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Sample records for quantitative immunocytochemical image

  1. Hypergravity exposure decreases gamma-aminobutyric acid immunoreactivity in axon terminals contacting pyramidal cells in the rat somatosensory cortex: a quantitative immunocytochemical image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Wu, L. C.; Fox, R. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Polyakov, I.

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of gamma-aminobutyric acid immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of exposure to hypergravity (hyper-G) was conducted by using computer-assisted image processing. The area of GABA-IR axosomatic terminals apposed to pyramidal cells of cortical layer V was reduced in rats exposed to hyper-G compared with control rats, which were exposed either to rotation alone or to vivarium conditions. Based on previous immunocytochemical and behavioral studies, we suggest that this reduction is due to changes in sensory feedback information from muscle receptors. Consequently, priorities for muscle recruitment are altered at the cortical level, and a new pattern of muscle activity is thus generated. It is proposed that the reduction observed in GABA-IR of the terminal area around pyramidal neurons is the immunocytochemical expression of changes in the activity of GABAergic cells that participate in reprogramming motor outputs to achieve effective movement control in response to alterations in the afferent information.

  2. Cellular Organization of Normal Mouse Liver: A Histological, Quantitative Immunocytochemical, and Fine Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Janie L.; Ngo, Anthony; Lopez, Bryan; Kasabwalla, Natasha; Longmuir, Kenneth J.; Robertson, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular organization of normal mouse liver was studied using light and electron microscopy and quantitative immunocytochemical techniques. The general histological organization of the mouse liver is similar to livers of other mammalian species, with a lobular organization based on the distributions of portal areas and central venules. The parenchymal hepatocytes were detected with immunocytochemical techniques to recognize albumin or biotin containing cells. The macrophage Kupffer cells were identified with F4-80 immunocytochemistry, Ito stellate cells were identified with GFAP immunocytochemistry, and endothelial cells were labeled with the CD-34 antibody. Kupffer cells were labeled with intravascularly administered fluorescently labeled latex microspheres of both large (0.5 μm) and small (0.03 μm) diameters, while endothelial cells were labeled only with small diameter microspheres. Neither hepatocytes nor Ito stellate cells were labeled by intravascularly administered latex microspheres. The principal fine structural features of hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells of mouse liver are similar to those reported for rat. Counts of immunocytochemically labeled cells with stained nuclei indicated that hepatocytes constituted approximately 52% of all labeled cells, Kupffer cells about 18%, Ito cells about 8%, and endothelial cells about 22% of all labeled cells. Approximately 35% of the hepatocytes contained two nuclei; none of the Kupffer or Ito cells were double nucleated. The presence of canaliculi and a bile duct system appear similar to that reported for other mammalian species. The cellular organization of the mouse liver is quite similar to that of other mammalian species, confirming that the mouse presents a useful animal model for studies of liver structure and function. PMID:19255771

  3. Isolation and Quantitative Immunocytochemical Characterization of Primary Myogenic Cells and Fibroblasts from Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Agley, Chibeza C.; Rowlerson, Anthea M.; Velloso, Cristiana P.; Lazarus, Norman L.; Harridge, Stephen D. R.

    2015-01-01

    The repair and regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the action of satellite cells, which are the resident muscle stem cells. These can be isolated from human muscle biopsy samples using enzymatic digestion and their myogenic properties studied in culture. Quantitatively, the two main adherent cell types obtained from enzymatic digestion are: (i) the satellite cells (termed myogenic cells or muscle precursor cells), identified initially as CD56+ and later as CD56+/desmin+ cells and (ii) muscle-derived fibroblasts, identified as CD56– and TE-7+. Fibroblasts proliferate very efficiently in culture and in mixed cell populations these cells may overrun myogenic cells to dominate the culture. The isolation and purification of different cell types from human muscle is thus an important methodological consideration when trying to investigate the innate behavior of either cell type in culture. Here we describe a system of sorting based on the gentle enzymatic digestion of cells using collagenase and dispase followed by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) which gives both a high purity (>95% myogenic cells) and good yield (~2.8 x 106 ± 8.87 x 105 cells/g tissue after 7 days in vitro) for experiments in culture. This approach is based on incubating the mixed muscle-derived cell population with magnetic microbeads beads conjugated to an antibody against CD56 and then passing cells though a magnetic field. CD56+ cells bound to microbeads are retained by the field whereas CD56– cells pass unimpeded through the column. Cell suspensions from any stage of the sorting process can be plated and cultured. Following a given intervention, cell morphology, and the expression and localization of proteins including nuclear transcription factors can be quantified using immunofluorescent labeling with specific antibodies and an image processing and analysis package. PMID:25650991

  4. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marvin E.; Aalderink, Bernard J.; Padoan, Roberto; de Bruin, Gerrit; Steemers, Ted A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared). By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands) to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms. PMID:27873831

  5. Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.; Fecht, B.A.

    1992-12-31

    The goal of the MEASUREMENT OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE project is to develop and deliver a suite of imaging radiometric instruments for measuring spatial distributions of chemiluminescence. Envisioned deliverables include instruments working at the microscopic, macroscopic, and life-sized scales. Both laboratory and field portable instruments are envisioned. The project also includes development of phantoms as enclosures for the diazoluminomelanin (DALM) chemiluminescent chemistry. A suite of either phantoms in a variety of typical poses, or phantoms that could be adjusted to a variety of poses, is envisioned. These are to include small mammals (rats), mid-sized mammals (monkeys), and human body parts. A complete human phantom that can be posed is a long-term goal of the development. Taken together, the chemistry and instrumentation provide a means for imaging rf dosimetry based on chemiluminescence induced by the heat resulting from rf energy absorption. The first delivered instrument, the Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (QLIS), resulted in a patent, and an R&D Magazine 1991 R&D 100 award, recognizing it as one of the 100 most significant technological developments of 1991. The current status of the project is that three systems have been delivered, several related studies have been conducted, two preliminary human hand phantoms have been delivered, system upgrades have been implemented, and calibrations have been maintained. Current development includes sensitivity improvements to the microscope-based system; extension of the large-scale (potentially life-sized targets) system to field portable applications; extension of the 2-D large-scale system to 3-D measurement; imminent delivery of a more refined human hand phantom and a rat phantom; rf, thermal and imaging subsystem integration; and continued calibration and upgrade support.

  6. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batishko, C. R.; Stahl, K. A.; Fecht, B. A.

    The goal of the Measurement of Chemiluminescence project is to develop and deliver a suite of imaging radiometric instruments for measuring spatial distributions of chemiluminescence. Envisioned deliverables include instruments working at the microscopic, macroscopic, and life-sized scales. Both laboratory and field portable instruments are envisioned. The project also includes development of phantoms as enclosures for the diazoluminomelanin (DALM) chemiluminescent chemistry. A suite of either phantoms in a variety of typical poses, or phantoms that could be adjusted to a variety of poses, is envisioned. These are to include small mammals (rats), mid-sized mammals (monkeys), and human body parts. A complete human phantom that can be posed is a long-term goal of the development. Taken together, the chemistry and instrumentation provide a means for imaging rf dosimetry based on chemiluminescence induced by the heat resulting from rf energy absorption. The first delivered instrument, the Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (QLIS), resulted in a patent, and an R&D Magazine 1991 R&D 100 award, recognizing it as one of the 100 most significant technological developments of 1991. The current status of the project is that three systems have been delivered, several related studies have been conducted, two preliminary human hand phantoms have been delivered, system upgrades have been implemented, and calibrations have been maintained. Current development includes sensitivity improvements to the microscope-based system; extension of the large-scale (potentially life-sized targets) system to field portable applications; extension of the 2-D large-scale system to 3-D measurement; imminent delivery of a more refined human hand phantom and a rat phantom; rf, thermal and imaging subsystem integration; and continued calibration and upgrade support.

  7. The Python pit organ: imaging and immunocytochemical analysis of an extremely sensitive natural infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Grace, M S; Church, D R; Kelly, C T; Lynn, W F; Cooper, T M

    1999-01-01

    The Python infrared-sensitive pit organ is a natural infrared imager that combines high sensitivity, ambient temperature function, microscopic dimensions, and self-repair. We are investigating the spectral sensitivity and signal transduction process in snake infrared-sensitive neurons, neither of which is understood. For example, it is unknown whether infrared receptor neurons function on a thermal or a photic mechanism. We imaged pit organs in living Python molurus and Python regius using infrared-sensitive digital video cameras. Pit organs were significantly more absorptive and/or emissive than surrounding tissues in both 3-5 microns and 8-12 microns wavelength ranges. Pit organs exhibited greater absorption/emissivity in the 8-12 microns range than in the 3-5 microns range. To directly test the relationship between photoreceptors and pit organ infrared-sensitive neurons, we performed immunocytochemistry using antisera directed against retinal photoreceptor opsins. Retinal photoreceptors were labeled with antisera specific for retinal opsins, but these antisera failed to label terminals of infrared-sensitive neurons in the pit organ. Infrared-receptive neurons were also distinguished from retinal photoreceptors on the basis of their calcium-binding protein content. These results indicate that the pit organ absorbs infrared radiation in two major atmospheric transmission windows, one of which (8-12 microns) matches emission of targeted prey, and that infrared receptors are biochemically distinct from retinal photoreceptors. These results also provide the first identification of prospective biochemical components of infrared signal transduction in pit organ receptor neurons.

  8. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Erwin, D.N.; Kiel, J.L.; Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.

    1990-08-14

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopic imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber. 22 figs.

  9. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Erwin, David N.; Kiel, Johnathan L.; Batishko, Charles R.; Stahl, Kurt A.

    1990-01-01

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  10. Quantitative imaging methods in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Oei, Ling; Koromani, Fjorda; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M. Carola

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features. Further, novel quantitative techniques are being developed to appraise additional characteristics of osteoporosis including three-dimensional bone architecture with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Dedicated high-resolution (HR) CT equipment is available to enhance image quality. At the other end of the spectrum, by utilizing post-processing techniques such as the trabecular bone score (TBS) information on three-dimensional architecture can be derived from DXA images. Further developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem promising to not only capture bone micro-architecture but also characterize processes at the molecular level. This review provides an overview of various quantitative imaging techniques based on different radiological modalities utilized in clinical osteoporosis care and research. PMID:28090446

  11. Quantitative imaging methods in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Oei, Ling; Koromani, Fjorda; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; Oei, Edwin H G

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features. Further, novel quantitative techniques are being developed to appraise additional characteristics of osteoporosis including three-dimensional bone architecture with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Dedicated high-resolution (HR) CT equipment is available to enhance image quality. At the other end of the spectrum, by utilizing post-processing techniques such as the trabecular bone score (TBS) information on three-dimensional architecture can be derived from DXA images. Further developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem promising to not only capture bone micro-architecture but also characterize processes at the molecular level. This review provides an overview of various quantitative imaging techniques based on different radiological modalities utilized in clinical osteoporosis care and research.

  12. Quantitative ultrasonic phased array imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Brady J.; Schmerr, Lester W., Jr.; Sedov, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    When imaging with ultrasonic phased arrays, what do we actually image? What quantitative information is contained in the image? Ad-hoc delay-and-sum methods such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and the total focusing method (TFM) fail to answer these questions. We have shown that a new quantitative approach allows the formation of flaw images by explicitly inverting the Thompson-Gray measurement model. To examine the above questions, we have set up a software simulation test bed that considers a 2-D scalar scattering problem of a cylindrical inclusion with the method of separation of variables. It is shown that in SAFT types of imaging the only part of the flaw properly imaged is the front surface specular response of the flaw. Other responses (back surface reflections, creeping waves, etc.) are improperly imaged and form artifacts in the image. In the case of TFM-like imaging the quantity being properly imaged is an angular integration of the front surface reflectivity. The other, improperly imaged responses are also averaged, leading to a reduction in some of the artifacts present. Our results have strong implications for flaw sizing and flaw characterization with delay-and-sum images.

  13. Quantitative multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada

    2014-02-01

    Certified clinical multiphoton tomographs for label-free multidimensional high-resolution in vivo imaging have been introduced to the market several years ago. Novel tomographs include a flexible 360° scan head attached to a mechanooptical arm for autofluorescence and SHG imaging as well as a CARS module. Non-fluorescent lipids and water, mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen can be imaged in vivo with submicron resolution in human skin. Sensitive and rapid detectors allow single photon counting and the construction of 3D maps where the number of detected photons per voxel is depicted. Intratissue concentration profiles from endogenous as well exogenous substances can be generated when the number of detected photons can be correlated with the number of molecules with respect to binding and scattering behavior. Furthermore, the skin ageing index SAAID based on the ratio elastin/collagen as well as the epidermis depth based on the onset of SHG generation can be determined.

  14. Somatostatin-14-like antigenic sites in fixed islet D-cells are unaltered by cysteamine: a quantitative electron microscopic immunocytochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y C; Ravazzola, M; Amherdt, M; Orci, L

    1987-04-01

    Exposure of somatostatin cells to cysteamine (CSH) produces a marked reduction in somatostatin-14-like immunoreactivity (S-14 LI) in cell extracts. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of CSH on S-14-like sites in fixed islet D-cells using immunofluorescence and quantitative electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Monolayer cultures of rat islet cells exposed to CSH (10 mM) for 1 h and subsequently extracted in 1 M acetic acid exhibited a severe reduction in S-14 LI from 6.6 +/- 0.48 to 0.7 +/- 0.06 ng/dish. CSH-induced reduction in S-14 LI persisted when cells were fixed in Zamboni's solution for 16 h and subsequently extracted and assayed. By immunofluorescence, however, the relative numbers of somatostatin-positive cells as well as the fluorescent intensity were identical in control and CSH-treated cells. CSH did not produce any identifiable abnormality in the ultrastructural appearance of D-cells. Protein A-gold labeling of the islet cells showed a uniform distribution of gold particles in both control and CSH-treated cultures. The density of gold particles over D-cell secretory granules from CSH-exposed cultures (36.6 +/- 3.5 particles/micron2) was not different from that in control D-cell granules (42.2 +/- 5.9 particles/micron2). These data clearly indicate that despite a profound reduction by CSH of S-14 LI in tissue extracts, there is no detectable decrease in the same antigenic sites in tissue sections when assessed immunocytochemically.

  15. Somatostatin-14-like antigenic sites in fixed islet D-cells are unaltered by cysteamine: a quantitative electron microscopic immunocytochemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Y.C.; Ravazzola, M.; Amherdt, M.; Orci, L.

    1987-04-01

    Exposure of somatostatin cells to cysteamine (CSH) produces a marked reduction in somatostatin-14-like immunoreactivity (S-14 LI) in cell extracts. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of CSH on S-14-like sites in fixed islet D-cells using immunofluorescence and quantitative electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Monolayer cultures of rat islet cells exposed to CSH (10 mM) for 1 h and subsequently extracted in 1 M acetic acid exhibited a severe reduction in S-14 LI from 6.6 +/- 0.48 to 0.7 +/- 0.06 ng/dish. CSH-induced reduction in S-14 LI persisted when cells were fixed in Zamboni's solution for 16 h and subsequently extracted and assayed. By immunofluorescence, however, the relative numbers of somatostatin-positive cells as well as the fluorescent intensity were identical in control and CSH-treated cells. CSH did not produce any identifiable abnormality in the ultrastructural appearance of D-cells. Protein A-gold labeling of the islet cells showed a uniform distribution of gold particles in both control and CSH-treated cultures. The density of gold particles over D-cell secretory granules from CSH-exposed cultures (36.6 +/- 3.5 particles/micron2) was not different from that in control D-cell granules (42.2 +/- 5.9 particles/micron2). These data clearly indicate that despite a profound reduction by CSH of S-14 LI in tissue extracts, there is no detectable decrease in the same antigenic sites in tissue sections when assessed immunocytochemically.

  16. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers of NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Kinner, Sonja; Reeder, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR), play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by allowing noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. However, conventional imaging modalities are limited as biomarkers of NAFLD for various reasons. Multi-parametric quantitative MRI techniques overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional imaging and allow comprehensive and objective evaluation of NAFLD. MRI can provide unconfounded biomarkers of hepatic fat, iron, and fibrosis in a single examination—a virtual biopsy has become a clinical reality. In this article, we will review the utility and limitation of conventional US, CT, and MR imaging for the diagnosis NAFLD. Recent advances in imaging biomarkers of NAFLD are also discussed with an emphasis in multi-parametric quantitative MRI. PMID:26848588

  17. Quantitative phase imaging of arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Shamira; Katz, Aron; Soto-Adames, Felipe; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Classification of arthropods is performed by characterization of fine features such as setae and cuticles. An unstained whole arthropod specimen mounted on a slide can be preserved for many decades, but is difficult to study since current methods require sample manipulation or tedious image processing. Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique that is an add-on module to a commercial phase contrast microscope. We use SLIM to image a whole organism springtail Ceratophysella denticulata mounted on a slide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that an entire organism has been imaged using QPI. We also demonstrate the ability of SLIM to image fine structures in addition to providing quantitative data that cannot be obtained by traditional bright field microscopy. PMID:26334858

  18. Quantitative Ultrasound in Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Feleppa, Ernest J.; Mamou, Jonathan; Porter, Christopher R.; Machi, Junji

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound is a relatively inexpensive, portable, and versatile imaging modality that has a broad range of clinical uses. It incorporates many imaging modes, such as conventional gray-scale “B-mode” imaging to display echo amplitude in a scanned plane; M-mode imaging to track motion at a given fixed location over time; duplex, color, and power Doppler imaging to display motion in a scanned plane; harmonic imaging to display non-linear responses to incident ultrasound; elastographic imaging to display relative tissue stiffness; and contrast-agent imaging with simple contrast agents to display blood-filled spaces or with targeted agents to display specific agent-binding tissue types. These imaging modes have been well described in the scientific, engineering, and clinical literature. A less well-known ultrasonic imaging technology is based on quantitative ultrasound or (QUS), which analyzes the distribution of power as a function of frequency in the original received echo signals from tissue and exploits the resulting spectral parameters to characterize and distinguish among tissues. This article discusses the attributes of QUS-based methods for imaging cancers and providing improved means of detecting and assessing tumors. The discussion will include applications to imaging primary prostate cancer and metastatic cancer in lymph nodes to illustrate the methods. PMID:21362522

  19. Quantitative imaging as cancer biomarker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankoff, David A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to assay tumor biologic features and the impact of drugs on tumor biology is fundamental to drug development. Advances in our ability to measure genomics, gene expression, protein expression, and cellular biology have led to a host of new targets for anticancer drug therapy. In translating new drugs into clinical trials and clinical practice, these same assays serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific anticancer treatments. As cancer therapy becomes more individualized and targeted, there is an increasing need to characterize tumors and identify therapeutic targets to select therapy most likely to be successful in treating the individual patient's cancer. Thus far assays to identify cancer therapeutic targets or anticancer drug pharmacodynamics have been based upon in vitro assay of tissue or blood samples. Advances in molecular imaging, particularly PET, have led to the ability to perform quantitative non-invasive molecular assays. Imaging has traditionally relied on structural and anatomic features to detect cancer and determine its extent. More recently, imaging has expanded to include the ability to image regional biochemistry and molecular biology, often termed molecular imaging. Molecular imaging can be considered an in vivo assay technique, capable of measuring regional tumor biology without perturbing it. This makes molecular imaging a unique tool for cancer drug development, complementary to traditional assay methods, and a potentially powerful method for guiding targeted therapy in clinical trials and clinical practice. The ability to quantify, in absolute measures, regional in vivo biologic parameters strongly supports the use of molecular imaging as a tool to guide therapy. This review summarizes current and future applications of quantitative molecular imaging as a biomarker for cancer therapy, including the use of imaging to (1) identify patients whose tumors express a specific therapeutic target; (2) determine

  20. Clinical Utility of Quantitative Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy; Abramson, Richard G.; Burton, Kirsteen R.; Yu, John-Paul J.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Subramaniam, Rathan M.; Lenchik, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative imaging (QI) is increasingly applied in modern radiology practice, assisting in the clinical assessment of many patients and providing a source of biomarkers for a spectrum of diseases. QI is commonly used to inform patient diagnosis or prognosis, determine the choice of therapy, or monitor therapy response. Because most radiologists will likely implement some QI tools to meet the patient care needs of their referring clinicians, it is important for all radiologists to become familiar with the strengths and limitations of QI. The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Quantitative Imaging Task Force has explored the clinical application of QI and summarizes its work in this review. We provide an overview of the clinical use of QI by discussing QI tools that are currently employed in clinical practice, clinical applications of these tools, approaches to reporting of QI, and challenges to implementing QI. It is hoped that these insights will help radiologists recognize the tangible benefits of QI to their patients, their referring clinicians, and their own radiology practice. PMID:25442800

  1. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-03-01

    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  2. Quantitative imaging of lymph function.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchi; Wang, Wei; Rasmussen, John C; Joshi, Amit; Houston, Jessica P; Adams, Kristen E; Cameron, Arlin; Ke, Shi; Kwon, Sunkuk; Mawad, Michel E; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2007-06-01

    Functional lymphatic imaging was demonstrated in the abdomen and anterior hindlimb of anesthetized, intact Yorkshire swine by using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging following intradermal administration of 100-200 microl of 32 microM indocyanine green (ICG) and 64 microM hyaluronan NIR imaging conjugate to target the lymph vascular endothelial receptor (LYVE)-1 on the lymph endothelium. NIR fluorescence imaging employed illumination of 780 nm excitation light ( approximately 2 mW/cm(2)) and collection of 830 nm fluorescence generated from the imaging agents. Our results show the ability to image the immediate trafficking of ICG from the plexus, through the vessels and lymphangions, and to the superficial mammary, subiliac, and middle iliac lymph nodes, which were located as deep as 3 cm beneath the tissue surface. "Packets" of ICG-transited lymph vessels of 2-16 cm length propelled at frequencies of 0.5-3.3 pulses/min and velocities of 0.23-0.75 cm/s. Lymph propulsion was independent of respiration rate. In the case of the hyaluronan imaging agent, lymph propulsion was absent as the dye progressed immediately through the plexus and stained the lymph vessels and nodes. Lymph imaging required 5.0 and 11.9 microg of ICG and hyaluronan conjugate, respectively. Our results suggest that microgram quantities of NIR optical imaging agents and their conjugates have a potential to image lymph function in patients suffering from lymph-related disorders.

  3. Quantitative NIR chemical imaging in heritage science.

    PubMed

    Cséfalvayová, Linda; Strlič, Matija; Karjalainen, Harri

    2011-07-01

    Until recently, applications of spectral imaging in heritage science mostly focused on qualitative examination of artworks. This is partly due to the complexity of artworks and partly due to the lack of appropriate standard materials. With the recent advance of NIR imaging spectrometers, the interval 1000-2500 nm became available for exploration, enabling us to extract quantitative chemical information from artworks. In this contribution, the development of 2D NIR quantitative chemical maps of heritage objects is discussed along with presentation of the first quantitative image. Further case studies include semiquantitative mapping of plasticiser distribution in a plastic object and identification of historic plastic materials. In the NIR imaging studies discussed, sets of 256 spatially registered images were collected at different wavelengths in the NIR region of 1000-2500 nm. The data was analyzed as a spectral cube, both as a stack of wavelength-resolved images and as a series of spectra, one per each sample pixel, using multivariate analysis. This approach is only possible using well-characterized reference sample collections, as quantitative imaging applications need to be developed, thus enabling spatial maps of damaged and degraded areas to be visualized to a level of chemical detail previously not possible. Such quantitative chemical mapping of vulnerable areas of heritage objects is invaluable, as it enables damage to historic objects to be quantitatively visualized.

  4. Quantitative histogram analysis of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, Oliver; Ferreira, Sérgio T.

    2006-11-01

    A routine for histogram analysis of images has been written in the object-oriented, graphical development environment LabVIEW. The program converts an RGB bitmap image into an intensity-linear greyscale image according to selectable conversion coefficients. This greyscale image is subsequently analysed by plots of the intensity histogram and probability distribution of brightness, and by calculation of various parameters, including average brightness, standard deviation, variance, minimal and maximal brightness, mode, skewness and kurtosis of the histogram and the median of the probability distribution. The program allows interactive selection of specific regions of interest (ROI) in the image and definition of lower and upper threshold levels (e.g., to permit the removal of a constant background signal). The results of the analysis of multiple images can be conveniently saved and exported for plotting in other programs, which allows fast analysis of relatively large sets of image data. The program file accompanies this manuscript together with a detailed description of two application examples: The analysis of fluorescence microscopy images, specifically of tau-immunofluorescence in primary cultures of rat cortical and hippocampal neurons, and the quantification of protein bands by Western-blot. The possibilities and limitations of this kind of analysis are discussed. Program summaryTitle of program: HAWGC Catalogue identifier: ADXG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXG_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Mobile Intel Pentium III, AMD Duron Installations: No installation necessary—Executable file together with necessary files for LabVIEW Run-time engine Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: WindowsME/2000/XP Programming language used: LabVIEW 7.0 Memory required to execute with typical data:˜16MB for starting and ˜160MB used for

  5. The Quantitative Imaging Network in Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine is a healthcare model that seeks to incorporate a wealth of patient information to identify and classify disease progression and to provide tailored therapeutic solutions for individual patients. Interventions are based on knowledge of molecular and mechanistic causes, pathogenesis and pathology of disease. Individual characteristics of the patients are then used to select appropriate healthcare options. Imaging is playing an increasingly important role in identifying relevant characteristics that help to stratify patients for different interventions. However, lack of standards, limitations in image-processing interoperability, and errors in data collection can limit the applicability of imaging in clinical decision support. Quantitative imaging is the attempt to extract reliable, numerical information from images to eliminate qualitative judgments and errors for providing accurate measures of tumor response to therapy or for predicting future response. This issue of Tomography reports quantitative imaging developments made by several members of the National Cancer Institute Quantitative Imaging Network, a program dedicated to the promotion of quantitative imaging methods for clinical decision support. PMID:28083563

  6. Quantitative Imaging in Cancer Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Mankoff, David A.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Lieberman, Frank S.; Buatti, John M.; Mountz, James M.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Fennessy, Fiona M.M.; Huang, Wei; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wahl, Richard L.; Linden, Hannah M.; Kinahan, Paul; Zhao, Binsheng; Hylton, Nola M.; Gillies, Robert J.; Clarke, Laurence; Nordstrom, Robert; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    As anti-cancer therapies designed to target specific molecular pathways have been developed, it has become critical to develop methods to assess the response induced by such agents. While traditional, anatomic CT and MRI exams are useful in many settings, there is increasing evidence that these methods cannot answer the fundamental biological and physiological questions essential for assessment and, eventually, prediction of treatment response in the clinical trial setting, especially in the critical period soon after treatment is initiated. To optimally apply advances in quantitative imaging methods to trials of targeted cancer therapy, new infrastructure improvements are needed that incorporate these emerging techniques into the settings where they are most likely to have impact. In this review, we first elucidate the needs for therapeutic response assessment in the era of molecularly targeted therapy and describe how quantitative imaging can most effectively provide scientifically and clinically relevant data. We then describe the tools and methods required to apply quantitative imaging and provide concrete examples of work making these advances practically available for routine application in clinical trials. We conclude by proposing strategies to surmount barriers to wider incorporation of these quantitative imaging methods into clinical trials and, eventually, clinical practice. Our goal is to encourage and guide the oncology community to deploy standardized quantitative imaging techniques in clinical trials to further personalize care for cancer patients, and to provide a more efficient path for the development of improved targeted therapies. PMID:26773162

  7. Quantitative Imaging in Cancer Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Mankoff, David A; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Lieberman, Frank S; Buatti, John M; Mountz, James M; Erickson, Bradley J; Fennessy, Fiona M M; Huang, Wei; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wahl, Richard L; Linden, Hannah M; Kinahan, Paul E; Zhao, Binsheng; Hylton, Nola M; Gillies, Robert J; Clarke, Laurence; Nordstrom, Robert; Rubin, Daniel L

    2016-01-15

    As anticancer therapies designed to target specific molecular pathways have been developed, it has become critical to develop methods to assess the response induced by such agents. Although traditional, anatomic CT, and MRI examinations are useful in many settings, increasing evidence suggests that these methods cannot answer the fundamental biologic and physiologic questions essential for assessment and, eventually, prediction of treatment response in the clinical trial setting, especially in the critical period soon after treatment is initiated. To optimally apply advances in quantitative imaging methods to trials of targeted cancer therapy, new infrastructure improvements are needed that incorporate these emerging techniques into the settings where they are most likely to have impact. In this review, we first elucidate the needs for therapeutic response assessment in the era of molecularly targeted therapy and describe how quantitative imaging can most effectively provide scientifically and clinically relevant data. We then describe the tools and methods required to apply quantitative imaging and provide concrete examples of work making these advances practically available for routine application in clinical trials. We conclude by proposing strategies to surmount barriers to wider incorporation of these quantitative imaging methods into clinical trials and, eventually, clinical practice. Our goal is to encourage and guide the oncology community to deploy standardized quantitative imaging techniques in clinical trials to further personalize care for cancer patients and to provide a more efficient path for the development of improved targeted therapies.

