Science.gov

Sample records for quantitative flow visualization

  1. Quantitative Flow Visualization in Unseeded Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Richard B.; Lempert, Walter R.

    The various tools for flow visualization have been significantly expanded over the past several years through the use of molecular scattering and molecular laser-induced fluorescence. These approaches have added the capability of sampling individual small volume elements within a flow, and by using cameras for detection, they are easily extended to sample lines and cross-sectional planes. This localized measurement capability means that these approaches can be made quantitative even in complex and/or unsteady flow fields. If the molecular species is naturally occurring, such as oxygen or nitrogen in air, then no seeding is required. Furthermore, in these applications, images of the flow can be frozen in time by using a short pulse laser for illumination. The distribution of the molecules reflects the true physics of the flow, so even raw images taken in this manner give an immediate understanding of flow field properties. With proper calibration, the images can be further analyzed to yield quantitative information about the flow. In the case of flow tagging, the analysis gives velocity profiles when lines are written, and deformation, vorticity, and dilation with grid patterns. Molecular scattering can be used to give quantitative values of density, temperature, and two-dimensional velocity. This paper presents three such molecular-based approaches: laser-induced fluorescence from oxygen, flow tagging by oxygen excitation, and Rayleigh scattering. These three approaches are chosen because all three can be used in naturally occurring air with no seeding. The raw data from each of these approaches gives an immediate appreciation of the flow structure and further analysis yields accurate values of velocity, temperature, and density. These approaches use readily available laser sources; however, they will be greatly enhanced with new source technologies that are currently under development.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative flow visualization technique using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a new flow-visualization technique based on the absorption of ultraviolet light by ozone. Ozone is an excellent tracer, because as a gas it has the same effective physical properties as air. Ozone strongly absorbs the principal line (253.7 nm) of a mercury lamp, so that when an ozone-traced flow passes between a mercury lamp and a fluorescent screen, a sharp, shadow-like image of the ozone tracer is cast on the screen. Quantitative photometry can be carried out by replacing the screen with ultraviolet detectors that yield the path-integrated column density of ozone in the flow. High-speed quantitative point monitoring (10 Hz at 10 ppb O3) is possible with capillary probes and chemiluminescent analysis.

  3. Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively.

  4. Flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities.

  5. Flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities.

  6. Demonstrate Capabilities of Digital Graphics System to Obtain Quantitative Information from Flow Visualization Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    food coloring. The dye was composed of sugar, propylene glycol, glycerine, and color pigments. The paste dye was diluted with water to make a liquid...34Flow isualization.-Image:-. Dye Concentration, Quantitative 21 08 01 Information,,Digital Xmage.Frocessing- Dynamic fluid 21 04 Knalysis; Digitization...found in a number of flow visualization test facilities..-Itilizin47injected dye fluids, it is possible to visually determine the relative dye

  7. Visualization of moving fluid: quantitative analysis of blood flow velocity using MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K; Matsuda, T; Sakurai, T; Fujita, A; Ohara, H; Okamura, S; Hashimoto, S; Mano, H; Kawai, C; Kiri, M

    1986-04-01

    A new method for the measurement of blood flow using magnetic resonance imaging has been developed. The flow velocities are calculated from the distances that the fluid has moved. The distances are directly visualized by a new pulse sequence. In a phantom study, the measured flow rates showed very good correlation with actual flow rates of up to 20 l/min (3 m/sec). In a volunteer study, pulsatile flow velocities of a large artery were measured with electrocardiographic gating. The flow pattern of a cardiac cycle at the abdominal aorta is similar to that revealed by other methods of measurement, such as Doppler ultrasound. This method allows reasonably accurate quantitative analysis of blood flow in the large arteries.

  8. Visual-Functional Mismatch Between Coronary Angiography, Fractional Flow Reserve, and Quantitative Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Safi, Morteza; Eslami, Vahid; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Vakili, Hossain; Saadat, Habib; Alipourparsa, Saeid; Adibi, Ali; Movahed, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Anatomical and functional mismatches are not uncommon in the assessment of coronary lesions. The aim of this study was to identify clinical and lesion-specific factors affecting angiographic, anatomical, and functional mismatch in intermediate coronary lesions. In patients who underwent coronary angiography for clinical reasons, fractional flow reserve (FFR), and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) analyses for intermediate stenotic lesions were performed simultaneously. Mismatches between the measured values were analyzed. A total of 95 intermediate lesions were assessed simultaneously by visual angiography, FFR, and QCA. The visual-FFR mismatch was found in 40% of the lesions while reverse visual-FFR mismatch was determined in nearly 14% of the lesions. Mismatch and reverse mismatch between FFR and QCA parameters were observed in 10 and 23% of the lesions. FFR value was significant in 32% of the lesions while visually significant stenosis was shown in 61% of the lesions. Among the visual-FFR reverse mismatch group, the prevalence of culprit lesions within the left anterior descending (LAD) was significantly higher than other vessels (p value < 0.02). There were high frequencies of angiographic, QCA, and functional mismatches in analyses of intermediate coronary lesions. LAD lesions showed the highest mismatch. Angiographic or QCA estimation of lesion severity has consistently resulted in inappropriate stenting of functionally nonsignificant lesions or undertreatment of significant lesions based on FFR.

  9. Quantitative flow visualization of fluidized-bed heat exchanger by neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, M; Umekawa, H; Furui, S; Hayashi, K; Takenaka, N

    2004-10-01

    Quantitative flow visualization of a gas-solid fluidized-bed installed vertical tube-bank has been successfully conducted using neutron radiography and image processing technique. The quantitative data of void fraction distribution as well as the fluctuation data are presented. The time-averaged void fraction is well correlated by the drift-flux model. The bubbles formed in the bed, rise along the vertical tubes and the observed bubble size is smaller than that in a free bubbling bed without tube-banks. The bubble diameter is well correlated by the modified Mori and Wen's correlation taking into account the pitch of tube arrangement. The bubble rise velocity is also well correlated by applying the drift-flux model. These results are consistent for both bed materials of Geldart's B- and A-particles, while the bubble size is significantly different between two kinds of particles.

  10. Quantitative visualization of asymmetric gas flow in constricted microchannels by using pressure-sensitive paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Yung; Chen, Ying-Hsuan; Wan, Shaw-An; Wang, Yu-Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Asymmetric flow in constricted microchannel devices was quantitatively investigated using a pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique. For microchannel devices with constriction ratios of 2 : 1 and 5 : 1, detailed pressure maps for the region around the constriction structure were obtained and enabled visualization of the flow field. Symmetric flow was observed in the microchannel device with a constriction ratio of 2 : 1 at the Reynolds number range 2-165. In the microchannel with a constriction ratio of 5 : 1, a deflected flow pattern was clearly identified from PSP measurements at Reynolds numbers exceeding 107. Furthermore, PSP measurements showed a pressure difference of up to 2.5 kPa between the two lateral locations corresponding to y  =  ±0.15 W (W is the microchannel width) downstream of the constriction at a Reynolds number of 279. The pressure difference resulted from asymmetric bifurcation of the flow.

  11. Beam-modulation methods in quantitative and flow visualization holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses heterodyne holographic interferometry and time-average holography with a frequency shifted reference beam. Both methods will be used for the measurement and visualization of internal transonic flows, where the target facility is a flutter cascade. The background and experimental requirements for both methods are reviewed. Measurements using heterodyne holographic interferometry are presented. The performance of the laser required for time-average holography of time-varying transonic flows is discussed.

  12. Flow visualization and quantitative velocity and pressure measurements in simulated single and double brush seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Canacci, V. A.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    A method to visualize and characterize the complex flow fields in simulated single and double brush seals is presented. The brush seal configuration was tested in a gravity fed water tunnel and a pump driven pressurized oil tunnel. Visualization of the flow field revealed regions that are characteristically river jetting, vortical, crossflow and exist upstream, downstream or within the seal. Such flows are especially engendered by variations in fiber void that are spatial and temporal and affect changes in seal leakage and stability. While the effects of interface motion and cylindrical configuration have not been considered herein, it is believed that the observed flow fields and pressure drop patterns characterize flow phenomenology in brush seals. The axial pressure profiles upstream, across and downstream of the brush have been measured under a variety of inlet pressure conditions and the ensuing pressure maps are presented and discussed. Through the application of the Full Flow Field Tracking method developed by the authors, the flow patterns and the accompanying fluid velocities inside the brush were non-intrusively determined and graphically reconstructed.

  13. A new methodology for the quantitative visualization of coherent flow structures in alluvial channels using multibeam echo-sounding (MBES)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, Jim; Simmons, Stephen; Parsons, Daniel; Oberg, Kevin; Czuba, Jonathan; Malzone, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the interactions between turbulence and suspended sediment transport in natural aqueous environments, we ideally require a technique that allows simultaneous measurement of fluid velocity and sediment concentration for the whole flow field. Here, we report on development of a methodology using the water column acoustic backscatter signal from a multibeam echo sounder to simultaneously quantify flow velocities and sediment concentrations. The application of this new technique is illustrated with reference to flow over the leeside of an alluvial sand dune, which allows, for the first time in a field study, quantitative visualization of large-scale, whole flow field, turbulent coherent flow structures associated with the dune leeside that are responsible for suspending bed sediment. This methodology holds great potential for use in a wide range of aqueous geophysical flows.

  14. Improved flow visualization technique for quantitative velocity measurement in small test volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. R.; Marschall, E.; Esdorn, J. H.

    1985-02-01

    A flow visualization technique which utilized a photochromic dye in solution was introduced by Popovich and Hummel in 1967. The dye was activated along narrow trace lines by passing sharply focused beams from an ultraviolet light source through the solution. The movement of the dye traces were recorded by high-speed cinematography and velocities were found from analysis of the resulting pictures. Two variations to this basic method are described. These permit more accurate velocity measurements to be made in certain liquid systems where test volumes are small or near physical barriers, and where the flow is two dimensional or is time dependent. Manufacture of a suitable dye and construction of an inexpensive pulse laser which may be used as an ultraviolet light source are discussed.

  15. Improved quantitative visualization of hypervelocity flow through wavefront estimation based on shadow casting of sinusoidal gratings.

    PubMed

    Medhi, Biswajit; Hegde, Gopalakrishna M; Gorthi, Sai Siva; Reddy, Kalidevapura Jagannath; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2016-08-01

    A simple noninterferometric optical probe is developed to estimate wavefront distortion suffered by a plane wave in its passage through density variations in a hypersonic flow obstructed by a test model in a typical shock tunnel. The probe has a plane light wave trans-illuminating the flow and casting a shadow of a continuous-tone sinusoidal grating. Through a geometrical optics, eikonal approximation to the distorted wavefront, a bilinear approximation to it is related to the location-dependent shift (distortion) suffered by the grating, which can be read out space-continuously from the projected grating image. The processing of the grating shadow is done through an efficient Fourier fringe analysis scheme, either with a windowed or global Fourier transform (WFT and FT). For comparison, wavefront slopes are also estimated from shadows of random-dot patterns, processed through cross correlation. The measured slopes are suitably unwrapped by using a discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based phase unwrapping procedure, and also through iterative procedures. The unwrapped phase information is used in an iterative scheme, for a full quantitative recovery of density distribution in the shock around the model, through refraction tomographic inversion. Hypersonic flow field parameters around a missile-shaped body at a free-stream Mach number of ∼8 measured using this technique are compared with the numerically estimated values. It is shown that, while processing a wavefront with small space-bandwidth product (SBP) the FT inversion gave accurate results with computational efficiency; computation-intensive WFT was needed for similar results when dealing with larger SBP wavefronts.

  16. Ex vivo visualization of human ciliated epithelium and quantitative analysis of induced flow dynamics by using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yuye; Yao, Xinwen; Gamm, Ute A; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Emala, Charles W; Choma, Michael A; Hendon, Christine P

    2017-03-01

    Cilia-driven mucociliary clearance is an important self-defense mechanism of great clinical importance in pulmonary research. Conventional light microscopy possesses the capability to visualize individual cilia and its beating pattern but lacks the throughput to assess the global ciliary activities and flow dynamics. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides depth-resolved cross-sectional images, was recently introduced to this area. Fourteen de-identified human tracheobronchial tissues are directly imaged by two OCT systems: one system centered at 1,300 nm with 6.5 μm axial resolution and 15 μm lateral resolution, and the other centered at 800 nm with 2.72 μm axial resolution and 5.52 μm lateral resolution. Speckle variance images are obtained in both cross-sectional and volumetric modes. After imaging, sample blocks are sliced along the registered OCT imaging plane and processed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for comparison. Quantitative flow analysis is performed by tracking the path-lines of microspheres in a fixed cross-section. Both the flow rate and flow direction are characterized. The speckle variance images successfully segment the ciliated epithelial tissue from its cilia-denuded counterpart, and the results are validated by corresponding H&E stained sections. A further temporal frequency analysis is performed to extract the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) at cilia cites. By adding polyester microspheres as contrast agents, we demonstrate ex vivo imaging of the flow induced by cilia activities of human tracheobronchial samples. This manuscript presents an ex vivo study on human tracheobronchial ciliated epithelium and its induced mucous flow by using OCT. Within OCT images, intact ciliated epithelium is effectively distinguished from cilia-denuded counterpart, which serves as a negative control, by examining the speckle variance images. The cilia beat frequency is extracted by temporal frequency analysis. The flow rate, flow

  17. Handbook of flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen-Jei

    The present conference flow visualization encompasses the fundamental principles of visualization, methods for visualizing different flow types, image processing and computer-assisted methods, and a number of practical applications of the methodologies for studying heat transfer, gas-turbine-disk cooling flows, indoor environments, building aerodynamics, and land vehicles. Specific issues addressed include fluid dynamics, the basics of heat and mass transfer, electrical discharges, liquid crystals, streaming birefringence, speckle photography, Schlieren methods, surface tracing, planar fluorescence imaging in gases, digital processing in interferograms, and ultrasonic image processing. Also addressed are computer-aided flow visualization, flow-field survey data, thermography, flow solutions with scalar variable presentation, and special applications including aerospace and wind-tunnel testing, internal flows, and explosive flows such as shock tubes and blast waves.

  18. A qualitative and quantitative laser-based computer-aided flow visualization method. M.S. Thesis, 1992 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canacci, Victor A.; Braun, M. Jack

    1994-01-01

    The experimental approach presented here offers a nonintrusive, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of full field flow patterns applicable in various geometries in a variety of fluids. This Full Flow Field Tracking (FFFT) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, by means of particle tracers illuminated by a laser light sheet, offers an alternative to Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and intrusive systems such as Hot Wire/Film Anemometry. The method makes obtainable the flow patterns, and allows quantitative determination of the velocities, accelerations, and mass flows of an entire flow field. The method uses a computer based digitizing system attached through an imaging board to a low luminosity camera. A customized optical train allows the system to become a long distance microscope (LDM), allowing magnifications of areas of interest ranging up to 100 times. Presented in addition to the method itself, are studies in which the flow patterns and velocities were observed and evaluated in three distinct geometries, with three different working fluids. The first study involved pressure and flow analysis of a brush seal in oil. The next application involved studying the velocity and flow patterns in a cowl lip cooling passage of an air breathing aircraft engine using water as the working fluid. Finally, the method was extended to a study in air to examine the flows in a staggered pin arrangement located on one side of a branched duct.

  19. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR) can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking complements and provides

  20. Flow visualization in fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymuth, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The history of flow visualization is reviewed and basic methods are examined. A classification of the field of physical flow visualization is presented. The introduction of major methods is discussed and discoveries made using flow visualization are reviewed. Attention is given to limitations and problem areas in the visual evaluation of velocity and vorticity fields and future applications for flow visualization are suggested.

  1. Visualization of relaminarizing flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanath, P. R.; Narasimha, R.; Prabhu, A.

    1978-01-01

    The experiments described in the present paper provided conclusive evidence for the feasibility of achieving reverse transition by several different mechanisms. Turbulent-to-laminar transition in water was visualized by injection of purple and green dyes. Air flows were visualized by colored schlieren photography.

  2. Visualization of internal swirling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, R.; Hafez, M.; Watson, V.

    1993-01-01

    Flow solutions were analyzed using three visualization tools, FAST, UFAT, and Visual3. The simulation models axisymmetric unsteady flow inside a closed circular cylinder with a rotating lid. The capabilities and limitations of these visualization packages are presented. The versatility of these tools enhances scientific study and presentation of numerical results.

  3. Photochromic flow visualization in single-phase and two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Bottcher, J.; Johnson, G.; Marschall, E.

    A photochromic flow visualization technique that was originally introduced by Popovich and Hummel permits qualitative and quantitative velocity information to be obtained in a variety of complex flow situations. Examples of flow visualization studies include drop and bubble formation, distortion of flow fields caused by velocity probes, and others. While qualitative information on flow velocities can be obtained with relative ease, quantitative information cannot be extracted as readily and requires a modification of the visualization technique or use of an iterative evaluation method.

  4. FAITH Water Channel Flow Visualization

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Water channel flow visualization experiments are performed on a three dimensional model of a small hill. This experiment was part of a series of measurements of the complex fluid flow around the hi...

  5. Flow visualization and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naim, A.; Pre, T.; Chevalier, T.

    1989-09-01

    The development of interactive visualization tools for the study of aircraft models is examined. The philosophy underlying the development of interactive hardware is elaborated, and attention is given to types of available visualizations and visualization limits. Features of the image analysis and animation techniques in this domain are discussed.

  6. Flow visualization and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naim, A.; Pre, T.; Chevalier, T.

    1989-10-01

    The development of interactive visualization tools for the study of aircraft models is examined. The philosophy underlying the development of interactive software is elaborated, and attention is given to types of available visualizations and visualization limits. Features of image analysis and animation techniques in this domain are then discussed.

  7. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    PubMed

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  8. Surface-Streamline Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L.; Boyle, M.

    1985-01-01

    Matrix of ink dots covers matte surface of polyester drafting film. Film placed against wind-tunnel wall. Layer of methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) sprayed over dotted area. Ink dot streaklines show several characteristics of flow, including primary saddle point of separations, primary horseshoe vortex and smaller vortex at cylinder/ endwall junction. Surface streamline flow visualization technique suitable for use in low-speed windtunnels or other low-speed gas flows.

  9. Flow feature detection for grid adaptation and flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallinderis, Yannis; Lymperopoulou, Eleni M.; Antonellis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Adaptive grid refinement/coarsening is an important method for achieving increased accuracy of flow simulations with reduced computing resources. Further, flow visualization of complex 3-D fields is a major task of both computational fluid dynamics (CFD), as well as experimental data analysis. A primary issue of adaptive simulations and flow visualization is the reliable detection of the local regions containing features of interest. A relatively wide spectrum of detection functions (sensors) is employed for representative flow cases which include boundary layers, vortices, jets, wakes, shock waves, contact discontinuities, and expansions. The focus is on relatively simple sensors based on local flow field variation using 3-D general hybrid grids consisting of multiple types of elements. A quantitative approach for sensors evaluation and comparison is proposed and applied. It is accomplished via the employment of analytic flow fields. Automation and effectiveness of an adaptive grid or flow visualization process requires the reliable determination of an appropriate threshold for the sensor. Statistical evaluation of the distributions of the sensors results in a proposed empirical formula for the threshold. The qualified sensors along with the automatic threshold determination are tested with more complex flow cases exhibiting multiple flow features.

  10. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  11. Quantification and visualization of injury and regeneration to the ciliated epithelium using quantitative flow imaging and speckle variance optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamm, Ute A.; Huang, Brendan K.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Choma, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Mucociliary flow is an important defense mechanism in the lung to remove inhaled pathogens and pollutants. A disruption of ciliary flow can lead to respiratory infections. Even though patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) either have or are very susceptible to respiratory infections, mucociliary flow is not well understood in the ICU setting. We recently demonstrated that hyperoxia, a consequence of administering supplemental oxygen to a patient in respiratory failure, can lead to a significant reduction of cilia-driven fluid flow in mouse trachea. There are other factors that are relevant to ICU medicine that can damage the ciliated tracheal epithelium, including inhalation injury and endotracheal tube placement. In this study we use two animal models, Xenopus embryo and ex vivo mouse trachea, to analyze flow defects in the injured ciliated epithelium. Injury is generated either mechanically with a scalpel or chemically by calcium chloride (CaCl2) shock, which efficiently but reversibly deciliates the embryo skin. In this study we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to quantify cilia driven fluid flow over the surface of the Xenopus embryo. We additionally visualized damage to the ciliated epithelium by capturing 3D speckle variance images that highlight beating cilia. Mechanical injury disrupted cilia-driven fluid flow over the injured site, which led to a reduction in cilia-driven fluid flow over the whole surface of the embryo (n=7). The calcium chloride shock protocol proved to be highly effective in deciliating embryos (n=6). 3D speckle variance images visualized a loss of cilia and cilia-driven flow was halted immediately after application. We also applied CaCl2-shock to cultured ex vivo mouse trachea (n=8) and found, similarly to effects in Xenopus embryo, an extensive loss of cilia with resulting cessation of flow. We investigated the regeneration of the ciliated epithelium after an 8 day incubation period

  12. NASA Dryden flow visualization facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John H.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the Flow Visualization Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This water tunnel facility is used primarily for visualizing and analyzing vortical flows on aircraft models and other shapes at high-incidence angles. The tunnel is used extensively as a low-cost, diagnostic tool to help engineers understand complex flows over aircraft and other full-scale vehicles. The facility consists primarily of a closed-circuit water tunnel with a 16- x 24-in. vertical test section. Velocity of the flow through the test section can be varied from 0 to 10 in/sec; however, 3 in/sec provides optimum velocity for the majority of flow visualization applications. This velocity corresponds to a unit Reynolds number of 23,000/ft and a turbulence level over the majority of the test section below 0.5 percent. Flow visualization techniques described here include the dye tracer, laser light sheet, and shadowgraph. Limited correlation to full-scale flight data is shown.

  13. A collection of flow visualization techniques used in the Aerodynamic Research Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research on unsteady aerodynamic flows is discussed. Complex flow fields that involve separations, vortex interactions, and transonic flow effects were investigated. Flow visualization techniques are used to obtain a global picture of the flow phenomena before detailed quantitative studies are undertaken. A wide variety of methods are used to visualize fluid flow and a sampling of these methods is presented. It is emphasized that the visualization technique is a thorough quantitative analysis and subsequent physical understanding of these flow fields.

  14. Quantification and visualization of injury and regeneration in the developing ciliated epithelium using quantitative flow imaging and speckle variance optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamm, Ute A.; Huang, Brendan K.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Choma, Michael A.

    2017-02-01

    Premature infants are at a high risk for respiratory diseases owing to an underdeveloped respiratory system that is very susceptible to infection and inflammation. One aspect of respiratory health is the state of the ciliated respiratory epithelium which lines the trachea and bronchi. The ciliated epithelium is responsible for trapping and removing pathogens and pollutants from the lungs and an impairment of ciliary functionality can lead to recurring respiratory infections and subsequent lung damage. Mechanisms of cilia-driven fluid flow itself but also factors influenced by development like ciliary density and flow generation are incompletely understood. Furthermore, medical interventions like intubation and accidental aspiration can lead to focal or diffuse loss of cilia and disruption of flow. In this study we use two animal models, Xenopus embryo and ex vivo mouse trachea, to analyze flow defects in the injured ciliated epithelium. Injury is generated either mechanically with a scalpel or chemically by calcium chloride (CaCl2) shock, which efficiently but reversibly deciliates the embryo skin. In this study we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to quantify cilia driven fluid flow over the surface of the Xenopus embryo. We additionally visualized damage to the ciliated epithelium by capturing 3D speckle variance images that highlight beating cilia. Mechanical injury disrupted cilia-driven fluid flow over the injured site, which led to a reduction in cilia-driven fluid flow over the whole surface of the embryo (n=7). The calcium chloride shock protocol proved to be highly effective in deciliating embryos (n=6). 3D speckle variance images visualized a loss of cilia and cilia-driven flow was halted immediately after application. We also applied CaCl2-shock to cultured ex vivo mouse trachea (n=8) and found, similarly to effects in Xenopus embryo, an extensive loss of cilia with resulting cessation of flow. We

  15. Straightening tubular flow for side-by-side visualization.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paolo; Hauser, Helwig

    2011-12-01

    Flows through tubular structures are common in many fields, including blood flow in medicine and tubular fluid flows in engineering. The analysis of such flows is often done with a strong reference to the main flow direction along the tubular boundary. In this paper we present an approach for straightening the visualization of tubular flow. By aligning the main reference direction of the flow, i.e., the center line of the bounding tubular structure, with one axis of the screen, we are able to natively juxtapose (1.) different visualizations of the same flow, either utilizing different flow visualization techniques, or by varying parameters of a chosen approach such as the choice of seeding locations for integration-based flow visualization, (2.) the different time steps of a time-dependent flow, (3.) different projections around the center line , and (4.) quantitative flow visualizations in immediate spatial relation to the more qualitative classical flow visualization. We describe how to utilize this approach for an informative interactive visual analysis. We demonstrate the potential of our approach by visualizing two datasets from two different fields: an arterial blood flow measurement and a tubular gas flow simulation from the automotive industry.

  16. Flow visualization using moving textures

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Becker, B.

    1995-04-01

    An intuitive way to visualize a flow is to watch particles or textures move in the flow. In this paper, the authors show how texture mapping hardware can produce near-real-time texture motion, using a polygon grid, and one fixed texture. However, the authors make no attempt to indicate the flow direction in a still frame. As discussed here, any anisotropic stretching comes from the velocity gradient, not the velocity itself. The basic idea is to advect the texture by the flow field. In a cited paper, they gave an indication of the wind velocity by advecting the 3D texture coordinates on the polygon vertices of a cloudiness contour surface in a climate simulation. This was slow, because the 3D texture was rendered in software, and because advecting the texture was difficult for time-varying flows. In this paper, they replace the 3D textures by 2D texture maps compatible with hardware rendering, and give techniques for handling time-varying flows more efficiently. The next section gives their technique for the case of 2D steady flows, and the following one discusses the problems of texture distortion. Then they discuss the problems with extending method to time-varying flows, and two solutions. Next they develop compositing methods for visualizing 3D flows. The final section gives their results and conclusions.

  17. Surface flow visualization using indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Surface flow visualization using indicators in the cryogenic wind tunnel which requires a fresh look at materials and procedures to accommodate the new test conditions is described. Potential liquid and gaseous indicators are identified. The particular materials illustrate the various requirements an indicator must fulfill. The indicator must respond properly to the flow phenomenon of interest and must be observable. Boundary layer transition is the most important phenomenon for which flow visualization indicators may be employed. The visibility of a particular indicator depends on utilizing various optical or chemical reactions. Gaseous indicators are more difficult to utilize, but because of their diversity may present unusual and useful opportunities. Factors to be considered in selecting an indicator include handling safety, toxicity, potential for contamination of the tunnel, and cost.

  18. Derived Metric Tensors for Flow Surface Visualization.

    PubMed

    Obermaier, H; Joy, K I

    2012-12-01

    Integral flow surfaces constitute a widely used flow visualization tool due to their capability to convey important flow information such as fluid transport, mixing, and domain segmentation. Current flow surface rendering techniques limit their expressiveness, however, by focusing virtually exclusively on displacement visualization, visually neglecting the more complex notion of deformation such as shearing and stretching that is central to the field of continuum mechanics. To incorporate this information into the flow surface visualization and analysis process, we derive a metric tensor field that encodes local surface deformations as induced by the velocity gradient of the underlying flow field. We demonstrate how properties of the resulting metric tensor field are capable of enhancing present surface visualization and generation methods and develop novel surface querying, sampling, and visualization techniques. The provided results show how this step towards unifying classic flow visualization and more advanced concepts from continuum mechanics enables more detailed and improved flow analysis.

  19. Off-surface infrared flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Gregory S. (Inventor); Obara, Clifford J. (Inventor); Daryabeigi, Kamran (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for visualizing off-surface flows is provided. The method consists of releasing a gas with infrared absorbing and emitting characteristics into a fluid flow and imaging the flow with an infrared imaging system. This method allows for visualization of off-surface fluid flow in-flight. The novelty of this method is found in providing an apparatus for flow visualization which is contained within the aircraft so as not to disrupt the airflow around the aircraft, is effective at various speeds and altitudes, and is longer-lasting than previous methods of flow visualization.

  20. Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  1. Computer-Aided Light Sheet Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  2. Flow Visualization Techniques for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In-flight flow visualization techniques used at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and its predecessor organizations are described. Results from flight tests which visualized surface flows using flow cones, tufts, oil flows, liquid crystals, sublimating chemicals, and emitted fluids have been obtained. Off-surface flow visualization of vortical flow has been obtained from natural condensation and two methods using smoke generator systems. Recent results from flight tests at NASA Langley Research Center using a propylene glycol smoker and an infrared imager are also included. Results from photo-chase aircraft, onboard and postflight photography are presented.

  3. Flow visualization techniques for flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In-flight flow visualization techniques used at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and its predecessor organizations are described. Results from flight tests which visualized surface flows using flow cones, tufts, oil flows, liquid crystals, sublimating chemicals, and emitted fluids were obtained. Off-surface flow visualization of vortical flow was obtained from natural condensation and two methods using smoke generator systems. Recent results from flight tests at NASA Langley Research Center using a propylene glycol smoker and an infrared imager are also included. Results from photo-chase aircraft, onboard and postflight photography are presented.

  4. Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kenwright, David

    2003-01-01

    Unsteady Flow Analysis Toolkit (UFAT) is a computer program that synthesizes motions of time-dependent flows represented by very large sets of data generated in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Prior to the development of UFAT, it was necessary to rely on static, single-snapshot depictions of time-dependent flows generated by flow-visualization software designed for steady flows. Whereas it typically takes weeks to analyze the results of a largescale unsteady-flow simulation by use of steady-flow visualization software, the analysis time is reduced to hours when UFAT is used. UFAT can be used to generate graphical objects of flow visualization results using multi-block curvilinear grids in the format of a previously developed NASA data-visualization program, PLOT3D. These graphical objects can be rendered using FAST, another popular flow visualization software developed at NASA. Flow-visualization techniques that can be exploited by use of UFAT include time-dependent tracking of particles, detection of vortex cores, extractions of stream ribbons and surfaces, and tetrahedral decomposition for optimal particle tracking. Unique computational features of UFAT include capabilities for automatic (batch) processing, restart, memory mapping, and parallel processing. These capabilities significantly reduce analysis time and storage requirements, relative to those of prior flow-visualization software. UFAT can be executed on a variety of supercomputers.

  5. Quantitative Functional Morphology by Imaging Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Vorobjev, Ivan A; Barteneva, Natasha S

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes advantages and limitations of imaging flow cytometry (IFC) based on Imagestream instrumentation using a hybrid approach of morphometric measurement and quantitation of multiparametric fluorescent intensities' distribution in cells and particles. Brief comparison is given of IFC with conventional flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Some future directions of the IFC technology are described and discussed.

  6. Visualization study of flow in axial flow inducer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.

    1972-01-01

    A visualization study of the flow through a three ft dia model of a four bladed inducer, which is operated in air at a flow coefficient of 0.065, is reported in this paper. The flow near the blade surfaces, inside the rotating passages, downstream and upstream of the inducer is visualized by means of smoke, tufts, ammonia filament, and lampblack techniques. Flow is found to be highly three dimensional, with appreciable radial velocity throughout the entire passage. The secondary flows observed near the hub and annulus walls agree with qualitative predictions obtained from the inviscid secondary flow theory.

  7. Exploration of 4D MRI blood flow using stylistic visualization.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, Roy; Oliván Bescós, Javier; Breeuwer, Marcel; Clough, Rachel E; Gröller, M Eduard; ter Haar Romenij, Bart; Vilanova, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Insight into the dynamics of blood-flow considerably improves the understanding of the complex cardiovascular system and its pathologies. Advances in MRI technology enable acquisition of 4D blood-flow data, providing quantitative blood-flow velocities over time. The currently typical slice-by-slice analysis requires a full mental reconstruction of the unsteady blood-flow field, which is a tedious and highly challenging task, even for skilled physicians. We endeavor to alleviate this task by means of comprehensive visualization and interaction techniques. In this paper we present a framework for pre-clinical cardiovascular research, providing tools to both interactively explore the 4D blood-flow data and depict the essential blood-flow characteristics. The framework encompasses a variety of visualization styles, comprising illustrative techniques as well as improved methods from the established field of flow visualization. Each of the incorporated styles, including exploded planar reformats, flow-direction highlights, and arrow-trails, locally captures the blood-flow dynamics and may be initiated by an interactively probed vessel cross-section. Additionally, we present the results of an evaluation with domain experts, measuring the value of each of the visualization styles and related rendering parameters.

  8. Visualizing quantitative microscopy data: History and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sailem, Heba Z; Cooper, Sam; Bakal, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Data visualization is a fundamental aspect of science. In the context of microscopy-based studies, visualization typically involves presentation of the images themselves. However, data visualization is challenging when microscopy experiments entail imaging of millions of cells, and complex cellular phenotypes are quantified in a high-content manner. Most well-established visualization tools are inappropriate for displaying high-content data, which has driven the development of new visualization methodology. In this review, we discuss how data has been visualized in both classical and high-content microscopy studies; as well as the advantages, and disadvantages, of different visualization methods.

  9. Centrifuge in space fluid flow visualization experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype flow visualization system is constructed to examine buoyancy driven flows during centrifugation in space. An axial density gradient is formed by imposing a thermal gradient between the two ends of the test cell. Numerical computations for this geometry showed that the Prandtl number plays a limited part in determining the flow.

  10. Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.

  11. Flow visualization using tobacco mosaic virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David L.; Goreau, Thomas J.; Bush, John W. M.

    2009-03-01

    A flow visualization technique using dilute solutions of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is described. Rod-shaped TMV-particles align with shear, an effect that produces a luminous interference pattern when the TMV solution is viewed between crossed polarizers. Attractive features of this technique are that it is both transparent to the naked eye and benign to fish. We use it here to visualize the evolution and decay of the flows that they produce. We also report that dilute solutions of Kalliroscope are moderately birefringent and so may similarly be used for qualitative in situ flow visualizations.

  12. Flow Visualization in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael Wayne

    This thesis is a collection of novel flow visualizations of two different flat-plate, zero pressure gradient, supersonic, turbulent boundary layers (M = 2.8, Re _theta ~ 82,000, and M = 2.5, Re_ theta ~ 25,000, respectively). The physics of supersonic shear flows has recently drawn increasing attention with the renewed interest in flight at super and hypersonic speeds. This work was driven by the belief that the study of organized, Reynolds -stress producing turbulence structures will lead to improved techniques for the modelling and control of high-speed boundary layers. Although flow-visualization is often thought of as a tool for providing qualitative information about complex flow fields, in this thesis an emphasis is placed on deriving quantitative results from image data whenever possible. Three visualization techniques were applied--'selective cut-off' schlieren, droplet seeding, and Rayleigh scattering. Two experiments employed 'selective cut-off' schlieren. In the first, high-speed movies (40,000 fps) were made of strong density gradient fronts leaning downstream at between 30^circ and 60^ circ and travelling at about 0.9U _infty. In the second experiment, the same fronts were detected with hot-wires and imaged in real time, thus allowing the examination of the density gradient fronts and their associated single-point mass -flux signals. Two experiments employed droplet seeding. In both experiments, the boundary layer was seeded by injecting a stream of acetone through a single point in the wall. The acetone is atomized by the high shear at the wall into a 'fog' of tiny (~3.5mu m) droplets. In the first droplet experiment, the fog was illuminated with copper-vapor laser sheets of various orientations. The copper vapor laser pulses 'froze' the fog motion, revealing a variety of organized turbulence structures, some with characteristic downstream inclinations, others with large-scale roll-up on the scale of delta. In the second droplet experiment, high

  13. A new quantitative indicator of visual fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goussard, Yves; Martin, Bernard; Stark, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Ocular-motor correlates of visual fatigue have remained elusive. Performance of ocular-motor tracking with a wide-band white noise input and the response of the dual-mode, smooth pursuit-saccadic eye movement system as output was used to test visual fatigue. A new visual fatigue indicator, VFI, was defined as the nonlinear remnant after subtracting an identified impulse response contribution to the output. Subjects were required to perform very fatiguing CRT screen reading tasks, and the VFI correlated well with the subjective reports of visual fatigue.

  14. Holographic flow visualization. [of aircraft wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charwat, A. F.; Fourney, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    Holographic visualization techniques are presented of the vortex wake of a lifting wing. The motions of tracer particles in vortical flows are described along with the development of a liquid-drop tracer generator. An analysis is presented of the motion of particles of arbitrary density and size in solid body and potential vortex flows.

  15. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O'HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  16. Water tunnel flow visualization using a laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckner, C.; Curry, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Laser systems for flow visualization in water tunnels (similar to the vapor screen technique used in wind tunnels) can provide two-dimensional cross-sectional views of complex flow fields. This parametric study documents the practical application of the laser-enhanced visualization (LEV) technique to water tunnel testing. Aspects of the study include laser power levels, flow seeding (using flourescent dyes and embedded particulates), model preparation, and photographic techniques. The results of this study are discussed to provide potential users with basic information to aid in the design and setup of an LEV system.

  17. Shuttle RCS primary thruster injector flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L.

    1988-01-01

    An image-transmitting fiber-optics scope with a dry gas purge of the optics head has been used to visually evaluate the condition of surplus thrusters in the Space Shuttle's Reaction Control System; it was subsequently applied to flight thrusters. The technique uses water for flow visualization, and obviates thruster disassembly. The innovative use of gas purging of a fiber-optics head allows the unobstructed and distortion-free viewing of the flow streams, and testing has shown the technique to be ideally suited to injector flow assessments following thruster exposure to extensive contamination.

  18. Flow visualization experiments in a porous nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cielak, Z.; Kinney, R. B.; Perkins, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental approach is described for the study of nozzle flows with large wall-transpiration rates. Emphasizing a qualitative understanding of the flow, the technique uses the hydraulic analogy, whereby a compressible gas flow is simulated by a water flow having a free surface. For simplicity, the simulated gas flow is taken to be two-dimensional. A nozzle with porous walls in the throat region has been developed for use on a water table. A technique for visualizing the transpired fluid has also been devised. These are discussed, and preliminary results are presented which illustrate the success of the experimental approach.

  19. Visualizing Hyporheic Flow Through Bedforms Using Dye Experiments and Simulation.

    PubMed

    Stonedahl, Susa H; Roche, Kevin R; Stonedahl, Forrest; Packman, Aaron I

    2015-11-18

    Advective exchange between the pore space of sediments and the overlying water column, called hyporheic exchange in fluvial environments, drives solute transport in rivers and many important biogeochemical processes. To improve understanding of these processes through visual demonstration, we created a hyporheic flow simulation in the multi-agent computer modeling platform NetLogo. The simulation shows virtual tracer flowing through a streambed covered with two-dimensional bedforms. Sediment, flow, and bedform characteristics are used as input variables for the model. We illustrate how these simulations match experimental observations from laboratory flume experiments based on measured input parameters. Dye is injected into the flume sediments to visualize the porewater flow. For comparison virtual tracer particles are placed at the same locations in the simulation. This coupled simulation and lab experiment has been used successfully in undergraduate and graduate laboratories to directly visualize river-porewater interactions and show how physically-based flow simulations can reproduce environmental phenomena. Students took photographs of the bed through the transparent flume walls and compared them to shapes of the dye at the same times in the simulation. This resulted in very similar trends, which allowed the students to better understand both the flow patterns and the mathematical model. The simulations also allow the user to quickly visualize the impact of each input parameter by running multiple simulations. This process can also be used in research applications to illustrate basic processes, relate interfacial fluxes and porewater transport, and support quantitative process-based modeling.

  20. Several flow visualization and survey techniques developed recently in HARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiechuan; Zhang, Xiaodi; Helian, Huizheng; Zhao, Dong

    1992-12-01

    This paper depicts three flow visualization and survey techniques developed recently at Harbin Aerodynamics Research Institute (HARI), i.e., color helium bubble flow visualization, combined light-sheet flow visualization, and computerized color graphic flow visualization. The principle, performance, and application of them are given in this paper.

  1. Flow visualization in a simulated brush seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Canacci, V.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    A method to visualize and characterize the complex flow fields in simulated brush seals is presented. The brush seal configuration was tested in a water and then in an oil tunnel. The visualization procedure revealed typical regions that are rivering, jetting, vortical or lateral flows and exist upstream, downstream or within the seal. Such flows are engendered by variations in fiber void that are spatial and temporal and affect changes in seal leakage and stability. While the effects of interface motion for linear or cylindrical configurations have not been considered herein, it is believed that the observed flow fields characterize flow phenomenology in both circular and linear brush seals. The axial pressure profiles upstream, across and downstream of the brush in the oil tunnel have been measured under a variety of inlet pressure conditions and the ensuing pressure maps are presented and discussed.

  2. Graphics and Flow Visualization of Computer Generated Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kathong, M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1987-01-01

    Flow field variables are visualized using color representations described on surfaces that are interpolated from computational grids and transformed to digital images. Techniques for displaying two and three dimensional flow field solutions are addressed. The transformations and the use of an interactive graphics program for CFD flow field solutions, called PLOT3D, which runs on the color graphics IRIS workstation are described. An overview of the IRIS workstation is also described.

  3. Velocity visualization in gaseous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Hiller, B.; Hassa, C.; Booman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques yielding simultaneous, multiple-point measurements of velocity in reacting or nonreacting flow fields have the potential to significantly impact basic and applied studies of fluid mechanics. This research program is aimed at investigating several candidate schemes which could provide such measurement capability. The concepts under study have in common the use of a laser source (to illuminate a column, a grid, a plane or a volume in the flow) and the collection of light at right angles (from Mie scattering, fluorescence, phosphorescence or chemiluminescence) using a multi-element solid-state camera (100 x 100 array of photodiodes). The work will include an overview and a status report of work in progress with particular emphasis on the method of Doppler-modulated absorption.

  4. Flow field visualization about external axial corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to visualize the flow field about external axial corners. The investigation was initiated to provide answers to questions about the inviscid flow pattern for continuing numerical investigations. Symmetrical and asymmetrical corner models were tested at a Reynolds number per meter of 60,700,000. Oil-flow and vapor-screen photographs were taken for both models at angle of attack and yaw. The paper presents the results of the investigation in the form of oil-flow photographs and the surrounding shock wave location obtained from the vapor screens.

  5. Noninvasive Visualization of Human Capillary Vessel Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masao

    2005-11-01

    Human blood flows are highly susceptible to physical and health conditions. Hence quantitative evaluation of Blood flow is a useful parameter in the physical check up of individuals. However, the most convenient method is taking a blood sample, which can only examine ex vivo Blood condition. We turn our attention to the observation of the capillary loops of blood vessels in the finger skin nail fold, in which blood flow can be easily visualized without using complicated specialized tools other than capillaroscopy. We modified both the spatial and temporal resolution in capillaroscopy. A deep-focus high magnification zoom lens and a high speed video camera of 1000 fps allowed us to observe the motion of red blood cells, white blood cells and plasmas. Quantitative analysis of blood flow allowed us to observe the motion of red blood cells in capillary vessels with a diameter of about 10 micro meters. We discuss the quantitative evaluation of blood flow velocity in artery capillary vessels. We also conducted shape analysis of the capillary vessel, by using the level set method. By analyzing the obtained level set function, quantitative evaluation of the capillary blood shape, such as characteristic diameters and curvatures, are carried out.

  6. Holographic flow visualization at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1979-01-01

    Holographic flow visualization systems at two NASA Langley facilities, a hypersonic blow-down tunnel using CF4 gas and an expansion tube with very short test time, are described. A pulsed ruby laser is used at a CF4 tunnel for single pulse holography, double pulse with several minutes between exposures, and dual plate holographic interferometry. Shadowgraph, schlieren, and interferograms are reconstructed from the holograms in a separate reconstruction lab. At the expansion tube the short run time of 200 microseconds requires precise triggering of its double pulsed ruby laser. With double pulse capability of 20 to 1200 microseconds pulse separation, one pulse can occur before and one later after flow is established to obtain fringe free background interferograms (perfect infinite fringe) or both pulses can occur during flow in order to study flow instabilities. Holograms are reconstructed at the expansion tube with an in-place setup which makes use of a high power CW Argon laser and common optics for both recording and reconstructing the holograms. The holographic systems at the CF4 tunnel and expansion tube are operated routinely for flow visualization by tunnel technicians. Typical flow visualization photographs from both facilities are presented.

  7. Holographic Flow Visualization at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    2005-01-01

    Holographic flow visualization systems at two NASA Langley facilities, a hypersonic blow-down tunnel using CF4 gas and an expansion tube with very short test time, are described. A pulsed ruby laser is used at a CF4 tunnel for single pulse holography, double pulse with several minutes between exposures, and dual plate holographic interferometry. Shadow-graph, schlieren, and interferograms are reconstructed from the holograms in a separate reconstruction lab. At the expansion tube the short run time of 200 microseconds requires precise triggering of its double pulsed ruby laser. With pulse separation, one pulse can occur before and one after flow is established to obtain fringe free background interferograms (perfect infinite fringe) or both pulses can occur during flow in order to study flow instabilities. Holograms are reconstructed at the expansion tube with an in-place setup which makes use of a high power CW Argon laser and common optics for both recording and reconstructing the holograms. The holographic systems at the CF4 tunnel and expansion tube are operated routinely for flow visualization by tunnel technicians. Typical flow visualization photographs from both facilities are presented.

  8. Interactive visualization and analysis of transitional flow.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Gregory P; Calo, Victor M; Gaither, Kelly P

    2008-01-01

    A stand-alone visualization application has been developed by a multi-disciplinary, collaborative team with the sole purpose of creating an interactive exploration environment allowing turbulent flow researchers to experiment and validate hypotheses using visualization. This system has specific optimizations made in data management, caching computations, and visualization allowing for the interactive exploration of datasets on the order of 1TB in size. Using this application, the user (co-author Calo) is able to interactively visualize and analyze all regions of a transitional flow volume, including the laminar, transitional and fully turbulent regions. The underlying goal of the visualizations produced from these transitional flow simulations is to localize turbulent spots in the laminar region of the boundary layer, determine under which conditions they form, and follow their evolution. The initiation of turbulent spots, which ultimately lead to full turbulence, was located via a proposed feature detection condition and verified by experimental results. The conditions under which these turbulent spots form and coalesce are validated and presented.

  9. Photochromic Polyaphrons For Visualization Of Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbaraman, M. R.; Ostermier, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    Drops of ultraviolet-activated dyes encapsulated in liquid films reveal flow patterns. Method based on visualization material composed of polyaphrons containing photochromic dye. Polyaphrons are droplets of organic liquid encapsulated in thin layer of another liquid, which holds droplets stably by surface tension. Photochromic dye within a polyaphron acquires color temporarily after exposure to strong ultraviolet light.

  10. B-1 AFT Nacelle Flow Visualization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celniker, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A 2-month program was conducted to perform engineering evaluation and design tasks to prepare for visualization and photography of the airflow along the aft portion of the B-1 nacelles and nozzles during flight test. Several methods of visualizing the flow were investigated and compared with respect to cost, impact of the device on the flow patterns, suitability for use in the flight environment, and operability throughout the flight. Data were based on a literature search and discussions with the test personnel. Tufts were selected as the flow visualization device in preference to several other devices studied. A tuft installation pattern has been prepared for the right-hand aft nacelle area of B-1 air vehicle No.2. Flight research programs to develop flow visualization devices other than tufts for use in future testing are recommended. A design study was conducted to select a suitable motion picture camera, to select the camera location, and to prepare engineering drawings sufficient to permit installation of the camera. Ten locations on the air vehicle were evaluated before the selection of the location in the horizontal stabilizer actuator fairing. The considerations included cost, camera angle, available volume, environmental control, flutter impact, and interference with antennas or other instrumentation.

  11. Visualizing Flow of Uncertainty through Analytical Processes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcai; Yuan, Guo-Xun; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty can arise in any stage of a visual analytics process, especially in data-intensive applications with a sequence of data transformations. Additionally, throughout the process of multidimensional, multivariate data analysis, uncertainty due to data transformation and integration may split, merge, increase, or decrease. This dynamic characteristic along with other features of uncertainty pose a great challenge to effective uncertainty-aware visualization. This paper presents a new framework for modeling uncertainty and characterizing the evolution of the uncertainty information through analytical processes. Based on the framework, we have designed a visual metaphor called uncertainty flow to visually and intuitively summarize how uncertainty information propagates over the whole analysis pipeline. Our system allows analysts to interact with and analyze the uncertainty information at different levels of detail. Three experiments were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and intuitiveness of our design.

  12. Flow cytometric determination of quantitative immunophenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redelman, Douglas; Ensign, Wayne; Roberts, Don

    2001-05-01

    Immunofluorescent flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes is most commonly used to identify and enumerate cells defined by one or more clusters of differentiation (CD) antigens. Although less widely employed, quantitative tests that measure the amounts of CD antigens expressed per cell are used in some situations such as the characterization of lymphomas and leukocytes or the measurement of CD38 on CD3plu8pluT cells in HIV infected individuals. The CD antigens used to identify leukocyte populations are functionally important molecules and it is known that under- or over-expression of some CD antigens can affect cellular responses. For example, high or low expression of CD19 on B cells is associated with autoimmune conditions or depressed antibody responses, respectively. In the current studies, the quantitative expression of CD antigens on T cells, B cells and monocytes was determined in a group of age and sex-matched Marines at several times before and after training exercises. There was substantial variation among these individuals in the quantitative expression of CD antigens and in the number of cells in various populations. However, there was relatively little variation within individuals during the two months they were examined. Thus, the number of cells in leukocyte sub-populations and the amount of CD antigens expressed per cell appear to comprise a characteristic quantitative immunophenotype.

  13. Flow visualization of CFD using graphics workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasinski, Thomas; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Rogers, Stuart; Bancroft, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    High performance graphics workstations are used to visualize the fluid flow dynamics obtained from supercomputer solutions of computational fluid dynamic programs. The visualizations can be done independently on the workstation or while the workstation is connected to the supercomputer in a distributed computing mode. In the distributed mode, the supercomputer interactively performs the computationally intensive graphics rendering tasks while the workstation performs the viewing tasks. A major advantage of the workstations is that the viewers can interactively change their viewing position while watching the dynamics of the flow fields. An overview of the computer hardware and software required to create these displays is presented. For complex scenes the workstation cannot create the displays fast enough for good motion analysis. For these cases, the animation sequences are recorded on video tape or 16 mm film a frame at a time and played back at the desired speed. The additional software and hardware required to create these video tapes or 16 mm movies are also described. Photographs illustrating current visualization techniques are discussed. Examples of the use of the workstations for flow visualization through animation are available on video tape.

  14. The art and science of flow control - case studies using flow visualization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvi, F. S.; Cattafesta, L. N., III

    2010-04-01

    Active flow control (AFC) has been the focus of significant research in the last decade. This is mainly due to the potentially substantial benefits it affords. AFC applications range from the subsonic to the supersonic (and beyond) regime for both internal and external flows. These applications are wide and varied, such as controlling flow transition and separation over various external components of the aircraft to active management of separation and flow distortion in engine components and over turbine and compressor blades. High-speed AFC applications include control of flow oscillations in cavity flows, supersonic jet screech, impinging jets, and jet-noise control. In this paper we review some of our recent applications of AFC through a number of case studies that illustrate the typical benefits as well as limitations of present AFC methods. The case studies include subsonic and supersonic canonical flowfields such as separation control over airfoils, control of supersonic cavity flows and impinging jets. In addition, properties of zero-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators are also discussed as they represent one of the most widely studied actuators used for AFC. In keeping with the theme of this special issue, the flowfield properties and their response to actuation are examined through the use of various qualitative and quantitative flow visualization methods, such as smoke, shadowgraph, schlieren, planar-laser scattering, and Particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results presented here clearly illustrate the merits of using flow visualization to gain significant insight into the flow and its response to AFC.

  15. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.H.

    1993-12-01

    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  16. Improved visualization of flow field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    1991-01-01

    A capability was developed that makes it possible to apply to measured flow field data the visualization tools developed to display numerical solutions for computational fluid dynamic problems. The measurement monitor surface (MMS) procedure was applied to the analysis of flow field measurements within a low aspect ratio transonic axial flow fan rotor obtained with 2-D laser anemometry. The procedure generates input for the visualization tools developed to display numerical solutions for computational fluid dynamics problems. The relative Mach number contour plots obtained by this method resemble the conventional contour plots obtained by more traditional methods. The results show that the MMS procedure can be used to generate input for the multidimensional processing and analysis tools developed for data from numerical flow field simulations. They show that an experimenter can apply the MMS procedure to his data and then use an interactive graphics program to display scalar quantities like the Mach number by profiles, carpet plots, contour lines, and surfaces using various colors. Also, flow directionality can be shown by display of vector fields and particle traces.

  17. Hydraulic flow visualization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Karidis, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus and method for visualizing liquid flow. Pulses of gas bubbles are introduced into a liquid flow stream and a strobe light is operated at a frequency related to the frequency of the gas pulses to shine on the bubbles as they pass through the liquid stream. The gas pulses pass through a probe body having a valve element, and a reciprocating valve stem passes through the probe body to operate the valve element. A stem actuating device comprises a slidable reciprocating member, operated by a crank arm. The actuated member is adjustable to adjust the amount of the valve opening during each pulse.

  18. Hydraulic flow visualization method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Karidis, P.G.

    1984-12-11

    An apparatus and method for visualizing liquid flow. Pulses of gas bubbles are introduced into a liquid flow stream and a strobe light is operated at a frequency related to the frequency of the gas pulses to shine on the bubbles as they pass through the liquid stream. The gas pulses pass through a probe body having a valve element, and a reciprocating valve stem passes through the probe body to operate the valve element. A stem actuating device comprises a slidable reciprocating member, operated by a crank arm. The actuated member is adjustable to adjust the amount of the valve opening during each pulse.

  19. A vapor generator for transonic flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Robert A.; Hess, Robert W.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A vapor generator was developed for use in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). Propylene glycol was used as the vapor material. The vapor generator system was evaluated in a laboratory setting and then used in the TDT as part of a laser light sheet flow visualization system. The vapor generator provided satisfactory seeding of the air flow with visible condensate particles, smoke, for tests ranging from low subsonic through transonic speeds for tunnel total pressures from atmospheric pressure down to less than 0.1 atmospheric pressure.

