying; Takano, Angela; Ng, Yuen Li; Anantham, Devanand

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate diagnosis is critical to both therapeutic decisions and prognostication in interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, surgical lung biopsies carry high complication rates. Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) offers an alternative as it can visualize lung tissue in vivo at the cellular level with minimal adverse events. We wanted to investigate the diagnostic utility, and safety of using FCFM for patients with ILD. Methods In patients with suspected ILD, FCFM images were obtained from multiple bronchopulmonary segments using a miniprobe inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope. The procedure was performed under moderate sedation in an outpatient setting. Morphometric measurements and fibre pattern analyses were co-related with computed tomography (CT) findings and patients’ final diagnoses based on multi-disciplinary consensus. Results One hundred and eighty four segments were imaged in 27 patients (18 males) with a median age of 67 years (range, 24–79 years). They were grouped into chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia (16 patients) and other ILDs. Six distinct FCFM patterns were observed: normal, increased fibres, densely packed fibres, hypercellular, thickened fibres and others/non-specific. The pattern resembling densely packed fibres was seen in at least one segment in 68.8% patients with chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, but only 36.4% in other ILD (P=0.097). An association between inflammatory patterns on CT and a hypercellular pattern on FCFM was also found (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study shows the potential of FCFM in classifying ILD, but its role in further diagnosis remains limited. PMID:28149543

  19. Fluorescence Dynamics in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of a Live Cell: Time-Resolved Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shirsendu; Nandi, Somen; Ghosh, Catherine; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2016-09-19

    Fluorescence dynamics in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a live non-cancer lung cell (WI38) and a lung cancer cell (A549) are studied by using time-resolved confocal microscopy. To selectively study the organelle, ER, we have used an ER-Tracker dye. From the emission maximum (λmaxem) of the ER-Tracker dye, polarity (i.e. dielectric constant, ϵ) in the ER region of the cells (≈500 nm in WI38 and ≈510 nm in A549) is estimated to be similar to that of chloroform (λmaxem =506 nm, ϵ≈5). The red shift by 10 nm in λmaxem in the cancer cell (A549) suggests a slightly higher polarity compared to the non-cancer cell (WI38). The fluorescence intensity of the ER-Tracker dye exhibits prolonged intermittent oscillations on a timescale of 2-6 seconds for the cancer cell (A549). For the non-cancer cell (WI38), such fluorescence oscillations are much less prominent. The marked fluorescence intensity oscillations in the cancer cell are attributed to enhanced calcium oscillations. The average solvent relaxation time (<τs >) of the ER region in the lung cancer cell (A549, 250±50 ps) is about four times faster than that in the non-cancer cell (WI38, 1000±50 ps). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Scattering features for lung cancer detection in fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Petitjean, Caroline; Salaün, Mathieu; Thiberville, Luc

    2014-06-01

    To assess the feasibility of lung cancer diagnosis using fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) imaging technique and scattering features for pattern recognition. FCFM imaging technique is a new medical imaging technique for which interest has yet to be established for diagnosis. This paper addresses the problem of lung cancer detection using FCFM images and, as a first contribution, assesses the feasibility of computer-aided diagnosis through these images. Towards this aim, we have built a pattern recognition scheme which involves a feature extraction stage and a classification stage. The second contribution relies on the features used for discrimination. Indeed, we have employed the so-called scattering transform for extracting discriminative features, which are robust to small deformations in the images. We have also compared and combined these features with classical yet powerful features like local binary patterns (LBP) and their variants denoted as local quinary patterns (LQP). We show that scattering features yielded to better recognition performances than classical features like LBP and their LQP variants for the FCFM image classification problems. Another finding is that LBP-based and scattering-based features provide complementary discriminative information and, in some situations, we empirically establish that performance can be improved when jointly using LBP, LQP and scattering features. In this work we analyze the joint capability of FCFM images and scattering features for lung cancer diagnosis. The proposed method achieves a good recognition rate for such a diagnosis problem. It also performs well when used in conjunction with other features for other classical medical imaging classification problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic skin changes of acute radiation dermatitis revealed by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vano-Galvan, S; Fernandez-Lizarbe, E; Truchuelo, M; Diaz-Ley, B; Grillo, E; Sanchez, V; Ríos-Buceta, L; Paoli, J; Sancho, S; Montero, A; Hernanz, R; Ramos, A; Jaen, P; Gonzalez, S