  8. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.H.

    1993-12-01

    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  9. Uncertainty Quantification for Quantitative Imaging Holdup Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bevill, Aaron M; Bledsoe, Keith C

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear fuel cycle safeguards, special nuclear material "held up" in pipes, ducts, and glove boxes causes significant uncertainty in material-unaccounted-for estimates. Quantitative imaging is a proposed non-destructive assay technique with potential to estimate the holdup mass more accurately and reliably than current techniques. However, uncertainty analysis for quantitative imaging remains a significant challenge. In this work we demonstrate an analysis approach for data acquired with a fast-neutron coded aperture imager. The work includes a calibrated forward model of the imager. Cross-validation indicates that the forward model predicts the imager data typically within 23%; further improvements are forthcoming. A new algorithm based on the chi-squared goodness-of-fit metric then uses the forward model to calculate a holdup confidence interval. The new algorithm removes geometry approximations that previous methods require, making it a more reliable uncertainty estimator.

  10. Nonspectroscopic imaging for quantitative chlorophyll sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehoon; Kim, Jeong-Im; Visbal-Onufrak, Michelle A.; Chapple, Clint; Kim, Young L.

    2016-01-01

    Nondestructive imaging of physiological changes in plants has been intensively used as an invaluable tool for visualizing heterogeneous responses to various types of abiotic and biotic stress. However, conventional approaches often have intrinsic limitations for quantitative analyses, requiring bulky and expensive optical instruments for capturing full spectral information. We report a spectrometerless (or spectrometer-free) reflectance imaging method that allows for nondestructive and quantitative chlorophyll imaging in individual leaves in situ in a handheld device format. The combination of a handheld-type imaging system and a hyperspectral reconstruction algorithm from an RGB camera offers simple instrumentation and operation while avoiding the use of an imaging spectrograph or tunable color filter. This platform could potentially be integrated into a compact, inexpensive, and portable system, while being of great value in high-throughput phenotyping facilities and laboratory settings.

  11. Quantitative Nuclear Imaging in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charon, Y.; Lanièce, Ph.; Mastrippolito, R.; Siebert, R.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.

    Used initially and extensively for medical diagnosis, nuclear imaging has been progressively extended to other applications like molecular genetics, neurosciences and surgical aids. This review article covers new types of imaging apparatus resulting from this diversification. Far from being exhaustive, we limit ourselves to the three applications cited above, in which our research group has focused its interest. In an extensive first part, we describe three types of detectors dedicated to the three complementary areas of research in genetics at the molecular level: in situ hybridization, gene cartography and DNA sequencing. In addition, we discuss the current limits of these methods and the efforts that we propose to progress further. Then, after recalling some general aspects of in vivo micro-imaging, we present our new technical strategy to investigate in vivo cerebral mechanisms in rodents. Finally, we describe our current development of mini-cameras for assisting surgeons during operations. Exploitée de longue date pour le diagnostic médical, l'imagerie associée aux techniques de marquage radioactif se diversifie depuis peu, sur de nouvelles bases, selon les exigences de la génétique moléculaire, des neurosciences, voire de l'assistance chirurgicale. Cet article de revue, loin d'être exhaustif, se limite à ces trois domaines exemplaires dans lesquels notre équipe a fortement impliqué ses développements. Dans ce contexte, nous consacrons une large première partie à la présentation de trois types de détecteurs dédiés à trois genres d'expériences complémentaires de la génétique moléculaire: l'hybridation in situ, la cartographie des gènes, et le séquençage de l'ADN. Nous discutons au passage les limites actuelles de ces trois méthodes avec les tentatives que nous proposons pour s'en affranchir. Puis, après avoir rappelé quelques aspects généraux de la micro-imagerie in vivo, nous montrons comment nous avons abordé, à partir d

  12. Materials characterization through quantitative digital image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Philliber; B. Antoun; B. Somerday; N. Yang

    2000-07-01

    A digital image analysis system has been developed to allow advanced quantitative measurement of microstructural features. This capability is maintained as part of the microscopy facility at Sandia, Livermore. The system records images digitally, eliminating the use of film. Images obtained from other sources may also be imported into the system. Subsequent digital image processing enhances image appearance through the contrast and brightness adjustments. The system measures a variety of user-defined microstructural features--including area fraction, particle size and spatial distributions, grain sizes and orientations of elongated particles. These measurements are made in a semi-automatic mode through the use of macro programs and a computer controlled translation stage. A routine has been developed to create large montages of 50+ separate images. Individual image frames are matched to the nearest pixel to create seamless montages. Results from three different studies are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  13. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    PubMed

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D; Switz, Neil A; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  14. Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D.; Switz, Neil A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone–based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications. PMID:24824072

  15. Quantitative image processing in fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Helman, James; Ning, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The current status of digital image processing in fluid flow research is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to a comprehensive approach to the extraction of quantitative data from multivariate databases and examples of recent developments. The discussion covers numerical simulations and experiments, data processing, generation and dissemination of knowledge, traditional image processing, hybrid processing, fluid flow vector field topology, and isosurface analysis using Marching Cubes.

  16. Quantitative imaging of bilirubin by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Noninvasive detection of both bilirubin concentration and its distribution is important for disease diagnosis. Here we implemented photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin distribution. We first demonstrate that our PAM system can measure the absorption spectra of bilirubin and blood. We also image bilirubin distributions in tissuemimicking samples, both without and with blood mixed. Our results show that PAM has the potential to quantitatively image bilirubin in vivo for clinical applications.

  17. Quantitative imaging features: extension of the oncology medical image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P. T.; Young, K. C.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. With the advent of digital imaging modalities and the rapid growth in both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of data is of paramount importance. The Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) was created to provide a centralized, fully annotated dataset for research. The database contains both processed and unprocessed images, associated data, and annotations and where applicable expert determined ground truths describing features of interest. Medical imaging provides the ability to detect and localize many changes that are important to determine whether a disease is present or a therapy is effective by depicting alterations in anatomic, physiologic, biochemical or molecular processes. Quantitative imaging features are sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible imaging measures of these changes. Here, we describe an extension to the OMI-DB whereby a range of imaging features and descriptors are pre-calculated using a high throughput approach. The ability to calculate multiple imaging features and data from the acquired images would be valuable and facilitate further research applications investigating detection, prognosis, and classification. The resultant data store contains more than 10 million quantitative features as well as features derived from CAD predictions. Theses data can be used to build predictive models to aid image classification, treatment response assessment as well as to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers.

  18. Cardiovascular and pulmonary dynamics by quantitative imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    The accuracy and range of studies on cardiovascular and pulmonary functions can be greatly facilitated if the motions of the underlying organ systems throughout individual cycles can be directly visualized and readily measured with minimum or preferably no effect on these motions. Achievement of this objective requires development of techniques for quantitative noninvasive or minimally invasive dynamic and stop-action imaging of the organ systems. A review of advances in dynamic quantitative imaging of moving organs reveals that the revolutionary value of cross-sectional and three-dimensional images produced by various types of radiant energy such as X-rays and gamma rays, positrons, electrons, protons, light, and ultrasound for clinical diagnostic and biomedical research applications is just beginning to be realized. The fabrication of a clinically useful cross-section reconstruction device with sensing capabilities for both anatomical structural composition and chemical composition may be possible and awaits future development.

  19. Quantitative Imaging in Cancer Evolution and Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Olya; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer therapy, even when highly targeted, typically fails because of the remarkable capacity of malignant cells to evolve effective adaptations. These evolutionary dynamics are both a cause and a consequence of cancer system heterogeneity at many scales, ranging from genetic properties of individual cells to large-scale imaging features. Tumors of the same organ and cell type can have remarkably diverse appearances in different patients. Furthermore, even within a single tumor, marked variations in imaging features, such as necrosis or contrast enhancement, are common. Similar spatial variations recently have been reported in genetic profiles. Radiologic heterogeneity within tumors is usually governed by variations in blood flow, whereas genetic heterogeneity is typically ascribed to random mutations. However, evolution within tumors, as in all living systems, is subject to Darwinian principles; thus, it is governed by predictable and reproducible interactions between environmental selection forces and cell phenotype (not genotype). This link between regional variations in environmental properties and cellular adaptive strategies may permit clinical imaging to be used to assess and monitor intratumoral evolution in individual patients. This approach is enabled by new methods that extract, report, and analyze quantitative, reproducible, and mineable clinical imaging data. However, most current quantitative metrics lack spatialness, expressing quantitative radiologic features as a single value for a region of interest encompassing the whole tumor. In contrast, spatially explicit image analysis recognizes that tumors are heterogeneous but not well mixed and defines regionally distinct habitats, some of which appear to harbor tumor populations that are more aggressive and less treatable than others. By identifying regional variations in key environmental selection forces and evidence of cellular adaptation, clinical imaging can enable us to define intratumoral

  20. Quantitative multi-image analysis for biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Martin A B; Bergholt, Mads S; Stevens, Molly M

    2016-05-01

    Imaging by Raman spectroscopy enables unparalleled label-free insights into cell and tissue composition at the molecular level. With established approaches limited to single image analysis, there are currently no general guidelines or consensus on how to quantify biochemical components across multiple Raman images. Here, we describe a broadly applicable methodology for the combination of multiple Raman images into a single image for analysis. This is achieved by removing image specific background interference, unfolding the series of Raman images into a single dataset, and normalisation of each Raman spectrum to render comparable Raman images. Multivariate image analysis is finally applied to derive the contributing 'pure' biochemical spectra for relative quantification. We present our methodology using four independently measured Raman images of control cells and four images of cells treated with strontium ions from substituted bioactive glass. We show that the relative biochemical distribution per area of the cells can be quantified. In addition, using k-means clustering, we are able to discriminate between the two cell types over multiple Raman images. This study shows a streamlined quantitative multi-image analysis tool for improving cell/tissue characterisation and opens new avenues in biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging.

  1. Metrology Standards for Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Daniel C; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Kessler, Larry G; Raunig, David L; Gatsonis, Constantine; Huang, Erich P; Kondratovich, Marina; McShane, Lisa M; Reeves, Anthony P; Barboriak, Daniel P; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Wahl, Richard L

    2015-12-01

    Although investigators in the imaging community have been active in developing and evaluating quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs), the development and implementation of QIBs have been hampered by the inconsistent or incorrect use of terminology or methods for technical performance and statistical concepts. Technical performance is an assessment of how a test performs in reference objects or subjects under controlled conditions. In this article, some of the relevant statistical concepts are reviewed, methods that can be used for evaluating and comparing QIBs are described, and some of the technical performance issues related to imaging biomarkers are discussed. More consistent and correct use of terminology and study design principles will improve clinical research, advance regulatory science, and foster better care for patients who undergo imaging studies.

  2. Quantitative high spatiotemporal imaging of biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbely, Joe; Otterstrom, Jason; Mohan, Nitin; Manzo, Carlo; Lakadamyali, Melike

    2015-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy has revolutionized fluorescence imaging providing access to length scales that are much below the diffraction limit. The super-resolution methods have the potential for novel discoveries in biology. However, certain technical limitations must be overcome for this potential to be fulfilled. One of the main challenges is the use of super-resolution to study dynamic events in living cells. In addition, the ability to extract quantitative information from the super-resolution images is confounded by the complex photophysics that the fluorescent probes exhibit during the imaging. Here, we will review recent developments we have been implementing to overcome these challenges and introduce new steps in automated data acquisition towards high-throughput imaging.

  3. Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

    2015-03-07

    We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients.

  4. Spectral modulation interferometry for quantitative phase imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ruibo; Chen, Shichao; Li, Chengshuai; Zhu, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    We propose a spectral-domain interferometric technique, termed spectral modulation interferometry (SMI), and present its application to high-sensitivity, high-speed, and speckle-free quantitative phase imaging. In SMI, one-dimensional complex field of an object is interferometrically modulated onto a broadband spectrum. Full-field phase and intensity images are obtained by scanning along the orthogonal direction. SMI integrates the high sensitivity of spectral-domain interferometry with the high speed of spectral modulation to quantify fast phase dynamics, and its dispersive and confocal nature eliminates laser speckles. The principle and implementation of SMI are discussed. Its performance is evaluated using static and dynamic objects. PMID:25780737

  5. Automated quantitative image analysis of nanoparticle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Chaitanya R.; Gao, Bo; Tao, Andrea R.; Arya, Gaurav

    2015-05-01

    The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated manner. The software outputs averages and distributions in the size, radius of gyration, fractal dimension, backbone length, end-to-end distance, anisotropic ratio, and aspect ratio of NP clusters as a function of time along with bootstrapped error bounds for all calculated properties. The polydispersity in the NP building blocks and biases in the sampling of NP clusters are accounted for through the use of probabilistic weights. This software, named Particle Image Characterization Tool (PICT), has been made publicly available and could be an invaluable resource for researchers studying NP assembly. To demonstrate its practical utility, we used PICT to analyze scanning electron microscopy images taken during the assembly of surface-functionalized metal NPs of differing shapes and sizes within a polymer matrix. PICT is used to characterize and analyze the morphology of NP clusters, providing quantitative information that can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms governing NP assembly.The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated

  6. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D.; Wright, Katherine L.; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) “fingerprinting” technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Results Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). Conclusion A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that

  7. Rapid Quantitative Pharmacodynamic Imaging with Bayesian Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Jonathan M.; Vachon, M. Jonathan; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Black, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently described rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging, a novel method for estimating sensitivity of a biological system to a drug. We tested its accuracy in simulated biological signals with varying receptor sensitivity and varying levels of random noise, and presented initial proof-of-concept data from functional MRI (fMRI) studies in primate brain. However, the initial simulation testing used a simple iterative approach to estimate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) parameters, an approach that was computationally efficient but returned parameters only from a small, discrete set of values chosen a priori. Here we revisit the simulation testing using a Bayesian method to estimate the PKPD parameters. This improved accuracy compared to our previous method, and noise without intentional signal was never interpreted as signal. We also reanalyze the fMRI proof-of-concept data. The success with the simulated data, and with the limited fMRI data, is a necessary first step toward further testing of rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging. PMID:27092045

  8. Classifying thoracolumbar fractures: role of quantitative imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tomás Muñoz, Pablo; Moya Sánchez, Elena; Revelles Paniza, Marta; Martínez Martínez, Alberto; Pérez Abela, Antonio Luis

    2016-01-01

    This article describes different types of vertebral fractures that affect the thoracolumbar spine and the most relevant contributions of the different classification systems to vertebral fracture management. The vertebral fractures types are based on the three columns model of Denis that includes compression, burst, flexion-distraction and fracture-dislocation types. The most recent classifications systems of these types of fractures are reviewed, including the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity score (TLICS) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen Spine Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity score (AOSpine-TLICS). Correct classification requires a quantitative imaging approach in which several measurements determine TLICS or AOSpine-TLICS grade. If the TLICS score is greater than 4, or the AOSpine-TLICS is greater than 5, surgical management is indicated. In this review, the most important imaging findings and measurements on radiography, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. These include degree of vertebral wedging and percentage of vertebral height loss in compression fractures, degree of interpedicular distance widening and spinal canal stenosis in burst fractures, and the degree of vertebral translation or interspinous widening in more severe fractures types, such as flexion-distraction and fracture-dislocation. These findings and measurements are illustrated with schemes and cases of our archives in a didactic way. PMID:28090452

  9. Quantitative imaging of acoustic reflection and interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Robert; Todd, Thomas; Robert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for time resolved quantitative imaging of acoustic waves. We present the theoretical background, the experimental method and the comparison between experimental and numerical reconstructions of acoustic reflection and interference. Laser Doppler vibrometry is used to detect the modulation of the propagation velocity of light, c, due to pressure-dependant changes in the refractive index of air. Variation in c is known to be proportional to variation in acoustic pressure and thus can be used to quantify sound pressure fluctuations. The method requires the laser beam to travel through the sound field, in effect integrating pressure along a transect line. We investigate the applicability of the method, in particular the effect of the geometry of the sound radiator on line integration. Both experimental and finite element reconstructions of the sound field are in good agreement, corroborating punctual pressure measurements from a precision microphone. Spatial limitations and accuracy of the method are presented and discussed.

  10. Quantitative thermal imaging of aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Howell, Patricia A.; Syed, Hazari I.

    1995-03-01

    Aircraft structural integrity is a major concern for airlines and airframe manufacturers. To remain economically competitive, airlines are looking at ways to retire older aircraft, not when some fixed number of flight hours or cycles has been reached, but when true structural need dictates. This philosophy is known as `retirement for cause.' The need to extend the life of commercial aircraft has increased the desire to develop nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques capable of detecting critical flaws such as disbonding and corrosion. These subsurface flaws are of major concern in bonded lap joints. Disbonding in such a joint can provide an avenue for moisture to enter the structure leading to corrosion. Significant material loss due to corrosion can substantially reduce the structural strength, load bearing capacity and ultimately reduce the life of the structure. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE system designed for application to disbonding and corrosion detection in aircraft skins. By injecting a small amount of heat into the front surface of an aircraft skin, and recording the time history of the resulting surface temperature variations using an infrared camera, quantitative images of both bond integrity and material loss due to corrosion can be produced. This paper presents a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to analyze the resulting thermal images. The analysis techniques presented represent a significant improvement in the information available over conventional thermal imaging due to the inclusion of data from both the heating and cooling portion of the thermal cycle. Results of laboratory experiments on fabricated disbond and material loss samples are presented to determine the limitations of the system. Additionally, the results of actual aircraft inspections are shown, which help to establish the field applicability for this

  11. Quantitative x-ray imager (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Scott C.; Archuleta, Tom N.; Oertel, John A.; Walsh, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on development of a quantitative x-ray imager (QXI) for the national Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. Included in this development is a study of photocathode response as a function of photon energy, 2-17.5 keV, which is related to diagnostic development on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The QXI is defined as being a quantative imager due to the repeated characterization. This instrument is systematically checked out, electronically as well as its photocathode x-ray response, both on a direct current and pulsed x-ray sources, before and after its use on a shot campaign. The QXI is a gated x-ray imager1 used for a variety of experiments conducted in the Inertial Confinement Fusion and Radiation Physics Program. The camera was assembled in Los Alamos and has been under development since 1997 and has now become the workhorse framing camera by the program. The electronics were built by Grant Applied Physics of San Fransisco, CA.2 The QXI has been used at the LANL Trident, LLNL Nova, and University of Rochester Laboratory OMEGA laser facilities. The camera consists of a grated microchannel plate (MCP), a phosphor coated fiberoptic faceplate coupled to film for data readout, along with high speed electronic pulsers to drive the x-ray detector. The QXI has both a two-strip and a four-strip detection head and has the ability to individually bias the gain of each of the strips. The timing of the QXI was done at the Trident short pulse laboratory, using 211 nm light. Single strip jitter was looked at as well and determined to be <25 ps. Flatfielding of the photocathode across the MCP was done with the Trident main laser with 150 J on a gold disk with a 1 ns. Spatial resolution was determined to be <5 μm by using the same laser conditions as before and a backlit 1000 lp/in. grid. The QXI has been used on cylindrical implosion work at the Nova Laser Facility, and on direct-drive cylinder mix and indirect-drive high convergence implosion experiments at

  12. An immunocytochemical and morphometric study of the rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Elayat, A A; el-Naggar, M M; Tahir, M

    1995-01-01

    The rat pancreas has frequently been used as an animal model to study changes in islet cells in pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and islet cell tumours, but detailed quantitative data on the islets are not available. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate (1) the volume density of pancreatic islets, (2) islet diameter, islet volume and islet cell number and (3) islet cell pattern, i.e. the distribution, volume and number of each cell type per islet. The study also investigated the possibility of differences in various pancreatic regions derived from the dorsal primordium. The rat pancreas was divided into 4 regions: lower duodenal (derived from the ventral primordium) and upper duodenal, gastric and splenic regions (derived from the dorsal primordium). Sections were stained immunocytochemically with anti-insulin (B cells), antiglucagon (A cells), antisomatostatin (D cells) and antipancreatic polypeptide (PP cells) antibodies, and were used for morphometric analysis. A total of 1292 islets was examined, 328 from the lower duodenal, 245 from the upper duodenal, 314 from the gastric and 405 from the splenic regions. The mean volume density of the islets per pancreatic tissue was found to be 2.6 +/- 0.1%, 2.3 +/- 0.1%, 2.9 +/- 0.2% and 3.3 +/- 0.2%, in the lower duodenal, upper duodenal, gastric and splenic regions, respectively. The size-frequency distribution of the profile diameters of the islets showed an overall shift of all the size classes towards smaller sizes in the upper duodenal region, and towards larger sizes in the splenic region, as compared with the corresponding classes of the other regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7559135

  13. Quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction improves accuracy in deep tissue structures.

    PubMed

    Mastanduno, Michael A; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-10-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is emerging as a potentially powerful imaging tool with multiple applications. Image reconstruction for PAI has been relatively limited because of limited or no modeling of light delivery to deep tissues. This work demonstrates a numerical approach to quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction that minimizes depth and spectrally derived artifacts. We present the first time-domain quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction algorithm that models optical sources through acoustic data to create quantitative images of absorption coefficients. We demonstrate quantitative accuracy of less than 5% error in large 3 cm diameter 2D geometries with multiple targets and within 22% error in the largest size quantitative photoacoustic studies to date (6cm diameter). We extend the algorithm to spectral data, reconstructing 6 varying chromophores to within 17% of the true values. This quantitiative PA tomography method was able to improve considerably on filtered-back projection from the standpoint of image quality, absolute, and relative quantification in all our simulation geometries. We characterize the effects of time step size, initial guess, and source configuration on final accuracy. This work could help to generate accurate quantitative images from both endogenous absorbers and exogenous photoacoustic dyes in both preclinical and clinical work, thereby increasing the information content obtained especially from deep-tissue photoacoustic imaging studies.

  14. Quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction improves accuracy in deep tissue structures

    PubMed Central

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is emerging as a potentially powerful imaging tool with multiple applications. Image reconstruction for PAI has been relatively limited because of limited or no modeling of light delivery to deep tissues. This work demonstrates a numerical approach to quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction that minimizes depth and spectrally derived artifacts. We present the first time-domain quantitative photoacoustic image reconstruction algorithm that models optical sources through acoustic data to create quantitative images of absorption coefficients. We demonstrate quantitative accuracy of less than 5% error in large 3 cm diameter 2D geometries with multiple targets and within 22% error in the largest size quantitative photoacoustic studies to date (6cm diameter). We extend the algorithm to spectral data, reconstructing 6 varying chromophores to within 17% of the true values. This quantitiative PA tomography method was able to improve considerably on filtered-back projection from the standpoint of image quality, absolute, and relative quantification in all our simulation geometries. We characterize the effects of time step size, initial guess, and source configuration on final accuracy. This work could help to generate accurate quantitative images from both endogenous absorbers and exogenous photoacoustic dyes in both preclinical and clinical work, thereby increasing the information content obtained especially from deep-tissue photoacoustic imaging studies. PMID:27867695

  15. Quantitative photoacoustic imaging of nanoparticles in cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jason R; Frey, Wolfgang; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2013-02-26

    Quantitative visualization of nanoparticles in cells and tissues, while preserving the spatial information, is very challenging. A photoacoustic imaging technique to depict the presence and quantity of nanoparticles is presented. This technique is based on the dependence of the photoacoustic signal on both the nanoparticle quantity and the laser fluence. Quantitative photoacoustic imaging is a robust technique that does not require knowledge of the local fluence, but a relative change in the fluence. This eliminates the need for sophisticated methods or models to determine the energy distribution of light in turbid media. Quantitative photoacoustic imaging was first applied to nanoparticle-loaded cells, and quantitation was validated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Quantitative photoacoustic imaging was then extended to xenograft tumor tissue sections, and excellent agreement with traditional histopathological analysis was demonstrated. Our results suggest that quantitative photoacoustic imaging may be used in many applications including the determination of the efficiency and effectiveness of molecular targeting strategies for cell studies and animal models, the quantitative assessment of photoacoustic contrast agent biodistribution, and the validation of in vivo photoacoustic imaging.

  16. Ultrafast quantitative time-stretch imaging flow cytometry of phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Queenie T. K.; Lau, Andy K. S.; Tang, Anson H. L.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive quantification of phytoplankton abundance, sizes and other parameters, e.g. biomasses, has been an important, yet daunting task in aquatic sciences and biofuel research. It is primarily because of the lack of effective tool to image and thus accurately profile individual microalgae in a large population. The phytoplankton species are highly diversified and heterogeneous in terms of their sizes and the richness in morphological complexity. This fact makes time-stretch imaging, a new ultrafast real-time optical imaging technology, particularly suitable for ultralarge-scale taxonomic classification of phytoplankton together with quantitative image recognition and analysis. We here demonstrate quantitative imaging flow cytometry of single phytoplankton based on quantitative asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (Q-ATOM) - a new time-stretch imaging modality for label-free quantitative phase imaging without interferometric implementations. Sharing the similar concept of Schlieren imaging, Q-ATOM accesses multiple phase-gradient contrasts of each single phytoplankton, from which the quantitative phase profile is computed. We employ such system to capture, at an imaging line-scan rate of 11.6 MHz, high-resolution images of two phytoplankton populations (scenedesmus and chlamydomonas) in ultrafast microfluidic flow (3 m/s). We further perform quantitative taxonomic screening analysis enabled by this technique. More importantly, the system can also generate quantitative phase images of single phytoplankton. This is especially useful for label-free quantification of biomasses (e.g. lipid droplets) of the particular species of interest - an important task adopted in biofuel applications. Combining machine learning for automated classification, Q-ATOM could be an attractive platform for continuous and real-time ultralarge-scale single-phytoplankton analysis.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative imaging in microgravity combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the imaging techniques implemented by researchers in the microgravity combustion program shows that for almost any system, imaging of the flame may be accomplished in a variety of ways. Standard and intensified video, high speed, and infrared cameras and fluorescence, laser schlieren, rainbow schlieren, soot volume fraction, and soot temperature imaging have all been used in the laboratory and many in reduced gravity to make the necessary experimental measurements.

  18. Castleman's disease of a submandibular mass diagnosed on Fine Needle Cytology: Report of a case with histopathological, immunocytochemical and imaging correlations

    PubMed Central

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Sanna, Veronica; Ionna, Franco; Longo, Francesco; De Chiara, Annarosaria; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Castleman's disease (CD) is an unusual inflammatory lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain aetiology, mainly involving lymphatic tissue in the mediastinum, but also occurring in the neck, lung, abdomen, pelvis, skeletal muscle and retroperitoneum. Fine Needle Cytology (FNC) is a quick, cost-effective and safe diagnostic modality to investigate on organs involved by CD, also providing a guide to treatment and management of patients with lymphoadenopathy. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who underwent FNC of a submandibular mass with subsequent surgical excision. Cytology revealed an atypical lymphoproliferative process, which arose the suspicion of CD. Histopathological study of the excised masses combined with immunhistochemistry and imaging of the submandibular and neck areas, confirmed the suspicion. A final diagnosis of Unicentric Castleman's disease, hyaline-vascular type, was made. PMID:26989647

  19. Quantitative imaging of coronary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alessio, Adam M.; Butterworth, Erik; Caldwell, James H.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality based on the administration of a positron-emitting radiotracer, the imaging of the distribution and kinetics of the tracer, and the interpretation of the physiological events and their meaning with respect to health and disease. PET imaging was introduced in the 1970s and numerous advances in radiotracers and detection systems have enabled this modality to address a wide variety of clinical tasks, such as the detection of cancer, staging of Alzheimer's disease, and assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). This review provides a description of the logic and the logistics of the processes required for PET imaging and a discussion of its use in guiding the treatment of CAD. Finally, we outline prospects and limitations of nanoparticles as agents for PET imaging. PMID:22110860

  20. Progress in Evaluating Quantitative Optical Gas Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of advanced fugitive emission detection and assessment technologies that facilitate cost effective leak and malfunction mitigation strategies is an ongoing goal shared by industry, regulators, and environmental groups. Optical gas imaging (OGI) represents an importan...