  20. Flow visualization in capillary pumped loop systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kolos, K.R.; Herold, K.E.; Kroliczek, E.J.; Swanson, T.D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes on-going efforts to better understand capillary pumped loop (CPL) physics using flow visualization as the primary tool. Design issues include vapor bubble dynamics on the liquid side of the wick and pressure fluctuations. Significant progress has been made in understanding these issues through flow visualization. Recent efforts revolve around design and testing of a water CPL running at an evaporator temperature of approximately 313 to 323 K. Ground testing confirmed the ability to run a CPL at sub-atmospheric pressure. However, the low pressure introduces several design and operational aspects that are unique as compared to ammonia CPL practice. These aspects are summarized and described. Current focus is on a water CPL flight experiment called VIEW-CPL, which is expected to fly on the Shuttle Middeck around November 1996. The design and proposed test objectives for VIEW-CPL are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Multi-Hull Flow Visualization: An Investigation of Flow Visualization Techniques for Trimaran Hulls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    flow on the surface of the hulls is boiled linseed oil mixed with artist’s paint. Particle Image Velocimetry is the recommended method for...hulls is boiled linseed oil mixed with artist’s paint. Particle Image Velocimetry is the recommended method for visualizing flow around the hulls...3 Artists’ Paint and Linseed Oil Mixture

  2. A General Quantitative Method for Evaluating the Visual Significance of Reflected Glare, Utilizing Visual Performance Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, H. Richard

    1963-01-01

    The results of all basic measurements and calculations of reflected glare for different lighting materials and conditions are presented in a series of tables and charts. All basic concepts of a quantitative method for evaluating the visual significance of reflected glare are identified in relationship to different types of visual performance. The…

  3. 3-D Unsteady Flow Visualization in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, David A.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Presently, there are very few visualization systems available for time-dependent flow fields. Although existing visualization systems for instantaneous flow fields may be used to view time-dependent flow fields at discrete points in time, the time variable is usually not considered in the visualization technique. A simple and effective approach for visualizing time-dependent flow fields using streaklines is presented. Some results from this approach are shown.

  4. Flow Charts: Visualization of Vector Fields on Arbitrary Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Shi; Tricoche, Xavier; Weiskopf, Daniel; Hansen, Charles

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel flow visualization method called Flow Charts, which uses a texture atlas approach for the visualization of flows defined over curved surfaces. In this scheme, the surface and its associated flow are segmented into overlapping patches, which are then parameterized and packed in the texture domain. This scheme allows accurate particle advection across multiple charts in the texture domain, providing a flexible framework that supports various flow visualization techniques. The use of surface parameterization enables flow visualization techniques requiring the global view of the surface over long time spans, such as Unsteady Flow LIC (UFLIC), particle-based Unsteady Flow Advection Convolution (UFAC), or dye advection. It also prevents visual artifacts normally associated with view-dependent methods. Represented as textures, Flow Charts can be naturally integrated into hardware accelerated flow visualization techniques for interactive performance. PMID:18599918

  5. Visualization tools for vorticity transport analysis in incompressible flow.

    PubMed

    Sadlo, Filip; Peikert, Ronald; Sick, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    Vortices are undesirable in many applications while indispensable in others. It is therefore of common interest to understand their mechanisms of creation. This paper aims at analyzing the transport of vorticity inside incompressible flow. The analysis is based on the vorticity equation and is performed along pathlines which are typically started in upstream direction from vortex regions. Different methods for the quantitative and explorative analysis of vorticity transport are presented and applied to CFD simulations of water turbines. Simulation quality is accounted for by including the errors of meshing and convergence into analysis and visualization. The obtained results are discussed and interpretations with respect to engineering questions are given.

  6. Dual exposure interferometry. [gas dynamics and flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeets, G.; George, A.

    1982-01-01

    The application of dual exposure differential interferometry to gas dynamics and flow visualization is discussed. A differential interferometer with Wallaston prisms can produce two complementary interference fringe systems, depending on the polarization of the incident light. If these two systems are superimposed on a film, with one exposure during a phenomenon, the other before or after, the phenomenon will appear on a uniform background. By regulating the interferometer to infinite fringe distance, a resolution limit of approximately lambda/500 can be obtained in the quantitative analysis of weak phase objects. This method was successfully applied to gas dynamic investigations.

  7. F-18 HARV forebody surface flow visualization using dye flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A glycol-based liquid, released through very small holes around the nose of an F/A-18 flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, for its High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) program, aids researchers in flow visualization studies. This photograph, taken postflight, shows the airflow pattern at about 30 degrees angle of attack. The program was conducted jointly with NASA's Langley Research Center.

  8. Visualization of vortical flows in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, K. N.; Emel'yanov, V. N.; Teterina, I. V.; Yakovchuk, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    The concepts and methods of the visual representation of fluid dynamics computations of vortical flows are studied. Approaches to the visualization of vortical flows based on the use of various definitions of a vortex and various tests for its identification are discussed. Examples of the visual representation of solutions to some fluid dynamics problems related to the computation of vortical flows in jets, channels, and cavities and of the computation of separated flows occurring in flows around bodies of various shapes are discussed.

  9. Visualization of Flow Alternatives, Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Heuser, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Background The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) 'Missouri River Master Water Control Manual' (Master Manual) review has resulted in consideration of many flow alternatives for managing the water in the river (COE, 2001; 1998a). The purpose of this report is to present flow-management alternative model results in a way that can be easily visualized and understood. This report was updated in October 2001 to focus on the specific flow-management alternatives presented by the COE in the 'Master Manual Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement' (RDEIS; COE, 2001). The original version (February 2000) is available by clicking here. The COE, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Missouri River states, and Missouri River basin tribes have been participating in discussions concerning water management of the Missouri River mainstem reservoir system (MRMRS), the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project, and the Kansas River reservoir system since 1986. These discussions include general input to the revision of the Master Manual as well as formal consultation under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act. In 2000, the FWS issued a Biological Opinion that prescribed changes to reservoir management on the Missouri River that were believed to be necessary to preclude jeopardy to three endangered species, the pallid sturgeon, piping plover, and interior least tern (USFWS, 2000). The combined Missouri River system is large and complex, including many reservoirs, control structures, and free-flowing reaches extending over a broad region. The ability to assess future impacts of altered management scenarios necessarily involves complex, computational models that attempt to integrate physical, chemical, biological, and economic effects. Graphical visualization of the model output is intended to improve understanding of the differences among flow-management alternatives.

  10. Development of image processing techniques for applications in flow visualization and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, Peter J.; Shoe, Bridget; Toy, Norman; Savory, Eric; Tahouri, Bahman

    1991-01-01

    A comparison between two flow visualization studies of an axi-symmetric circular jet issuing into still fluid, using two different experimental techniques, is described. In the first case laser induced fluorescence is used to visualize the flow structure, whilst smoke is utilized in the second. Quantitative information was obtained from these visualized flow regimes using two different digital imaging systems. Results are presented of the rate at which the jet expands in the downstream direction and these compare favorably with the more established data.

  11. Development of image processing techniques for applications in flow visualization and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, Peter J.; Shoe, Bridget; Toy, Norman; Savory, Eric; Tahouri, Bahman

    1991-01-01

    A comparison between two flow visualization studies of an axi-symmetric circular jet issuing into still fluid, using two different experimental techniques, is described. In the first case laser induced fluorescence is used to visualize the flow structure, whilst smoke is utilized in the second. Quantitative information was obtained from these visualized flow regimes using two different digital imaging systems. Results are presented of the rate at which the jet expands in the downstream direction and these compare favorably with the more established data.

  12. CANDU in-reactor quantitative visual-based inspection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochefort, P. A.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes two separate visual-based inspection procedures used at CANDU nuclear power generating stations. The techniques are quantitative in nature and are delivered and operated in highly radioactive environments with access that is restrictive, and in one case is submerged. Visual-based inspections at stations are typically qualitative in nature. For example a video system will be used to search for a missing component, inspect for a broken fixture, or locate areas of excessive corrosion in a pipe. In contrast, the methods described here are used to measure characteristic component dimensions that in one case ensure ongoing safe operation of the reactor and in the other support reactor refurbishment. CANDU reactors are Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). The reactor vessel is a horizontal cylindrical low-pressure calandria tank approximately 6 m in diameter and length, containing heavy water as a neutron moderator. Inside the calandria, 380 horizontal fuel channels (FC) are supported at each end by integral end-shields. Each FC holds 12 fuel bundles. The heavy water primary heat transport water flows through the FC pressure tube, removing the heat from the fuel bundles and delivering it to the steam generator. The general design of the reactor governs both the type of measurements that are required and the methods to perform the measurements. The first inspection procedure is a method to remotely measure the gap between FC and other in-core horizontal components. The technique involves delivering vertically a module with a high-radiation-resistant camera and lighting into the core of a shutdown but fuelled reactor. The measurement is done using a line-of-sight technique between the components. Compensation for image perspective and viewing elevation to the measurement is required. The second inspection procedure measures flaws within the reactor's end shield FC calandria tube rolled joint area. The FC calandria tube (the outer shell of the FC) is

  13. Flow visualization of the water impact problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Hans; Krechetnikov, Rouslan

    2012-11-01

    When a flat plate impacts the surface of an incompressible viscous liquid, the liquid directly beneath the plate is set into motion and an ejecta - a high speed jet - forms at the plate edge giving rise to the familiar ``splashing'' behavior. We present the results of our experimental investigation of the water impact problem using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system to quantify the flow field beneath the plate immediately after impact with the speeds of the order of 1 m / s . The early-time formation of the ejecta for this flat plate geometry, including the influences of liquid viscosity (1 < μ < 10 mPa . s) and surface tension (20 < σ < 70 mN / m), are also studied with the PIV and high speed photography. Quantitative results for the flow field in the region beneath the plate and the growth of the ejecta are compared to existing and newly-developed theories.

  14. Quantitative Estimation of Tissue Blood Flow Rate.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Gillian M; Prise, Vivien E; Cunningham, Vincent J

    2016-01-01

    The rate of blood flow through a tissue (F) is a critical parameter for assessing the functional efficiency of a blood vessel network following angiogenesis. This chapter aims to provide the principles behind the estimation of F, how F relates to other commonly used measures of tissue perfusion, and a practical approach for estimating F in laboratory animals, using small readily diffusible and metabolically inert radio-tracers. The methods described require relatively nonspecialized equipment. However, the analytical descriptions apply equally to complementary techniques involving more sophisticated noninvasive imaging.Two techniques are described for the quantitative estimation of F based on measuring the rate of tissue uptake following intravenous administration of radioactive iodo-antipyrine (or other suitable tracer). The Tissue Equilibration Technique is the classical approach and the Indicator Fractionation Technique, which is simpler to perform, is a practical alternative in many cases. The experimental procedures and analytical methods for both techniques are given, as well as guidelines for choosing the most appropriate method.

  15. Visualizing and quantitating sequence-dependent GPCR recycling.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Shanna L; Soohoo, Amanda L; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in direct imaging have given us a new appreciation of the spatial and temporal dynamics of membrane trafficking processes, and have allowed us to ask questions that were difficult to address with traditional methods. A relevant example of this is protein sorting in the endosome, which serves as the primary sorting station for proteins internalized from the cell surface. In this chapter, we discuss fluorescence imaging protocols to directly visualize and quantitate the recycling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-a highly physiologically relevant family of signaling receptors-in real time in living cells. The protocols allow direct visualization and quantitation of both GPCR exit from the endosome and GPCR delivery to the cell surface. The methods may be extended to study the endolysosomal sorting of many proteins that undergoes endocytic cycling, and may be adapted to other organelles and systems where proteins are sorted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization using photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and a visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. The photogrammetric reconstruction technique and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment are described. Results of the computer-aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images with CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  17. A quantitative visual dashboard to explore exposures to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Exposure Prioritization (Ex Priori) model features a simplified, quantitative visual dashboard to explore exposures across chemical space. Diverse data streams are integrated within the interface such that different exposure scenarios for “individual,” “population,” or “professional” time-use profiles can be interchanged to tailor exposure and quantitatively explore multi-chemical signatures of exposure, internalized dose (uptake), body burden, and elimination. Ex Priori will quantitatively extrapolate single-point estimates of both exposure and internal dose for multiple exposure scenarios, factors, products, and pathways. Currently, EPA is investigating its usefulness in life cycle analysis, insofar as its ability to enhance exposure factors used in calculating characterization factors for human health. Presented at 2016 Annual ISES Meeting held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, from 9-13 October 2016.

  18. A quantitative visual dashboard to explore exposures to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Exposure Prioritization (Ex Priori) model features a simplified, quantitative visual dashboard to explore exposures across chemical space. Diverse data streams are integrated within the interface such that different exposure scenarios for “individual,” “population,” or “professional” time-use profiles can be interchanged to tailor exposure and quantitatively explore multi-chemical signatures of exposure, internalized dose (uptake), body burden, and elimination. Ex Priori will quantitatively extrapolate single-point estimates of both exposure and internal dose for multiple exposure scenarios, factors, products, and pathways. Currently, EPA is investigating its usefulness in life cycle analysis, insofar as its ability to enhance exposure factors used in calculating characterization factors for human health. Presented at 2016 Annual ISES Meeting held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, from 9-13 October 2016.

  19. Synchronization trigger control system for flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cinematography or holographic interferometry for dynamic flow visualization in an internal combustion engine requires a control device that globally synchronizes camera and light source timing at a predefined shaft encoder angle. The device is capable of 0.35 deg resolution for rotational speeds of up to 73 240 rpm. This was achieved by implementing the shaft encoder signal addressed look-up table (LUT) and appropriate latches. The developed digital signal processing technique achieves 25 nsec of high speed triggering angle detection by using direct parallel bit comparison of the shaft encoder digital code with a simulated angle reference code, instead of using angle value comparison which involves more complicated computation steps. In order to establish synchronization to an AC reference signal whose magnitude is variant with the rotating speed, a dynamic peak followup synchronization technique has been devised. This method scrutinizes the reference signal and provides the right timing within 40 nsec. Two application examples are described.

  20. Flow Visualization of Artificially Generated Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; Palframan, Mark

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the potential mechanisms for hairpin packet formation in fully turbulent boundary layers, a flow visualization study of artificially generated hairpin vortices in an otherwise laminar boundary layer is performed. The experiments are conducted in a recently constructed free surface water channel at Lafayette College. A new method to artificially generate individual hairpin vortices is employed which utilizes a flexible membrane which is inflated to create transient hemispherical protrusions on a flat plate, zero pressure gradient laminar boundary layer. By controlling the duration of time the membrane protrudes above the wall, a single vortex can be reliably generated. This technique avoids the need for fluid injection in order to ensure uniform particle seeding for subsequent PIV measurements. Multiple generation sites are placed at different streamwise locations to allow hairpins of different maturity to interact. The characteristics of single hairpin vortices will be compared to those described in the literature along with a qualitative analysis of the interaction of two hairpin vortices.

  1. Flow Visualization and Laser Velocimetry for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The need for flow visualization and laser velocimetry were discussed. The purpose was threefold: (1) provide a state-of-the-art overview; (2) provide a forum for industry, universities, and government agencies to address problems in developing useful and productive flow visualization and laser velocimetry measurement techniques; and (3) provide discussion of recent developments and applications of flow visualization and laser velocimetry measurement techniques and instrumentation systems for wind tunnels including the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel.

  2. Subsampling-based compression and flow visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Agranovsky, Alexy; Camp, David; Joy, I; Childs, Hank

    2016-01-19

    As computational capabilities increasingly outpace disk speeds on leading supercomputers, scientists will, in turn, be increasingly unable to save their simulation data at its native resolution. One solution to this problem is to compress these data sets as they are generated and visualize the compressed results afterwards. We explore this approach, specifically subsampling velocity data and the resulting errors for particle advection-based flow visualization. We compare three techniques: random selection of subsamples, selection at regular locations corresponding to multi-resolution reduction, and introduce a novel technique for informed selection of subsamples. Furthermore, we explore an adaptive system which exchanges the subsampling budget over parallel tasks, to ensure that subsampling occurs at the highest rate in the areas that need it most. We perform supercomputing runs to measure the effectiveness of the selection and adaptation techniques. Overall, we find that adaptation is very effective, and, among selection techniques, our informed selection provides the most accurate results, followed by the multi-resolution selection, and with the worst accuracy coming from random subsamples.

  3. Flow visualization for investigating stator losses in a multistage axial compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Natalie R.; Key, Nicole L.

    2015-05-01

    The methodology and implementation of a powder-paint-based flow visualization technique along with the illuminated flow physics are presented in detail for application in a three-stage axial compressor. While flow visualization often accompanies detailed studies, the turbomachinery literature lacks a comprehensive study which both utilizes flow visualization to interrupt the flow field and explains the intricacies of execution. Lessons learned for obtaining high-quality images of surface flow patterns are discussed in this study. Fluorescent paint is used to provide clear, high-contrast pictures of the recirculation regions on shrouded vane rows. An edge-finding image processing procedure is implemented to provide a quantitative measure of vane-to-vane variability in flow separation, which is approximately 7 % of the suction surface length for Stator 1. Results include images of vane suction side corner separations from all three stages at three loading conditions. Additionally, streakline patterns obtained experimentally are compared with those calculated from computational models. Flow physics associated with vane clocking and increased rotor tip clearance and their implications to stator loss are also investigated with this flow visualization technique. With increased rotor tip clearance, the vane surface flow patterns show a shift to larger separations and more radial flow at the tip. Finally, the effects of instrumentation on the flow field are highlighted.

  4. Parametric Flow Visualization of Dynamic Roughness Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakkali, Vinay

    The ever growing need in the aircraft industry to enhance the performance of a flight vehicle has led to active areas of research which focus on the control of the local boundary layer by both passive and active methods. An effective flow control mechanism can improve the performance of a flight vehicle in various ways, one of which is eliminating boundary layer separation. To be effective the mechanism not only needs to control the boundary layer as desired, but also use less energy than the resulting energy savings. In this study, the effectiveness of an active flow control technique known as dynamic roughness (DR) has been explored to eliminate the laminar separation bubble near the leading edge and also to eliminate the stall on a NACA 0012 airfoil wing. As opposed to static roughness, dynamic roughness utilizes small time-dependent deforming elements or humps with displacement amplitudes that are on the order of the local boundary layer height to energize the local boundary layer. DR is primarily characterized by the maximum amplitude and operating frequency. A flow visualization study was conducted on a 2D NACA 0012 airfoil model at different angles of attack, and also varying the Reynolds number and DR actuation frequency with fixed maximum DR amplitude. The experimental results from this study suggests that DR is an effective method of reattaching a totally separated boundary layer. In addition, this study discusses some of the fundamental physics behind the working of DR and proposes some non-dimensional terms that may help to explain the driving force behind the mechanism.

  5. Linear Trend in Single-Case Visual and Quantitative Analyses.

    PubMed

    Manolov, Rumen

    2017-08-01

    The frequently used visual analysis of single-case data focuses on data aspects such as level, trend, variability, overlap, immediacy of effect, and consistency of data patterns; most of these aspects are also commonly quantified besides inspecting them visually. The present text focuses on trend, because even linear trend can be operatively defined in several different ways, while there are also different approaches for controlling for baseline trend. We recommend using a quantitative criterion for choosing a trend line fitting technique and comparing baseline and intervention slopes, instead of detrending. We implement our proposal in a free web-based application created specifically for following the What Works Clearinghouse Standards recommendations for visual analysis. This application is especially destined to applied researchers and provides graphical representation of the data, visual aids, and quantifications of the difference between phases in terms of level, trend, and overlap, as well as two quantifications of the immediate effect. An evaluation of the consistency of effects across replications of the AB sequence is also provided. For methodologists and statisticians, we include formulas and examples of the different straight line fitting and detrending techniques to improve the reproducibility of results and simulations.

  6. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    John Crepeau; Hugh M. Mcllroy,Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Keith G. Condie; Glenn McCreery; Randy Clarsean; Robert S. Brodkey; Yann G. Guezennec

    2002-01-31

    The report descries innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated.

  7. Two dimensional blade-vortex interaction flow visualization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, E. R., Jr.; Yu, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Blade-vortex interaction occurs when a rotor blade encounters the tip vortex from a previous rotor blade. To obtain details of the close encounter process, the results from a flow visualization study of an airfoil representing a rotor blade in the wake of an oscillating airfoil serving as a vortex generator are described. A distinguishing feature of this study is that the vortex filament is oriented parallel to the blade span, orthogonal to the test section free stream velocity. This orientation simulates the case of two-dimensional blade-vortex interaction, which is known to produce the most impulsive and most intensive BVI noise. Photographic data are examined to deduce qualitative and quantitative details of the close encounter interaction process with emphasis on structural changes in the vortex filament and its trajectory.

  8. Low Reynolds Flow Visualization Revisited: Free-Surface and Wall Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Shelley; Sznitman, Josue; Smits, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    Many of the seminal experimental flow visualizations at low Reynolds number can be attributed to the pioneering works of S. Taneda. These classic investigations are still considered today benchmark visualizations and are widely used as textbook examples (Van Dyke, An Album of Fluid Motion, 1982). With the advent of modern quantitative flow visualization techniques, we are in a position to revisit in more detail some of the original questions posed by Taneda, including boundary effects on viscous flows surrounding objects (J Phys Soc Jpn, 1964). In the present talk, we conduct experimental flow visualizations around three-dimensional objects at low Reynolds number (Re=O(10-3-10-1)). Quantitative visualizations are implemented in a tow tank using velocimetry measurements (PIV); models including cubes and spheres are submerged in a highly viscous Newtonian fluid (silicon oil, 5000x viscosity of water). Here, we discuss wall effects on velocity profiles in the near- and far-field surrounding such objects. Moreover, we interrogate the influence of the free surface of the tank on the resulting viscous flow fields. The present experimental setup offers a versatile framework to investigate a wide range of fundamental fluid mechanical problems relating flows at low Reynolds number.

  9. Quantitative transverse flow assessment using OCT speckle decorrelation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the use of inter-Ascan speckle decorrelation analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess fluid flow. This method allows quantitative measurement of fluid flow in a plane normal to the scanning beam. To validate this method, OCT images were obtained from a micro fluid channel with bovine milk flowing at different speeds. We also imaged a blood vessel from in vivo animal models and performed speckle analysis to asses blood flow.

  10. Flow visualization of turbulent boundary layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, M. R.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    1980-01-01

    The results from flow visualization experiments performed using an argon-ion laser to illuminate longitudinal and transverse sections of the smoke filled boundary layer in zero pressure gradient are discussed. Most of the experiments were confined to the range 600 Re sub theta 10,000. Results indicate that the boundary layer consists almost exclusively of vortex loops or hairpins, some of which may extend through the complete boundary layer thickness and all of which are inclined at a more or less constant characteristic angle of approximately 45 deg to the wall. Since the cross-stream dimensions of the hairpins appear to scale roughly with the wall variables U sub tau and nu, while their length is limited only by the boundary layer thickness, there are very large scale effects on the turbulence structure. At high Reynolds numbers (Re sub theta = 10,000) there is little evidence of large-scale coherent motions, other than a slow overturning of random agglomerations of the hairpins just mentioned.

  11. Flow visualization by redox-reaction dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, C. R. B.

    1992-08-01

    Colour generation by a direct oxidation or reduction reaction at an electrode in aqueous solution does not generate gas, as is necessary to obtain a pH change. Flow visualization in a closed apparatus or porous medium is therefore possible without the interference of bubbles or a detectable density change. A series of anthraquinone sulphonic acid salts has been found that produce good colours upon reduction at a cathode in mildly alkaline solution. Some are soluble enough to be used in salt gradients and react well below the potential needed to evolve hydrogen, so the electrode remains in stable condition. Platinum is not necessary for the cathode, is indeed undesirable. A number of commercial redox dyes that produce colour upon oxidation were also tested. The most practical is methylene blue, which needs a powerful reducing agent to be decolourised. It is instantly reoxidised by dissolved air, a feature that may be useful in studies of gas/liquid transfer or entrainment across stratified boundaries.

  12. Quantitative evaluation fo cerebrospinal fluid shunt flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chervu, S.; Chervu, L.R.; Vallabhajosyula, B.; Milstein, D.M.; Shapiro, K.M.; Shulman, K.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe a rigorous method for measuring the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in shunt circuits implanted for the relief of obstructive hydrocephalus. Clearance of radioactivity for several calibrated flow rates was determined with a Harvard infusion pump by injecting the Rickham reservoir of a Rickham-Holter valve system with 100 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m as pertechnetate. The elliptical and the cylindrical Holter valves used as adjunct valves with the Rickham reservoir yielded two different regression lines when the clearances were plotted against flow rats. The experimental regression lines were used to determine the in vivo flow rates from clearances calculated after injecting the Rickham reservoirs of the patients. The unique clearance characteristics of the individual shunt systems available requires that calibration curves be derived for an entire system identical to one implanted in the patient being evaluated, rather than just the injected chamber. Excellent correlation between flow rates and the clinical findings supports the reliability of this method of quantification of CSF shunt flow, and the results are fully accepted by neurosurgeons.

  13. Flow visualization and interpretation of visualization data for deflected thrust V/STOL nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, H. C.; Burstadt, P. L.; Johns, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were made for four deflected thrust nozzle models at subsonic speeds. Based on topological rules and the assumption that observed streaks constitute continuous vector fields, available visualization pictures are interpreted and flow patterns on interior surfaces of the nozzles are synthesized. In particular, three dimensional flow structure and separations are discussed. From the synthesized patterns, the overall features of the flow field in a given nozzle can be approximately perceived.

  14. Flow visualization and interpretation of visualization data for deflected thrust V/STOL nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, H. C.; Burstadt, P. L.; Johns, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were made for four deflected thrust nozzle models at subsonic speeds. Based on topological rules and the assumption that observed streaks constitute continuous vector fields, available visualization pictures are interpreted and flow patterns on interior surfaces of the nozzles are synthesized. In particular, three dimensional flow structure and separations are discussed. From the synthesized patterns, the overall features of the flow field in a given nozzle can be approximately perceived. Previously announced in STAR as N84-14147

  15. Developments in flow visualization methods for flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Lee, Cynthia C.

    1990-01-01

    With the introduction of modern airplanes utilizing laminar flow, flow visualization has become an important diagnostic tool in determining aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary-layer state. A refinement of the sublimating chemical technique has been developed to define both the boundary-layer transition location and the transition mode. In response to the need for flow visualization at subsonic and transonic speeds and altitudes above 20,000 feet, the liquid crystal technique has been developed. A third flow visualization technique that has been used is infrared imaging, which offers non-intrusive testing over a wide range of test conditions. A review of these flow visualization methods and recent flight results is presented for a variety of modern aircraft and flight conditions.

  16. Developments in flow visualization methods for flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Lee, Cynthia C.

    1990-01-01

    With the introduction of modern airplanes utilizing laminar flow, flow visualization has become an important diagnostic tool in determining aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary-layer state. A refinement of the sublimating chemical technique has been developed to define both the boundary-layer transition location and the transition mode. In response to the need for flow visualization at subsonic and transonic speeds and altitudes above 20,000 feet, the liquid crystal technique has been developed. A third flow visualization technique that has been used is infrared imaging, which offers non-intrusive testing over a wide range of test conditions. A review of these flow visualization methods and recent flight results is presented for a variety of modern aircraft and flight conditions.

  17. VisFlow - Web-based Visualization Framework for Tabular Data with a Subset Flow Model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bowen; Silva, Claudio T

    2017-01-01

    Data flow systems allow the user to design a flow diagram that specifies the relations between system components which process, filter or visually present the data. Visualization systems may benefit from user-defined data flows as an analysis typically consists of rendering multiple plots on demand and performing different types of interactive queries across coordinated views. In this paper, we propose VisFlow, a web-based visualization framework for tabular data that employs a specific type of data flow model called the subset flow model. VisFlow focuses on interactive queries within the data flow, overcoming the limitation of interactivity from past computational data flow systems. In particular, VisFlow applies embedded visualizations and supports interactive selections, brushing and linking within a visualization-oriented data flow. The model requires all data transmitted by the flow to be a data item subset (i.e. groups of table rows) of some original input table, so that rendering properties can be assigned to the subset unambiguously for tracking and comparison. VisFlow features the analysis flexibility of a flow diagram, and at the same time reduces the diagram complexity and improves usability. We demonstrate the capability of VisFlow on two case studies with domain experts on real-world datasets showing that VisFlow is capable of accomplishing a considerable set of visualization and analysis tasks. The VisFlow system is available as open source on GitHub.

  18. Dye visualization--a method for investigating biomechanical flows.

    PubMed

    Leweke, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Flow visualization using dye is an inexpensive and easy-to-implement experimental technique. It can be used for a rapid qualitative assessment of fluid flows in configurations relevant to biomedical or biotechnological applications, which often involve small spatial dimensions and flow velocities (low Reynolds numbers). This paper gives an overview of the practical aspects related to dye visualization in liquids (dyes, introduction of dye into the flow, illumination), and discusses the information that can be obtained by this method, which includes the distribution of coherent structures/ vortices, the location of recirculation zones, and certain characteristic spatial and temporal scales. Visualization results for three examples of generic flows related to biomechanical applications are presented: the flow behind a contraction in a pipe (stenosis), the wake of a particle moving along a wall, and the flow inside a lid-driven mixing vessel (bioreactor).

  19. Flow visualization in a single simulated brush seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Canacci, V. A.; Kazmierchak, M.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    A method to visualize and characterize the complex flow fields in brush seals is presented. A configuration characteristic of the brush seal confined in a two-dimensional tunnel with water as the working fluid was studied. Visualization of the flow field revealed regions that are characteristically jetting, vortical, and crossflow and exist upstream, downstream or within the seal. Such flows are engendered by variations in fiber void that are spatial and temporal and affect changes in seal leakage and stability. While the effects of interface motion and cylindrical configuration have not been considered herein, it is believed that the observed flow fields characterize flow phenomenology in brush seals.

  20. Visualizing Topic Flow in Students' Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Stephen T.; Calvo, Rafael A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    Visualizing how the parts of a document relate to each other and producing automatically generated quality measures that people can understand are means that writers can use to improve the quality of their compositions. This paper presents a novel document visualization technique and a measure of quality based on the average semantic distance…

  1. Visualizing Topic Flow in Students' Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Stephen T.; Calvo, Rafael A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    Visualizing how the parts of a document relate to each other and producing automatically generated quality measures that people can understand are means that writers can use to improve the quality of their compositions. This paper presents a novel document visualization technique and a measure of quality based on the average semantic distance…

  2. Flow visualization in long neck Helmholtz resonators with grazing flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Rice, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Both oscillating and steady flows were applied to a single plexiglass resonator cavity with colored dyes injected in both the orifice and grazing flow field to record the motion of the fluid. For oscillatory flow, the instantaneous dye streamlines were similar for both the short and long-neck orifices. The orifice flow blockage appears to be independent of orifice length for a fixed amplitude of flow oscillation and magnitude of the grazing flow. The steady flow dye studies showed that the acoustic and steady flow resistances do not necessarily correspond for long neck orifices.

  3. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  4. Use of computer graphics for visualization of flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Bancroft, Gordon; Merritt, Fergus; Rogers, Stuart

    1987-01-01

    A high-performance graphics workstation has been combined with software developed for flow-field visualization to yield a highly effective tool for analysis of fluid-flow dynamics. After the flow fields are obtained from experimental measurements or computer simulations, the workstation permits one to interactively view the dynamics of the flow fields; e.g., the viewer can zoom into a region or rotate his viewing position about the region to study it in more detail. Several techniques for visualization of flow fields with this workstation are described in this paper and illustrated with a videotape available from the authors. The computer hardware and software required to create effective flow visualization displays are discussed. Additional software and hardware required to create videotapes or 16mm movies are also described. Limitations imposed by current workstation performance is addressed and future workstation performance is forecast.

  5. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  6. Flow: Statistics, visualization and informatics for flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Frelinger, Jacob; Kepler, Thomas B; Chan, Cliburn

    2008-01-01

    Flow is an open source software application for clinical and experimental researchers to perform exploratory data analysis, clustering and annotation of flow cytometric data. Flow is an extensible system that offers the ease of use commonly found in commercial flow cytometry software packages and the statistical power of academic packages like the R BioConductor project. PMID:18559108

  7. FAITH Pressure-Sensitive Paint and Surface Oil Flow Visualizations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Pressure-sensitive paint and surface oil flow visualization experiments are performed on a three dimensional model of a small hill. This experiment was part of a series of measurements of the compl...

  8. Clean seeding for flow visualization and velocimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, Mark F.; Crafton, Jim W.; Estevadeordal, Jordi; Delapp, Joseph; McNiel, Charles; Peltier, Don; Reynolds, Tina

    2010-05-01

    Flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) are among the most useful tools available for experimental aerodynamics studies. Implementation of these techniques, however, requires that seed material be introduced into the flow. The undesirable qualities of the seeding material often prevent the use of flow visualization and velocimetry techniques in many test environments. This is particularly true for large-scale, closed-circuit tunnels where facility operators must weigh the risks of facility contamination, sensor damage, and safety concerns that might result from the introduction of seed particles. Identification of a practical clean seeding material that minimizes or eliminates these concerns would enable flow visualization and velocimetry techniques to be deployed in these facilities. Here, we demonstrate two seeding systems that have the potential to provide such a solution. The first system is a new concept which uses liquid carbon dioxide that can be made to form discrete particles as it expands from a high-pressure tank. PIV measurements are demonstrated in several flows, including supersonic and subsonic tunnels, using these residue-free seed particles. The second system utilizes a combination of steam and liquid nitrogen to produce an aerosol or fog that serves as flow seeding. Water- or steam-based seeding has been previously demonstrated for flow visualization in subsonic tunnels; here however, we utilize this seed material for PIV and LDV measurements as well as for flow visualization in a large supersonic tunnel.

  9. Holographic flow visualization at the Langley Expansion Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, W. K.; Burner, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic system used for flow visualization at the Langley Expansion Tube is described. A ruby laser which can be singly or doubly pulsed during the short run time of less than 300 microns is used as the light source. With holography, sensitivity adjustments can be optimized after a run instead of before a run as with conventional flow visualization techniques. This results in an increased reliability of the flow visualization available for the study of real-gas effects on flow about models. Holographic techniques such as single-plate schlieren and shadowgraph, two plate interferometry, double pulse interferometry for perfect infinite-fringe interferograms, and double-pulse interferometry used to examine changes in the flow over a short time period are described and examples presented.

  10. Holographic flow visualization at the Langley Expansion Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goad, W. K.; Burner, A. W.

    1981-06-01

    A holographic system used for flow visualization at the Langley Expansion Tube is described. A ruby laser which can be singly or doubly pulsed during the short run time of less than 300 microns is used as the light source. With holography, sensitivity adjustments can be optimized after a run instead of before a run as with conventional flow visualization techniques. This results in an increased reliability of the flow visualization available for the study of real-gas effects on flow about models. Holographic techniques such as single-plate schlieren and shadowgraph, two plate interferometry, double pulse interferometry for perfect infinite-fringe interferograms, and double-pulse interferometry used to examine changes in the flow over a short time period are described and examples presented.

  11. UFLIC: A Line Integral Convolution Algorithm for Visualizing Unsteady Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Kao, David L.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, UFLIC (Unsteady Flow LIC), to visualize vector data in unsteady flow fields. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) as the underlying method, a new convolution algorithm is proposed that can effectively trace the flow's global features over time. The new algorithm consists of a time-accurate value depositing scheme and a successive feed-forward method. The value depositing scheme accurately models the flow advection, and the successive feed-forward method maintains the coherence between animation frames. Our new algorithm can produce time-accurate, highly coherent flow animations to highlight global features in unsteady flow fields. CFD scientists, for the first time, are able to visualize unsteady surface flows using our algorithm.

  12. UFLIC: A Line Integral Convolution Algorithm for Visualizing Unsteady Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Kao, David L.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, UFLIC (Unsteady Flow LIC), to visualize vector data in unsteady flow fields. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) as the underlying method, a new convolution algorithm is proposed that can effectively trace the flow's global features over time. The new algorithm consists of a time-accurate value depositing scheme and a successive feed-forward method. The value depositing scheme accurately models the flow advection, and the successive feed-forward method maintains the coherence between animation frames. Our new algorithm can produce time-accurate, highly coherent flow animations to highlight global features in unsteady flow fields. CFD scientists, for the first time, are able to visualize unsteady surface flows using our algorithm.

  13. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis of membrane antigen expression.

    PubMed

    D'hautcourt, Jean-Luc

    2002-11-01

    Immunological analysis for cell antigens has been performed by flow cytometry in a qualitative fashion for over thirty years. During that time it has become increasingly apparent that quantitative measurements such as number of antigens per cell provide unique and useful information. This unit on quantitative flow cytometry (QFCM) describes the most commonly used protocols, both direct and indirect, and the major methods of analysis for the number of antibody binding sites on a cell or particle. Practical applications include detection of antigen under- or overexpression in hematological malignancies, distinguishing between B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, and precise diagnosis of certain rare diseases.

  14. Flow visualization for Lagrangian particle methods

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, M.W.; Kempka, S.N.

    1994-05-01

    In particle methods, each particle represents a finite region over which there is a distribution of the field quantity of interest. The field value at any point is calculated by summing the distribution functions for all the particles. This summation procedure does not require the use of any connectivities to generate continuous fields. Various AVS modules and networks have been developed that enable us to visualize the results from particle methods. This will be demonstrated by visualizing a numerical simulation of a rising, chaotic bubble. In this fluid dynamics simulation, each particle represents a region with a specified vorticity distribution.

  15. A review: Quantitative models for lava flows on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baloga, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to review and assess the application of quantitative models (Gratz numerical correlation model, radiative loss model, yield stress model, surface structure model, and kinematic wave model) of lava flows on Mars. These theoretical models were applied to Martian flow data to aid in establishing the composition of the lava or to determine other eruption conditions such as eruption rate or duration.

  16. Comparison of Mars Science Laboratory Reaction Control System Jet Computations With Flow Visualization and Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Johansen, Craig T.; Ashcraft, Scott W.; Novak, Luke A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the Mars Science Laboratory reaction control system jets interacting with a Mach 10 hypersonic flow are compared to experimental nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence data. The steady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations using the Baldwin-Barth one-equation turbulence model were solved using the OVERFLOW code. The experimental fluorescence data used for comparison consists of qualitative two-dimensional visualization images, qualitative reconstructed three-dimensional flow structures, and quantitative two-dimensional distributions of streamwise velocity. Through modeling of the fluorescence signal equation, computational flow images were produced and directly compared to the qualitative fluorescence data.

  17. Physically-based interactive Schlieren flow visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Mccormick, Patrick S; Brownlee, Carson S; Pegoraro, Vincent; Shankar, Siddharth; Hansen, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph and schlieren imaging for centuries which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraphs and schlieren images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are presented.

  18. Visualization of film cooling flows using laser sheet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivir, R. B.; Roqumore, W. M.; McCarthy, J. W.

    1987-06-01

    A cold flow characterization and simulation of the turbine film cooling flows has been undertaken to assist analytical modeling of these flows for the calculation of heat transfer. Laser-sheet lighting of the flow field, in which TiCl4 vapor added to the film-cooling flow reacts spontaneously with moist air in the channel flow to form TiO2, has been employed in the visualization. Illumination times of 10 nsec were used for the still photographs. The flows have been illuminated in planes parallel, perpendicular, and at 45 deg to the plane of film injection. The simulated turbine flows range through rho v ratios of 0.3 to 3.0. A film injection angle of 30 deg was used. Turbulence has been added to the free stream with a grid. The film flow interactions with two levels of free-stream turbulence approaching are examined.

  19. HapFlow: visualizing haplotypes in sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mitchell J; Bachmann, Nathan L; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-02-01

    HapFlow is a python application for visualizing haplotypes present in sequencing data. It identifies variant profiles present and reads and creates an abstract visual representation of these profiles to make haplotypes easier to identify. HapFlow is freely available (under a GPL license) for download (for Mac OS X, Unix and Microsoft Windows) from github (http://mjsull.github.io/HapFlow). apolking@usc.edu.au. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Modeling and Visualizing Flow of Chemical Agents Across Complex Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kramer, Marc; Chaderjian, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Release of chemical agents across complex terrain presents a real threat to homeland security. Modeling and visualization tools are being developed that capture flow fluid terrain interaction as well as point dispersal downstream flow paths. These analytic tools when coupled with UAV atmospheric observations provide predictive capabilities to allow for rapid emergency response as well as developing a comprehensive preemptive counter-threat evacuation plan. The visualization tools involve high-end computing and massive parallel processing combined with texture mapping. We demonstrate our approach across a mountainous portion of North California under two contrasting meteorological conditions. Animations depicting flow over this geographical location provide immediate assistance in decision support and crisis management.

  1. Modeling and Visualizing Flow of Chemical Agents Across Complex Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kramer, Marc; Chaderjian, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Release of chemical agents across complex terrain presents a real threat to homeland security. Modeling and visualization tools are being developed that capture flow fluid terrain interaction as well as point dispersal downstream flow paths. These analytic tools when coupled with UAV atmospheric observations provide predictive capabilities to allow for rapid emergency response as well as developing a comprehensive preemptive counter-threat evacuation plan. The visualization tools involve high-end computing and massive parallel processing combined with texture mapping. We demonstrate our approach across a mountainous portion of North California under two contrasting meteorological conditions. Animations depicting flow over this geographical location provide immediate assistance in decision support and crisis management.

  2. Advanced designs for fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research was carried out on existing and new designs for minimally intrusive measurement of flow fields in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell and the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment. The following topics are discussed: (1) identification and removal of foreign particles, (2) search for higher dielectric photochromic solutions, (3) selection of uv light source, (4) analysis of refractive techniques and (5) examination of fresnel lens applicability.

  3. An information-theoretic framework for flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijie; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication channel. In this paper, we present an information-theoretic framework for flow visualization with a special focus on streamline generation. In our framework, a vector field is modeled as a distribution of directions from which Shannon's entropy is used to measure the information content in the field. The effectiveness of the streamlines displayed in visualization can be measured by first constructing a new distribution of vectors derived from the existing streamlines, and then comparing this distribution with that of the original data set using the conditional entropy. The conditional entropy between these two distributions indicates how much information in the original data remains hidden after the selected streamlines are displayed. The quality of the visualization can be improved by progressively introducing new streamlines until the conditional entropy converges to a small value. We describe the key components of our framework with detailed analysis, and show that the framework can effectively visualize 2D and 3D flow data.

  4. Flow visualization of lateral jet injection into swirling crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, G. B.; Aoki, K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been conducted to characterize the time-mean flowfield of a deflected turbulent jet in a confining cylindrical crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were investigated, under crossflow inlet swirler vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees. Smoke, neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, and multi-spark flow visualization were employed to highlight interesting features of the deflected jet, as well as the trajectory and spread pattern of the jet. Gross flowfield characterization was obtained for a range of lateral jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios and a range of inlet swirl strengths in the main flow. The flow visualization results agree well with the measurements obtained elsewhere with the six-orientation single hot-wire method.

  5. Flow visualization of lateral jet injection into swirling crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, G. B.; Aoki, K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been conducted to characterize the time-mean flowfield of a deflected turbulent jet in a confining cylindrical crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were investigated, under crossflow inlet swirler vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees. Smoke, neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, and multi-spark flow visualization were employed to highlight interesting features of the deflected jet, as well as the trajectory and spread pattern of the jet. Gross flowfield characterization was obtained for a range of lateral jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios and a range of inlet swirl strengths in the main flow. The flow visualization results agree well with the measurements obtained elsewhere with the six-orientation single hot-wire method.

  6. Flow visualization using a computerized data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallington, R.; Sisson, G.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-driven traversing mechanism combined with mass data storage, data reduction programs, and general-purpose graphics programs permits a visualization of complex flows. A unique seven-hole probe is used which permits reasonably accurate measurements of all average flow properties if the local flow angle does not exceed 80 degrees. A description is given of the wake of a lifting canard surface as this wake passes over a wing. The flow includes concentrated and dissipating vortices, large regions of reduced total pressure, and local flow angles up to 60 deg. All these features can be clearly seen and accurately located in the graphical output.

  7. Experimental Visualization of Flows in Packed Beds of Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Lattime, S.; Braun, M. J.; Athavale, M. M.

    1997-01-01

    The flow experiment consisted of an oil tunnel, 76 x 76 mm in cross-section, packed with lucite spheres. The index of refraction of the working fluid and the spheres were matched such that the physical spheres invisible to the eye and camera. By seeding the oil and illuminating the packed bed with planar laser light sheet, aligned in the direction of the bulk flow, the system fluid dynamics becomes visible and the 2-D projection was recorded at right angles to the bulk flow. The planar light sheet was traversed from one side of the tunnel to the other providing a simulated 3-D image of the entire flow field. The boundary interface between the working fluid and the sphere rendered the sphere black permitting visualization of the exact locations of the circular interfaces in both the axial and transverse directions with direct visualization of the complex interstitial spaces between the spheres within the bed. Flows were observed near the surfaces of a plane and set of spheres as well as minor circles that appear with great circles and not always uniformly ordered. In addition to visualizing a very complex flow field, it was observed that flow channeling in the direction of the bulk flow occurs between sets of adjacent spheres. Still photographs and video recordings illustrating the flow phenomena will be presented.

  8. Flow mapping and multivariate visualization of large spatial interaction data.

    PubMed

    Guo, Diansheng

    2009-01-01

    Spatial interactions (or flows), such as population migration and disease spread, naturally form a weighted location-to-location network (graph). Such geographically embedded networks (graphs) are usually very large. For example, the county-to-county migration data in the U.S. has thousands of counties and about a million migration paths. Moreover, many variables are associated with each flow, such as the number of migrants for different age groups, income levels, and occupations. It is a challenging task to visualize such data and discover network structures, multivariate relations, and their geographic patterns simultaneously. This paper addresses these challenges by developing an integrated interactive visualization framework that consists three coupled components: (1) a spatially constrained graph partitioning method that can construct a hierarchy of geographical regions (communities), where there are more flows or connections within regions than across regions; (2) a multivariate clustering and visualization method to detect and present multivariate patterns in the aggregated region-to-region flows; and (3) a highly interactive flow mapping component to map both flow and multivariate patterns in the geographic space, at different hierarchical levels. The proposed approach can process relatively large data sets and effectively discover and visualize major flow structures and multivariate relations at the same time. User interactions are supported to facilitate the understanding of both an overview and detailed patterns.

  9. Occlusion-free Blood Flow Animation with Wall Thickness Visualization.

    PubMed

    Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Vilanova, Anna; Preim, Bernhard; Isenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We present the first visualization tool that combines pathlines from blood flow and wall thickness information. Our method uses illustrative techniques to provide occlusion-free visualization of the flow. We thus offer medical researchers an effective visual analysis tool for aneurysm treatment risk assessment. Such aneurysms bear a high risk of rupture and significant treatment-related risks. Therefore, to get a fully informed decision it is essential to both investigate the vessel morphology and the hemodynamic data. Ongoing research emphasizes the importance of analyzing the wall thickness in risk assessment. Our combination of blood flow visualization and wall thickness representation is a significant improvement for the exploration and analysis of aneurysms. As all presented information is spatially intertwined, occlusion problems occur. We solve these occlusion problems by dynamic cutaway surfaces. We combine this approach with a glyph-based blood flow representation and a visual mapping of wall thickness onto the vessel surface. We developed a GPU-based implementation of our visualizations which facilitates wall thickness analysis through real-time rendering and flexible interactive data exploration mechanisms. We designed our techniques in collaboration with domain experts, and we provide details about the evaluation of the technique and tool.

  10. Quantitative karyotyping of human chromosomes by dual beam flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R.G.; Yu, L.C.; Gray, J.W.; Carrano, A.V.

    1982-12-01

    Dual beam flow cytometry of chromosomes stained with Hoechst 33258 and chromomycin A3 has been proposed as a method for quantitative classification of human chromosomes (bivariate flow karotyping). In this paper we investigate the sources and magnitudes of variability in the mean fluorescence intensities of each chromosome group resolved in bivariate flow karyotypes and study the impact of this variablity on chromosome classification. Replicate bivariate flow karyotypes of chromosomes isolated from lymphocyctes from 10 individuals demonstrated that person-to-person variability was significantly greater than run-to-run variability. The total variability was sufficiently small that it did not interfere with classification of normal chromosome types except chromosomes 9 through 12 and chromosomes 14 and 15. Furthermore, the variability was generally smaller than 1/600th of the mitotic genome, so that one-band rearrangements should be detectable in bivariate flow karoyotypes.

  11. Optical coherence Doppler tomography for quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiang; Du, Congwu; Volkow, Nora D.; Pan, Yingtian

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence Doppler tomography (ODT) is a promising neurotechnique that permits 3D imaging of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) network; however, quantitative CBF velocity (CBFv) imaging remains challenging. Here we present a simple phase summation method to enhance slow capillary flow detection sensitivity without sacrificing dynamic range for fast flow and vessel tracking to improve angle correction for absolute CBFv quantification. Flow phantom validation indicated that the CBFv quantification accuracy increased from 15% to 91% and the coefficient of variation (CV) decreased 9.3-fold; in vivo mouse brain validation showed that CV decreased 4.4-/10.8- fold for venular/arteriolar flows. ODT was able to identify cocaine-elicited microischemia and quantify CBFv disruption in branch vessels and capillaries that otherwise would have not been possible. PMID:25401033

  12. Flow visualization and modeling for education and outreach in low-income countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motanated, K.

    2016-12-01

    Being able to visualize the dynamic interaction between the movement of water and sediment flux is undeniably a profound tool for students and novices to understand complicated earth surface processes. In a laser-sheet flow visualization technique, a light source that is thin and monochromatic is required to illuminate sediments or tracers in the flow. However, an ideal laser sheet generator is rather expensive, especially for schools and universities residing in low-income countries. This project is proposing less-expensive options for a laser-sheet source and flow visualization experiment configuration for qualitative observation and quantitative analysis of the interaction between fluid media and sediments. Here, Fresnel lens is used to convert from point laser into sheet laser. Multiple combinations of laser diodes of various wavelength (nanometer) and power (milliwatt) and Fresnel lenses of various dimensions are analyzed. The pair that is able to produce the thinnest and brightest light sheet is not only effective but also affordable. The motion of sediments in a flow can be observed by illuminating the laser-sheet in an interested flow region. The particle motion is recorded by a video camera that is capable of taking multiple frames per second and having a narrow depth of view. The recorded video file can be played in a slow-motion mode so students can visually observe and qualitatively analyze the particle motion. An open source software package for Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) can calculate the local velocity of particles from still images extracted from the video and create a vector map depicting particle motion. This flow visualization experiment is inexpensive and the configuration is simple to setup. Most importantly, this flow visualization technique serves as a fundamental tool for earth surface process education and can further be applied to sedimentary process modeling.

  13. Quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer based on regularized optical flow algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Vargas, Javier; Wang, Shouyu; Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Fei

    2015-09-01

    Cell detections and analysis are important in various fields, such as medical observations and disease diagnoses. In order to analyze the cell parameters as well as observe the samples directly, in this paper, we present an improved quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer, which can monitor the quantitative phase distributions of bio-samples and realize cellular parameter statistics. The proposed system is able to recover the phase imaging of biological samples in the expanded field of view via a regularized optical flow demodulation algorithm. This algorithm reconstructs the phase distribution with high accuracy with only two interferograms acquired at different time points simplifying the scanning system. Additionally, the method is totally automatic, and therefore it is convenient for establishing a quantitative phase cytometer. Moreover, the phase retrieval approach is robust against noise and background. Excitingly, red blood cells are readily investigated with the quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer system.

  14. Skin moisturization by hydrogenated polyisobutene--quantitative and visual evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Nava; Sivalenka, Rajarajeswari; Chase, John

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenated polyisobutene (HP) is used in topically applied cosmetic/personal care formulations as an emollient that leaves a pleasing skin feel when applied, and rubbed in after application. This effect, although distinguishable to the user, is difficult to define and quantify. Recognizing that some of the physical properties of HP such as film formation and wear resistance may contribute, in certain mechanisms, to skin moisturization, we designed a short-term pilot study to follow changes in skin moisturization. HP's incorporation into an o/w emulsion at 8% yielded increased viscosity and reduced emulsion droplet size as compared to the emollient ester CCT (capric/caprylic triglyceride) or a control formulation. Quantitative data indicate that application of the o/w emulsion formulation containing either HP or CCT significantly elevated skin moisture content and thus reduced transepidermal water loss (TEWL) by a maximal approximately 33% against the control formulation within 3 h and maintained this up to 6 h. Visual observation of skin treated with the HP-containing formulation showed fine texture and clear contrast as compared to the control or the CCT formulation, confirming this effect. As a result of increased hydration, skin conductivity, as measured in terms of corneometer values, was also elevated significantly by about tenfold as early as 20 min after HP or CCT application and was maintained throughout the test period. Throughout the test period the HP formulation was 5-10% more effective than the CCT formulation both in reduction of TEWL as well as in increased skin conductivity. Thus, compared to the emollient ester (CCT), HP showed a unique capability for long-lasting effect in retaining moisture and improving skin texture.

  15. High speed optical tomography for flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Ray; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1987-01-01

    A novel optical architecture (based on holographic optical elements) for making high speed tomographic measurements is presented. The system is designed for making density or species concentration measurements in a nonsteady fluid or combustion flow. Performance evaluations of the optical system are discussed, and a test phase object was successfully reconstructed using this optical arrangement.

  16. Application of holography to flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G.

    1984-01-01

    Laser holographic interferometry is being applied to many different types of aerodynamics problems. These include two and three dimensional flows in wind tunnels, ballistic ranges, rotor test chambers and turbine facilities. Density over a large field is measured and velocity, pressure, and mach number can be deduced.

  17. An experimental facility for the visual study of turbulent flows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodkey, R. S.; Hershey, H. C.; Corino, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental technique which allows visual observations of the wall area in turbulent pipe flow is described in detail. It requires neither the introduction of any injection or measuring device into the flow nor the presence of a two-phase flow or of a non-Newtonian fluid. The technique involves suspending solid MgO particles of colloidal size in trichloroethylene and photographing their motions near the wall with a high speed movie camera moving with the flow. Trichloroethylene was chosen in order to eliminate the index of refraction problem in a curved wall. Evaluation of the technique including a discussion of limitations is included. Also the technique is compared with previous methods of visual observations of turbulent flow.