    2013-09-01

    A better knowledge of the dynamic biological changes that the skin undergoes in response to ionizing radiation is advisable to improve the management of radiation dermatitis, allowing selection of patients needing treatment or close monitoring. To describe the evolution of the skin in response to ionizing radiation through the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) features of acute radiation dermatitis. In this prospective descriptive study, six women (median age, 55 years; range, 45-80 years) diagnosed with breast cancer in stages IA-IB undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy were included in the study through consecutive sampling. Clinical, dermoscopic and RCM evaluation of the skin were performed prior to treatment and on days 1, 15, 30 and 45 after radiotherapy. While clinical features of radiation dermatitis emerged after 30 days on average, histopathological changes were detectable by RCM after a mean time of 15 days. The main RCM features included initial appearance of spongiosis, exocytosis and inflammatory cells followed by the presence of dendritic-shaped cells, 'streaming-like figures', 'broken geographic papillae', epidermal architectural disarray, effacement of rete ridges, melanophages and, finally, hyperpigmentation of the basal layer. RCM may safely detect the dynamic biological changes that the skin undergoes in response to ionizing radiation, even before than clinical onset of acute radiation dermatitis. Therefore, RCM may be useful to make an early and non-invasive diagnosis of radiation dermatitis during radiotherapy, allowing an early selection of patients needing treatment or close monitoring and avoiding skin biopsies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. The relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and confocal microscopy findings in normal and keratoconic eyes.

    PubMed

    Hurmeric, Volkan; Sahin, Afsun; Ozge, Gokhan; Bayer, Atilla

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and confocal microscopy (CM) findings in normal and keratoconic eyes. The study consisted of 28 eyes of 28 healthy volunteers and 23 eyes of 15 patients with keratoconus. The diagnosis of keratoconus was made with corneal topography and clinical findings. The corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured by the ocular response analyzer. In vivo CM was performed with NIDEK Confoscan 3. CH and CRF were compared with corneal morphological findings (detailed cell counts of endothelial, stromal, and epithelial cells) in vivo. CH was 10.1 +/- 1.3 mm Hg in normal eyes and 7.4 +/- 1.5 mm Hg in keratoconic eyes (P < 0.0001). CRF was 10.1 +/- 1.8 mm Hg in normal eyes and 6.2 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in keratoconic eyes (P < 0.0001). CH and CRF were negatively correlated with full-thickness stromal keratocyte density (P < 0.01; r = -0.52 and P < 0.001; r = -0.67, respectively) in healthy eyes. Keratocyte density of the posterior half of the stroma was found to be significantly related with CRF in healthy eyes (beta = -0.404; P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship among CH, CRF, and CM findings in eyes with keratoconus. There is a significant relationship between CRF and keratocyte density of the posterior half of the stroma in healthy eyes. Our results suggest that corneal elasticity is related to not only stromal matrix but also cellular structure of the cornea.

  3. Confocal fluorescence microscopy to evaluate changes in adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment associated with invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Jessica L; Shin, Dongsuk; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Kuerer, Henry; Yang, Wei; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic organ that provides endocrine, inflammatory and angiogenic factors, which can assist breast carcinoma cells with invasion and metastasis. Previous studies have shown that adipocytes adjacent to carcinoma, known as cancer-associated adipocytes, undergo extensive changes that correspond to an "activated phenotype," such as reduced size relative to adipocytes in non-neoplastic breast tissue. Optical imaging provides a tool that can be used to characterize adipocyte morphology and other features of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we used confocal fluorescence microscopy to acquire images of freshly excised breast tissue stained topically with proflavine. We developed a computerized algorithm to identify and quantitatively measure phenotypic properties of adipocytes located adjacent to and far from normal collagen, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma. Adipocytes were measured in confocal fluorescence images of fresh breast tissue collected from 22 patients. Results show that adipocytes adjacent to neoplastic tissue margins have significantly smaller area compared to adipocytes far from the margins of neoplastic lesions and compared to adipocytes adjacent to non-neoplastic collagenous stroma. These findings suggest that confocal microscopic images can be utilized to evaluate phenotypic properties of adipocytes in breast stroma which may be useful in defining alterations in microenvironment that may aid in the development and progression of neoplastic lesions. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  5. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  6. RELIABILITY OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEMS: USE OF MULTISPECTRAL BEADS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is a need for a standardized, impartial calibration, and validation protocol on confocal spectral imaging (CSI) microscope systems. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have testing tools to provide a reproducible way to evaluate instrument performance. ...