  1. Quantitative multimodal multiparametric imaging in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Chen, Xueqi; Zhou, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causing changes in memory, thinking, and other dysfunction of brain functions. More and more people are suffering from the disease. Early neuroimaging techniques of AD are needed to develop. This review provides a preliminary summary of the various neuroimaging techniques that have been explored for in vivo imaging of AD. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, such as functional MR imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, give opportunities to display not only anatomy and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, but also at microstructural alterations or perfusion disturbance within the AD lesions. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has become the subject of intense research for the diagnosis and facilitation of drug development of AD in both animal models and human trials due to its non-invasive and translational characteristic. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and amyloid PET are applied in clinics and research departments. Amyloid beta (Aβ) imaging using PET has been recognized as one of the most important methods for the early diagnosis of AD, and numerous candidate compounds have been tested for Aβ imaging. Besides in vivo imaging method, a lot of ex vivo modalities are being used in the AD researches. Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy, neuroimaging of metals, and several metal bioimaging methods are also mentioned here. More and more multimodality and multiparametric neuroimaging techniques should improve our understanding of brain function and open new insights into the pathophysiology of AD. We expect exciting results will emerge from new neuroimaging applications that will provide scientific and medical benefits.

  2. Quantitative Imaging in Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S.

    2007-01-01

    The process of quantitative imaging, which is very commonly used in laboratory, is shown to be very useful for studying the fast kinetics and fluorescence quenching of many experiments. The imaging technique is extremely cheap and hence can be used in many absorption and luminescence experiments.

  3. Quantitative in vivo imaging of embryonic development: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Chelsea L; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2012-07-01

    Animal models are critically important for a mechanistic understanding of embryonic morphogenesis. For decades, visualizing these rapid and complex multidimensional events has relied on projection images and thin section reconstructions. While much insight has been gained, fixed tissue specimens offer limited information on dynamic processes that are essential for tissue assembly and organ patterning. Quantitative imaging is required to unlock the important basic science and clinically relevant secrets that remain hidden. Recent advances in live imaging technology have enabled quantitative longitudinal analysis of embryonic morphogenesis at multiple length and time scales. Four different imaging modalities are currently being used to monitor embryonic morphogenesis: optical, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Each has its advantages and limitations with respect to spatial resolution, depth of field, scanning speed, and tissue contrast. In addition, new processing tools have been developed to enhance live imaging capabilities. In this review, we analyze each type of imaging source and its use in quantitative study of embryonic morphogenesis in small animal models. We describe the physics behind their function, identify some examples in which the modality has revealed new quantitative insights, and then conclude with a discussion of new research directions with live imaging.

  4. Partial Volume Correction in Quantitative Amyloid Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Ances, Beau M.; Bateman, Randall J.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Aldea, Patricia; Cash, Lisa; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Farrar, Angela M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Mayeux, Richard; Brickman, Adam M.; Klunk, William; Price, Julie C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Schofield, Peter R.; Buckles, Virginia; Morris, John C.; Benzinger, Tammie. LS.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid imaging is a valuable tool for research and diagnosis in dementing disorders. As positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have limited spatial resolution, measured signals are distorted by partial volume effects. Various techniques have been proposed for correcting partial volume effects, but there is no consensus as to whether these techniques are necessary in amyloid imaging, and, if so, how they should be implemented. We evaluated a two-component partial volume correction technique and a regional spread function technique using both simulated and human Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging data. Both correction techniques compensated for partial volume effects and yielded improved detection of subtle changes in PiB retention. However, the regional spread function technique was more accurate in application to simulated data. Because PiB retention estimates depend on the correction technique, standardization is necessary to compare results across groups. Partial volume correction has sometimes been avoided because it increases the sensitivity to inaccuracy in image registration and segmentation. However, our results indicate that appropriate PVC may enhance our ability to detect changes in amyloid deposition. PMID:25485714

  5. Non-interferometric quantitative phase imaging of yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poola, Praveen K.; Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; John, Renu

    2015-12-01

    Real-time imaging of live cells is quite difficult without the addition of external contrast agents. Various methods for quantitative phase imaging of living cells have been proposed like digital holographic microscopy and diffraction phase microscopy. In this paper, we report theoretical and experimental results of quantitative phase imaging of live yeast cells with nanometric precision using transport of intensity equations (TIE). We demonstrate nanometric depth sensitivity in imaging live yeast cells using this technique. This technique being noninterferometric, does not need any coherent light sources and images can be captured through a regular bright-field microscope. This real-time imaging technique would deliver the depth or 3-D volume information of cells and is highly promising in real-time digital pathology applications, screening of pathogens and staging of diseases like malaria as it does not need any preprocessing of samples.

  6. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  7. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image.

  8. Quantitative simultaneous PET-MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Reese, Timothy G.; Kolnick, Aleksandra L.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-06-01

    Whole-body PET is currently limited by the degradation due to patient motion. Respiratory motion degrades imaging studies of the abdomen. Similarly, both respiratory and cardiac motions significantly hamper the assessment of myocardial ischemia and/or metabolism in perfusion and viability cardiac PET studies. Based on simultaneous PET-MR, we have developed robust and accurate MRI methods allowing the tracking and measurement of both respiratory and cardiac motions during abdominal or cardiac studies. Our list-mode iterative PET reconstruction framework incorporates the measured motion fields into PET emission system matrix as well as the time-dependent PET attenuation map and the position dependent point spread function. Our method significantly enhances the PET image quality as compared to conventional methods.

  9. Quantitative biomolecular imaging by dynamic nanomechanical mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Aslan, Hüsnü; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2014-11-07

    The ability to 'see' down to nanoscale has always been one of the most challenging obstacles for researchers to address fundamental questions. For many years, researchers have been developing scanning probe microscopy techniques to improve imaging capability at nanoscale. Among them, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has received considerable attention, which allows probing topography of biological species at real space under physiological environment. Importantly, force measurements in AFM enable researchers to reveal not only the topography but also the relevant physical-chemical properties. AFM-based dynamic nanomechanical mapping (DNM) provides insights into the functions of biological systems by the interpretation of 'force', which are inaccessible by most of the other analytic techniques. This review is aiming to shed light on these recently developed AFM-based DNM techniques for biomolecular imaging, and discuss the relative applications in biological research from the nanomechanical point of view.

  10. Quantitative imaging biomarker ontology (QIBO) for knowledge representation of biomedical imaging biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Andrew J; Liu, Tiffany Ting; Savig, Erica; Suzek, Baris E; Ouellette, M; Danagoulian, J; Wernsing, G; Rubin, Daniel L; Paik, David

    2013-08-01

    A widening array of novel imaging biomarkers is being developed using ever more powerful clinical and preclinical imaging modalities. These biomarkers have demonstrated effectiveness in quantifying biological processes as they occur in vivo and in the early prediction of therapeutic outcomes. However, quantitative imaging biomarker data and knowledge are not standardized, representing a critical barrier to accumulating medical knowledge based on quantitative imaging data. We use an ontology to represent, integrate, and harmonize heterogeneous knowledge across the domain of imaging biomarkers. This advances the goal of developing applications to (1) improve precision and recall of storage and retrieval of quantitative imaging-related data using standardized terminology; (2) streamline the discovery and development of novel imaging biomarkers by normalizing knowledge across heterogeneous resources; (3) effectively annotate imaging experiments thus aiding comprehension, re-use, and reproducibility; and (4) provide validation frameworks through rigorous specification as a basis for testable hypotheses and compliance tests. We have developed the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Ontology (QIBO), which currently consists of 488 terms spanning the following upper classes: experimental subject, biological intervention, imaging agent, imaging instrument, image post-processing algorithm, biological target, indicated biology, and biomarker application. We have demonstrated that QIBO can be used to annotate imaging experiments with standardized terms in the ontology and to generate hypotheses for novel imaging biomarker-disease associations. Our results established the utility of QIBO in enabling integrated analysis of quantitative imaging data.

  11. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  12. Quantitative performance assessments for neuromagnetic imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryo; Hiyama, Ei; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sekihara, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation method to assess the performance of neuromagnetic imaging systems using two kinds of performance metrics: A-prime metric and spatial resolution. We compute these performance metrics for virtual sensor systems having 80, 160, 320, and 640 sensors, and discuss how the system performance is improved, depending on the number of sensors. We also compute these metrics for existing whole-head MEG systems, MEGvision™ (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) that uses axial-gradiometer sensors, and TRIUX™ (Elekta Corporate, Stockholm, Sweden) that uses planar-gradiometer and magnetometer sensors. We discuss performance comparisons between these significantly different systems.

  13. Quantitative single-molecule imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vukojevic, Vladana; Heidkamp, Marcus; Ming, Yu; Johansson, Björn; Terenius, Lars; Rigler, Rudolf

    2008-11-25

    A new approach to quantitative single-molecule imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is presented. It relies on fluorescence intensity distribution to analyze the molecular occurrence statistics captured by digital imaging and enables direct determination of the number of fluorescent molecules and their diffusion rates without resorting to temporal or spatial autocorrelation analyses. Digital images of fluorescent molecules were recorded by using fast scanning and avalanche photodiode detectors. In this way the signal-to-background ratio was significantly improved, enabling direct quantitative imaging by CLSM. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by using standard solutions of fluorescent dyes, fluorescently labeled DNA molecules, quantum dots, and the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein in solution and in live cells. The method was verified by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The relevance for biological applications, in particular, for live cell imaging, is discussed.

  14. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy.

    PubMed

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Abramson, Richard G; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-11-01

    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET-CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET-MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein.

  15. Quantitative planar imaging in renal scintigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lárraga, J. M.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Martínez-Duncker, C.; Rodríguez, R. Herrera

    2002-08-01

    In this work we show the results of the implementation of the double energy window method (DEW) to correct for scatter and geometric mean of opposite image to correct for attenuation of radiation within the patient for absolute quantification of radiotracer in renal scintigraphy studies. We show that DEW method subestimates the scatter radiation within main energy window and that result in a 11% of maximun error for the determination of true activity of a renal kidney phantom. Moreover, in order to avoid transmission scans of patients we perform a Monte Carlo simulation (MC) for the determination of scatter component of the main energy window. The results of the MC simulation was validated with experimental data of emission studies.

  16. Quantitative image quality evaluation for cardiac CT reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Hsin-Wu; Fan, Jiahua; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Balhorn, William; Okerlund, Darin R.

    2016-03-01

    Maintaining image quality in the presence of motion is always desirable and challenging in clinical Cardiac CT imaging. Different image-reconstruction algorithms are available on current commercial CT systems that attempt to achieve this goal. It is widely accepted that image-quality assessment should be task-based and involve specific tasks, observers, and associated figures of merits. In this work, we developed an observer model that performed the task of estimating the percentage of plaque in a vessel from CT images. We compared task performance of Cardiac CT image data reconstructed using a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm and the SnapShot Freeze (SSF) algorithm, each at default and optimal reconstruction cardiac phases. The purpose of this work is to design an approach for quantitative image-quality evaluation of temporal resolution for Cardiac CT systems. To simulate heart motion, a moving coronary type phantom synchronized with an ECG signal was used. Three different percentage plaques embedded in a 3 mm vessel phantom were imaged multiple times under motion free, 60 bpm, and 80 bpm heart rates. Static (motion free) images of this phantom were taken as reference images for image template generation. Independent ROIs from the 60 bpm and 80 bpm images were generated by vessel tracking. The observer performed estimation tasks using these ROIs. Ensemble mean square error (EMSE) was used as the figure of merit. Results suggest that the quality of SSF images is superior to the quality of FBP images in higher heart-rate scans.

  17. Methods and challenges in quantitative imaging biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Richard G; Burton, Kirsteen R; Yu, John-Paul J; Scalzetti, Ernest M; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Bartholmai, Brian J; Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy; Lenchik, Leon; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2015-01-01

    Academic radiology is poised to play an important role in the development and implementation of quantitative imaging (QI) tools. This article, drafted by the Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Quantitative Imaging Task Force, reviews current issues in QI biomarker research. We discuss motivations for advancing QI, define key terms, present a framework for QI biomarker research, and outline challenges in QI biomarker development. We conclude by describing where QI research and development is currently taking place and discussing the paramount role of academic radiology in this rapidly evolving field.

  18. Objective breast tissue image classification using Quantitative Transmission ultrasound tomography

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Bilal; Klock, John; Wiskin, James; Lenox, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound (QT) is a powerful and emerging imaging paradigm which has the potential to perform true three-dimensional image reconstruction of biological tissue. Breast imaging is an important application of QT and allows non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging of whole breasts in vivo. Here, we report the first demonstration of breast tissue image classification in QT imaging. We systematically assess the ability of the QT images’ features to differentiate between normal breast tissue types. The three QT features were used in Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers, and classification of breast tissue as either skin, fat, glands, ducts or connective tissue was demonstrated with an overall accuracy of greater than 90%. Finally, the classifier was validated on whole breast image volumes to provide a color-coded breast tissue volume. This study serves as a first step towards a computer-aided detection/diagnosis platform for QT. PMID:27934955

  19. Objective breast tissue image classification using Quantitative Transmission ultrasound tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal; Klock, John; Wiskin, James; Lenox, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound (QT) is a powerful and emerging imaging paradigm which has the potential to perform true three-dimensional image reconstruction of biological tissue. Breast imaging is an important application of QT and allows non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging of whole breasts in vivo. Here, we report the first demonstration of breast tissue image classification in QT imaging. We systematically assess the ability of the QT images’ features to differentiate between normal breast tissue types. The three QT features were used in Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers, and classification of breast tissue as either skin, fat, glands, ducts or connective tissue was demonstrated with an overall accuracy of greater than 90%. Finally, the classifier was validated on whole breast image volumes to provide a color-coded breast tissue volume. This study serves as a first step towards a computer-aided detection/diagnosis platform for QT.

  20. Quantitative Imaging of Gut Microbiota Spatial Organization

    PubMed Central

    Earle, Kristen A.; Billings, Gabriel; Sigal, Michael; Lichtman, Joshua S.; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Elias, Joshua E.; Amieva, Manuel R.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genomic technologies have significantly advanced our understanding of the composition and diversity of host-associated microbial populations. However, their spatial organization and functional interactions relative to the host have been more challenging to study. Here we present a pipeline for the assessment of intestinal microbiota localization within immunofluorescence images of fixed gut cross-sections that includes a flexible software package, BacSpace, for high-throughput quantification of microbial organization. Applying this pipeline to gnotobiotic and human microbiota-colonized mice, we demonstrate that elimination of microbiota accessible carbohydrates (MACs) from the diet results in thinner mucus in the distal colon, increased proximity of microbes to the epithelium, and heightened expression of the inflammatory marker REG3β. Measurements of microbe-microbe proximity reveal that a MAC-deficient diet alters monophyletic spatial clustering. Furthermore, we quantify the invasion of Helicobacter pylori into the glands of the mouse stomach relative to host mitotic progenitor cells, illustrating the generalizability of this approach. PMID:26439864

  1. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dosik; Kim, Sewon; Abeydeera, Nirusha A; Statum, Sheronda; Masuda, Koichi; Chung, Christine B; Siriwanarangsun, Palanan; Bae, Won C

    2016-12-01

    Human lumbar spine is composed of multiple tissue components that serve to provide structural stability and proper nutrition. Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques have been useful for evaluation of IVD, but inadequate at imaging the discovertebral junction and ligamentous tissues due primarily to their short T2 nature. Ultrashort time to echo (UTE) MR techniques acquire sufficient MR signal from these short T2 tissues, thereby allowing direct and quantitative evaluation. This article discusses the anatomy of the lumbar spine, MR techniques available for morphologic and quantitative MR evaluation of long and short T2 tissues of the lumbar spine, considerations for T2 relaxation modeling and fitting, and existing and new techniques for spine image post-processing, focusing on segmentation. This article will be of interest to radiologic and orthopaedic researchers performing lumbar spine imaging.

  2. Dual function microscope for quantitative DIC and birefringence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengshuai; Zhu, Yizheng

    2016-03-01

    A spectral multiplexing interferometry (SXI) method is presented for integrated birefringence and phase gradient measurement on label-free biological specimens. With SXI, the retardation and orientation of sample birefringence are simultaneously encoded onto two separate spectral carrier waves, generated by a crystal retarder oriented at a specific angle. Thus sufficient information for birefringence determination can be obtained from a single interference spectrum, eliminating the need for multiple acquisitions with mechanical rotation or electrical modulation. In addition, with the insertion of a Nomarski prism, the setup can then acquire quantitative differential interference contrast images. Red blood cells infected by malaria parasites are imaged for birefringence retardation as well as phase gradient. The results demonstrate that the SXI approach can achieve both quantitative phase imaging and birefringence imaging with a single, high-sensitivity system.

  3. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dosik; Kim, Sewon; Abeydeera, Nirusha A.; Statum, Sheronda; Masuda, Koichi; Chung, Christine B.; Siriwanarangsun, Palanan

    2016-01-01

    Human lumbar spine is composed of multiple tissue components that serve to provide structural stability and proper nutrition. Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques have been useful for evaluation of IVD, but inadequate at imaging the discovertebral junction and ligamentous tissues due primarily to their short T2 nature. Ultrashort time to echo (UTE) MR techniques acquire sufficient MR signal from these short T2 tissues, thereby allowing direct and quantitative evaluation. This article discusses the anatomy of the lumbar spine, MR techniques available for morphologic and quantitative MR evaluation of long and short T2 tissues of the lumbar spine, considerations for T2 relaxation modeling and fitting, and existing and new techniques for spine image post-processing, focusing on segmentation. This article will be of interest to radiologic and orthopaedic researchers performing lumbar spine imaging. PMID:28090450

  4. Immunocytochemical localization of peroxisomal enzymes in human liver biopsies.

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, J. A.; Völkl, A.; Müller-Höcker, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Fahimi, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    The immunocytochemical localization of catalase and three enzymes of the peroxisomal lipid beta-oxidation system--acyl-CoA oxidase, the bifunctional protein enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase--in human liver biopsies was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy. The antisera raised against all four enzymes from rat liver cross-reacted with the corresponding proteins in homogenates of human liver as revealed by immunoblotting. For light-microscopic localization in glutaraldehyde-fixed Epon-embedded material, the removal of resin and controlled digestion with trypsin was necessary. At the ultrastructural level specific labeling for all four antigens was found by the protein A-gold technique in peroxisomes of liver parenchymal cells fixed with formaldehyde-low glutaraldehyde concentrations and embedded in Lowicryl K4M. In biopsies fixed with glutaraldehyde and embedded in Epon, treatment with metaperiodate or etching with sodium ethoxide improved the immunolabeling. After such treatment catalase showed the most intense labeling and acyl-CoA oxidase the weakest, the two other proteins exhibiting an intermediate immunoreaction. In material postfixed with osmium only catalase could be visualized in peroxisomes. The immunocytochemical investigation of peroxisomal proteins in human liver biopsies provides a simple and highly promising approach for further elucidation of the pathophysiology of peroxisomal disorders. Images Figures 2 and 3 Figure 4-7 Figures 9-12 Figure 1 Figure 8 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:2886050

  5. Quantitative phase imaging of Breast cancer cell based on SLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaqin; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Wu, Shulian

    2016-02-01

    We illustrated a novel optical microscopy technique to observe cell dynamics via spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). SLIM combines Zemike's phase contrast microscopy and Gabor's holography. When the light passes through the transparent specimens, it could render high contrast intensity and record the phase information from the object. We reconstructed the Breast cancer cell phase image by SLIM and the reconstruction algorithm. Our investigation showed that SLIM has the ability to achieve the quantitative phase imaging (QPI).

  6. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging Using Image-Derived Arterial Input Function

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Aldea, Patricia; Morris, John C.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid PET imaging is an indispensable tool widely used in the investigation, diagnosis and monitoring of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Currently, a reference region based approach is used as the mainstream quantification technique for amyloid imaging. This approach assumes the reference region is amyloid free and has the same tracer influx and washout kinetics as the regions of interest. However, this assumption may not always be valid. The goal of this work is to evaluate an amyloid imaging quantification technique that uses arterial region of interest as the reference to avoid potential bias caused by specific binding in the reference region. 21 participants, age 58 and up, underwent Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging and MR imaging including a time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) scan and a structural scan. FreeSurfer based regional analysis was performed to quantify PiB PET data. Arterial input function was estimated based on coregistered TOF MRA using a modeling based technique. Regional distribution volume (VT) was calculated using Logan graphical analysis with estimated arterial input function. Kinetic modeling was also performed using the estimated arterial input function as a way to evaluate PiB binding (DVRkinetic) without a reference region. As a comparison, Logan graphical analysis was also performed with cerebellar cortex as reference to obtain DVRREF. Excellent agreement was observed between the two distribution volume ratio measurements (r>0.89, ICC>0.80). The estimated cerebellum VT was in line with literature reported values and the variability of cerebellum VT in the control group was comparable to reported variability using arterial sampling data. This study suggests that image-based arterial input function is a viable approach to quantify amyloid imaging data, without the need of arterial sampling or a reference region. This technique can be a valuable tool for amyloid imaging, particularly in population where reference normalization

  7. Quantitative amyloid imaging using image-derived arterial input function.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E; Hornbeck, Russ C; Aldea, Patricia; Morris, John C; Benzinger, Tammie L S

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid PET imaging is an indispensable tool widely used in the investigation, diagnosis and monitoring of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently, a reference region based approach is used as the mainstream quantification technique for amyloid imaging. This approach assumes the reference region is amyloid free and has the same tracer influx and washout kinetics as the regions of interest. However, this assumption may not always be valid. The goal of this work is to evaluate an amyloid imaging quantification technique that uses arterial region of interest as the reference to avoid potential bias caused by specific binding in the reference region. 21 participants, age 58 and up, underwent Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging and MR imaging including a time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) scan and a structural scan. FreeSurfer based regional analysis was performed to quantify PiB PET data. Arterial input function was estimated based on coregistered TOF MRA using a modeling based technique. Regional distribution volume (VT) was calculated using Logan graphical analysis with estimated arterial input function. Kinetic modeling was also performed using the estimated arterial input function as a way to evaluate PiB binding (DVRkinetic) without a reference region. As a comparison, Logan graphical analysis was also performed with cerebellar cortex as reference to obtain DVRREF. Excellent agreement was observed between the two distribution volume ratio measurements (r>0.89, ICC>0.80). The estimated cerebellum VT was in line with literature reported values and the variability of cerebellum VT in the control group was comparable to reported variability using arterial sampling data. This study suggests that image-based arterial input function is a viable approach to quantify amyloid imaging data, without the need of arterial sampling or a reference region. This technique can be a valuable tool for amyloid imaging, particularly in population where reference normalization may

  8. Diagnosis of breast cancer biopsies using quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    The standard practice in the histopathology of breast cancers is to examine a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue biopsy under a microscope. The pathologist looks at certain morphological features, visible under the stain, to diagnose whether a tumor is benign or malignant. This determination is made based on qualitative inspection making it subject to investigator bias. Furthermore, since this method requires a microscopic examination by the pathologist it suffers from low throughput. A quantitative, label-free and high throughput method for detection of these morphological features from images of tissue biopsies is, hence, highly desirable as it would assist the pathologist in making a quicker and more accurate diagnosis of cancers. We present here preliminary results showing the potential of using quantitative phase imaging for breast cancer screening and help with differential diagnosis. We generated optical path length maps of unstained breast tissue biopsies using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM). As a first step towards diagnosis based on quantitative phase imaging, we carried out a qualitative evaluation of the imaging resolution and contrast of our label-free phase images. These images were shown to two pathologists who marked the tumors present in tissue as either benign or malignant. This diagnosis was then compared against the diagnosis of the two pathologists on H&E stained tissue images and the number of agreements were counted. In our experiment, the agreement between SLIM and H&E based diagnosis was measured to be 88%. Our preliminary results demonstrate the potential and promise of SLIM for a push in the future towards quantitative, label-free and high throughput diagnosis.

  9. Ultrasound introscopic image quantitative characteristics for medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselets, Mikhail K.; Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Gridko, Alexander N.; Tcheban, Anatoliy K.

    1993-09-01

    The results on computer aided extraction of quantitative characteristics (QC) of ultrasound introscopic images for medical diagnosis are presented. Thyroid gland (TG) images of Chernobil Accident sufferers are considered. It is shown that TG diseases can be associated with some values of selected QCs of random echo distribution in the image. The possibility of these QCs usage for TG diseases recognition in accordance with calculated values is analyzed. The role of speckle noise elimination in the solution of the problem on TG diagnosis is considered too.

  10. Inverse transport problems in quantitative PAT for molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Kui; Zhang, Rongting; Zhong, Yimin

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescence photoacoustic tomography (fPAT) is a molecular imaging modality that combines photoacoustic tomography with fluorescence imaging to obtain high-resolution imaging of fluorescence distributions inside heterogeneous media. The objective of this work is to study inverse problems in the quantitative step of fPAT where we intend to reconstruct physical coefficients in a coupled system of radiative transport equations using internal data recovered from ultrasound measurements. We derive uniqueness and stability results on the inverse problems and develop some efficient algorithms for image reconstructions. Numerical simulations based on synthetic data are presented to validate the theoretical analysis. The results we present here complement these in Ren K and Zhao H (2013 SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 6 2024-49) on the same problem but in the diffusive regime.

  11. Assessing the Reliability of Quantitative Imaging of Sm-153

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Zijie; Dagan, Maáyan; Veldman, Jeanette; Trees, Brad

    2013-03-01

    Samarium-153 is used for palliation of and recently has been investigated for therapy for bone metastases. Patient specific dosing of Sm-153 is based on quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and knowing the accuracy and precision of image-based estimates of the in vivo activity distribution. Physical phantom studies are useful for estimating these in simple objects, but do not model realistic activity distributions. We are using realistic Monte Carlo simulations combined with a realistic digital phantom modeling human anatomy to assess the accuracy and precision of Sm-153 SPECT. Preliminary data indicates that we can simulate projection images and reconstruct them with compensation for various physical image degrading factors, such as attenuation and scatter in the body as well as non-idealities in the imaging system, to provide realistic SPECT images.

  12. Quantitative computed tomography imaging of airway remodeling in severe asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fetita, Catalin I.; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and approximately 5–10% of asthmatic subjects have severe disease associated with structure changes of the airways (airway remodeling) that may develop over time or shortly after onset of disease. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) imaging of the tracheobronchial tree and lung parenchyma has improved during the last 10 years, and has enabled investigators to study the large airway architecture in detail and assess indirectly the small airway structure. In severe asthmatics, morphologic changes in large airways, quantitatively assessed using 2D-3D airway registration and recent algorithms, are characterized by airway wall thickening, luminal narrowing and bronchial stenoses. Extent of expiratory gas trapping, quantitatively assessed using lung densitometry, may be used to assess indirectly small airway remodeling. Investigators have used these quantitative imaging techniques in order to attempt severity grading of asthma, and to identify clusters of asthmatic patients that differ in morphologic and functional characteristics. Although standardization of image analysis procedures needs to be improved, the identification of remodeling pattern in various phenotypes of severe asthma and the ability to relate airway structures to important clinical outcomes should help target treatment more effectively. PMID:26981458

  13. Quantitative computed tomography imaging of airway remodeling in severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Philippe A; Fetita, Catalin I; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2016-02-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and approximately 5-10% of asthmatic subjects have severe disease associated with structure changes of the airways (airway remodeling) that may develop over time or shortly after onset of disease. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) imaging of the tracheobronchial tree and lung parenchyma has improved during the last 10 years, and has enabled investigators to study the large airway architecture in detail and assess indirectly the small airway structure. In severe asthmatics, morphologic changes in large airways, quantitatively assessed using 2D-3D airway registration and recent algorithms, are characterized by airway wall thickening, luminal narrowing and bronchial stenoses. Extent of expiratory gas trapping, quantitatively assessed using lung densitometry, may be used to assess indirectly small airway remodeling. Investigators have used these quantitative imaging techniques in order to attempt severity grading of asthma, and to identify clusters of asthmatic patients that differ in morphologic and functional characteristics. Although standardization of image analysis procedures needs to be improved, the identification of remodeling pattern in various phenotypes of severe asthma and the ability to relate airway structures to important clinical outcomes should help target treatment more effectively.