  18. Simultaneous measurements and flow visualization in a plane mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherikar, S. V.; Chevray, R.

    Wind tunnel experiments performed to determine the flow characteristics of a plane mixing layer are described. Two parallel streams of air moving at different velocities were separated by a splitter plate prior to their mixing in the test section. Gaseous NH3 and gaseous HCI were introduced near the splitter plate to produce an ammonium chloride aerosol which made flow visualization possible. Flow visualization records (movies) and velocity measurements, using laser-doppler-velocimeters tracking silicone oil particles in the flow, were made simultaneously and synchronized using a chopped beam of a He-Ne laser which left a signature on the move film and provided a signal for flow rate data acquisition. Analysis of these synchronized data verified the existence of large, essentially two-dimensional coherent structures in the plane mixing layer.

  19. Quantitative description of fluid flows produced by left-right cilia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fox, Craig; Manning, M Lisa; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia generate directional flows that move mucus through airways, cerebrospinal fluid through brain ventricles, and oocytes through fallopian tubes. In addition, specialized monocilia beat in a rotational pattern to create asymmetric flows that are involved in establishing the left-right (LR) body axis during embryogenesis. These monocilia, which we refer to as "left-right cilia," produce a leftward flow of extraembryonic fluid in a transient "organ of asymmetry" that directs asymmetric signaling and development of LR asymmetries in the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. The asymmetric flows are thought to establish a chemical gradient and/or activate mechanosensitive cilia to initiate calcium ion signals and a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) pathway on the left side of the embryo, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. The zebrafish organ of asymmetry, called Kupffer's vesicle, provides a useful model system for investigating LR cilia and cilia-powered fluid flows. Here, we describe methods to visualize flows in Kupffer's vesicle using fluorescent microspheres and introduce a new and freely available MATLAB particle tracking code to quantitatively describe these flows. Analysis of normal and aberrant flows indicates this approach is useful for characterizing flow properties that impact LR asymmetry and may be more broadly applicable for quantifying other cilia flows.

  20. Visualization of entry flow separation for oscillating flow in tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang; Simon, Terence W.

    1992-01-01

    Neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles with laser illumination are used to document entry flow separation for oscillating flow in tubes. For a symmetric entry case, the size of the separation zone appears to mildly depend on Reynolds number in the acceleration phase, but is roughly Reynolds number independent in the deceleration phase. For the asymmetric entry case, the separation zone was larger and appeared to grow somewhat during the deceleration phase. The separation zones for both entry geometry cases remain relatively small throughout the cycle. This is different from what would be observed in all-laminar, oscillator flows and is probably due to the high turbulence of the flow, particularly during the deceleration phase of the cycle.

  1. Visualization of entry flow separation for oscillating flow in tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang; Simon, Terence W.

    1992-01-01

    Neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles with laser illumination are used to document entry flow separation for oscillating flow in tubes. For a symmetric entry case, the size of the separation zone appears to mildly depend on Reynolds number in the acceleration phase, but is roughly Reynolds number independent in the deceleration phase. For the asymmetric entry case, the separation zone was larger and appeared to grow somewhat during the deceleration phase. The separation zones for both entry geometry cases remain relatively small throughout the cycle. This is different from what would be observed in all-laminar, oscillator flows and is probably due to the high turbulence of the flow, particularly during the deceleration phase of the cycle.

  2. Flow visualization and flow field measurements of a 1/12 scale tilt rotor aircraft in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.; Hardinge, Hal; Stevenson, Ryan

    1991-01-01

    The results are given of flow visualization studies and inflow velocity field measurements performed on a 1/12 scale model of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft in the hover mode. The complex recirculating flow due to the rotor-wake-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors was studied visually using neutrally buoyant soap bubbles and quantitatively using hot wire anemometry. Still and video photography were used to record the flow patterns. Analysis of the photos and video provided information on the physical dimensions of the recirculating fountain flow and on details of the flow including the relative unsteadiness and turbulence characteristics of the flow. Recirculating flows were also observed along the length of the fuselage. Hot wire anemometry results indicate that the wing under the rotor acts to obstruct the inflow causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the model. Hot wire anemometry also shows that the turbulence intensities in the inflow are much higher in the recirculating fountain reingestion zone.

  3. Flow visualization and flow field measurements of a 1/12 scale tilt rotor aircraft in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.; Hardinge, Hal; Stevenson, Ryan

    1991-01-01

    The results are given of flow visualization studies and inflow velocity field measurements performed on a 1/12 scale model of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft in the hover mode. The complex recirculating flow due to the rotor-wake-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors was studied visually using neutrally buoyant soap bubbles and quantitatively using hot wire anemometry. Still and video photography were used to record the flow patterns. Analysis of the photos and video provided information on the physical dimensions of the recirculating fountain flow and on details of the flow including the relative unsteadiness and turbulence characteristics of the flow. Recirculating flows were also observed along the length of the fuselage. Hot wire anemometry results indicate that the wing under the rotor acts to obstruct the inflow causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the model. Hot wire anemometry also shows that the turbulence intensities in the inflow are much higher in the recirculating fountain reingestion zone.

  4. Microfluidic bead trap as a visual bar for quantitative detection of oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zichen; Bao, Yuanye; Chu, Lok Ting; Ho, John Kin Lim; Chieng, Ching-Chang; Chen, Ting-Hsuan

    2017-09-04

    We demonstrate a microfluidic bead trap capable of forming a dipstick-type bar visible to the naked eye for simple and quantitative detection of oligonucleotides. We use magnetic microparticles (MMPs) and polystyrene microparticles (PMPs) that are connected and form MMPs-targets-PMPs when target oligonucleotides are present, leaving free PMPs with a number inversely proportional to the amount of targets. Using a capillary flow-driven microfluidic circuitry consisting of a magnetic separator to remove the MMPs-targets-PMPs, the free PMPs can be trapped at the narrowing nozzle downstream, forming a visual bar quantifiable based on the length of PMP accumulation. Such a power-free and instrument-free platform enables a limit of detection at 13 fmol (0.65 nM in 20 μl, S/N = 3) of oligonucleotides and is compatible with single-nucleotide polymorphisms and operation in a complex bio-fluid. Moreover, using DNAzyme as the target oligonucleotide that catalyzes a specific hydrolytic cleavage in the presence of lead ions, we demonstrate a model application that detects lead ions with a limit of detection of 12.2 nM (2.5 μg l(-1)), providing quantitative and visual detection of lead contamination at resource-limited sites.

  5. [Influence of visual stimulation on cerebral blood flow and visual evoked potentials in children with migraine with visual aura].

    PubMed

    Biedroń, Agnieszka; Kaciński, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Visual aura is the most common type of migrainous aura. It may occur as a single symptom or precede sensory or speech disturbances. Aura symptoms and order of their appearance may result from propagation of spreading depression phenomenon. Vascular disorders observed during migraine with aura attacks are probably secondary to neuronal changes. Simultaneous registration of cerebral bioelectric activation and changes evoked in cerebral circulation enables their objective estimation, detection of correlation and better understanding of migraine with aura pathogenesis. Studies with transcranial Doppler revealed impaired cerebrovascular response to various stimulations in migraine, especially migraine with aura patients. Combination of Doppler examination with registration of visual evoked potentials (VEP) enables estimation on neurovascular coupling. Estimation of cerebrovascular response to visual stimulation in migraineurs with visual aura. Examination of correlation between cerebral blood flow and VEP parameters. 50 children at the age range 8-18 years, 8 with migraine with visual aura, 9 with visual and sensory aura, 8 with visual, sensory and dysphasic aura and 25 children from control group. Examination of cerebral blood flow parameters was performed with transcranial Doppler, with the use of continuous monitoring, enabling performance of simultaneous record. ing from vessels of both hemispheres. Systolic (SV), end-diastolic (EDV), mean (MV) velocities and pulsatility (PI) and resistive indexes (RI) were analyzed. Parameters of cerebral blood flow were recorded in middle cerebral arteries, at rest (1 measurement), during visual stimulation (2, 3 measurement) and directly after the end of the stimulation (4 measurement). Black and white checkerboard pattern rebersal was visual stimulator and during stimulation VEP were registered. N75, P100, N135 latencies and N75/P100, P100/N135 amplitudes were analyzed. Moreover correlation between visually evoked changes in

  6. A Quantitative Visual Mapping and Visualization Approach for Deep Ocean Floor Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Kwasnitschka, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological fieldwork on the sea floor is still impaired by our inability to resolve features on a sub-meter scale resolution in a quantifiable reference frame and over an area large enough to reveal the context of local observations. In order to overcome these issues, we have developed an integrated workflow of visual mapping techniques leading to georeferenced data sets which we examine using state-of-the-art visualization technology to recreate an effective working style of field geology. We demonstrate a microbathymetrical workflow, which is based on photogrammetric reconstruction of ROV imagery referenced to the acoustic vehicle track. The advantage over established acoustical systems lies in the true three-dimensionality of the data as opposed to the perspective projection from above produced by downward looking mapping methods. A full color texture mosaic derived from the imagery allows studies at resolutions beyond the resolved geometry (usually one order of magnitude below the image resolution) while color gives additional clues, which can only be partly resolved in acoustic backscatter. The creation of a three-dimensional model changes the working style from the temporal domain of a video recording back to the spatial domain of a map. We examine these datasets using a custom developed immersive virtual visualization environment. The ARENA (Artificial Research Environment for Networked Analysis) features a (lower) hemispherical screen at a diameter of six meters, accommodating up to four scientists at once thus providing the ability to browse data interactively among a group of researchers. This environment facilitates (1) the development of spatial understanding analogue to on-land outcrop studies, (2) quantitative observations of seafloor morphology and physical parameters of its deposits, (3) more effective formulation and communication of working hypotheses.

  7. Color visualization for fluid flow prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Speray, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    High-resolution raster scan color graphics allow variables to be presented as a continuum, in a color-coded picture that is referenced to a geometry such as a flow field grid or a boundary surface. Software is used to map a scalar variable such as pressure or temperature, defined on a two-dimensional slice of a flow field. The geometric shape is preserved in the resulting picture, and the relative magnitude of the variable is color-coded onto the geometric shape. The primary numerical process for color coding is an efficient search along a raster scan line to locate the quadrilteral block in the grid that bounds each pixel on the line. Tension spline interpolation is performed relative to the grid for specific values of the scalar variable, which is then color coded. When all pixels for the field of view are color-defined, a picture is played back from a memory device onto a television screen.

  8. Intracardiac flow visualization: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Muñoz, Daniel; Markl, Michael; Moya Mur, José Luis; Barker, Alex; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Zamorano Gómez, José Luis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging initially focused on heart structures, allowing the visualization of their motion and inferring its functional status from it. Colour-Doppler and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have allowed a visual approach to intracardiac flow behaviour, as well as measuring its velocity at single selected spots. Recently, the application of new technologies to medical use and, particularly, to cardiology has allowed, through different algorithms in CMR and applications of ultrasound-related techniques, the description and analysis of flow behaviour in all points and directions of the selected region, creating the opportunity to incorporate new data reflecting cardiac performance to cardiovascular imaging. The following review provides an overview of the currently available imaging techniques that enable flow visualization, as well as its present and future applications based on the available literature and on-going works.

  9. Intracardiac flow visualization: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Muñoz, Daniel; Markl, Michael; Moya Mur, José Luis; Barker, Alex; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Zamorano Gómez, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging initially focused on heart structures, allowing the visualization of their motion and inferring its functional status from it. Colour-Doppler and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have allowed a visual approach to intracardiac flow behaviour, as well as measuring its velocity at single selected spots. Recently, the application of new technologies to medical use and, particularly, to cardiology has allowed, through different algorithms in CMR and applications of ultrasound-related techniques, the description and analysis of flow behaviour in all points and directions of the selected region, creating the opportunity to incorporate new data reflecting cardiac performance to cardiovascular imaging. The following review provides an overview of the currently available imaging techniques that enable flow visualization, as well as its present and future applications based on the available literature and on-going works. PMID:23907342

  10. MEANS FOR VISUALIZING FLUID FLOW PATTERNS

    DOEpatents

    Lynch, F.E.; Palmer, L.D.; Poppendick, H.F.; Winn, G.M.

    1961-05-16

    An apparatus is given for determining both the absolute and relative velocities of a phosphorescent fluid flowing through a transparent conduit. The apparatus includes a source for exciting a narrow trsnsverse band of the fluid to phosphorescence, detecting means such as a camera located downstream from the exciting source to record the shape of the phosphorescent band as it passes, and a timer to measure the time elapsed between operation of the exciting source and operation of the camera.

  11. Computation and visualization of leading edge vortex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.; Becker, T. M.; Darmofal, D.

    1990-01-01

    The modeling of vortical flows is a continuing requirement for the design and analysis of flight vehicles. In this paper, the computation of leading edge vortices is considered. The solution of the laminar, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations for a transonic delta wing is presented as a representative example. Issues relating to the visualization of the results are discussed, and illustrations using the newly developed software VISUAL3 on a Stardent graphics supercomputer are included.

  12. Reversal of cortical information flow during visual imagery as compared to visual perception.

    PubMed

    Dentico, Daniela; Cheung, Bing Leung; Chang, Jui-Yang; Guokas, Jeffrey; Boly, Melanie; Tononi, Giulio; Van Veen, Barry

    2014-10-15

    The role of bottom-up and top-down connections during visual perception and the formation of mental images was examined by analyzing high-density EEG recordings of brain activity using two state-of-the-art methods for assessing the directionality of cortical signal flow: state-space Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling. We quantified the directionality of signal flow in an occipito-parieto-frontal cortical network during perception of movie clips versus mental replay of the movies and free visual imagery. Both Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed an increased top-down signal flow in parieto-occipital cortices during mental imagery as compared to visual perception. These results are the first direct demonstration of a reversal of the predominant direction of cortical signal flow during mental imagery as compared to perception.

  13. Reversal of cortical information flow during visual imagery as compared to visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Dentico, Daniela; Cheung, Bing Leung; Chang, Jui-Yang; Guokas, Jeffrey; Boly, Melanie; Tononi, Giulio; Van Veen, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The role of bottom-up and top-down connections during visual perception and the forming of mental images was examined by analyzing high-density EEG recordings of brain activity using two state-of-the-art methods for assessing the directionality of cortical signal flow: state-space Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling. We quantified the directionality of signal flow in an occipito-parieto-frontal cortical network during perception of movie clips versus mental replay of the movies and free visual imagery. Both Granger causality and dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed increased top-down signal flow in parieto-occipital cortices during mental imagery as compared to visual perception. These results are the first direct demonstration of a reversal of the predominant direction of cortical signal flow during mental imagery as compared to perception. PMID:24910071

  14. The use of oil for in-flight flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.; Meyer, R. R., Jr.; Oconnor, M.

    1984-01-01

    Oil was used to visualize inflight aerodynamic characteristics such as boundary layer transition, shock wave location, regions of separated flow, and surface flow direction. The technique, which is similar to wind tunnel oil-flow testing, involves an oil mixture to test aircraft before takeoff. After takeoff, the airplane climbs immediately to the test altitude and photographs are taken. The developmental experience is summarized, several examples of inflight oil-flow photographs are presented and discussed, and an approach for potential users of the technique is presented.

  15. Analysis and visualization of complex unsteady three-dimensional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dalsem, William R.; Buning, Pieter G.; Dougherty, F. Carroll; Smith, Merritt H.

    1989-01-01

    Flow field animation is the natural choice as a tool in the analysis of the numerical simulations of complex unsteady three-dimensional flows. The PLOT4D extension of the widely used PLOT3D code to allow the interactive animation of a broad range of flow variables was developed and is presented. To allow direct comparison with unsteady experimental smoke and dye flow visualization, the code STREAKER was developed to produce time accurate streaklines. Considerations regarding the development of PLOT4D and STREAKER, and example results are presented.

  16. Flow quantitation by radio frequency analysis of contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Rovai, D; Lombardi, M; Mazzarisi, A; Landini, L; Taddei, L; Distante, A; Benassi, A; L'Abbate, A

    1993-03-01

    Contrast echocardiography has the potential for measuring cardiac output and regional blood flow. However, accurate quantitation is limited both by the use of non-standard contrast agents and by the electronic signal distortion inherent to the echocardiographic instruments. Thus, the aim of this study is to quantify flow by combining a stable contrast agent and a modified echo equipment, able to sample the radio frequency (RF) signal from a region of interest (ROI) in the echo image. The contrast agent SHU-454 (0.8 ml) was bolus injected into an in vitro calf vein, at 23 flow rates (ranging from 376 to 3620 ml/min) but constant volume and pressure. The ROI was placed in the centre of the vein, the RF signal was processed in real time and transferred to a personal computer to generate time-intensity curves. In the absence of recirculation, contrast washout slope and mean transit time (MTT) of curves (1.11-8.52 seconds) yielded excellent correlations with flow: r = 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. To compare the accuracy of RF analysis with that of conventional image processing as to flow quantitation, conventional images were collected in the same flow model by two different scanners: a) the mechanical sector scanner used for RF analysis, and b) a conventional electronic sector scanner. These images were digitized off-line, mean videodensity inside an identical ROI was measured and time-intensity curves were built. MTT by RF was shorter than by videodensitometric analysis of the images generated by the same scanner (p < 0.001). In contrast, MTT by RF was longer than by the conventional scanner (p < 0.001). Significant differences in MTT were also found with changes in the gain setting controls of the conventional scanner. To study the stability of the contrast effect, 6 contrast injections (20 ml) were performed at a constant flow rate during recirculation: the spontaneous decay in RF signal intensity (t1/2 = 64 +/- 8 seconds) was too long to affect MTT significantly

  17. Visual study of the effect of grazing flow on the oscillatory flow in a resonator orifice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Rice, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    Grazing flow and oscillatory flow in an orifice were studied in a plexiglass flow channel with a single side branch Helmholtz resonator using water as the fluid medium. An oscillatory flow was applied to the resonatory cavity, and color dyes were injected in both the orifice and the grazing flow field to record the motion of the fluid. The flow regimes associated with linear and nonlinear (high sound pressure level) impedances with and without grazing flows were recorded by a high-speed motion-picture camera. Appreciable differences in the oscillatory flow field were seen in the various flow regimes. With high grazing flows, the outflow and inflow from the resonator cavity are found to be asymmetric. The visual study confirms that jet energy loss during flow into a resonator cavity is much larger than the loss for ejection from the cavity into the grazing flow. For inflow into the resonator cavity, the effective orifice area was significantly reduced.

  18. Ultrafast quantitative time-stretch imaging flow cytometry of phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Queenie T. K.; Lau, Andy K. S.; Tang, Anson H. L.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive quantification of phytoplankton abundance, sizes and other parameters, e.g. biomasses, has been an important, yet daunting task in aquatic sciences and biofuel research. It is primarily because of the lack of effective tool to image and thus accurately profile individual microalgae in a large population. The phytoplankton species are highly diversified and heterogeneous in terms of their sizes and the richness in morphological complexity. This fact makes time-stretch imaging, a new ultrafast real-time optical imaging technology, particularly suitable for ultralarge-scale taxonomic classification of phytoplankton together with quantitative image recognition and analysis. We here demonstrate quantitative imaging flow cytometry of single phytoplankton based on quantitative asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (Q-ATOM) - a new time-stretch imaging modality for label-free quantitative phase imaging without interferometric implementations. Sharing the similar concept of Schlieren imaging, Q-ATOM accesses multiple phase-gradient contrasts of each single phytoplankton, from which the quantitative phase profile is computed. We employ such system to capture, at an imaging line-scan rate of 11.6 MHz, high-resolution images of two phytoplankton populations (scenedesmus and chlamydomonas) in ultrafast microfluidic flow (3 m/s). We further perform quantitative taxonomic screening analysis enabled by this technique. More importantly, the system can also generate quantitative phase images of single phytoplankton. This is especially useful for label-free quantification of biomasses (e.g. lipid droplets) of the particular species of interest - an important task adopted in biofuel applications. Combining machine learning for automated classification, Q-ATOM could be an attractive platform for continuous and real-time ultralarge-scale single-phytoplankton analysis.

  19. An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.

  20. Advances in flow visualization using liquid-crystal coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses a new four-part mixing method for visualizing boundary layer flows, including transitions, separation, and shock locations, by the use of liquid-crystal coatings. The method controls the event temperature and color-play bandwidth best suited to specific experimental conditions, and is easily learned. The method is applicable almost throughout the altitude and speed ranges for subsonic aircraft flight envelopes, and is also applicable to supersonic flow visualization and for general use in high- and low-speed wind tunnel and water tunnel testing.

  1. Numerical Flow Visualization in Basic- and Hyper-Cluster Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Athavale, M. M.; Braun, M. J.; Lattime, S.

    1997-01-01

    Packed spherical particle beds have wide applications throughout the process industry and are usually analyzed using an appropriate combination of laminar and turbulent flows with empirically derived coefficients of which the Ergun (1952) relation is probably the best known. The 3-D complexity of the void distribution within the beds has precluded detailed studies of sphere clusters. Numerical modeling and flow vector visualization for the basic tetra- and hexa-sphere clusters and two hyper-sphere clusters are presented at two Reynolds numbers, 400 and 1200. Cutting planes are used to enable visualization of the complex flows generated within the sphere clusters and are discussed herein. The boundary conditions and flow fields for the simple clusters are also compared to the hyper-clusters with larger variations found for hexa-clusters.

  2. Patterns in the sky: Natural visualization of aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James F.; Chambers, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the current publication is to present the collection of flight photographs to illustrate the types of flow patterns that were visualized and to present qualitative correlations with computational and wind tunnel results. Initially in section 2, the condensation process is discussed, including a review of relative humidity, vapor pressure, and factors which determine the presence of visible condensate. Next, outputs from computer code calculations are postprocessed by using water-vapor relationships to determine if computed values of relative humidity in the local flow field correlate with the qualitative features of the in-flight condensation patterns. The photographs are then presented in section 3 by flow type and subsequently in section 4 by aircraft type to demonstrate the variety of condensed flow fields that was visualized for a wide range of aircraft and flight maneuvers.

  3. Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm) and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  4. Visual Modelling of Data Warehousing Flows with UML Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardillo, Jesús; Golfarelli, Matteo; Rizzi, Stefano; Trujillo, Juan

    Data warehousing involves complex processes that transform source data through several stages to deliver suitable information ready to be analysed. Though many techniques for visual modelling of data warehouses from the static point of view have been devised, only few attempts have been made to model the data flows involved in a data warehousing process. Besides, each attempt was mainly aimed at a specific application, such as ETL, OLAP, what-if analysis, data mining. Data flows are typically very complex in this domain; for this reason, we argue, designers would greatly benefit from a technique for uniformly modelling data warehousing flows for all applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated visual modelling technique for data cubes and data flows. This technique is based on UML profiling; its feasibility is evaluated by means of a prototype implementation.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Flow Processes in a Sand Using Synchrotron-Based X-ray Microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wildenschild, D.; Hopmans, J.W.; Rivers, M.L.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2010-07-20

    Pore-scale multiphase flow experiments were developed to nondestructively visualize water flow in a sample of porous material using X-ray microtomography. The samples were exposed to similar boundary conditions as in a previous investigation, which examined the effect of initial flow rate on observed dynamic effects in the measured capillary pressure-saturation curves; a significantly higher residual saturation and higher capillary pressures were found when the sample was drained fast using a high air-phase pressure. Prior work applying the X-ray microtomography technique to pore-scale multiphase flow problems has been of a mostly qualitative nature and no experiments have been presented in the existing literature where a truly quantitative approach to investigating the multiphase flow process has been taken, including a thorough image-processing scheme. The tomographic images presented here show, both by qualitative comparison and quantitative analysis in the form of a nearest neighbor analysis, that the dynamic effects seen in previous experiments are likely due to the fast and preferential drainage of large pores in the sample. Once a continuous drained path has been established through the sample, further drainage of the remaining pores, which have been disconnected from the main flowing water continuum, is prevented.

  6. Earth's field NMR flow meter: preliminary quantitative measurements.

    PubMed

    Fridjonsson, Einar O; Stanwix, Paul L; Johns, Michael L

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of Earth's field NMR (EF NMR) combined with a pre-polarising permanent magnet for measuring fast fluid velocities. This time of flight measurement protocol has a considerable history in the literature; here we demonstrate that it is quantitative when employing the Earth's magnetic field for signal detection. NMR signal intensities are measured as a function of flow rate (0-1m/s) and separation distance between the permanent magnet and the EF NMR signal detection. These data are quantitatively described by a flow model, ultimately featuring no free parameters, that accounts for NMR signal modulation due to residence time inside the pre-polarising magnet, between the pre-polarising magnet and the detection RF coil and inside the detection coil respectively. The methodology is subsequently demonstrated with a metallic pipe in the pre-polarising region.

  7. Visualization periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardakov, R.; Vasiliev, A.

    2012-04-01

    To visualize the flow pattern of viscous continuously stratified fluid both experimental and computational methods were developed. Computational procedures were based on exact solutions of set of the fundamental equations. Solutions of the problems of flows producing by periodically oscillating disk (linear and torsion oscillations) were visualized with a high resolutions to distinguish small-scale the singular components on the background of strong internal waves. Numerical algorithm of visualization allows to represent both the scalar and vector fields, such as velocity, density, pressure, vorticity, stream function. The size of the source, buoyancy and oscillation frequency, kinematic viscosity of the medium effects were traced in 2D an 3D posing problems. Precision schlieren instrument was used to visualize the flow pattern produced by linear and torsion oscillations of strip and disk in a continuously stratified fluid. Uniform stratification was created by the continuous displacement method. The buoyancy period ranged from 7.5 to 14 s. In the experiments disks with diameters from 9 to 30 cm and a thickness of 1 mm to 10 mm were used. Different schlieren methods that are conventional vertical slit - Foucault knife, vertical slit - filament (Maksoutov's method) and horizontal slit - horizontal grating (natural "rainbow" schlieren method) help to produce supplementing flow patterns. Both internal wave beams and fine flow components were visualized in vicinity and far from the source. Intensity of high gradient envelopes increased proportionally the amplitude of the source. In domains of envelopes convergence isolated small scale vortices and extended mushroom like jets were formed. Experiments have shown that in the case of torsion oscillations pattern of currents is more complicated than in case of forced linear oscillations. Comparison with known theoretical model shows that nonlinear interactions between the regular and singular flow components must be taken

  8. Visualization of through-plane blood flow measurements obtained from phase-contrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Thunberg, Per; Kähäri, Anders

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a visualization method for concurrent observation of both velocity and magnitude data obtained from through-plane velocity measurements using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Magnitude and velocity images were combined using an opacity transfer function (OTF) where the opacity was a function of a velocity range defined by the velocity encoding (v (enc)) parameter. Measured velocities were color-coded according to a predefined color scale and then combined into one image with the gray-scale magnitude image according to the OTF. In the combined images, simultaneous information of velocity and anatomy was presented. The proposed visualization method facilitated the understanding of how the measured blood flow was related to the underlying anatomy. Results are shown where the method is used to visualize blood flow measurements in the ascending aorta and the aortic valve. Adjustments of the OTF render possible identification of the peak velocities and their localization. Forward and backward blood flow is easily shown when applying appropriate OTF and color-coding. An advantage when using the proposed method is the ability of developing standardized protocol settings since the velocity information is quantitative and not relative as is the case for data obtained from the magnitude images. The intended application of the visualization method is the analysis of common flow studies used in the diagnosis of different cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Mingde; Marshall, Craig T.; Qi, Yi; Johnston, Samuel M.; Badea, Cristian T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0{+-}5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCO{sub DSA}=CO{sub Fick}. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.

  10. Corticocortical and thalamocortical information flow in the primate visual system.

    PubMed

    Van Essen, David C

    2005-01-01

    Visual cortex in primates contains a mosaic of several dozen visual areas that collectively occupy a large fraction of cerebral cortex (approximately 50% in the macaque; approximately 25% in humans). These areas are richly interconnected by hundreds of reciprocal corticocortical pathways that underlie an anatomically based hierarchy containing multiple processing streams. In addition, there is a complex pattern of reciprocal connections with the pulvinar, which itself contains about 10 architectonically distinct subdivisions. Information flow through these corticocortical and corticothalamic circuits is regulated very dynamically by top-down as well as bottom-up processes, including directed visual attention. This chapter evaluates current hypotheses and evidence relating to the interaction between thalamocortical and corticocortical circuitry in the dynamic regulation of information flow.

  11. STRING 3: An Advanced Groundwater Flow Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Simon; Michel, Isabel; Biedert, Tim; Gräfe, Marius; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The visualization of 3D groundwater flow is a challenging task. Previous versions of our software STRING [1] solely focused on intuitive visualization of complex flow scenarios for non-professional audiences. STRING, developed by Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) and delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany), provides the necessary means for visualization of both 2D and 3D data on planar and curved surfaces. In this contribution we discuss how to extend this approach to a full 3D tool and its challenges in continuation of Michel et al. [2]. This elevates STRING from a post-production to an exploration tool for experts. In STRING moving pathlets provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flows. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow. To capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding is used building on the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Lifting our visualization approach from 2D into 3D provides many new challenges. With the implementation of a seeding strategy for 3D one of the major problems has already been solved (see Schröder et al. [3]). As pathlets only provide an overview of the velocity field other means are required for the visualization of additional flow properties. We suggest the use of Direct Volume Rendering and isosurfaces for scalar features. In this regard we were able to develop an efficient approach for combining the rendering through raytracing of the volume and regular OpenGL geometries. This is achieved through the use of Depth Peeling or A-Buffers for the rendering of transparent geometries. Animation of pathlets requires a strict boundary of the simulation domain. Hence, STRING needs to extract the boundary, even from unstructured data, if it is not provided. In 3D we additionally need a good visualization of the boundary itself. For this the silhouette based on the angle of

  12. Optic flow and the metric of the visual ground plane.

    PubMed

    Beusmans, J M

    1998-04-01

    A theory is developed in which the optic flow of an observer translating over the ground plane determines the metric of egocentric visual space. Optic flow is used to operationalize the equality of spatial intervals not unlike physicists use time to compare spatial intervals. The theory predicts empirical matching ratios for collinear, sagittal intervals to within 2% of the mean (eight subjects, standard error also 2%). The theory predicts that frontoparallel intervals on the ground plane will match sagittal intervals if their relative image motions match, which was found empirically. It is suggested that the optic flow metric serves to calibrate static depth cues such as angular elevation and binocular parallax.

  13. Visualization of In-Flight Flow Phenomena Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; vanDam, C. P.; Shiu, H. J.; Miller, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Infrared thermography was used to obtain data on the state of the boundary layer of a natural laminar flow airfoil in supersonic flight. In addition to the laminar-to-turbulent transition boundary, the infrared camera was able to detect shock waves and present a time dependent view of the flow field. A time dependent heat transfer code was developed to predict temperature distributions on the test subject and any necessary surface treatment. A commercially available infrared camera was adapted for airborne use in this application. Readily available infrared technology has the capability to provide detailed visualization of various flow phenomena in subsonic to hypersonic flight regimes.

  14. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion. PMID:27126250

  15. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-04-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion.

  16. A quantitative visual dashboard to explore exposures to consumer product ingredients

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Prioritization (Ex Priori) model features a simplified, quantitative visual dashboard to explore exposures across chemical space. Diverse data streams are integrated within the interface such that different exposure scenarios for “individual,” “pop...

  17. A quantitative visual dashboard to explore exposures to consumer product ingredients

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Prioritization (Ex Priori) model features a simplified, quantitative visual dashboard to explore exposures across chemical space. Diverse data streams are integrated within the interface such that different exposure scenarios for “individual,” “pop...

  18. A water tunnel flow visualization study of the F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the F-15 aircraft. Two lengthened forebodies, one with a modified cross-sectional shape, were tested in addition to the basic forebody. Particular emphasis was placed on defining vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop diagnostic water tunnel using a 1/48-scale model of the F-15. Flow visualization pictures were obtained over an angle-of-attack range to 55 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The basic aircraft configuration was investigated in detail to determine the vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. Additional tests showed that the wing upper surface vortex flow fields were sensitive to variations in inlet mass flow ratio and inlet cowl deflection angle. Asymmetries in the vortex systems generated by each of the three forebodies were observed in the water tunnel at zero sideslip and high angles of attack.

  19. VSTOL ground effects testing with flow visualization and image enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Johns, Albert L.

    1991-01-01

    A remotely controlled high-energy fiber-optic light delivery technique is employed to examine the implementation of a laser-light-sheet flow-visualization system. During testing, video data are enhanced in real time using digital image processing techniques. A summary of test results for an advanced VSTOL configuration in ground effect, and techniques for the generation of 3D reconstructions for the flowfield are outlined. The system performed well during all phases of the test and proved to be an extremely useful asset to the overall test program. The most useful application of the flow visualization system was the interactive real-time flow field analysis made during the actual testing.

  20. Quantitative flow and velocity measurements of pulsatile blood flow with 4D-DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, Gabe; Hoffman, Carson; Schafer, Sebastian; Mistretta, Charles A.; Strother, Charles M.

    2017-03-01

    Time resolved 3D angiographic data from 4D DSA provides a unique environment to explore physical properties of blood flow. Utilizing the pulsatility of the contrast waveform, the Fourier components can be used to track the waveform motion through vessels. Areas of strong pulsatility are determined through the FFT power spectrum. Using this method, we find an accuracy from 4D-DSA flow measurements within 7.6% and 6.8% RMSE of ICA PCVIPR and phantom flow probe validation measurements, respectively. The availability of velocity and flow information with fast acquisition could provide a more quantitative approach to treatment planning and evaluation in interventional radiology.

  1. Quantitative assessment of human fetal renal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Veille, J C; Hanson, R A; Tatum, K; Kelley, K

    1993-12-01

    Our purpose was to longitudinally quantify human fetal renal blood flow. Twenty-two normal fetuses underwent a color-pulsed Doppler evaluation of the renal artery. The Doppler waveforms were digitized to assess the velocity-time integral. The size of the vessel was determined during systole with color high-resolution two-dimensional ultrasonography. Renal blood flow was estimated by multiplying the time-velocity integral (i.e., area under the curve) by the area of the renal artery. The combined cardiac output was calculated by adding right and left inflow Doppler-derived volumes. Renal artery size, peak flow velocity, time-velocity integral, and renal blood flow significantly increased with advancing gestational age. The resistivity indexes, such as the systolic/diastolic ratio or the Pourcelot index of the fetal renal artery, did not significantly change with advancing gestational age. The pulsatility index, however, was correlated with gestational age. The percentage of the combined cardiac output to the fetal kidney remained constant throughout gestation. Color pulsed Doppler can be used to visualize small and deep vascular structures in the human fetus. Renal blood flow increased with advancing gestational age. This increase seems to be related to the increase in the combined cardiac output.

  2. A deformation framework for focus+context flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Wang, Chaoli; Shene, Ching-Kuang; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Striking a careful balance among coverage, occlusion, and complexity is a resounding theme in the visual understanding of large and complex three-dimensional flow fields. In this paper, we present a novel deformation framework for focus+context streamline visualization that reduces occlusion and clutter around the focal regions while compacting the context region in a full view. Unlike existing techniques that vary streamline densities, we advocate a different approach that manipulates streamline positions. This is achieved by partitioning the flow field's volume space into blocks and deforming the blocks to guide streamline repositioning. We formulate block expansion and block smoothing into energy terms and solve for a deformed grid that minimizes the objective function under the volume boundary and edge flipping constraints. Leveraging a GPU linear system solver, we demonstrate interactive focus+context visualization with 3D flow field data of various characteristics. Compared to the fisheye focus+context technique, our method can magnify multiple streamlines of focus in different regions simultaneously while minimizing the distortion through optimized deformation. Both automatic and manual feature specifications are provided for flexible focus selection and effective visualization.

  3. Verification of Scientific Simulations via Hypothesis-Driven Comparative and Quantitative Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Heitmann, Katrin; Petersen, Mark R; Woodring, Jonathan; Williams, Sean; Fasel, Patricia; Ahrens, Christine; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Geveci, Berk

    2010-11-01

    This article presents a visualization-assisted process that verifies scientific-simulation codes. Code verification is necessary because scientists require accurate predictions to interpret data confidently. This verification process integrates iterative hypothesis verification with comparative, feature, and quantitative visualization. Following this process can help identify differences in cosmological and oceanographic simulations.

  4. Quantitative three-dimensional holographic interferometry for flow field analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, C. M. E.; Parker, S. C. J.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

    Holographic interferometry offers the potential for quantitative, wholefield analysis of three-dimensional compressible flows. The technique is non-intrusive, does not require the introduction of seeding particles, and records the entire flow information within the pulse duration of a Q-switched ruby laser (~30ns). At present, however, holographic interferometry is mainly used qualitatively due to the practical restrictions of data recording, acquisition and processing. To address the potential of holographic flow analysis a prototype multi-channel interferometer has been designed and preliminary wind tunnel results have been obtained. The proposed configuration uses specular illumination which, unlike comparable diffuse systems, does not suffer from fringe localisation and speckle noise. Beam collimation and steering through the flow field is achieved in a single operation by the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs). The resulting design is compact, light efficient, has aberration compensation, and the recorded data are conducive to both tomographic analysis and direct comparison to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions. Holograms have been recorded of simple two-dimensional and axisymmetric compressible flows, to compare the accuracy of holographic density measurements with data from conventional pressure sensors and CFD codes. Data extraction from the holograms, and the elimination of rigid body motion, was achieved using digital Fourier transform fringe analysis. The introduction of phase errors by image processing has been investigated by analysing simulated fringe patterns generated from a combination of experimental amplitude information and computer generated phase data.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Intracellular Motility Based on Optical Flow Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of cell mobility is a key issue for abnormality identification and classification in cell biology research. However, since cell deformation induced by various biological processes is random and cell protrusion is irregular, it is difficult to measure cell morphology and motility in microscopic images. To address this dilemma, we propose an improved variation optical flow model for quantitative analysis of intracellular motility, which not only extracts intracellular motion fields effectively but also deals with optical flow computation problem at the border by taking advantages of the formulation based on L1 and L2 norm, respectively. In the energy functional of our proposed optical flow model, the data term is in the form of L2 norm; the smoothness of the data changes with regional features through an adaptive parameter, using L1 norm near the edge of the cell and L2 norm away from the edge. We further extract histograms of oriented optical flow (HOOF) after optical flow field of intracellular motion is computed. Then distances of different HOOFs are calculated as the intracellular motion features to grade the intracellular motion. Experimental results show that the features extracted from HOOFs provide new insights into the relationship between the cell motility and the special pathological conditions.

  6. Visualization of Flow Behavior in Earth Mantle Convection.

    PubMed

    Schroder, S; Peterson, J A; Obermaier, H; Kellogg, L H; Joy, K I; Hagen, H

    2012-12-01

    A fundamental characteristic of fluid flow is that it causes mixing: introduce a dye into a flow, and it will disperse. Mixing can be used as a method to visualize and characterize flow. Because mixing is a process that occurs over time, it is a 4D problem that presents a challenge for computation, visualization, and analysis. Motivated by a mixing problem in geophysics, we introduce a combination of methods to analyze, transform, and finally visualize mixing in simulations of convection in a self-gravitating 3D spherical shell representing convection in the Earth's mantle. Geophysicists use tools such as the finite element model CitcomS to simulate convection, and introduce massless, passive tracers to model mixing. The output of geophysical flow simulation is hard to analyze for domain experts because of overall data size and complexity. In addition, information overload and occlusion are problems when visualizing a whole-earth model. To address the large size of the data, we rearrange the simulation data using intelligent indexing for fast file access and efficient caching. To address information overload and interpret mixing, we compute tracer concentration statistics, which are used to characterize mixing in mantle convection models. Our visualization uses a specially tailored version of Direct Volume Rendering. The most important adjustment is the use of constant opacity. Because of this special area of application, i. e. the rendering of a spherical shell, many computations for volume rendering can be optimized. These optimizations are essential to a smooth animation of the time-dependent simulation data. Our results show how our system can be used to quickly assess the simulation output and test hypotheses regarding Earth's mantle convection. The integrated processing pipeline helps geoscientists to focus on their main task of analyzing mantle homogenization.

  7. Flow Visualization Study of the F-14 Fighter Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the F-14. Particular emphasis was placed on defining the vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop water tunnel using a 1/72 scale model of the F-14 with a wing leading-edge sweep of 20 deg. Flow visualization photographs were obtained for angles of attack up to 55 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The F-14 model was investigated to determine the vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. Vortex flows were found to develop on the highly swept glove and on the upper surface of the forebody. At 10 deg of sideslip, the windward glove vortex shifted inboard and broke down farther forward than the leeward glove vortex. This asymmetric breakdown of the vortices in sideslip contributes to a reduction in the lateral stability above 20 deg angle of attack. The initial loss of directional stability is a consequence of the adverse sidewash from the windward vortex and the reduced dynamic pressure at the vertical tails.

  8. Flow visualization study of the HiMAT RPRV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT RPRV). Particular emphasis was placed on defining the vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop water tunnel using a 1/15 scale model of the HiMAT RPRV. Flow visualization photographs were obtained for angles of attack up to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 5 deg. The HiMAT model was investigated in detail to determine the canard and wing vortex flow field development, vortex paths, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. The presence of the canard caused the wing vortex to form further outboard and delayed the breakdown of the wing vortex to higher angles of attack. An increase in leading edge camber of the maneuver configuration delayed both the formation and the breakdown of the wing and canard vortices. Additional tests showed that the canard vortex was sensitive to variations in inlet mass flow ratio and canard flap deflection angle.

  9. A comparative flow visualization study of thermocapillary flow in drops in liquid-liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Rashidnia, N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments are performed to visualize thermocapillary flow in drops in an immiscible host liquid. The host liquid used is silicone oil. Drops of three different liquids are used, viz, vegetable oil, water-methanol mixture anad pure methanol. Clear evidence of thermocapillary flow is seen in vegetable oil drops. For a mixture of water and methanol (approximately 50-50 by weight), natural convection is seen to dominate the flow outside the drop. Pure methanol drops exhibit thermocapillary flow, but dissolve in silicone oil. A small amount of water added to pure methanol significantly reduces the dissolution. Flow oscillations occur in this system for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

  10. A visual investigation of turbulence in stagnation flow about a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A visual investigation of turbulence in stagnation flow around a circular cylinder was carried out in order to gain a physical insight into the model advocated by the corticity-amplification theory. Motion pictures were taken from three different viewpoints, and a frame by frame examination of selected movie strips was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the flow events focused on tracing the temporal and spatial evolution of a cross-vortex tube outlined by the entrained smoke filaments. The visualization supplied evidence verifying: (1) the selective stretching of cross-vortex tubes which is responsible for the amplification of cross vorticity and, hence, of streamwise turbulence; (2) the streamwise tilting of stretched cross-vortex tubes; (3) the existence of a coherent array of vortices near the stagnation zone; (4) the interaction of the amplified vorticity with the body laminar boundary layer; and, (5) the growth of a turbulent boundary layer.

  11. Blood Flow: Multi-scale Modeling and Visualization (July 2011)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Multi-scale modeling of arterial blood flow can shed light on the interaction between events happening at micro- and meso-scales (i.e., adhesion of red blood cells to the arterial wall, clot formation) and at macro-scales (i.e., change in flow patterns due to the clot). Coupled numerical simulations of such multi-scale flow require state-of-the-art computers and algorithms, along with techniques for multi-scale visualizations. This animation presents early results of two studies used in the development of a multi-scale visualization methodology. The fisrt illustrates a flow of healthy (red) and diseased (blue) blood cells with a Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Each blood cell is represented by a mesh, small spheres show a sub-set of particles representing the blood plasma, while instantaneous streamlines and slices represent the ensemble average velocity. In the second we investigate the process of thrombus (blood clot) formation, which may be responsible for the rupture of aneurysms, by concentrating on the platelet blood cells, observing as they aggregate on the wall of an aneruysm. Simulation was performed on Kraken at the National Institute for Computational Sciences. Visualization was produced using resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory.

  12. Visualization of structures and cosmic flows in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomarède, Daniel; Courtois, Hélène; Tully, R. Brent

    2013-02-01

    A visualization of 3D structures and cosmic flows is presented using information from the Extragalactic Distance Database V8k redshift catalog and peculiar velocities from the Cosmicflows-1 survey. Structures within a volume bounded at 8000 km s-1 on the cardinal Supergalactic axes are explored in terms of both displaying the positions of the 30,124 galaxies of the catalog and its reconstructed luminosity density field, corrected to account for growing incompleteness with increasing distance. Cosmography of the local Universe is discussed with the intent to identify the most prominent structures, including voids, galaxy clusters, filaments, and walls. The mapping also benefits from precise distance measures provided through the Cosmicflows-1 observational program. Three-dimensional visualizations of the coherent flows of galaxies in the nearby Universe are presented, using recent results based on reconstruction of cosmic flows with the Wiener filter approach. The three major components of the Milky Way's motion, namely expulsion from the Local Void, infall toward the Virgo Cluster, and the bulk flow of the historic Local Supercluster toward the Great Attractor are illustrated using different visualization techniques and analyzed in light of the cosmography derived from the V8k redshift and Cosmicflows-1 distance catalogs.

  13. Virtual dye angiography: flow visualization for MRI-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    George, Ashvin K; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Derbyshire, J Andrew; Lederman, Robert J; Hansen, Michael S

    2012-04-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging-guided cardiovascular interventional procedures, it is valuable to be able to visualize blood flow immediately and interactively in selected regions. In particular, it is useful to assess normal or pathological communications between specific heart chambers and vessels. Phase-contrast velocity mapping is not suitable for this purpose as it requires too much data and is not capable of determining directly if blood originating in one location travels to a nearby location. This article presents a novel flow visualization method called virtual dye angiography that enables visualization of blood flow analogous to selective catheter angiography. The method uses two-dimensional radio frequency pulses to achieve interactive, intermittent, targeted saturation of a localized region of the blood pool. The flow of the saturated spins is observed directly on real-time images or, in an enhanced manner, using ECG synchronized background subtraction. The modular nature of the technique allows for easy and seamless integration into a real-time, interactive imaging system with minimal overhead. We present initial results in animals and in a healthy human volunteer.

  14. Detecting distortion: bridging visual and quantitative reasoning on similarity tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Dana C.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2014-03-01

    This study is focused on identifying and describing the reasoning patterns of middle grade students when examining potentially similar figures. Described here is a framework that includes 11 strategies that students used during clinical interview to differentiate similar and non-similar figures. Two factors were found to influence the strategies students selected: the complexity of the figures being compared and the type of distortion present in nonsimilar pairings. Data from this study support the theory that distortions are identified as a dominant property of figures and that students use the presence and absence of distortion to visually decide if two figures are similar. Furthermore, this study shows that visual reasoning is not as primitive or nonconstructive as represented in earlier literature and supports students who are developing numeric reasoning strategies. This illuminates possible pathways students may take when advancing from using visual and additive reasoning strategies to using multiplicative proportional reasoning on similarity tasks. In particular, distortion detection is a visual activity that enables students to reflect upon and evaluate the validity and accuracy of differentiation and quantify perceived relationships leading to ratio. This study has implications for curriculum developers as well as future research.

  15. Quantitative analysis of gait in the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T

    1997-05-01

    In this comparative study concerning characteristics of independent walking by visually impaired persons, we used a motion analyser system to perform gait analysis of 15 late blind (age 36-54, mean 44.3 years), 15 congenitally blind (age 39-48, mean 43.8 years) and 15 sighted persons (age 40-50, mean 44.4 years) while walking a 10-m walkway. All subjects were male. Compared to the sighted, late blind and congenitally blind persons had a significantly slower walking speed, shorter stride length and longer time in the stance phase of gait. However, the relationships between gait parameters in the late and congenitally blind groups were maintained, as in the sighted group. In addition, the gait of the late blind showed a tendency to approximate the gait patterns of the congenitally blind as the duration of visual loss progressed. Based on these results we concluded that the gait of visually impaired persons, through its active use of non-visual sensory input, represents an attempt to adapt to various environmental conditions in order to maintain a more stable posture and to effect safe walking.

  16. Human visual cortical responses to specular and matte motion flows.

    PubMed

    Kam, Tae-Eui; Mannion, Damien J; Lee, Seong-Whan; Doerschner, Katja; Kersten, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Determining the compositional properties of surfaces in the environment is an important visual capacity. One such property is specular reflectance, which encompasses the range from matte to shiny surfaces. Visual estimation of specular reflectance can be informed by characteristic motion profiles; a surface with a specular reflectance that is difficult to determine while static can be confidently disambiguated when set in motion. Here, we used fMRI to trace the sensitivity of human visual cortex to such motion cues, both with and without photometric cues to specular reflectance. Participants viewed rotating blob-like objects that were rendered as images (photometric) or dots (kinematic) with either matte-consistent or shiny-consistent specular reflectance profiles. We were unable to identify any areas in low and mid-level human visual cortex that responded preferentially to surface specular reflectance from motion. However, univariate and multivariate analyses identified several visual areas; V1, V2, V3, V3A/B, and hMT+, capable of differentiating shiny from matte surface flows. These results indicate that the machinery for extracting kinematic cues is present in human visual cortex, but the areas involved in integrating such information with the photometric cues necessary for surface specular reflectance remain unclear.

  17. Human visual cortical responses to specular and matte motion flows

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Tae-Eui; Mannion, Damien J.; Lee, Seong-Whan; Doerschner, Katja; Kersten, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the compositional properties of surfaces in the environment is an important visual capacity. One such property is specular reflectance, which encompasses the range from matte to shiny surfaces. Visual estimation of specular reflectance can be informed by characteristic motion profiles; a surface with a specular reflectance that is difficult to determine while static can be confidently disambiguated when set in motion. Here, we used fMRI to trace the sensitivity of human visual cortex to such motion cues, both with and without photometric cues to specular reflectance. Participants viewed rotating blob-like objects that were rendered as images (photometric) or dots (kinematic) with either matte-consistent or shiny-consistent specular reflectance profiles. We were unable to identify any areas in low and mid-level human visual cortex that responded preferentially to surface specular reflectance from motion. However, univariate and multivariate analyses identified several visual areas; V1, V2, V3, V3A/B, and hMT+, capable of differentiating shiny from matte surface flows. These results indicate that the machinery for extracting kinematic cues is present in human visual cortex, but the areas involved in integrating such information with the photometric cues necessary for surface specular reflectance remain unclear. PMID:26539100

  18. Flow convergence flow rates from 3-dimensional reconstruction of color Doppler flow maps for computing transvalvular regurgitant flows without geometric assumptions: An in vitro quantitative flow study.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Shiota, T; Delabays, A; Teien, D; Zhou, X; Sinclair, B; Pandian, N G; Sahn, D J

    1999-12-01

    This study was designed to develop and test a 3-dimensional method for direct measurement of flow convergence (FC) region surface area and for quantitating regurgitant flows with an in vitro flow system. Quantitative methods for characterizing regurgitant flow events such as flow convergence with 2-dimensional color flow Doppler imaging systems have yielded variable results and may not be accurate enough to characterize those more complex spatial events. Four differently shaped regurgitant orifices were studied: 3 flat orifices (circular, rectangular, triangular) and a nonflat one mimicking mitral valve prolapse (all 4 orifice areas = 0.24 cm(2)) in a pulsatile flow model at 8 to 9 different regurgitant flow rates (10 to 50 mL/beat). An ultrasonic flow probe and meter were connected to the flow model to provide reference flow data. Video composite data from the color Doppler flow images of the FC were reconstructed after computer-controlled 180 degrees rotational acquisition was performed. FC surface area (S cm(2)) was calculated directly without any geometric assumptions by measuring parallel sliced flow convergence arc lengths through the FC volume and multiplying each by the slice thickness (2.5 to 3.2 mm) over 5 to 8 slices and then adding them together. Peak regurgitant flow rate (milliliters per second) was calculated as the product of 3-dimensional determined S (cm(2)) multiplied by the aliasing velocity (centimeters per second) used for color Doppler imaging. For all of the 4 shaped orifices, there was an excellent relationship between actual peak flow rates and 3-dimensional FC-calculated flow rates with the direct measurement of the surface area of FC (r = 0.99, mean difference = -7.2 to -0.81 mL/s, % difference = -5% to 0%), whereas a hemielliptic method implemented with 3 axial measurements of the flow convergence zone from 2-dimensional planes underestimated actual flow rate by mean difference = -39.8 to -18.2 mL/s, % difference = -32% to -17% for any

  19. Self-synchronizing Schlieren photography and interferometry for the visualization of unsteady transonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadlec, R.

    1979-01-01

    The use of self synchronizing stroboscopic Schlieren and laser interferometer systems to obtain quantitative space time measurements of distinguished flow surfaces, steakline patterns, and the density field of two dimensional flows that exhibit a periodic content was investigated. A large field single path stroboscopic Schlieren system was designed, constructed and successfully applied to visualize four periodic flows: near wake behind an oscillating airfoil; edge tone sound generation; 2-D planar wall jet; and axisymmetric pulsed sonic jet. This visualization technique provides an effective means of studying quasi-periodic flows in real time. The image on the viewing screen is a spatial signal average of the coherent periodic motion rather than a single realization, the high speed motion of a quasi-periodic flow can be reconstructed by recording photographs of the flow at different fixed time delays in one cycle. The preliminary design and construction of a self synchronizing stroboscopic laser interferometer with a modified Mach-Zehnder optical system is also reported.

  20. Flow pattern visualization in a mimic anaerobic digester using CFD.

    PubMed

    Vesvikar, Mehul S; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2005-03-20

    Three-dimensional steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed in mimic anaerobic digesters to visualize their flow pattern and obtain hydrodynamic parameters. The mixing in the digester was provided by sparging gas at three different flow rates. The gas phase was simulated with air and the liquid phase with water. The CFD results were first evaluated using experimental data obtained by computer automated radioactive particle tracking (CARPT). The simulation results in terms of overall flow pattern, location of circulation cells and stagnant regions, trends of liquid velocity profiles, and volume of dead zones agree reasonably well with the experimental data. CFD simulations were also performed on different digester configurations. The effects of changing draft tube size, clearance, and shape of the tank bottoms were calculated to evaluate the effect of digester design on its flow pattern. Changing the draft tube clearance and height had no influence on the flow pattern or dead regions volume. However, increasing the draft tube diameter or incorporating a conical bottom design helped in reducing the volume of the dead zones as compared to a flat-bottom digester. The simulations showed that the gas flow rate sparged by a single point (0.5 cm diameter) sparger does not have an appreciable effect on the flow pattern of the digesters at the range of gas flow rates used.