  7. In vivo subsurface morphological and functional cellular and subcellular imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with confocal mini-microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Martin; Memadathil, Beena; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Schneider, Constantin; Gregor, Sebastian; Galle, Peter R; Neurath, Markus F; Kiesslich, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a newly developed hand-held confocal probe for in vivo microscopic imaging of the complete gastrointestinal tract in rodents. METHODS: A novel rigid confocal probe (diameter 7 mm) was designed with optical features similar to the flexible endomicroscopy system for use in humans using a 488 nm single line laser for fluorophore excitation. Light emission was detected at 505 to 750 nm. The field of view was 475 μm × 475 μm. Optical slice thickness was 7 μm with a lateral resolution of 0.7 μm. Subsurface serial images at different depths (surface to 250 μm) were generated in real time at 1024 × 1024 pixels (0.8 frames/s) by placing the probe onto the tissue in gentle, stable contact. Tissue specimens were sampled for histopathological correlation. RESULTS: The esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine and meso, liver, pancreas and gall bladder were visualised in vivo at high resolution in n = 48 mice. Real time microscopic imaging with the confocal mini-microscopy probe was easy to achieve. The different staining protocols (fluorescein, acriflavine, FITC-labelled dextran and L. esculentum lectin) each highlighted specific aspects of the tissue, and in vivo imaging correlated excellently with conventional histology. In vivo blood flow monitoring added a functional quality to morphologic imaging. CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy is feasible in vivo allowing the visualisation of the complete GI tract at high resolution even of subsurface tissue structures. The new confocal probe design evaluated in this study is compatible with laparoscopy and significantly expands the field of possible applications to intra-abdominal organs. It allows immediate testing of new in vivo staining and application options and therefore permits rapid transfer from animal studies to clinical use in patients. PMID:17465494

  8. Detection of living Sarcoptes scabiei larvae by reflectance mode confocal microscopy in the skin of a patient with crusted scabies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Assi; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Ingber, Arieh; Enk, Claes D.

    2012-06-01

    Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The diagnosis of scabies is established clinically and confirmed by identifying mites or eggs by microscopic examination of scrapings from the skin or by surface microscopy using a dermatoscope. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy is a novel technique used for noninvasive imaging of skin structures and lesions at a resolution compatible to that of conventional histology. Recently, the technique was employed for the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of scabies. We demonstrate the first ever documentation of a larva moving freely inside the skin of a patient infected with scabies.

  9. Reflectance confocal microscopy and features of melanocytic lesions: an internet-based study of the reproducibility of terminology.

    PubMed

    Pellacani, Giovanni; Vinceti, Marco; Bassoli, Sara; Braun, Ralph; Gonzalez, Salvador; Guitera, Pascale; Longo, Caterina; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Menzies, Scott W; Puig, Susana; Scope, Alon; Seidenari, Stefania; Malvehy, Josep

    2009-10-01

    To test the interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of the standard terminology for description and diagnosis of melanocytic lesions in in vivo confocal microscopy. A dedicated Web platform was developed to train the participants and to allow independent distant evaluations of confocal images via the Internet. Department of Dermatology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. The study population was composed of 15 melanomas, 30 nevi, and 5 Spitz/Reed nevi. Six expert centers were invited to participate at the study. Intervention Evaluation of 36 features in 345 confocal microscopic images from melanocytic lesions. Interobserved and intraobserved agreement, by calculating the Cohen kappa statistics measure for each descriptor. High overall levels of reproducibility were shown for most of the evaluated features. In both the training and test sets there was a parallel trend of decreasing kappa values as deeper anatomic skin levels were evaluated. All of the features, except 1, used for melanoma diagnosis, including roundish pagetoid cells, nonedged papillae, atypical cells in basal layer, cerebriform clusters, and nucleated cells infiltrating dermal papillae, showed high overall levels of reproducibility. However, less-than-ideal reproducibility was obtained for some descriptors, such as grainy appearance of the epidermis, junctional thickening, mild atypia in basal layer, plump bright cells, small bright cells, and reticulated fibers in the dermis. Conclusion The standard consensus confocal terminology useful for the evaluation of melanocytic lesions was reproducibly recognized by independent observers.