  14. Quantitative analysis of in vivo confocal microscopy images: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles N

    2013-01-01

    In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a non-invasive method of examining the living human cornea. The recent trend towards quantitative studies using IVCM has led to the development of a variety of methods for quantifying image parameters. When selecting IVCM images for quantitative analysis, it is important to be consistent regarding the location, depth, and quality of images. All images should be de-identified, randomized, and calibrated prior to analysis. Numerous image analysis software are available, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Criteria for analyzing corneal epithelium, sub-basal nerves, keratocytes, endothelium, and immune/inflammatory cells have been developed, although there is inconsistency among research groups regarding parameter definition. The quantification of stromal nerve parameters, however, remains a challenge. Most studies report lower inter-observer repeatability compared with intra-observer repeatability, and observer experience is known to be an important factor. Standardization of IVCM image analysis through the use of a reading center would be crucial for any future large, multi-centre clinical trials using IVCM.

  15. Flexible peritoneal windows for quantitative fluorescence and bioluminescence preclinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Souris, Jeffrey S; Hickson, Jonathan A; Msezane, Lambda; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W; Chen, Chin-Tu

    2013-01-01

    At present, there is considerable interest in the use of in vivo fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging to track the onset and progression of pathologic processes in preclinical models of human disease. Optical quantitation of such phenomena, however, is often problematic, frequently complicated by the overlying tissue's scattering and absorption of light, as well as the presence of endogenous cutaneous and subcutaneous fluorophores. To partially circumvent this information loss, we report here the development of flexible, surgically implanted, transparent windows that enhance quantitative in vivo fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging of optical reporters. These windows are metal and glass free and thus compatible with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography; they also permit visualization of much larger areas with fewer impediments to animal locomotion and grooming than those previously described. To evaluate their utility in preclinical imaging, we surgically implanted these windows in the abdominal walls of female athymic nude mice and subsequently inoculated each animal with 1 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(6) bioluminescent human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3ip.1-luc). Longitudinal imaging studies of fenestrated animals revealed up to 48-fold gains in imaging sensitivity relative to nonfenestrated animals, with relatively few complications, allowing wide-field in vivo visualization of nascent metastatic ovarian cancer colonization.

  16. Quantitative cell imaging using single beam phase retrieval method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Arun; Chhaniwal, Vani; Javidi, Bahram

    2011-06-01

    Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of cells can provide important information about their morphology as well as their dynamics, which will be useful in studying their behavior under various conditions. There are several microscopic techniques to image unstained, semi-transparent specimens, by converting the phase information into intensity information. But most of the quantitative phase contrast imaging techniques is realized either by using interference of the object wavefront with a known reference beam or using phase shifting interferometry. A two-beam interferometric method is challenging to implement especially with low coherent sources and it also requires a fine adjustment of beams to achieve high contrast fringes. In this letter, the development of a single beam phase retrieval microscopy technique for quantitative phase contrast imaging of cells using multiple intensity samplings of a volume speckle field in the axial direction is described. Single beam illumination with multiple intensity samplings provides fast convergence and a unique solution of the object wavefront. Three-dimensional thickness profiles of different cells such as red blood cells and onion skin cells were reconstructed using this technique with an axial resolution of the order of several nanometers.

  17. Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, YoungKeun; Choi, Wonshik; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Badizadegan, Kamran

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) play a crucial role in health and disease, and structural and mechanical abnormalities of these cells have been associated with important disorders such as Sickle cell disease and hereditary cytoskeletal abnormalities. Although several experimental methods exist for analysis of RBC mechanical properties, optical methods stand out as they enable collecting mechanical and dynamic data from live cells without physical contact and without the need for exogenous contrast agents. In this report, we present quantitative phase microscopy techniques that enable imaging RBC membrane fluctuations with nanometer sensitivity at arbitrary time scales from milliseconds to hours. We further provide a theoretical framework for extraction of membrane mechanical and dynamical properties using time series of quantitative phase images. Finally, we present an experimental approach to extend quantitative phase imaging to 3-dimensional space using tomographic methods. By providing non-invasive methods for imaging mechanics of live cells, these novel techniques provide an opportunity for high-throughput analysis and study of RBC mechanical properties in health and disease.

  18. Summary of Quantitative Interpretation of Image Far Ultraviolet Auroral Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. U.; Immel, T. J.; Mende, S. B.; Gerard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Habraken, S.; Span, J.; Gladstone, G. R.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by instruments on the IMAGE spacecraft is supplemented by simultaneous observations of the global aurora in three far ultraviolet (FUV) wavelength bands. The purpose of the multi-wavelength imaging is to study the global auroral particle and energy input from thc magnetosphere into the atmosphere. This paper describes provides the method for quantitative interpretation of FUV measurements. The Wide-Band Imaging Camera (WIC) provides broad band ultraviolet images of the aurora with maximum spatial and temporal resolution by imaging the nitrogen lines and bands between 140 and 180 nm wavelength. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a dual wavelength monochromatic instrument, images both Doppler-shifted Lyman alpha emissions produced by precipitating protons, in the SI-12 channel and OI 135.6 nm emissions in the SI-13 channel. From the SI-12 Doppler shifted Lyman alpha images it is possible to obtain the precipitating proton flux provided assumptions are made regarding the mean energy of the protons. Knowledge of the proton (flux and energy) component allows the calculation of the contribution produced by protons in the WIC and SI-13 instruments. Comparison of the corrected WIC and SI-13 signals provides a measure of the electron mean energy, which can then be used to determine the electron energy fluxun-. To accomplish this reliable modeling emission modeling and instrument calibrations are required. In-flight calibration using early-type stars was used to validate the pre-flight laboratory calibrations and determine long-term trends in sensitivity. In general, very reasonable agreement is found between in-situ measurements and remote quantitative determinations.

  19. The Quantitative Science of Evaluating Imaging Evidence.

    PubMed

    Genders, Tessa S S; Ferket, Bart S; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular diagnostic imaging tests are increasingly used in everyday clinical practice, but are often imperfect, just like any other diagnostic test. The performance of a cardiovascular diagnostic imaging test is usually expressed in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared with the reference standard (gold standard) for diagnosing the disease. However, evidence-based application of a diagnostic test also requires knowledge about the pre-test probability of disease, the benefit of making a correct diagnosis, the harm caused by false-positive imaging test results, and potential adverse effects of performing the test itself. To assist in clinical decision making regarding appropriate use of cardiovascular diagnostic imaging tests, we reviewed quantitative concepts related to diagnostic performance (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios), as well as possible biases and solutions in diagnostic performance studies, Bayesian principles, and the threshold approach to decision making.

  20. 3D quantitative phase imaging of neural networks using WDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Liu, S. C.; Iyer, Raj; Gillette, Martha U.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    White-light diffraction tomography (WDT) is a recently developed 3D imaging technique based on a quantitative phase imaging system called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). The technique has achieved a sub-micron resolution in all three directions with high sensitivity granted by the low-coherence of a white-light source. Demonstrations of the technique on single cell imaging have been presented previously; however, imaging on any larger sample, including a cluster of cells, has not been demonstrated using the technique. Neurons in an animal body form a highly complex and spatially organized 3D structure, which can be characterized by neuronal networks or circuits. Currently, the most common method of studying the 3D structure of neuron networks is by using a confocal fluorescence microscope, which requires fluorescence tagging with either transient membrane dyes or after fixation of the cells. Therefore, studies on neurons are often limited to samples that are chemically treated and/or dead. WDT presents a solution for imaging live neuron networks with a high spatial and temporal resolution, because it is a 3D imaging method that is label-free and non-invasive. Using this method, a mouse or rat hippocampal neuron culture and a mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron culture have been imaged in order to see the extension of processes between the cells in 3D. Furthermore, the tomogram is compared with a confocal fluorescence image in order to investigate the 3D structure at synapses.

  1. Novel method for ANA quantitation using IIF imaging system.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaodong; Tang, Jiangtao; Wu, Yongkang; Yang, Bin; Hu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    A variety of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in the serum of patients with autoimmune diseases. The detection of abnormal ANA titers is a critical criterion for diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other connective tissue diseases. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the gold standard method to determine the presence of ANA and therefore provides information about the localization of autoantigens that are useful for diagnosis. However, its utility was limited in prognosing and monitoring of disease activity due to the lack of standardization in performing the technique, subjectivity in interpreting the results and the fact that it is only semi-quantitative. On the other hand, ELISA for the detection of ANA can quantitate ANA but could not provide further information about the localization of the autoantigens. It would be ideal to integrate both of the quantitative and qualitative methods. To address this issue, this study was conducted to quantitatively detect ANAs by using IIF imaging analysis system. Serum samples from patients with ANA positive (including speckled, homogeneous, nuclear mixture and cytoplasmic mixture patterns) and negative were detected for ANA titers by the classical IIF and analyzed by an image system, the image of each sample was acquired by the digital imaging system and the green fluorescence intensity was quantified by the Image-Pro plus software. A good correlation was found in between two methods and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) of various ANA patterns were 0.942 (speckled), 0.942 (homogeneous), 0.923 (nuclear mixture) and 0.760 (cytoplasmic mixture), respectively. The fluorescence density was linearly correlated with the log of ANA titers in various ANA patterns (R(2)>0.95). Moreover, the novel ANA quantitation method showed good reproducibility (F=0.091, p>0.05) with mean±SD and CV% of positive, and negative quality controls were equal to 126.4±9.6 and 7.6%, 10.4±1.25 and 12

  2. Functional infrared imaging in medicine: a quantitative diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Merla, A; Romani, G L

    2006-01-01

    The role and the potentialities of high-resolution infrared thermography, combined to bio-heat modelling, have been largely described in the last years in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Quantitative assessment over time of the cutaneous temperature and/or of other biomedical parameters related to the temperature (e.g., cutaneous blood flow, thermal inertia, sympathetic skin response) allows for a better and more complete understanding and description of functional processes involved and/or altered in presence of ailment and interfering with the regular cutaneous thermoregulation. Such an approach to thermal medical imaging requires both new methodologies and tools, like diagnostic paradigms, appropriate software for data analysis and, even, a completely new way to look at data processing. In this paper, some of the studies recently made in our laboratory are presented and described, with the general intent of introducing the reader to these innovative methods to obtain quantitative diagnostic tools based on thermal imaging.

  3. Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Thiel, L; Rohner, D; Ganzhorn, M; Appel, P; Neu, E; Müller, B; Kleiner, R; Koelle, D; Maletinsky, P

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic studies of superconductors and their vortices play a pivotal role in understanding the mechanisms underlying superconductivity. Local measurements of penetration depths or magnetic stray fields enable access to fundamental aspects such as nanoscale variations in superfluid densities or the order parameter symmetry of superconductors. However, experimental tools that offer quantitative, nanoscale magnetometry and operate over large ranges of temperature and magnetic fields are still lacking. Here, we demonstrate the first operation of a cryogenic scanning quantum sensor in the form of a single nitrogen-vacancy electronic spin in diamond, which is capable of overcoming these existing limitations. To demonstrate the power of our approach, we perform quantitative, nanoscale magnetic imaging of Pearl vortices in the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ. With a sensor-to-sample distance of ∼10 nm, we observe striking deviations from the prevalent monopole approximation in our vortex stray-field images, and find excellent quantitative agreement with Pearl's analytic model. Our experiments provide a non-invasive and unambiguous determination of the system's local penetration depth and are readily extended to higher temperatures and magnetic fields. These results demonstrate the potential of quantitative quantum sensors in benchmarking microscopic models of complex electronic systems and open the door for further exploration of strongly correlated electron physics using scanning nitrogen-vacancy magnetometry.

  4. In situ quantitative imaging of cellular lipids using molecular sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Youngdae; Lee, Park J.; Kurilova, Svetlana; Cho, Wonhwa

    2011-11-01

    Membrane lipids are dynamic molecules that play important roles in cell signalling and regulation, but an in situ imaging method for quantitatively tracking lipids in living cells is lacking at present. Here, we report a new chemical method of quantitative lipid imaging using sensors engineered by labelling proteins with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore. A prototype sensor for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2)—a key signalling lipid in diverse cellular processes—was generated by covalently attaching a single 2-dimethylamino-6-acyl-naphthalene group to the N-terminal α-helix of the engineered epsin1 ENTH domain, a protein that selectively binds PtdIns(4,5)P2. The sensor allows robust and sensitive in situ quantitative imaging in mammalian cells, providing new insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics and fluctuation of this key signalling lipid. Application of the sensor to immune cells reveals the presence of a local threshold PtdIns(4,5)P2 concentration required for triggering phagocytosis. This sensor strategy is generally applicable to in situ quantification of other cellular lipids.

  5. PCA-based groupwise image registration for quantitative MRI.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, W; Poot, D H J; Guyader, J-M; Klaassen, R; Coolen, B F; van Kranenburg, M; van Geuns, R J M; Uitterdijk, A; Polfliet, M; Vandemeulebroucke, J; Leemans, A; Niessen, W J; Klein, S

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) is a technique for estimating quantitative tissue properties, such as the T1 and T2 relaxation times, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and various perfusion measures. This estimation is achieved by acquiring multiple images with different acquisition parameters (or at multiple time points after injection of a contrast agent) and by fitting a qMRI signal model to the image intensities. Image registration is often necessary to compensate for misalignments due to subject motion and/or geometric distortions caused by the acquisition. However, large differences in image appearance make accurate image registration challenging. In this work, we propose a groupwise image registration method for compensating misalignment in qMRI. The groupwise formulation of the method eliminates the requirement of choosing a reference image, thus avoiding a registration bias. The method minimizes a cost function that is based on principal component analysis (PCA), exploiting the fact that intensity changes in qMRI can be described by a low-dimensional signal model, but not requiring knowledge on the specific acquisition model. The method was evaluated on 4D CT data of the lungs, and both real and synthetic images of five different qMRI applications: T1 mapping in a porcine heart, combined T1 and T2 mapping in carotid arteries, ADC mapping in the abdomen, diffusion tensor mapping in the brain, and dynamic contrast-enhanced mapping in the abdomen. Each application is based on a different acquisition model. The method is compared to a mutual information-based pairwise registration method and four other state-of-the-art groupwise registration methods. Registration accuracy is evaluated in terms of the precision of the estimated qMRI parameters, overlap of segmented structures, distance between corresponding landmarks, and smoothness of the deformation. In all qMRI applications the proposed method performed better than or equally well as

  6. Quantitative study on appearance of microvessels in spectral endoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Shiraishi, Yasushi; Arai, Fumihito; Morimoto, Yoshinori; Yuasa, Atsuko

    2015-03-01

    Increase in abnormal microvessels in the superficial mucosa is often relevant to diagnostic findings of neoplasia in digestive endoscopy; hence, observation of superficial vasculature is crucial for cancer diagnosis. To enhance the appearance of such vessels, several spectral endoscopic imaging techniques have been developed, such as narrow-band imaging and blue laser imaging. Both techniques exploit narrow-band blue light for the enhancement. The emergence of such spectral imaging techniques has increased the importance of understanding the relation of the light wavelength to the appearance of superficial vasculature, and thus a new method is desired for quantitative analysis of vessel visibility in relation to the actual structure in the tissue. Here, we developed microvessel-simulating phantoms that allowed quantitative evaluation of the appearance of 15-μm-thick vessels. We investigated the relation between the vascular contrast and light wavelength by the phantom measurements and also verified it in experiments with swine, where the endoscopically observed vascular contrast was investigated together with its real vascular depth and diameter obtained by microscopic observation of fluorescence-labeled vessels. Our study indicates that changing the spectral property even in the wavelength range of blue light may allow selective enhancement of the vascular depth for clinical use.

  7. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Disease.

    PubMed

    Damon, Bruce M; Li, Ke; Dortch, Richard D; Welch, E Brian; Park, Jane H; Buck, Amanda K W; Towse, Theodore F; Does, Mark D; Gochberg, Daniel F; Bryant, Nathan D

    2016-12-18

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) describes the development and use of MRI to quantify physical, chemical, and/or biological properties of living systems. Neuromuscular diseases often exhibit a temporally varying, spatially heterogeneous, and multi-faceted pathology. The goal of this protocol is to characterize this pathology using qMRI methods. The MRI acquisition protocol begins with localizer images (used to locate the position of the body and tissue of interest within the MRI system), quality control measurements of relevant magnetic field distributions, and structural imaging for general anatomical characterization. The qMRI portion of the protocol includes measurements of the longitudinal and transverse relaxation time constants (T1 and T2, respectively). Also acquired are diffusion-tensor MRI data, in which water diffusivity is measured and used to infer pathological processes such as edema. Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging is used to characterize the relative tissue content of macromolecular and free water protons. Lastly, fat-water MRI methods are used to characterize fibro-adipose tissue replacement of muscle. In addition to describing the data acquisition and analysis procedures, this paper also discusses the potential problems associated with these methods, the analysis and interpretation of the data, MRI safety, and strategies for artifact reduction and protocol optimization.

  8. Quantitative imaging features to predict cancer status in lung nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Atwater, Thomas; Antic, Sanja; Li, Qian; Walker, Ronald; Smith, Gary T.; Massion, Pierre P.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Background: We propose a systematic methodology to quantify incidentally identified lung nodules based on observed radiological traits on a point scale. These quantitative traits classification model was used to predict cancer status. Materials and Methods: We used 102 patients' low dose computed tomography (LDCT) images for this study, 24 semantic traits were systematically scored from each image. We built a machine learning classifier in cross validation setting to find best predictive imaging features to differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. Results: The best feature triplet to discriminate malignancy was based on long axis, concavity and lymphadenopathy with average AUC of 0.897 (Accuracy of 76.8%, Sensitivity of 64.3%, Specificity of 90%). A similar semantic triplet optimized on Sensitivity/Specificity (Youden's J index) included long axis, vascular convergence and lymphadenopathy which had an average AUC of 0.875 (Accuracy of 81.7%, Sensitivity of 76.2%, Specificity of 95%). Conclusions: Quantitative radiological image traits can differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. These semantic features along with size measurement enhance the prediction accuracy.

  9. Quantitative imaging of heterogeneous dynamics in drying and aging paints

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, Hanne M.; Fokkink, Remco; van der Gucht, Jasper; Sprakel, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Drying and aging paint dispersions display a wealth of complex phenomena that make their study fascinating yet challenging. To meet the growing demand for sustainable, high-quality paints, it is essential to unravel the microscopic mechanisms underlying these phenomena. Visualising the governing dynamics is, however, intrinsically difficult because the dynamics are typically heterogeneous and span a wide range of time scales. Moreover, the high turbidity of paints precludes conventional imaging techniques from reaching deep inside the paint. To address these challenges, we apply a scattering technique, Laser Speckle Imaging, as a versatile and quantitative tool to elucidate the internal dynamics, with microscopic resolution and spanning seven decades of time. We present a toolbox of data analysis and image processing methods that allows a tailored investigation of virtually any turbid dispersion, regardless of the geometry and substrate. Using these tools we watch a variety of paints dry and age with unprecedented detail. PMID:27682840

  10. 3D quantitative analysis of brain SPECT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncaric, Sven; Ceskovic, Ivan; Petrovic, Ratimir; Loncaric, Srecko

    2001-07-01

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a computer-based technique for quantitative analysis of 3-D brain images obtained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In particular, the volume and location of ischemic lesion and penumbra is important for early diagnosis and treatment of infracted regions of the brain. SPECT imaging is typically used as diagnostic tool to assess the size and location of the ischemic lesion. The segmentation method presented in this paper utilizes a 3-D deformable model in order to determine size and location of the regions of interest. The evolution of the model is computed using a level-set implementation of the algorithm. In addition to 3-D deformable model the method utilizes edge detection and region growing for realization of a pre-processing. Initial experimental results have shown that the method is useful for SPECT image analysis.

  11. Quantitative imaging of heterogeneous dynamics in drying and aging paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Kooij, Hanne M.; Fokkink, Remco; van der Gucht, Jasper; Sprakel, Joris

    2016-09-01

    Drying and aging paint dispersions display a wealth of complex phenomena that make their study fascinating yet challenging. To meet the growing demand for sustainable, high-quality paints, it is essential to unravel the microscopic mechanisms underlying these phenomena. Visualising the governing dynamics is, however, intrinsically difficult because the dynamics are typically heterogeneous and span a wide range of time scales. Moreover, the high turbidity of paints precludes conventional imaging techniques from reaching deep inside the paint. To address these challenges, we apply a scattering technique, Laser Speckle Imaging, as a versatile and quantitative tool to elucidate the internal dynamics, with microscopic resolution and spanning seven decades of time. We present a toolbox of data analysis and image processing methods that allows a tailored investigation of virtually any turbid dispersion, regardless of the geometry and substrate. Using these tools we watch a variety of paints dry and age with unprecedented detail.

  12. Real-time quantitative phase imaging for cell studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hoa Vinh

    Most biological cells are not clearly visible with a bright field microscope. Several methods have been developed to improve contrast in cell imaging, including use of exogenous contrast agents such as fluorescence microscopy, as well as utilizing properties of light-specimen interaction for optics design, to reveal the endogenous contrast, such as phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Although PCM and DIC methods significantly improve the image contrast without the need for staining agents, they only provide qualitative information about the phase change induced by the cells as light passes through them. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has recently emerged as an effective imaging tool which provides not only better image contrast but also cell-induced phase shifts in the optical pathlength, thus allowing nanometer-scale measurements of structures and dynamics of the cells. Other important aspects of an imaging system are its imaging speed and throughput. High-throughput, high-speed, real-time quantitative phase imaging with high spatial and temporal sensitivity is highly desirable in many applications including applied physics and biomedicine. In this dissertation, to address this need, I discuss the development of such an imaging system that includes the white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a new optical imaging method, and image reconstruction/analysis algorithms using graphics processing units (GPUs). wDPM can measure optical pathlength changes at nanometer scale both spatially and temporally with single-shot image acquisition, enabling very fast imaging. I also exploit the broadband spectrum of white light used as the light source in wDPM to develop a system called spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy (sDPM). This sDPM system allows QPI measurements at several wavelengths, which solves the problem of thickness and refractive index coupling in the phase shifts induced by the cell, and which

  13. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe

    2016-03-01

    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of phase processing approaches in susceptibility weighted imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ningzhi; Wang, Wen-Tung; Sati, Pascal; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.

    2012-03-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) takes advantage of the local variation in susceptibility between different tissues to enable highly detailed visualization of the cerebral venous system and sensitive detection of intracranial hemorrhages. Thus, it has been increasingly used in magnetic resonance imaging studies of traumatic brain injury as well as other intracranial pathologies. In SWI, magnitude information is combined with phase information to enhance the susceptibility induced image contrast. Because of global susceptibility variations across the image, the rate of phase accumulation varies widely across the image resulting in phase wrapping artifacts that interfere with the local assessment of phase variation. Homodyne filtering is a common approach to eliminate this global phase variation. However, filter size requires careful selection in order to preserve image contrast and avoid errors resulting from residual phase wraps. An alternative approach is to apply phase unwrapping prior to high pass filtering. A suitable phase unwrapping algorithm guarantees no residual phase wraps but additional computational steps are required. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate these two phase processing approaches on both simulated and real data using different filters and cutoff frequencies. Our analysis leads to an improved understanding of the relationship between phase wraps, susceptibility effects, and acquisition parameters. Although homodyne filtering approaches are faster and more straightforward, phase unwrapping approaches perform more accurately in a wider variety of acquisition scenarios.

  15. Automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breeuwer, Marcel M.; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Quist, Marcel J.

    2001-07-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for imaging cardiovascular diseases. The introduction of cardiovascular MRI into clinical practice is however hampered by the lack of efficient and accurate image analysis methods. This paper focuses on the evaluation of blood perfusion in the myocardium (the heart muscle) from MR images, using contrast-enhanced ECG-triggered MRI. We have developed an automatic quantitative analysis method, which works as follows. First, image registration is used to compensate for translation and rotation of the myocardium over time. Next, the boundaries of the myocardium are detected and for each position within the myocardium a time-intensity profile is constructed. The time interval during which the contrast agent passes for the first time through the left ventricle and the myocardium is detected and various parameters are measured from the time-intensity profiles in this interval. The measured parameters are visualized as color overlays on the original images. Analysis results are stored, so that they can later on be compared for different stress levels of the heart. The method is described in detail in this paper and preliminary validation results are presented.

  16. 3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future

  17. Quantum dots for quantitative imaging: from single molecules to tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Tania Q.; Lam, Wai Yan; Hatch, Ellen W.; Lidke, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction to biological imaging, quantum dots (QDs) have progressed from a little known, but attractive technology to one that has gained broad application in many areas of biology. The versatile properties of these fluorescent nanoparticles have allowed investigators to conduct biological studies with extended spatiotemporal capabilities that were previously not possible. In this review, we focus on QD applications that provide enhanced quantitative information on protein dynamics and localization, including single particle tracking (SPT) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and finish by examining prospects of upcoming applications, such as correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) and super-resolution. Advances in single molecule imaging, including multi-color and 3D QD tracking, have provided new insights into the mechanisms of cell signaling and protein trafficking. New forms of QD tracking in vivo have allowed for observation of biological processes with molecular level resolution in the physiological context of the whole animal. Further methodological development of multiplexed QD-based immunohistochemistry assays are allowing more quantitative analysis of key proteins in tissue samples. These advances highlight the unique quantitative data sets that QDs can provide to further our understanding of biological and disease processes. PMID:25620410

  18. Measuring Agarwood Formation Ratio Quantitatively by Fluorescence Spectral Imaging Technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Botao; Nguyen, Duykien; Liu, Tianyi; Jiang, Kaibin; Tan, Jinfen; Liu, Chunxin; Zhao, Jing; Huang, Shaowei

    2015-01-01

    Agarwood is a kind of important and precious traditional Chinese medicine. With the decreasing of natural agarwood, artificial cultivation has become more and more important in recent years. Quantifying the formation of agarwood is an essential work which could provide information for guiding cultivation and controlling quality. But people only can judge the amount of agarwood qualitatively by experience before. Fluorescence multispectral imaging method is presented to measure the agarwood quantitatively in this paper. A spectral cube from 450 nm to 800 nm was captured under the 365 nm excitation sources. The nonagarwood, agarwood, and rotten wood in the same sample were distinguished based on analyzing the spectral cube. Then the area ratio of agarwood to the whole sample was worked out, which is the quantitative information of agarwood area percentage. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the formation of agarwood was quantified accurately and nondestructively.