  1. Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1998-01-01

    Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.

  2. Application of Neutron Radiography to Flow Visualization in Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, N.; Sugimoto, K.; Takami, S.; Sugioka, K.; Tsukada, T.; Adschiri, T.; Saito, Y.

    Supercritical water is used in various chemical reaction processes including hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nano-particles, oxidation, chemical conversion of biomass and plastics. Density of the super critical water is much less than that of the sub-critical water. By using neutron radiography, Peterson et al. have studied salt precipitation processes in supercritical water and the flow pattern in a reverse-flow vessel for salt precipitation, and Balasko et al. have revealed the behaviour of supercritical water in a container. The nano-particles were made by mixing the super critical flow and the sub critical water solution. In the present study, neutron radiography was applied to the flow visualization of the super and sub critical water mixture in a T-junction made of stainless steel pipes for high pressure and temperature conditions to investigate their mixing process. Still images by a CCD camera were obtained by using the neutron radiography system at B4 port in KUR.

  3. Graphics and flow visualization in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.; Steger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for displaying two- and three-dimensional flowfield solutions are described. Several methods of illustrating flow structure are addressed including particle tracing, simulated oil flow, and shock finding. These are incorporated into an interactive graphics program for CFD flowfields, called PLOT3D. Emphasis is made on the difficulty in visualizing three-dimensional flow features, and the importance of color, fast 3D image manipulation, and dynamic movie play-back in displaying such flows. The need for advanced algorithms to identify shock waves, vortices, and separation lines is pointed out. It is likely that the supercomputer will be needed for this process because of the size of 3D and/or unsteady CFD databases.

  4. Quantitative Simulations of MST Visual Receptive Field Properties Using a Template Model of Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Perrone, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    We previously developed a template model of primate visual self-motion processing that proposes a specific set of projections from MT-like local motion sensors onto output units to estimate heading and relative depth from optic flow. At the time, we showed that that the model output units have emergent properties similar to those of MSTd neurons, although there was little physiological evidence to test the model more directly. We have now systematically examined the properties of the model using stimulus paradigms used by others in recent single-unit studies of MST: 1) 2-D bell-shaped heading tuning. Most MSTd neurons and model output units show bell-shaped heading tuning. Furthermore, we found that most model output units and the finely-sampled example neuron in the Duffy-Wurtz study are well fit by a 2D gaussian (sigma approx. 35deg, r approx. 0.9). The bandwidth of model and real units can explain why Lappe et al. found apparent sigmoidal tuning using a restricted range of stimuli (+/-40deg). 2) Spiral Tuning and Invariance. Graziano et al. found that many MST neurons appear tuned to a specific combination of rotation and expansion (spiral flow) and that this tuning changes little for approx. 10deg shifts in stimulus placement. Simulations of model output units under the same conditions quantitatively replicate this result. We conclude that a template architecture may underlie MT inputs to MST.

  5. Decoding complex flow-field patterns in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Christophel, Thomas B; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of research on visual working memory. Whereas early studies have focused on the role of lateral prefrontal cortex in the storage of sensory information, this has been challenged by research in humans that has directly assessed the encoding of perceptual contents, pointing towards a role of visual and parietal regions during storage. In a previous study we used pattern classification to investigate the storage of complex visual color patterns across delay periods. This revealed coding of such contents in early visual and parietal brain regions. Here we aim to investigate whether the involvement of visual and parietal cortex is also observable for other types of complex, visuo-spatial pattern stimuli. Specifically, we used a combination of fMRI and multivariate classification to investigate the retention of complex flow-field stimuli defined by the spatial patterning of motion trajectories of random dots. Subjects were trained to memorize the precise spatial layout of these stimuli and to retain this information during an extended delay. We used a multivariate decoding approach to identify brain regions where spatial patterns of activity encoded the memorized stimuli. Content-specific memory signals were observable in motion sensitive visual area MT+ and in posterior parietal cortex that might encode spatial information in a modality independent manner. Interestingly, we also found information about the memorized visual stimulus in somatosensory cortex, suggesting a potential crossmodal contribution to memory. Our findings thus indicate that working memory storage of visual percepts might be distributed across unimodal, multimodal and even crossmodal brain regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Instantaneous planar visualization of reacting supersonic flows using silane seeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W.; Northam, G. B.

    1991-01-01

    A new visualization technique for reacting flows has been developed. This technique, which is suitable for supersonic combustion flows, has been demonstrated on a scramjet combustor model. In this application, gaseous silane (SiH4) was added to the primary hydrogen fuel. When the fuel reacted, so did the (SiH4), producing silica (SiO2) particles in situ. The particles were illuminated with a laser sheet formed from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) beam and the Mie scattering signal was imaged. These planar images of the silica Mie scattering provided instantaneous 'maps' of combustion progress within the turbulent reacting flowfield.

  7. From Art to Physics: A Course on Flow Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jean

    2007-11-01

    For the past four years, a course on flow visualization has been offered to mixed teams of engineering and fine arts photography students at the University of Colorado. The course has significant technical content on flow visualization and photographic techniques, and includes some emphasis on documentation and the interpretation of results, particularly with respect to atmospheric dynamics as revealed by clouds. One unusual aspect of the course is that all students are expected to demonstrate both aesthetic sensibility and scientific discipline. Another is that students are not constrained to study specific phenomena or use specific techniques; instead, creativity is required. A major outcome from this course is a series of stunning images which challenge the mind and delight the eye. In addition, anecdotal evidence suggests that this course has a lasting impact on students' perception of fluid physics, which can be contrasted to the effect of traditional introductory fluids courses.

  8. Flow visualization in a cryogenic wind tunnel using holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1982-11-01

    Results of holographic flow visualization from tests made in the Langley 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic tunnel are presented. The tunnel was operated over a temperature range from 100 to 300 K and a pressure range from 1.1 to 4 atm. Interferometry at the facility may be of limited use at the low temperature high pressure conditions because of the jumbled nature of the reference fringes. The shadowgraph technique appears to be the best means of visualizing shocks at these high density conditions. The spot size at the focus of the reconstructed beams was measured and used as an indicator of density fluctuations in the flow field. These density fluctuations appear to be caused by temperature fluctuations of the test gas which are relatively independent of tunnel conditions.

  9. A 2D flow visualization user study using explicit flow synthesis and implicit task design.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanping; Cai, Shangshu; Swan, J Edward; Moorhead, Robert J; Martin, Joel P; Jankun-Kelly, T J

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a 2D flow visualization user study that we conducted using new methodologies to increase the objectiveness. We evaluated grid-based variable-size arrows, evenly spaced streamlines, and line integral convolution (LIC) variants (basic, oriented, and enhanced versions) coupled with a colorwheel and/or rainbow color map, which are representative of many geometry-based and texture-based techniques. To reduce data-related bias, template-based explicit flow synthesis was used to create a wide variety of symmetric flows with similar topological complexity. To suppress task-related bias, pattern-based implicit task design was employed, addressing critical point recognition, critical point classification, and symmetric pattern categorization. In addition, variable-duration and fixed-duration measurement schemes were utilized for lightweight precision-critical and heavyweight judgment intensive flow analysis tasks, respectively, to record visualization effectiveness. We eliminated outliers and used the Ryan REGWQ post-hoc homogeneous subset tests in statistical analysis to obtain reliable findings. Our study shows that a texture-based dense representation with accentuated flow streaks, such as enhanced LIC, enables intuitive perception of the flow, while a geometry-based integral representation with uniform density control, such as evenly spaced streamlines, may exploit visual interpolation to facilitate mental reconstruction of the flow. It is also shown that inappropriate color mapping (e.g., colorwheel) may add distractions to a flow representation.

  10. Flow Visualization of Dynamic Stall on an Oscillating Airfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Dynamic Stall; Dynamic lift, ’Unsteady lift; Helicopter retreating blade stall; Oscillating airfoil ; Flow visualization,’Schlieren method ;k ez.S-,’ .0...the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 1989 Author...and moment behavior is quite different from the static stall associated with fixed-wing airfoils . Helicopter retreating blade stall is a dynamic

  11. Methods of Visually Determining the Air Flow Around Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, Melvin N; Johnson, Ernest

    1932-01-01

    This report describes methods used by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to study visually the air flow around airplanes. The use of streamers, oil and exhaust gas streaks, lampblack and kerosene, powdered materials, and kerosene smoke is briefly described. The generation and distribution of smoke from candles and from titanium tetrachloride are described in greater detail because they appear most advantageous for general application. Examples are included showing results of the various methods.

  12. Multiple visual quantitative cues enhance discrimination of dynamic stimuli during infancy.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph M; Mahamane, Salif P; Jordan, Kerry E

    2014-06-01

    Infants possess basic capabilities to assess various quantitative properties such as number, size, and time. Preverbal discriminations are approximate, however, and are similarly limited across these dimensions. Here, we present the first evidence that multiple sources of quantitative unisensory information about dynamic stimuli-namely, simultaneous visual cues to changes in both number and surface area-may accelerate 6-month-olds' quantitative competence. Using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, results from Experiment 1 demonstrate that, when provided with such visual cues to multiple quantitative properties that occur in the same direction, infants make more precise discriminations than has been shown when they receive information about either cue alone. Moreover, Experiment 2 demonstrates that infants' discrimination also benefits from simultaneous visual cues to quantitative changes that occur in opposite directions. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrates that these findings are not driven by infants' ability to discriminate a 2:3 ratio change in surface area of a dynamic stimulus alone. Thus, we hypothesize that enhanced quantitative discrimination occurs because simultaneous visual quantitative changes may be more salient than single-source information, which could better recruit attention and result in more precise learning and remembering.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of the Displacement of the Anterior Visual Pathway by Pituitary Lesions and the Associated Visual Field Loss

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Michael V.; Lee, In Ho; Zan, Elcin; Yousem, David M.; Miller, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate quantitatively the relationship between the displacement of anterior visual pathway structures by pituitary tumors and visual field damage with the goal of improving diagnosis and management. Methods Subjects had pituitary macroadenomas and both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and static perimetry. Neuroradiologists measured the displacement of anterior visual pathway structures and right–left tumor asymmetry. To quantify the degree and laterality of visual field loss, we used algorithms from the neurologic hemifield test to analyze each right–left pair of visual fields with respect to temporal asymmetry, the proportion of loss that was temporal, total asymmetry, and total damage. We compared these metrics with the displacement of anterior visual pathway structures and tumor asymmetry. Results Of 114 subjects, 64 (56%) were male and the median age was 57 years (range, 14–88). The summation of vision loss in both eyes and the proportion of temporal loss were statistically significantly related to the maximum displacement of the anterior visual pathway (both P < 0.001 for fit of linear regression). The relationship between the asymmetry of visual field loss in the two eyes and the subjective assignment of tumor asymmetry on MRI did not achieve statistical significance (P = 0.06 by analysis of variance). Conclusions Displacement of the anterior visual pathway by pituitary tumors is associated with both the total amount of visual field loss and the proportion of temporal visual field loss. Although there was right–left asymmetry of vision loss in some subjects, it was not related to the subjective assessment of tumor asymmetry. PMID:27388050

  14. Flow Visualization around a Simplified Two-Wheel Landing Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmekci, Alis; Feltham, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The flow topology around a simplified two-wheel landing gear model is investigated experimentally by employing the hydrogen bubble flow visualization technique in a recirculating water channel. The landing gear test model consists of two identical wheels, an axle, a main strut and a support strut. The flow Reynolds number based on wheel diameter is 31,500 and wheels with varying geometric details are considered. Flow structures have been identified through analysis of long-time video recordings and linked to the model geometry. In the flow region above the wheels (wing side), the flow in the inter-wheel region either separates prematurely from the inner surfaces of the wheels and forms slant vortices in the near-wake, or remains attached till the aft wheel perimeter. Inclusion of interior wheel wells are found to result in a jet-like ejection as a result of the interaction with the axle and main strut. In the flow region below the wheels (ground side) the near wake contains periodically forming, complex, large-scale structures.

  15. MoFlow: visualizing conformational changes in molecules as molecular flow improves understanding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Current visualizations of molecular motion use a Timeline-analogous representation that conveys "first the molecule was shaped like this, then like this...". This scheme is orthogonal to the Pathline-like human understanding of motion "this part of the molecule moved from here to here along this path". We present MoFlow, a system for visualizing molecular motion using a Pathline-analogous representation. Results The MoFlow system produces high-quality renderings of molecular motion as atom pathlines, as well as interactive WebGL visualizations, and 3D printable models. In a preliminary user study, MoFlow representations are shown to be superior to canonical representations for conveying molecular motion. Conclusions Pathline-based representations of molecular motion are more easily understood than timeline representations. Pathline representations provide other advantages because they represent motion directly, rather than representing structure with inferred motion. PMID:26361501

  16. Animating streamlines with repeated asymmetric patterns for steady flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chih-Kuo; Liu, Zhanping; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-01-01

    Animation provides intuitive cueing for revealing essential spatial-temporal features of data in scientific visualization. This paper explores the design of Repeated Asymmetric Patterns (RAPs) in animating evenly-spaced color-mapped streamlines for dense accurate visualization of complex steady flows. We present a smooth cyclic variable-speed RAP animation model that performs velocity (magnitude) integral luminance transition on streamlines. This model is extended with inter-streamline synchronization in luminance varying along the tangential direction to emulate orthogonal advancing waves from a geometry-based flow representation, and then with evenly-spaced hue differing in the orthogonal direction to construct tangential flow streaks. To weave these two mutually dual sets of patterns, we propose an energy-decreasing strategy that adopts an iterative yet efficient procedure for determining the luminance phase and hue of each streamline in HSL color space. We also employ adaptive luminance interleaving in the direction perpendicular to the flow to increase the contrast between streamlines.

  17. Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows. PMID:24704871

  18. Multi-colored layers for visualizing aerodynamic flow effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Ronald N. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for visualizing aerodynamic flow effects on a test surface. First, discrete quantities of a sublimating chemical such as naphthalene are distinctively colored via appropriate dyes or paints. Next, a uniform layer of the sublimating chemical having a particular color is applied to the test surface. This layer is covered with a second uniform layer of a different colored sublimating chemical, and so on until a composite of multi-colored layers is formed having a discrete thickness. Friction caused by an airflow results in the distinctly colored layers being removed in proportion to such aerodynamic flow characteristics as velocity and temperature, resulting in a multi-colored portrait which approximates the air flow on the underlying test surface.

  19. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  20. A predictor-corrector technique for visualizing unsteady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, David C.; Singer, Bart A.

    1995-01-01

    We present a method for visualizing unsteady flow by displaying its vortices. The vortices are identified by using a vorticity-predictor pressure-corrector scheme that follows vortex cores. The cross-sections of a vortex at each point along the core can be represented by a Fourier series. A vortex can be faithfully reconstructed from the series as a simple quadrilateral mesh, or its reconstruction can be enhanced to indicate helical motion. The mesh can reduce the representation of the flow features by a factor of one thousand or more compared with the volumetric dataset. With this amount of reduction it is possible to implement an interactive system on a graphics workstation to permit a viewer to examine, in three dimensions, the evolution of the vortical structures in a complex, unsteady flow.

  1. Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P; Van Sciver, Steven W

    2014-03-25

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows.

  2. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  3. 3D visualization and quantitative analysis of human erythrocyte phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Stachurska, Anna; Król, Teodora; Trybus, Wojciech; Szary, Karol; Fabijańska-Mitek, Jadwiga

    2016-11-01

    Since the erythrophagocytosis of opsonized erythrocytes is investigated mainly by calculating the phagocytic index using subjective light microscopy evaluation, we present methods for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of human cell erythrophagocytosis. Erythrocytes from two storage periods were used. Using Imaris software, we were able to create a three-dimensional model of erythrophagocytosis. The use of microscopy instead of cytometry revealed a significantly higher number of monocytes and erythrocytes that appeared active in phagocytosis. Spatial reconstruction allowed for detailed analysis of the process by precisely locating erythrocytes in phagocytes. Additionally, a technique of sequential image registration using Nis Elements software allowed for observation of the course of phagocytosis over a range of time intervals. This in vitro research may be helpful for understanding the cellular interactions between monocytes and erythrocytes. The cytometric method-being relatively rapid, sensitive, and specific-can serve as an alternative technique to microscopy in the quantitative analysis of erythrophagocytosis. This allows us to avoid counting the erythrocytes nonspecifically attached to monocytes and gives objective results. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Smartphone based visual and quantitative assays on upconversional paper sensor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qingsong; Jing, Huarong; Li, You; Yisibashaer, Wuerzha; Chen, Jian; Nan Li, Bing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-15

    The integration of smartphone with paper sensors recently has been gain increasing attentions because of the achievement of quantitative and rapid analysis. However, smartphone based upconversional paper sensors have been restricted by the lack of effective methods to acquire luminescence signals on test paper. Herein, by the virtue of 3D printing technology, we exploited an auxiliary reusable device, which orderly assembled a 980nm mini-laser, optical filter and mini-cavity together, for digitally imaging the luminescence variations on test paper and quantitative analyzing pesticide thiram by smartphone. In detail, copper ions decorated NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles were fixed onto filter paper to form test paper, and the blue luminescence on it would be quenched after additions of thiram through luminescence resonance energy transfer mechanism. These variations could be monitored by the smartphone camera, and then the blue channel intensities of obtained colored images were calculated to quantify amounts of thiram through a self-written Android program installed on the smartphone, offering a reliable and accurate detection limit of 0.1μM for the system. This work provides an initial demonstration of integrating upconversion nanosensors with smartphone digital imaging for point-of-care analysis on a paper-based platform.

  5. Correlation of visual in vitro cytotoxicity ratings of biomaterials with quantitative in vitro cell viability measurements.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sujata K; Yetter, Ann B

    2008-08-01

    Medical devices and implanted biomaterials are often assessed for biological reactivity using visual scores of cell-material interactions. In such testing, biomaterials are assigned cytotoxicity ratings based on visual evidence of morphological cellular changes, including cell lysis, rounding, spreading, and proliferation. For example, ISO 10993 cytotoxicity testing of medical devices allows the use of a visual grading scale. The present study compared visual in vitro cytotoxicity ratings to quantitative in vitro cytotoxicity measurements for biomaterials to determine the level of correlation between visual scoring and a quantitative cell viability assay. Biomaterials representing a spectrum of biological reactivity levels were evaluated, including organo-tin polyvinylchloride (PVC; a known cytotoxic material), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (a known non-cytotoxic material), and implantable tissue adhesives. Each material was incubated in direct contact with mouse 3T3 fibroblast cell cultures for 24 h. Visual scores were assigned to the materials using a 5-point rating scale; the scorer was blinded to the material identities. Quantitative measurements of cell viability were performed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay; again, the assay operator was blinded to material identities. The investigation revealed a high degree of correlation between visual cytotoxicity ratings and quantitative cell viability measurements; a Pearson's correlation gave a correlation coefficient of 0.90 between the visual cytotoxicity score and the percent viable cells. An equation relating the visual cytotoxicity score and the percent viable cells was derived. The results of this study are significant for the design and interpretation of in vitro cytotoxicity studies of novel biomaterials.

  6. Visualization of pulsatile flow for magnetic nanoparticle based therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzel, Andrew; Yecko, Philip

    2015-11-01

    Pulsatile flow of blood through branched, curved, stenosed, dilated or otherwise perturbed vessels is more complex than flow through a straight, uniform and rigid tube. In some magnetic hyperthermia and magnetic chemo-therapies, localized regions of magnetic nanoparticle laden fluid are deliberately formed in blood vessels and held in place by magnetic fields. The effect of localized magnetic fluid regions on blood flow and the effect of the pulsatile blood flow on such magnetic fluid regions are poorly understood and difficult to examine in vivo or by numerical simulation. We present a laboratory model that facilitates both dye tracer and particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) studies of pulsatile flow of water through semi-flexible tubes in the presence of localized magnetic fluid regions. Results on the visualization of flows over a range of Reynolds and Womersley numbers and for several different (water-based) ferrofluids are compared for straight and curved vessels and for different magnetic localization strategies. These results can guide the design of improved magnetic cancer therapies. Support from the William H. Sandholm Program of Cooper Union's Kanbar Center for Biomedical Engineering is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Preliminary design of an intermittent smoke flow visualization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Donald T.; Myatt, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype intermittent flow visualization system that was designed to study vortex flow field dynamics has been constructed and tested through its ground test phase. It produces discrete pulses of dense white smoke consisting of particles of terephthalic acid by the pulsing action of a fast-acting three-way valve. The trajectories of the smoke pulses can be tracked by a video imaging system without intruding in the flow around in flight. Two methods of pulsing the smoke were examined. The simplest and safest approach is to simply divert the smoke between the two outlet ports on the valve; this approach should be particularly effective if it were desired to inject smoke at two locations during the same test event. The second approach involves closing off one of the outlet ports to momentarily block the flow. The second approach requires careful control of valve dwell times to avoid excessive pressure buildup within the cartridge container. This method also increases the velocity of the smoke injected into the flow. The flow of the smoke has been blocked for periods ranging from 30 to 80 milliseconds, depending on the system volume and the length of time the valve is allowed to remain open between valve closings.

  8. Blood Flow: Multi-scale Modeling and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Multi-scale modeling of arterial blood flow can shed light on the interaction between events happening at micro- and meso-scales (i.e., adhesion of red blood cells to the arterial wall, clot formation) and at macro-scales (i.e., change in flow patterns due to the clot). Coupled numerical simulations of such multi-scale flow require state-of-the-art computers and algorithms. Along with developing methods for multi-scale computations, techniques for multi-scale visualizations must be designed. This animation presents early results of joint efforts of teams from Brown University and Argonne National Laboratory to develop a multi-scale visualization methodology. It illustrates a flow of healthy (red) and diseased (blue) blood cells with a Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Each blood cell is represented by a mesh made of 500 DPD-particles, and small spheres show a sub-set of the DPD particles representing the blood plasma, while instantaneous streamlines and slices represent the ensemble average velocity. Credits: Science: Leopold Grinberg and George Karniadakis, Brown University Visualization: Joseph A. Insley and Michael E. Papka, Argonne National Laboratory This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through the PetaApps program and used TeraGrid resources provided by National Institute for Computational Sciences.

  9. [Radionuclide visualization of lymphatic flow from primary breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Kanaev, S V; Novikov, S N; Semiglazov, V F; Zotova, O V; Girshtovich, M M; Krivorot'ko, P V; Ivanov, V G; Zhukova, L A

    2010-01-01

    Our study was concerned with evaluation of patterns of lymph flow from primary breast cancer. Radionuclide scintigraphy (RS) of lymph nodes was performed in 92 patients. Scinitigraphic images were obtained 30-60 and 240-360 min after intratumoral injection of 75-150 MBq (0,5-1 vl) of 99mTc nanocolloids. The pool sites of the radiodrug collection were as follows: axillary (Ax), sub-supraclavicular (SSCL) and internal mammary (IM). Imaging proved effective in 86 cases. No drug transport was recorded in 5 cases; 4 of them revealed macroscopic metaststases to the lymph nodes. External involvement of the axillary lymph nodes was visualized in 51 patients out of 52 while in 26 it occurred on the axillary site only. In another 25 patients, images of lymph nodes were obtained on 2 or 3 sites: drainage Ax+SSCL (12;23.1%), Ax+IM (6;11.6%) and Ax+SSCL+IM (7;13.4%). In patients with tumors in internal quadrants (34), the lymph flow patterns were as follows: Ax (12;35.3%), IM (2;5.8%), Ax+SSCL (8;23.5%), Ax+IM+SSCL (5;14.7%). Hence, the efficacy of lymph node visualization after intratumoral injection of nanocolloids was 98%. Visualization on Ax sites was further confirmed by lymph flow to SSCL and IM (29.1%) and (35.9%), respectively. The likelihood of lymph flow to IM is significantly higher in patients with internal localization of breast cancer (37.1%) but it is not negligible (22.9%) in cases of external quadrants.

  10. #FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Nan; Wen, Zhen; Song, Yale; Lin, Yu-Ru; Collins, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We present FluxFlow, an interactive visual analysis system for revealing and analyzing anomalous information spreading in social media. Everyday, millions of messages are created, commented, and shared by people on social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook. This provides valuable data for researchers and practitioners in many application domains, such as marketing, to inform decision-making. Distilling valuable social signals from the huge crowd's messages, however, is challenging, due to the heterogeneous and dynamic crowd behaviors. The challenge is rooted in data analysts' capability of discerning the anomalous information behaviors, such as the spreading of rumors or misinformation, from the rest that are more conventional patterns, such as popular topics and newsworthy events, in a timely fashion. FluxFlow incorporates advanced machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies, and offers a set of novel visualization designs for presenting the detected threads for deeper analysis. We evaluated FluxFlow with real datasets containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative measurements of the algorithmic performance and qualitative interviews with domain experts, the results show that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its front-end interactive visualizations are intuitive and useful for analysts to discover insights in data and comprehend the underlying analytical model.

  11. Quantitative dye-tracing of karst ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James; Mull, Donald; Liebermann, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the results of repeat quantitative dye traces between a sinkhole and a spring used for public water supply were used to describe predictive relations between discharge, mean travel time, apparent ground-water flow velocity and solute transport characteristics. Normalized peak concentration, mean travel time, and standard deviation of travel times were used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to simulate solute transport characteristics for selected discharges. Using this curve and previously developed statistical relations, a water manager can estimate the arrival time, peak concentration, and persistence of a soluble contaminant at a supply spring or well based on discharge and the quantity of spilled contaminant.

  12. Flow visualization studies to improve the spiral pump design.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A; Biscegli, J; Sousa, J E; Ohashi, Y; Nosé, Y

    1997-07-01

    The spiral pump (SP) uses centrifugal and axial pumping principles simultaneously, through a conical shaped impeller with threads in its surface. Flow visualization studies were performed in critical areas of the SP. A closed circuit loop was filled with glycerin-water solution (40%). Amberlite particles (80 mesh) were illuminated by a planar helium-neon laser light (7 mW). The particle velocities were recorded with Kodak (TMAX-400) black and white film, and the flow behavior was studied with a micro video camera and color video printer. The flow visualization studies showed no turbulence or stagnant areas in the inlet and outlet ports of the SP. When using the impeller with one lead, at the top of the threads some recirculation appeared when the total pressure head increased. Two new impellers were made. One of them had the same conical shape with a thread having 2 leads. The second had a thread with 2 leads, but it also had a bigger cone angle. These modifications improved the pump hydrodynamic performance, decreasing the recirculation in pumping conditions that require pressures over 200 mm Hg.

  13. Flow visualization study of a vortex-wing interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.; Lim, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    A flow visualization study in water was completed on the interaction of a streamwise vortex with a laminar boundary layer on a two-dimensional wing. The vortex was generated at the tip of a finite wing at incidence, mounted perpendicular to the main wing, and having the same chord as the main wing. The Reynolds number based on wing chord was about 5000. Two different visualization techniques were used. One involved the injection of two different colored dyes into the vortex and the boundary layer. The other technique utilized hydrogen bubbles as an indicator. The position of the vortex was varied in a directional normal to the wing. The angle of attack of the main wing was varied from -5 to +12.5 deg. The vortex induced noticeable cross flows in the wing boundary layer from a distance equivalent to 0.75 chords. When very close to the wing, the vortex entrained boundary layer fluid and caused a cross flow separation which resulted in a secondary vortex.

  14. A Visualization Study of Secondary Flows in Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzig, Howard Z; Hansen, Arthur G; Costello, George R

    1954-01-01

    Flow-visualization techniques are employed to ascertain the streamline patterns of the nonpotential secondary flows in the boundary layers of cascades, and thereby to provide a basis for more extended analyses in turbomachines. The three-dimensional deflection of the end-wall boundary layer results in the formation of a vortex within each cascade passage. The size and tightness of the vortex generated depend upon the main-flow turning in the cascade passage. Once formed, a vortex resists turning in subsequent blade rows, with consequent unfavorable angles of attack and possible flow disturbances on the pressure surfaces of subsequent blade rows when the vortices impinge on these surfaces. Two major tip-clearance effects are observed, the formation of a tip-clearance vortex and the scraping effect of a blade with relative motion past the wall boundary layer. The flow patterns indicate methods for improving the blade tip-loading characteristics of compressors and of low- and high-speed turbulence.

  15. Flow Visualization of Low Prandtl Number Fluids using Electrochemical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crunkleton, D.; Anderson, T.; Narayanan, R.; Labrosse, G.

    2003-01-01

    It is well established that residual flows exist in contained liquid metal processes. In 1-g processing, buoyancy forces often drive these flows and their magnitudes can be substantial. It is also known that residual flows can exist during microgravity processing, and although greatly reduced in magnitude, they can influence the properties of the processed materials. Unfortunately, there are very few techniques to visualize flows in opaque, high temperature liquid metals, and those available are not easily adapted to flight investigation. In this study, a novel technique is developed that uses liquid tin as the model fluid and solid-state electrochemical cells constructed from Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) to establish and measure dissolved oxygen boundary conditions. The melt serves as a common electrode for each of the electrochemical cells in this design, while independent reference electrodes are maintained at the outside surfaces of the electrolyte. By constructing isolated electrochemical cells at various locations along the container walls, oxygen is introduced or extracted by imposing a known electrical potential or passing a given current between the melt and the reference electrode. This programmed titration then establishes a known oxygen concentration boundary condition at the selected electrolyte-melt interface. Using the other cells, the concentration of oxygen at the electrolyte-melt interface is also monitored by measuring the open-circuit potentials developed between the melt and reference electrodes. Thus the electrochemical cells serve to both establish boundary conditions for the passive tracer and sense its path. Rayleigh-Benard convection was used to validate the electrochemical approach to flow visualization. Thus, a numerical characterization of the second critical Rayleigh numbers in liquid tin was conducted for a variety of Cartesian aspect ratios. The extremely low Prandtl number of tin represents the lowest value studied numerically

  16. Flow Visualization of Low Prandtl Number Fluids using Electrochemical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crunkleton, D.; Anderson, T.; Narayanan, R.; Labrosse, G.

    2003-01-01

    It is well established that residual flows exist in contained liquid metal processes. In 1-g processing, buoyancy forces often drive these flows and their magnitudes can be substantial. It is also known that residual flows can exist during microgravity processing, and although greatly reduced in magnitude, they can influence the properties of the processed materials. Unfortunately, there are very few techniques to visualize flows in opaque, high temperature liquid metals, and those available are not easily adapted to flight investigation. In this study, a novel technique is developed that uses liquid tin as the model fluid and solid-state electrochemical cells constructed from Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) to establish and measure dissolved oxygen boundary conditions. The melt serves as a common electrode for each of the electrochemical cells in this design, while independent reference electrodes are maintained at the outside surfaces of the electrolyte. By constructing isolated electrochemical cells at various locations along the container walls, oxygen is introduced or extracted by imposing a known electrical potential or passing a given current between the melt and the reference electrode. This programmed titration then establishes a known oxygen concentration boundary condition at the selected electrolyte-melt interface. Using the other cells, the concentration of oxygen at the electrolyte-melt interface is also monitored by measuring the open-circuit potentials developed between the melt and reference electrodes. Thus the electrochemical cells serve to both establish boundary conditions for the passive tracer and sense its path. Rayleigh-Benard convection was used to validate the electrochemical approach to flow visualization. Thus, a numerical characterization of the second critical Rayleigh numbers in liquid tin was conducted for a variety of Cartesian aspect ratios. The extremely low Prandtl number of tin represents the lowest value studied numerically

  17. Temperature and pressure measurements at cold exit of counter-flow vortex tube with flow visualization of reversed flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Mohd Hazwan bin; Katanoda, Hiroshi; Morita, Hiromitsu

    2015-02-01

    In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the counter-flow vortex tube (VT), the temperature and pressure of the cold flow were measured, and the existence and behavior of the reversed flow at the cold exit was studied using a simple flow visualization technique consisting of a 0.75mm-diameter needle, and an oil paint droplet. It is observed through this experiment that the Pitot pressure at the cold exit center can either be lower or higher than atmospheric pressure, depending on the inlet pressure and the cold fraction, and that a reversed flow is observed when the Pitot pressure at the cold exit center is lower than atmospheric pressure. In addition, it is observed that when reducing the cold fraction from unity at any arbitrary inlet pressure, the region of reversed and colder flow in the central part of cold exit extends in the downstream direction.

  18. Flow visualization in superfluid helium-4 using a thin line of He2 excimer tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marakov, Alex; Gao, Jian; Guo, Wei; van Sciver, Steven; Ihas, Gary; McKinsey, Daniel; Vinen, William

    2014-03-01

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proven in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study turbulence in superfluid helium-4 (He II). In order to extract quantitative information of the flow field, we developed a new technique based on the generation of a thin line of He2 excimer tracers via femtosecond-laser field ionization. These tracers move solely with the normal-fluid component in He II and can be imaged using a laser-induce fluorescence technique. Studying the drift and distortion of the tracer line in a turbulent flow shall allow us to measure the instantaneous flow velocity field and hence determine the structure functions and the energy spectrum of the turbulence. We discuss the preliminary results obtained that for the first time visually reveal the existence of a laminar-to-turbulent transition in the normal fluid in thermal counterflow. W.G. acknowledges the startup support from Florida State University and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

  19. Flow Visualization Techniques for CDF using Volume Rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.; Shen, H-W.; Max, N.

    2000-07-10

    As simulations have migrated towards three-dimensions, new tools for examining the resulting complex datasets have been required. Much progress has been achieved in the area of scientific visualization towards this goal. However, most of the research has focused on the representation and understanding of a single scalar field. Some nice results have been achieved for vector or flow fields. This paper reviews several of these techniques, organizes them by their approach and complexity and presents some observations on their benefits and limitations. Several example images are used to highlight the character of these techniques.

  20. Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2016-04-19

    We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.

  1. Flow visualization study of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu H.T.; Waite, J.W.; Hiester, T.R.; Tacheron, P.H.; Srnsky, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The specific objectives of the study reported were: to determine the geometry of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake in terms of wake height and width as a function of downstream distance under two conditions of atmospheric stability; to estimate the mean velocity deficit at several downstream stations in the turbine wake; and to investigate the behavior of the rotor-generated vortices, particularly their configuration and persistence. The background of the wake problem is briefly examined, including a discussion of the critical issues that the flow visualization study addresses. Experimental techniques and data analysis methods are described in detail. (LEW)

  2. High speed visualizations applied to subsonic and transonic base flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, O.; Ducruet, C.; Desse, J. M.

    The present experimental study of two-dimensional base flows at subsonic and transonic speeds gives attention to their unsteady properties through the synchronization of high speed visualizations with pressure measurements. The optical test apparatus employed may function as either a shadowgraph or a schlieren system. The time history of the observed phenomenon is restored, and it is found that it is possible to determine the effects of the vortex street on the body in question for different values of the parameters that are involved in the problem investigated.

  3. Visualization, Extraction and Quantification of Discontinuities in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Morris, R. D.; Cheeseman, P.; Sunelyansky, V.; Maluf, D.; Wolf, D.

    2000-01-01

    Scientific visualizations of two-dimensional compressible flow of a gas with discontinuities are presented. The numerical analogue to experimental techniques such as schlieren imaging, shadowgraphs, and interferograms are discussed. Edge detection techniques are utilized to identify the discontinuities. In particular, the zero crossing of the Laplacian of a field (usually density) is recommended for extracting the discontinuities. An algorithm to extract and quantify the discontinuities is presented. To illustrate the methods developed in the report, the example chosen is that of an unsteady interaction of a shock wave with a contact discontinuity.

  4. Experimental investigation of the mutual interference flow of two circular cylinders by flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Yoshifumi; Vitkovičová, Rut

    In order to understand the aspect of the mutual interference flow from two circular cylinders, the visual observation experiment was performed by use a water flow apparatus. The purpose of this study is accumulation of the basic image data for comparing with numerical computation or previous experimental results. In this report, the intervals of two circular cylinders were varied, the visualization experiment was performed, and the vortex shedding characteristics and the flow pattern in each case were investigated. The cylinder setting conditions were seven kinds (the position of the rear-side circular cylinder is changed). The cylinder diameter ratios were four kinds (D/d=1.0, 1.67, 2.5 and 5.0). The variation of Reynolds number was three kinds (Re=548.7, 1200 and 2500). The dye oozing streak method was used in this visualization experiment. Although the previous PIV experimental result and present result obtained the same flow feature, the aspect of an interference flow became clear by changing the color of tracer ink.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of PERCEPT indoor navigation system for visually impaired users.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce qualitative and quantitative evaluation of PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multi-story building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows Orientation and Mobility principles. These results encourage us to generalize the solution to large indoor spaces and test it with significantly larger visually impaired population in diverse settings. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces.

  6. Quantitation of PET signal as an adjunct to visual interpretation of florbetapir imaging.

    PubMed

    Pontecorvo, Michael J; Arora, Anupa K; Devine, Marybeth; Lu, Ming; Galante, Nick; Siderowf, Andrew; Devadanam, Catherine; Joshi, Abhinay D; Heun, Stephen L; Teske, Brian F; Truocchio, Stephen P; Krautkramer, Michael; Devous, Michael D; Mintun, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using quantitation to augment interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid imaging. A total of 80 physician readers were trained on quantitation of florbetapir PET images and the principles for using quantitation to augment a visual read. On day 1, the readers completed a visual read of 96 scans (46 autopsy-verified and 50 from patients seeking a diagnosis). On day 2, 69 of the readers reinterpreted the 96 scans augmenting their interpretation with quantitation (VisQ method) using one of three commercial software packages. A subset of 11 readers reinterpreted all scans on day 2 based on a visual read only (VisVis control). For the autopsy-verified scans, the neuropathologist's modified CERAD plaque score was used as the truth standard for interpretation accuracy. Because an autopsy truth standard was not available for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis, the majority VisQ interpretation of the three readers with the best accuracy in interpreting autopsy-verified scans was used as the reference standard. Day 1 visual read accuracy was high for both the autopsy-verified scans (90%) and the scans from patients seeking a diagnosis (87.3%). Accuracy improved from the visual read to the VisQ read (from 90.1% to 93.1%, p < 0.0001). Importantly, access to quantitative information did not decrease interpretation accuracy of the above-average readers (>90% on day 1). Accuracy in interpreting the autopsy-verified scans also increased from the first to the second visual read (VisVis group). However, agreement with the reference standard (best readers) for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis did not improve with a second visual read, and in this cohort the VisQ group was significantly improved relative to the VisVis group (change 5.4% vs. -1.1%, p < 0.0001). These results indicate that augmentation of visual interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid images with quantitative information obtained using commercially available

  7. Flow visualization and numerical analysis of a coflowing jet - A three-dimensional approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan C.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1988-01-01

    The instabilities of an acoustically excited coflowing jet are investigated by using a time series of cross-sections of large-scale structures present in the flow and by a fully three-dimensional numerical simulation via the vortex-element method. These structures are first revealed by a flow-visualization technique based on smoke seeding the inner jet flow and observing the flow cross-sections as the structures are convected past a stationary sheet of laser light. Usage of image-processing techniques along with computer graphics allows the full three-dimensional reconstruction of the structure. The general morphology of the flow is determined from the reconstructed views and shows that the vorticity is mainly concentrated into a single large-scale vortex ring. Hypotheses regarding the nature and origin of the longitudinal instabilities observed in the flow can be drawn from the reconstructed views, and are supported by the numerical simulations. Quantitative values such as the surface-to-volume ratio and the entrainment level are also obtained from the experimental data. The onset of streamwise vorticity and its distribution are derived from the numerical calculations as well. Three-dimensional views and a holographic display of a characteristic eddy are also presented.

  8. Soap film flow visualization investigations of oscillating wing energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschmeier, Benjamin; Bryant, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    With increasing population and proliferation of wireless electronics, significant research attention has turned to harvesting energy from ambient sources such as wind and water flows at scales ranging from micro-watt to mega-watt levels. One technique that has recently attracted attention is the application of bio-inspired flapping wings for energy harvesting. This type of system uses a heaving and pitching airfoil to extract flow energy and generate electricity. Such a device can be realized using passive devices excited by aeroelastic flutter phenomena, kinematic mechanisms driven by mechanical linkages, or semi-active devices that are actively controlled in one degree of freedom and passively driven in another. For these types of systems, numerical simulations have showed strong dependence on efficiency and vortex interaction. In this paper we propose a new apparatus for reproducing arbitrary pitch-heave waveforms to perform flow visualization experiments in a soap film tunnel. The vertically falling, gravity driven soap film tunnel is used to replicate flows with a chord Reynolds number on the order of 4x104. The soap film tunnel is used to investigate leading edge vortex (LEV) and trailing edge vortex (TEV) interactions for sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal waveforms. From a qualitative analysis of the fluid structure interaction, we have been able to demonstrate that the LEVs for non-sinusoidal motion convect faster over the airfoil compared with sinusoidal motion. Signifying that optimal flapping frequency is dependent on the motion profile.

  9. Scientific Visualization Using the Flow Analysis Software Toolkit (FAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bancroft, Gordon V.; Kelaita, Paul G.; Mccabe, R. Kevin; Merritt, Fergus J.; Plessel, Todd C.; Sandstrom, Timothy A.; West, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past few years the Flow Analysis Software Toolkit (FAST) has matured into a useful tool for visualizing and analyzing scientific data on high-performance graphics workstations. Originally designed for visualizing the results of fluid dynamics research, FAST has demonstrated its flexibility by being used in several other areas of scientific research. These research areas include earth and space sciences, acid rain and ozone modelling, and automotive design, just to name a few. This paper describes the current status of FAST, including the basic concepts, architecture, existing functionality and features, and some of the known applications for which FAST is being used. A few of the applications, by both NASA and non-NASA agencies, are outlined in more detail. Described in the Outlines are the goals of each visualization project, the techniques or 'tricks' used lo produce the desired results, and custom modifications to FAST, if any, done to further enhance the analysis. Some of the future directions for FAST are also described.

  10. Visualization of turbulent flows with simultaneous velocity and vorticity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Lawrence

    1992-09-01

    An experimental study of the turbulent boundary layer at Re(sub theta) approx. equals 1070 was conducted. This study combines velocity and vorticity measurements using a nine-sensor hot-wire probe with simultaneously obtained flow visualization images. Detailed measurements within the boundary layer with and without smoke marking of the wall layer fluid were performed at various distances from the wall, ranging from approximately y(+) approx. equals 14 to y(+) approx. equals 156, and at three axial locations downstream from the smoke injection slot. The mean statistical properties of the fluctuating velocity and vorticity components agree well with previous experimental and numerically simulated data. These boundary layer measurements were used in a joint probability analysis of the various instantaneous velocity, velocity gradient and vorticity correlations that appear in the vorticity and enstrophy transport equations. Substantial evidence supporting postulated inclined vortex models was found. Conditional analysis based on the detection of strong Reynolds stress and enstrophy events was carried out. The combined visual and hot-wire data provide evidence showing that these smoke marked regions in the flow field, which indicate vertical mass flux, are also regions of high vertical momentum flux.

  11. Visualizing Flow Over Parametric Surfaces Using Line Integral Convolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forssell, Lisa; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Line Integral Convolution (LIC) is a powerful technique for imaging and animating vector fields. We extend the LIC paradigm in three ways: (1) The existing technique is limited to vector fields over a regular Cartesian grid. We extend it to vector fields over parametric surfaces, such as those found in curvilinear grids, used in computational fluid dynamics simulations; (2) Periodic motion filters can be used to animate the flow visualization. When the flow lies on a parametric surface, however, the motion appears misleading. We explain why this problem arises and show how to adjust the LIC algorithm to handle it; (3) We introduce a technique to visualize vector magnitudes as well as vector direction. Cabral and Leedom have suggested a method for variable-speed animation, which is based on varying the frequency of the filter function. We develop a different technique based on kernel phase shifts which we have found to show substantially better results. Our implementation of these algorithms utilizes texture-mapping hardware to run in real time, which allows them to be included in interactive applications.

  12. Visualizing Flow Over Parametric Surfaces Using Line Integral Convolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forssell, Lisa; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Line Integral Convolution (LIC) is a powerful technique for imaging and animating vector fields. We extend the LIC paradigm in three ways: (1) The existing technique is limited to vector fields over a regular Cartesian grid. We extend it to vector fields over parametric surfaces, such as those found in curvilinear grids, used in computational fluid dynamics simulations; (2) Periodic motion filters can be used to animate the flow visualization. When the flow lies on a parametric surface, however, the motion appears misleading. We explain why this problem arises and show how to adjust the LIC algorithm to handle it; (3) We introduce a technique to visualize vector magnitudes as well as vector direction. Cabral and Leedom have suggested a method for variable-speed animation, which is based on varying the frequency of the filter function. We develop a different technique based on kernel phase shifts which we have found to show substantially better results. Our implementation of these algorithms utilizes texture-mapping hardware to run in real time, which allows them to be included in interactive applications.

  13. Flow Visualization by Elastic Light Scattering in the Boundary Layer of a Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, G. C.; Hillard, Mervin E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate instantaneous flow visualization of the boundary layer region of a Mach 2.5 supersonic flow over a flat plate that is interacting with an impinging shock wave. Tests were performed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at NASA Langley Research Center. The technique is elastic light scattering using 10-nsec laser pulses at 532 nm. We emphasize that no seed material of any kind, including water (H2O), is purposely added to the flow. The scattered light comes from a residual impurity that normally exists in the flow medium after the air drying process. Thus, the technique described here differs from the traditional vapor-screen method, which is typically accomplished by the addition of extra H2O vapor to the airflow. The flow is visualized with a series of thin two-dimensional light sheets (oriented perpendicular to the streamwise direction) that are located at several positions downstream of the leading edge of the model. This geometry allows the direct observation of the unsteady flow structure in the spanwise dimension of the model and also allows the indirect observation of the boundary layer growth in the streamwise dimension.

  14. Virtual and Experimental Visualization of Flows in Packed Beds of Spheres Simulating Porous Media Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Athavale, M. M.; Lattime, S. B.; Braun, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    A videotape presentation of flow in a packed bed of spheres is provided. The flow experiment consisted of three principal elements: (1) an oil tunnel 76.2 mm by 76.2 mm in cross section, (2) a packed bed of spheres in regular and irregular arrays, and (3) a flow characterization methodology, either (a) full flow field tracking (FFFT) or (b) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The refraction indices of the oil and the test array of spheres were closely matched, and the flow was seeded with aluminum oxide particles. Planar laser light provided a two-dimensional projection of the flow field, and a traverse simulated a three-dimensional image of the entire flow field. Light focusing and reflection rendered the spheres black, permitting visualization of the planar circular interfaces in both the axial and transverse directions. Flows were observed near the wall-sphere interface and within the set of spheres. The CFD model required that a representative section of a packed bed be formed and gridded, enclosing and cutting six spheres so that symmetry conditions could be imposed at all cross-boundaries. Simulations had to be made with the flow direction at right angles to that used in the experiments, however, to take advantage of flow symmetry. Careful attention to detail was required for proper gridding. The flow field was three-dimensional and complex to describe, yet the most prominent finding was flow threads, as computed in the representative 'cube' of spheres with face symmetry and conclusively demonstrated experimentally herein. Random packing and bed voids tended to disrupt the laminar flow, creating vortices.

  15. Hemodynamic flow visualization of early embryonic great vessels using μPIV.

    PubMed

    Goktas, Selda; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Kowalski, William J; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) is an evolving quantitative methodology to closely and accurately monitor the cardiac flow dynamics and mechanotransduction during vascular morphogenesis. While PIV technique has a long history, contemporary developments in advanced microscopy have significantly expanded its power. This chapter includes three new methods for μPIV acquisition in selected embryonic structures achieved through advanced optical imaging: (1) high-speed confocal scanning of transgenic zebrafish embryos, where the transgenic erythrocytes act as the tracing particles; (2) microinjection of artificial seeding particles in chick embryos visualized with stereomicroscopy; and (3) real-time, time-resolved optical coherence tomography acquisition of vitelline vessel flow profiles in chick embryos, tracking the erythrocytes.

  16. A visual volumetric hydrogel sensor enables quantitative and sensitive detection of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Zhang, Shenghai; Lyu, Jitong; Lu, Fang; Yue, Xuanfeng; Lv, Jiagen

    2015-05-11

    We propose a visual volumetric sensor with 5,6-dicarboxylic fluorescein cross-linked amine-functionalized polyacrylamide hydrogel. The sensor undergoes volume response to Cu(2+) ions at the μM level, which enables naked-eye quantitative detection by reading the graduation on a pipette.

  17. Quantitative Visualization of ChIP-chip Data by Using Linked Views

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Min-Yu; Weber, Gunther; Li, Xiao-Yong; Biggin, Mark; Hamann, Bernd

    2010-11-05

    Most analyses of ChIP-chip in vivo DNA binding have focused on qualitative descriptions of whether genomic regions are bound or not. There is increasing evidence, however, that factors bind in a highly overlapping manner to the same genomic regions and that it is quantitative differences in occupancy on these commonly bound regions that are the critical determinants of the different biological specificity of factors. As a result, it is critical to have a tool to facilitate the quantitative visualization of differences between transcription factors and the genomic regions they bind to understand each factor's unique roles in the network. We have developed a framework which combines several visualizations via brushing-and-linking to allow the user to interactively analyze and explore in vivo DNA binding data of multiple transcription factors. We describe these visualization types and also provide a discussion of biological examples in this paper.

  18. Visual and Quantitative Analysis Methods of Respiratory Patterns for Respiratory Gated PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    We integrated visual and quantitative methods for analyzing the stability of respiration using four methods: phase space diagrams, Fourier spectra, Poincaré maps, and Lyapunov exponents. Respiratory patterns of 139 patients were grouped based on the combination of the regularity of amplitude, period, and baseline positions. Visual grading was done by inspecting the shape of diagram and classified into two states: regular and irregular. Quantitation was done by measuring standard deviation of x and v coordinates of Poincaré map (SDx, SDv) or the height of the fundamental peak (A 1) in Fourier spectrum or calculating the difference between maximal upward and downward drift. Each group showed characteristic pattern on visual analysis. There was difference of quantitative parameters (SDx, SDv, A 1, and MUD-MDD) among four groups (one way ANOVA, p = 0.0001 for MUD-MDD, SDx, and SDv, p = 0.0002 for A 1). In ROC analysis, the cutoff values were 0.11 for SDx (AUC: 0.982, p < 0.0001), 0.062 for SDv (AUC: 0.847, p < 0.0001), 0.117 for A 1 (AUC: 0.876, p < 0.0001), and 0.349 for MUD-MDD (AUC: 0.948, p < 0.0001). This is the first study to analyze multiple aspects of respiration using various mathematical constructs and provides quantitative indices of respiratory stability and determining quantitative cutoff value for differentiating regular and irregular respiration. PMID:27872857

  19. Visual and Quantitative Analysis Methods of Respiratory Patterns for Respiratory Gated PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Son, Hye Joo; Jeong, Young Jin; Yoon, Hyun Jin; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kang, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    We integrated visual and quantitative methods for analyzing the stability of respiration using four methods: phase space diagrams, Fourier spectra, Poincaré maps, and Lyapunov exponents. Respiratory patterns of 139 patients were grouped based on the combination of the regularity of amplitude, period, and baseline positions. Visual grading was done by inspecting the shape of diagram and classified into two states: regular and irregular. Quantitation was done by measuring standard deviation of x and v coordinates of Poincaré map (SD x , SD v ) or the height of the fundamental peak (A1) in Fourier spectrum or calculating the difference between maximal upward and downward drift. Each group showed characteristic pattern on visual analysis. There was difference of quantitative parameters (SD x , SD v , A1, and MUD-MDD) among four groups (one way ANOVA, p = 0.0001 for MUD-MDD, SD x , and SD v , p = 0.0002 for A1). In ROC analysis, the cutoff values were 0.11 for SD x (AUC: 0.982, p < 0.0001), 0.062 for SD v (AUC: 0.847, p < 0.0001), 0.117 for A1 (AUC: 0.876, p < 0.0001), and 0.349 for MUD-MDD (AUC: 0.948, p < 0.0001). This is the first study to analyze multiple aspects of respiration using various mathematical constructs and provides quantitative indices of respiratory stability and determining quantitative cutoff value for differentiating regular and irregular respiration.

  20. Quantitative analysis of cell migration using optical flow.

    PubMed

    Boric, Katica; Orio, Patricio; Viéville, Thierry; Whitlock, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Neural crest cells exhibit dramatic migration behaviors as they populate their distant targets. Using a line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (sox10:EGFP) in neural crest cells we developed an assay to analyze and quantify cell migration as a population, and use it here to characterize in detail the subtle defects in cell migration caused by ethanol exposure during early development. The challenge was to quantify changes in the in vivo migration of all Sox10:EGFP expressing cells in the visual field of time-lapse movies. To perform this analysis we used an Optical Flow algorithm for motion detection and combined the analysis with a fit to an affine transformation. Through this analysis we detected and quantified significant differences in the cell migrations of Sox10:EGFP positive cranial neural crest populations in ethanol treated versus untreated embryos. Specifically, treatment affected migration by increasing the left-right asymmetry of the migrating cells and by altering the direction of cell movements. Thus, by applying this novel computational analysis, we were able to quantify the movements of populations of cells, allowing us to detect subtle changes in cell behaviors. Because cranial neural crest cells contribute to the formation of the frontal mass these subtle differences may underlie commonly observed facial asymmetries in normal human populations.

  1. Fluid flow in the juxtaglomerular interstitium visualized in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rosivall, László; Mirzahosseini, Shahrokh; Toma, Ildikó; Sipos, Arnold; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2006-12-01

    Earlier electron microscopy studies demonstrated morphological signs of fluid flow in the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), including fenestrations of the afferent arteriole (AA) endothelium facing renin granular cells. We aimed to directly visualize fluid flow in the JGA, the putative function of the fenestrated endothelium, using intravital multiphoton microscopy of Munich-Wistar rats and C57BL6 mice. Renin content of the AA correlated strongly with the length of the fenestrated, filtering AA segment. Fluorescence of the extracellular fluid marker lucifer yellow (LY) injected into the cannulated femoral vein in bolus was followed in the renal cortex by real-time imaging. LY was detected in the interstitium around the JG AA before the plasma LY filtered into Bowman's capsule and early proximal tubule. The fluorescence intensity of LY in the JGA interstitium was 17.9 +/- 3.5% of that in the AA plasma (n = 6). The JGA fluid flow was oscillatory, consisting of two components: a fast (one every 5-10 s) and a slow (one every 45-50 s) oscillation, most likely due to the rapid transmission of both the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF)-mediated hemodynamic changes. LY was also detected in the distal tubular lumen about 2-5 s later than in the AA, indicating the flow of JGA interstitial fluid through the macula densa. In the isolated microperfused JGA, blocking the early proximal tubule with a micropipette caused significant increases in MD cell volume by 62 +/- 4% (n = 4) and induced dilation of the intercellular lateral spaces. In summary, significant and dynamic fluid flow exists in the JGA which may help filter the released renin into the renal interstitium (endocrine function). It may also modulate TGF and renin signals in the JGA (hemodynamic function).