  10. Mapping the lignin distribution in pretreated sugarcane bagasse by confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delignification pretreatments of biomass and methods to assess their efficacy are crucial for biomass-to-biofuels research and technology. Here, we applied confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using one- and two-photon excitation to map the lignin distribution within bagasse fibers pretreated with acid and alkali. The evaluated spectra and decay times are correlated with previously calculated lignin fractions. We have also investigated the influence of the pretreatment on the lignin distribution in the cell wall by analyzing the changes in the fluorescence characteristics using two-photon excitation. Eucalyptus fibers were also analyzed for comparison. Results Fluorescence spectra and variations of the decay time correlate well with the delignification yield and the lignin distribution. The decay dependences are considered two-exponential, one with a rapid (τ1) and the other with a slow (τ2) decay time. The fastest decay is associated to concentrated lignin in the bagasse and has a low sensitivity to the treatment. The fluorescence decay time became longer with the increase of the alkali concentration used in the treatment, which corresponds to lignin emission in a less concentrated environment. In addition, the two-photon fluorescence spectrum is very sensitive to lignin content and accumulation in the cell wall, broadening with the acid pretreatment and narrowing with the alkali one. Heterogeneity of the pretreated cell wall was observed. Conclusions Our results reveal lignin domains with different concentration levels. The acid pretreatment caused a disorder in the arrangement of lignin and its accumulation in the external border of the cell wall. The alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from the middle of the bagasse fibers, but was less effective in its removal from their surfaces. Our results evidenced a strong correlation between the decay times of the lignin fluorescence and its distribution within the cell

  11. The neuromuscular system of Pycnophyes kielensis (Kinorhyncha: Allomalorhagida) investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Kinorhynchs are ecdysozoan animals with a phylogenetic position close to priapulids and loriciferans. To understand the nature of segmentation within Kinorhyncha and to infer a probable ancestry of segmentation within the last common ancestor of Ecdysozoa, the musculature and the nervous system of the allomalorhagid kinorhynch Pycnophyes kielensis were investigated by use of immunohistochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstruction software. The kinorhynch body plan comprises 11 trunk segments. Trunk musculature consists of paired ventral and dorsal longitudinal muscles in segments 1-10 as well as dorsoventral muscles in segments 1-11. Dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscles insert on apodemes of the cuticle inside the animal within each segment. Strands of longitudinal musculature extend over segment borders in segments 1-6. In segments 7-10, the trunk musculature is confined to the segments. Musculature of the digestive system comprises a strong pharyngeal bulb with attached mouth cone muscles as well as pharyngeal bulb protractors and retractors. The musculature of the digestive system shows no sign of segmentation. Judged by the size of the pharyngeal bulb protractors and retractors, the pharyngeal bulb, as well as the introvert, is moved passively by internal pressure caused by concerted action of the dorsoventral muscles. The nervous system comprises a neuropil ring anterior to the pharyngeal bulb. Associated with the neuropil ring are flask-shaped serotonergic somata extending anteriorly and posteriorly. A ventral nerve cord is connected to the neuropil ring and runs toward the anterior until an attachment point in segment 1, and from there toward the posterior with one ganglion in segment 6. Segmentation within Kinorhyncha likely evolved from an unsegmented ancestor. This conclusion is supported by continuous trunk musculature in the anterior segments 1-6, continuous pharyngeal bulb protractors and retractors throughout the anterior

  12. Degeneration process of fungiform taste buds after severing the human chorda tympani nerve--observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takehisa; Ito, Tetsufumi; Ito, Yumi; Kato, Yuji; Manabe, Yasuhiro; Narita, Norihiko

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate the degeneration process of fungiform taste buds after severing the chorda tympani nerve (CTN) by confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo. Prospective study. University hospital. Seven consecutive patients whose CTN was severed during tympanoplasty for middle ear cholesteatoma. Diagnostic. Preoperative and postoperative gustatory functions were assessed by electrogustometry (EGM). An average of 10 fungiform papillae (FP) in the midlateral region of the tongue were periodically observed, and the number of taste buds was counted using a confocal laser microscope. Among them, 2 to 3 reference FPs were selected based on the typical form of the FP or characteristic arrangements of taste pores. Observation was performed before surgery, 1 or 2 days after surgery, 2 or 3 times a week until 2 weeks after surgery, once a week between 2 and 4 weeks, and every 2 to 4 weeks thereafter until all taste buds had disappeared. EGM thresholds showed no response within 1 month after surgery in all patients. The initial change in the degeneration process was the disappearance of taste pores. The surface of taste buds became covered with epithelium. Finally, taste buds themselves atrofied and disappeared. The time course of degeneration differed depending upon individuals, each FP, and each taste bud. By employing the generalized linear mixed model under the Poisson distribution, it was calculated that all taste buds would disappear at around 50 days after surgery. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was useful for clarifying the degeneration process of fungiform taste buds.