  19. Measuring Agarwood Formation Ratio Quantitatively by Fluorescence Spectral Imaging Technique

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Botao; Nguyen, Duykien; Jiang, Kaibin; Tan, Jinfen; Liu, Chunxin; Zhao, Jing; Huang, Shaowei

    2015-01-01

    Agarwood is a kind of important and precious traditional Chinese medicine. With the decreasing of natural agarwood, artificial cultivation has become more and more important in recent years. Quantifying the formation of agarwood is an essential work which could provide information for guiding cultivation and controlling quality. But people only can judge the amount of agarwood qualitatively by experience before. Fluorescence multispectral imaging method is presented to measure the agarwood quantitatively in this paper. A spectral cube from 450 nm to 800 nm was captured under the 365 nm excitation sources. The nonagarwood, agarwood, and rotten wood in the same sample were distinguished based on analyzing the spectral cube. Then the area ratio of agarwood to the whole sample was worked out, which is the quantitative information of agarwood area percentage. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the formation of agarwood was quantified accurately and nondestructively. PMID:26089935

  20. Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science

    SciTech Connect

    Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging: characterisation of experimental cerebral oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D; McDonald, W I; Johnson, G; Tofts, P S; Landon, D N

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used quantitatively to define the characteristics of two different models of experimental cerebral oedema in cats: vasogenic oedema produced by cortical freezing and cytotoxic oedema induced by triethyl tin. The MRI results have been correlated with the ultrastructural changes. The images accurately delineated the anatomical extent of the oedema in the two lesions, but did not otherwise discriminate between them. The patterns of measured increase in T1' and T2' were, however, characteristic for each type of oedema, and reflected the protein content. The magnetisation decay characteristics of both normal and oedematous white matter were monoexponential for T1 but biexponential for T2 decay. The relative sizes of the two component exponentials of the latter corresponded with the physical sizes of the major tissue water compartments. Quantitative MRI data can provide reliable information about the physico-chemical environment of tissue water in normal and oedematous cerebral tissue, and are useful for distinguishing between acute and chronic lesions in multiple sclerosis. Images PMID:3572428

  2. Quantitative damage imaging using Lamb wave diffraction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Yan; Ruan, Min; Zhu, Wen-Fa; Chai, Xiao-Dong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the diffraction tomography for quantitative imaging damages of partly through-thickness holes with various shapes in isotropic plates by using converted and non-converted scattered Lamb waves generated numerically. Finite element simulations are carried out to provide the scattered wave data. The validity of the finite element model is confirmed by the comparison of scattering directivity pattern (SDP) of circle blind hole damage between the finite element simulations and the analytical results. The imaging method is based on a theoretical relation between the one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform of the scattered projection and two-dimensional (2D) spatial Fourier transform of the scattering object. A quantitative image of the damage is obtained by carrying out the 2D inverse Fourier transform of the scattering object. The proposed approach employs a circle transducer network containing forward and backward projections, which lead to so-called transmission mode (TMDT) and reflection mode diffraction tomography (RMDT), respectively. The reconstructed results of the two projections for a non-converted S0 scattered mode are investigated to illuminate the influence of the scattering field data. The results show that Lamb wave diffraction tomography using the combination of TMDT and RMDT improves the imaging effect compared with by using only the TMDT or RMDT. The scattered data of the converted A0 mode are also used to assess the performance of the diffraction tomography method. It is found that the circle and elliptical shaped damages can still be reasonably identified from the reconstructed images while the reconstructed results of other complex shaped damages like crisscross rectangles and racecourse are relatively poor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474195, 11274226, 11674214, and 51478258).

  3. Quantitative Sodium Imaging with a Flexible Twisted Projection Pulse Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Aiming; Atkinson, Ian C.; Claiborne, Theodore C.; Damen, Frederick C.; Thulborn, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of sodium MR images from an arbitrary intensity scale into a bioscale fosters image interpretation in terms of the spatially-resolved biochemical process of sodium ion homeostasis. A methodology for quantifying tissue sodium concentration using a flexible twisted projection imaging sequence is proposed that allows for optimization of tradeoffs between readout time, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency and sensitivity to B0 susceptibility artifacts. The gradient amplitude supported by the slew rate at each k-space radius regularizes the readout gradient waveform design to avoid slew rate violation. Static field inhomogeneity artifacts are corrected using a frequency segmented conjugate phase reconstruction approach with field maps obtained quickly from co-registered proton imaging. High quality quantitative sodium images have been achieved in phantom and volunteer studies with real isotropic spatial resolution of 7.5×7.5×7.5 mm3 for the slow T2 component in ~8 minutes on a clinical 3T scanner. After correcting for coil sensitivity inhomogeneity and water fraction, the tissue sodium concentration in gray matter and white matter were measured to be 36.6±0.6 μmol/g wet weight and 27.6 ± 1.2 μmol/g wet weight, respectively. PMID:20512862

  4. Quantitative MR imaging in fracture dating--Initial results.

    PubMed

    Baron, Katharina; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Schick, Fritz; Scheicher, Sylvia; Hassler, Eva; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-04-01

    For exact age determinations of bone fractures in a forensic context (e.g. in cases of child abuse) improved knowledge of the time course of the healing process and use of non-invasive modern imaging technology is of high importance. To date, fracture dating is based on radiographic methods by determining the callus status and thereby relying on an expert's experience. As a novel approach, this study aims to investigate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bone fracture dating by systematically investigating time-resolved changes in quantitative MR characteristics after a fracture event. Prior to investigating fracture healing in children, adults were examined for this study in order to test the methodology for this application. Altogether, 31 MR examinations in 17 subjects (♀: 11 ♂: 6; median age 34 ± 15 y, scanned 1-5 times over a period of up to 200 days after the fracture event) were performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Germany). All subjects were treated conservatively for a fracture in either a long bone or in the collar bone. Both, qualitative and quantitative MR measurements were performed in all subjects. MR sequences for a quantitative measurement of relaxation times T1 and T2 in the fracture gap and musculature were applied. Maps of quantitative MR parameters T1, T2, and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) were calculated and evaluated by investigating changes over time in the fractured area by defined ROIs. Additionally, muscle areas were examined as reference regions to validate this approach. Quantitative evaluation of 23 MR data sets (12 test subjects, ♀: 7 ♂: 5) showed an initial peak in T1 values in the fractured area (T1=1895 ± 607 ms), which decreased over time to a value of 1094 ± 182 ms (200 days after the fracture event). T2 values also peaked for early-stage fractures (T2=115 ± 80 ms) and decreased to 73 ± 33 ms within 21 days after the fracture event. After that time point, no

  5. Accrual Patterns for Clinical Studies Involving Quantitative Imaging: Results of an NCI Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Brenda F.; Aggarwal, Sameer; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Mountz, James M.; Linden, Hannah M.; Jones, Ella F.; Bodeker, Kellie L.; Buatti, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Patient accrual is essential for the success of oncology clinical trials. Recruitment for trials involving the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers may face different challenges than treatment trials. This study surveyed investigators and study personnel for evaluating accrual performance and perceived barriers to accrual and for soliciting solutions to these accrual challenges that are specific to quantitative imaging-based trials. Responses for 25 prospective studies were received from 12 sites. The median percent annual accrual attained was 94.5% (range, 3%–350%). The most commonly selected barrier to recruitment (n = 11/25, 44%) was that “patients decline participation,” followed by “too few eligible patients” (n = 10/25, 40%). In a forced choice for the single greatest recruitment challenge, “too few eligible patients” was the most common response (n = 8/25, 32%). Quantitative analysis and qualitative responses suggested that interactions among institutional, physician, and patient factors contributed to accrual success and challenges. Multidisciplinary collaboration in trial design and execution is essential to accrual success, with attention paid to ensuring and communicating potential trial benefits to enrolled and future patients. PMID:28127586

  6. Nuclear dynamics in metastatic cells studied by quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Silvia; Kandel, Mikhail; Sridharan, Shamira; Monroy, Freddy; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    We used a new quantitative high spatiotemporal resolution phase imaging tool to explore the nuclear structure and dynamics of individual cells. We used a novel analysis tool to quantify the diffusion outside and inside the nucleus of live cells. We also obtained information about the nuclear spatio temporal mass density in metastatic cells. The results indicate that in the cytoplasm, the intracellular transport is mainly active (direct, deterministic), while inside the nucleus it is both active and passive (diffusive, random). We calculated the standard deviation of velocities in active transport and the diffusion coefficient for passive transport.

  7. Quantitative measure in image segmentation for skin lesion images: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Nurulhuda Firdaus Mohd; Ibrahim, Mohd Hakimi Aiman; Keng, Lau Hui; Ibrahim, Nuzulha Khilwani; Sarkan, Haslina Md

    2014-12-01

    Automatic Skin Lesion Diagnosis (ASLD) allows skin lesion diagnosis by using a computer or mobile devices. The idea of using a computer to assist in diagnosis of skin lesions was first proposed in the literature around 1985. Images of skin lesions are analyzed by the computer to capture certain features thought to be characteristic of skin diseases. These features (expressed as numeric values) are then used to classify the image and report a diagnosis. Image segmentation is often a critical step in image analysis and it may use statistical classification, thresholding, edge detection, region detection, or any combination of these techniques. Nevertheless, image segmentation of skin lesion images is yet limited to superficial evaluations which merely display images of the segmentation results and appeal to the reader's intuition for evaluation. There is a consistent lack of quantitative measure, thus, it is difficult to know which segmentation present useful results and in which situations they do so. If segmentation is done well, then, all other stages in image analysis are made simpler. If significant features (that are crucial for diagnosis) are not extracted from images, it will affect the accuracy of the automated diagnosis. This paper explore the existing quantitative measure in image segmentation ranging in the application of pattern recognition for example hand writing, plat number, and colour. Selecting the most suitable segmentation measure is highly important so that as much relevant features can be identified and extracted.

  8. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion. PMID:27126250

  9. Quantitative iodine-123 IMP imaging of brain perfusion in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.B.; Lake, R.R.; Graham, L.S.; King, M.A.; Kling, A.S.; Fitten, L.J.; O'Rear, J.; Bronca, G.A.; Gan, M.; Servrin, R. )

    1989-10-01

    Decreased perfusion in the frontal lobes of patients with chronic schizophrenia has been reported by multiple observes using a variety of techniques. Other observers have been unable to confirm this finding using similar techniques. In this study quantitative single photon emission computed tomography brain imaging was performed using p,5n ({sup 123}I)IMP in five normal subjects and ten chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia. The acquisition data were preprocessed with an image dependent Metz filter and reconstructed using a ramp filtered back projection technique. The uptake in each of 50 regions of interest in each subject was normalized to the uptake in the cerebellum. There were no significant confirmed differences in the comparable ratios of normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia even at the p = 0.15 level. Hypofrontality was not observed.

  10. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell–material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy. PMID:28327660

  11. Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Yahya, Z.

    2013-06-01

    Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

  12. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-04-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion.

  13. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  14. 3D segmentation and image annotation for quantitative diagnosis in lung CT images with pulmonary lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suo; Zhu, Yanjie; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    Pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacities are highly significant findings in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of patients with pulmonary lesion. The appearances of pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacities show a relationship with different lung diseases. According to corresponding characteristic of lesion, pertinent segment methods and quantitative analysis are helpful for control and treat diseases at an earlier and potentially more curable stage. Currently, most of the studies have focused on two-dimensional quantitative analysis of these kinds of deceases. Compared to two-dimensional images, three-dimensional quantitative analysis can take full advantage of isotropic image data acquired by using thin slicing HRCT in space and has better quantitative precision for clinical diagnosis. This presentation designs a computer-aided diagnosis component to segment 3D disease areas of nodules and ground glass opacities in lung CT images, and use AIML (Annotation and image makeup language) to annotate the segmented 3D pulmonary lesions with information of quantitative measurement which may provide more features and information to the radiologists in clinical diagnosis.

  15. Characterisation of a phantom for multiwavelength quantitative photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, M; Zeqiri, B; Beard, P C; Cox, B T

    2016-07-07

    Quantitative photoacoustic imaging (qPAI) has the potential to provide high- resolution in vivo images of chromophore concentration, which may be indicative of tissue function and pathology. Many strategies have been proposed recently for extracting quantitative information, but many have not been experimentally verified. Experimental phantom-based validation studies can be used to test the robustness and accuracy of such algorithms in order to ensure reliable in vivo application is possible. The phantoms used in such studies must have well-characterised optical and acoustic properties similar to tissue, and be versatile and stable. Polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) has been suggested as a phantom for quality control and system evaluation. By characterising its multiwavelength optical properties, broadband acoustic properties and thermoelastic behaviour, this paper examines its potential as a phantom for qPAI studies too. PVCP's acoustic properties were assessed for various formulations, as well as its intrinsic optical absorption, and scattering with added TiO2, over a range of wavelengths from 400-2000 nm. To change the absorption coefficient, pigment-based chromophores that are stable during the phantom fabrication process, were used. These yielded unique spectra analogous to tissue chromophores and linear with concentration. At the high peak powers typically used in photoacoustic imaging, nonlinear optical absorption was observed. The Grüneisen parameter was measured to be [Formula: see text]  =  1.01  ±  0.05, larger than typically found in tissue, though useful for increased PA signal. Single and multiwavelength 3D PA imaging of various fabricated PVCP phantoms were demonstrated.

  16. Characterisation of a phantom for multiwavelength quantitative photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, M.; Zeqiri, B.; Beard, P. C.; Cox, B. T.

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative photoacoustic imaging (qPAI) has the potential to provide high- resolution in vivo images of chromophore concentration, which may be indicative of tissue function and pathology. Many strategies have been proposed recently for extracting quantitative information, but many have not been experimentally verified. Experimental phantom-based validation studies can be used to test the robustness and accuracy of such algorithms in order to ensure reliable in vivo application is possible. The phantoms used in such studies must have well-characterised optical and acoustic properties similar to tissue, and be versatile and stable. Polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) has been suggested as a phantom for quality control and system evaluation. By characterising its multiwavelength optical properties, broadband acoustic properties and thermoelastic behaviour, this paper examines its potential as a phantom for qPAI studies too. PVCP’s acoustic properties were assessed for various formulations, as well as its intrinsic optical absorption, and scattering with added TiO2, over a range of wavelengths from 400-2000 nm. To change the absorption coefficient, pigment-based chromophores that are stable during the phantom fabrication process, were used. These yielded unique spectra analogous to tissue chromophores and linear with concentration. At the high peak powers typically used in photoacoustic imaging, nonlinear optical absorption was observed. The Grüneisen parameter was measured to be Γ   =  1.01  ±  0.05, larger than typically found in tissue, though useful for increased PA signal. Single and multiwavelength 3D PA imaging of various fabricated PVCP phantoms were demonstrated.

  17. Quantitative viscoelastic parameters measured by harmonic motion imaging.

    PubMed

    Vappou, Jonathan; Maleke, Caroline; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2009-06-07

    Quantifying the mechanical properties of soft tissues remains a challenging objective in the field of elasticity imaging. In this work, we propose an ultrasound-based method for quantitatively estimating viscoelastic properties, using the amplitude-modulated harmonic motion imaging (HMI) technique. In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is generated inside the medium by using focused ultrasound and the resulting displacements are measured using an imaging transducer. The proposed approach is a two-step method that uses both the properties of the propagating shear wave and the phase shift between the applied stress and the measured strain in order to infer to the shear storage (G') and shear loss modulus (G''), which refer to the underlying tissue elasticity and viscosity, respectively. The proposed method was first evaluated on numerical phantoms generated by finite-element simulations, where a very good agreement was found between the input and the measured values of G' and G''. Experiments were then performed on three soft tissue-mimicking gel phantoms. HMI measurements were compared to rotational rheometry (dynamic mechanical analysis), and very good agreement was found at the only overlapping frequency (10 Hz) in the estimate of the shear storage modulus G' (14% relative error, averaged p-value of 0.34), whereas poorer agreement was found in G'' (55% relative error, averaged p-value of 0.0007), most likely due to the significantly lower values of G'' of the gel phantoms, posing thus a greater challenge in the sensitivity of the method. Nevertheless, this work proposes an original model-independent ultrasound-based elasticity imaging method that allows for direct, quantitative estimation of tissue viscoelastic properties, together with a validation against mechanical testing.

  18. Application of image processing for terahertz time domain spectroscopy imaging quantitative detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-juan; Wang, Sheng; Ren, Jiao-jiao; Zhou, Ming-xing; Zhao, Duo

    2015-03-01

    According to nondestructive testing principle for the terahertz time domain spectroscopy Imaging, using digital image processing techniques, through Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system collected images and two-dimensional datas and using a range of processing methods, including selecting regions of interest, contrast enhancement, edge detection, and defects being detected. In the paper, Matlab programming is been use to defect recognition of Terahertz, by figuring out the pixels to determine defects defect area and border length, roundness, diameter size. Through the experiment of the qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation of Matlab image processing, this method of detection of defects of geometric dimension of the sample to get a better result.

  19. Quantitative analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syh, Hon-Wei; Chu, Wei-Kom; Ong, Chin-Sing

    1992-06-01

    High intensity lesions around ventricles have recently been observed in T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance images for patients suffering hepatic encephalopathy. The exact etiology that causes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray scale changes has not been totally understood. The objective of our study was to investigate, through quantitative means, (1) the amount of changes to brain white matter due to the disease process, and (2) the extent and distribution of these high intensity lesions, since it is believed that the abnormality may not be entirely limited to the white matter only. Eleven patients with proven haptic encephalopathy and three normal persons without any evidence of liver abnormality constituted our current data base. Trans-axial, sagittal, and coronal brain MRI were obtained on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. All processing was carried out on a microcomputer-based image analysis system in an off-line manner. Histograms were decomposed into regular brain tissues and lesions. Gray scale ranges coded as lesion were then brought back to original images to identify distribution of abnormality. Our results indicated the disease process involved pallidus, mesencephalon, and subthalamic regions.

  20. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound images for computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie Ying; Tuomi, Adam; Beland, Michael D.; Konrad, Joseph; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We propose an adaptable framework for analyzing ultrasound (US) images quantitatively to provide computer-aided diagnosis using machine learning. Our preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis, adenomyosis, and craniosynostosis. For steatosis and adenomyosis, we collected US studies from 288 and 88 patients, respectively, as well as their biopsy or magnetic resonanceconfirmed diagnosis. Radiologists identified a region of interest (ROI) on each image. We filtered the US images for various texture responses and use the pixel intensity distribution within each ROI as feature parameterizations. Our craniosynostosis dataset consisted of 22 CT-confirmed cases and 22 age-matched controls. One physician manually measured the vectors from the center of the skull to the outer cortex at every 10 deg for each image and we used the principal directions as shape features for parameterization. These parameters and the known diagnosis were used to train classifiers. Testing with cross-validation, we obtained 72.74% accuracy and 0.71 area under receiver operating characteristics curve for steatosis (p<0.0001), 77.27% and 0.77 for adenomyosis (p<0.0001), and 88.63% and 0.89 for craniosynostosis (p=0.0006). Our framework is able to detect a variety of diseases with high accuracy. We hope to include it as a routinely available support system in the clinic. PMID:26835502

  1. A Quantitative Method for Microtubule Analysis in Fluorescence Images.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaodong; Li, Lingfei; Hu, Jiongyu; Zhang, Qiong; Dang, Yongming; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-12-01

    Microtubule analysis is of significant value for a better understanding of normal and pathological cellular processes. Although immunofluorescence microscopic techniques have proven useful in the study of microtubules, comparative results commonly rely on a descriptive and subjective visual analysis. We developed an objective and quantitative method based on image processing and analysis of fluorescently labeled microtubular patterns in cultured cells. We used a multi-parameter approach by analyzing four quantifiable characteristics to compose our quantitative feature set. Then we interpreted specific changes in the parameters and revealed the contribution of each feature set using principal component analysis. In addition, we verified that different treatment groups could be clearly discriminated using principal components of the multi-parameter model. High predictive accuracy of four commonly used multi-classification methods confirmed our method. These results demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in the analysis of microtubules in fluorescence images. Application of the analytical methods presented here provides information concerning the organization and modification of microtubules, and could aid in the further understanding of structural and functional aspects of microtubules under normal and pathological conditions.

  2. Unlimited field-of-view optofluidic quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Marchesano, V.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    Here we show a novel imaging modality, named Space-Time Scanning Interferometry (STSI), which synthesizes interferograms mapped in a hybrid space-time domain. A single linear sensor array is sufficient to create hybrid interferograms with unlimited Field of View (FoV) along the scanning direction, and allowing quantitative phase retrieval by Phase Shifting (PS) interferometry algorithms. We applied the STSI method to microfluidic imaging of biological samples, where the required phase shift between interferograms is intrinsically offered due to the sample movement. Besides, out-of-focus recordings are performed using a single line detector, in order to synthesize an unlimited FoV Space-Time Digital Hologram (STDH) yielding full-field, 3D information. Experimental proofs have been carried out to demonstrate the useful capability of STDH to overcome the trade-off existing between FoV and sample magnification, thus providing a high-throughput, label/free, quantitative, diagnostic tool to study biological elements onboard LoC platforms.

  3. Quantitative tomographic imaging of intermolecular FRET in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vivek; Chen, Jin; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a nonradiative transfer of energy between two fluorescent molecules (a donor and an acceptor) in nanometer range proximity. FRET imaging methods have been applied to proteomic studies and drug discovery applications based on intermolecular FRET efficiency measurements and stoichiometric measurements of FRET interaction as quantitative parameters of interest. Importantly, FRET provides information about biomolecular interactions at a molecular level, well beyond the diffraction limits of standard microscopy techniques. The application of FRET to small animal imaging will allow biomedical researchers to investigate physiological processes occurring at nanometer range in vivo as well as in situ. In this work a new method for the quantitative reconstruction of FRET measurements in small animals, incorporating a full-field tomographic acquisition system with a Monte Carlo based hierarchical reconstruction scheme, is described and validated in murine models. Our main objective is to estimate the relative concentration of two forms of donor species, i.e., a donor molecule involved in FRETing to an acceptor close by and a nonFRETing donor molecule. PMID:23243567

  4. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging and intellectual outcomes in spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Khader M.; Sankar, Ambika; Halphen, Christopher; Kramer, Larry A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    Object Patients with spina bifida (SB) have variable intellectual outcomes. The authors used diffusion tensor (DT) imaging to quantify whole-brain volumes of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and perform regional quantitative microstructural assessments of gray matter nuclei and white matter tracts in relation to intellectual outcomes in patients with SB. Methods Twenty-nine children with myelomeningoceles and 20 age- and sex-matched children with normal neural tube development underwent MR imaging with DT image acquisition and assessments of intelligence. The DT imaging-derived metrics were the fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (parallel), and transverse (perpendicular) diffusivities. These metrics were also used to segment the brain into white matter, gray matter, and CSF. A region-of-interest analysis was conducted of the white and gray matter structures implicated in hydrocephalus. Results The amount of whole-brain gray matter was decreased in patients with SB, with a corresponding increase in CSF (p < 0.0001). Regional transverse diffusivity in the caudate nucleus was decreased (p < 0.0001), and the corresponding FA was increased (p < 0.0001), suggesting reduced dendritic branching and connectivity. Fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule increased in the myelomeningocele group (p = 0.02), suggesting elimination of some divergent fascicles; in contrast, the FA in several white matter structures (such as the corpus callosum genu [p < 0.001] and arcuate fasciculus) was reduced, suggesting disruption of myelination. Diffusion tensor imaging-metrics involving gray matter volume and the caudate nucleus, but not other structures, predicted variations in IQ (r = 0.37-0.50; p < 0.05). Conclusions Diffusion tensor imaging-derived metrics provide noninvasive neuronal surrogate markers of the pathogenesis of SB and predict variations in general intellectual outcomes in children with this condition. PMID:18590401

  5. Quantitative Imaging Network: Data Sharing and Competitive AlgorithmValidation Leveraging The Cancer Imaging Archive1

    PubMed Central

    Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Freymann, John Blake; Kirby, Justin Stephen; Kinahan, Paul Eugene; Prior, Fred William

    2014-01-01

    The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN), supported by the National Cancer Institute, is designed to promote research and development of quantitative imaging methods and candidate biomarkers for the measurement of tumor response in clinical trial settings. An integral aspect of the QIN mission is to facilitate collaborative activities that seek to develop best practices for the analysis of cancer imaging data. The QIN working groups and teams are developing new algorithms for image analysis and novel biomarkers for the assessment of response to therapy. To validate these algorithms and biomarkers and translate them into clinical practice, algorithms need to be compared and evaluated on large and diverse data sets. Analysis competitions, or “challenges,” are being conducted within the QIN as a means to accomplish this goal. The QIN has demonstrated, through its leveraging of The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), that data sharing of clinical images across multiple sites is feasible and that it can enable and support these challenges. In addition to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) imaging data, many TCIA collections provide linked clinical, pathology, and “ground truth” data generated by readers that could be used for further challenges. The TCIA-QIN partnership is a successful model that provides resources for multisite sharing of clinical imaging data and the implementation of challenges to support algorithm and biomarker validation. PMID:24772218

  6. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of SEM image using digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Saladra, Dawid; Kopernik, Magdalena

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the this study is improvement of qualitative and quantitative analysis of scanning electron microscope micrographs by development of computer program, which enables automatic crack analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. Micromechanical tests of pneumatic ventricular assist devices result in a large number of micrographs. Therefore, the analysis must be automatic. Tests for athrombogenic titanium nitride/gold coatings deposited on polymeric substrates (Bionate II) are performed. These tests include microshear, microtension and fatigue analysis. Anisotropic surface defects observed in the SEM micrographs require support for qualitative and quantitative interpretation. Improvement of qualitative analysis of scanning electron microscope images was achieved by a set of computational tools that includes binarization, simplified expanding, expanding, simple image statistic thresholding, the filters Laplacian 1, and Laplacian 2, Otsu and reverse binarization. Several modifications of the known image processing techniques and combinations of the selected image processing techniques were applied. The introduced quantitative analysis of digital scanning electron microscope images enables computation of stereological parameters such as area, crack angle, crack length, and total crack length per unit area. This study also compares the functionality of the developed computer program of digital image processing with existing applications. The described pre- and postprocessing may be helpful in scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy surface investigations.

  7. Quantitative imaging to evaluate malignant potential of IPMNs

    PubMed Central

    Hanania, Alexander N.; Bantis, Leonidas E.; Feng, Ziding; Wang, Huamin; Tamm, Eric P.; Katz, Matthew H.; Maitra, Anirban; Koay, Eugene J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate using quantitative imaging to assess the malignant potential of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) in the pancreas. Background Pancreatic cysts are identified in over 2% of the population and a subset of these, including intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), represent pre-malignant lesions. Unfortunately, clinicians cannot accurately predict which of these lesions are likely to progress to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Methods We investigated 360 imaging features within the domains of intensity, texture and shape using pancreatic protocol CT images in 53 patients diagnosed with IPMN (34 “high-grade” [HG] and 19 “low-grade” [LG]) who subsequently underwent surgical resection. We evaluated the performance of these features as well as the Fukuoka criteria for pancreatic cyst resection. Results In our cohort, the Fukuoka criteria had a false positive rate of 36%. We identified 14 imaging biomarkers within Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) that predicted histopathological grade within cyst contours. The most predictive marker differentiated LG and HG lesions with an area under the curve (AUC) of .82 at a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 68%. Using a cross-validated design, the best logistic regression yielded an AUC of 0.96 (σ = .05) at a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 88%. Based on the principal component analysis, HG IPMNs demonstrated a pattern of separation from LG IPMNs. Conclusions HG IPMNs appear to have distinct imaging properties. Further validation of these findings may address a major clinical need in this population by identifying those most likely to benefit from surgical resection. PMID:27588410

  8. Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccia, David J.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Durkin, Anthony J.; Ayers, Frederick R.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2009-03-01

    We describe the development of a rapid, noncontact imaging method, modulated imaging (MI), for quantitative, wide-field characterization of optical absorption and scattering properties of turbid media. MI utilizes principles of frequency-domain sampling and model-based analysis of the spatial modulation transfer function (s-MTF). We present and compare analytic diffusion and probabilistic Monte Carlo models of diffuse reflectance in the spatial frequency domain. Next, we perform MI measurements on tissue-simulating phantoms exhibiting a wide range of l* values (0.5 mm to 3 mm) and (μs'/μa) ratios (8 to 500), reporting an overall accuracy of approximately 6% and 3% in absorption and reduced scattering parameters, respectively. Sampling of only two spatial frequencies, achieved with only three camera images, is found to be sufficient for accurate determination of the optical properties. We then perform MI measurements in an in vivo tissue system, demonstrating spatial mapping of the absorption and scattering optical contrast in a human forearm and dynamic measurements of a forearm during venous occlusion. Last, metrics of spatial resolution are assessed through both simulations and measurements of spatially heterogeneous phantoms.