  2. Quantitative visually lossless compression ratio determination of JPEG2000 in digitized mammograms.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Verislav T; Karahaliou, Anna N; Skiadopoulos, Spyros G; Arikidis, Nikos S; Kazantzi, Alexandra D; Panayiotakis, George S; Costaridou, Lena I

    2013-06-01

    The current study presents a quantitative approach towards visually lossless compression ratio (CR) threshold determination of JPEG2000 in digitized mammograms. This is achieved by identifying quantitative image quality metrics that reflect radiologists' visual perception in distinguishing between original and wavelet-compressed mammographic regions of interest containing microcalcification clusters (MCs) and normal parenchyma, originating from 68 images from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography. Specifically, image quality of wavelet-compressed mammograms (CRs, 10:1, 25:1, 40:1, 70:1, 100:1) is evaluated quantitatively by means of eight image quality metrics of different computational principles and qualitatively by three radiologists employing a five-point rating scale. The accuracy of the objective metrics is investigated in terms of (1) their correlation (r) with qualitative assessment and (2) ROC analysis (A z index), employing pooled radiologists' rating scores as ground truth. The quantitative metrics mean square error, mean absolute error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and structural similarity demonstrated strong correlation with pooled radiologists' ratings (r, 0.825, 0.823, -0.825, and -0.826, respectively) and the highest area under ROC curve (A z , 0.922, 0.920, 0.922, and 0.922, respectively). For each quantitative metric, the highest accuracy values of corresponding ROC curves were used to define metric cut-off values. The metrics cut-off values were subsequently used to suggest a visually lossless CR threshold, estimated to be between 25:1 and 40:1 for the dataset analyzed. Results indicate the potential of the quantitative metrics approach in predicting visually lossless CRs in case of MCs in mammography.

  3. Target-responsive DNAzyme cross-linked hydrogel for visual quantitative detection of lead.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yishun; Ma, Yanli; Chen, Yahong; Wu, Xuemeng; Fang, Luting; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2014-11-18

    Because of the severe health risks associated with lead pollution, rapid, sensitive, and portable detection of low levels of Pb(2+) in biological and environmental samples is of great importance. In this work, a Pb(2+)-responsive hydrogel was prepared using a DNAzyme and its substrate as cross-linker for rapid, sensitive, portable, and quantitative detection of Pb(2+). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were first encapsulated in the hydrogel as an indicator for colorimetric analysis. In the absence of lead, the DNAzyme is inactive, and the substrate cross-linker maintains the hydrogel in the gel form. In contrast, the presence of lead activates the DNAzyme to cleave the substrate, decreasing the cross-linking density of the hydrogel and resulting in dissolution of the hydrogel and release of AuNPs for visual detection. As low as 10 nM Pb(2+) can be detected by the naked eye. Furthermore, to realize quantitative visual detection, a volumetric bar-chart chip (V-chip) was used for quantitative readout of the hydrogel system by replacing AuNPs with gold-platinum core-shell nanoparticles (Au@PtNPs). The Au@PtNPs released from the hydrogel upon target activation can efficiently catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to generate a large volume of O2. The gas pressure moves an ink bar in the V-chip for portable visual quantitative detection of lead with a detection limit less than 5 nM. The device was able to detect lead in digested blood with excellent accuracy. The method developed can be used for portable lead quantitation in many applications. Furthermore, the method can be further extended to portable visual quantitative detection of a variety of targets by replacing the lead-responsive DNAzyme with other DNAzymes.

  4. Quantitative assessment of Mycoplasma hemadsorption activity by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Luis; González-González, Luis; Costa, Manuela; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    A number of adherent mycoplasmas have developed highly complex polar structures that are involved in diverse aspects of the biology of these microorganisms and play a key role as virulence factors by promoting adhesion to host cells in the first stages of infection. Attachment activity of mycoplasma cells has been traditionally investigated by determining their hemadsorption ability to red blood cells and it is a distinctive trait widely examined when characterizing the different mycoplasma species. Despite the fact that protocols to qualitatively determine the hemadsorption or hemagglutination of mycoplasmas are straightforward, current methods when investigating hemadsorption at the quantitative level are expensive and poorly reproducible. By using flow cytometry, we have developed a procedure to quantify rapidly and accurately the hemadsorption activity of mycoplasmas in the presence of SYBR Green I, a vital fluorochrome that stains nucleic acids, allowing to resolve erythrocyte and mycoplasma cells by their different size and fluorescence. This method is very reproducible and permits the kinetic analysis of the obtained data and a precise hemadsorption quantification based on standard binding parameters such as the dissociation constant K d. The procedure we developed could be easily implemented in a standardized assay to test the hemadsorption activity of the growing number of clinical isolates and mutant strains of different mycoplasma species, providing valuable data about the virulence of these microorganisms.

  5. Quantitative assessment of emphysema from whole lung CT scans: comparison with visual grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Apanosovich, Tatiyana V.; Wang, Jianwei; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2009-02-01

    Emphysema is a disease of the lungs that destroys the alveolar air sacs and induces long-term respiratory dysfunction. CT scans allow for imaging of the anatomical basis of emphysema and for visual assessment by radiologists of the extent present in the lungs. Several measures have been introduced for the quantification of the extent of disease directly from CT data in order to add to the qualitative assessments made by radiologists. In this paper we compare emphysema index, mean lung density, histogram percentiles, and the fractal dimension to visual grade in order to evaluate the predictability of radiologist visual scoring of emphysema from low-dose CT scans through quantitative scores, in order to determine which measures can be useful as surrogates for visual assessment. All measures were computed over nine divisions of the lung field (whole lung, individual lungs, and upper/middle/lower thirds of each lung) for each of 148 low-dose, whole lung scans. In addition, a visual grade of each section was also given by an expert radiologist. One-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine the ability of the measures to predict visual grade from quantitative score. We found that all measures were able to distinguish between normal and severe grades (p<0.01), and between mild/moderate and all other grades (p<0.05). However, no measure was able to distinguish between mild and moderate cases. Approximately 65% prediction accuracy was achieved from using quantitative score to predict visual grade, with 73% if mild and moderate cases are considered as a single class.

  6. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Möller, Christiane; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Versteeg, Adriaan; Benedictus, Marije R; Wattjes, Mike P; Koedam, Esther L G M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo

    2014-02-01

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. • Visual rating scale reflects grey matter atrophy in posterior brain regions. • Different PCA scores corresponded well to different quantitative degrees of atrophy. • Inferior parietal gyrus volume influenced assessment based on the visual rating scale. • This simple visual rating scale makes it useful for radiological dementia assessment.

  7. A simulated dye method for flow visualization with a computational model for blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Cheer, A Y; Dwyer, H A

    2004-08-01

    A numerical dye method for the visualization of unsteady three-dimensional flow calculations is introduced by coupling the unsteady convection-diffusion equation to the Navier-Stokes equation for mass and momentum. This system of equations is descretized using a finite volume projection-like algorithm with generalized coordinates and overset grids. A powerful pressure prediction method is used to accelerate the convergence of the Pressure Poisson equation. To demonstrate the visualization technique, blood flow through the aortic arch region and the three main arterial branches is computed using various Womersley numbers. In this technique, parcels of fluid are followed in time as a function of the cardiac cycle without having to track individual particles, which in turn aids us to better understand some important aspects of the three-dimensionality of the developing unsteady flow. Using this numerical dye method we analyze the strength of the cross flow during the cardiac cycle, the relationship between the penetration of blood into the aortic branches from its relative position in the ascending aortic region and the effects of the Womersley parameter. This technique can be very useful in the design and development of stents where the topology of the device would require understanding where the blood emanating from the heart ends up at the end of the cardiac cycle. Moreover, this method could be useful in investigating the influence of flow and geometry on the local introduction of medication.

  8. Flow Visualization in the Presence of a Surface Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepeau McIlroy, John, Jr.; Reese, Stephen

    1999-11-01

    Many spent nuclear fuel elements, after having been stored in underwater pools have corroded, preventing their transfer to dry storage canisters. Gases can be injected into the canisters to passivate the fuel elements. The main objective of this work is to develop two predictive techniques to measure energy, mass, and momentum transfer in a flow where a surface reaction is present. In the first method, a small amount of water is mixed with mineral oil, and is passed over a surface that contains metallic sodium. The effects of the reaction on the flow are observed, measured, and compared to observations and measurements obtained from fully developed flow. Dye is used to highlight the boundary layer velocity profile in mineral oil. The second method attempts to provide visual evidence of the occurrence of an exothermic reaction using thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs). TLCs are used to indicate the occurrence of an oxidation reaction on the surface of spent nuclear fuel elements. Current efforts use TLCs to mimic such a reaction using inert materials and simple heat sources.

  9. Comparison of MSL RCS Jet Computations With Flow Visualization and Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Craig T.; Novak, Luke A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Ashcraft, Scott W.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) reaction control system (RCS) jets interacting with a Mach 10 hypersonic flow are compared to experimental nitric oxide (NO) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) data. The steady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations using the Baldwin-Barth one-equation turbulence model were solved using the OVERFLOW code. The experimental PLIF data used for comparison consists of qualitative two-dimensional visualization images, qualitative reconstructed three-dimensional flow structures, and quantitative two-dimensional distributions of streamwise velocity. Through modeling of the PLIF signal equation, computational flow images (CFI) were produced and directly compared to the qualitative PLIF data. Post processing of the experimental and simulation data enabled the jet trajectory to be extracted for a more quantitative comparison. The two-dimensional velocity fields were reconstructed through interpolation of a series of single-component velocity profiles. Each distribution of single-component velocity was obtained using molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). After validating the numerical model, the numerical solution was further examined to gain insight into hypersonic jet-in-crossflow interaction. Future NO-PLIF experiments are proposed based on this analysis.

  10. Flow visualization of Marangoni convection in simulated weld pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit

    Many computational models and experiments have demonstrated that Marangoni convection dominates other forces in weld pools under the practical gas tungsten arc welding conditions. The Marangoni convection in the weld pools is important because it has a decisive effect on the reproducibility of weld geometry and is responsible for other welding problems, including arc wander, humped beads, and porosity. A flow visualization technique was developed to observe the Marangoni convection in simulated weld pool of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) subject to a defocused CO2 laser beam. The intent was to provide a better understanding of Marangoni convection in weld pools, which is impossible to conduct in opaque metal pools, and to understand the effect of the power and diameter of the heat source on the Marangoni convection. The study of the effect of the Marangoni convection on the weld pool shape was conducted in stationary welds of NaNO3 and gallium (Ga), a high and low Prandtl number material, respectively. It is proposed that, in the absence of a surface-active agent and a significant electromagnetic force, pool bottom convexity increases with increasing value of Peclet number. It was shown that for a given material composition and welding process, the weld shape often reveals a good deal about the nature of weld pool convection. Finally, a transparent pool of NaNO3 with potassium propionate (C2H5COOK) as a surface-active agent was used for the flow visualization. The reversed Marangoni convection was clearly observed. The stationary laser weldings showed deeper weld pools in NaNO3 containing 1 mole % C2H5COOK than in pure NaNO 3. This is consistent with the effect Of C2H5COOK on the convection pattern observed in flow visualization. It is believed that the results of this dissertation are the valuable tools to explain the significance of the Marangoni convection in weld pools and to explain why small differences in some specific chemical composition have such a profound

  11. Quantitative characterizations of phasic structure developments by local measurement methods in two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C.S.; Leung, W.H.; Wu, Q.; Ueno, T.; Ishii, M.

    1995-06-01

    An experimental study on the internal structure an a out in a 25.4 mm ID pipe. The local void fraction and interfacial area concentration were measured by a double-sensor probe. The flow structure development was visualized by measuring the radial distribution of these two parameters at three axial, locations (L/D = 12, 62, and 112). A more detailed study on the fully developed flow structure was conducted at L/D = 120. The interfacial structure were measured by the double- and four-sensor probes. A bubbly to-=slug transition region was defined according to the local data.The area-averaged void fraction measurements were given by a gamma densitometer. Other parameters such as the Taylor bubble film thickness, bubble length and slug unit length in slug flow were measured by a film robe. The redundant measurements were made to calibrate the local probe measurements. The quantitative representation of the phasic structure can then be used for modeling.

  12. A comparison of visual and quantitative assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction by cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Cameron J; Edwards, Lindsay M; Rider, Oliver J; Fast, Angela; Clarke, Kieran; Francis, Jane M; Myerson, Saul G; Neubauer, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of visual analysis of left ventricular (LV) function in comparison with the accepted quantitative gold standard method, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Cine CMR imaging was performed at 1.5 T on 44 patients with a range of ejection fractions (EF, 5-80%). Clinicians (n = 18) were asked to visually assess EF after sequentially being shown cine images of a four chamber (horizontal long axis; HLA), two chamber (vertical long axis; VLA) and a short axis stack (SAS) and results were compared to a commercially available analysis package. There were strong correlations between visual and quantitative assessment. However, the EF was underestimated in all categories (by 8.4% for HLA, 8.4% for HLA + VLA and 7.9% for HLA + VLA + SAS, P all < 0.01) and particularly underestimated in mild LV impairment (17.4%, P < 0.01), less so for moderate (4.9%) and not for severe impairment (1%). Assessing more than one view of the heart improved visual assessment of LV, EF, however, clinicians underestimated EF by 8.4% on average, with particular inaccuracy in those with mild dysfunction. Given the important clinical information provided by LV assessment, quantitative analysis is recommended for accurate assessment.

  13. Space shuttle orbiter flow visualization study. [water tunnel study of vortex flow during atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The vortex flows generated at subsonic speed during the final portion of atmospheric reentry were defined using a 0.01 scale model of the orbiter in a diagnostic water tunnel. Flow visualization photographs were obtained over an angle-of-attack range to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics were determined as a function of angle-of-attack at zero sideslip. Vortex flows were found to develop on the highly swept glove, on the wing, and on the upper surface of the fuselage. No significant asymmetries were observed at zero sideslip in the water tunnel tests. The sensitivity of the upper surface vortex flow fields to variations in sideslip angle was also studied. The vortex formed on the glove remained very stable in position above the wing up through the 10 deg of sideslip tested. There was a change in the vortex lifts under sideslip due to effective change in leading-edge sweep angles. Asymmetric flow separation occurred on the upper surface of the fuselage at small sideslip angles. The influence of vortex flow fields in sideslip on the lateral/ directional characteristics of the orbiter is discussed.

  14. MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR LABEL-FREE AND NON-INSTRUMENTED QUANTITATION OF UNAMPLIFIED NUCLEIC ACIDS BY FLOW DISTANCE MEASUREMENT

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Debolina; Mansfield, Danielle S.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2014-01-01

    Timely biomarker quantitation has potential to improve human health but current methods have disadvantages either in terms of cost and complexity for benchtop instruments, or reduced performance in quantitation and/or multiplexing for point-of-care systems. We previously developed microfluidic devices wherein visually observed flow distances correlated with a model analyte’s concentration.1 Here, we significantly expand over this prior result to demonstrate the measurement of unamplified DNA analogues of microRNAs (miRNAs), biomarkers whose levels can be altered in disease states. We have developed a method for covalently attaching nucleic acid receptors on poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannel surfaces by silane and cross-linker treatments. We found a flow distance dependence on target concentrations from 10 μg/mL to 10 pg/mL for DNA in both buffer and synthetic urine. Moreover, flow time in addition to flow distance is correlated with target concentration. We also observed longer flow distances for single-base mismatches compared to the target sequence at the same concentration, indicating that our approach can be used to detect point mutations. Finally, experiments with DNA analogues of miRNA biomarkers for kidney disease (mir-200c-3p) and prostate cancer (mir-107) in synthetic urine showed the ability to detect these analytes near clinically relevant levels. Our results demonstrate that these novel microfluidic assays offer a simple route to sensitive, amplification-free nucleic acid quantitation, with strong potential for point-of-care application. PMID:25530814

  15. Electrophysiological measurement of information flow during visual search.

    PubMed

    Cosman, Joshua D; Arita, Jason T; Ianni, Julianna D; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2016-04-01

    The temporal relationship between different stages of cognitive processing is long debated. This debate is ongoing, primarily because it is often difficult to measure the time course of multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. We employed a manipulation that allowed us to isolate ERP components related to perceptual processing, working memory, and response preparation, and then examined the temporal relationship between these components while observers performed a visual search task. We found that, when response speed and accuracy were equally stressed, our index of perceptual processing ended before both the transfer of information into working memory and response preparation began. However, when we stressed speed over accuracy, response preparation began before the completion of perceptual processing or transfer of information into working memory on trials with the fastest reaction times. These findings show that individuals can control the flow of information transmission between stages, either waiting for perceptual processing to be completed before preparing a response or configuring these stages to overlap in time.

  16. The effect of global visual flow on simulator sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharkey, Thomas J.; Mccauley, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    Simulator-induced sickness is investigated in experiments performed at the NASA Ames Army Crew Station Research Facility using the fixed-base helmet-mounted-display flight simulator described by Lypaczewski et al. (1986). The focus of the tests was on the possible roles of (1) global visual flow, as defined by Warren et al. (1982), and (2) maneuvering intensity (in the conflict hypothesis of Reason and Brand, 1975). The results, based on subjective evaluations, physiological measurements, and physical tests on 19 Army helicopter pilots performing a 40-min river-valley following task, are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed. The data are found to be in agreement with (1) and inconsistent with (2), indicating more sickness at lower altitude instead of with increased maneuvering. Shorter simulator sessions and postponement of low-altitude work until later in the training period are recommended.

  17. Visual guidance based on optic flow: a biorobotic approach.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses some basic questions as to how vision links up with action and serves to guide locomotion in both biological and artificial creatures. The thorough knowledge gained during the past five decades on insects' sensory-motor abilities and the neuronal substrates involved has provided us with a rich source of inspiration for designing tomorrow's self-guided vehicles and micro-vehicles, which will be able to cope with unforeseen events on the ground, under water, in the air, in space, on other planets, and inside the human body. Insects can teach us some useful tricks for designing agile autonomous robots. Since constructing a "biorobot" first requires exactly formulating the biological principles presumably involved, it gives us a unique opportunity of checking the soundness and robustness of these principles by bringing them face to face with the real physical world. "Biorobotics" therefore goes one step beyond computer simulation. It leads to experimenting with real physical robots which have to pass the stringent test of the real world. Biorobotics provide us with a new tool, which can help neurobiologists and neuroethologists to identify and investigate worthwhile issues in the field of sensory-motor control. Here we describe some of the visually guided terrestrial and aerial robots we have developed since 1985 on the basis of our biological findings. All these robots behave in response to the optic flow, i.e., they work by measuring the slip speed of the retinal image. Optic flow is sensed on-board by miniature electro-optical velocity sensors. The very principle of these sensors was based on studies in which we recorded the responses of single identified neurons to single photoreceptor stimulation in a model visual system: the fly's compound eye.

  18. Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, Petr; Šidlof, Petr; Hrůza, Jakub

    2012-04-01

    Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homogeneity of filtration using image analysis. For this purpose, a new waterfiltration measuring setup was proposed and constructed. Filtration material is mounted into the optically transparent place in the setup. Laser sheet is directed into this place as in the case of Particle Image Velocimetry measuring method. Monochrome and sensitive camera records the light scattered by seeding particles in water. The seeding particles passing through the filter serve for measuring filtration efficiency, and also for visualization of filtration process. Filtration setup enables to measure also the pressure drop and a flow. The signals are processed by National Instruments compactDAQ system and UMA software. Microfibrous and nanofibrous filtration materials are tested by this measuring method. In the case of nanofibrous filtration, appropriate size of seeding particles is needed to be used to perform a process of filtration.

  19. Rover: a tool to visualize and validate quantitative proteomics data from different sources.

    PubMed

    Colaert, Niklaas; Helsens, Kenny; Impens, Francis; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Gevaert, Kris

    2010-03-01

    Manual validation of regulated proteins found in MS-driven quantitative proteome studies is tedious. Here we present Rover (http://genesis.ugent.be/rover), a tool that facilitates this process. Rover accepts quantitative data from different sources such as MASCOT Distiller and MaxQuant and, in an intuitive environment, Rover visualizes these data such that the user can select and validate algorithm-suggested regulated proteins in the frame of the whole experiment and in the context of the protein inference problem.

  20. Preliminary design of an intermittent smoke flow visualization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. T.; Brandt, S. B.; Myatt, J. H.

    1992-02-01

    A prototype intermittent smoke flow visualization system for studying the flowfield of an aircraft in flight has been constructed and demonstrated. It provides discrete pulses of dense white smoke suitable for video imaging to determine the unsteady vortex core trajectory of fluid elements in a high angle-of-attack flowfield. Two methods of pulsing the smoke were initially investigated: (1) periodically diverting the smoke between two exit ports and (2) completely blocking the smoke flow for short times. System dynamics have been modeled mathematically, data have been collected in a wind tunnel with blockage times up to 80 milliseconds, and the prototype is currently being flown on a general aviation airplane to collect three-dimensional video data. Three different plenum chamber sizes are available. Data collected so far are consistent and repeatable, though care must be taken to provide adequate contrast levels for accurate video resolution. Camera frame rates of at least 180 frames/second and wide angle lenses for the video cameras are needed to acquire meaningful vortex core velocities and accelerations for the general aviation test aircraft installation.

  1. Using streamlines to visualize acoustic energy flow across boundaries.

    PubMed

    Chapman, David M F

    2008-07-01

    For spherical waves that radiate from a point source in a homogeneous fluid and propagate across a plane boundary into a dissimilar homogeneous fluid, the acoustic field may differ significantly from the geometric acoustic approximation if either the source or receiver is near the interface (in acoustic wavelengths) or if the stationary phase path is near the critical angle. In such cases, the entire acoustic field must be considered, including inhomogeneous waves associated with diffraction (i.e., those components that vanish with increasing frequency). The energy flow from a continuous-wave monopole point source across the boundary is visualized by tracing acoustic streamlines: those curves whose tangent at every point is parallel to the local acoustic intensity vector, averaged over a wave cycle. It is seen that the acoustic energy flow is not always in line with the "Snell's law" or stationary phase path. Also, plots of acoustic energy streamlines do not display unusual behavior in the vicinity of the critical angle. Finally, it is shown that there exists a law of refraction of acoustic energy streamlines at boundaries with density discontinuities analogous to Snell's law of refraction of ray paths across sound speed discontinuities. Examples include water-to-seabed transmission and water-to-air transmission.

  2. PLIF Flow Visualization of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. W.; Krivets, V. V.

    2001-11-01

    A vertical shock tube is used to study the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of an Air/SF6 interface. The two gases enter the shock tube at opposite ends of the driven section and exit through slots in the shock tube wall. A sinusoidal perturbation is given to the interface by oscillating the shock tube in the lateral direction to produce a standing wave. PLIF is used to visualize the flow by seeding the air with acetone vapor, illuminating it with a light sheet produced by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, and recording the resulting image with a cooled CCD camera. The PLIF images show very clearly the development of the instability far into the nonlinear regime in which the interface is deformed into mushroom structures. New results using M=1.3 shock waves will be presented which clearly show the transition to turbulence in this flow at late times. The transition process begins with the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the vortex spirals. After formation, the initially coherent Kelvin-Helmholtz pattern very quickly decays into turbulence. Eventually the turbulence, which is initially confined to the vortex cores, begins to erode the remainder of the mushroom structures.

  3. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  4. Experimental characterization of wingtip vortices in the near field using smoke flow visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Aguilera, J. J.; García-Ortiz, J. Hermenegildo; Gallardo-Claros, A.; Parras, L.; del Pino, C.

    2016-08-01

    In order to predict the axial development of the wingtip vortices strength, an accurate theoretical model is required. Several experimental techniques have been used to that end, e.g. PIV or hot-wire anemometry, but they imply a significant cost and effort. For this reason, we have performed experiments using the smoke-wire technique to visualize smoke streaks in six planes perpendicular to the main stream flow direction. Using this visualization technique, we obtained quantitative information regarding the vortex velocity field by means of Batchelor's model for two chord-based Reynolds numbers, Re_c=3.33× 10^4 and 10^5. Therefore, this theoretical vortex model has been introduced in the integration of ordinary differential equations which describe the temporal evolution of streak lines as function of two parameters: the swirl number, S, and the virtual axial origin, overline{z_0}. We have applied two different procedures to minimize the distance between experimental and theoretical flow patterns: individual curve fitting at six different control planes in the streamwise direction and the global curve fitting which corresponds to all the control planes simultaneously. Both sets of results have been compared with those provided by del Pino et al. (Phys Fluids 23(013):602, 2011b. doi: 10.1063/1.3537791), finding good agreement. Finally, we have observed a weak influence of the Reynolds number on the values S and overline{z_0} at low-to-moderate Re_c. This experimental technique is proposed as a low cost alternative to characterize wingtip vortices based on flow visualizations.

  5. Correlation between macular blood flow and central visual sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yusuke; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Akiyama, Masato; Fujiwara, Kota; Yoshida, Noriko; Nakatake, Shunji; Notomi, Shoji; Nabeshima, Takahiro; Hisatomi, Toshio; Enaida, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the changes in macular blood flow and the correlation between those changes and central visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The mean blur rate (MBR), a quantitative blurring index of the laser speckle pattern that represents retinal and choroidal blood flow, was measured by laser speckle flowgraphy. Mean blur rate values in the macular area were compared between 70 patients with RP and 28 control subjects. The relationships between MBR on the one hand and, on the other, visual acuity (VA), mean deviation (MD) and averaged macular sensitivity of static perimetry tests (Humphrey Filed Analyzer, the central 10-2 program) were analysed in patients with RP. Macular MBR was decreased to 75% in patients with RP compared with control subjects (p < 0.0001, Student's t-test). Spearman's rank testing showed that macular MBR was significantly correlated with VA (r = -0.261, p = 0.0299), MD values (r = 0.438, p = 0.0002) and averaged macular sensitivity at the central 4 and 12 points of static perimetry tests (r = 0.426 and 0.442, p = 0.0003 and 0.0002, respectively). Multivariable-adjusted analysis confirmed that MBR was independently associated with MD (p = 0.0002) and macular sensitivity at the central 4 and 12 points (p < 0.0001 and 0.0002, respectively). Decreased macular blood flow was associated with reduced macular visual sensitivity in patients with RP. Although the cause-effect relationships remain to be elucidated, these findings suggest that vascular defects may be involved in the pathogenesis of RP such as central vision loss. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cell exclusion in couette flow: evaluation through flow visualization and mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Laura J; Marshall, Lindsay J; Devitt, Andrew; Hilton, Andrew; Tansley, Geoff D

    2013-03-01

    Cell exclusion is the phenomenon whereby the hematocrit and viscosity of blood decrease in areas of high stress. While this is well known in naturally occurring Poiseuille flow in the human body, it has never previously been shown in Couette flow, which occurs in implantable devices including blood pumps. The high-shear stresses that occur in the gap between the boundaries in Couette flow are known to cause hemolysis in erythrocytes. We propose to mitigate this damage by initiating cell exclusion through the use of a spiral-groove bearing (SGB) that will provide escape routes by which the cells may separate themselves from the plasma and the high stresses in the gap. The force between two bearings (one being the SGB) in Couette flow was measured. Stained erythrocytes, along with silver spheres of similar diameter to erythrocytes, were visualized across a transparent SGB at various gap heights. A reduction in the force across the bearing for human blood, compared with fluids of comparable viscosity, was found. This indicates a reduction in the viscosity of the fluid across the bearing due to a lowered hematocrit because of cell exclusion. The corresponding images clearly show both cells and spheres being excluded from the gap by entering the grooves. This is the first time the phenomenon of cell exclusion has been shown in Couette flow. It not only furthers our understanding of how blood responds to different flows but could also lead to improvements in the future design of medical devices.

  7. Wind Tunnel Visualization of the Flow Over a Full-Scale F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Botha, Gavin J.; James, Kevin D.; Crowder, James P.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed paper presents flow visualization performed during experiments conducted on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind-Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. This investigation used both surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques to examine the flow field on the forebody, canopy, leading edge extensions (LEXs), and wings. The various techniques used to visualize the flow field were fluorescent tufts, flow cones treated with reflective material, smoke in combination with a laser light sheet, and a video imaging system. The flow visualization experiments were conducted over an angle of attack range from 20deg to 45deg and over a sideslip range from -10deg to 10deg. The results show regions of attached and separated flow on the forebody, canopy, and wings. Additionally, the vortical flow is clearly visible over the leading-edge extensions, canopy, and wings.

  8. Relationship Between Coronary Contrast-Flow Quantitative Flow Ratio and Myocardial Ischemia Assessed by SPECT MPI.

    PubMed

    Smit, Jeff M; Koning, Gerhard; van Rosendael, Alexander R; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Mertens, Bart J; Jukema, J Wouter; Delgado, Victoria; Reiber, Johan H C; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J

    2017-07-06

    A new method has been developed to calculate fractional flow reserve (FFR) from invasive coronary angiography, the so-called "contrast-flow quantitative flow ratio (cQFR)". Recently, cQFR was compared to invasive FFR in intermediate coronary lesions showing an overall diagnostic accuracy of 85%. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cQFR and myocardial ischemia assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI). Patients who underwent SPECT MPI and coronary angiography within 3 months were included. The cQFR computation was performed offline, using dedicated software. The cQFR computation was based on 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and computational fluid dynamics. The standard 17-segment model was used to determine the vascular territories. Myocardial ischemia was defined as a summed difference score ≥2 in a vascular territory. A cQFR of ≤0.80 was considered abnormal. Two hundred and twenty-four coronary arteries were analysed in 85 patients. Overall accuracy of cQFR to detect ischemia on SPECT MPI was 90%. In multivariable analysis, cQFR was independently associated with ischemia on SPECT MPI (OR per 0.01 decrease of cQFR: 1.10; 95% CI 1.04-1.18, p = 0.002), whereas clinical and QCA parameters were not. Furthermore, cQFR showed incremental value for the detection of ischemia compared to clinical and QCA parameters (global chi square 48.7 to 62.6; p <0.001). A good relationship between cQFR and SPECT MPI was found. cQFR was independently associated with ischemia on SPECT MPI and showed incremental value to detect ischemia compared to clinical and QCA parameters.

  9. Visual and auditory reaction time for air traffic controllers using quantitative electroencephalograph (QEEG) data.

    PubMed

    Abbass, Hussein A; Tang, Jiangjun; Ellejmi, Mohamed; Kirby, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    The use of quantitative electroencephalograph in the analysis of air traffic controllers' performance can reveal with a high temporal resolution those mental responses associated with different task demands. To understand the relationship between visual and auditory correct responses, reaction time, and the corresponding brain areas and functions, air traffic controllers were given an integrated visual and auditory continuous reaction task. Strong correlations were found between correct responses to the visual target and the theta band in the frontal lobe, the total power in the medial of the parietal lobe and the theta-to-beta ratio in the left side of the occipital lobe. Incorrect visual responses triggered activations in additional bands including the alpha band in the medial of the frontal and parietal lobes, and the Sensorimotor Rhythm in the medial of the parietal lobe. Controllers' responses to visual cues were found to be more accurate but slower than their corresponding performance on auditory cues. These results suggest that controllers are more susceptible to overload when more visual cues are used in the air traffic control system, and more errors are pruned as more auditory cues are used. Therefore, workload studies should be carried out to assess the usefulness of additional cues and their interactions with the air traffic control environment.

  10. Quantitative visualization of ictal subdural EEG changes in children with neocortical focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Eishi; Muzik, Otto; Shah, Aashit; Juhász, Csaba; Chugani, Diane C.; Kagawa, Kenji; Benedek, Krisztina; Sood, Sandeep; Gotman, Jean; Chugani, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To quantify the ictal subdural electroencephalogram (EEG) changes using spectral analysis, and to delineate the quantitatively defined ictal onset zones on high-resolution 3D MR images in children with intractable neocortical epilepsy. Methods Fourteen children with intractable neocortical epilepsy (age: 1–16 years) who had subsequent resective surgery were retrospectively studied. The subjects underwent a high-resolution MRI and prolonged subdural EEG recording. Spectral analysis was applied to 3 habitual focal seizures. After fast Fourier transformation of the EEG epoch at ictal onset, an amplitude spectral curve (square root of the power spectral curve) was created for each electrode. The EEG magnitude of ictal rhythmic discharges was defined as the area under the amplitude spectral curve within a preset frequency band including the ictal discharge frequency, and calculated for each electrode. The topography mapping of ictal EEG magnitude was subsequently displayed on a surface-rendered MRI. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the consistency between quantitatively and visually defined ictal onset zones. Results The electrode showing the maximum of the averaged ictal EEG magnitude was part of the visually defined ictal onset zone in all cases. ROC analyses demonstrated that electrodes showing >30% of the maximum of the averaged ictal EEG magnitude had a specificity of 0.90 and a sensitivity of 0.74 for the concordance with visually defined ictal onset zones. Significance Quantitative ictal subdural EEG analysis using spectral analysis may supplement conventional visual inspection in children with neocortical epilepsy by providing an objective definition of the onset zone and its simple visualization on the patient’s MRI. PMID:15546780

  11. Quantitative visualization of ictal subdural EEG changes in children with neocortical focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Asano, Eishi; Muzik, Otto; Shah, Aashit; Juhász, Csaba; Chugani, Diane C; Kagawa, Kenji; Benedek, Krisztina; Sood, Sandeep; Gotman, Jean; Chugani, Harry T

    2004-12-01

    To quantify the ictal subdural electroencephalogram (EEG) changes using spectral analysis, and to delineate the quantitatively defined ictal onset zones on high-resolution 3D MR images in children with intractable neocortical epilepsy. Fourteen children with intractable neocortical epilepsy (age: 1-16 years) who had subsequent resective surgery were retrospectively studied. The subjects underwent a high-resolution MRI and prolonged subdural EEG recording. Spectral analysis was applied to 3 habitual focal seizures. After fast Fourier transformation of the EEG epoch at ictal onset, an amplitude spectral curve (square root of the power spectral curve) was created for each electrode. The EEG magnitude of ictal rhythmic discharges was defined as the area under the amplitude spectral curve within a preset frequency band including the ictal discharge frequency, and calculated for each electrode. The topography mapping of ictal EEG magnitude was subsequently displayed on a surface-rendered MRI. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the consistency between quantitatively and visually defined ictal onset zones. The electrode showing the maximum of the averaged ictal EEG magnitude was part of the visually defined ictal onset zone in all cases. ROC analyses demonstrated that electrodes showing >30% of the maximum of the averaged ictal EEG magnitude had a specificity of 0.90 and a sensitivity of 0.74 for the concordance with visually defined ictal onset zones. Quantitative ictal subdural EEG analysis using spectral analysis may supplement conventional visual inspection in children with neocortical epilepsy by providing an objective definition of the onset zone and its simple visualization on the patient's MRI.

  12. Numerical modeling of flow focusing: Quantitative characterization of the flow regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamet, V.; Namy, P.; Dedulle, J.-M.

    2017-09-01

    Among droplet generation technologies, the flow focusing technique is a major process due to its control, stability, and reproducibility. In this process, one fluid (the continuous phase) interacts with another one (the dispersed phase) to create small droplets. Experimental assays in the literature on gas-liquid flow focusing have shown that different jet regimes can be obtained depending on the operating conditions. However, the underlying physical phenomena remain unclear, especially mechanical interactions between the fluids and the oscillation phenomenon of the liquid. In this paper, based on published studies, a numerical diphasic model has been developed to take into consideration the mechanical interaction between phases, using the Cahn-Hilliard method to monitor the interface. Depending on the liquid/gas inputs and the geometrical parameters, various regimes can be obtained, from a steady state regime to an unsteady one with liquid oscillation. In the dispersed phase, the model enables us to compute the evolution of fluid flow, both in space (size of the recirculation zone) and in time (period of oscillation). The transition between unsteady and stationary regimes is assessed in relation to liquid and gas dimensionless numbers, showing the existence of critical thresholds. This model successfully highlights, qualitatively and quantitatively, the influence of the geometry of the nozzle, in particular, its inner diameter.

  13. Shadowgraph flow visualization of isolated tiltrotor and rotor/wing wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Alexandra A.; Light, Jeffrey S.

    1992-01-01

    Shadowgraph flow visualization images were acquired from a 0.184-scale tiltrotor and wing in hover. Measurements and details of the vortex core structure were examined as a function of thrust condition and wake age. Experimental data for the isolated rotor wake geometry and rotor wake interactions with a semi-span wing and image plane were acquired. Quantitative measurements and comparisons of wake geometry and distortion were made for three configurations: the isolated rotor, rotor/wing, and rotor/wing/image plane. Comparisons between tiltrotor and helicopter rotor wake geometry measurements were made. Experimental wake geometry data were also compared with two wake models. Suggestions for improvements to existing prescribed-wake and free-wake models are proposed.

  14. Parallel Computation and Visualization of Three-dimensional, Time-dependent, Thermal Convective Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.; Li, P.

    1998-01-01

    A high-resolution numerical study on parallel systems is reported on three-dimensional, time-dependent, thermal convective flows. A parallel implentation on the finite volume method with a multigrid scheme is discussed, and a parallel visualization systemm is developed on distributed systems for visualizing the flow.

  15. Parallel Computation and Visualization of Three-dimensional, Time-dependent, Thermal Convective Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.; Li, P.

    1998-01-01

    A high-resolution numerical study on parallel systems is reported on three-dimensional, time-dependent, thermal convective flows. A parallel implentation on the finite volume method with a multigrid scheme is discussed, and a parallel visualization systemm is developed on distributed systems for visualizing the flow.

  16. Measurements and implications of vortex motions using two flow-visualization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delisi, Donald P.; Greene, George C.

    1990-01-01

    The present comparative study of two different, but complementary flow-visualization techniques, which yield different interpretations of vortex-migration distance and lifetime, gives attention to the difficulty of determining vortex evolution and lifetime from flow-visualization measurements. The techniques involved the release of a fluorescent dye and of neutrally buoyant particles in a water-filled towing tank. Vortices are found to migrate farther, and last longer, when visualized with neutrally buoyant particles rather than with dyes.

  17. Measurements and implications of vortex motions using two flow-visualization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delisi, Donald P.; Greene, George C.

    1990-01-01

    The present comparative study of two different, but complementary flow-visualization techniques, which yield different interpretations of vortex-migration distance and lifetime, gives attention to the difficulty of determining vortex evolution and lifetime from flow-visualization measurements. The techniques involved the release of a fluorescent dye and of neutrally buoyant particles in a water-filled towing tank. Vortices are found to migrate farther, and last longer, when visualized with neutrally buoyant particles rather than with dyes.

  18. Electrophysiological measurement of information flow during visual search

    PubMed Central

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Arita, Jason T.; Ianni, Julianna D.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2016-01-01

    The temporal relationship between different stages of cognitive processing is long-debated. This debate is ongoing, primarily because it is often difficult to measure the time course of multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. We employed a manipulation that allowed us to isolate ERP components related to perceptual processing, working memory, and response preparation, and then examined the temporal relationship between these components while observers performed a visual search task. We found that when response speed and accuracy were equally stressed, our index of perceptual processing ended before both the transfer of information into working memory and response preparation began. However, when we stressed speed over accuracy response preparation began before the completion of perceptual processing or transfer of information into working memory on trials with the fastest reaction times. These findings show that individuals can control the flow of information transmission between stages, either waiting for perceptual processing to be completed before preparing a response or configuring these stages to overlap in time. PMID:26669285

  19. Flight validation of a pulsed smoke flow visualization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Donald T.; Dorsett, Kenneth M.

    1993-01-01

    A flow visualization scheme, designed to measure vortex fluid dynamics on research aircraft, was validated in flight. Strake vortex trajectories and axial core velocities were determined using pulsed smoke, high-speed video images, and semiautomated image edge detection hardware and software. Smoke was pulsed by using a fast-acting three-way valve. After being redesigned because of repeatedly jamming in flight, the valve shuttle operated flawlessly during the last two tests. A 25-percent scale, Gothic strake was used to generate vortex over the wing of a GA-7 Cougar and was operated at a local angle of attack of 22 degrees and Reynolds number of approximately 7.8 x 10(exp 5)/ft. Maximum axial velocities measured in the vortex core were between 1.75 and 1.95 times the freestream velocity. Analysis of the pulsed smoke system's affect on forebody vortices indicates that the system may reorient the forebody vortex system; however, blowing momentum coefficients normally used will have no appreciable affect on the leading-edge extension vortex system. It is recommended that a similar pulsed smoke system be installed on the F/A-18 High Angle Research Vehicle and that this approach be used to analyze vortex core dynamics during the remainder of its high-angle-of-attack research flights.

  20. Donor Selection in Flow Replacement Bypass Surgery for Cerebral Aneurysms: Quantitative Analysis of Long-term Native Donor Flow Sufficiency.

    PubMed

    Rustemi, Oriela; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Shakur, Sophia F; Du, Xinjian; Charbel, Fady T

    2016-03-01

    Graft selection in extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for cerebral aneurysms has traditionally been based on clinical impression and operator preference. However, decision making can be optimized with a donor selection algorithm based on intraoperative flow data. To present long-term follow-up and quantitative assessment of flow sufficiency for native donors selected in this manner. Patients with bypass for anterior circulation intracranial aneurysms using only a native donor (superficial temporal artery) selected on the basis of an intraoperative flow algorithm over a 10-year period were retrospectively studied. Intracranial hemispheric and bypass flows were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively when available with quantitative magnetic resonance angiography. Twenty-two patients with flow data were included (median aneurysm size, 22 mm). The intraoperative flow offer (cut flow) of the superficial temporal artery was sufficient in these cases relative to the flow demand in the sacrificed vessel (59 vs 28 mL/min) to warrant its use. Bypass flow averaged 81 mL/min postoperatively (n = 19). Bypass flows were highest in the immediate postoperative period but remained stable between the intermediate and final follow-up (40 vs 52 mL/min; P = .39; n = 8). Mean ipsilateral hemisphere flows were maintained after bypass (299 vs 335 mL/min; P = .42; n = 7), and remained stable over intermediate and long-term follow-up. Ipsilateral hemispheric flows remained similar to contralateral flows at all time points. Despite a relative reduction in bypass flow over time, hemispheric flows were maintained, indicating that simple native donors can carry sufficient flow for territory demand long term when an intraoperative flow-based algorithm is used for donor selection.

  1. Selection on quantitative colour variation in Centaurea cyanus: the role of the pollinator's visual system.

    PubMed

    Renoult, J P; Thomann, M; Schaefer, H M; Cheptou, P-O

    2013-11-01

    Even though the importance of selection for trait evolution is well established, we still lack a functional understanding of the mechanisms underlying phenotypic selection. Because animals necessarily use their sensory system to perceive phenotypic traits, the model of sensory bias assumes that sensory systems are the main determinant of signal evolution. Yet, it has remained poorly known how sensory systems contribute to shaping the fitness surface of selected individuals. In a greenhouse experiment, we quantified the strength and direction of selection on floral coloration in a population of cornflowers exposed to bumblebees as unique pollinators during 4 days. We detected significant selection on the chromatic and achromatic (brightness) components of floral coloration. We then studied whether these patterns of selection are explicable by accounting for the visual system of the pollinators. Using data on bumblebee colour vision, we first showed that bumblebees should discriminate among quantitative colour variants. The observed selection was then compared to the selection predicted by psychophysical models of bumblebee colour vision. The achromatic but not the chromatic channel of the bumblebee's visual system could explain the observed pattern of selection. These results highlight that (i) pollinators can select quantitative variation in floral coloration and could thus account for a gradual evolution of flower coloration, and (ii) stimulation of the visual system represents, at least partly, a functional mechanism potentially explaining pollinators' selection on floral colour variants.

  2. Quantitative posture analysis of 2D, 3D, and optical microscope visualization methods for microsurgery tasks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denny; Sackllah, Michael; Woolley, Charles; Kasten, Steven; Armstrong, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a quantitative posture analysis of microsurgery tasks performed with different visualization methods. Microsurgery is traditionally performed using a binocular microscope; however surgeons are constrained by the optical eyepieces and are forced to assume joint angles that deviate away from neutral postures. This may be especially problematic for the neck and can increase surgeon discomfort and fatigue. Alternative visualization methods may improve surgeon posture by eliminating the constraints imposed by the microscope. This study examines both 2D and 3D heads-up displays as possible alternatives. Six subjects performed microsurgical tasks with each visualization methods for four hours. Quantitative posture analysis was done using Maxtraq software that tracks reflective markers on the subjects. The initial analysis of neck, upper arm, and elbow angles found significant differences between each display. A biomechanical analysis found that the differences in angles can result in loads on the neck joint that are twice as high in the microscope than the headsup displays. Although the alternative displays can result in better postures, improvements the display technology is needed to improve microsurgical task performance.

  3. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™

    PubMed Central

    Iuanow, Elaine; Malik, Bilal; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Wiskin, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT) Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists' confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM) is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%–90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy. PMID:27752261

  4. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™.

    PubMed

    Klock, John C; Iuanow, Elaine; Malik, Bilal; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Wiskin, James; Lenox, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT) Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists' confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM) is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%-90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy.

  5. EDITORIAL: The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14 The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-06-01

    The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization (ISFV14) was held in Daegu, Korea, on 21-24 June 2010. There were 304 participants from 17 countries. The state of the art in many aspects of flow visualization was presented and discussed, and a total of 243 papers from 19 countries were presented. Two special lectures and four invited lectures, 48 paper sessions and one poster session were held in five session rooms and in a lobby over four days. Among the paper sessions, those on 'biological flows', 'micro/nano fluidics', 'PIV/PTV' and 'compressible and sonic flows' received great attention from the participants of ISFV14. Special events included presentations of 'The Asanuma Award' and 'The Leonardo Da Vinci Award' to prominent contributors. Awards for photos and movies were given to three scientists for their excellence in flow visualizations. Sixteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of ISFV14. After the standard peer review process of this journal, six papers were finally accepted for publication. We wish to thank the editors of MST for making it possible to publish this special feature from ISFV14. We also thank the authors for their careful and insightful work and cooperation in the preparation of revised papers. It will be our pleasure if readers appreciate the hot topics in flow visualization research as a result of this special feature. We also hope that the progress in flow visualization will create new research fields. The 15th International Symposium on Flow Visualization will be held in Minsk, Belarus in 2012. We would like to express sincere thanks to the staff at IOP Publishing for their kind support.

  6. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

    Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
    Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one

  7. Differences in aortic vortex flow pattern between normal and patients with stroke: qualitative and quantitative assessment using transesophageal contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Son, Jang-Won; Hong, Geu-Ru; Hong, Woosol; Kim, Minji; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Chung, Namsik

    2016-06-01

    The flow in the aorta forms a vortex, which is a critical determinant of the flow dynamics in the aorta. Arteriosclerosis can alter the blood flow pattern of the aorta and cause characteristic alterations of the vortex. However, this change in aortic vortex has not yet been studied. This study aimed to characterize aortic vortex flow pattern using transesophageal contrast echocardiography in normal and stroke patients. A total of 85 patients who diagnosed with ischemic stroke and 16 normal controls were recruited for this study. The 16 normal control subjects were designated as the control group, and the 85 ischemic stroke patients were designated as the stroke group. All subjects underwent contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and particle image velocimetry was used to assess aortic vortex flow. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of vortex flow morphology, location, phasic variation, and pulsatility were undertaken and compared between the groups. In the control group, multiple irregularly-shaped vortices were observed in a peripheral location in the descending thoracic aorta. In contrast, the stroke group had a single, round, merged, and more centrally located aortic vortex flow. In the quantitative analysis of vortex, vortex depth, which represents the location of the major vortex in the aorta, was significantly higher in the control group than in the stroke group (0.599 ± 0.159 vs. 0.522 ± 0.101, respectively, P = 0.013). Vortex relative strength, which is the pulsatility parameter of the vortex itself, was significantly higher in the stroke group than in the control group (0.367 ± 0.148 vs. 0.304 ± 0.087, respectively, P = 0.025). It was feasible to visualize and quantify the characteristic morphology and pulsatility of the aortic vortex flow using contrast TEE, and aortic vortex pattern significantly differed between normal and stroke patients.

  8. A novel multi-walled carbon nanotube-based antibody conjugate for quantitative and semi-quantitative lateral flow assays.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjuan; Hu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yurong; Lu, Jianzhong; Zeng, Libo

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were applied in lateral flow strips (LFS) for semi-quantitative and quantitative assays. Firstly, the solubility of MWCNTs was improved using various surfactants to enhance their biocompatibility for practical application. The dispersed MWCNTs were conjugated with the methamphetamine (MET) antibody in a non-covalent manner and then manufactured into the LFS for the quantitative detection of MET. The MWCNTs-based lateral flow assay (MWCNTs-LFA) exhibited an excellent linear relationship between the values of test line and MET when its concentration ranges from 62.5 to 1500 ng/mL. The sensitivity of the LFS was evaluated by conjugating MWCNTs with HCG antibody and the MWCNTs conjugated method is 10 times more sensitive than the one conjugated with classical colloidal gold nanoparticles. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MWCNTs-LFA is a more sensitive and reliable assay for semi-quantitative and quantitative detection which can be used in forensic analysis.

  9. Visual estimation versus different quantitative coronary angiography methods to assess lesion severity in bifurcation lesions.

    PubMed

    Grundeken, Maik J; Collet, Carlos; Ishibashi, Yuki; Généreux, Philippe; Muramatsu, Takashi; LaSalle, Laura; Kaplan, Aaron V; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Morel, Marie-Angèle; Tijssen, Jan G; de Winter, Robbert J; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Leon, Martin B; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-08-24

    To compare visual estimation with different quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) methods (single-vessel versus bifurcation software) to assess coronary bifurcation lesions. QCA has been developed to overcome the limitations of visual estimation. Conventional QCA however, developed in "straight vessels," has proved to be inaccurate in bifurcation lesions. Therefore, bifurcation QCA was developed. However, the impact of these different modalities on bifurcation lesion severity classification is yet unknown METHODS: From a randomized controlled trial investigating a novel bifurcation stent (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01258972), patients with baseline assessment of lesion severity by means of visual estimation, single-vessel QCA, 2D bifurcation QCA and 3D bifurcation QCA were included. We included 113 bifurcations lesions in which all 5 modalities were assessed. The primary end-point was to evaluate how the different modalities affected the classification of bifurcation lesion severity and extent of disease. On visual estimation, 100% of lesions had side-branch diameter stenosis (%DS) >50%, whereas in 83% with single-vessel QCA, 27% with 2D bifurcation QCA and 26% with 3D bifurcation QCA a side-branch %DS >50% was found (P < 0.0001). With regard to the percentage of "true" bifurcation lesions, there was a significant difference between visual estimate (100%), single-vessel QCA (75%) and bifurcation QCA (17% with 2D bifurcation software and 13% with 3D bifurcation software, P < 0.0001). Our study showed that bifurcation lesion complexity was significantly affected when more advanced bifurcation QCA software were used. "True" bifurcation lesion rate was 100% on visual estimation, but as low as 13% when analyzed with dedicated bifurcation QCA software. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Basic quantitative assessment of visual performance in patients with very low vision.

    PubMed

    Bach, Michael; Wilke, Michaela; Wilhelm, Barbara; Zrenner, Eberhart; Wilke, Robert

    2010-02-01

    A variety of approaches to developing visual prostheses are being pursued: subretinal, epiretinal, via the optic nerve, or via the visual cortex. This report presents a method of comparing their efficacy at genuinely improving visual function, starting at no light perception (NLP). A test battery (a computer program, Basic Assessment of Light and Motion [BaLM]) was developed in four basic visual dimensions: (1) light perception (light/no light), with an unstructured large-field stimulus; (2) temporal resolution, with single versus double flash discrimination; (3) localization of light, where a wedge extends from the center into four possible directions; and (4) motion, with a coarse pattern moving in one of four directions. Two- or four-alternative, forced-choice paradigms were used. The participants' responses were self-paced and delivered with a keypad. The feasibility of the BaLM was tested in 73 eyes of 51 patients with low vision. The light and time test modules discriminated between NLP and light perception (LP). The localization and motion modules showed no significant response for NLP but discriminated between LP and hand movement (HM). All four modules reached their ceilings in the acuity categories higher than HM. BaLM results systematically differed between the very-low-acuity categories NLP, LP, and HM. Light and time yielded similar results, as did localization and motion; still, for assessing the visual prostheses with differing temporal characteristics, they are not redundant. The results suggest that this simple test battery provides a quantitative assessment of visual function in the very-low-vision range from NLP to HM.

  11. Development of Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) for a Quantitative Characterization of Microbial Mass in Flow Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Prasad; Brown, Christopher F.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2005-03-16

    We report on a new Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) method, for a simple, non-destructive characterization of bacterial mass in flow systems. Results show that adsorption of a CAT molecule into the cellular mass results in its retardation during flow, which is a good, quantitative measure of the biomass quantity and distribution. No such methods are currently available for a quantitative characterization of cell mass.

  12. NetLand: quantitative modeling and visualization of Waddington's epigenetic landscape using probabilistic potential.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Tanavde, Vivek; Zheng, Jie

    2017-01-19

    Waddington's epigenetic landscape is a powerful metaphor for cellular dynamics driven by gene regulatory networks. Its quantitative modeling and visualization, however, remains a challenge, especially when there are more than two genes in the network. A software tool for Waddington's landscape has not been available in the literature. We present NetLand, an open-source software tool for modeling and simulating the kinetic dynamics of gene regulatory networks (GRNs), and visualizing the corresponding Waddington's epigenetic landscape in three dimensions without restriction on the number of genes in a GRN. With an interactive and graphical user interface, NetLand can facilitate the knowledge discovery and experimental design in the study of cell fate regulation (e.g. stem cell differentiation and reprogramming).