  13. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane) dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate pathological changes of the corneal cell layer in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane) dystrophy by in vivo laser corneal confocal microscopy. Methods: Two patients were evaluated using a cornea-specific in vivo laser scanning confocal microscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM). The affected corneal areas of both patients were examined. Image analysis was performed to identify corneal epithelial and stromal deposits correlated with this dystrophy. Results: Variously shaped (linear, multilaminar, curvilinear, ring-shape, geographic) highly reflective materials were observed in the “map” area, mainly in the basal epithelial cell layer. In “fingerprint” lesions, multiple linear and curvilinear hyporeflective lines were observed. Additionally, in the affected corneas, infiltration of possible Langerhans cells and other inflammatory cells was observed as highly reflective Langerhans cell-like or dot images. Finally, needle-shaped materials were observed in one patient. Conclusion: HRT 2-RCM laser confocal microscopy is capable of identifying corneal microstructural changes related to map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy in vivo. The technique may be useful in elucidating the pathogenesis and natural course of map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy and other similar basement membrane abnormalities. PMID:22888214

  14. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane) dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pathological changes of the corneal cell layer in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane) dystrophy by in vivo laser corneal confocal microscopy. Two patients were evaluated using a cornea-specific in vivo laser scanning confocal microscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM). The affected corneal areas of both patients were examined. Image analysis was performed to identify corneal epithelial and stromal deposits correlated with this dystrophy. Variously shaped (linear, multilaminar, curvilinear, ring-shape, geographic) highly reflective materials were observed in the "map" area, mainly in the basal epithelial cell layer. In "fingerprint" lesions, multiple linear and curvilinear hyporeflective lines were observed. Additionally, in the affected corneas, infiltration of possible Langerhans cells and other inflammatory cells was observed as highly reflective Langerhans cell-like or dot images. Finally, needle-shaped materials were observed in one patient. HRT 2-RCM laser confocal microscopy is capable of identifying corneal microstructural changes related to map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy in vivo. The technique may be useful in elucidating the pathogenesis and natural course of map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy and other similar basement membrane abnormalities.

  15. Multiple beam interference confocal microscopy: a tool for morphological investigation of living cells and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Medina, Honorio

    2000-05-01

    Multiple beam interference system is used in conjunction with a conventional scanning confocal microscope to examine the morphology and construction of 3D images of Histolytic Ameba and parasite Candida Albicans. The present combination permits to adjoin advantages of both systems, namely the vertical high contrast and optical sectioning. The interference pattern obtained from a multiple internal reflection of a simple, sandwiched between the glass plate and the cover plate, was focussed on an objective of a scanning confocal microscope. According to optical path differences, morphological details were revealed. The combined features, namely improved resolution in z axis, originated from the interference pattern and the optical sectioning of the confocal scanning system, enhance the resolution and contrast dramatically. These features permitted to obtain unprecedented images of Histolytic Ameba and parasite Candida Albicans. Because of the improved contrast, several details like double wall structure of candida, internal structure of ameba are clearly visible.

  16. Spontaneous confocal Raman microscopy--a tool to study the uptake of nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes into cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Gabriela; Rojas, Elena; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Donath, Edwin; Moya, Sergio Enrique

    2011-06-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy as a label-free technique was applied to study the uptake and internalization of poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into hepatocarcinoma human HepG2 cells. Spontaneous confocal Raman spectra was recorded from the cells exposed to oxidized CNTs and to PLGA NPs. The Raman spectra showed bands arising from the cellular environment: lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, as well as bands characteristic for either PLGA NPs or CNTs. The simultaneous generation of Raman bands from the cell and nanomaterials from the same spot proves internalization, and also indicates the cellular region, where the nanomaterial is located. For PLGA NPs, it was found that they preferentially co-localized with lipid bodies, while the oxidized CNTs are located in the cytoplasm.

  17. Upconversion fiber-optic confocal microscopy under near-infrared pumping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Kang, Jin U; Ilev, Ilko K

    2008-03-01

    We present a simple upconversion fiber-optic confocal microscope design using a near-infrared laser for pumping of a rare-earth-doped glass powder. The nonlinear optical frequency conversion process is highly efficient with more than 2% upconversion fluorescence efficiency at a near-infrared pumping wavelength of 1.55 microm. The upconversion confocal design allows the use of conventional Si detectors and 1.55 microm near-infrared pump light. The lateral and axial resolutions of the system were equal to or better than 1.10 and 13.11 microm, respectively.

  18. Reflectance confocal microscopy of oral epithelial tissue using an electrically tunable lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Malik, Bilal H.; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A.; Cheng, Yi-Shing L.; Wright, John M.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2014-02-01

    We present the use of a commercially available electrically tunable lens to achieve axial scanning in a reflectance confocal microscope. Over a 255 μm axial scan range, the lateral and axial resolutions varied from 1-2 μm and 4-14 μm, respectively, dependent on the variable focal length of the tunable lens. Confocal imaging was performed on normal human biopsies from the oral cavity ex vivo. Sub-cellular morphologic features were seen throughout the depth of the epithelium while axially scanning using the focus tunable lens.