  9. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, Skouroliakou; Maria, Lyra; Aristides, Antoniou; Lambros, Vlahos

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

  10. Quantitative sodium magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage, muscle, and tendon

    PubMed Central

    Tarbox, Grayson J.; Taylor, Meredith D.; Kaggie, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or imaging of the 23Na nucleus, has been under exploration for several decades, and holds promise for potentially revealing additional biochemical information about the health of tissues that cannot currently be obtained from conventional hydrogen (or proton) MRI. This additional information could serve as an important complement to conventional MRI for many applications. However, despite these exciting possibilities, sodium MRI is not yet used routinely in clinical practice, and will likely remain strictly in the domain of exploratory research for the coming decade. This paper begins with a technical overview of sodium MRI, including the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal characteristics of the sodium nucleus, the challenges associated with sodium MRI, and the specialized pulse sequences, hardware, and reconstruction techniques required. Various applications of sodium MRI for quantitative analysis of the musculoskeletal system are then reviewed, including the non-invasive assessment of cartilage degeneration in vivo, imaging of tendinopathy, applications in the assessment of various muscular pathologies, and assessment of muscle response to exercise. PMID:28090447

  11. Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Lena; Isbach, Michael; Dirksen, Dieter; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Kemper, Björn

    2017-03-06

    The potential of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for quantification of cell culture quality was explored. Label-free QPI of detached single cells in suspension was performed by Michelson interferometer-based self-interference DHM. Two pancreatic tumor cell lines were chosen as cellular model and analyzed for refractive index, volume, and dry mass under varying culture conditions. Firstly, adequate cell numbers for reliable statistics were identified. Then, to characterize the performance and reproducibility of the method, we compared results from independently repeated measurements and quantified the cellular response to osmolality changes of the cell culture medium. Finally, it was demonstrated that the evaluation of QPI images allows the extraction of absolute cell parameters which are related to cell layer confluence states. In summary, the results show that QPI enables label-free imaging cytometry, which provides novel complementary integral biophysical data sets for sophisticated quantification of cell culture quality with minimized sample preparation. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  12. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  13. Quantitative imaging of subcellular metabolism with stable isotopes and multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Matthew L; Lechene, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) is the quantitative imaging of stable isotope labels in cells with a new type of secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS). The power of the methodology is attributable to (i) the immense advantage of using non-toxic stable isotope labels, (ii) high resolution imaging that approaches the resolution of usual transmission electron microscopy and (iii) the precise quantification of label down to 1 part-per-million and spanning several orders of magnitude. Here we review the basic elements of MIMS and describe new applications of MIMS to the quantitative study of metabolic processes including protein and nucleic acid synthesis in model organisms ranging from microbes to humans.

  14. Quantitative surface evaluation by matching experimental and simulated ronchigram images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantún Montiel, Juana Rosaura; Cordero Dávila, Alberto; González García, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    To estimate qualitatively the surface errors with Ronchi test, the experimental and simulated ronchigrams are compared. Recently surface errors have been obtained quantitatively matching the intersection point coordinates of ronchigrama fringes with x-axis . In this case, gaussian fit must be done for each fringe, and interference orders are used in Malacara algorithm for the simulations. In order to evaluate surface errors, we added an error function in simulations, described with cubic splines, to the sagitta function of the ideal surface. We used the vectorial transversal aberration formula and a ruling with cosinusoidal transmittance, because these rulings reproduce better experimental ronchigram fringe profiles. Several error functions are tried until the whole experimental ronchigrama image is reproduced. The optimization process was done using genetic algorithms.

  15. Quantitative Multiscale Cell Imaging in Controlled 3D Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Welf, Erik S.; Driscoll, Meghan K.; Dean, Kevin M.; Schäfer, Claudia; Chu, Jun; Davidson, Michael W.; Lin, Michael Z.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Fiolka, Reto

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment determines cell behavior, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood because quantitative studies of cell signaling and behavior have been challenging due to insufficient spatial and/or temporal resolution and limitations on microenvironmental control. Here we introduce microenvironmental selective plane illumination microscopy (meSPIM) for imaging and quantification of intracellular signaling and submicrometer cellular structures as well as large-scale cell morphological and environmental features. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by showing that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment regulate the transition of melanoma cells from actin-driven protrusion to blebbing, and we present tools to quantify how cells manipulate individual collagen fibers. We leverage the nearly isotropic resolution of meSPIM to quantify the local concentration of actin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling on the surfaces of cells deep within 3D collagen matrices and track the many small membrane protrusions that appear in these more physiologically relevant environments. PMID:26906741

  16. Accuracy of quantitative reconstructions in SPECT/CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Celler, A.; Belhocine, T.; van der Werf, R.; Driedger, A.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the quantitative accuracy of our OSEM-APDI reconstruction method based on SPECT/CT imaging for Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, and I-131 isotopes. Phantom studies were performed on a SPECT/low-dose multislice CT system (Infinia-Hawkeye-4 slice, GE Healthcare) using clinical acquisition protocols. Two radioactive sources were centrally and peripherally placed inside an anthropometric Thorax phantom filled with non-radioactive water. Corrections for attenuation, scatter, collimator blurring and collimator septal penetration were applied and their contribution to the overall accuracy of the reconstruction was evaluated. Reconstruction with the most comprehensive set of corrections resulted in activity estimation with error levels of 3-5% for all the isotopes.

  17. Quantitative imaging of light-triggered doxorubicin release

    PubMed Central

    Kress, Jeremy; Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Carter, Kevin A.; Luo, Dandan; Shao, Shuai; Lele, Shashikant; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Sunar, Ulas

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapy is related, in large part, to the concentration of drug that reaches tumor sites. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a common anti-cancer drug that is also approved for use in liposomal form for the treatment of ovarian cancer. We recently developed a porphyrin-phospholipid (PoP)-liposome system that enables on demand release of DOX from liposomes using near infrared irradiation to improve DOX bioavailability. Owing to its intrinsic fluorescence, it is possible, and desirable, to quantify DOX concentration and distribution, preferably noninvasively. Here we quantified DOX distribution following light-triggered drug release in phantoms and an animal carcass using spatial frequency domain imaging. This study demonstrates the feasibility of non-invasive quantitative mapping of DOX distributions in target areas. PMID:26417522

  18. Three modality image registration of brain SPECT/CT and MR images for quantitative analysis of dopamine transporter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuzuho; Takeda, Yuta; Hara, Takeshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Matsusako, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuki; Hosoya, Kazuhiko; Nihei, Tsutomu; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Important features in Parkinson's disease (PD) are degenerations and losses of dopamine neurons in corpus striatum. 123I-FP-CIT can visualize activities of the dopamine neurons. The activity radio of background to corpus striatum is used for diagnosis of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The specific activity can be observed in the corpus striatum on SPECT images, but the location and the shape of the corpus striatum on SPECT images only are often lost because of the low uptake. In contrast, MR images can visualize the locations of the corpus striatum. The purpose of this study was to realize a quantitative image analysis for the SPECT images by using image registration technique with brain MR images that can determine the region of corpus striatum. In this study, the image fusion technique was used to fuse SPECT and MR images by intervening CT image taken by SPECT/CT. The mutual information (MI) for image registration between CT and MR images was used for the registration. Six SPECT/CT and four MR scans of phantom materials are taken by changing the direction. As the results of the image registrations, 16 of 24 combinations were registered within 1.3mm. By applying the approach to 32 clinical SPECT/CT and MR cases, all of the cases were registered within 0.86mm. In conclusions, our registration method has a potential in superimposing MR images on SPECT images.

  19. Quantitative Monitoring of Murine Lung Tumors by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krupnick, Alexander Sasha; Tidwell, Vanessa K.; Engelbach, John A.; Alli, Vamsi V.; Nehorai, Arye; You, Ming; Vikis, Haris G.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Kreisel, Daniel; Garbow, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    Primary lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world and the lung is a common site for recurrence of extra-thoracic malignancies. Small-animal (rodent) models of cancer can play a very valuable role in the development of improved therapeutic strategies. However, detection of murine pulmonary tumors and their subsequent response to therapy, in situ, is challenging. We have recently described magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a reliable, reproducible, and non-destructive modality for the detection and serial monitoring of pulmonary tumors. Combining respiratory-gated data acquisition methods with manual and automated segmentation algorithms described by our laboratory, pulmonary tumor burden can be quantitatively measured in approximately one hour (data acquisition plus analysis) per mouse. Quantitative, analytic methods are described for measuring tumor burden in both primary (discrete tumors) and metastatic (diffuse tumors) disease. Thus, small-animal MRI represents a novel and unique research tool for preclinical investigation of therapeutic strategies for treatment of pulmonary malignancies and may be valuable in evaluating new compounds targeting lung cancer in vivo. PMID:22222788

  20. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-09-01

    This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of activation state in functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenghui; Ni, Pengyu; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng

    2012-10-01

    Neuronal activity can evoke the hemodynamic change that gives rise to the observed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal. These increases are also regulated by the resting blood volume fraction (V (0)) associated with regional vasculature. The activation locus detected by means of the change in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity thereby may deviate from the actual active site due to varied vascular density in the cortex. Furthermore, conventional detection techniques evaluate the statistical significance of the hemodynamic observations. In this sense, the significance level relies not only upon the intensity of the BOLD signal change, but also upon the spatially inhomogeneous fMRI noise distribution that complicates the expression of the results. In this paper, we propose a quantitative strategy for the calibration of activation states to address these challenging problems. The quantitative assessment is based on the estimated neuronal efficacy parameter [Formula: see text] of the hemodynamic model in a voxel-by-voxel way. It is partly immune to the inhomogeneous fMRI noise by virtue of the strength of the optimization strategy. Moreover, it is easy to incorporate regional vascular information into the activation detection procedure. By combining MR angiography images, this approach can remove large vessel contamination in fMRI signals, and provide more accurate functional localization than classical statistical techniques for clinical applications. It is also helpful to investigate the nonlinear nature of the coupling between synaptic activity and the evoked BOLD response. The proposed method might be considered as a potentially useful complement to existing statistical approaches.

  2. QUANTITATIVE 7T PHASE IMAGING IN PREMOTOR HUNTINGTON DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Apple, Alexandra C.; Possin, Katherine L.; Satris, Gabriela; Johnson, Erica; Lupo, Janine M.; Jakary, Angela; Wong, Katherine; Kelley, Douglas A. C.; Kang, Gail A.; Sha, Sharon J.; Kramer, Joel H.; Geschwind, Michael; Nelson, Sarah J.; Hess, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose In vivo MRI and postmortem neuropathological studies have demonstrated elevated iron concentration and atrophy within the striatum of patients with Huntington disease (HD), implicating neuronal loss and iron accumulation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder. We used 7T MRI to determine whether quantitative phase, a putative marker of these endpoints, is altered in subjects with premotor HD. Materials and Methods Local field shift (LFS), calculated from 7T MR phase images, was quantified in 13 subjects with premotor HD and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. All participants underwent 3T and 7T MRI, including volumetric 3T T1 and 7T gradient-recalled echo sequences. LFS maps were created from 7T phase data and registered to caudate ROIs automatically parcellated from the 3T T1 images. HD-specific neurocognitive assessment was also performed and compared to LFS. Results Subjects with premotor HD had smaller caudate nuclear volume and higher LFS than controls. A significant correlation between these measurements was not detected, and prediction accuracy for disease state improved with inclusion of both variables. A positive correlation between LFS and genetic disease burden was also found, and there was a trend towards significant correlations between LFS and neurocognitive tests of working memory and executive function. Conclusion Subjects with premotor HD exhibit differences in 7T MRI phase within the caudate nuclei that correlate with genetic disease burden and trend with neurocognitive assessments. Ultra-high field MRI of quantitative phase may be a useful marker for monitoring neurodegeneration in premanifest HD. PMID:24742810

  3. Influence of imaging geometry on noise texture in quantitative in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Ying; Anastasio, Mark A

    2009-08-17

    Quantitative in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods seek to reconstruct separate images that depict an object's projected absorption and refractive properties. An understanding of the statistical properties of the reconstructed images can facilitate the identification of optimal imaging parameters for specific diagnostic tasks. However, the statistical properties of quantitative X-ray phase-contrast imaging remain largely unexplored. In this work, we derive analytic expressions that describe the second-order statistics of the reconstructed absorption and phase images. Concepts from statistical decision theory are applied to demonstrate how the statistical properties of images corresponding to distinct imaging geometries can influence signal detectability.

  4. A quantitative approach to evaluate image quality of whole slide imaging scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Kneepkens, R.; Vrijnsen, J.; Vossen, D.; Abels, E.; Hulsken, B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The quality of images produced by whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners has a direct influence on the readers’ performance and reliability of the clinical diagnosis. Therefore, WSI scanners should produce not only high quality but also consistent quality images. Aim: We aim to evaluate reproducibility of WSI scanners based on the quality of images produced over time and among multiple scanners. The evaluation is independent of content or context of test specimen. Methods: The ultimate judge of image quality is a pathologist, however, subjective evaluations are heavily influenced by the complexity of a case and subtle variations introduced by a scanner can be easily overlooked. Therefore, we employed a quantitative image quality assessment method based on clinically relevant parameters, such as sharpness and brightness, acquired in a survey of pathologists. The acceptable level of quality per parameter was determined in a subjective study. The evaluation of scanner reproducibility was conducted with Philips Ultra-Fast Scanners. A set of 36 HercepTest™ slides were used in three sub-studies addressing variations due to systems and time, producing 8640 test images for evaluation. Results: The results showed that the majority of images in all the sub-studies are within the acceptable quality level; however, some scanners produce higher quality images more often than others. The results are independent of case types, and they match our perception of quality. Conclusion: The quantitative image quality assessment method was successfully applied in the HercepTest™ slides to evaluate WSI scanner reproducibility. The proposed method is generic and applicable to any other types of slide stains and scanners. PMID:28197359

  5. Quantitative imaging of disease signatures through radioactive decay signal conversion.

    PubMed

    Thorek, Daniel L J; Ogirala, Anuja; Beattie, Bradley J; Grimm, Jan

    2013-10-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, there is an urgent need for in vivo techniques able to sensitively detect and quantify molecular activities. Sensitive imaging of gamma rays is widely used; however, radioactive decay is a physical constant, and its signal is independent of biological interactions. Here, we introduce a framework of previously uncharacterized targeted and activatable probes that are excited by a nuclear decay-derived signal to identify and measure molecular signatures of disease. We accomplished this by using Cerenkov luminescence, the light produced by β-particle-emitting radionuclides such as clinical positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. Disease markers were detected using nanoparticles to produce secondary Cerenkov-induced fluorescence. This approach reduces background signal compared to conventional fluorescence imaging. In addition to tumor identification from a conventional PET scan, we demonstrate the medical utility of our approach by quantitatively determining prognostically relevant enzymatic activity. This technique can be applied to monitor other markers and represents a shift toward activatable nuclear medicine agents.

  6. Immunocytochemical localization of nonluteal ovarian relaxin.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, T; Stewart, D R; Benirschke, K; King, B; Lasley, B L

    1994-04-01

    Relaxin has been demonstrated to be produced by the corpus luteum of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy and is also produced by the endometrium and decidua, although these nonluteal sources may not contribute to circulating relaxin concentrations. The reports of luteal production of relaxin have failed to consider nonluteal ovarian sources. To look for sources of nonluteal ovarian relaxin, human ovaries were collected from patients who underwent removal of the ovary for a variety of reasons. Tissues were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. Two monoclonal antibodies were used for immunocytochemical staining, one directed against human relaxin and the other against the C peptide of prorelaxin. In addition to the expected staining of corpora lutea, the luteinized theca interna but not granulosa of developing follicles from ovaries with an active corpus luteum of the cycle also stained positive for both relaxin and prorelaxin. Ovaries from term pregnant women with luteinized theca also demonstrated staining for relaxin and prorelaxin. In addition to luteal and thecal cell staining, small clusters of pseudodecidual cells in the periphery of the ovary stained positive for relaxin and prorelaxin. These data indicate that the ovary contains theca interna-derived structural elements in addition to the corpus luteum that produce relaxin when a corpus luteum is active, while granulosa-derived elements do not. This suggests that luteal production of relaxin is from theca-derived elements and may explain instances of independent relaxin and progesterone secretion.

  7. Quantitative 3D Optical Imaging: Applications in Dosimetry and Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew Stephen

    Optical-CT has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the two very different spheres of biologists and radiation therapy physicists, but it has yet to live up to that potential. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical-CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters, but it is yet to be a clinically relevant tool as the technology is too slow to be considered practical. Biologists have used the technique for structural imaging, but have struggled with emission tomography as the reality of photon attenuation for both excitation and emission have made the images quantitatively irrelevant. Dosimetry. The DLOS (Duke Large field of view Optical-CT Scanner) was designed and constructed to make 3D dosimetry utilizing optical-CT a fast and practical tool while maintaining the accuracy of readout of the previous, slower readout technologies. Upon construction/optimization/implementation of several components including a diffuser, band pass filter, registration mount & fluid filtration system the dosimetry system provides high quality data comparable to or exceeding that of commercial products. In addition, a stray light correction algorithm was tested and implemented. The DLOS in combination with the 3D dosimeter it was designed for, PREAGETM, then underwent rigorous commissioning and benchmarking tests validating its performance against gold standard data including a set of 6 irradiations. DLOS commissioning tests resulted in sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution (MTF >0.5 for frequencies of 1.5lp/mm) and a dynamic range of ˜60dB. Flood field uniformity was 10% and stable after 45minutes. Stray light proved to be small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution. Benchmarking tests showed the mean 3D passing gamma rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the 6 benchmark data sets was 97.3% +/- 0.6% (range 96%-98%) scans totaling ˜10 minutes, indicating excellent ability to perform 3D dosimetry while improving the speed of

  8. Quantitating the cell: turning images into numbers with ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ellen T; Rueden, Curtis T; Hiner, Mark C; Wang, Shulei; Yuan, Ming; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2017-03-01

    Modern biological research particularly in the fields of developmental and cell biology has been transformed by the rapid evolution of the light microscope. The light microscope, long a mainstay of the experimental biologist, is now used for a wide array of biological experimental scenarios and sample types. Much of the great developments in advanced biological imaging have been driven by the digital imaging revolution with powerful processors and algorithms. In particular, this combination of advanced imaging and computational analysis has resulted in the drive of the modern biologist to not only visually inspect dynamic phenomena, but to quantify the involved processes. This need to quantitate images has become a major thrust within the bioimaging community and requires extensible and accessible image processing routines with corresponding intuitive software packages. Novel algorithms both made specifically for light microscopy or adapted from other fields, such as astronomy, are available to biologists, but often in a form that is inaccessible for a number of reasons ranging from data input issues, usability and training concerns, and accessibility and output limitations. The biological community has responded to this need by developing open source software packages that are freely available and provide access to image processing routines. One of the most prominent is the open-source image package ImageJ. In this review, we give an overview of prominent imaging processing approaches in ImageJ that we think are of particular interest for biological imaging and that illustrate the functionality of ImageJ and other open source image analysis software. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e260. doi: 10.1002/wdev.260 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Quantitative phase imaging technologies to assess neuronal activity (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouvenin, Olivier; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Active neurons tends to have a different dynamical behavior compared to resting ones. Non-exhaustively, vesicular transport towards the synapses is increased, since axonal growth becomes slower. Previous studies also reported small phase variations occurring simultaneously with the action potential. Such changes exhibit times scales ranging from milliseconds to several seconds on spatial scales smaller than the optical diffraction limit. Therefore, QPI systems are of particular interest to measure neuronal activity without labels. Here, we report the development of two new QPI systems that should enable the detection of such activity. Both systems can acquire full field phase images with a sub nanometer sensitivity at a few hundreds of frames per second. The first setup is a synchronous combination of Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) and Fluorescence wide field imaging. The latter modality enables the measurement of neurons electrical activity using calcium indicators. In cultures, FF-OCT exhibits similar features to Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM), except from complex computational reconstruction. However, FF-OCT is of particular interest in order to measure phase variations in tissues. The second setup is based on a Quantitative Differential Interference Contrast setup mounted in an epi-illumination configuration with a spectrally incoherent illumination. Such a common path interferometer exhibits a very good mechanical stability, and thus enables the measurement of phase images during hours. Additionally, such setup can not only measure a height change, but also an optical index change for both polarization. Hence, one can measure simultaneously a phase change and a birefringence change.

  10. Quantitative determination of maximal imaging depth in all-NIR multiphoton microscopy images of thick tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarder, Pinaki; Akers, Walter J.; Sudlow, Gail P.; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-02-01

    We report two methods for quantitatively determining maximal imaging depth from thick tissue images captured using all-near-infrared (NIR) multiphoton microscopy (MPM). All-NIR MPM is performed using 1550 nm laser excitation with NIR detection. This method enables imaging more than five-fold deep in thick tissues in comparison with other NIR excitation microscopy methods. In this study, we show a correlation between the multiphoton signal along the depth of tissue samples and the shape of the corresponding empirical probability density function (pdf) of the photon counts. Histograms from this analysis become increasingly symmetric with the imaging depth. This distribution transitions toward the background distribution at higher imaging depths. Inspired by these observations, we propose two independent methods based on which one can automatically determine maximal imaging depth in the all-NIR MPM images of thick tissues. At this point, the signal strength is expected to be weak and similar to the background. The first method suggests the maximal imaging depth corresponds to the deepest image plane where the ratio between the mean and median of the empirical photon-count pdf is outside the vicinity of 1. The second method suggests the maximal imaging depth corresponds to the deepest image plane where the squared distance between the empirical photon-count mean obtained from the object and the mean obtained from the background is greater than a threshold. We demonstrate the application of these methods in all-NIR MPM images of mouse kidney tissues to study maximal depth penetration in such tissues.

  11. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-21

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq (18)F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  12. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-01

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte–Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  13. Thermography as a quantitative imaging method for assessing postoperative inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, J; Matzen, LH; Vaeth, M; Schou, S; Wenzel, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess differences in skin temperature between the operated and control side of the face after mandibular third molar surgery using thermography. Methods 127 patients had 1 mandibular third molar removed. Before the surgery, standardized thermograms were taken of both sides of the patient's face using a Flir ThermaCam™ E320 (Precisions Teknik AB, Halmstad, Sweden). The imaging procedure was repeated 2 days and 7 days after surgery. A region of interest including the third molar region was marked on each image. The mean temperature within each region of interest was calculated. The difference between sides and over time were assessed using paired t-tests. Results No significant difference was found between the operated side and the control side either before or 7 days after surgery (p > 0.3). The temperature of the operated side (mean: 32.39 °C, range: 28.9–35.3 °C) was higher than that of the control side (mean: 32.06 °C, range: 28.5–35.0 °C) 2 days after surgery [0.33 °C, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22–0.44 °C, p < 0.001]. No significant difference was found between the pre-operative and the 7-day post-operative temperature (p > 0.1). After 2 days, the operated side was not significantly different from the temperature pre-operatively (p = 0.12), whereas the control side had a lower temperature (0.57 °C, 95% CI: 0.29–0.86 °C, p < 0.001). Conclusions Thermography seems useful for quantitative assessment of inflammation between the intervention side and the control side after surgical removal of mandibular third molars. However, thermography cannot be used to assess absolute temperature changes due to normal variations in skin temperature over time. PMID:22752326

  14. Accuracy of a remote quantitative image analysis in the whole slide images.

    PubMed

    Słodkowska, Janina; Markiewicz, Tomasz; Grala, Bartłomiej; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Papierz, Wielisław; Pleskacz, Katarzyna; Murawski, Piotr

    2011-03-30

    The rationale for choosing a remote quantitative method supporting a diagnostic decision requires some empirical studies and knowledge on scenarios including valid telepathology standards. The tumours of the central nervous system [CNS] are graded on the base of the morphological features and the Ki-67 labelling Index [Ki-67 LI]. Various methods have been applied for Ki-67 LI estimation. Recently we have introduced the Computerized Analysis of Medical Images [CAMI] software for an automated Ki-67 LI counting in the digital images. Aims of our study was to explore the accuracy and reliability of a remote assessment of Ki-67 LI with CAMI software applied to the whole slide images [WSI]. The WSI representing CNS tumours: 18 meningiomas and 10 oligodendrogliomas were stored on the server of the Warsaw University of Technology. The digital copies of entire glass slides were created automatically by the Aperio ScanScope CS with objective 20x or 40x. Aperio's Image Scope software provided functionality for a remote viewing of WSI. The Ki-67 LI assessment was carried on within 2 out of 20 selected fields of view (objective 40x) representing the highest labelling areas in each WSI. The Ki-67 LI counting was performed by 3 various methods: 1) the manual reading in the light microscope - LM, 2) the automated counting with CAMI software on the digital images - DI , and 3) the remote quantitation on the WSIs - as WSI method. The quality of WSIs and technical efficiency of the on-line system were analysed. The comparative statistical analysis was performed for the results obtained by 3 methods of Ki-67 LI counting. The preliminary analysis showed that in 18% of WSI the results of Ki-67 LI differed from those obtained in other 2 methods of counting when the quality of the glass slides was below the standard range. The results of our investigations indicate that the remote automated Ki-67 LI analysis performed with the CAMI algorithm on the whole slide images of meningiomas and

  15. Toward objective and quantitative evaluation of imaging systems using images of phantoms.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Robert M; Gallas, Brandon D; Myers, Kyle J

    2006-01-01

    The use of imaging phantoms is a common method of evaluating image quality in the clinical setting. These evaluations rely on a subjective decision by a human observer with respect to the faintest detectable signal(s) in the image. Because of the variable and subjective nature of the human-observer scores, the evaluations manifest a lack of precision and a potential for bias. The advent of digital imaging systems with their inherent digital data provides the opportunity to use techniques that do not rely on human-observer decisions and thresholds. Using the digital data, signal-detection theory (SDT) provides the basis for more objective and quantitative evaluations which are independent of a human-observer decision threshold. In a SDT framework, the evaluation of imaging phantoms represents a "signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly" ("SKE/ BKE") detection task. In this study, we compute the performance of prewhitening and nonprewhitening model observers in terms of the observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for these "SK E/BKE" tasks. We apply the evaluation methods to a number of imaging systems. For example, we use data from a laboratory implementation of digital radiography and from a full-field digital mammography system in a clinical setting. In addition, we make a comparison of our methods to human-observer scoring of a set of digital images of the CDMAM phantom available from the internet (EUREF-European Reference Organization). In the latter case, we show a significant increase in the precision of the quantitative methods versus the variability in the scores from human observers on the same set of images. As regards bias, the performance of a model observer estimated from a finite data set is known to be biased. In this study, we minimize the bias and estimate the variance of the observer SNR using statistical resampling techniques, namely, "bootstrapping" and "shuffling" of the data sets. Our methods provide objective and quantitative evaluation of

  16. Developing the Quantitative Histopathology Image Ontology (QHIO): A case study using the hot spot detection problem.

    PubMed

    Gurcan, Metin N; Tomaszewski, John; Overton, James A; Doyle, Scott; Ruttenberg, Alan; Smith, Barry

    2017-02-01

    Interoperability across data sets is a key challenge for quantitative histopathological imaging. There is a need for an ontology that can support effective merging of pathological image data with associated clinical and demographic data. To foster organized, cross-disciplinary, information-driven collaborations in the pathological imaging field, we propose to develop an ontology to represent imaging data and methods used in pathological imaging and analysis, and call it Quantitative Histopathological Imaging Ontology - QHIO. We apply QHIO to breast cancer hot-spot detection with the goal of enhancing reliability of detection by promoting the sharing of data between image analysts.

  17. Differentiation among parkinsonisms using quantitative diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenji; Sasaki, Makoto; Ohtsuka, Chigumi; Yokosawa, Suguru; Harada, Taisuke; Uwano, Ikuko; Yamashita, Fumio; Higuchi, Satomi; Terayama, Yasuo

    2015-03-25

    Differential diagnoses among Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS) are often difficult. Hence, we investigated whether diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) could detect pathological changes that occur in these disorders and be used to differentiate between such patients. Fourteen patients (five with PD, four MSA, and five PSPS) and six healthy controls were examined using a 1.5-T scanner. Mean kurtosis (MK), fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity maps were generated, and these values of the midbrain tegmentum (MBT) and pontine crossing tract (PCT), as well as MBT/PCT ratios, were obtained. We found no significant differences in MBT and PCT values on DKI maps among the groups. In contrast, MBT/PCT ratios from MK maps were significantly increased in the MSA group and decreased in the PSPS group compared with the other groups. MBT/PCT ratios from mean diffusivity maps showed a significant increase in the PSPS group. Therefore, quantitative DKI analyses, particularly the MBT/PCT ratio from MK maps, can differentiate patients with parkinsonisms.