  13. Quantitative and visual analysis of white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xuwei; Zhuang, Qi; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Jun

    2009-02-01

    A new fiber tract-oriented quantitative and visual analysis scheme using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is developed to study the regional micro structural white matter changes along major fiber bundles which may not be effectively revealed by existing methods due to the curved spatial nature of neuronal paths. Our technique is based on DTI tractography and geodesic path mapping, which establishes correspondences to allow cross-subject evaluation of diffusion properties by parameterizing the fiber pathways as a function of geodesic distance. A novel isonodes visualization scheme is proposed to render regional statistical features along the fiber pathways. Assessment of the technique reveals specific anatomical locations along the genu of the corpus callosum paths with significant diffusion property changes in the amnestic mild cognitive impairment subjects. The experimental results show that this approach is promising and may provide a sensitive technique to study the integrity of neuronal connectivity in human brain.

  14. Visualization of heat transfer for impinging swirl flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bakirci, K.; Bilen, K.

    2007-10-15

    The objective of the experimental study was to visualize the temperature distribution and evaluate heat transfer rate on the impingement surface kept at a constant wall temperature boundary condition for the swirling (SIJ), multi-channel (MCIJ) and conventional impinging jet (CIJ) using liquid crystal technique. The swirling jet assembly consisted of a housing tube and a solid swirl generator insert which had four narrow slots machined on its surface. The swirl angle, {theta}, was set as 0 , 22.5 , 41 , 50 to change the direction and strength of the swirl in the air flow exiting the housing tube. The local Nusselt numbers of the MCIJ ({theta} = 0 ) were generally much higher than those of CIJ and SIJs. As the swirl angle increased, the radial uniformity of the heat transfer was seen compared to MCIJ and SIJ; the best results were for {theta} = 50 and the jet-to-surface distance of H/D = 14. The location of the distance of the maximum heat transfer for the swirl angles of {theta} = 41 and 50 was shifted away from the stagnation point in a radial distance of nearly r/D = 2.5. Increasing Reynolds number for same swirler angle increased the heat transfer rate on the entire surface, and increased saddle shape heat transfer distribution on the surface, but had no significant effect on the position of the individual impingement regions, but increased saddle shape heat transfer distribution on the surface. The lower Reynolds number (Re = 10 000) and the highest H/D = 14 gave much more uniform local and average heat transfer distribution on the surface, but decreased their values on the entire surface. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional flow visualization in the wake of a miniature axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Troolin, Daniel R.; Lee, Seung-Jae; Arndt, R. E. A.; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional 3-component velocity measurements were made in the near wake region of a miniature 3-blade axial-flow turbine within a turbulent boundary layer. The model turbine was placed in an open channel flow and operated under subcritical conditions (Fr = 0.13). The spatial distribution of the basic flow statistics was obtained at various locations to render insights into the spatial features of the wake. Instantaneous and phase-averaged vortical structures were analyzed to get insights about their dynamics. The results showed a wake expansion proportional to the one-third power of the streamwise distance, within the first rotor diameter. Wake rotation was clearly identified up to a distance of roughly three rotor diameters. In particular, relatively high tangential velocity was observed near the wake core, but it was found to be nearly negligible at the turbine tip radius. In contrast, the radial velocity showed the opposite distribution, with higher radial velocity near the turbine tip and, due to symmetry, negligible at the rotor axis. Larger turbulence intensity was found above the hub height and near the turbine tip. Strong coherent tip vortices, visualized in terms of the instantaneous vorticity and the λ 2 criterion, were observed within the first rotor diameter downstream of the turbine. These structures, influenced by the velocity gradient in the boundary layer, appeared to loose their stability at distances greater than two rotor diameters. Hub vortices were also identified. Measurements did not exhibit significant tip-hub vortex interaction within the first rotor diameter.

  16. Flow classification using machine learning on sparsely sampled experimental flow visualization data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhe; Brunton, Steven L.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Kutz, J. Nathan; Kaiser, Eurika; Spohn, Andreas; Noack, Bernd R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we consider a data-driven approach for characterizing the transitional separation bubble using video images and dimensionality reduction with supervised classification techniques to discriminate between an actuated and an unactuated flow. Flow visualizations are captured using the hydrogen bubble technique along a smooth ramp in a low-speed water tunnel, and instabilities are excited in the actuated case by oscillating a thin horizontal wire inside the boundary layer upstream of the separation. We apply clustering techniques, including the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in a POD/PCA reduced subspace, to classify the baseline and controlled cases of the flow field from image data. With sparse subsampled pixel measurements, similar classification performance is obtained compared to that of the full-resolution images. Next, we demonstrate a sparse sensor optimization algorithm to locate a small set of pixels that optimally inform the classification task. With 5-10 specially selected sensors, the median cross-validated classification accuracy is >= 97 % , as opposed to a random set of 5-10 pixels, which result in classification accuracy of 70-80%. The methods developed here apply broadly to high-dimensional data from fluid dynamics experiments. SLB and ZB acknowledge generous support from the Department of Energy (DOE DE-EE0006785). EK, AS, and BRN acknowledge additional support by the ANR SepaCoDe (ANR-11-BS09-018) and ANR TUCOROM (ANR-10-CEXC-0015).

  17. Quantitative flow analysis of swimming dynamics with coherent Lagrangian vortices.

    PubMed

    Huhn, F; van Rees, W M; Gazzola, M; Rossinelli, D; Haller, G; Koumoutsakos, P

    2015-08-01

    Undulatory swimmers flex their bodies to displace water, and in turn, the flow feeds back into the dynamics of the swimmer. At moderate Reynolds number, the resulting flow structures are characterized by unsteady separation and alternating vortices in the wake. We use the flow field from simulations of a two-dimensional, incompressible viscous flow of an undulatory, self-propelled swimmer and detect the coherent Lagrangian vortices in the wake to dissect the driving momentum transfer mechanisms. The detected material vortex boundary encloses a Lagrangian control volume that serves to track back the vortex fluid and record its circulation and momentum history. We consider two swimming modes: the C-start escape and steady anguilliform swimming. The backward advection of the coherent Lagrangian vortices elucidates the geometry of the vorticity field and allows for monitoring the gain and decay of circulation and momentum transfer in the flow field. For steady swimming, momentum oscillations of the fish can largely be attributed to the momentum exchange with the vortex fluid. For the C-start, an additionally defined jet fluid region turns out to balance the high momentum change of the fish during the rapid start.

  18. Quantitative flow analysis of swimming dynamics with coherent Lagrangian vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, F.; van Rees, W. M.; Gazzola, M.; Rossinelli, D.; Haller, G.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2015-08-01

    Undulatory swimmers flex their bodies to displace water, and in turn, the flow feeds back into the dynamics of the swimmer. At moderate Reynolds number, the resulting flow structures are characterized by unsteady separation and alternating vortices in the wake. We use the flow field from simulations of a two-dimensional, incompressible viscous flow of an undulatory, self-propelled swimmer and detect the coherent Lagrangian vortices in the wake to dissect the driving momentum transfer mechanisms. The detected material vortex boundary encloses a Lagrangian control volume that serves to track back the vortex fluid and record its circulation and momentum history. We consider two swimming modes: the C-start escape and steady anguilliform swimming. The backward advection of the coherent Lagrangian vortices elucidates the geometry of the vorticity field and allows for monitoring the gain and decay of circulation and momentum transfer in the flow field. For steady swimming, momentum oscillations of the fish can largely be attributed to the momentum exchange with the vortex fluid. For the C-start, an additionally defined jet fluid region turns out to balance the high momentum change of the fish during the rapid start.

  19. Quantitative operando visualization of the energy band depth profile in solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Li, Yaowen; Kong, Tao; Wu, Na; Ma, Changqi; Bai, Sai; Jin, Yizheng; Wu, Dan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    The energy band alignment in solar cell devices is critically important because it largely governs elementary photovoltaic processes, such as the generation, separation, transport, recombination and collection of charge carriers. Despite the expenditure of considerable effort, the measurement of energy band depth profiles across multiple layers has been extremely challenging, especially for operando devices. Here we present direct visualization of the surface potential depth profile over the cross-sections of operando organic photovoltaic devices using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The convolution effect due to finite tip size and cantilever beam crosstalk has previously prohibited quantitative interpretation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy-measured surface potential depth profiles. We develop a bias voltage-compensation method to address this critical problem and obtain quantitatively accurate measurements of the open-circuit voltage, built-in potential and electrode potential difference. PMID:26166580

  20. Quantitative operando visualization of the energy band depth profile in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Li, Yaowen; Kong, Tao; Wu, Na; Ma, Changqi; Bai, Sai; Jin, Yizheng; Wu, Dan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2015-07-13

    The energy band alignment in solar cell devices is critically important because it largely governs elementary photovoltaic processes, such as the generation, separation, transport, recombination and collection of charge carriers. Despite the expenditure of considerable effort, the measurement of energy band depth profiles across multiple layers has been extremely challenging, especially for operando devices. Here we present direct visualization of the surface potential depth profile over the cross-sections of operando organic photovoltaic devices using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The convolution effect due to finite tip size and cantilever beam crosstalk has previously prohibited quantitative interpretation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy-measured surface potential depth profiles. We develop a bias voltage-compensation method to address this critical problem and obtain quantitatively accurate measurements of the open-circuit voltage, built-in potential and electrode potential difference.

  1. Query-Driven Network Flow Data Analysis and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2006-06-14

    This document is the final report for a WFO agreement between LBNL and the National Visualization and Analytics Center at PNNL. The document lists project milestones, their completion date, research results and findings. In brief, the project focuses on testing the hypothesis that the duty cycle in scientific discovery can be reduced by combining visual analytics interfaces, novel visualization techniques and scientific data management technology.

  2. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2+

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Juanjuan; Dong, Jinbo; Cai, Jia; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-01-01

    A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS) for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne–azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection) of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field. PMID:28072878

  3. Quantitative velocity distributions via nuclear magnetic resonance flow metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Keelan T.; Fridjonsson, Einar O.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Johns, Michael L.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of Tikhonov regularisation as a data inversion technique to determine the velocity distributions of flowing liquid streams. Regularisation is applied to the signal produced by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) flow measurement system consisting of a pre-polarising permanent magnet located upstream of an Earth's magnetic field NMR detection coil. A simple free induction decay (FID) NMR signal is measured for the flowing stream in what is effectively a 'time-of-flight' measurement. The FID signal is then modelled as a function of fluid velocity and acquisition time, enabling determination of the velocity probability distributions via regularisation. The mean values of these velocity distributions were successfully validated against in-line rotameters. The ability to quantify multi-modal velocity distributions was also demonstrated using a two-pipe system.

  4. Operational flow visualization techniques in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corlett, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary plan wind tunnel (UPWT) uses in daily operation are shown. New ideas for improving the quality of established flow visualization methods are developed and programs on promising new flow visualization techniques are pursued. The unitary plan wind tunnel is a supersonic facility, referred to as a production facility, although the majority of tests are inhouse basic research investigations. The facility has two 4 ft. by 4 ft. test sections which span a Mach range from 1.5 to 4.6. The cost of operation is about $10 per minute. Problems are the time required for a flow visualization test setup and investigation costs and the ability to obtain consistently repeatable results. Examples of sublimation, vapor screen, oil flow, minitufts, schlieren, and shadowgraphs taken in UPWT are presented. All tests in UPWT employ one or more of the flow visualization techniques.

  5. Quantitative framework for preferential flow initiation and partitioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A model for preferential flow in macropores is based on the short-range spatial distribution of soil matrix infiltrability. It uses elementary areas at two different scales. One is the traditional representative elementary area (REA), which includes a sufficient heterogeneity to typify larger areas, as for measuring field-scale infiltrability. The other, called an elementary matrix area (EMA), is smaller, but large enough to represent the local infiltrability of soil matrix material, between macropores. When water is applied to the land surface, each EMA absorbs water up to the rate of its matrix infiltrability. Excess water flows into a macropore, becoming preferential flow. The land surface then can be represented by a mesoscale (EMA-scale) distribution of matrix infiltrabilities. Total preferential flow at a given depth is the sum of contributions from all EMAs. Applying the model, one case study with multi-year field measurements of both preferential and diffuse fluxes at a specific depth was used to obtain parameter values by inverse calculation. The results quantify the preferential–diffuse partition of flow from individual storms that differed in rainfall amount, intensity, antecedent soil water, and other factors. Another case study provided measured values of matrix infiltrability to estimate parameter values for comparison and illustrative predictions. These examples give a self-consistent picture from the combination of parameter values, directions of sensitivities, and magnitudes of differences caused by different variables. One major practical use of this model is to calculate the dependence of preferential flow on climate-related factors, such as varying soil wetness and rainfall intensity.

  6. Quantitative confirmation of visual improvements to micro-CT bone density images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DaPonte, John S.; Clark, Michael; Nelson, Paul; Sadowski, Thomas; Wood, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    The primary goal of this research was to investigate the ability of quantitative variables to confirm qualitative improvements of the deconvolution algorithm as a preprocessing step in evaluating micro CT bone density images. The analysis of these types of images is important because they are necessary to evaluate various countermeasures used to reduce or potentially reverse bone loss experienced by some astronauts when exposed to extended weightlessness during space travel. Nine low resolution (17.5 microns) CT bone density image sequences, ranging from between 85 to 88 images per sequence, were processed with three preprocessing treatment groups consisting of no preprocessing, preprocessing with a deconvolution algorithm and preprocessing with a Gaussian filter. The quantitative parameters investigated consisted of Bone Volume to Total Volume Ratio, the Structured Model Index, Fractal Dimension, Bone Area Ratio, Bone Thickness Ratio, Euler's Number and the Measure of Enhancement. Trends found in these quantitative variables appear to corroborate the visual improvements observed in the past and suggest which quantitative parameters may be capable of distinguishing between groups that experience bone loss and others that do not..

  7. elVis: An Interactive System For Visualization of Unsteady Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    ElVis is a prototype system with allows for the interactive visualization of unsteady fluid flow. The increasing computational power applied to fluid dynamics simulations presents the enormous challenge to the visualization system designer to apply a wide range of technologies to the analysis process with ever increasing demands on performance. Visualization of the results of unsteady fluid flow simulations presents the challenge of exploring very large and complex data sets. Since exploration is a trial and error process, it is of utmost importance that the time required to execute a trial (i.e., create a visualization) be at a minimum in order to provide real time interaction.

  8. Visual pathway impairment by pituitary adenomas: quantitative diagnostics by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Ylva; Gustafsson, Oscar; Ljungberg, Maria; Starck, Göran; Lindblom, Bertil; Skoglund, Thomas; Bergquist, Henrik; Jakobsson, Karl-Erik; Nilsson, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite ample experience in surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas, little is known about objective indices that may reveal risk of visual impairment caused by tumor growth that leads to compression of the anterior visual pathways. This study aimed to explore diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a means for objective assessment of injury to the anterior visual pathways caused by pituitary adenomas. METHODS Twenty-three patients with pituitary adenomas, scheduled for transsphenoidal tumor resection, and 20 healthy control subjects were included in the study. A minimum suprasellar tumor extension of Grade 2-4, according to the SIPAP (suprasellar, infrasellar, parasellar, anterior, and posterior) scale, was required for inclusion. Neuroophthalmological examinations, conventional MRI, and DTI were completed in all subjects and were repeated 6 months after surgery. Quantitative assessment of chiasmal lift, visual field defect (VFD), and DTI parameters from the optic tracts was performed. Linear correlations, group comparisons, and prediction models were done in controls and patients. RESULTS Both the degree of VFD and chiasmal lift were significantly correlated with the radial diffusivity (r = 0.55, p < 0.05 and r = 0.48, p < 0.05, respectively) and the fractional anisotropy (r = -0.58, p < 0.05 and r = -0.47, p < 0.05, respectively) but not with the axial diffusivity. The axial diffusivity differed significantly between controls and patients with VFD, both before and after surgery (p < 0.05); however, no difference was found between patients with and without VFD. Based on the axial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, a prediction model classified all patients with VFD correctly (sensitivity 1.0), 9 of 12 patients without VFD correctly (sensitivity 0.75), and 17 of 20 controls as controls (specificity 0.85). CONCLUSIONS DTI could detect pathology and degree of injury in the anterior visual pathways that were compressed by pituitary adenomas. The correlation

  9. Investigation of Flow Separation in a Transonic-fan Linear Cascade Using Visualization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan; Chima, Rodrick V.; Jett, Thomas A.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study into the nature of the separated flows on the suction side of modem transonic fan airfoils at high incidence is described in the paper. Suction surface.flow separation is an important flow characteristic that may significantly contribute to stall flutter in transonic fans. Flutter in axial turbomachines is a highly undesirable and dangerous self-excited mode of blade oscillations that can result in high cycle fatigue blade failure. The study basically focused on two visualization techniques: surface flow visualization using dye oils, and schlieren (and shadowgraph) flow visualization. The following key observations were made during the study. For subsonic inlet flow, the flow on the suction side of the blade is separated over a large portion of the blade, and the separated area increases with increasing inlet Mach number. For the supersonic inlet flow condition, the flow is attached from the leading edge up to the point where a bow shock from the upper neighboring blade hits the blade surface. Low cascade solidity, for the subsonic inlet flow, results in an increased area of separated flow. For supersonic flow conditions, a low solidity results in an improvement in flow over the suction surface. Finally, computational results modeling the transonic cascade flowfield illustrate our ability to simulate these flows numerically.

  10. On the Quantitative Analysis of Liquid Flow in Physiological Tubes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    SS - . .. 1 _ Table 2 Pump Contractile Tissue Cardiac Ciliated Skeletal Smooth System Muscle Epithelium Muscle Muscle CNS( Ventricles ...skeletal muscle compression....................... 33 2. Pressure effects ........................... 33 3. Viscous effects... muscle ................................. 68 VII. COMBINATION PUMPS .................................... 69 A. Pulsatile-Skeletal Flow Propulsion

  11. Flow Visualizations and Extended Thrust Time Histories of Rotor Vortex Wakes in Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, James; Caradonna, Frank; Savas, Omer

    2003-11-01

    An experimental study is performed on a three-bladed rotor model in a water tow tank. The blade pitch and rotational velocity, the rotor plane angle of attack (descent angle), and the carriage speed are all varied in order to simulate a wide range of rotorcraft operating states, with the focus being on descent speeds and angles where the rotor is operating in or near vortex ring state an area in which there is currently very little available data. Circulation and blade Reynolds numbers are of order 10^5. Flow visualization is done by injecting air bubbles and fluorescent dye tangentially from the blade tips to mark the vortex core, showing the development of both short-wave (sinuous) and long-wave (leapfrogging) instabilities on the helical vortices in the wake. Strain gages are used to record transient loads, allowing a correlation between the rotor thrust performance and the development of the vortex wake. Test runs are performed for extended periods up to 500 rotor revolutions demonstrating the repeatability of the patterns of thrust variation. The data indicate that as the instabilities develop, adjacent vortices merge and form thick vortex rings, especially during descent. Periodic shedding of these rings from the wake associated with vortex ring state is observed, resulting in peak-to-peak thrust fluctuations of up to 95% of the mean and occurring at regular intervals of 2050 rotor revolutions, depending on flow parameters. Preliminary particle image velocimetry (PIV) data provide a quantitative measure of the entire rotor flow field for the case of a hovering rotor. The data yield additional information on the vortex filament instability, in particular the axial flow in the vortex cores.

  12. Visual and semi-quantitative assessment of brain tumors using (201)Tl-SPECT.

    PubMed

    Nose, Ayumi; Otsuka, Hideki; Nose, Hayato; Otomi, Yoichi; Terazawa, Kaori; Harada, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of (201)Tl-SPECT in differentiating benign from malignant brain tumors. Eighty-eight patients (44 males and 44 females) with 58 high-grade (WHO grade III-IV) and 30 low-grade (WHO grade I-II) tumors were evaluated with (201)Tl-SPECT. (1) Visual assessment was performed by board-certificated radiologists using (201)Tl-SPECT. Tumors were classified in two groups (Tl-positive and Tl-negative) and scored using the five grade evaluation system. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed in the Tl-positive group. (2) Semi-quantitative assessment involved measurement of early and delayed (201)Tl uptake, and the retention index (RI) was applied as follows: RI=delayed uptake ratio/early uptake ratio. Three combinations of RI using mean and maximum values of the region of interest were calculated. (1) Seventy-four Tl-positive and 14 Tl-negative tumors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) estimated by three radiologists exceeded a value of 0.7. The value was greater when estimated by the more experienced radiologist. (2) In all RIs, the difference of RI between high-grade tumors and low-grade tumors was statistically significant. A visual and semi-quantitative assessment using (201)Tl-SPECT was found to be useful for differentiating benign from malignant brain tumors.

  13. Comparison of visualized turbine endwall secondary flows and measured heat transfer patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Various flow visualization techniques were used to define the seondary flows near the endwall in a large heat transfer data. A comparison of the visualized flow patterns and the measured Stanton number distribution was made for cases where the inlet Reynolds number and exit Mach number were matched. Flows were visualized by using neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, by using smoke from oil soaked cigars, and by a few techniques using permanent marker pen ink dots and synthetic wintergreen oil. Details of the horseshoe vortex and secondary flows can be directly compared with heat transfer distribution. Near the cascade entrance there is an obvious correlation between the two sets of data, but well into the passage the effect of secondary flow is not as obvious. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14435

  14. Comparison of visualized turbine endwall secondary flows and measured heat transfer patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various flow visualization techniques were used to define the secondary flows near the endwall in a large heat transfer data. A comparison of the visualized flow patterns and the measured Stanton number distribution was made for cases where the inlet Reynolds number and exit Mach number were matched. Flows were visualized by using neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, by using smoke from oil soaked cigars, and by a few techniques using permanent marker pen ink dots and synthetic wintergreen oil. Details of the horseshoe vortex and secondary flows can be directly compared with heat transfer distribution. Near the cascade entrance there is an obvious correlation between the two sets of data, but well into the passage the effect of secondary flow is not as obvious.

  15. Visualization of flow pattern and thermal image analysis of enhanced heat transfer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. D.; Oyakawa, K.; Kubo, I.

    2009-02-01

    Experimental studies on flow visualization and heat transfer measurements of finned surface in a narrow duct were carried out to understand the flow behavior and its effect on heat transfer. In this experiment, short rectangular fins were attached to a surface (endwall) with having inclination angle of 20° and exposed to air flow. Several flow visualization results reveal that horse shoe vortex was formed just at the front of the fin whereas the main longitudinal vortex was formed by the side top edge of the fin. Some important features of the vortex structure, size and flow reattachment positions were noticed from the smoke flow visualization. Detailed heat transfer distributions were discussed from the thermal image. Nusselt number shows that the finned surface achieved average heat transfer enhancement at a factor of four times than that of without fins.

  16. Comparison of visualized turbine endwall secondary flows and measured heat transfer patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Various flow visualization techniques were used to define the seondary flows near the endwall in a large heat transfer data. A comparison of the visualized flow patterns and the measured Stanton number distribution was made for cases where the inlet Reynolds number and exit Mach number were matched. Flows were visualized by using neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, by using smoke from oil soaked cigars, and by a few techniques using permanent marker pen ink dots and synthetic wintergreen oil. Details of the horseshoe vortex and secondary flows can be directly compared with heat transfer distribution. Near the cascade entrance there is an obvious correlation between the two sets of data, but well into the passage the effect of secondary flow is not as obvious. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14435

  17. Progress in visualizing turbulent flow using single-echo acquisition imaging.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven M; McDougall, Mary Preston; Bosshard, John C

    2006-01-01

    MRI of flow remains a challenging problem despite significant improvements in imaging speeds. For periodic flow the acquisition can be gated, synchronizing data acquisition with the flow. However, this method fails to work if the flow is sufficiently fast that turbulence occurs, or when it is sufficiently fast that blurring occurs during the excitation of the spins or the acquisition of the signal. This paper describes recent progress in employing a very fast MR imaging technique, Single Echo Acquisition Imaging (SEA-MRI) and spin-tagging to visualize very rapid and turbulent flow patterns. Demonstrations are done on a separating channel phantom with input flow rates ranging from zero to over 100 cm/sec. Spin-tagging enables a "texture" to be placed on the spins, enabling clear visualization of the complex flow patterns, and in some cases measurement of the flow velocity.

  18. Questionnaire-based person trip visualization and its integration to quantitative measurements in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2016-06-01

    With telecommunication development in Myanmar, person trip survey is supposed to shift from conversational questionnaire to GPS survey. Integration of both historical questionnaire data to GPS survey and visualizing them are very important to evaluate chronological trip changes with socio-economic and environmental events. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) visualize questionnaire-based person trip data, (b) compare the errors between questionnaire and GPS data sets with respect to sex and age and (c) assess the trip behaviour in time-series. Totally, 345 individual respondents were selected through random stratification to assess person trip using a questionnaire and GPS survey for each. Conversion of trip information such as a destination from the questionnaires was conducted by using GIS. The results show that errors between the two data sets in the number of trips, total trip distance and total trip duration are 25.5%, 33.2% and 37.2%, respectively. The smaller errors are found among working-age females mainly employed with the project-related activities generated by foreign investment. The trip distant was yearly increased. The study concluded that visualization of questionnaire-based person trip data and integrating them to current quantitative measurements are very useful to explore historical trip changes and understand impacts from socio-economic events.

  19. Mottle camouflage patterns in cuttlefish: quantitative characterization and visual background stimuli that evoke them.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Buresch, Kendra C; Barbosa, Alexandra; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-01-15

    Cuttlefish and other cephalopods achieve dynamic background matching with two general classes of body patterns: uniform (or uniformly stippled) patterns and mottle patterns. Both pattern types have been described chiefly by the size scale and contrast of their skin components. Mottle body patterns in cephalopods have been characterized previously as small-to-moderate-scale light and dark skin patches (i.e. mottles) distributed somewhat evenly across the body surface. Here we move beyond this commonly accepted qualitative description by quantitatively measuring the scale and contrast of mottled skin components and relating these statistics to specific visual background stimuli (psychophysics approach) that evoke this type of background-matching pattern. Cuttlefish were tested on artificial and natural substrates to experimentally determine some primary visual background cues that evoke mottle patterns. Randomly distributed small-scale light and dark objects (or with some repetition of small-scale shapes/sizes) on a lighter substrate with moderate contrast are essential visual cues to elicit mottle camouflage patterns in cuttlefish. Lowering the mean luminance of the substrate without changing its spatial properties can modulate the mottle pattern toward disruptive patterns, which are of larger scale, different shape and higher contrast. Backgrounds throughout nature consist of a continuous range of spatial scales; backgrounds with medium-sized light/dark patches of moderate contrast are those in which cuttlefish Mottle patterns appear to be the most frequently observed.

  20. Investigation of flow separation in a transonic-fan linear cascade using visualization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepicovsky, J.

    2008-06-01

    An extensive experimental study into the nature of the separated flows on the blade suction surface of modern transonic fans is described in this paper. The study was a subtask of a larger experimental effort focused on blade flutter excited by flow separation in the blade tip region. The tip sections of airfoils on transonic fan blades are designed for precompression and consequently they differ from sections on the rest of the blade. The blade tip section was modeled by a low aspect ratio blade and therefore most of the blade tested was exposed to the secondary flow effects. The aim of this work was to supply reliable data on flow separation on transonic fan blades for validation of future analytical studies. The experimental study focused on two visualization techniques: surface flow visualization using dye oils and schlieren (and shadowgraph) flow visualization. The following key observations were made during the study. For subsonic inlet flow, the flow on the suction surface of the blade was separated over a large portion of the blade, and the separated area increased with increasing inlet Mach number. For the supersonic inlet flow condition, the flow was attached from the leading edge up to the point where a bow shock from the upper neighboring blade imposed on the blade surface. Downstream, there was a separated flow region in which air flowed in the direction opposite the inlet flow. Finally, past the separated flow region, the flow reattached to the blade surface. For subsonic inlet flow, the low cascade solidity resulted in an increased area of separated flow. For supersonic flow conditions, the low solidity resulted in an improvement in flow over the suction surface.

  1. Quantitative Assessment of Flow Reduction After Feeder Embolization in Meningioma by Using Pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin Labeling.

    PubMed

    Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Komatsu, Katsuya; Akiyama, Yukinori; Mikami, Takeshi; Iihoshi, Satoshi; Miyata, Kei; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Meningioma is a hypervascular tumor of the central nervous system. Angiographic disappearance of tumor blush after preoperative feeder embolization allows qualitative, but not quantitative, assessment of flow reduction. Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), which has evolved from magnetic resonance imaging techniques, allows noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using water protons in the arterial blood flow. We applied PCASL for assessment of blood flow in meningioma and its reduction on preoperative embolization. Forty-one consecutive patients (11 males, 30 females) with histologically proven meningioma were evaluated by PCASL. Quantitative assessment by an absolute value of tumor blood flow (TBF) and a relative value of tumor vascular index (tVI; calculated as TBF divided by CBF) were calculated. In 8 cases, in which preoperative embolization was achieved, flow reduction rate was evaluated. TBF of meningiomas, 155.8 mL/100 g·min(-1) on average, was 2.6 times higher than CBF, 59.9 mL/100 g·min(-1) (P < 0.001). Patients who underwent feeder embolization showed statistically greater flow reduction rate, which was calculated as 42.7% (P < 0.05). Mean tVI before embolization was 4.1, which was reduced to 2.1 after embolization. PCASL could yield quantitative assessment of blood flow in meningioma including flow reduction rate in cases of feeder embolization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Accuracy and Tuning of Flow Parsing for Visual Perception of Object Motion During Self-Motion

    PubMed Central

    Niehorster, Diederick C.

    2017-01-01

    How do we perceive object motion during self-motion using visual information alone? Previous studies have reported that the visual system can use optic flow to identify and globally subtract the retinal motion component resulting from self-motion to recover scene-relative object motion, a process called flow parsing. In this article, we developed a retinal motion nulling method to directly measure and quantify the magnitude of flow parsing (i.e., flow parsing gain) in various scenarios to examine the accuracy and tuning of flow parsing for the visual perception of object motion during self-motion. We found that flow parsing gains were below unity for all displays in all experiments; and that increasing self-motion and object motion speed did not alter flow parsing gain. We conclude that visual information alone is not sufficient for the accurate perception of scene-relative motion during self-motion. Although flow parsing performs global subtraction, its accuracy also depends on local motion information in the retinal vicinity of the moving object. Furthermore, the flow parsing gain was constant across common self-motion or object motion speeds. These results can be used to inform and validate computational models of flow parsing. PMID:28567272

  3. Visual flow scene effects on the somatogravic illusion in non-pilots.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Lars; von Hofsten, Claes; Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola; Andersson, Peter; Hedström, Johan

    2008-09-01

    The somatogravic illusion (SGI) is easily broken when the pilot looks out the aircraft window during daylight flight, but it has proven difficult to break or even reduce the SGI in non-pilots in simulators using synthetic visual scenes. Could visual-flow scenes that accommodate compensatory head movement reduce the SGI in naive subjects? We investigated the effects of visual cues on the SGI induced by a human centrifuge. The subject was equipped with a head-tracked, head-mounted display (HMD) and was seated in a fixed gondola facing the center of rotation. The angular velocity of the centrifuge increased from near zero until a 0.57-G centripetal acceleration was attained, resulting in a tilt of the gravitoinertial force vector, corresponding to a pitch-up of 30 degrees. The subject indicated perceived horizontal continuously by means of a manual adjustable-plate system. We performed two experiments with within-subjects designs. In Experiment 1, the subjects (N = 13) viewed a darkened HMD and a presentation of simple visual flow beneath a horizon. In Experiment 2, the subjects (N = 12) viewed a darkened HMD, a scene including symbology superimposed on simple visual flow and horizon, and this scene without visual flow (static). In Experiment 1, visual flow reduced the SGI from 12.4 +/- 1.4 degrees (mean +/- SE) to 8.7 +/- 1.5 degrees. In Experiment 2, the SGI was smaller in the visual flow condition (9.3 +/- 1.8 degrees) than with the static scene (13.3 +/- 1.7 degrees) and without HMD presentation (14.5 +/- 2.3 degrees), respectively. It is possible to reduce the SGI in non-pilots by means of a synthetic horizon and simple visual flow conveyed by a head-tracked HMD. This may reflect the power of a more intuitive display for reducing the SGI.

  4. A New Simple Interferometer for Obtaining Quantitatively Evaluable Flow Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, S F

    1953-01-01

    The method described in the present report makes it possible to obtain interferometer records with the aid of any one of the available Schlieren optics by the addition of very simple expedients, which fundamentally need not to be inferior to those obtained by other methods, such as the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, for example. The method is based on the fundamental concept of the phase-contrast process developed by Zernike, but which in principle has been enlarged to such an extent that it practically represents an independent interference method for general applications. Moreover, the method offers the possibility, in case of necessity, of superposing any apparent wedge field on the density field to be gauged. The theory is explained on a purely physical basis and illustrated and proved by experimental data. A number of typical cases are cited and some quantitative results reported.

  5. Visualization and Quantification of Rotor Tip Vortices in Helicopter Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Holst, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an automated approach for effective extraction, visualization, and quantification of vortex core radii from the Navier-Stokes simulations of a UH-60A rotor in forward flight. We adopt a scaled Q-criterion to determine vortex regions and then perform vortex core profiling in these regions to calculate vortex core radii. This method provides an efficient way of visualizing and quantifying the blade tip vortices. Moreover, the vortices radii are displayed graphically in a plane.

  6. A simple and useful solution for visualizing the care flow for patients and healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Polun; Kuo, Ming Chuan

    2008-11-06

    It has been known that visualization is a user-preferred and more meaningful interface of information systems. We used the Microsoft Visio 2003 and Excel 2003 with the VBA automation tool to design a process flow of Cardiac Catheterization. The results showed the technical feasibility and potentials of using simple tool to visualize the nursing process for both patients and healthcare professionals.

  7. Visualization of Flows in Packed Beds of Twisted Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.; Peloso, D.; Athavale, M. M.; Mullen, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    A videotape presentation of the flow field in a packed bed of 48 twisted tapes which can be simulated by very thin virtual cylinders has been assembled. The indices of refraction of the oil and the Lucite twisted tapes were closely matched, and the flow was seeded with magnesium oxide particles. Planar laser light projected the flow field in two dimensions both along and transverse to the flow axis. The flow field was three dimensional and complex to describe, yet the most prominent finding was flow threads. It appeared that axial flow spiraled along either within the confines of a virtual cylindrical boundary or within the exterior region, between the tangency points, of the virtual cylinders. Random packing and bed voids created vortices and disrupted the laminar flow but minimized the entrance effects. The flow-pressure drops in the packed bed fell below the Ergun model for porous-media flows. Single-twisted-tape results of Smithberg and Landis (1964) were used to guide the analysis. In appendix A the results of several investigators are scaled to the Ergun model. Further investigations including different geometric configurations, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) gridding, and analysis are required.

  8. Flow Visualizations in a Packed Bed of Twisted Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    A videotape presentation of the flow field in a packed bed of 48 twisted tapes which can be simulated by very thin virtual cylinders has been assembled. The indices of refraction of the oil and the Lucite twisted tapes were closely matched, and the flow was seeded with magnesium oxide particles. Planar laser light projected the flow field in two dimensions both along and transverse to the flow axis. The flow field was three dimensional and complex to describe, yet the most prominent finding was flow threads. It appeared that axial flow spiraled along either within the confines of a virtual cylindrical boundary or within the exterior region, between the tangency points, of the virtual cylinders. Random packing and bed voids created vortices and disrupted the laminar flow but minimized the entrance effects. The flow-pressure drops in the packed bed fell below the Ergun model for porous-media flows. Single-twisted-tape results of Smithberg and Landis (1964) were used to guide the analysis. In appendix A the results of several investigators are scaled to the Ergun model. Further investigations including different geometric configurations, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) gridding, and analysis are required.

  9. Visualization of Flows in Packed Beds of Twisted Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.; Peloso, D.; Athavale, M. M.; Mullen, R. L.

    2002-11-01

    A videotape presentation of the flow field in a packed bed of 48 twisted tapes which can be simulated by very thin virtual cylinders has been assembled. The indices of refraction of the oil and the Lucite twisted tapes were closely matched, and the flow was seeded with magnesium oxide particles. Planar laser light projected the flow field in two dimensions both along and transverse to the flow axis. The flow field was three dimensional and complex to describe, yet the most prominent finding was flow threads. It appeared that axial flow spiraled along either within the confines of a virtual cylindrical boundary or within the exterior region, between the tangency points, of the virtual cylinders. Random packing and bed voids created vortices and disrupted the laminar flow but minimized the entrance effects. The flow-pressure drops in the packed bed fell below the Ergun model for porous-media flows. Single-twisted-tape results of Smithberg and Landis (1964) were used to guide the analysis. In appendix A the results of several investigators are scaled to the Ergun model. Further investigations including different geometric configurations, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) gridding, and analysis are required.

  10. Flow Visualizations in a Packed Bed of Twisted Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    A videotape presentation of the flow field in a packed bed of 48 twisted tapes which can be simulated by very thin virtual cylinders has been assembled. The indices of refraction of the oil and the Lucite twisted tapes were closely matched, and the flow was seeded with magnesium oxide particles. Planar laser light projected the flow field in two dimensions both along and transverse to the flow axis. The flow field was three dimensional and complex to describe, yet the most prominent finding was flow threads. It appeared that axial flow spiraled along either within the confines of a virtual cylindrical boundary or within the exterior region, between the tangency points, of the virtual cylinders. Random packing and bed voids created vortices and disrupted the laminar flow but minimized the entrance effects. The flow-pressure drops in the packed bed fell below the Ergun model for porous-media flows. Single-twisted-tape results of Smithberg and Landis (1964) were used to guide the analysis. In appendix A the results of several investigators are scaled to the Ergun model. Further investigations including different geometric configurations, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) gridding, and analysis are required.

  11. Single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy in high myopia: qualitative and quantitative visual functions

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Moghaddam, Soheil; Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed; Adili-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Hoorshad, Niloofar; Tofighi, Salar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate quantitative and qualitative optical outcomes of single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) in high myopia. METHODS In a prospective interventional case-series, 30 eyes with high myopia (-6.00 to -8.75 D) with (up to -3.00 D) or without astigmatism were enrolled from Bina Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. One-step TransPRK was performed with aberration-free aspherical optimized profile and SCHWIND AMARIS 500 laser. One-year follow-up results for refraction, visual acuities, vector analysis, ocular wave-front (OWF) and corneal wave-front (CWF) higher order aberrations (HOA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and post-operative haze were assessed. RESULTS After the surgery, both photopic and mesopic CSs significantly improved (both P<0.001). We detected significant induction of OWF coma and trefoil (P<0.001 for both) HOAs; CWF coma (P=0.002), spherical (P<0.001), and tetrafoil (P=0.003) HOAs in 6 mm analysis diameter; and CWF trefoil (P=0.04) HOA in 4 mm analysis diameter. The range of mean induction observed for various HOAs was 0.005-0.11 µm. The 86.7% of eyes reached an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better; 96.7% of eyes were within ±0.5 D of targeted spherical refraction. In vector analysis, mean correction index value was 1.03 and mean index of success was 0.22. By 12mo after the operation, no eye lost any number of corrected distance visual acuity lines. We detected no corneal haze greater than 1+ throughout the follow-up. CONCLUSION Our findings show promising effects of single-step TransPRK on quality of vision in high myopic eyes. It also improves refraction and visual acuity. PMID:28393038

  12. Image-space texture-based output-coherent surface flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Pan, Zherong; Chen, Guoning; Chen, Wei; Bao, Hujun

    2013-09-01

    Image-space line integral convolution (LIC) is a popular scheme for visualizing surface vector fields due to its simplicity and high efficiency. To avoid inconsistencies or color blur during the user interactions, existing approaches employ surface parameterization or 3D volume texture schemes. However, they often require expensive computation or memory cost, and cannot achieve consistent results in terms of both the granularity and color distribution on different scales. This paper introduces a novel image-space surface flow visualization approach that preserves the coherence during user interactions. To make the noise texture under different viewpoints coherent, we propose to precompute a sequence of mipmap noise textures in a coarse-to-fine manner for consistent transition, and map the textures onto each triangle with randomly assigned and constant texture coordinates. Further, a standard image-space LIC is performed to generate the flow texture. The proposed approach is simple and GPU-friendly, and can be easily combined with various texture-based flow visualization techniques. By leveraging viewpoint-dependent backward tracing and mipmap noise phase, our method can be incorporated with the image-based flow visualization (IBFV) technique for coherent visualization of unsteady flows. We demonstrate consistent and highly efficient flow visualization on a variety of data sets.

  13. LIF Visualization of a Supersonic Deep-Cavity Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, T.; Ono, D.

    The supersonic flow over a rectangular cavity is known to oscillate at certain predominant frequencies. Such a flow oscillation causes structural fatigue and sound noise. On the other hand, this oscillation is positively used to enhance the mixing in scramjet engine combustors [1]. The success in controlling a cavity-induced flow oscillation depends on a clear understanding of a detailed mechanism behind the oscillation.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Flow through Free-swimming Appendicularians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, K.; Conley, K. R.; Gemmell, B. J.; Thompson, E.; Bouquet, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Appendicularians are pelagic tunicates (Phylum: Chordata, Subphylum: Tunicata) that frequently dominate the mesozooplankton community and are key grazers in both coastal shallow seas and oligotrophic environments. Understanding of their feeding mechanisms, specifically selective feeding, has important ramifications for predicting their impact on particle distributions in the upper ocean. The goal of the current study was to determine the role of flow morphology in regulating particle capture within the houses of free-swimming appendicularians (Oikopleura dioica). We used two methods— standard Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with laser sheet illumination and bright field micro-PIV— to gain unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution of body kinematics and fluid motion through the mucous-mesh house. Analysis of small-scale fluid interactions at various parts of the house provided insight into factors that influence particle capture and selection in these important grazers.

  15. Quantitative imaging of tumour blood flow by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pahernik, S; Griebel, J; Botzlar, A; Gneiting, T; Brandl, M; Dellian, M; Goetz, A E

    2001-01-01

    Tumour blood flow plays a key role in tumour growth, formation of metastasis, and detection and treatment of malignant tumours. Recent investigations provided increasing evidence that quantitative analysis of tumour blood flow is an indispensable prerequisite for developing novel treatment strategies and individualizing cancer therapy. Currently, however, methods for noninvasive, quantitative and high spatial resolution imaging of tumour blood flow are rare. We apply here a novel approach combining a recently established ultrafast MRI technique, that is T 1-relaxation time mapping, with a tracer kinetic model. For validation of this approach, we compared the results obtained in vivo with data provided by iodoantipyrine autoradiography as a reference technique for the measurement of tumour blood flow at a high resolution in an experimental tumour model. The MRI protocol allowed quantitative mapping of tumour blood flow at spatial resolution of 250 × 250 μm2. Correlation of data from the MRI method with the iodantipyrine autoradiography revealed Spearman's correlation coefficients of Rs = 0.851 (r = 0.775, P < 0.0001) and Rs = 0.821 (r = 0.72, P = 0.014) for local and global tumour blood flow, respectively. The presented approach enables noninvasive, repeated and quantitative assessment of microvascular perfusion at high spatial resolution encompassing the entire tumour. Knowledge about the specific vascular microenvironment of tumours will form the basis for selective antivascular cancer treatment in the future. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11742483

  16. Visualization of three-dimensional incompressible flows by quasi-two-dimensional divergence-free projections in arbitrary flow regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfgat, Alexander Yu.

    2016-08-01

    A visualization of three-dimensional incompressible flows by divergence-free quasi-two-dimensional projections of the velocity field onto three coordinate planes is revisited. An alternative and more general way to compute the projections is proposed. The approach is based on the Chorin projection combined with a SIMPLE-like iteration. Compared to the previous methodology based on divergence-free Galerkin-Chebyshev bases, this technique, formulated in general curvilinear coordinates, is applicable to any flow region and allows for faster computations. To illustrate this visualization method, examples in Cartesian and spherical coordinates, as well as post-processing of experimental 3D-PTV data, are presented.

  17. Measuring Cerebral Blood Flow in Moyamoya Angiopathy by Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Angiography Noninvasive Optimal Vessel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia; Lober, Robert M; Ostergren, Lauren; Petralia, Jacob; Bell-Stephens, Teresa; Navarro, Ramon; Feroze, Abdullah; Steinberg, Gary K

    2017-02-14

    Moyamoya disease causes progressive occlusion of the supraclinoidal internal carotid artery, and middle, anterior, and less frequently the posterior cerebral arteries, carrying the risk of stroke. Blood flow is often partially reconstituted by compensatory moyamoya collaterals and sometimes the posterior circulation. Cerebral revascularization can further augment blood flow. These changes to blood flow within the cerebral vessels, however, are not well characterized. To evaluate blood flow changes resulting from the disease process and revascularization surgery using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography with noninvasive optimal vessel analysis (NOVA). We retrospectively analyzed 190 preoperative and postoperative imaging scans in 66 moyamoya patients after revascularization surgery. Images were analyzed for blood flow using NOVA and compared with preoperative angiographic staging and postoperative blood flow. Blood flow rates within superficial temporal artery grafts were compared based on angiographic evidence of patency. Diseased vessels had lower blood flow, correlating with angiographic staging. Flow in posterior cererbal and basilar arteries increased with disease severity, particularly when both the anterior and middle cerebral arteries were occluded. Basilar artery flow and ipsilateral internal carotid artery flow decreased after surgery. Flow rates were different between angiographically robust and poor direct bypass grafts, as well as between robust and patent grafts. Preoperative changes in cerebral vessel flow as measured by NOVA correlated with angiographic disease progression. NOVA demonstrated that preoperative augmentation of the posterior circulation decreased after surgery. This report is the first to quantify the shift in collateral supply from the posterior circulation to the bypass graft.

  18. Quantitative retinal blood flow mapping from fluorescein videoangiography using tracer kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Tichauer, Kenneth M; Guthrie, Micah; Hones, Logan; Sinha, Lagnojita; St Lawrence, Keith; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J

    2015-05-15

    Abnormal retinal blood flow (RBF) has been associated with numerous retinal pathologies, yet existing methods for measuring RBF predominantly provide only relative measures of blood flow and are unable to quantify volumetric blood flow, which could allow direct patient to patient comparison. This work presents a methodology based on linear systems theory and an image-based arterial input function to quantitatively map volumetric blood flow from standard fluorescein videoangiography data, and is therefore directly translatable to the clinic. Application of the approach to fluorescein retinal videoangiography in rats (4 control, 4 diabetic) demonstrated significantly higher RBF in 4-5 week diabetic rats as expected from the literature.

  19. Quantitative tracking of isotope flows in proteomes of microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Curt; Hyatt, Philip Douglas; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) has been used to track nutrient flows in microbial communities, but existing protein-based SIP methods capable of quantifying the degree of label incorporation into peptides and proteins have been demonstrated only by targeting usually less than 100 proteins per sample. Our method automatically (i) identifies the sequence of and (ii) quantifies the degree of heavy atom enrichment for thousands of proteins from microbial community proteome samples. These features make our method suitable for comparing isotopic differences between closely related protein sequences, and for detecting labeling patterns in low-abundance proteins or proteins derived from rare community members. The proteomic stable isotope probing (SIP) method was validated using proteome samples of known stable isotope incorporation levels at 0.4%, {approx}50%, and {approx}98%. The method was then used to monitor incorporation of 15N into established and regrowing microbial biofilms. The results indicate organism-specific migration patterns from established into regrowing communities and provides insight into metabolism during biofilm formation. The SIP-proteomics method can be extended to many systems to track fluxes of 13C or 15N in microbial communities.

  20. Quantitative Lateral Flow Assays for Salivary Biomarker Assessment: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Miočević, Olga; Cole, Craig R.; Laughlin, Mary J.; Buck, Robert L.; Slowey, Paul D.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is an emerging biofluid with a significant number of applications in use across research and clinical settings. The present paper explores the reasons why saliva has grown in popularity in recent years, balancing both the potential strengths and weaknesses of this biofluid. Focusing on reasons why saliva is different from other common biological fluids such as blood, urine, or tears, we review how saliva is easily obtained, with minimal risk to the donor, and reduced costs for collection, transportation, and analysis. We then move on to a brief review of the history and progress in rapid salivary testing, again reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of rapid immunoassays (e.g., lateral flow immunoassay) compared to more traditional immunoassays. We consider the potential for saliva as an alternative biofluid in a setting where rapid results are important. We focus the review on salivary tests for small molecule biomarkers using cortisol as an example. Such salivary tests can be applied readily in a variety of settings and for specific measurement purposes, providing researchers and clinicians with opportunities to assess biomarkers in real time with lower transportation, collection, and analysis costs, faster turnaround time, and minimal training requirements. We conclude with a note of cautious optimism that the field will soon gain the ability to collect and analyze salivary specimens at any location and return viable results within minutes. PMID:28660183

  1. 2D map projections for visualization and quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Sendra, G. Hernán; Hoerth, Christian H.; Wunder, Christian; Lorenz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Map3-2D, a freely available software to accurately project up to five-dimensional (5D) fluorescence microscopy image data onto full-content 2D maps. Similar to the Earth’s projection onto cartographic maps, Map3-2D unfolds surface information from a stack of images onto a single, structurally connected map. We demonstrate its applicability for visualization and quantitative analyses of spherical and uneven surfaces in fixed and dynamic live samples by using mammalian and yeast cells, and giant unilamellar vesicles. Map3-2D software is available at http://www.zmbh.uni-heidelberg.de//Central_Services/Imaging_Facility/Map3-2D.html. PMID:26208256

  2. Quantitative visualization of DNA G-quadruplex structures in human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, Giulia; Tannahill, David; McCafferty, John; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2013-03-01

    Four-stranded G-quadruplex nucleic acid structures are of great interest as their high thermodynamic stability under near-physiological conditions suggests that they could form in cells. Here we report the generation and application of an engineered, structure-specific antibody employed to quantitatively visualize DNA G-quadruplex structures in human cells. We show explicitly that G-quadruplex formation in DNA is modulated during cell-cycle progression and that endogenous G-quadruplex DNA structures can be stabilized by a small-molecule ligand. Together these findings provide substantive evidence for the formation of G-quadruplex structures in the genome of mammalian cells and corroborate the application of stabilizing ligands in a cellular context to target G-quadruplexes and intervene with their function.

  3. Quantitative visual psychophysics during the period of European enlightenment. The studies of the astronomer and mathematician Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) on visual acuity and colour perception.

    PubMed

    Grüsser, O J

    1989-02-01

    During the sixth decade of the 18th century, Tobias Mayer, Professor of Astronomy and Applied Mathematics (Economy) at the University of Göttingen, performed two investigations on quantitative visual psychophysics. He deduced a power law for the dependence of visual acuity on the intensity of light by which the stimulus pattern was illuminated. In his measurements he compared visual acuity determined with single black dots and visual acuity measured with gratings or checkerboard patterns; the latter he considered as the "real" measurement of visual acuity. Mayer also developed a three-dimensional hexaedric colour space from the definition of subtractive colour mixtures of three primary pigments (red, yellow, blue). This colour space can be considered as the predecessor of the later colour tables of Ostwald and Munsell. Mayer gave a simple quantitative description of each of the 819 hues in his colour space. Both psychophysical studies developed out of Mayer's interest in practical problems in astronomy and cartography. Mayer's main scientific merits were in the field of astronomy and mathematical geography. His psychophysical studies were performed in the spirit of enlightenment with the a priori assumption that the performance of the human perceptual machinery can be measured quantitatively and that the results are adequately expressed by mathematical rules. Mayer's achievements in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy and cartography were recently summarized by the extensive historical research of G.F. Forbes. In the present report a short biographical note precedes the description of Mayer's psychophysical studies.

  4. Flow Visualization of a Scramjet Inlet - Isolator Model in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seckin, S.; Yuceil, K. B.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the physical mechanisms and having insight to the complex flowfield involving unstart phenomena in supersonic inlets has gained considerable attention especially in the area of scramjet inlet/isolator aerothermodynamics. In this study, Schlieren visualization and computational analysis of shock wave structures in ramjet/scramjet inlet/isolator models in supersonic flow have been performed. Experiments were performed in the supersonic wind tunnel at the Trisonic Research Laboratory in Istanbul Technical University. The test section floor and the existing mechanism underneath have been modified to be able to mount the designed inlet/isolator model on the floor of the test section. The inlet/isolator model with a 12- degree compression ramp is investigated at Mach 2 both computationally and experimentally. Computations were performed using Star-CCM+ software to investigate shock wave structures in and around the three dimensional inlet/isolator model as mounted on the test section floor as a guide for designing the experimental model. In the results, the effects of shock wave - boundary layer interactions with flow separations with were observed. Ensemble average of the density distributions on a series of planes from one side wall to the other from the CFD results agreed well with the Schlieren images obtained experimentally. The structure of the shock waves and angles obtained from the Schlieren images agree quite well with those obtained from the CFD results. The effects of lambda-shock formations which indicate possible boundary layer separations, reflections of shock waves, and shock wave - boundary layer interactions on inlet unstart phenomena have been discussed. In order to investigate inlet unstart mechanism further, different experimental setups have been suggested for future work.

  5. Flow Visualization Study of a 1/48-Scale AFTI/F111 Model to Investigate Horizontal Tail Flow Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjarke, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    During flight testing of the AFTI/F111 aircraft, horizontal tail buffet was observed. Flutter analysis ruled out any aeroelastic instability, so a water-tunnel flow visualization study was conducted to investigate possible flow disturbances on the horizontal tail which might cause buffet. For this study, a 1/48-scale model was used. Four different wing cambers and one horizontal tail setting were tested between 0 and 20 deg angle of attack. These wing cambers corresponded to the following leading training edge deflections: 0/2, 10/10, 10/2, and 0/10. Flow visualization results in the form of still photographs are presented for each of the four wing cambers between 8 and 12 deg angle of attack. In general, the horizontal tail experiences flow disturbances which become more pronounced with angle of attack or wing trailing-edge deflection.