  19. Use of digital micromirror devices as dynamic pinhole arrays for adaptive confocal fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Paolo; Wilding, Dean; Soloviev, Oleg; Vdovin, Gleb; Verhaegen, Michel

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present a new confocal laser scanning microscope capable to perform sensorless wavefront optimization in real time. The device is a parallelized laser scanning microscope in which the excitation light is structured in a lattice of spots by a spatial light modulator, while a deformable mirror provides aberration correction and scanning. A binary DMD is positioned in an image plane of the detection optical path, acting as a dynamic array of reflective confocal pinholes, images by a high performance cmos camera. A second camera detects images of the light rejected by the pinholes for sensorless aberration correction.

  20. Biostatistical analysis of quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Giles, C; Albrecht, M A; Lam, V; Takechi, R; Mamo, J C

    2016-12-01

    Semiquantitative immunofluorescence microscopy has become a key methodology in biomedical research. Typical statistical workflows are considered in the context of avoiding pseudo-replication and marginalising experimental error. However, immunofluorescence microscopy naturally generates hierarchically structured data that can be leveraged to improve statistical power and enrich biological interpretation. Herein, we describe a robust distribution fitting procedure and compare several statistical tests, outlining their potential advantages/disadvantages in the context of biological interpretation. Further, we describe tractable procedures for power analysis that incorporates the underlying distribution, sample size and number of images captured per sample. The procedures outlined have significant potential for increasing understanding of biological processes and decreasing both ethical and financial burden through experimental optimization. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. [Morphological characteristics of cornea in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy].

    PubMed

    Le, Qi-hua; Hong, Jia-xu; Zhu, Wen-qing; Sun, Xing-huai; Xu, Jian-jiang

    2011-05-01

    To explore the morphological characteristics on cornea in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) by the application of in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The experimental design was retrospective observation case series (case control study). Twenty-six patients, each diagnosed as bilateral VKC, were enrolled in the study, among which 13 were tarsal form, 5 were bulbar form and the rest were mixed form. Nine patients had the clinical course less than one year, eight subjects longer than three years, and the rest between them. Another twenty-six healthy volunteers with matching age and gender were selected as normal control. All participants had their right eyes examined with the in vivo confocal microscopy (HRT II/RCM). Central cornea and superior peripheral cornea were chosen as the examination points. The images were recorded automatically and cellular density of each layer was analyzed by installed software. Software ImageJ was utilized to analyze the density, diameter, branch number and tortuosity of subbasal nerve fiber in VKC patients. Independent t test was performed to assess the differences on cellular density between VKC patients and normal control, as well as those between central and peripheral cornea in VKC patients. Fisher chi-square test was used to compare the infiltration rate of Langerhans cells in corneal epithelium between VKC patients and controls. ANOVA was applied to assess the differences in cellular density among three subtypes, as well as among different duration of VKC. Independent t-test and chi-square test were applied to analyze the parameters of subbasal nerve fiber. The morphological changes in cornea included the absence of superficial hyperreflective polygonal epithelial cells, infiltration of Langerhans cells in and(or) underneath corneal epithelium and activation of keratocytes in anterior stroma. Corneal epithelium conjunctivalization and stromal neovascularization could be identified in patients with

  2. Analysis of multi-channel microscopy: Spectral self-interference, multi-detector confocal and 4Pi systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Brynmor J.

    Fluorescence microscopy is an important and ubiquitous tool in biological imaging due to the high specificity with which fluorescent molecules can be attached to an organism and the subsequent nondestructive in-vivo imaging allowed. Focused-light microscopies allow three-dimensional fluorescence imaging but their resolution is restricted by diffraction. This effect is particularly limiting in the axial dimension as the diffraction-limited focal volume produced by a lens is more extensive along the optical axis than perpendicular to it. Approaches such as confocal microscopy and 4Pi microscopy have been developed to improve the axial resolution. Spectral Self-Interference Fluorescence Microscopy (SSFM) is another high-axial-resolution technique and is the principal subject of this dissertation. Nanometer-precision localization of a single fluorescent layer has been demonstrated using SSFM. This accuracy compares favorably with the axial resolutions given by confocal and 4Pi systems at similar operating parameters (these resolutions are approximately 350nm and 80nm respectively). This theoretical work analyzes the expected performance of the SSFM system when imaging a general object, i.e. an arbitrary fluorophore density function rather than a single layer. An existing model of SSFM is used in simulations to characterize the system's resolution. Several statistically-based reconstruction methods are applied to show that the expected resolution for SSFM is similar to 4Pi microscopy for a general object but does give very high localization accuracy when the object is known to consist of a limited number of layers. SSFM is then analyzed in a linear systems framework and shown to have strong connections, both physically and mathematically, to a multi-channel 4Pi microscope. Fourier-domain analysis confirms that SSFM cannot be expected to outperform this multi-channel 4Pi instrument. Differences between the channels in spatial-scanning, multi-channel microscopies are then