  18. Quantitative coronary angiography using image recovery techniques for background estimation in unsubtracted images

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jerry T.; Kamyar, Farzad; Molloi, Sabee

    2007-10-15

    Densitometry measurements have been performed previously using subtracted images. However, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in coronary angiography is highly susceptible to misregistration artifacts due to the temporal separation of background and target images. Misregistration artifacts due to respiration and patient motion occur frequently, and organ motion is unavoidable. Quantitative densitometric techniques would be more clinically feasible if they could be implemented using unsubtracted images. The goal of this study is to evaluate image recovery techniques for densitometry measurements using unsubtracted images. A humanoid phantom and eight swine (25-35 kg) were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the following image recovery techniques: Local averaging (LA), morphological filtering (MF), linear interpolation (LI), and curvature-driven diffusion image inpainting (CDD). Images of iodinated vessel phantoms placed over the heart of the humanoid phantom or swine were acquired. In addition, coronary angiograms were obtained after power injections of a nonionic iodinated contrast solution in an in vivo swine study. Background signals were estimated and removed with LA, MF, LI, and CDD. Iodine masses in the vessel phantoms were quantified and compared to known amounts. Moreover, the total iodine in left anterior descending arteries was measured and compared with DSA measurements. In the humanoid phantom study, the average root mean square errors associated with quantifying iodine mass using LA and MF were approximately 6% and 9%, respectively. The corresponding average root mean square errors associated with quantifying iodine mass using LI and CDD were both approximately 3%. In the in vivo swine study, the root mean square errors associated with quantifying iodine in the vessel phantoms with LA and MF were approximately 5% and 12%, respectively. The corresponding average root mean square errors using LI and CDD were both 3%. The standard deviations

  19. Quantitative analysis of x-ray images with a television image analyser.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, A; Tillmann, B; Zilles, K

    1980-07-01

    A method for the quantitative evaluation of X-rays is described. The image is decomposed into individual image points by a mechanical scanning procedure, and at each image point the area fraction of a measuring field not covered by silver grains is determined with an image analyzer. This parameter is interpreted as representing a value corresponding to a specific degree of film blackness. The relationship between the measured value and the X-ray absorption is described by standard curves. With the aid of an aluminum scale, the measured value can be expressed directly by the thickness of an aluminum equivalent with a corresponding X-ray absorption. Details about the adjustment of the image analyzer for detecting the silver grains, the resolution of different degrees of X-ray absorption, as well as the computer-controlled scanning procedure are described. An example demonstrates its applicability to analyze the density distribution of bony tissue around the human humero-ulnar joint. The procedure is not limited to the evaluation of X-rays, but is applicable whenever silver grains can be detected in a film layer by an image analyzer.

  20. Real Time Quantitative 3-D Imaging of Diffusion Flame Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Daniel J.; Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for study of combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Even the use of so-called 'limiting cases' or the construction of 1-D or 2-D models and experiments fail to make the analysis of combustion simultaneously simple and accurate. Ideally, to bridge the gap between chemistry and fluid mechanics in microgravity combustion, species concentrations and temperature profiles are needed throughout the flame. However, restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, especially size and weight considerations, have generally limited microgravity combustion studies to the capture of flame emissions on film or video laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated studies are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the computational models. While there have been a myriad of fluid mechanical visualization studies in microgravity combustion, little experimental work has been completed to obtain reactant and product concentrations within a microgravity flame. This is largely due to the fact that traditional sampling methods (quenching microprobes using GC and/or mass spec analysis) are too heavy, slow, and cumbersome for microgravity experiments. Non-intrusive optical spectroscopic techniques have - up until now - also required excessively bulky, power hungry equipment. However, with the advent of near-IR diode

  1. Quantitative PLIF Imaging in High-Pressure Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report for a research project aimed at developing planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques for quantitative 2-D species imaging in fuel-lean, high-pressure combustion gases, relevant to modem aircraft gas turbine combustors. The program involved both theory and experiment. The theoretical activity led to spectroscopic models that allow calculation of the laser-induced fluorescence produced in OH, NO and 02 for arbitrary excitation wavelength, pressure, temperature, gas mixture and laser linewidth. These spectroscopic models incorporate new information on line- broadening, energy transfer and electronic quench rates. Extensive calculations have been made with these models in order to identify optimum excitation strategies, particularly for detecting low levels (ppm) of NO in the presence of large 02 mole fractions (10% is typical for the fuel-lean combustion of interest). A promising new measurement concept has emerged from these calculations, namely that excitation at specific wavelengths, together with detection of fluorescence in multiple spectral bands, promises to enable simultaneous detection of both NO (at ppm levels) and 02 or possibly NO, 02 and temperature. Calculations have been made to evaluate the expected performance of such a diagnostic for a variety of conditions and choices of excitation and detection wavelengths. The experimental effort began with assembly of a new high-pressure combustor to provide controlled high-temperature and high-pressure combustion products. The non-premixed burner enables access to postflame gases at high temperatures (to 2000 K) and high pressures (to 13 atm), and a range of fuel-air equivalence ratios. The chamber also allowed use of a sampling probe, for chemiluminescent detection of NO/NO2, and thermocouples for measurement of gas temperature. Experiments were conducted to confirm the spectroscopic models for OH, NO and 02.

  2. Prospects and challenges of quantitative phase imaging in tumor cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Götte, Martin; Greve, Burkhard; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques provide high resolution label-free quantitative live cell imaging. Here, prospects and challenges of QPI in tumor cell biology are presented, using the example of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). It is shown that the evaluation of quantitative DHM phase images allows the retrieval of different parameter sets for quantification of cellular motion changes in migration and motility assays that are caused by genetic modifications. Furthermore, we demonstrate simultaneously label-free imaging of cell growth and morphology properties.

  3. Graphics processing unit-based quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Jonayat, ASM; Patel, Sanjay; Toussaint, Kimani C., Jr.

    2014-09-01

    We adapt a graphics processing unit (GPU) to dynamic quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging. We demonstrate the temporal advantage of the GPU-based approach by computing the number of frames analyzed per second from SHG image videos showing varying fiber orientations. In comparison to our previously reported CPU-based approach, our GPU-based image analysis results in ˜10× improvement in computational time. This work can be adapted to other quantitative, nonlinear imaging techniques and provides a significant step toward obtaining quantitative information from fast in vivo biological processes.

  4. Dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis for quantitative microcirculation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Xiaoyou; Xiu, Rui-juan

    1994-05-01

    Based on analyses of various types of digital microcirculatory image (DMCI), we summed up the image features of DMCI, the digitizing demands for digital microcirculatory imaging, and the basic characteristics of the DMCI processing. A dynamic and still imaging separation processing (DSISP) mode was designed for developing a DMCI workstation and the DMCI processing. Original images in this study were clinical microcirculatory images from human finger nail-bed and conjunctiva microvasculature, and intravital microvascular network images from animal tissue or organs. A series of dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis functions were developed in this study. The experimental results indicate most of the established analog video image analysis methods for microcirculatory measurement could be realized in a more flexible way based on the DMCI. More information can be rapidly extracted from the quality improved DMCI by employing intelligence digital image analysis methods. The DSISP mode is very suitable for building a DMCI workstation.

  5. The emerging science of quantitative imaging biomarkers terminology and definitions for scientific studies and regulatory submissions.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Larry G; Barnhart, Huiman X; Buckler, Andrew J; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Kondratovich, Marina V; Toledano, Alicia; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Filice, Ross; Zhang, Zheng; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    The development and implementation of quantitative imaging biomarkers has been hampered by the inconsistent and often incorrect use of terminology related to these markers. Sponsored by the Radiological Society of North America, an interdisciplinary group of radiologists, statisticians, physicists, and other researchers worked to develop a comprehensive terminology to serve as a foundation for quantitative imaging biomarker claims. Where possible, this working group adapted existing definitions derived from national or international standards bodies rather than invent new definitions for these terms. This terminology also serves as a foundation for the design of studies that evaluate the technical performance of quantitative imaging biomarkers and for studies of algorithms that generate the quantitative imaging biomarkers from clinical scans. This paper provides examples of research studies and quantitative imaging biomarker claims that use terminology consistent with these definitions as well as examples of the rampant confusion in this emerging field. We provide recommendations for appropriate use of quantitative imaging biomarker terminological concepts. It is hoped that this document will assist researchers and regulatory reviewers who examine quantitative imaging biomarkers and will also inform regulatory guidance. More consistent and correct use of terminology could advance regulatory science, improve clinical research, and provide better care for patients who undergo imaging studies.

  6. Quantitative measurement of holographic image quality using Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesly, E.

    2013-02-01

    Measurement of the characteristics of image holograms in regards to diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio are demonstrated, using readily available digital cameras and image editing software. Illustrations and case studies, using currently available holographic recording materials, are presented.

  7. Quantitative image analysis in the assessment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; Martin, David R; Myers, Orrin B; Czuchlewski, David R; Hunt, Kristin E

    2011-12-01

    Proliferation rates in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have been associated with conflicting outcomes in the literature, more often with high proliferation associated with poor prognosis. In most studies, the proliferation rate was estimated by a pathologist using an immunohistochemical stain for the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. We hypothesized that a quantitative image analysis algorithm would give a more accurate estimate of the proliferation rate, leading to better associations with survival. In all, 84 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were selected according to the World Health Organization criteria. Ki-67 percentage positivity estimated by the pathologist was recorded from the original report. The same slides were then scanned using an Aperio ImageScope, and Ki-67 percentage positivity was calculated using a computer-based quantitative immunohistochemistry nuclear algorithm. In addition, chart review was performed and survival time was recorded. The Ki-67 percentage estimated by the pathologist from the original report versus quantitative image analysis was significantly correlated (P<0.001), but pathologist Ki-67 percentages were significantly higher than quantitative image analysis (P=0.021). There was less agreement at lower Ki-67 percentages. Comparison of Ki-67 percentage positivity versus survival did not show significant association either with pathologist estimate or quantitative image analysis. However, although not significant, there was a trend of worse survival at higher proliferation rates detected by the pathologist but not by quantitative image analysis. Interestingly, our data suggest that the Ki-67 percentage positivity as assessed by the pathologist may be more closely associated with survival outcome than that identified by quantitative image analysis. This may indicate that pathologists are better at selecting appropriate areas of the slide. More cases are needed to assess whether this finding would be statistically significant. Due to

  8. Online quantitative phase imaging of vascular endothelial cells under fluid shear stress utilizing digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenthal-Schnittler, Maria; Schnittler, Hans Joachim; Kemper, Björn

    2016-03-01

    We have explored the utilization of quantitative phase imaging with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a novel tool for quantifying the dynamics of morphologic parameters (morphodynamics) of confluent endothelial cell layers under fluid shear stress conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to fluid shear stress in a transparent cone/plate flow device (BioTech-Flow-System) and imaged with a modular setup for quantitative DHM phase imaging for up to 48 h. The resulting series of quantitative phase image sequences were analyzed for the average surface roughness of the cell layers and cell alignment. Our results demonstrate that quantitative phase imaging is a powerful and reliable tool to quantify the dynamics of morphological adaptation of endothelial cells to fluid shear stress.

  9. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, C.; Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L.; Byars, L.; Michel, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N. J.

    2013-02-01

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner.

  10. Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocal, E.; Kristensson, E.; Hottenbach, P.; Aldén, M.; Grünefeld, G.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its transient nature, high atomization process, and rapid generation of fine evaporating droplets, diesel sprays have been, and still remain, one of the most challenging sprays to be fully analyzed and understood by means of non-intrusive diagnostics. The main limitation of laser techniques for quantitative measurements of diesel sprays concerns the detection of the multiple light scattering resulting from the high optical density of such a scattering medium. A second limitation is the extinction of the incident laser radiation as it crosses the spray, as well as the attenuation of the signal which is to be detected. All these issues have strongly motivated, during the past decade, the use of X-ray instead of visible light for dense spray diagnostics. However, we demonstrate in this paper that based on an affordable Nd:YAG laser system, structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) can provide accurate quantitative description of a non-reacting diesel spray injected at 1,100 bar within a room temperature vessel pressurized at 18.6 bar. The technique is used at λ = 355 nm excitation wavelength with 1.0 mol% TMPD dye concentration, for simultaneous LIF/Mie imaging. Furthermore, a novel dual-SLIPI configuration is tested with Mie scattering detection only. The results confirm that a mapping of both the droplet Sauter mean diameter and extinction coefficient can be obtained by such complementary approaches. These new insights are provided in this article at late times after injection start. It is demonstrated that the application of SLIPI to diesel sprays provides valuable quantitative information which was not previously accessible.

  11. Segmentation and learning in the quantitative analysis of microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Christy; Ross, Amy; Porter, Reid

    2015-02-01

    In material science and bio-medical domains the quantity and quality of microscopy images is rapidly increasing and there is a great need to automatically detect, delineate and quantify particles, grains, cells, neurons and other functional "objects" within these images. These are challenging problems for image processing because of the variability in object appearance that inevitably arises in real world image acquisition and analysis. One of the most promising (and practical) ways to address these challenges is interactive image segmentation. These algorithms are designed to incorporate input from a human operator to tailor the segmentation method to the image at hand. Interactive image segmentation is now a key tool in a wide range of applications in microscopy and elsewhere. Historically, interactive image segmentation algorithms have tailored segmentation on an image-by-image basis, and information derived from operator input is not transferred between images. But recently there has been increasing interest to use machine learning in segmentation to provide interactive tools that accumulate and learn from the operator input over longer periods of time. These new learning algorithms reduce the need for operator input over time, and can potentially provide a more dynamic balance between customization and automation for different applications. This paper reviews the state of the art in this area, provides a unified view of these algorithms, and compares the segmentation performance of various design choices.

  12. Quantitative fractography by digital image processing: NIH Image macro tools for stereo pair analysis and 3-D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hein, L R

    2001-10-01

    A set of NIH Image macro programs was developed to make qualitative and quantitative analyses from digital stereo pictures produced by scanning electron microscopes. These tools were designed for image alignment, anaglyph representation, animation, reconstruction of true elevation surfaces, reconstruction of elevation profiles, true-scale elevation mapping and, for the quantitative approach, surface area and roughness calculations. Limitations on time processing, scanning techniques and programming concepts are also discussed.

  13. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    SciTech Connect

    Drukker, Karen Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui; Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A.; Flowers, Chris I.; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  14. Wide-field quantitative imaging of tissue microstructure using sub-diffuse spatial frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    McClatchy, David M; Rizzo, Elizabeth J; Wells, Wendy A; Cheney, Philip P; Hwang, Jeeseong C; Paulsen, Keith D; Pogue, Brian W; Kanick, Stephen C

    2016-06-20

    Localized measurements of scattering in biological tissue provide sensitivity to microstructural morphology but have limited utility to wide-field applications, such as surgical guidance. This study introduces sub-diffusive spatial frequency domain imaging (sd-SFDI), which uses high spatial frequency illumination to achieve wide-field sampling of localized reflectances. Model-based inversion recovers macroscopic variations in the reduced scattering coefficient [Formula: see text] and the phase function backscatter parameter (γ). Measurements in optical phantoms show quantitative imaging of user-tuned phase-function-based contrast with accurate decoupling of parameters that define both the density and the size-scale distribution of scatterers. Measurements of fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples revealed, for the first time, unique clustering of sub-diffusive scattering properties for different tissue types. The results support that sd-SFDI provides maps of microscopic structural biomarkers that cannot be obtained with diffuse wide-field imaging and characterizes spatial variations not resolved by point-based optical sampling.

  15. Electronic imaging systems for quantitative electrophoresis of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most powerful and widely used methods for the separation of DNA. During the last decade, instruments have been developed that accurately quantitate in digital form the distribution of materials in a gel or on a blot prepared from a gel. In this paper, I review the various physical properties that can be used to quantitate the distribution of DNA on gels or blots and the instrumentation that has been developed to perform these tasks. The emphasis here is on DNA, but much of what is said also applies to RNA, proteins and other molecules. 36 refs.

  16. High-speed quantitative interferometric microscopy based phase imaging cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Sun, Nan; Yan, Keding; Liu, Fei; Wang, Shouyu

    2014-11-01

    The paper proposed a simple large scale bio-sample phase detecting equipment called gravity driven phase detecting cytometer, which is based on quantitative interferometric microscopy to realize flowing red blood cells phase distribution detection. The method has advantages on high throughput phase detecting and statistical analysis with high detecting speed and in real-time. The statistical characteristics of red blood cells are useful for biological analysis and disease detection. We believe this method is shedding more light on quantitatively measurement of the phase distribution of bio-samples.

  17. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for technical performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Raunig, David L; McShane, Lisa M; Pennello, Gene; Gatsonis, Constantine; Carson, Paul L; Voyvodic, James T; Wahl, Richard L; Kurland, Brenda F; Schwarz, Adam J; Gönen, Mithat; Zahlmann, Gudrun; Kondratovich, Marina V; O'Donnell, Kevin; Petrick, Nicholas; Cole, Patricia E; Garra, Brian; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    Technological developments and greater rigor in the quantitative measurement of biological features in medical images have given rise to an increased interest in using quantitative imaging biomarkers to measure changes in these features. Critical to the performance of a quantitative imaging biomarker in preclinical or clinical settings are three primary metrology areas of interest: measurement linearity and bias, repeatability, and the ability to consistently reproduce equivalent results when conditions change, as would be expected in any clinical trial. Unfortunately, performance studies to date differ greatly in designs, analysis method, and metrics used to assess a quantitative imaging biomarker for clinical use. It is therefore difficult or not possible to integrate results from different studies or to use reported results to design studies. The Radiological Society of North America and the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance with technical, radiological, and statistical experts developed a set of technical performance analysis methods, metrics, and study designs that provide terminology, metrics, and methods consistent with widely accepted metrological standards. This document provides a consistent framework for the conduct and evaluation of quantitative imaging biomarker performance studies so that results from multiple studies can be compared, contrasted, or combined.

  18. Diffraction enhance x-ray imaging for quantitative phase contrast studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, A. K.; Singh, B.; Kashyap, Y. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sarkar, P. S.; Sinha, Amar

    2016-05-01

    Conventional X-ray imaging based on absorption contrast permits limited visibility of feature having small density and thickness variations. For imaging of weakly absorbing material or materials possessing similar densities, a novel phase contrast imaging techniques called diffraction enhanced imaging has been designed and developed at imaging beamline Indus-2 RRCAT Indore. The technique provides improved visibility of the interfaces and show high contrast in the image forsmall density or thickness gradients in the bulk. This paper presents basic principle, instrumentation and analysis methods for this technique. Initial results of quantitative phase retrieval carried out on various samples have also been presented.

  19. Color-coded LED microscopy for multi-contrast and quantitative phase-gradient imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghak; Ryu, Suho; Kim, Uihan; Jung, Daeseong; Joo, Chulmin

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-contrast microscope based on color-coded illumination and computation. A programmable three-color light-emitting diode (LED) array illuminates a specimen, in which each color corresponds to a different illumination angle. A single color image sensor records light transmitted through the specimen, and images at each color channel are then separated and utilized to obtain bright-field, dark-field, and differential phase contrast (DPC) images simultaneously. Quantitative phase imaging is also achieved based on DPC images acquired with two different LED illumination patterns. The multi-contrast and quantitative phase imaging capabilities of our method are demonstrated by presenting images of various transparent biological samples. PMID:26713205

  20. Computerized quantitative evaluation of mammographic accreditation phantom images

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Shinohara, Norimitsu

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: The objective was to develop and investigate an automated scoring scheme of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantom (RMI 156, Middleton, WI) images. Methods: The developed method consisted of background subtraction, determination of region of interest, classification of fiber and mass objects by Mahalanobis distance, detection of specks by template matching, and rule-based scoring. Fifty-one phantom images were collected from 51 facilities for this study (one facility provided one image). A medical physicist and two radiologic technologists also scored the images. The human and computerized scores were compared. Results: In terms of meeting the ACR's criteria, the accuracies of the developed method for computerized evaluation of fiber, mass, and speck were 90%, 80%, and 98%, respectively. Contingency table analysis revealed significant association between observer and computer scores for microcalcifications (p<5%) but not for masses and fibers. Conclusions: The developed method may achieve a stable assessment of visibility for test objects in mammographic accreditation phantom image in whether the phantom image meets the ACR's criteria in the evaluation test, although there is room left for improvement in the approach for fiber and mass objects.

  1. Automatic segmentation method of striatum regions in quantitative susceptibility mapping images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakawa, Saki; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Hirai, Toshinori

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain iron has been detected in various neurodegenerative diseases. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel contrast mechanism in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and enables the quantitative analysis of local tissue susceptibility property. Therefore, automatic segmentation tools of brain regions on QSM images would be helpful for radiologists' quantitative analysis in various neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic segmentation and classification method of striatum regions on QSM images. Our image database consisted of 22 QSM images obtained from healthy volunteers. These images were acquired on a 3.0 T MR scanner. The voxel size was 0.9×0.9×2 mm. The matrix size of each slice image was 256×256 pixels. In our computerized method, a template mating technique was first used for the detection of a slice image containing striatum regions. An image registration technique was subsequently employed for the classification of striatum regions in consideration of the anatomical knowledge. After the image registration, the voxels in the target image which correspond with striatum regions in the reference image were classified into three striatum regions, i.e., head of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. The experimental results indicated that 100% (21/21) of the slice images containing striatum regions were detected accurately. The subjective evaluation of the classification results indicated that 20 (95.2%) of 21 showed good or adequate quality. Our computerized method would be useful for the quantitative analysis of Parkinson diseases in QSM images.

  2. Quantitative analysis of multi-spectral fundus images.

    PubMed

    Styles, I B; Calcagni, A; Claridge, E; Orihuela-Espina, F; Gibson, J M

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a new technique for extracting histological parameters from multi-spectral images of the ocular fundus. The new method uses a Monte Carlo simulation of the reflectance of the fundus to model how the spectral reflectance of the tissue varies with differing tissue histology. The model is parameterised by the concentrations of the five main absorbers found in the fundus: retinal haemoglobins, choroidal haemoglobins, choroidal melanin, RPE melanin and macular pigment. These parameters are shown to give rise to distinct variations in the tissue colouration. We use the results of the Monte Carlo simulations to construct an inverse model which maps tissue colouration onto the model parameters. This allows the concentration and distribution of the five main absorbers to be determined from suitable multi-spectral images. We propose the use of "image quotients" to allow this information to be extracted from uncalibrated image data. The filters used to acquire the images are selected to ensure a one-to-one mapping between model parameters and image quotients. To recover five model parameters uniquely, images must be acquired in six distinct spectral bands. Theoretical investigations suggest that retinal haemoglobins and macular pigment can be recovered with RMS errors of less than 10%. We present parametric maps showing the variation of these parameters across the posterior pole of the fundus. The results are in agreement with known tissue histology for normal healthy subjects. We also present an early result which suggests that, with further development, the technique could be used to successfully detect retinal haemorrhages.

  3. Evaluation of impact of immunocytochemical techniques in cytological diagnosis of neoplastic effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Linari, A; Bussolati, G

    1989-01-01

    A prospective study (1984-87) on the immunocytochemical identification of cancer cells in effusions using HMFG2 monoclonal antibody, and in addition, monoclonal anti-CEA and B72.3 antibodies in cases of suspected mesothelioma, was undertaken. On the basis of cytology alone, of a total of 2362 pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial effusions, 525 cases were diagnosed as positive and 1485 as negative for neoplastic cells, while in 352 (15%) specimens from 307 patients the diagnosis was doubtful. Sections of the embedded sediment of doubtful cases were tested with HMFG2 antibody and proved positive in 215 cases, negative in 108, and inconclusive in 29. The results were checked by following the clinical outcome of the cases. The method was specific in identifying cancer cells in cases at best diagnosed as suspicious on the basis of cytology alone; this represents a clear diagnostic gain. Sensitivity of the test, however, was relatively low (41%). Combined cytological and immunocytochemical characteristics (CEA negative and only some of the neoplastic cells positive with HMFG2 and B72.3 monoclonal antibodies) permitted diagnosis on the effusions of most cases of mesothelioma. The impact of the diagnosis on the progress of the disease was not appreciable as no difference in outcome was noted, irrespective of whether cancer cells had been recognised. The occurrence of an effusion remains an ominous sign in most patients treated for cancer. Images PMID:2685053

  4. Quantitative Computed Tomography and Image Analysis for Advanced Muscle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kyle Joseph; Gíslason, Magnus K.; Arnadottir, Iris D.; Marcante, Andrea; Piccione, Francesco; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT) and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions. Herein, we detail the acquisition of spiral CT images and the use of advanced image analysis tools to characterize muscles in 2D and 3D. Results from these studies recapitulate changes in tissue composition within muscles, as visualized by the association of tissue types to specified Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for fat, loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, and normal muscle, including fascia and tendon. We show how results from these analyses can be presented as both average HU values and compositions with respect to total muscle volumes, demonstrating the reliability of these tools to monitor, assess and characterize muscle degeneration. PMID:27478562

  5. Online quantitative analysis of multispectral images of human body tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A

    2013-08-31

    A method is developed for online monitoring of structural and morphological parameters of biological tissues (haemoglobin concentration, degree of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries and the parameter characterising the average size of tissue scatterers), which involves multispectral tissue imaging, image normalisation to one of its spectral layers and determination of unknown parameters based on their stable regression relation with the spectral characteristics of the normalised image. Regression is obtained by simulating numerically the diffuse reflectance spectrum of the tissue by the Monte Carlo method at a wide variation of model parameters. The correctness of the model calculations is confirmed by the good agreement with the experimental data. The error of the method is estimated under conditions of general variability of structural and morphological parameters of the tissue. The method developed is compared with the traditional methods of interpretation of multispectral images of biological tissues, based on the solution of the inverse problem for each pixel of the image in the approximation of different analytical models. (biomedical optics)

  6. Quantitative Imaging of Single Upconversion Nanoparticles in Biological Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nadort, Annemarie; Sreenivasan, Varun K. A.; Song, Zhen; Grebenik, Ekaterina A.; Nechaev, Andrei V.; Semchishen, Vladimir A.; Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2013-01-01

    The unique luminescent properties of new-generation synthetic nanomaterials, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), enabled high-contrast optical biomedical imaging by suppressing the crowded background of biological tissue autofluorescence and evading high tissue absorption. This raised high expectations on the UCNP utilities for intracellular and deep tissue imaging, such as whole animal imaging. At the same time, the critical nonlinear dependence of the UCNP luminescence on the excitation intensity results in dramatic signal reduction at (∼1 cm) depth in biological tissue. Here, we report on the experimental and theoretical investigation of this trade-off aiming at the identification of optimal application niches of UCNPs e.g. biological liquids and subsurface tissue layers. As an example of such applications, we report on single UCNP imaging through a layer of hemolyzed blood. To extend this result towards in vivo applications, we quantified the optical properties of single UCNPs and theoretically analyzed the prospects of single-particle detectability in live scattering and absorbing bio-tissue using a human skin model. The model predicts that a single 70-nm UCNP would be detectable at skin depths up to 400 µm, unlike a hardly detectable single fluorescent (fluorescein) dye molecule. UCNP-assisted imaging in the ballistic regime thus allows for excellent applications niches, where high sensitivity is the key requirement. PMID:23691012

  7. Photoacoustic molecular imaging for in vivo liver iron quantitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarinelli, Federica; Carmona, Fernando; Regoni, Maria; Arosio, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    A recent study showed that ferritin is a suitable endogenous contrast agent for photoacoustic molecular imaging in cultured mammalian cells. We have therefore tested whether this imaging technique can be used for in vivo quantification of iron in mouse livers. To verify this hypothesis, we used multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) to image albino CD1 mice before and after experimental iron loading. Postmortem assays showed that the iron treatment caused a 15-fold increase in liver iron and a 40-fold increase in liver ferritin levels, while in vivo longitudinal analysis using MSOT revealed just a 1.6-fold increase in the ferritin/iron photoacoustic signal in the same animals. We conclude that MSOT can monitor changes in ferritin/iron levels in vivo, but its sensitivity is much lower than that of ex vivo iron assays.

  8. Quantitative comparison of OSEM and penalized likelihood image reconstruction using relative difference penalties for clinical PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangtae; Ross, Steven G.; Asma, Evren; Miao, Jun; Jin, Xiao; Cheng, Lishui; Wollenweber, Scott D.; Manjeshwar, Ravindra M.