  6. Infant visual attention and step responsiveness to optic flow during treadmill stepping.

    PubMed

    Moerchen, Victoria A; Saeed, Mina E

    2012-12-01

    This study examined infant treadmill stepping in two groups of pre-locomotor infants in response to terrestrial optic flow. The optic flow was provided via the treadmill belt for flow translation that was directionally consistent with the forward stepping of the infants. Twelve 2-5-month-old and twelve 7-10-month-old infants participated. Visual attention (duration and direction) and step responsiveness (frequency and step types) were coded from digital video, and visuomotor coupling was examined by temporally juxtaposing the visual attention and step data. Longer durations of visual attention to the patterned belt with increased step frequencies during periods of visual attention were observed, suggesting that the visuotactile calibration afforded by the patterned treadmill belt, increased visuomotor coupling and enhanced the frequency and complexity of stepping in prelocomotor infants. The findings are discussed with regard to sensorimotor experiences that enhance treadmill stepping in infants and that may have application to clinical populations.

  7. Visualization study on the static flow field around a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Tagawa, Kotaro

    2010-03-01

    Visual experiments based on the smoke wire way were carried out on a small model of Straight-blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (SB-VAWT) to invest the relationship between the static flow field characteristics and the rotor azimuth angle. The test rotor had 3 blades with NACA0018 aerofoil. The rotor diameter and blade chord were 0.3m and 0.07m, respectively. Visual photos of the static flow path lines in and around the rotor were obtained at every 5 degrees of the azimuth angle. Further, numerical computations of the static flow filed were also carried out for comparison with the same situation as the visual tests and the static torques at different azimuth angles were calculated. According to the results of visual tests and computations, the dependence of the starting performance on the azimuth angle was discussed. The solidity is an important factor affecting the starting performance of the SB-VAWT.

  8. Visualization study on the static flow field around a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Tagawa, Kotaro

    2009-12-01

    Visual experiments based on the smoke wire way were carried out on a small model of Straight-blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (SB-VAWT) to invest the relationship between the static flow field characteristics and the rotor azimuth angle. The test rotor had 3 blades with NACA0018 aerofoil. The rotor diameter and blade chord were 0.3m and 0.07m, respectively. Visual photos of the static flow path lines in and around the rotor were obtained at every 5 degrees of the azimuth angle. Further, numerical computations of the static flow filed were also carried out for comparison with the same situation as the visual tests and the static torques at different azimuth angles were calculated. According to the results of visual tests and computations, the dependence of the starting performance on the azimuth angle was discussed. The solidity is an important factor affecting the starting performance of the SB-VAWT.

  9. Maximum urinary flow rate by uroflowmetry: automatic or visual interpretation.

    PubMed

    Grino, P B; Bruskewitz, R; Blaivas, J G; Siroky, M B; Andersen, J T; Cook, T; Stoner, E

    1993-02-01

    We measured the maximum urinary flow rate monthly for 1 year by uroflowmetry in 1,645 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of finasteride therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Patients were randomized to receive placebo (555) or finasteride (1,090). A total of 23,857 flow measurements was obtained. Because of the presence of artifacts on many uroflow curves, we read the maximum urinary flow rate values manually and compared them to the values provided electronically by the uroflowmeter. On average, the manually read values were 1.5 ml. per second lower than the machine read values. Artifacts causing a difference of 2 ml. per second or more between the 2 methods were found in 20% and of more than 3 ml. per second in 9% of the tracings. The difference between treatment groups in mean maximum urinary flow rate change at the end of the study was the same with both reading methods. However, confidence intervals were 15 to 25% larger for the machine read compared to the manually read values. This larger variability in machine read maximum urinary flow rate has a marked negative impact on the power of statistical tests to assess any given difference in maximum urinary flow rate between treatment groups. Furthermore, it increases sample size requirements by 50% to achieve any given statistical power. We conclude that maximum urinary flow rate artifacts contribute significantly to the variability of maximum urinary flow rate measurement by uroflowmetry. Manual reading of the maximum urinary flow rate eliminates an important fraction of such variability.

  10. Summary of in-flight flow visualization obtained from the NASA high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Delfrate, John H.; Zuniga, Fanny A.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the surface and off-surface flow visualization results obtained in flight on the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) is presented, highlighting the extensive 3-D vortical flow on the aircraft at angles of attack up to 50 degs. The emitted fluid technique, as well as tufts and flow cones, were used to document the surface flow. A smoke generator system injected smoke into the vortex cores generated by the forebody and leading edge extensions (LEXs). Documentation was provided by onboard still and video, by air-to-air, and by postflight photography. The surface flow visualization techniques revealed laminar separation bubbles near the forebody apex, lines of separation on the forebody and LEX, and regions of attached and separated flow on the wings and fins. The off-surface flow visualization techniques showed the path of the vortex cores on the forebody and LEX as well as the LEX vortex core breakdown location. An interaction between the forebody and LEX vortices was noted. The flow over the surfaces of the vertical tail was categorized into regions of attached, unsteady, or separated flow using flow tufts.

  11. Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation.

    PubMed

    Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Thomsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-03-01

    Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented. The aim of this paper is to estimate precise flow rates and peak velocities derived from 3-D vector flow estimates. The emission sequence provides 3-D vector flow estimates at up to 1.145 frames/s in a plane, and was used to estimate 3-D vector flow in a cross-sectional image plane. The method is validated in two phantom studies, where flow rates are measured in a flow-rig, providing a constant parabolic flow, and in a straight-vessel phantom ( ∅=8 mm) connected to a flow pump capable of generating time varying waveforms. Flow rates are estimated to be 82.1 ± 2.8 L/min in the flow-rig compared with the expected 79.8 L/min, and to 2.68 ± 0.04 mL/stroke in the pulsating environment compared with the expected 2.57 ± 0.08 mL/stroke. Flow rates estimated in the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer are compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured flow rates using a 1-D through-plane velocity sequence. Mean flow rates were 333 ± 31 mL/min for the presented method and 346 ± 2 mL/min for the MRI measurements.

  12. Enzyme-Based Test Strips for Visual or Photographic Detection and Quantitation of Gaseous Sulfur Mustard.

    PubMed

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Steiner, Mark-Steven; Stepan, Martin; Vymazalova, Kamila; Gruber, Michael A; Duerkop, Axel; Damborsky, Jiri; Prokop, Zbynek; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2016-06-07

    Sulfur mustard is a chemical agent of high military and terroristic significance. No effective antidote exists, and sulfur mustard can be fairly easily produced in large quantity. Rapid field testing of sulfur mustard is highly desirable. Existing analytical devices for its detection are available but can suffer from low selectivity, laborious sample preparation, and/or the need for complex instrumentation. We describe a new kind of test strip for rapid detection of gaseous sulfur mustard that is based on its degradation by the enzyme haloalkane dehalogenase that is accompanied by a change of local pH. This change can be detected using pH indicators contained in the strips whose color changes from blue-green to yellow within 10 min. In addition to visual read-out, we also demonstrate quantitative reflectometric readout by using a conventional digital camera based on red-green-blue data acquisition. Organic haloalkanes, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, have a negligible interfering effect. The visual limit of detection is 20 μg/L, and the one for red-green-blue read-out is as low as 3 μg/L. The assays have good reproducibility ±6% and ±2% for interday assays and intraday assays, respectively. The strips can be stored for at least 6 months without loss of function. They are disposable and can be produced fairly rapidly and at low costs. Hence, they represent a promising tool for in-field detection of sulfur mustard.

  13. Noninvasive Nuclear SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation to Guide Management for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Jong, Bor-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Che; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Ing-Jou; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2017-09-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT has been validated to enhance the detection of multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) and conclude equivocal SPECT myocardial perfusion study. This advance opened an important clinical application to utilize the tool in guiding CAD management for area where myocardial perfusion tracers for PET are unavailable or unaffordable. We present a clinical patient with ongoing recursive angina who underwent multiple nuclear stress tests for a sequence of CAD evaluation in 26 months and demonstrated that SPECT myocardial blood flow quantitation properly guided CAD management to warrant patient outcome.

  14. Flow visualization of time-varying structural characteristics of dean vortices in a curved channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bella, David Wayne

    1988-12-01

    The time varying development and structure of Dean vortices were studied using flow visualization. Observations were made over a range of Dean numbers from 40 to 200 using a transparent channel with mild curvature, 40:1 aspect ratio, and an inner to outer radius ratio of 0.979. Seven flow visualization techniques were tried but only one, a wood burning smoke generator, produced usable results. Different vortex characteristics were observed and documented in sequences of photographs spaced one quarter of a second apart at locations ranging from 85 to 135 degrees from the start of curvature. Evidence is presented that supports the twisting/rocking nature of the flow.

  15. A pulsatile flow model for in vitro quantitative evaluation of prosthetic valve regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Giuliatti, S; Gallo, L; Almeida-Filho, O C; Schmidt, A; Marin-Neto, J A; Pelá, C A; Maciel, B C

    2000-03-01

    A pulsatile pressure-flow model was developed for in vitro quantitative color Doppler flow mapping studies of valvular regurgitation. The flow through the system was generated by a piston which was driven by stepper motors controlled by a computer. The piston was connected to acrylic chambers designed to simulate "ventricular" and "atrial" heart chambers. Inside the "ventricular" chamber, a prosthetic heart valve was placed at the inflow connection with the "atrial" chamber while another prosthetic valve was positioned at the outflow connection with flexible tubes, elastic balloons and a reservoir arranged to mimic the peripheral circulation. The flow model was filled with a 0.25% corn starch/water suspension to improve Doppler imaging. A continuous flow pump transferred the liquid from the peripheral reservoir to another one connected to the "atrial" chamber. The dimensions of the flow model were designed to permit adequate imaging by Doppler echocardiography. Acoustic windows allowed placement of transducers distal and perpendicular to the valves, so that the ultrasound beam could be positioned parallel to the valvular flow. Strain-gauge and electromagnetic transducers were used for measurements of pressure and flow in different segments of the system. The flow model was also designed to fit different sizes and types of prosthetic valves. This pulsatile flow model was able to generate pressure and flow in the physiological human range, with independent adjustment of pulse duration and rate as well as of stroke volume. This model mimics flow profiles observed in patients with regurgitant prosthetic valves.

  16. Using Streamlines to Visualize Acoustic Energy Flow Across Boundaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    radiate from a point source in a homogeneous fluid and propagate across a plane boundary into a dissimilar homogeneous fluid, the acoustic field may...associated with diffraction i.e., those components that vanish with increasing frequency. The energy flow from a continuous-wave monopole point source...vector, averaged over a wave cycle. It is seen that the acoustic energy flow is not always in line with the “Snell’s law” or stationary phase path. Also

  17. Detecting, visualizing and quantitating the generation of reactive oxygen species in an amoeba model system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Soldati, Thierry

    2013-11-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) comprise a range of reactive and short-lived, oxygen-containing molecules, which are dynamically interconverted or eliminated either catalytically or spontaneously. Due to the short life spans of most ROS and the diversity of their sources and subcellular localizations, a complete picture can be obtained only by careful measurements using a combination of protocols. Here, we present a set of three different protocols using OxyBurst Green (OBG)-coated beads, or dihydroethidium (DHE) and Amplex UltraRed (AUR), to monitor qualitatively and quantitatively various ROS in professional phagocytes such as Dictyostelium. We optimised the beads coating procedures and used OBG-coated beads and live microscopy to dynamically visualize intraphagosomal ROS generation at the single cell level. We identified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli as a potent stimulator for ROS generation in Dictyostelium. In addition, we developed real time, medium-throughput assays using DHE and AUR to quantitatively measure intracellular superoxide and extracellular H2O2 production, respectively.

  18. Continuous-flow ATP amplification system for increasing the sensitivity of quantitative bioluminescence assay.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tetsuya; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Alexandrov, Maxym; Kuroda, Akio; Murakami, Yuji

    2008-08-01

    We constructed a novel ATP amplification reactor using a continuous-flow system, and this allowed us to increase the sensitivity of a quantitative bioluminescence assay by controlling the number of ATP amplification cycles. We previously developed a bioluminescence assay coupled with ATP amplification using a batch system. However, it was difficult to control the number of amplification cycles. In this study, ATP amplification was performed using a continuous-flow system, and significant linear correlations between amplified luminescence and initial ATP concentration were observed. When performing four cycles of continuous-flow ATP amplification, the gradient of amplification was 1.87(N). Whereas the lower quantifiable level was 500 pM without amplification, values as low as 50 pM ATP could be measured after amplification. The sensitivity thus increased 10-fold, with further improvements expected with additional amplification cycles. The continuous-flow system thus effectively increased the sensitivity of the quantitative bioluminescence assay.

  19. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles for flow

  20. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This short movie clip shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles

  1. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles for flow

  2. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This short movie clip shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles

  3. Intuitive Visualization of Transient Flow: Towards a Full 3D Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Isabel; Schröder, Simon; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Visualization of geoscientific data is a challenging task especially when targeting a non-professional audience. In particular, the graphical presentation of transient vector data can be a significant problem. With STRING Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) in collaboration with delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany) developed a commercial software for intuitive 2D visualization of 3D flow problems. Through the intuitive character of the visualization experts can more easily transport their findings to non-professional audiences. In STRING pathlets moving with the flow provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flow fields. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow which means that the pathlets' movement is along the direction given by pathlines. In order to capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding of the pathlets is implemented based on ideas of the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) originally conceived at and continuously developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Furthermore, by the same method pathlets are removed during the visualization to avoid visual cluttering. Additional scalar flow attributes, for example concentration or potential, can either be mapped directly to the pathlets or displayed in the background of the pathlets on the 2D visualization plane. The extensive capabilities of STRING are demonstrated with the help of different applications in groundwater modeling. We will discuss the strengths and current restrictions of STRING which have surfaced during daily use of the software, for example by delta h. Although the software focusses on the graphical presentation of flow data for non-professional audiences its intuitive visualization has also proven useful to experts when investigating details of flow fields. Due to the popular reception of STRING and its limitation to 2D, the need arises for the extension to a full 3D tool

  4. Global Skin-Friction Measurements Using Particle Image Surface FLow Visualization and a Luminescent Oil-Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husen, Nicholas; Roozeboom, Nettie; Liu, Tianshu; Sullivan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative global skin-friction measurement technique is proposed. An oil-film is doped with a luminescent molecule and thereby made to fluoresce in order to resolve oil-film thickness, and Particle Image Surface Flow Visualization is used to resolve the velocity field of the surface of the oil-film. Skin-friction is then calculated at location x as (x )xh, where x is the displacement of the surface of the oil-film and is the dynamic viscosity of the oil. The data collection procedure and data analysis procedures are explained, and preliminary experimental skin-friction results for flow over the wing of the CRM are presented.

  5. AView: An Image-based Clinical Computational Tool for Intracranial Aneurysm Flow Visualization and Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianping; Antiga, Luca; Varble, Nicole; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) occur in around 3% of the entire population. IA rupture is responsible for the most devastating type of hemorrhagic strokes, with high fatality and disability rates as well as healthcare costs. With increasing detection of unruptured aneurysms, clinicians are routinely faced with the dilemma whether to treat IA patients and how to best treat them. Hemodynamic and morphological characteristics are increasingly considered in aneurysm rupture risk assessment and treatment planning, but currently no computational tools allow routine integration of flow visualization and quantitation of these parameters in clinical workflow. In this paper, we introduce AView, a prototype of a clinician-oriented, integrated computation tool for aneurysm hemodynamics, morphology, and risk and data management to aid in treatment decisions and treatment planning in or near the procedure room. Specifically, we describe how we have designed the AView structure from the end-user's point of view, performed a pilot study and gathered clinical feedback. The positive results demonstrate AView's potential clinical value on enhancing aneurysm treatment decision and treatment planning.

  6. Flow visualization study of a novel respiratory assist catheter.

    PubMed

    Budilarto, Stephanus G; Frankowski, Brian J; Hattler, Brack G; Federspiel, William J

    2009-06-01

    Respiratory assist using intravenous catheters may be a potential therapy for patients with acute and acute-on-chronic lung failure. An important design constraint is respiratory catheter size, and new strategies are needed that enable size reduction while maintaining adequate gas exchange. Our group is currently developing a percutaneous respiratory assist catheter (PRAC) that uses a rotating bundle of hollow fiber membranes to enhance CO(2) removal and O(2) supply with increasing bundle rotation rate. In this study, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to analyze the fluid flow patterns and velocity fields surrounding the rotating fiber bundle of the PRAC. The goal of the study was to assess the rotational flow patterns within the context of the gas exchange enhancement that occurs with increasing fiber bundle rotation. A PRAC prototype was placed in a 1-in. internal diameter test section of an in vitro flow loop designed specifically for PIV studies. The rotation rate of the PRAC was varied between 500 and 7000 rpm, and PIV was used to determine the velocity fields in the primary (r-theta) and secondary (r-z) flow planes. The secondary flow exhibited time-varying and incoherent vortices that were consistent with the classical Taylor vortices expected for Taylor numbers (Ta) corresponding to the rotation speeds studied (2200 < Ta < 31 000). In the primary flow, the tangential velocity exhibited boundary layers of less than (1/2) mm adjacent to the fiber bundle and vessel wall. The estimated shear stress associated with the Taylor vortices was approximately 11 dyne/cm(2) at 7000 rpm and was over 10 times smaller than the shear stress in the primary flow boundary layers.

  7. In-Flight Flow Visualization Results of the F-106B with a Vortex Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Hallissy, James B.; Brown, Philip W.; Lamar, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques were used to visualize the three-dimensional vortex flows on the F-106 aircraft with vortex flaps installed. Results at angles of attack between 9 degrees to 18 degrees and Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 are presented. A smoke flow vapor screen technique was used to document leading-edge vortex paths and sizes, while an oil flow technique was employed to provide detailed information on reattachment and separation line locations and other flow details. Results were obtained for two vortex flap deflection angles, 30 degrees and 40 degrees. Flow visualization revealed the existence of a multiple vortex system that had not previously been seen in subscale tests or predicted for this configuration. The vortex flap generated a leading-edge vortex system that reattached near the flap hinge over a wide angle of attack range. In addition to the primary vortex, flow visualization revealed the presence of several distinct vortices which traced a path from the vortex flap and then over the wing.

  8. In-Flight Flow Visualization Results of The F-106B With a Vortex Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Hallissy, James B.; Brown, Philip W.; Lamar, John E.

    2001-01-01

    Surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques were used to visualize the three-dimensional vortex flows on the F-106 aircraft with vortex flaps installed. Results at angles of attack between 9 deg to 18 deg and Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 are presented. A smoke flow vapor screen technique was used to document leading-edge vortex paths and sizes, while an oil flow technique was employed to provide detailed information on reattachment and separation line locations and other flow details. Results were obtained for two vortex flap deflection angles, 30 deg and 40 deg. Flow visualization revealed the existence of a multiple vortex system that had not previously been seen in subscale tests or predicted for this configuration. The vortex flap generated a leading-edge vortex system that reattached near the flap hinge over a wide angle of attack range. In addition to the primary vortex, flow visualization revealed the presence of several distinct vortices which traced a path from the vortex flap and then over the wing.

  9. CellShape: A user-friendly image analysis tool for quantitative visualization of bacterial cell factories inside.

    PubMed

    Goñi-Moreno, Ángel; Kim, Juhyun; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2017-02-01

    Visualization of the intracellular constituents of individual bacteria while performing as live biocatalysts is in principle doable through more or less sophisticated fluorescence microscopy. Unfortunately, rigorous quantitation of the wealth of data embodied in the resulting images requires bioinformatic tools that are not widely extended within the community-let alone that they are often subject to licensing that impedes software reuse. In this context we have developed CellShape, a user-friendly platform for image analysis with subpixel precision and double-threshold segmentation system for quantification of fluorescent signals stemming from single-cells. CellShape is entirely coded in Python, a free, open-source programming language with widespread community support. For a developer, CellShape enhances extensibility (ease of software improvements) by acting as an interface to access and use existing Python modules; for an end-user, CellShape presents standalone executable files ready to open without installation. We have adopted this platform to analyse with an unprecedented detail the tridimensional distribution of the constituents of the gene expression flow (DNA, RNA polymerase, mRNA and ribosomal proteins) in individual cells of the industrial platform strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440. While the CellShape first release version (v0.8) is readily operational, users and/or developers are enabled to expand the platform further.

  10. Visualizing the internal structure of subaqueous, high-concentration sediment-laden flows: implication of rheology to flow structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillo, M. M.; Buttles, J.; Mohrig, D. C.; Kane, I.; Pontén, A.; Brown, D.; Minton, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    Subaqueous sediment-laden flows are thought to be the main mechanism transporting sediments to the deep sea. Understanding the processes governing these flows is crucial to building predictive models of flow behaviour, sediment transport and deposition and is applicable to a wide range of disciplines. Physical modelling using a wide range of experimental facilities and measurement techniques has significantly advanced our understanding of these sediment-laden flows and their ability to erode, transport and deposit sediments. However, for the case of high-sediment concentration flows, measuring flow and depositional properties is still a challenge. Here, we present results from an acoustic reflection technique that allows for direct and noninvasive visualization of the internal structure of high concentration, clay-rich, sand-laden flows with a range of initial yield strengths (0-26 Pa). As the acoustic signal travels through the sediment-laden flow, it encounters zones of varying acoustic impedance that are due to temporal and spatial changes in sediment concentration, grain size and sorting, and flow mixing. The reflected signal is processed and interpreted using seismic techniques developed in exploration geophysics. The ultrasonic reflection data captured two distinct flow stages, an active stage and a post-depositional creeping stage. The clay-rich sand-laden flows showed stratification expressed by three clear vertical zones: (a) an upper relatively dilute turbulent zone, (b) a zone with high sediment concentration and significantly reduced mixing and (c) an aggrading bed of static grains.

  11. A Quantitative Comparison of Leading-edge Vortices in Incompressible and Supersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Milanovic, I. M.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2002-01-01

    When requiring quantitative data on delta-wing vortices for design purposes, low-speed results have often been extrapolated to configurations intended for supersonic operation. This practice stems from a lack of database owing to difficulties that plague measurement techniques in high-speed flows. In the present paper an attempt is made to examine this practice by comparing quantitative data on the nearwake properties of such vortices in incompressible and supersonic flows. The incompressible flow data are obtained in experiments conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Detailed flow-field properties, including vorticity and turbulence characteristics, obtained by hot-wire and pressure probe surveys are documented. These data are compared, wherever possible, with available data from a past work for a Mach 2.49 flow for the same wing geometry and angles-of-attack. The results indicate that quantitative similarities exist in the distributions of total pressure and swirl velocity. However, the streamwise velocity of the core exhibits different trends. The axial flow characteristics of the vortices in the two regimes are examined, and a candidate theory is discussed.

  12. Visualization of bacterial flagella dynamics in a viscous shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jamel; Kim, Minjun

    2016-11-01

    We report on the dynamics of tethered bacterial flagella in an applied viscous shear flow and analyze their behavior using image processing. Flagellin proteins were repolymerized into flagellar filaments functionalized with biotin at their proximal end, and allowed to self-assemble within a micro channel coated with streptavidin. It was observed that all attached flagellar filaments aligned with the steady shear flow of various polymeric solutions. Furthermore it was observed that many of the filaments were stretched, and at elevated flow rates began to undergo polymorphic transformations, which were initiated at one end of the flagellum. When undergoing a change to a different helical form the flagellum was observed to transform to an oppositely handed helix, as to counteract the viscous torque imparted by the shear flow. It was also observed that some flagellar filaments did not undergo polymorphic transformations, but rotated about their helical axis. The rate of this rotation appears to be a function of the applied flow rate. These results expand on previous experimental work and aid in the development of a novel platform that harnesses the autonomic response of a 'forest' of bacterial flagella for engineering applications. This work was funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000255, KEIT MOTIE Grant No. 10052980, and with Government support under and awarded by DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a.

  13. Flow Visualization of Liquid Hydrogen Line Chilldown Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rame, Enrique; Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen John B.

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental measurements of wall and fluid temperature during chill-down tests of a warm cryogenic line with liquid hydrogen. Synchronized video and fluid temperature measurements are used to interpret stream temperature profiles versus time. When cold liquid hydrogen starts to flow into the warm line, a sequence of flow regimes, spanning from all-vapor at the outset to bubbly with continuum liquid at the end can be observed at a location far downstream of the cold inlet. In this paper we propose interpretations to the observed flow regimes and fluid temperature histories for two chilldown methods, viz. trickle (i.e. continuous) flow and pulse flow. Calculations of heat flux from the wall to the fluid versus wall temperature indicate the presence of the transition/nucleate boiling regimes only. The present tests, run at typical Reynolds numbers of approx O(10 (exp 5)), are in sharp contrast to similar tests conducted at lower Reynolds numbers where a well-defined film boiling region is observed.

  14. Interplay of Natural Organic Matter with Flow Rate and Particle Size on Colloid Transport: Experimentation, Visualization, and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyao; Zhang, Yimeng; Chen, Fangmin; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-11-17

    The investigation on factors that affect the impact of natural organic matter (NOM) on colloid transport in complex hydraulic flow systems remains incomplete. Using our previously established approach, the interplay of flow rate and particle size on the NOM effect was quantified, using flow rates of 1 and 2 mL/min and particle sizes of 50 and 200 nm to represent small nanoparticles (1-100 nm) and large non-nano-microspheres (100-1000 nm) in the low-flow groundwater environment. Latex particles, Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), and iron oxide-coated sand were used as model particles, NOM, and the aquifer medium, respectively. The quantitative results show NOM blocked more sites for large particles at a high flow rate: 1 μg of SRHA blocked 5.95 × 10(9) microsphere deposition sites at 2 mL/min but only 7.38 × 10(8) nanoparticle deposition sites at 1 mL/min. The particle size effect dominated over the flow rate, and the overall effect of the two is antagonistic. Granule-scale visualization of the particle packing on the NOM-presented sand surface corroborates the quantification results, revealing a more dispersed status of large particles at a high flow rate. We interpret this phenomenon as a polydispersivity effect resulting from the differential size of the particles and NOM: high flow and a high particle size enlarge the ratio of particle-blocked to NOM-blocked areas and thus the NOM blockage. To our knowledge, this is the first model-assisted quantification on the interplay of NOM, flow rate, and particle size on colloid transport. These findings are significant for nanorisk assessment and nanoremediation practices.

  15. Extraction of skin-friction fields from surface flow visualizations as an inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu

    2013-12-01

    Extraction of high-resolution skin-friction fields from surface flow visualization images as an inverse problem is discussed from a unified perspective. The surface flow visualizations used in this study are luminescent oil-film visualization and heat-transfer and mass-transfer visualizations with temperature- and pressure-sensitive paints (TSPs and PSPs). The theoretical foundations of these global methods are the thin-oil-film equation and the limiting forms of the energy- and mass-transport equations at a wall, which are projected onto the image plane to provide the relationships between a skin-friction field and the relevant quantities measured by using an imaging system. Since these equations can be re-cast in the same mathematical form as the optical flow equation, they can be solved by using the variational method in the image plane to extract relative or normalized skin-friction fields from images. Furthermore, in terms of instrumentation, essentially the same imaging system for measurements of luminescence can be used in these surface flow visualizations. Examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these methods in global skin-friction diagnostics of complex flows.

  16. Advection-Based Sparse Data Management for Visualizing Unsteady Flow.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hanqi; Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Richen; Liu, Lu; Yuan, Xiaoru; Huang, Jian; Meng, Xiangfei; Pan, Jingshan

    2014-12-01

    When computing integral curves and integral surfaces for large-scale unsteady flow fields, a major bottleneck is the widening gap between data access demands and the available bandwidth (both I/O and in-memory). In this work, we explore a novel advection-based scheme to manage flow field data for both efficiency and scalability. The key is to first partition flow field into blocklets (e.g. cells or very fine-grained blocks of cells), and then (pre)fetch and manage blocklets on-demand using a parallel key-value store. The benefits are (1) greatly increasing the scale of local-range analysis (e.g. source-destination queries, streak surface generation) that can fit within any given limit of hardware resources; (2) improving memory and I/O bandwidth-efficiencies as well as the scalability of naive task-parallel particle advection. We demonstrate our method using a prototype system that works on workstation and also in supercomputing environments. Results show significantly reduced I/O overhead compared to accessing raw flow data, and also high scalability on a supercomputer for a variety of applications.

  17. Quantitative values of blood flow through the human forearm, hand, and finger as functions of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search was made to obtain values of human forearm, hand and finger blood flow as functions of environmental temperature. The sources used include both government and laboratory reports and the research presented in the open literature. An attempt was made to review many of the more quantitative noninvasive determinations and to collate the results in such a way as to yield blood flow values for each body segment as continuous functions of temperature. A brief review of the various ways used to measure blood flow is included along with an abstract of each work from which data was taken.

  18. Electron-beam flow visualization - Applications in the definition of configuration aerothermal characteristics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, W. C.; Arrington, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Comparisons between flow visualization systems using electron-beam fluorescence, schlieren, and shadowgraph techniques illustrate the advantages associated with the electron beam. Specific applications of this method as an aid in defining the origin of erosion on a heat-transfer model are cited. Results of combined electron-beam oil-flow studies on configurations illustrate that the simultaneous definition of the external flow field and its surface flow can be obtained. Comparisons between the electron-beam oil-flow visualization method and phase-change coating heat-transfer tests on a shuttle ascent configuration indicate the complementary nature of these two testing techniques. Potential methods for improving the electron-beam technique are included.

  19. A synchronous strobed laser light sheet for helicopter model rotor flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Franke, John M.

    1990-01-01

    A synchronous, strobed laser light sheet has been developed for use in flow visualization of a helicopter rotor model. The light sheet strobe circuit included selectable blade position, strobe duration, and multiple pulses per revolution for rotors having 2 to 9 blades. The flow was seeded with propylene glycol. Between runs, a calibration grid board was placed in the plane of the laser sheet and recorded with the video camera at the position used to record the flow field. A slip-sync mode permitted slow motion visualization of the flow field over complete rotations of the rotor. The system was used to make two-dimensional flow field cuts of a four-bladed rotor operating at advance ratio of 0.37 at wind tunnel speeds up to 79.25 meters per second (260 feet per second).

  20. Combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment of (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT for the diagnosis of dopaminergic neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Jun; Yoshimura, Hajime; Shimizu, Keiji; Hino, Megumu; Kohara, Nobuo

    2017-07-01

    Visual and semi-quantitative assessments of (123)I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are useful for the diagnosis of dopaminergic neurodegenerative diseases (dNDD), including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, and corticobasal degeneration. However, the diagnostic value of combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment in dNDD remains unclear. Among 239 consecutive patients with a newly diagnosed possible parkinsonian syndrome who underwent (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT in our medical center, 114 patients with a disease duration less than 7 years were diagnosed as dNDD with the established criteria or as non-dNDD according to clinical judgment. We retrospectively examined their clinical characteristics and visual and semi-quantitative assessments of (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT. The striatal binding ratio (SBR) was used as a semi-quantitative measure of (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of visual assessment alone, semi-quantitative assessment alone, and combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment for the diagnosis of dNDD. SBR was correlated with visual assessment. Some dNDD patients with a normal visual assessment had an abnormal SBR, and vice versa. There was no statistically significant difference between sensitivity of the diagnosis with visual assessment alone and semi-quantitative assessment alone (91.2 vs. 86.8%, respectively, p = 0.29). Combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment demonstrated superior sensitivity (96.7%) to visual assessment (p = 0.03) or semi-quantitative assessment (p = 0.003) alone with equal specificity. Visual and semi-quantitative assessments of (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT are helpful for the diagnosis of dNDD, and combined visual and semi-quantitative assessment shows superior sensitivity with equal specificity.

  1. Direct visualization of hemolymph flow in the heart of a grasshopper (Schistocerca americana)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wah-Keat; Socha, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background Hemolymph flow patterns in opaque insects have never been directly visualized due to the lack of an appropriate imaging technique. The required spatial and temporal resolutions, together with the lack of contrast between the hemolymph and the surrounding soft tissue, are major challenges. Previously, indirect techniques have been used to infer insect heart motion and hemolymph flow, but such methods fail to reveal fine-scale kinematics of heartbeat and details of intra-heart flow patterns. Results With the use of microbubbles as high contrast tracer particles, we directly visualized hemolymph flow in a grasshopper (Schistocerca americana) using synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging. In-vivo intra-heart flow patterns and the relationship between respiratory (tracheae and air sacs) and circulatory (heart) systems were directly observed for the first time. Conclusion Synchrotron x-ray phase contrast imaging is the only generally applicable technique that has the necessary spatial, temporal resolutions and sensitivity to directly visualize heart dynamics and flow patterns inside opaque animals. This technique has the potential to illuminate many long-standing questions regarding small animal circulation, encompassing topics such as retrograde heart flow in some insects and the development of flow in embryonic vertebrates. PMID:19272159

  2. Data Flow Analysis and Visualization for Spatiotemporal Statistical Data without Trajectory Information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seokyeon; Jeong, Seongmin; Woo, Insoo; Jang, Yun; Maciejewski, Ross; Ebert, David

    2017-02-08

    Geographic visualization research has focused on a variety of techniques to represent and explore spatiotemporal data. The goal of those techniques is to enable users to explore events and interactions over space and time in order to facilitate the discovery of patterns, anomalies and relationships within the data. However, it is difficult to extract and visualize data flow patterns over time for non-directional statistical data without trajectory information. In this work, we develop a novel flow analysis technique to extract, represent, and analyze flow maps of non-directional spatiotemporal data unaccompanied by trajectory information. We estimate a continuous distribution of these events over space and time, and extract flow fields for spatial and temporal changes utilizing a gravity model. Then, we visualize the spatiotemporal patterns in the data by employing flow visualization techniques. The user is presented with temporal trends of geo-referenced discrete events on a map. As such, overall spatiotemporal data flow patterns help users analyze geo-referenced temporal events, such as disease outbreaks, crime patterns, etc. To validate our model, we discard the trajectory information in an origin-destination dataset and apply our technique to the data and compare the derived trajectories and the original. Finally, we present spatiotemporal trend analysis for statistical datasets including twitter data, maritime search and rescue events, and syndromic surveillance.

  3. A package for 3-D unstructured grid generation, finite-element flow solution and flow field visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Paresh; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Loehner, Rainald

    1990-01-01

    A set of computer programs for 3-D unstructured grid generation, fluid flow calculations, and flow field visualization was developed. The grid generation program, called VGRID3D, generates grids over complex configurations using the advancing front method. In this method, the point and element generation is accomplished simultaneously, VPLOT3D is an interactive, menudriven pre- and post-processor graphics program for interpolation and display of unstructured grid data. The flow solver, VFLOW3D, is an Euler equation solver based on an explicit, two-step, Taylor-Galerkin algorithm which uses the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) concept for a wriggle-free solution. Using these programs, increasingly complex 3-D configurations of interest to aerospace community were gridded including a complete Space Transportation System comprised of the space-shuttle orbitor, the solid-rocket boosters, and the external tank. Flow solutions were obtained on various configurations in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes.

  4. Flow visualization study of post critical heat flux region for inverted bubbly, slug and annular flow regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Denten, J.G.; Ishii, M.

    1988-11-01

    A visual study of film boiling using still photographic and high- speed motion picture methods was carried out in order to analyze the post-CHF hydrodynamics for steady-state inlet pre-CHF two-phase flow regimes. Pre-CHF two-phase flow regimes were established by introducing Freon 113 liquid and nitrogen gas into a jet core injection nozzle. An idealized, post-CHF two-phase core initial flow geometry (cylindrical multiphase jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was established at the nozzle exit by introducing nitrogen gas into the annular gap between the jet nozzle two-phase effluent and the heated test section inlet. For the present study three basic post-CHF flow regimes have been observed: the rough wavy regime (inverted annular flow preliminary break down), the agitated regime (transition between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow), and the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. For pre-CHF bubbly flow in the jet nozzle, the post-CHF flow (beginning from jet nozzle exit/heated test section inlet) consists of the rough wavy regime, followed by the agitated and then the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. In the same way, for pre-CHF slug flow in the jet core, the post-CHF flow is comprised of the agitated regime at the nozzle exit, followed by the dispersed regime. Pre-CHF annular jet core flow results in a small, depleted post-CHF agitated flow regime at the nozzle exit, immediately followed by the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported, with particular attention given to the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow. 43 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. VU-flow: a visualization tool for analyzing navigation in virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Chittaro, Luca; Ranon, Roberto; Ieronutti, Lucio

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for the visual analysis of navigation patterns of moving entities, such as users, virtual characters, or vehicles in 3D Virtual Environments (VEs). The tool, called VU-Flow, provides a set of interactive visualizations that highlight interesting navigation behaviors of single or groups of moving entities that were the VE together or separately. The visualizations help to improve the design of VEs and to study the navigation behavior of users, e.g., during controlled experiments. Besides VEs, the proposed techniques could also be applied to visualize real-world data recorded by positioning systems, allowing one to employ VU-Flow in domains such as urban planning, transportation, and emergency response.

  6. Visualizing Dataflow Graphs of Deep Learning Models in TensorFlow.

    PubMed

    Wongsuphasawat, Kanit; Smilkov, Daniel; Wexler, James; Wilson, Jimbo; Mane, Dandelion; Fritz, Doug; Krishnan, Dilip; Viegas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin

    2017-08-29

    We present a design study of the TensorFlow Graph Visualizer, part of the TensorFlow machine intelligence platform. This tool helps users understand complex machine learning architectures by visualizing their underlying dataflow graphs. The tool works by applying a series of graph transformations that enable standard layout techniques to produce a legible interactive diagram. To declutter the graph, we decouple non-critical nodes from the layout. To provide an overview, we build a clustered graph using the hierarchical structure annotated in the source code. To support exploration of nested structure on demand, we perform edge bundling to enable stable and responsive cluster expansion. Finally, we detect and highlight repeated structures to emphasize a model's modular composition. To demonstrate the utility of the visualizer, we describe example usage scenarios and report user feedback. Overall, users find the visualizer useful for understanding, debugging, and sharing the structures of their models.

  7. Electroencephalography reactivity for prognostication of post-anoxic coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A comparison of quantitative analysis and visual analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Su, Yingying; Jiang, Mengdi; Chen, Weibi; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yunzhou; Gao, Daiquan

    2016-07-28

    Electroencephalogram reactivity (EEG-R) is a positive predictive factor for assessing outcomes in comatose patients. Most studies assess the prognostic value of EEG-R utilizing visual analysis; however, this method is prone to subjectivity. We sought to categorize EEG-R with a quantitative approach. We retrospectively studied consecutive comatose patients who had an EEG-R recording performed 1-3 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or during normothermia after therapeutic hypothermia. EEG-R was assessed via visual analysis and quantitative analysis separately. Clinical outcomes were followed-up at 3-month and dichotomized as recovery of awareness or no recovery of awareness. A total of 96 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 38 (40%) patients recovered awareness at 3-month followed-up. Of 27 patients with EEG-R measured with visual analysis, 22 patients recovered awareness; and of the 69 patients who did not demonstrated EEG-R, 16 patients recovered awareness. The sensitivity and specificity of visually measured EEG-R were 58% and 91%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the quantitative analysis was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.97), with the best cut-off value of 0.10. EEG-R through quantitative analysis might be a good method in predicting the recovery of awareness in patients with post-anoxic coma after CPR.

  8. Flow Visualization Techniques in Wind Tunnel Tests of a Full-Scale F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Botha, Gavin J.; James, Kevin D.; Bennett, Mark; Crowder, James P.; Cooper, Don; Olson, Lawrence (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed paper presents flow visualization performed during experiments conducted on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind-Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of the flow-visualization experiments was to document the forebody and leading edge extension (LEX) vortex interaction along with the wing flow patterns at high angles of attack and low speed high Reynolds number conditions. This investigation used surface pressures in addition to both surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques to examine the flow field on the forebody, canopy, LEXS, and wings. The various techniques used to visualize the flow field were fluorescent tufts, flow cones treated with reflective material, smoke in combination with a laser light sheet, and a video imaging system for three-dimension vortex tracking. The flow visualization experiments were conducted over an angle of attack range from 20 deg to 45 deg and over a sideslip range from -10 deg to 10 deg. The various visualization techniques as well as the pressure distributions were used to understand the flow field structure. The results show regions of attached and separated flow on the forebody, canopy, and wings as well as the vortical flow over the leading-edge extensions. This paper will also present flow visualization comparisons with the F-18 HARV flight vehicle and small-scale oil flows on the F-18.

  9. Qualitative flow visualization of flame attachment on slopes

    Treesearch

    Torben P. Grumstrup; Sara S. McAllister; Mark A. Finney

    2017-01-01

    Heating of unburned fuel by attached flames and plume of a wildfire can produce high spread rates that have resulted in firefighter fatalities worldwide. Qualitative flow fields of the plume of a gas burner embedded in a table tilted to 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30° above horizontal were imaged using the retroreflective shadowgraph technique as a means to understand plume...

  10. Flow Visualization and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Liquid Jet Impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafar, Farial A.; Thorpe, Graham R.; Turan, Özden F.

    2012-07-01

    Equipment used to cool horticultural produce often involves three-phase porous media. The flow field and heat transfer processes that occur in such equipment are generally quantified by means of empirical relationships amongst dimensionless groups. This work represents a first step towards the goal of harnessing the power of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to better understand the heat transfer processes that occur in beds of irrigated horticultural produce. The primary objective of the present study is to use numerical predictions towards reducing the energy and cooling water requirement in cooling horticultural produce. In this paper, flow and heat transfer predictions are presented of a single slot liquid jet impinging on flat and curved surfaces using a CFD code (FLUENT) for 2D configurations. The effects of Reynolds number, nozzle to plate spacing, nozzle width, and target surface configuration have been studied. Reynolds numbers of 250, 375, 500, 700, 1000, 1500, 1800, and 1900 are studied where the liquid medium is water. Here, the Reynolds number is defined in terms of the hydraulic nozzle diameter, inlet jet velocity, and fluid kinematic viscosity. The results show that Reynolds numbers, nozzle to plate spacing, and nozzle width have a significant effect on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics, whereas the target surface configuration at the stagnation area has no substantial impact. The use of a numerical tool has resulted in a detailed investigation of these characteristics, which has not been available in the literature previously.

  11. Temperature and Pressure Measurements and Visualization of He II Cavitation Flow through Venturi Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, T.; Murakami, M.; Harada, K.

    2004-06-23

    He II cavitation flow through a Venturi channel was experimentally investigated through temperature and pressure measurements and optical visualization. So far some distinctive features of cavitation between He II and He I flows were clarified. Then, detailed measurements were added for further investigation, such as the measurements of the temperature drop distribution throughout the flow channel and the void fraction. Further considerations were given on the cavitation inception with emphasis on the superheating of liquid helium, and the effect of the flow separation on cavitation.

  12. Flow visualization II Proceedings of the Second International Symposium, Bochum, West Germany, September 9-12, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Merzkirch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Applications, techniques, instrumentation, and interpretation of flow visualization are discussed. Methods of using flow visualization for the examination of combustion in furnaces, heat transfer with heat exchangers, and in fluid engines are explored, along with flow visualization in food processing, steel-casting, and process engineering. Further attention is given to pipe and channel flow, flow separation in laminar flow and around oscillating airfoils, wakes and vortices, supersonic flow and shock waves, and stratified flow and oceanography. The visualization of boundary layers is considered for various conditions, and applications for multiphase flow, rheology, and medical problems are detailed. Oil film, dry-surface coating, chemical, fluorescent, and minituft methods are presented, as well as the use of tracers, optical techniques, strobe lights, lasers, computerized data acquisition, and hot-wire anemometry.

  13. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding of Steel and Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisada, Yoshiaki; Imaizumi, Takuya; Fujii, Hidetoshi; Matsushita, Muneo; Ikeda, Rinsei

    2014-11-01

    Material flow is a key phenomenon to obtain sound joints by friction stir welding (FSW), and it is highly dependent of the welded material. It is well known that the optimal FSW condition depends on the welded material. However, the material flow during FSW has not been totally clarified in spite of many researches. Especially, the material flow of steel during FSW is still unclear. It seems difficult to understand the material flow by the traditional method such as the tracer method or observation of the microstructure in the stir zone. Therefore, in this study, the material flow of steel was three dimensionally visualized by x-ray radiography using two pairs of x-ray transmission real-time imaging systems, and was then compared with the material flow of aluminum. The result revealed the effect of the welded material on the material flow during FSW.

  14. Investigation on the near-wake flow structures of a utility-scale wind turbine using snowflake based flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasari, Teja; Toloui, Mostafa; Guala, Michele; Hong, Jiarong

    2015-11-01

    Super-large-scale particle image velocimetry and flow visualization techniques using natural snow particles have been shown as an effective tool to probe the structure of the flow around full-scale wind turbines (Hong et al. Nature Comm. 2014). Here we present a follow-up study based on the data collected during a deployment around the 2.5 MW wind turbine at EOLOS Wind Energy Research Station on April, 4th, 2014. The dataset includes the snow visualization of flow fields from different perspectives in the near wake of the turbine. The motions of the dominant coherent structures including tip, blade root, hub and tower vortices, represented by the snow voids, are examined with the objective of quantifying and correlating their behavior with the meteorological and turbine operating conditions. Some preliminary studies on flow-structure interaction are also performed by correlating the data from strain gauges, accelerometers mounted on the turbine blades, with the flow measurements. The statistical analysis of the motions of blade induced vortices shows a clear impact of atmospheric turbulence and vortex interaction on flow development in the near wake. The result further indicates a strong connection between near-wake vorticity field, turbine operation and structure deformations. The work was supported by National Science Foundation (NSF-CBET-1454259) and the research infrastructure was supported by Department of Energy.

  15. Perception of heading speed from radial flow depends on visual field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Kaori; Ujike, Hiroyasu; Okajima, Katsunori; Saida, Shinya

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the effects that the visual field has on the perception of heading speed. The stimulus was a radial flow pattern simulating a translational motion through a cylindrical tunnel. Observers evaluated the perception of heading speed by using a temporal two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) staircase method. In the first experiment, we manipulated the stimulus area by cutting the visual field along the longitudinal direction. The results showed that the perceived heading speed increases with the stimulus area. In the second experiment, we manipulated both the stimulus area and the eccentricity by cutting the visual field along the longitudinal direction. The results showed that the perception of heading speed increases when the stimulus occupies a large portion of the peripheral visual field. These findings suggest that the effect of eccentricity is a consequence of an incorrect translation of two-dimensional visual information into three-dimensional scaling.

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Turbulence and Flow Eccentricity in an Aortic Coarctation: Impact of Virtual Interventions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Magnus; Lantz, Jonas; Ebbers, Tino; Karlsson, Matts

    2015-09-01

    Turbulence and flow eccentricity can be measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we propose quantitative techniques to assess turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and flow eccentricity that could assist in the evaluation and treatment of stenotic severities. These hemodynamic parameters were studied in a pre-treated aortic coarctation (CoA) and after several virtual interventions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to demonstrate the effect of different dilatation options on the flow field. Patient-specific geometry and flow conditions were derived from MRI data. The unsteady pulsatile flow was resolved by large eddy simulation including non-Newtonian blood rheology. Results showed an inverse asymptotic relationship between the total amount of TKE and degree of dilatation of the stenosis, where turbulent flow proximal the constriction limits the possible improvement by treating the CoA alone. Spatiotemporal maps of TKE and flow eccentricity could be linked to the characteristics of the jet, where improved flow conditions were favored by an eccentric dilatation of the CoA. By including these flow markers into a combined MRI-CFD intervention framework, CoA therapy has not only the possibility to produce predictions via simulation, but can also be validated pre- and immediate post treatment, as well as during follow-up studies.

  17. Efficient blood flow visualization using flowline extraction and opacity modulation based on vascular structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ohjae; Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Bohyoung; Shin, Juneseuk; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2017-03-01

    With the recent advances regarding the acquisition and simulation of blood flow data, blood flow visualization has been widely used in medical imaging for the diagnosis and treatment of pathological vessels. In this paper, we present a novel method for the visualization of the blood flow in vascular structures. The vessel inlet or outlet is first identified using the orthogonality metric between the normal vectors of the flow velocity and vessel surface. Then, seed points are generated on the identified inlet or outlet by Poisson disk sampling. Therefore, it is possible to achieve the automatic seeding that leads to a consistent and faster flow depiction by skipping the manual location of a seeding plane for the initiation of the line integration. In addition, the early terminated line integration in the thin curved vessels is resolved through the adaptive application of the tracing direction that is based on the flow direction at each seed point. Based on the observation that blood flow usually follows the vessel track, the representative flowline for each branch is defined by the vessel centerline. Then, the flowlines are rendered through an opacity assignment according to the similarity between their shape and the vessel centerline. Therefore, the flowlines that are similar to the vessel centerline are shown transparently, while the different ones are shown opaquely. Accordingly, the opacity modulation method enables the flowlines with an unusual flow pattern to appear more noticeable, while the visual clutter and line occlusion are minimized. Finally, Hue-Saturation-Value color coding is employed for the simultaneous exhibition of flow attributes such as local speed and residence time. The experiment results show that the proposed technique is suitable for the depiction of the blood flow in vascular structures. The proposed approach is applicable to many kinds of tubular structures with embedded flow information.

  18. Efficacy of FLOW 800 with indocyanine green videoangiography for the quantitative assessment of flow dynamics in cerebral arteriovenous malformation surgery.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kenji; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Nakajima, Norio; Masuoka, Jun; Satow, Tetsu; Iihara, Koji

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the quantitative assessment of flow dynamics during surgery for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with FLOW 800 with indocyanine green videoangiography. Changes in flow dynamics in the superficial AVM components (feeder, nidus, and drainer), the adjacent cortical artery, and the cortical vein surrounding AVM were evaluated. Analysis was performed at predissection, postclipping of the feeders, and postresection of the nidus with the use of quantitative values of the maximum fluorescence intensity, time to half-maximum fluorescence intensity (T1/2 FI), and the fluorescence intensity rate at T1/2 FI semiautomatically obtained with the use of FLOW 800 software. FLOW 800 assessments were performed in 7 cases. The time difference between the T1/2 FI, defined as transit time, in the cortical artery and the drainer was prolonged from 0.08 ± 0.65 seconds to 2.63 ± 1.79 seconds (P < 0.0001) at postfeeder clipping phase. The transit time between the cortical artery and the cortical vein was reduced to 3.76 ± 1.37 seconds at post feeder clipping phase (P = 0.024) and 2.63 ± 0.80 seconds at final phase (P = 0.005) compared with 4.56 ± 1.47 seconds at predissection phase. The maximum intensity and the fluorescence intensity rate at T1/2 FI were not significantly different at these phases, excluding the maximum intensity of the drainer decreasing from 533 ± 271 to 399 ± 217 (P = 0.006) at post feeder clipping phase. FLOW 800 analysis with indocyanine green videoangiography provides the real-time hemodynamic status of the AVMs and adjacent brain at various stages of resection. This technique is feasible to resect AVMs more safely and convincingly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of quantitative Doppler indices for uteroplacental and fetal blood flow during the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Joern, H; Funk, A; Goetz, M; Kuehlwein, H; Klein, A; Fendel, H

    1996-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the development of uteroplacental and fetal blood flow during the third trimester. Doppler examination was carried out on 393 uncomplicated pregnancies with uncomplicated term delivery. Using a pulsed color Doppler, we calculated the maximum systolic, mean and maximum end-diastolic velocity after correcting the angle of insonation. Patients under tocolysis or other medication influencing blood flow parameters were excluded from this cross-sectional study. Summarizing the results gained by Doppler ultrasound investigation of the uteroplacental and fetal blood vessels, we created quantiles as quantitative Doppler indices for the maximum systolic, mean (TAMX = time averaged maximum velocity) and maximum end-diastolic velocity. The following conclusions could be drawn: (1) resistance to the blood flow in the maternal portion of the placenta does not change during the third trimester; (2) resistance to the blood flow on the fetal side of the placenta decreases up to week 42 of gestation; (3) cerebral vascular resistance decreases constantly up to gestational week 42; and (4) vascular resistance to the blood flow of the kidney decreases only slightly during the third trimester. This study offers clinically important values for quantitative Doppler flow velocimetry for the first time. We hope that our findings improve the usefulness of Doppler ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in obstetrical management.

  20. Seminar in Flow Visualization at Lafayette College: Variations on the Hertzberg Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

    2013-11-01

    Flow visualization reveals an invisible world of fluid dynamics, blending scientific investigation and artistic exploration. The resulting images have inspired, and in some cases themselves become appreciated as, art. At Lafayette College, a sophomore-level seminar in The Art and Science of Flow Visualization exposes students to these techniques and the science of fluid mechanics, and to the photographic methods needed to create effective images that are successful both scientifically and artistically. Unlike other courses in flow visualization, this course assumes no a priori familiarity with fluid flow or with photography. The fundamentals of both are taught and practiced in a studio setting. Students are engaged in an interdisciplinary discourse about fluids and physics, photography, scientific ethics, and historical societal responses to science and art. Relevant texts from several disciplines are read, discussed, and responded to in student writing. This seminar approach makes flow visualization and fluid dynamics a natural part of a liberal education. The development, implementation, and assessment of this team-taught course at Lafayette College will be discussed. Support provided by National Science Foundation.