  3. Comparing phototoxicity during the development of a zebrafish craniofacial bone using confocal and light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Jemielita, Matthew; Taormina, Michael J; Delaurier, April; Kimmel, Charles B; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2013-12-01

    The combination of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins and three-dimensional imaging enables cell-type-specific studies of embryogenesis. Light sheet microscopy, in which fluorescence excitation is provided by a plane of laser light, is an appealing approach to live imaging due to its high speed and efficient use of photons. While the advantages of rapid imaging are apparent from recent work, the importance of low light levels to studies of development is not well established. We examine the zebrafish opercle, a craniofacial bone that exhibits pronounced shape changes at early developmental stages, using both spinning disk confocal and light sheet microscopies of fluorescent osteoblast cells. We find normal and aberrant opercle morphologies for specimens imaged with short time intervals using light sheet and spinning disk confocal microscopies, respectively, under equivalent exposure conditions over developmentally-relevant time scales. Quantification of shapes reveals that the differently imaged specimens travel along distinct trajectories in morphological space. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hydrocarbons in phlogopite from Kasenyi kamafugitic rocks (SW Uganda): cross-correlated AFM, confocal microscopy and Raman imaging

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Daniele; Valdrè, Giovanni; Mesto, Ernesto; Scordari, Fernando; Lacalamita, Maria; Ventura, Giancarlo Della; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Scirè, Salvatore; Schingaro, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a cross-correlated surface and near surface investigation of two phlogopite polytypes from Kasenyi kamafugitic rocks (SW Uganda) by means of advanced Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), confocal microscopy and Raman micro-spectroscopy. AFM revealed comparable nanomorphology and electrostatic surface potential for the two mica polytypes. A widespread presence of nano-protrusions located on the mica flake surface was also observed, with an aspect ratio (maximum height/maximum width) from 0.01 to 0.09. Confocal microscopy showed these features to range from few nm to several μm in dimension, and shapes from perfectly circular to ellipsoidic and strongly elongated. Raman spectra collected across the bubbles showed an intense and convolute absorption in the range 3000–2800 cm−1, associated with weaker bands at 1655, 1438 and 1297 cm−1, indicating the presence of fluid inclusions consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and cycloalkanes, with minor amounts of oxygenated compounds, such as carboxylic acids. High-resolution Raman images provided evidence that these hydrocarbons are confined within the bubbles. This work represents the first direct evidence that phlogopite, a common rock-forming mineral, may be a possible reservoir for hydrocarbons. PMID:28098185

  5. Early Corneal Cellular and Nerve Fiber Pathology in Young Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Identified Using Corneal Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Eszter; Deák, Eszter; Módis, László; Németh, Gábor; Berta, András; Nagy, Annamária; Felszeghy, Eniko; Káposzta, Rita; Malik, Rayaz A; Csutak, Adrienne