  1. Quantitative visualization of synchronized insulin secretion from 3D-cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Kanamori, Takao; Inouye, Satoshi

    2017-05-13

    Quantitative visualization of synchronized insulin secretion was performed in an isolated rat pancreatic islet and a spheroid of rat pancreatic beta cell line using a method of video-rate bioluminescence imaging. Video-rate images of insulin secretion from 3D-cultured cells were obtained by expressing the fusion protein of insulin and Gaussia luciferase (Insulin-GLase). A subclonal rat INS-1E cell line stably expressing Insulin-GLase, named iGL, was established and a cluster of iGL cells showed oscillatory insulin secretion that was completely synchronized in response to high glucose. Furthermore, we demonstrated the effect of an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide, on synchronized insulin secretion from 2D- and 3D-cultured iGL cells. The amount of secreted Insulin-GLase from iGL cells was also determined by a luminometer. Thus, our bioluminescence imaging method could generally be used for investigating protein secretion from living 3D-cultured cells. In addition, iGL cell line would be valuable for evaluating antidiabetic drugs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Visually observed mold and moldy odor versus quantitatively measured microbial exposure in homes

    PubMed Central

    Reponen, Tiina; Singh, Umesh; Schaffer, Chris; Vesper, Stephen; Johansson, Elisabet; Adhikari, Atin; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Indugula, Reshmi; Ryan, Patrick; Levin, Linda; LeMasters, Grace

    2010-01-01

    The main study objective was to compare different methods for assessing mold exposure in conjunction with an epidemiologic study on the development of children’s asthma. Homes of 184 children were assessed for mold by visual observations and dust sampling at child’s age 1 (Year 1). Similar assessment supplemented with air sampling was conducted in Year 7. Samples were analyzed for endotoxin, (1–3)-β-D-glucan, and fungal spores. The Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used to analyze 36 mold species in dust samples, and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) was calculated. Homes were categorized based on three criteria: 1) visible mold damage, 2) moldy odor, and 3) ERMI. Even for homes where families had not moved, Year 7 endotoxin and (1–3)-β-D-glucan exposures were significantly higher than those in Year 1 (p<0.001), whereas no difference was seen for ERMI (p=0.78). Microbial concentrations were not consistently associated with visible mold damage categories, but were consistently higher in homes with moldy odor and in homes that had high ERMI. Low correlations between results in air and dust samples indicate different types or durations of potential microbial exposures from dust vs. air. Future analysis will indicate which, if any, of the assessment methods is associated with the development of asthma. PMID:20810150

  3. Visually observed mold and moldy odor versus quantitatively measured microbial exposure in homes.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Tiina; Singh, Umesh; Schaffer, Chris; Vesper, Stephen; Johansson, Elisabet; Adhikari, Atin; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Indugula, Reshmi; Ryan, Patrick; Levin, Linda; Lemasters, Grace

    2010-10-15

    The main study objective was to compare different methods for assessing mold exposure in conjunction with an epidemiologic study on the development of children's asthma. Homes of 184 children were assessed for mold by visual observations and dust sampling at child's age 1 (Year 1). Similar assessment supplemented with air sampling was conducted in Year 7. Samples were analyzed for endotoxin, (1-3)-β-D-glucan, and fungal spores. The Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used to analyze 36 mold species in dust samples, and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) was calculated. Homes were categorized based on three criteria: 1) visible mold damage, 2) moldy odor, and 3) ERMI. Even for homes where families had not moved, Year 7 endotoxin and (1-3)-β-d-glucan exposures were significantly higher than those in Year 1 (p<0.001), whereas no difference was seen for ERMI (p=0.78). Microbial concentrations were not consistently associated with visible mold damage categories, but were consistently higher in homes with moldy odor and in homes that had high ERMI. Low correlations between results in air and dust samples indicate different types or durations of potential microbial exposures from dust vs. air. Future analysis will indicate which, if any, of the assessment methods is associated with the development of asthma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Connectivity Reveals Sources of Predictive Coding Signals in Early Visual Cortex During Processing of Visual Optic Flow.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Superimposed on the visual feed-forward pathway, feedback connections convey higher level information to cortical areas lower in the hierarchy. A prominent framework for these connections is the theory of predictive coding where high-level areas send stimulus interpretations to lower level areas that compare them with sensory input. Along these lines, a growing body of neuroimaging studies shows that predictable stimuli lead to reduced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses compared with matched nonpredictable counterparts, especially in early visual cortex (EVC) including areas V1-V3. The sources of these modulatory feedback signals are largely unknown. Here, we re-examined the robust finding of relative BOLD suppression in EVC evident during processing of coherent compared with random motion. Using functional connectivity analysis, we show an optic flow-dependent increase of functional connectivity between BOLD suppressed EVC and a network of visual motion areas including MST, V3A, V6, the cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv), and precuneus (Pc). Connectivity decreased between EVC and 2 areas known to encode heading direction: entorhinal cortex (EC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Our results provide first evidence that BOLD suppression in EVC for predictable stimuli is indeed mediated by specific high-level areas, in accord with the theory of predictive coding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Low-Cost Flow Visualization for a Supersonic Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olden, George W.; Lineberry, David M.; Linn, Christopher A. B.; Landrum, Brian D.; Hawk, Clark W.

    2005-01-01

    Shadowgraph techniques were applied to the cold flow ejector facility at the Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The setup for the experiments was relatively simple and was accomplished at very little cost. Series of shadowgraph images were taken of both dual nozzle and single nozzle strut based ejectors operating over a range of chamber pressures. The density gradient patterns in the shadowgraphs were compared to pressure data measured along the top and side walls of the mixing duct. The shadowgraph images showed the presence of barrel shocks emanating from the nozzles which at low pressures terminated in Mach disks and at higher pressures extended beyond the barrel shape and reflected off the walls of the duct. Based on pressure data from previous testing, reflected shocks were expected on the walls of the duct. The shadowgraph images confirmed the locations of these reflected shocks on the top wall of the duct. The shadowgraph images also showed the structure change which correlated to a change in pitch of the ejector noise, and corresponded to a change in trend of the duct wall pressure ratio distributions. The images produced from the setup provided insight into the complex flow behavior inside the ejector duct. In addition, the techniques were a valuable tool as an educational device for students.

  6. A bead-assisted flow cytometry method for the semi-quantitative analysis of Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Henar; Gámez-Valero, Ana; Reyes, Raquel; López-Martín, Soraya; Rodríguez, María Josefa; Carrascosa, José L; Cabañas, Carlos; Borràs, Francesc E; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2017-09-12

    Most experimental approaches commonly employed for the characterization and quantitation of EVs are time consuming, require of specialized instrumentation and often are rather inaccurate. To circumvent the caveats imposed by EV small size, we used general and specific membrane markers in bead assisted flow cytometry, to provide a semi-quantitative measure of EV content in a given sample. EVs were isolated from in vitro cultured cells-conditioned medium and biological fluids by size exclusion chromatography and coupled to latex beads to allow their detection by standard flow cytometers. Our analyses demonstrate a linear correlation between EV concentration and Mean Fluorescence Intensity values in samples cleared of protein contaminants. Comparison with one of the most widespread method such as NTA, suggests a similar linear range and reliable accuracy to detect saturation. However, although detection of the different biomarkers is feasible when tested on ultracentrifugation-enriched samples, protein contamination impairs quantitation of this type of samples by bead-based flow cytometry. Thus, we provide evidence that bead-assisted flow cytometry method is an accurate and reliable method for the semiquantitative bulk analysis of EVs, which could be easily implemented in most laboratories.

  7. Magnetic fingerprints of rolling cells for quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisbeck, Mathias; Helou, Michael Johannes; Richter, Lukas; Kappes, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Hayden, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 50 years, flow cytometry has had a profound impact on preclinical and clinical applications requiring single cell function information for counting, sub-typing and quantification of epitope expression. At the same time, the workflow complexity and high costs of such optical systems still limit flow cytometry applications to specialized laboratories. Here, we present a quantitative magnetic flow cytometer that incorporates in situ magnetophoretic cell focusing for highly accurate and reproducible rolling of the cellular targets over giant magnetoresistance sensing elements. Time-of-flight analysis is used to unveil quantitative single cell information contained in its magnetic fingerprint. Furthermore, we used erythrocytes as a biological model to validate our methodology with respect to precise analysis of the hydrodynamic cell diameter, quantification of binding capacity of immunomagnetic labels, and discrimination of cell morphology. The extracted time-of-flight information should enable point-of-care quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood for clinical applications, such as immunology and primary hemostasis.

  8. Magnetic fingerprints of rolling cells for quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Reisbeck, Mathias; Helou, Michael Johannes; Richter, Lukas; Kappes, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Hayden, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, flow cytometry has had a profound impact on preclinical and clinical applications requiring single cell function information for counting, sub-typing and quantification of epitope expression. At the same time, the workflow complexity and high costs of such optical systems still limit flow cytometry applications to specialized laboratories. Here, we present a quantitative magnetic flow cytometer that incorporates in situ magnetophoretic cell focusing for highly accurate and reproducible rolling of the cellular targets over giant magnetoresistance sensing elements. Time-of-flight analysis is used to unveil quantitative single cell information contained in its magnetic fingerprint. Furthermore, we used erythrocytes as a biological model to validate our methodology with respect to precise analysis of the hydrodynamic cell diameter, quantification of binding capacity of immunomagnetic labels, and discrimination of cell morphology. The extracted time-of-flight information should enable point-of-care quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood for clinical applications, such as immunology and primary hemostasis. PMID:27596736

  9. Visualization of the 3-dimensional flow around a model with the aid of a laser knife

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovoy, V. Y.; Ivanov, V. V.; Orlov, A. A.; Kharchenko, V. N.

    1984-01-01

    A method for visualizing the three-dimensional flow around models of various shapes in a wind tunnel at a Mach number of 5 is described. A laser provides a planar light flux such that any plane through the model can be selectively illuminated. The shape of shock waves and separation regions is then determined by the intensity of light scattered by soot particles in the flow.

  10. NADH augments blood flow in physiologically activated retina and visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ido, Yasuo; Chang, Katherine; Williamson, Joseph R.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism(s) that increase retinal and visual cortex blood flows in response to visual stimulation are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that increased transfer of electrons and protons from glucose to cytosolic free NAD+, reducing it to NADH, evoked by increased energy metabolism, fuels redox-signaling pathways that augment flow. The near-equilibrium between free cytosolic NADH/NAD+ and lactate/pyruvate ratios established by lactate dehydrogenase predicts that transfer of additional electrons and protons from injected lactate to NAD+ will augment the elevated blood flows in stimulated retina and cortex, whereas transfer of electrons and protons from NADH to injected pyruvate will attenuate the elevated flows. These predictions were tested and confirmed in rats. Increased flows evoked by stimulation also were prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. These findings support an important role for cytosolic free NADH in fueling a signaling cascade that increases NO production, which augments blood flow in photostimulated retina and visual cortex.

  11. An inexpensive, fast and sensitive quantitative lateral flow magneto-immunoassay for total prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jacqueline M; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format.

  12. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

  13. Flow visualization study of the horseshoe vortex in a turbine stator cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaugler, R. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1982-06-01

    Flow visualization techniques were used to show the behavior of the horseshoe vortex in a large scale turbine stator cascade. Oil drops on the end wall surface flowed in response to local shear stresses, indicating the limiting flow streamlines at the surface. Smoke injected into the flow and photographed showed time averaged flow behavior. Neutrally bouyant helium filled soap bubbles followed the flow and showed up on photographs as streaks, indicating the paths followed by individual fluid particles. Preliminary attempts to control the vortex were made by injecting air through control jets drilled in the end wall near the vane leading edge. Seventeen different hole locations were tested, one at a time, and the effect of the control jets on the path follwed by smoke in the boundary layer was recorded photographically.

  14. Flow visualization study of the horseshoe vortex in a turbine stator cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques were used to show the behavior of the horseshoe vortex in a large scale turbine stator cascade. Oil drops on the end wall surface flowed in response to local shear stresses, indicating the limiting flow streamlines at the surface. Smoke injected into the flow and photographed showed time averaged flow behavior. Neutrally bouyant helium filled soap bubbles followed the flow and showed up on photographs as streaks, indicating the paths followed by individual fluid particles. Preliminary attempts to control the vortex were made by injecting air through control jets drilled in the end wall near the vane leading edge. Seventeen different hole locations were tested, one at a time, and the effect of the control jets on the path follwed by smoke in the boundary layer was recorded photographically.

  15. Flow visualization of a non-contact transport device by Coanda effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iki, Norihiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Okada, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    AIST proposes new technology of non-contact transport device utilizing Coanda effect. A proposed non-contact transport device has a cylindrical body and circular slit for air. The air flow around non-contact device is turbulent and its flow pattern depends on the injection condition. Therefore we tried visualization of the air flow around non -contact device as the first step of PIV measurement. Several tracer particles were tried such as TiO2 particles, water droplets, potatoes starch, rice starch, corn starch. Hot-wire anemometer is employed to velocity measurement. TiO2 particles deposit inside of a slit and clogging of a slit occurs frequently. Potato starch particles do not clog a slit but they are too heavy to trace slow flow area. Water droplets by ultrasonic atomization also deposit inside of slit but they are useful to visualize flow pattern around a non-contact transport device by being supplied from circumference. Coanda effect of proposed non-contact transport device was confirmed and injected air flow pattern switches by a work. Air flow around non-contact trance port device is turbulent and its velocity range is wide. Therefore flow measurement by tracer part icle has traceability issue. Suitable tracer and exposure condition depends on target area.

  16. Quantitative computed tomographic indexes in diffuse interstitial lung disease: correlation with physiologic tests and computed tomography visual scores.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung Eun; Chung, Myung Jin; Jung, Man Pyo; Choe, Bong Keun; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2011-01-01

    To assess the correlation among quantitative indexes of computed tomography (CT), spirometric pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and visual scores (VSs) of CT in patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD) and to prove the estimated value of CT quantification for the prediction of the possibility of pulmonary function impairment. A total of 157 patients (male to female ratio, 96:61; mean age, 63 ± 11 years) with DILD were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent volume thin-section CT in the supine position at full inspiration. During the same period, 23 people (male to female ratio, 10:13; mean age, 55 ± 13 years) with no history of DILD and with normal PFTs and CT findings were used as a control group. Quantitative indexes were obtained using a commercial CAD system (Brilliance Workspace v3.0; Philips Medical Systems). Quantitative indexes included total lung volume (TLV), mean lung attenuation, variation of lung attenuation, emphysema volume (<-950 Hounsfield units [HU]), functioning lung volume (-700 HU > pixel > -950 HU), and interstitial lung disease volume (>-700 HU). Visual scores were measured semiquantitatively and included the overall extent of pulmonary parenchymal abnormality as well as the extent of consolidation, ground glass opacity, reticulation, and honeycomb opacities. Quantitative indexes were correlated with PFT and VSs using the Pearson correlation test. Quantitative indexes, PFT results, and VSs differed significantly between the DILD group and the control group, except for emphysematous parameters (P < 0.05).Pulmonary function test results showed significant correlation with quantitative indexes in the DILD group. Functioning lung volume showed positive correlation with forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r = 0.80 and 0.73, P < 0.001). Total lung capacity showed positive correlation with TLV (r = 0.83, P < 0.001).Visual scores were correlated with the ratio of a specific volume to TLV (indicated

  17. Quantitative data analysis methods for bead-based DNA hybridization assays using generic flow cytometry platforms.

    PubMed

    Corrie, S R; Lawrie, G A; Battersby, B J; Ford, K; Rühmann, A; Koehler, K; Sabath, D E; Trau, M

    2008-05-01

    Bead-based assays are in demand for rapid genomic and proteomic assays for both research and clinical purposes. Standard quantitative procedures addressing raw data quality and analysis are required to ensure the data are consistent and reproducible across laboratories independent of flow platform. Quantitative procedures have been introduced spanning raw histogram analysis through to absolute target quantitation. These included models developed to estimate the absolute number of sample molecules bound per bead (Langmuir isotherm), relative quantitative comparisons (two-sided t-tests), and statistical analyses investigating the quality of raw fluorescence data. The absolute target quantitation method revealed a concentration range (below probe saturation) of Cy5-labeled synthetic cytokeratin 19 (K19) RNA of c.a. 1 x 10(4) to 500 x 10(4) molecules/bead, with a binding constant of c.a. 1.6 nM. Raw hybridization frequency histograms were observed to be highly reproducible across 10 triplex assay replicates and only three assay replicates were required to distinguish overlapping peaks representing small sequence mismatches. This study provides a quantitative scheme for determining the absolute target concentration in nucleic acid hybridization reactions and the equilibrium binding constants for individual probe/target pairs. It is envisaged that such studies will form the basis of standard analytical procedures for bead-based cytometry assays to ensure reproducibility in inter- and intra-platform comparisons of data between laboratories. (c) 2008 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. Optic Flow Dominates Visual Scene Polarity in Causing Adaptive Modification of Locomotor Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomura, Y.; Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2005-01-01

    Locomotion and posture are influenced and controlled by vestibular, visual and somatosensory information. Optic flow and scene polarity are two characteristics of a visual scene that have been identified as being critical in how they affect perceived body orientation and self-motion. The goal of this study was to determine the role of optic flow and visual scene polarity on adaptive modification in locomotor trajectory. Two computer-generated virtual reality scenes were shown to subjects during 20 minutes of treadmill walking. One scene was a highly polarized scene while the other was composed of objects displayed in a non-polarized fashion. Both virtual scenes depicted constant rate self-motion equivalent to walking counterclockwise around the perimeter of a room. Subjects performed Stepping Tests blindfolded before and after scene exposure to assess adaptive changes in locomotor trajectory. Subjects showed a significant difference in heading direction, between pre and post adaptation stepping tests, when exposed to either scene during treadmill walking. However, there was no significant difference in the subjects heading direction between the two visual scene polarity conditions. Therefore, it was inferred from these data that optic flow has a greater role than visual polarity in influencing adaptive locomotor function.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of blood flow obstruction in microcirculation with sidestream dark-field images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kurata, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Haneishi, H.

    2017-02-01

    Septic shock induces organ dysfunction by microcirculatory disturbance. Observation and quantification of microcirculation are expected to be effective for the diagnosis of septic shock. Sidestream dark-filed (SDF) imaging is a suitable technique for observation of microcirculation. It can noninvasively visualize red blood cells (RBCs) of microcirculation. We are developing early diagnostic criteria for septic shock from microcirculation SDF images. As an initial study, we use the blood flow velocity estimated from the images as a diagnostic criteria. However, low contrast quality and subject's movement disturb the blood flow velocity estimation. In this paper, we present a procedure of image processing for a stable estimation of the blood flow velocity. In the procedure, we first perform a robust principal component analysis (RPCA) as a preprocessing. RPCA decomposes a motion picture into a low-rank (L) component and a sparse (S) component. The S component images clearly expresses RBCs flow and is used for the velocity estimation. The temporal change of the intensity profile along the vessel was analyzed by Hough transform to estimate the blood flow velocity is. The proposed procedure was examined with dorsal microcirculation of septic model rats and a sham rat. As a result, the decrease in blood flow velocity of the septic rats after 17 hours was greater than that of the sham. It was also suggested that blood flow velocity might be faster index of septic shock reaction earlier than lactic acid value. These results suggest that the velocity estimation is reasonable for diagnosis of septic shock.

  20. Quantitative polarization and flow evaluation of choroid and sclera by multifunctional Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, S.; Hong, Y.-J.; Kasaragod, D.; Makita, S.; Miura, M.; Ikuno, Y.; Yasuno, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative evaluation of optical properties of choroid and sclera are performed by multifunctional optical coherence tomography. Five normal eyes, five glaucoma eyes and one choroidal atrophy eye are examined. The refractive error was found to be correlated with choroidal birefringence, polarization uniformity, and flow in addition to scleral birefringence among normal eyes. The significant differences were observed between the normal and the glaucoma eyes, as for choroidal polarization uniformity, flow and scleral birefringence. An automatic segmentation algorithm of retinal pigment epithelium and chorioscleral interface based on multifunctional signals is also presented.

  1. Flow visualization in the outflow cannula of an axial blood pump.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangmao; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Haibo; Sun, Hansong; Zhou, Jianye; Hu, Shengshou

    2014-01-01

    The properties of blood flow in the outflow cannula of an axial blood pump play a critical role in potential thrombus formation and vascular injury. In this study, an in vitro flow visualization technique using particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to investigate the flow characteristics in the outflow cannula of a FW-2 model axial pump. The two-dimensional (2-D) flow field in the axial central section and the three-dimensional (3-D) flow field in the whole outflow cannula were examined with the PIV system. Tests were carried out with a blood-mimic working fluid in the axial pump at a rotational speed of 8500 ± 20 rpm with a flow rate of 5 L/min. The velocity distribution in the outflow cannula was analyzed to evaluate the flow characteristics. There was no backflow or stagnant flow in the tested area, while the flow velocity rapidly increased outside the boundary layer. A spiral flow was observed near the boundary layer, but this was worn off within the tested area. Based on the results, hemolysis and thrombus formation in the cannula, and injury to aortic endothelium are unlikely to occur due to spiral flow.

  2. Visual Measurements of Droplet Size in Gas Liquid Annular Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, L.B.; Ibrahim, B.B.; Beus, S.G.

    2000-07-01

    Drop size distributions have been measured for nitrogen-water annular flow in a 9.67 mm hydraulic diameter duct, at system pressures of 3.4 and 17 atm and a temperature of 38 C. These new data extend the range of conditions represented by existing data in the open literature, primarily through an increase in system pressure. Since most existing correlations were developed from data obtained at lower pressures, it should be expected that the higher-pressure data presented in this paper would not necessarily follow those correlations. The correlation of Tatterson, et al. (1977) does not predict the new data very well, while the correlation of Kataoka, et al. (1983) only predicts those data taken at the lower pressure of 3.4 atm. However, the maximum drop size correlation of Kocamustafaogullari, et al. (1994) does predict the current data to a reasonable approximation. Similarly, their correlation for the Sauter mean diameter can predict the new data, provided the coefficient in the equation is adjusted.

  3. OpinionFlow: Visual Analysis of Opinion Diffusion on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Yan, Kai; Liu, Mengchen; Wu, Fangzhao

    2014-12-01

    It is important for many different applications such as government and business intelligence to analyze and explore the diffusion of public opinions on social media. However, the rapid propagation and great diversity of public opinions on social media pose great challenges to effective analysis of opinion diffusion. In this paper, we introduce a visual analysis system called OpinionFlow to empower analysts to detect opinion propagation patterns and glean insights. Inspired by the information diffusion model and the theory of selective exposure, we develop an opinion diffusion model to approximate opinion propagation among Twitter users. Accordingly, we design an opinion flow visualization that combines a Sankey graph with a tailored density map in one view to visually convey diffusion of opinions among many users. A stacked tree is used to allow analysts to select topics of interest at different levels. The stacked tree is synchronized with the opinion flow visualization to help users examine and compare diffusion patterns across topics. Experiments and case studies on Twitter data demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of OpinionFlow.

  4. The Impact of a Visual Imagery Intervention on Army ROTC Cadets' Marksmanship Performance and Flow Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Edward Lee

    2012-01-01

    This investigation used an experimental design to examine how a visual imagery intervention and two levels of challenge would affect the flow experiences and performance of cadets engaged in Army ROTC marksmanship training. I employed MANCOVA analyses, with gender and prior marksmanship training experience as covariates, to assess cadets' (n =…

  5. The Impact of a Visual Imagery Intervention on Army ROTC Cadets' Marksmanship Performance and Flow Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Edward Lee

    2012-01-01

    This investigation used an experimental design to examine how a visual imagery intervention and two levels of challenge would affect the flow experiences and performance of cadets engaged in Army ROTC marksmanship training. I employed MANCOVA analyses, with gender and prior marksmanship training experience as covariates, to assess cadets' (n =…

  6. Flow-Visualization Techniques Used at High Speed by Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel-Test Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes a variety of optically based flow-visualization techniques used for high-speed research by the Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel Test Team of the High-Speed Research Program during its tenure. The work of other national experts is included for completeness. Details of each technique with applications and status in various national wind tunnels are given.

  7. Attention to Quantitative and Configural Properties of Abstract Visual Patterns by Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Morton J.

    1984-01-01

    Students in grades two, four, six, and college sorted abstract visual patterns that varied both in amount of contour and in type of visual organization (unstructured, simple symmetries, multiple symmetries, and rotational). Results suggested that children attend to both amount of contour and visual organization, but that attention to visual…

  8. Real-Time Aerodynamic Flow and Data Visualization in an Interactive Virtual Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2005-01-01

    Significant advances have been made to non-intrusive flow field diagnostics in the past decade. Camera based techniques are now capable of determining physical qualities such as surface deformation, surface pressure and temperature, flow velocities, and molecular species concentration. In each case, extracting the pertinent information from the large volume of acquired data requires powerful and efficient data visualization tools. The additional requirement for real time visualization is fueled by an increased emphasis on minimizing test time in expensive facilities. This paper will address a capability titled LiveView3D, which is the first step in the development phase of an in depth, real time data visualization and analysis tool for use in aerospace testing facilities.

  9. Azimuthal instability of the interface in a shear banded flow by direct visual observation.

    PubMed

    Decruppe, J P; Bécu, L; Greffier, O; Fazel, N

    2010-12-17

    The stability of the shear banded flow of a Maxwellian fluid is studied from an experimental point of view using rheology and flow visualization with polarized light. We show that the one-layer homogeneous flow cannot sustain shear rates corresponding to the end of the stress plateau. The high shear rate branch is not found and the shear stress oscillates at the end of the plateau. An azimuthal instability appears: the shear induced band becomes unstable and the interface between the two bands undulates in time and space with a period τ, a wavelength λ and a wave vector k parallel to the direction of the tangential velocity.

  10. The state of the art of conventional flow visualization techniques for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional wind tunnel flow visualization techniques which consist of surface flow methods, tracers, and optical methods are presented. Different surface flow methods are outlined: (1) liquid films (oil and fluorescent dye and UV lighting, renewable film via porous dispenser in model, volatile carrier fluid, cryogenic colored oil dots, oil film interferometry); (2) reactive surface treatment (reactive gas injection, reversible dye); (3) transition and heat transfer detectors (evaporation, sublimation, liquid crystals, phase change paints, IR thermography); and (4) tufts (fluorescent mini tufts, cryogenic suitability). Other methods are smoke wire techniques, vapor screens, and optical methods.

  11. Quantitative investigation of in vitro flow using three-dimensional colour Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z; Moreau, M; Rickey, D W; Picot, P A; Fenster, A

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative in vitro flow study was performed by using a three-dimensional colour Doppler imaging system. This system was based on a clinical ultrasound instrument with its transducer mounted on a motor-driven translation stage. A vascular and tissue-mimicking phantom containing two wall-less vessels, one normal and another stenotic, was used to quantify the measurement accuracy of the flow velocity and the flow field. Steady state flows, having Reynolds numbers ranging between 460 and 1300, were generated by a computer-controlled positive displacement pump. Effects of the parameter settings of the ultrasound instrument on results of the estimation of flow field were also studied. Experimental results show that our three-dimensional colour Doppler system's velocity accuracy was better than 7% of the Nyquist velocity and its spatial accuracy was better than 0.5 mm. The system showed a good correlation (r = 0.999) between the estimated and the true mean flow velocity, and a good correlation (r = 0.998) between the estimated maximum and the true mean flow velocity. This study is our first step toward validating the measurement of the three-dimensional velocity and wall shear stress distributions by using three-dimensional colour Doppler ultrasound

  12. Four-dimensional visualization and quantitative analysis of meiotic spindle movements in live mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tian, N; Zhang, L; Liu, B; Wang, P; Li, Y; Ma, W

    2012-09-01

    This paper made a different attempt of real-time observation of the meiotic spindle movements in living mouse oocyte using a convenient method. This method was based on an experimental phenomenon discovered in our work. In living mouse oocytes, a high concentration of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) was observed throughout the region occupied by the initial meiotic spindle. After Ca(2+) labelling with Fura-2, a weakly fluorescent area (WFA) appeared on each side of the chromosomes. The activities of the WFAs changed during spindle development. By real-time tracking of WFAs, we were able to indirectly observe the meiotic spindle movements. Occasionally, it was observed that the first meiotic spindle rotated from an orientation parallel to the cortex to become perpendicular, instead of migrating from the oocyte centre to the cortex along its axis. Moreover, we analysed this uncommon rotation of the first meiotic spindle and found that the whole rotation process can be divided into two phases: the early slow-speed rotation and the subsequent rapid-speed rotation. We further characterized this rotation with respect to rotational speed and acceleration at all the stages of development. By using a two-photon laser-scanning microscope in combination with Fura-2 dye that is nondamaging to oocytes, we provide a convenient method for indirect visualization and quantitative analysis of spindle movements by real-time tracking of WFAs. This method is easy to operate and master, and economical with time and effort. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed.

  14. Vector projectile imaging: time-resolved dynamic visualization of complex flow patterns.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Billy Y S; Lai, Simon S M; Yu, Alfred C H

    2014-09-01

    Achieving non-invasive, accurate and time-resolved imaging of vascular flow with spatiotemporal fluctuations is well acknowledged to be an ongoing challenge. In this article, we present a new ultrasound-based framework called vector projectile imaging (VPI) that can dynamically render complex flow patterns over an imaging view at millisecond time resolution. VPI is founded on three principles: (i) high-frame-rate broad-view data acquisition (based on steered plane wave firings); (ii) flow vector estimation derived from multi-angle Doppler analysis (coupled with data regularization and least-squares fitting); (iii) dynamic visualization of color-encoded vector projectiles (with flow speckles displayed as adjunct). Calibration results indicated that by using three transmit angles and three receive angles (-10°, 0°, +10° for both), VPI can consistently compute flow vectors in a multi-vessel phantom with three tubes positioned at different depths (1.5, 4, 6 cm), oriented at different angles (-10°, 0°, +10°) and of different sizes (dilated diameter: 2.2, 4.4 and 6.3 mm; steady flow rate: 2.5 mL/s). The practical merit of VPI was further illustrated through an anthropomorphic flow phantom investigation that considered both healthy and stenosed carotid bifurcation geometries. For the healthy bifurcation with 1.2-Hz carotid flow pulses, VPI was able to render multi-directional and spatiotemporally varying flow patterns (using a nominal frame rate of 416 fps or 2.4-ms time resolution). In the case of stenosed bifurcations (50% eccentric narrowing), VPI enabled dynamic visualization of flow jet and recirculation zones. These findings suggest that VPI holds promise as a new tool for complex flow analysis. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In-flight flow visualization with pressure measurements at low speeds on the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John H.; Fisher, David F.; Zuniga, Fanny A.

    1990-01-01

    In-flight results from surface and off-surface flow visualizations and from extensive pressure distributions document the vortical flow on the leading edge extensions (LEX) and forebody of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle for low speeds and angles of attack up to 50 degs. Surface flow visualization data, obtained using the emitted fluid technique, were used to define separation lines and laminar separation bubbles. Off-surface flow visualization data, obtained by smoke injection, were used to document both the path of the vortex cores and the location of vortex core breakdown. The location of vortex core breakdown correlated well with the loss of suction pressure on the LEX and with the flow visualization results from ground facilities. Surface flow separation lines on the LEX and forebody corresponded well with the end of pressure recovery under the vortical flows. Correlation of the pressures with wind tunnel results show fair to good correlation.

  16. An enzyme-amplified lateral flow strip biosensor for visual detection of microRNA-224.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuefei; Xu, Li-Ping; Wu, Tingting; Wen, Yongqiang; Ma, Xinlei; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    An enzyme-based dual-labeled nanoprobe is designed to fabricate a sensitive enzyme-amplified lateral flow biosensor for visual detection of mircoRNA-224 (miRNA-224). The recognition DNA probe (detection probe) and signal amplification enzyme (Horseradish peroxidase, HRP) are immobilized on gold nanoparticle (GNPs) surface, simultaneously. The capture DNA probes are immobilized on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor. When miRNA-224 is present, the enzyme-based dual-labeled nanoprobes will be captured by forming the "sandwich structure" on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor, enabling the visual detection for miRNA-224. Sensitivity is amplified by applying the 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine enzymatic substrate (TMB/H2O2 enzymatic substrate) onto the test zone. The enzymatic reactions between the HRP and the TMB/H2O2 enzymatic substrate will produce blue products, which deposit on the nanoprobe surface to enhance the visual effect and the corresponding response intensities of the test zone. This enzyme-amplified lateral flow biosensor shows a low limit of detection (LOD) (7.5 pM) toward miRNA-224 in the buffer solution, which is improved by 10-fold than that of the single-labeled lateral flow biosensor. This biosensor has been successfully used for the detection of the target miRNA-224 detection in A549 cell lysate.

  17. Exploratory flow visualization investigation of mast-mounted sights in presence of a rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghee, Terence A.; Kelley, Henry L.

    1995-01-01

    A flow visualization investigation with a laser light sheet system was conducted on a 27-percent-scale AH-64 attack helicopter model fitted with two mast-mounted sights in the langley 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel. The investigation was conducted to identify aerodynamic phenomena that may have contributed to adverse vibration encountered during full-scale flight of the AH-64D apache/longbow helicopter with an asymmetric mast-mounted sight. Symmetric and asymmetric mast-mounted sights oriented at several skew angles were tested at simulated forward and rearward flight speeds of 30 and 45 knots. A laser light sheet system was used to visualize the flow in planes parallel to and perpendicular to the free-stream flow. Analysis of these flow visualization data identified frequencies of flow patterns in the wake shed from the sight, the streamline angle at the sight, and the location where the shed wake crossed the rotor plane. Differences in wake structure were observed between the sight configurations and various skew angles. Analysis of lateral light sheet plane data implied significant vortex structure in the wake of the asymmetric mast-mounted sight in the configuration that produced maximum in-flight vibration. The data showed no significant vortex structure in the wake of the asymmetric and symmetric configurations that produced no increase in in-flight adverse vibration.

  18. Recent Advancements in the Infrared Flow Visualization System for the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbeff, Theodore J., II; Baerny, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    The following details recent efforts undertaken at the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels to design and deploy an advanced, production-level infrared (IR) flow visualization data system. Highly sensitive IR cameras, coupled with in-line image processing, have enabled the visualization of wind tunnel model surface flow features as they develop in real-time. Boundary layer transition, shock impingement, junction flow, vortex dynamics, and buffet are routinely observed in both transonic and supersonic flow regimes all without the need of dedicated ramps in test section total temperature. Successful measurements have been performed on wing-body sting mounted test articles, semi-span floor mounted aircraft models, and sting mounted launch vehicle configurations. The unique requirements of imaging in production wind tunnel testing has led to advancements in the deployment of advanced IR cameras in a harsh test environment, robust data acquisition storage and workflow, real-time image processing algorithms, and evaluation of optimal surface treatments. The addition of a multi-camera IR flow visualization data system to the Ames UPWT has demonstrated itself to be a valuable analyses tool in the study of new and old aircraft/launch vehicle aerodynamics and has provided new insight for the evaluation of computational techniques.

  19. MotionFlow: Visual Abstraction and Aggregation of Sequential Patterns in Human Motion Tracking Data.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sujin; Elmqvist, Niklas; Ramani, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Pattern analysis of human motions, which is useful in many research areas, requires understanding and comparison of different styles of motion patterns. However, working with human motion tracking data to support such analysis poses great challenges. In this paper, we propose MotionFlow, a visual analytics system that provides an effective overview of various motion patterns based on an interactive flow visualization. This visualization formulates a motion sequence as transitions between static poses, and aggregates these sequences into a tree diagram to construct a set of motion patterns. The system also allows the users to directly reflect the context of data and their perception of pose similarities in generating representative pose states. We provide local and global controls over the partition-based clustering process. To support the users in organizing unstructured motion data into pattern groups, we designed a set of interactions that enables searching for similar motion sequences from the data, detailed exploration of data subsets, and creating and modifying the group of motion patterns. To evaluate the usability of MotionFlow, we conducted a user study with six researchers with expertise in gesture-based interaction design. They used MotionFlow to explore and organize unstructured motion tracking data. Results show that the researchers were able to easily learn how to use MotionFlow, and the system effectively supported their pattern analysis activities, including leveraging their perception and domain knowledge.

  20. Forebody Flow Visualization on the F-18 HARV with Actuated Forebody Strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Murri, Daniel G.

    1998-01-01

    Off-surface smoke flow visualization and extensive pressure measurements were obtained on the forebody of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle equipped with actuated forebody strakes. Test points at alpha = 50 deg. were examined in which only one strake was deflected or in which both strakes were deflected differentially. The forebody pressures were integrated to obtain forebody yawing moments. Results showed that small single strake deflections can cause an undesirable yawing moment reversal. At alpha = 50 deg., this reversal was corrected by deploying both strakes at 20 deg. initially, then differentially from 20 deg. to create a yawing moment. The off-surface flow visualization showed that in the case of the small single strake deflection, the resulting forebody/strake vortex remained close to the surface and caused accelerated flow and increased suction pressures on the deflected side. When both strakes were deflected differentially, two forebody/strake vortices were present. The forebody/strake vortex from the larger deflection would lift from the surface while the other would remain close to the surface. The nearer forebody/strake vortex would cause greater flow acceleration, higher suction pressures and a yawing moment on that side of the forebody. Flow visualization provided a clear description of the strake vortices fluid mechanics.

  1. Quantitative neutron imaging of water distribution, venation network and sap flow in leaves.

    PubMed

    Defraeye, Thijs; Derome, Dominique; Aregawi, Wondwosen; Cantré, Dennis; Hartmann, Stefan; Lehmann, Eberhard; Carmeliet, Jan; Voisard, Frédéric; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative neutron imaging is a promising technique to investigate leaf water flow and transpiration in real time and has perspectives towards studies of plant response to environmental conditions and plant water stress. The leaf hydraulic architecture is a key determinant of plant sap transport and plant-atmosphere exchange processes. Non-destructive imaging with neutrons shows large potential for unveiling the complex internal features of the venation network and the transport therein. However, it was only used for two-dimensional imaging without addressing flow dynamics and was still unsuccessful in accurate quantification of the amount of water. Quantitative neutron imaging was used to investigate, for the first time, the water distribution in veins and lamina, the three-dimensional venation architecture and sap flow dynamics in leaves. The latter was visualised using D2O as a contrast liquid. A high dynamic resolution was obtained by using cold neutrons and imaging relied on radiography (2D) as well as tomography (3D). The principle of the technique was shown for detached leaves, but can be applied to in vivo leaves as well. The venation network architecture and the water distribution in the veins and lamina unveiled clear differences between plant species. The leaf water content could be successfully quantified, though still included the contribution of the leaf dry matter. The flow measurements exposed the hierarchical structure of the water transport pathways, and an accurate quantification of the absolute amount of water uptake in the leaf was possible. Particular advantages of neutron imaging, as compared to X-ray imaging, were identified. Quantitative neutron imaging is a promising technique to investigate leaf water flow and transpiration in real time and has perspectives towards studies of plant response to environmental conditions and plant water stress.

  2. Right Heart 4DMRI Flow Visualization in Normal and Hypertensive subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jean; Browning, James; Fenster, Brett; Schroeder, Joyce

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in time-resolved 3D cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) have allowed for the 3-dimensional characterization of blood flow in the right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA). In this talk, an overview of a large, ongoing, multi-disciplinary investigation of 4D right heart hemodynamics in normal and pathologic patients is given, as well as lessons learned from 4DMRI cardiac research. Time-resolved visualization techniques for understanding and communicating complex right heart flow structures throughout the cardiac cycle are presented. Finally, a qualitative visual comparison of 3D flow structures in the vena cava, RA, and RV between healthy subjects and pulmonary hypertensive patients is presented.

  3. DecisionFlow: Visual Analytics for High-Dimensional Temporal Event Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Gotz, David; Stavropoulos, Harry

    2014-12-01

    Temporal event sequence data is increasingly commonplace, with applications ranging from electronic medical records to financial transactions to social media activity. Previously developed techniques have focused on low-dimensional datasets (e.g., with less than 20 distinct event types). Real-world datasets are often far more complex. This paper describes DecisionFlow, a visual analysis technique designed to support the analysis of high-dimensional temporal event sequence data (e.g., thousands of event types). DecisionFlow combines a scalable and dynamic temporal event data structure with interactive multi-view visualizations and ad hoc statistical analytics. We provide a detailed review of our methods, and present the results from a 12-person user study. The study results demonstrate that DecisionFlow enables the quick and accurate completion of a range of sequence analysis tasks for datasets containing thousands of event types and millions of individual events.

  4. Flow Visualization at Cryogenic Conditions Using a Modified Pressure Sensitive Paint Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Goad, William K.; Obara, Clifford J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Bell, James H.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    A modification to the Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) method was used to visualize streamlines on a Blended Wing Body (BWB) model at full-scale flight Reynolds numbers. In order to achieve these conditions, the tests were carried out in the National Transonic Facility operating under cryogenic conditions in a nitrogen environment. Oxygen is required for conventional PSP measurements, and several tests have been successfully completed in nitrogen environments by injecting small amounts (typically < 3000 ppm) of oxygen into the flow. A similar technique was employed here, except that air was purged through pressure tap orifices already existent on the model surface, resulting in changes in the PSP wherever oxygen was present. The results agree quite well with predicted results obtained through computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), which show this to be a viable technique for visualizing flows without resorting to more invasive procedures such as oil flow or minitufts.

  5. Point-to-plane corona discharge for high-speed reacting flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisman, David; Ganguly, Biswa

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a novel technique for the high-speed visualization of a flame reaction zone using a streamer-initiated point-to-plane unipolar pulsed corona discharge. Our results show images of the flame front under conditions of natural hydrodynamic flame instability, as well as external air flow modulation induced flame instability. This technique can potentially be used as a high-speed 2-D flow visualization diagnostic tool to monitor flow instabilities in reacting and non-reacting fluids that have a density gradient. We also show that this technique does not modify the flame characteristics in any measurable way, if the high electric field region of the streamer/corona discharge is located in the downstream region.

  6. Fast blood flow visualization of high-resolution laser speckle imaging data using graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shusen; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

    2008-09-15

    Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a non-invasive, full-field optical technique that produces two-dimensional map of blood flow in biological tissue by analyzing speckle images captured by CCD camera. Due to the heavy computation required for speckle contrast analysis, video frame rate visualization of blood flow which is essentially important for medical usage is hardly achieved for the high-resolution image data by using the CPU (Central Processing Unit) of an ordinary PC (Personal Computer). In this paper, we introduced GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) into our data processing framework of laser speckle contrast imaging to achieve fast and high-resolution blood flow visualization on PCs by exploiting the high floating-point processing power of commodity graphics hardware. By using GPU, a 12-60 fold performance enhancement is obtained in comparison to the optimized CPU implementations.

  7. Quantitative Monitoring of the Chlamydia trachomatis Developmental Cycle Using GFP-Expressing Bacteria, Microscopy and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Vromman, François; Laverrière, Marc; Perrinet, Stéphanie; Dufour, Alexandre; Subtil, Agathe

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria. These pathogens develop inside host cells through a biphasic cycle alternating between two morphologically distinct forms, the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. Recently, C. trachomatis strains stably expressing fluorescent proteins were obtained. The fluorochromes are expressed during the intracellular growth of the microbe, allowing bacterial visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Whether they are also present in the infectious form, the elementary body, to a detectable level has not been studied. Here, we show that a C. trachomatis strain transformed with a plasmid expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) accumulates sufficient quantities of the probe in elementary bodies for detection by microscopy and flow cytometry. Adhesion of single bacteria was detected. The precise kinetics of bacterial entry were determined by microscopy using automated procedures. We show that during the intracellular replication phase, GFP is a convenient read-out for bacterial growth with several advantages over current methods. In particular, infection rates within a non-homogenous cell population are easily quantified. Finally, in spite of their small size, individual elementary bodies are detected by flow cytometers, allowing for direct enumeration of a bacterial preparation. In conclusion, GFP-expressing chlamydiae are suitable to monitor, in a quantitative manner, progression throughout the developmental cycle. This will facilitate the identification of the developmental steps targeted by anti-chlamydial drugs or host factors. PMID:24911516

  8. The coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism with brain activation is similar for simple and complex stimuli in human primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Griffeth, Valerie E M; Simon, Aaron B; Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) experiments to measure blood flow and oxygen metabolism coupling in the brain typically rely on simple repetitive stimuli. Here we compared such stimuli with a more naturalistic stimulus. Previous work on the primary visual cortex showed that direct attentional modulation evokes a blood flow (CBF) response with a relatively large oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) response in comparison to an unattended stimulus, which evokes a much smaller metabolic response relative to the flow response. We hypothesized that a similar effect would be associated with a more engaging stimulus, and tested this by measuring the primary human visual cortex response to two contrast levels of a radial flickering checkerboard in comparison to the response to free viewing of brief movie clips. We did not find a significant difference in the blood flow-metabolism coupling (n=%ΔCBF/%ΔCMRO2) between the movie stimulus and the flickering checkerboards employing two different analysis methods: a standard analysis using the Davis model and a new analysis using a heuristic model dependent only on measured quantities. This finding suggests that in the primary visual cortex a naturalistic stimulus (in comparison to a simple repetitive stimulus) is either not sufficient to provoke a change in flow-metabolism coupling by attentional modulation as hypothesized, that the experimental design disrupted the cognitive processes underlying the response to a more natural stimulus, or that the technique used is not sensitive enough to detect a small difference.

  9. The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.

  10. Velocity Vector Field Visualization of Flow in Liquid Acquisition Device Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John B.; Chao, David F.; Hall, Nancy R.; Zhang, Nengli

    2012-01-01

    A capillary flow liquid acquisition device (LAD) for cryogenic propellants has been developed and tested in NASA Glenn Research Center to meet the requirements of transferring cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks to an engine in reduced gravity environments. The prototypical mesh screen channel LAD was fabricated with a mesh screen, covering a rectangular flow channel with a cylindrical outlet tube, and was tested with liquid oxygen (LOX). In order to better understand the performance in various gravity environments and orientations at different liquid submersion depths of the screen channel LAD, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of LOX flow through the LAD screen channel was undertaken. The resulting velocity vector field visualization for the flow in the channel has been used to reveal the gravity effects on the flow in the screen channel.

  11. Quantitative myocardial blood flow with Rubidium-82 PET: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, Christoffer E; Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows assessment of myocardial blood flow in absolute terms (ml/min/g). Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) extend the scope of conventional semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): e.g. in 1) identification of the extent of a multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) burden, 2) patients with balanced 3-vessel CAD, 3) patients with subclinical CAD, and 4) patients with regional flow variance, despite of a high global MFR. A more accurate assessment of the ischemic burden in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD can support the clinical decision-making in treatment of CAD patients as a complementary tool to the invasive coronary angiography (CAG). Recently, several studies have proven Rubidium-82 (82Rb) PET’s long-term prognostic value by a significant association between compromised global MFR and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and together with new diagnostic possibilities from measuring the longitudinal myocardial perfusion gradient, cardiac 82Rb PET faces a promising clinical future. This article reviews current evidence on quantitative 82Rb PET’s ability to diagnose and risk stratify CAD patients, while assessing the potential of the modality in clinical practice. PMID:26550537

  12. High-speed flow visualization in hypersonic, transonic, and shock tube flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine, H.; Olivier, H.

    2017-02-01

    High-speed flow visualisation has played an important role in the investigations conducted at the Stoßwellenlabor of the RWTH Aachen University for many decades. In addition to applying the techniques of high-speed imaging, this laboratory has been actively developing new or enhanced visualisation techniques and approaches such as various schlieren methods or time-resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometry. The investigated high-speed flows are inherently highly transient, with flow Mach numbers ranging from about M = 0.7 to M = 8. The availability of modern high-speed cameras has allowed us to expand the investigations into problems where reduced reproducibility had so far limited the amount of information that could be extracted from a limited number of flow visualisation records. Following a brief historical overview, some examples of recent studies are given, which represent the breadth of applications in which high-speed imaging has been an essential diagnostic tool to uncover the physics of high-speed flows. Applications include the stability of hypersonic corner flows, the establishment of shock wave systems in transonic airfoil flow, and the complexities of the interactions of shock waves with obstacles of various shapes.

  13. Visualization of the hinge flow in a 5:1 scaled model of the medtronic parallel bileaflet heart valve prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, T. M.; Fontaine, A. A.; Ellis, J. T.; Walton, S. P.; Yoganathan, A. P.

    In this work, a flow visualization experiment was performed to elucidate features of the retrograde hinge flow through a 5:1 scaled model of the Medtronic Parallel bileaflet heart valve. It was hypothesized that this model would provide detailed flow information facilitating identification of flow structures associated with thrombus formation in this valve. The experimental protocol was designed to ensure fluid dynamic similarity between the model and prototype heart valves. Flow was visualized using dye injection. The detailed flow structures observed showed the hinge's inflow channel was the most suspect region for thrombus formation. Here a complex helical structure was observed.

  14. Quantitative measurements in a lid-driven, cylindrical cavity using the PHANTOMM flow-tagging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Scott Raymond

    This thesis presents the development and application of a quantitative flow tagging velocimetry technique for liquid flows utilizing Photo-Activated Fluorophores (PAFs). PAFs are nominally fluorescent molecules that have been rendered non-fluorescent by the strategic attachment of a chemical caging group. The caging group is photolytically cleaved upon absorption of ultraviolet light and the original fluorescent dye is recovered and tracked using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Lines of fluorescent dye are created inside a flow with an ultraviolet laser, and quantitative observations of their motion during a known time interval are used to produce accurate measurements of velocity. We have termed this technique Photo-Activated Nonintrusive Tracking Of Molecular Motion (PHANTOMM). The portions of this technique developed in this thesis include several main elements: an automated line fitting procedure which can identify the center of tagged lines to sub pixel precision, an analysis of the errors resulting from the Lagrangian approach to velocity measurements, a camera model that is used to make quantitative measurements from flow tagging images, and a ray tracing procedure that can be used with the camera model to remove distortion in images caused by viewing objects through surfaces where the index of refraction changes. At low Reynolds numbers, the flow in the lid driven cylinder is easily computed and can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the velocimetry technique by comparing measurements directly to computations. These comparisons show that the technique, including all other sources of error, has an RMS error across the entire measured velocity profile of less than 6.0% when two orthogonal cameras are used to reconstruct the tagged line displacement. This also thesis presents the first measurements made in a lid driven cylinder at high Reynolds numbers. This flow is examined over a two decade range of Reynolds numbers (103 ≤ Re ≤ 105). Measurements of

  15. Surface flow visualization of separated flows on the forebody of an F-18 aircraft and wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Richwine, David M.; Banks, Daniel W.

    1988-01-01

    A method of in-flight surface flow visualization similar to wind-tunnel-model oil flows is described for cases where photo-chase planes or onboard photography are not practical. This method, used on an F-18 aircraft in flight at high angles of attack, clearly showed surface flow streamlines in the fuselage forebody. Vortex separation and reattachment lines were identified with this method and documented using postflight photography. Surface flow angles measured at the 90 and 270 degrees meridians show excellent agreement with the wind tunnel data for a pointed tangent ogive with an aspect ratio of 3.5. The separation and reattachment line locations were qualitatively similar to the F-18 wind-tunnel-model oil flows but neither the laminar separation bubble nor the boundary-layer transition on the wind tunnel model were evident in the flight surface flows. The separation and reattachment line locations were in fair agreement with the wind tunnel data for the 3.5 ogive. The elliptical forebody shape of the F-18 caused the primary separation lines to move toward the leeward meridian. Little effect of angle of attack on the separation locations was noted for the range reported.

  16. A quantitative model of ground-water flow during formation of tabular sandstone uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a quantitative simulation of regional groundwater flow during uranium deposition in the Westwater Canyon Member and Jackpile Sandstone Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the San Juan basin. Topographic slope, shoreline position, and density contrasts in the lake and pore fluids controlled the directions of flow and recharge-discharge areas. The most important results for uranium ore deposit formation are that regional groundwater discharged throughout the basin, regional discharge was concentrated along the shore line or playa margin, flow was dominantly gravity driven, and compaction dewatering was negligible. A strong association is found between the tabular sandstone uranium deposits and major inferred zones of mixed local and regional groundwater discharge. -from Author

  17. Quantitative fuel vapor/air mixing imaging in droplet/gas regions of an evaporating spray flow using filtered Rayleigh scattering.

    PubMed

    Allison, Patton M; McManus, Thomas A; Sutton, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    This Letter demonstrates the application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for quantitative two-dimensional fuel vapor/air mixing measurements in an evaporating hydrocarbon fuel spray flow. Using the FRS approach, gas-phase measurements are made in the presence of liquid-phase droplets without interference. Effective suppression of the liquid-phase droplet scattering using FRS is enabled by the high spectral purity of the current Nd:YAG laser system. Simultaneous Mie-scattering imaging is used to visualize the droplet field and illustrate the droplet loading under which the FRS imaging is applied in the current spray flows. The initial quantification of the FRS imaging is based on calibration measurements from a flow cell of known fuel vapor/air mixtures, while future work targets the utilization of a Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral model for quantification of the FRS signals.

  18. Quantitating and Dating Recent Gene Flow between European and East Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Pengfei; Zhou, Ying; Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Yuchen; Jin, Li; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Historical records indicate that extensive cultural, commercial and technological interaction occurred between European and Asian populations. What have been the biological consequences of these contacts in terms of gene flow? We systematically estimated gene flow between Eurasian groups using genome-wide polymorphisms from 34 populations representing Europeans, East Asians, and Central/South Asians. We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations. In addition we quantitatively estimated the extent of this gene flow using two statistical approaches, and dated admixture events based on admixture linkage disequilibrium. Our results indicate that most genetic admixtures occurred between 2,400 and 310 years ago and show the admixture proportions to be highly correlated with geographic locations, with the highest admixture proportions observed in Central Asia and the lowest in East Asia and Northwestern Europe. Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the history of human migration and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the genetic structure of populations in Eurasia. PMID:25833680

  19. A quantitative study on accumulation of age mass around stagnation points in nested flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Ge, Shemin; Cao, Guo-Liang; Hou, Guang-Cai; Hu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong; Liang, Si-Hai

    2012-12-01

    The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little quantitative research has been devoted to prove this assumption. In this paper, the transport of age mass is used as an example to demonstrate that transported matter could accumulate around stagnation points. The spatial distribution of model age is analyzed in a series of drainage basins of different depths. We found that groundwater age has a local or regional maximum value around each stagnation point, which proves the accumulation of age mass. In basins where local, intermediate and regional flow systems are all well developed, the regional maximum groundwater age occurs at the regional stagnation point below the basin valley. This can be attributed to the long travel distances of regional flow systems as well as stagnancy of the water. However, when local flow systems dominate, the maximum groundwater age in the basin can be located around the local stagnation points due to stagnancy, which are far away from the basin valley. A case study is presented to illustrate groundwater flow and age in the Ordos Plateau, northwestern China. The accumulation of age mass around stagnation points is confirmed by tracer age determined by 14C dating in two boreholes and simulated age near local stagnation points under different dispersivities. The results will help shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of groundwater age, hydrochemistry, mineral resources, and hydrocarbons in drainage basins.

  20. Quantitating and dating recent gene flow between European and East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengfei; Zhou, Ying; Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Yuchen; Jin, Li; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-04-02

    Historical records indicate that extensive cultural, commercial and technological interaction occurred between European and Asian populations. What have been the biological consequences of these contacts in terms of gene flow? We systematically estimated gene flow between Eurasian groups using genome-wide polymorphisms from 34 populations representing Europeans, East Asians, and Central/South Asians. We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations. In addition we quantitatively estimated the extent of this gene flow using two statistical approaches, and dated admixture events based on admixture linkage disequilibrium. Our results indicate that most genetic admixtures occurred between 2,400 and 310 years ago and show the admixture proportions to be highly correlated with geographic locations, with the highest admixture proportions observed in Central Asia and the lowest in East Asia and Northwestern Europe. Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the history of human migration and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the genetic structure of populations in Eurasia.