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cell density, and subbasal nerve morphology in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus with and without diabetic retinopathy. A total of 28 young patients (mean age, 22.86 ± 9.05 years) with type 1 diabetes, with (n = 18) and without (n = 10) retinopathy, and 17 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 26.53 ± 2.43 years) underwent corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). We found significantly lower epithelial (P < 0.0001) and endothelial (P = 0.001) cell densities and higher keratocyte cell density (P = 0.024) in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to controls. Significantly lower corneal nerve fiber density (P = 0.004), nerve branch density (P = 0.004), total nerve branch density (P = 0.04), and nerve fiber length (P = 0.001), and greater nerve fiber width (P = 0.04) were observed in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to control subjects. Significantly lower epithelial (P < 0.001) and endothelial (P = 0.02) cell densities, nerve branch density (P = 0.02), and nerve fiber length (P = 0.04), and significantly higher keratocyte cell density (P = 0.02) were found in patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy compared to control subjects. Corneal confocal microscopy identifies corneal cellular and small nerve fiber pathology in young patients with type 1 diabetes without retinopathy, which increases in severity in those with retinopathy. Corneal confocal microscopy appears to have considerable use as an imaging biomarker for early subclinical pathology in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Latest advances in confocal microscopy of skin cancers toward guiding patient care: a Mohs surgeon's review and perspective (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehal, Kishwer S.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    Latest advances in confocal microscopy of skin cancers toward guiding patient care: a Mohs surgeon's review and perspective About 350 publications worldwide have reported the ability of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging to detect melanocytic skin lesions in vivo with specificity of 84-88% and sensitivity of 71-92%, and non-melanocytic skin lesions with specificity of 85-97% and sensitivity 100-92%. Lentigo maligna melanoma can be detected with sensitivity of 93% and specificity 82%. While the sensitivity is comparable to that of dermoscopy, the specificity is 2X superior, especially for lightly- and non-pigmented lesions. Dermoscopy combined with RCM imaging is proving to be both highly sensitive and highly specific. Recent studies have reported that the ratio of equivocal (i.e., would have been biopsied) lesions to detected melanomas dropped by ~2X when guided by dermoscopy and RCM imaging, compared to that with dermoscopy alone. Dermoscopy combined with RCM imaging is now being implemented to guide noninvasive diagnosis (to rule out malignancy and biopsy) and to also guide treatment, with promising initial impact: thus far, about 3,000 patients have been saved from biopsies of benign lesions. These are currently under follow-up monitoring. With fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) mosaicing, residual basal cell carcinomas can be detected in Mohs surgically excised fresh tissue ex vivo, with sensitivity of 94-97% and specificity 89-94%. FCM mosaicing is now being implemented for guiding Mohs surgery. To date, about 600 Mohs procedures have been performed, guided with mosaicing, and with pathology being performed in parallel to confirm the final outcome. These latest advances demonstrate the promising ability of RCM and FCM to guide patient care.

  7. Potential Role of In Vivo Confocal Microscopy for Imaging Corneal Nerves in Transthyretin Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Antoine; Cauquil, Cecile; Dupas, Benedicte; Labbé, Antoine; Baudouin, Christophe; Barreau, Emmanuel; Théaudin, Marie; Lacroix, Catherine; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Benmalek, Anouar; Labetoulle, Marc; Adams, David

    2016-09-01

    Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is an important feature of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP). A practical and objective method for the clinical evaluation of SFN is needed to improve the management of this disease. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the corneal nerves, a rapid noninvasive technique, may be used as a surrogate marker of SFN. To determine the correlation of SFN with IVCM in patients with TTR-FAP. A prospective, single-center, cross-sectional controlled study was conducted at the French National Reference Center for TTR-FAP from June 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014. Fifteen patients with TTR-FAP underwent a complete neurologic examination, including Neuropathy Impairment Score of the Lower Limbs, hand grip strength, and evaluation of vegetative dysfunction, as well as electrophysiologic studies (nerve conduction and electrochemical skin conductance) and intraepidermal nerve fiber density quantification. Patients and 15 controls (matched for age and sex) underwent ophthalmologic assessments, including corneal esthesiometry and IVCM. Correlation of corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) with the severity of SFN. Of the 15 patients enrolled in the study, 6 were women (40%); mean (SD) age was 54.4 [13.7] years. The CNFL was shorter in the patients than in controls (13.08 vs 17.57 mm/mm2; difference of 4.49 [95% CI, 0.72 to 8.27]; P = .02). The patients' CNFL correlated with the severity of both autonomic neuropathy assessed by the Compound Autonomic Dysfunction Test (rs = 0.66 [95% CI, 0.22 to 0.87]; P = .008) or electrochemical skin conductance (rs = 0.80 [95% CI, 0.50 to 0.93]; P < .001) and sensorimotor neuropathy assessed using the Neuropathy Impairment Score of the Lower Limbs (rs = -0.58 [95% CI, -0.84 to -0.11]; P = .02). Patients with altered sensory nerve action potentials and intraepidermal nerve fiber density had a shorter CNFL (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). The CNFL could be measured in all

  8. GPU accelerated real-time confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) based on the analog mean-delay (AMD) method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byungyeon; Park, Byungjun; Lee, Seungrag; Won, Youngjae

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated GPU accelerated real-time confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) based on the analog mean-delay (AMD) method. Our algorithm was verified for various fluorescence lifetimes and photon numbers. The GPU processing time was faster than the physical scanning time for images up to 800 × 800, and more than 149 times faster than a single core CPU. The frame rate of our system was demonstrated to be 13 fps