    2015-08-01

    Ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) is the most widely used algorithm for clinical PET image reconstruction. OSEM is usually stopped early and post-filtered to control image noise and does not necessarily achieve optimal quantitation accuracy. As an alternative to OSEM, we have recently implemented a penalized likelihood (PL) image reconstruction algorithm for clinical PET using the relative difference penalty with the aim of improving quantitation accuracy without compromising visual image quality. Preliminary clinical studies have demonstrated visual image quality including lesion conspicuity in images reconstructed by the PL algorithm is better than or at least as good as that in OSEM images. In this paper we evaluate lesion quantitation accuracy of the PL algorithm with the relative difference penalty compared to OSEM by using various data sets including phantom data acquired with an anthropomorphic torso phantom, an extended oval phantom and the NEMA image quality phantom; clinical data; and hybrid clinical data generated by adding simulated lesion data to clinical data. We focus on mean standardized uptake values and compare them for PL and OSEM using both time-of-flight (TOF) and non-TOF data. The results demonstrate improvements of PL in lesion quantitation accuracy compared to OSEM with a particular improvement in cold background regions such as lungs.

  9. Quantitative Analysis Tools and Digital Phantoms for Deformable Image Registration Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haksoo; Park, Samuel B; Monroe, James I; Traughber, Bryan J; Zheng, Yiran; Lo, Simon S; Yao, Min; Mansur, David; Ellis, Rodney; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W

    2015-08-01

    This article proposes quantitative analysis tools and digital phantoms to quantify intrinsic errors of deformable image registration (DIR) systems and establish quality assurance (QA) procedures for clinical use of DIR systems utilizing local and global error analysis methods with clinically realistic digital image phantoms. Landmark-based image registration verifications are suitable only for images with significant feature points. To address this shortfall, we adapted a deformation vector field (DVF) comparison approach with new analysis techniques to quantify the results. Digital image phantoms are derived from data sets of actual patient images (a reference image set, R, a test image set, T). Image sets from the same patient taken at different times are registered with deformable methods producing a reference DVFref. Applying DVFref to the original reference image deforms T into a new image R'. The data set, R', T, and DVFref, is from a realistic truth set and therefore can be used to analyze any DIR system and expose intrinsic errors by comparing DVFref and DVFtest. For quantitative error analysis, calculating and delineating differences between DVFs, 2 methods were used, (1) a local error analysis tool that displays deformation error magnitudes with color mapping on each image slice and (2) a global error analysis tool that calculates a deformation error histogram, which describes a cumulative probability function of errors for each anatomical structure. Three digital image phantoms were generated from three patients with a head and neck, a lung and a liver cancer. The DIR QA was evaluated using the case with head and neck.

  10. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  11. Quantitative label-free sperm imaging by means of transport of intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poola, Praveen Kumar; Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; Jayaraman, Varshini; John, Renu

    2016-03-01

    Most living cells are optically transparent which makes it difficult to visualize them under bright field microscopy. Use of contrast agents or markers and staining procedures are often followed to observe these cells. However, most of these staining agents are toxic and not applicable for live cell imaging. In the last decade, quantitative phase imaging has become an indispensable tool for morphological characterization of the phase objects without any markers. In this paper, we report noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging of live sperm cells by solving transport of intensity equations with recorded intensity measurements along optical axis on a commercial bright field microscope.

  12. Quantitative imaging of RBC suspensions in bifurcating microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Joseph; Holmes, David; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Balabani, Stavroula

    2014-11-01

    The local velocity and concentration characteristics of both red blood cells (RBCs) and suspending medium flowing in a bifurcating microchannel were measured simultaneously. An imaging technique involving alternate bright field and laser light illumination was employed to capture both RBC and fluorescent PIV images of human healthy blood, flowing through a sequentially bifurcating 50 micrometer square PDMS microchannel. The acquired images were further processed using PIV algorithms to yield the velocity distribution of RBCs and suspending medium while the brightfield images also provided data on hematocrit distribution and cell-depleted layer. Various flow rates, aggregation states and proportions of flow entering each branch were considered. Asymmetric hematocrit distributions were quantified around the bifurcations and found to be enhanced by aggregation. The data were compared with computational fluid dynamics studies of continuous Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids in order to elucidate the impact of the two-phase nature of the flow, particularly RBC aggregation. The work is currently being extended to examine the role of RBC properties on microhemodynamics and the implications for disease. Department of Bioengineering.

  13. A Quantitative Three-Dimensional Image Analysis Tool for Maximal Acquisition of Spatial Heterogeneity Data.

    PubMed

    Allenby, Mark C; Misener, Ruth; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques provide spatial insight into environmental and cellular interactions and are implemented in various fields, including tissue engineering, but have been restricted by limited quantification tools that misrepresent or underutilize the cellular phenomena captured. This study develops image postprocessing algorithms pairing complex Euclidean metrics with Monte Carlo simulations to quantitatively assess cell and microenvironment spatial distributions while utilizing, for the first time, the entire 3D image captured. Although current methods only analyze a central fraction of presented confocal microscopy images, the proposed algorithms can utilize 210% more cells to calculate 3D spatial distributions that can span a 23-fold longer distance. These algorithms seek to leverage the high sample cost of 3D tissue imaging techniques by extracting maximal quantitative data throughout the captured image.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative image quality analysis of super resolution images from a low cost scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Sergio; Echegaray, Sebastian; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter; Bauman, Wendall

    2011-03-01

    The lurking epidemic of eye diseases caused by diabetes and aging will put more than 130 million Americans at risk of blindness by 2020. Screening has been touted as a means to prevent blindness by identifying those individuals at risk. However, the cost of most of today's commercial retinal imaging devices makes their use economically impractical for mass screening. Thus, low cost devices are needed. With these devices, low cost often comes at the expense of image quality with high levels of noise and distortion hindering the clinical evaluation of those retinas. A software-based super resolution (SR) reconstruction methodology that produces images with improved resolution and quality from multiple low resolution (LR) observations is introduced. The LR images are taken with a low-cost Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO). The non-redundant information of these LR images is combined to produce a single image in an implementation that also removes noise and imaging distortions while preserving fine blood vessels and small lesions. The feasibility of using the resulting SR images for screening of eye diseases was tested using quantitative and qualitative assessments. Qualitatively, expert image readers evaluated their ability of detecting clinically significant features on the SR images and compared their findings with those obtained from matching images of the same eyes taken with commercially available high-end cameras. Quantitatively, measures of image quality were calculated from SR images and compared to subject-matched images from a commercial fundus imager. Our results show that the SR images have indeed enough quality and spatial detail for screening purposes.

  15. Quantitative appraisal for noise reduction in digital holographic phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Montresor, Silvio; Picart, Pascal

    2016-06-27

    This paper discusses on a quantitative comparison of the performances of different advanced algorithms for phase data de-noising. In order to quantify the performances, several criteria are proposed: the gain in the signal-to-noise ratio, the Q index, the standard deviation of the phase error, and the signal to distortion ratio. The proposed methodology to investigate de-noising algorithms is based on the use of a realistic simulation of noise-corrupted phase data. A database including 25 fringe patterns divided into 5 patterns and 5 different signal-to-noise ratios was generated to evaluate the selected de-noising algorithms. A total of 34 algorithms divided into different families were evaluated. Quantitative appraisal leads to ranking within the considered criteria. A fairly good correlation between the signal-to-noise ratio gain and the quality index has been observed. There exists an anti-correlation between the phase error and the quality index which indicates that the phase errors are mainly structural distortions in the fringe pattern. Experimental results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.

  16. Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hoa; Ding, Huafeng; Sobh, Nahil; Do, Minh; Patel, Sanjay; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate real time off-axis Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) using a phase reconstruction algorithm based on NVIDIA’s CUDA programming model. The phase unwrapping component is based on Goldstein’s algorithm. By mapping the process of extracting phase information and unwrapping to GPU, we are able to speed up the whole procedure by more than 18.8× with respect to CPU processing and ultimately achieve video rate for mega-pixel images. Our CUDA implementation also supports processing of multiple images simultaneously. This enables our imaging system to support high speed, high throughput, and real-time image acquisition and visualization. PMID:21750757

  17. Quantitative Evaluation of Strain Near Tooth Fillet by Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Tomoya; Yoshiizumi, Satoshi; Inoue, Katsumi

    The accurate measurement of strain and stress in a tooth is important for the reliable evaluation of the strength or life of gears. In this research, a strain measurement method which is based on image processing is applied to the analysis of strain near the tooth fillet. The loaded tooth is photographed using a CCD camera and stored as a digital image. The displacement of the point in the tooth flank is tracked by the cross-correlation method, and then, the strain is calculated. The interrogation window size of the correlation method and the overlap amount affect the accuracy and resolution. In the case of measurements at structures with complicated profiles such as fillets, the interrogation window maintains a large size and the overlap amount should be large. The surface condition also affects the accuracy. The white painted surface with a small black particle is suitable for measurement.

  18. Quantitative imaging of airway liquid absorption in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Locke, Landon W; Myerburg, Michael M; Markovetz, Matthew R; Parker, Robert S; Weber, Lawrence; Czachowski, Michael R; Harding, Thomas J; Brown, Stefanie L; Nero, Joseph A; Pilewski, Joseph M; Corcoran, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    New measures are needed to rapidly assess emerging treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Using an imaging approach, we evaluated the absorptive clearance of the radiolabeled small molecule probe diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) as an in vivo indicator of changes in airway liquid absorption. DTPA absorption and mucociliary clearance rates were measured in 21 patients with CF (12 adults and nine children) and nine adult controls using nuclear imaging. The effect of hypertonic saline on DTPA absorption was also studied. In addition, in vitro studies were conducted to identify the determinants of transepithelial DTPA absorption. CF patients had significantly increased rates of DTPA absorption compared with control subjects but had similar mucociliary clearance rates. Treatment with hypertonic saline resulted in a decrease in DTPA absorption and an increase in mucociliary clearance in 11 out of 11 adult CF patients compared with treatment with isotonic saline. In vitro studies revealed that ∼ 50% of DTPA absorption can be attributed to transepithelial fluid transport. Apically applied mucus impedes liquid and DTPA absorption. However, mucus effects become negligible in the presence of an osmotic stimulus. Functional imaging of DTPA absorption provides a quantifiable marker of immediate response to treatments that promote airway surface liquid hydration.

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Retinopathy Using Multi-parameter Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghanian, Zahra; Staniszewski, Kevin; Jamali, Nasim; Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Wang, Shoujian; Sorenson, Christine M.; Sheibani, Nader; Ranji, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    A multi-parameter quantification method was implemented to quantify retinal vascular injuries in microscopic images of clinically relevant eye diseases. This method was applied to wholemount retinal trypsin digest images of diabetic Akita/+, and bcl-2 knocked out mice models. Five unique features of retinal vasculature were extracted to monitor early structural changes and retinopathy, as well as quantifying the disease progression. Our approach was validated through simulations of retinal images. Results showed fewer number of cells (P = 5.1205e-05), greater population ratios of endothelial cells to pericytes (PCs) (P = 5.1772e-04; an indicator of PC loss), higher fractal dimension (P = 8.2202e-05), smaller vessel coverage (P = 1.4214e-05), and greater number of acellular capillaries (P = 7.0414e-04) for diabetic retina as compared to normal retina. Quantification using the present method would be helpful in evaluating physiological and pathological retinopathy in a high-throughput and reproducible manner. PMID:27186534

  20. Quantitative measurement of aging using image texture entropy

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Lior; Wolkow, Catherine A.; Goldberg, Ilya G.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: A key element in understanding the aging of Caenorhabditis elegans is objective quantification of the morphological differences between younger and older animals. Here we propose to use the image texture entropy as an objective measurement that reflects the structural deterioration of the C.elegans muscle tissues during aging. Results: The texture entropy and directionality of the muscle microscopy images were measured using 50 animals on Days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 of adulthood. Results show that the entropy of the C.elegans pharynx tissues increases as the animal ages, but a sharper increase was measured between Days 2 and 4, and between Days 8 and 10. These results are in agreement with gene expression findings, and support the contention that the process of C.elegans aging has several distinct stages. This can indicate that C.elegans aging is driven by developmental pathways, rather than stochastic accumulation of damage. Availability: The image data are freely available on the Internet at http://ome.grc.nia.nih.gov/iicbu2008/celegans, and the Haralick and Tamura texture analysis source code can be downloaded at http://ome.grc.nia.nih.gov/wnd-charm. Contact: shamirl@mail.nih.gov PMID:19808878

  1. Segmentation of vascular structures and hematopoietic cells in 3D microscopy images and quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Jian; Yang, Lin; Kamocka, Malgorzata M.; Zollman, Amy L.; Carlesso, Nadia; Chen, Danny Z.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present image processing methods for quantitative study of how the bone marrow microenvironment changes (characterized by altered vascular structure and hematopoietic cell distribution) caused by diseases or various factors. We develop algorithms that automatically segment vascular structures and hematopoietic cells in 3-D microscopy images, perform quantitative analysis of the properties of the segmented vascular structures and cells, and examine how such properties change. In processing images, we apply local thresholding to segment vessels, and add post-processing steps to deal with imaging artifacts. We propose an improved watershed algorithm that relies on both intensity and shape information and can separate multiple overlapping cells better than common watershed methods. We then quantitatively compute various features of the vascular structures and hematopoietic cells, such as the branches and sizes of vessels and the distribution of cells. In analyzing vascular properties, we provide algorithms for pruning fake vessel segments and branches based on vessel skeletons. Our algorithms can segment vascular structures and hematopoietic cells with good quality. We use our methods to quantitatively examine the changes in the bone marrow microenvironment caused by the deletion of Notch pathway. Our quantitative analysis reveals property changes in samples with deleted Notch pathway. Our tool is useful for biologists to quantitatively measure changes in the bone marrow microenvironment, for developing possible therapeutic strategies to help the bone marrow microenvironment recovery.

  2. Quantitative computed tomography imaging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Lalita; Fernandes, Yasmin; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease having small airway inflammation, emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension. It is now clear that spirometry alone cannot differentiate each component. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is increasingly used to quantify the amount of emphysema and small airway involvement in COPD. Inspiratory CT guides in assessing emphysema while expiratory CT identifies areas of air trapping which is a surrogate of small airway inflammation. By constructing a three-dimensional model of airways, we can also measure the airway wall thickness of segmental and subsegmental airways. The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge and methodologies in QCT of the lung that aid in identifying discrete COPD phenotypes. PMID:27890994

  3. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  4. [Parametric biomedical imaging--what defines the quality of quantitative radiological approaches?].

    PubMed

    Glüer, C-C; Barkmann, R; Hahn, H K; Majumdar, S; Eckstein, F; Nickelsen, T N; Bolte, H; Dicken, V; Heller, M

    2006-12-01

    Quantitative parametric imaging approaches provide new perspectives for radiological imaging. These include quantitative 2D, 3D, and 4D visualization options along with the parametric depiction of biological tissue properties and tissue function. This allows the interpretation of radiological data from a biochemical, biomechanical, or physiological perspective. Quantification permits the detection of small changes that are not yet visually apparent, thus allowing application in early disease diagnosis and monitoring therapy with enhanced sensitivity. This review outlines the potential of quantitative parametric imaging methods and demonstrates this on the basis of a few exemplary applications. One field of particular interest, the use of these methods for investigational new drug application studies, is presented. Assessment criteria for judging the quality of quantitative imaging approaches are discussed in the context of the potential and the limitations of these methods. While quantitative parametric imaging methods do not replace but rather supplement established visual interpretation methods in radiology, they do open up new perspectives for diagnosis and prognosis and in particular for monitoring disease progression and therapy.

  5. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Roger N.; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E.; Price, Julie C.

    2015-11-01

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts

  6. Nanoparticles for biomedical imaging, therapy, and quantitative diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yust, Brian G.

    Nanoparticles and nanomaterials are known to exhibit extraordinary characteristics and have a wide range of application which utilizes their unique properties. In particular, nanoparticles have shown great promise towards advancing the state of biological and biomedical techniques such as in vivo and in vitro imaging modalities, biosensing, and disease detection and therapy. Nanocrystalline hosts: NaYF4, KYF4, KGdF4, NaMF3, and KMF3 (M=Mg, Ba, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cr) doped with rare earth ions have been synthesized by thermolysis, solvothermal, and hydrothermal methods. The morphology and spectroscopic properties have been thoroughly characterized. These nanoparticles (NP) are particularly useful for biomedical purposes since both the exciting and emitting wavelengths are in the near-infrared, where most tissues do not strongly absorb or scatter light. In vivo and in vitro imaging was performed with a 980 nm excitation source. Finally, NPs were conjugated with zinc phthalocyanine, a photosensitizer with a large absorption coefficient in the red and NIR regions, to illustrate the efficacy of these NPs as a platform for dual-mode infrared-activated imaging and photodynamic platforms. In addition, nonlinear optical nanomaterials, such as BaTiO3 and Ag@BaTiO3, were also synthesized and characterized. The nonlinear optical properties were investigated, and it is demonstrated that these nanoparticles can produce phase conjugate waves when used in a counterpropagating four wave mixing setup. The third order susceptibility is quantified using the z-scan technique, and the toxicity of these nanoparticles is also explored.

  7. Genetic algorithm based image binarization approach and its quantitative evaluation via pooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Huijun; Liu, Ya; Liu, Maofu

    2015-12-01

    The binarized image is very critical to image visual feature extraction, especially shape feature, and the image binarization approaches have been attracted more attentions in the past decades. In this paper, the genetic algorithm is applied to optimizing the binarization threshold of the strip steel defect image. In order to evaluate our genetic algorithm based image binarization approach in terms of quantity, we propose the novel pooling based evaluation metric, motivated by information retrieval community, to avoid the lack of ground-truth binary image. Experimental results show that our genetic algorithm based binarization approach is effective and efficiency in the strip steel defect images and our quantitative evaluation metric on image binarization via pooling is also feasible and practical.

  8. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  9. Accuracy of approximate inversion schemes in quantitative photacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochuli, Roman; Beard, Paul C.; Cox, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Five numerical phantoms were developed to investigate the accuracy of approximate inversion schemes in the reconstruction of oxygen saturation in photoacoustic imaging. In particular, two types of inversion are considered: Type I, an inversion that assumes fluence is unchanged between illumination wavelengths, and Type II, a method that assumes known background absorption and scattering coefficients to partially correct for the fluence. These approaches are tested in tomography (PAT) and acoustic-resolution microscopy mode (AR-PAM). They are found to produce accurate values of oxygen saturation in a blood vessel of interest at shallow depth - less than 3mm for PAT and less than 1mm for AR-PAM.

  10. Quantitative photothermal phase imaging of red blood cells using digital holographic photothermal microscope.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George C K; Lin, Zhiping; Ng, Beng Koon

    2015-05-10

    Photothermal microscopy (PTM), a noninvasive pump-probe high-resolution microscopy, has been applied as a bioimaging tool in many biomedical studies. PTM utilizes a conventional phase contrast microscope to obtain highly resolved photothermal images. However, phase information cannot be extracted from these photothermal images, as they are not quantitative. Moreover, the problem of halos inherent in conventional phase contrast microscopy needs to be tackled. Hence, a digital holographic photothermal microscopy technique is proposed as a solution to obtain quantitative phase images. The proposed technique is demonstrated by extracting phase values of red blood cells from their photothermal images. These phase values can potentially be used to determine the temperature distribution of the photothermal images, which is an important study in live cell monitoring applications.

  11. Mechanical Model Analysis for Quantitative Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Based on Ultrasound Tissue Elasticity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Makoto; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    Precise evaluation of the stage of chronic hepatitis C with respect to fibrosis has become an important issue to prevent the occurrence of cirrhosis and to initiate appropriate therapeutic intervention such as viral eradication using interferon. Ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, i.e., elastography can visualize tissue hardness/softness, and its clinical usefulness has been studied to detect and evaluate tumors. We have recently reported that the texture of elasticity image changes as fibrosis progresses. To evaluate fibrosis progression quantitatively on the basis of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, we introduced a mechanical model of fibrosis progression and simulated the process by which hepatic fibrosis affects elasticity images and compared the results with those clinical data analysis. As a result, it was confirmed that even in diffuse diseases like chronic hepatitis, the patterns of elasticity images are related to fibrous structural changes caused by hepatic disease and can be used to derive features for quantitative evaluation of fibrosis stage.

  12. Quantitative three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for prostate imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Sayan D.; Aarnink, Rene G.; de la Rosette, Jean J.; Chalana, Vikram; Wijkstra, Hessel; Haynor, David R.; Debruyne, Frans M. J.; Kim, Yongmin

    1998-06-01

    With the number of men seeking medical care for prostate diseases rising steadily, the need of a fast and accurate prostate boundary detection and volume estimation tool is being increasingly experienced by the clinicians. Currently, these measurements are made manually, which results in a large examination time. A possible solution is to improve the efficiency by automating the boundary detection and volume estimation process with minimal involvement from the human experts. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on SNAKES to detect the boundaries. Our approach is to selectively enhance the contrast along the edges using an algorithm called sticks and integrate it with a SNAKES model. This integrated algorithm requires an initial curve for each ultrasound image to initiate the boundary detection process. We have used different schemes to generate the curves with a varying degree of automation and evaluated its effects on the algorithm performance. After the boundaries are identified, the prostate volume is calculated using planimetric volumetry. We have tested our algorithm on 6 different prostate volumes and compared the performance against the volumes manually measured by 3 experts. With the increase in the user inputs, the algorithm performance improved as expected. The results demonstrate that given an initial contour reasonably close to the prostate boundaries, the algorithm successfully delineates the prostate boundaries in an image, and the resulting volume measurements are in close agreement with those made by the human experts.

  13. Preprocessing of Edge of Light images: towards a quantitative evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Forsyth, David S.; Marincak, Anton

    2003-08-01

    A computer vision inspection system, named Edge of Light TM (EOL), was invented and developed at the Institute for Aerospace Research of the National Research Council Canada. One application of interest is the detection and quantitative measurement of "pillowing" caused by corrosion in the faying surfaces of aircraft fuselage joints. To quantify the hidden corrosion, one approach is to relate the average corrosion of a region to the peak-to-peak amplitude between two diagonally adjacent rivet centers. This raises the requirement for automatically locating the rivet centers. The first step to achieve this is the rivet edge detection. In this study, gradient-based edge detection, local energy based feature extraction, and an adaptive threshold method were employed to identify the edge of rivets, which facilitated the first step in the EOL quantification procedure. Furthermore, the brightness profile is processed by the derivative operation, which locates the pillowing along the scanning direction. The derivative curves present an estimation of the inspected surface.

  14. Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-03-01

    Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

  15. Detection of Prostate Cancer: Quantitative Multiparametric MR Imaging Models Developed Using Registered Correlative Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Gregory J; Kalavagunta, Chaitanya; Spilseth, Benjamin; Bolan, Patrick J; Li, Xiufeng; Hutter, Diane; Nam, Jung W; Johnson, Andrew D; Henriksen, Jonathan C; Moench, Laura; Konety, Badrinath; Warlick, Christopher A; Schmechel, Stephen C; Koopmeiners, Joseph S

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To develop multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging models to generate a quantitative, user-independent, voxel-wise composite biomarker score (CBS) for detection of prostate cancer by using coregistered correlative histopathologic results, and to compare performance of CBS-based detection with that of single quantitative MR imaging parameters. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Patients with a diagnosis of prostate cancer underwent multiparametric MR imaging before surgery for treatment. All MR imaging voxels in the prostate were classified as cancer or noncancer on the basis of coregistered histopathologic data. Predictive models were developed by using more than one quantitative MR imaging parameter to generate CBS maps. Model development and evaluation of quantitative MR imaging parameters and CBS were performed separately for the peripheral zone and the whole gland. Model accuracy was evaluated by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and confidence intervals were calculated with the bootstrap procedure. The improvement in classification accuracy was evaluated by comparing the AUC for the multiparametric model and the single best-performing quantitative MR imaging parameter at the individual level and in aggregate. Results Quantitative T2, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume transfer constant (K(trans)), reflux rate constant (kep), and area under the gadolinium concentration curve at 90 seconds (AUGC90) were significantly different between cancer and noncancer voxels (P < .001), with ADC showing the best accuracy (peripheral zone AUC, 0.82; whole gland AUC, 0.74). Four-parameter models demonstrated the best performance in both the peripheral zone (AUC, 0.85; P = .010 vs ADC alone) and whole gland (AUC, 0.77; P = .043 vs ADC alone). Individual-level analysis showed statistically significant improvement in AUC in 82% (23 of 28) and 71% (24 of 34

  16. Imaging and Quantitation Techniques for Tracking Cargo along Endosome-to-Golgi Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in the resolution of light microscopy, coupled with the development of a range of fluorescent-based probes, have provided new approaches to dissecting membrane domains and the regulation of membrane trafficking. Here, we review these advances, as well as highlight developments in quantitative image analysis and novel unbiased analytical approaches to quantitate protein localization. The application of these approaches to endosomal sorting and endosome-to-Golgi transport is discussed. PMID:24709647

  17. Quantitative spatiotemporal image analysis of fluorescein angiography in age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Jeffrey W.

    1998-06-01

    Interpretation and analysis of retinal angiographic studies has been largely qualitative. Quantitative analysis of pathologic fundus features will facilitate interpretation and potentiate clinical studies where precise image metrology is vital. Fluorescein angiography studies of patients with age- related macular degeneration were digitized. Sequential temporal images were spatially-registered with polynomial warping algorithms, allowing for the construction of a three- dimensional (two spatial and one temporal) angiogram vector. Temporal profiles through spatially-registered, temporally- sequential pixels were computed. Characteristic temporal profiles for fundus background, retinal vasculature, retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, and choroidal neovascular (CNV) membranes were observed, allowing for pixel assignment and fundus feature quantitation. Segmentation and quantitation of fundus features including geographic atrophy and CNV is facilitated by spatio-temporal image analysis.

  18. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain in utero: Methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Biegon, Anat; Hoffmann, Chen

    2014-08-28

    Application of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to the live fetus in utero is a relatively recent endeavor. The relative advantages and disadvantages of clinical MRI relative to the widely used and accepted ultrasonographic approach are the subject of a continuing debate; however the focus of this review is on the even younger field of quantitative MRI as applied to non-invasive studies of fetal brain development. The techniques covered under this header include structural MRI when followed by quantitative (e.g., volumetric) analysis, as well as quantitative analyses of diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI. The majority of the published work reviewed here reflects information gathered from normal fetuses scanned during the 3(rd) trimester, with relatively smaller number of studies of pathological samples including common congenital pathologies such as ventriculomegaly and viral infection.

  19. Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography.

    PubMed

    Paturzo, Melania; Finizio, Andrea; Memmolo, Pasquale; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro

    2012-09-07

    We show that sharp imaging and quantitative phase-contrast microcopy is possible in microfluidics in flowing turbid media by digital holography. In fact, in flowing liquids with suspended colloidal particles, clear vision is hindered and cannot be recovered by any other microscopic imaging technique. On the contrary, using digital holography, clear imaging is possible thanks to the Doppler frequency shift experienced by the photons scattered by the flowing colloidal particles, which do not contribute to the interference process, i.e. the recorded hologram. The method is illustrated and imaging results are demonstrated for pure phase objects, i.e. biological cells in microfluidic channels.

  20. Quantitative performance evaluation of the EM algorithm applied to radiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailean, James C.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Sullivan, Barry J.

    1991-07-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate quantitatively the performance of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm as a restoration technique for radiographic images. The 'perceived' signal-to-nose ratio (SNR), of simple radiographic patterns processed by the EM algorithm are calculated on the basis of a statistical decision theory model that includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. The relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to quantitatively compare the effects of the EM algorithm to two popular image enhancement techniques: contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering.

  1. Quantitative imaging of cellular adhesion by total internal reflection holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ash, William M; Krzewina, Leo; Kim, Myung K

    2009-12-01

    Total internal reflection (TIR) holographic microscopy uses a prism in TIR as a near-field imager to perform quantitative phase microscopy of cell-substrate interfaces. The presence of microscopic organisms, cell-substrate interfaces, adhesions, and tissue structures on the prism's TIR face causes relative index of refraction and frustrated TIR to modulate the object beam's evanescent wave phase front. We present quantitative phase images of test specimens such as Amoeba proteus and cells such as SKOV-3 and 3T3 fibroblasts.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dongsuk; Protano, Marion-Anna; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pierce, Mark C.; Kim, Michelle Kang; Schwarz, Richard A.; Quang, Timothy; Parikh, Neil; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Guiqi; Xue, Liyan; Wang, Xueshan; Xu, Hong; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims High-resolution microendoscopy is an optical imaging technique with the potential to improve the accuracy of endoscopic screening for esophageal squamous neoplasia. Although these microscopic images can readily be interpreted by trained personnel, quantitative image analysis software could facilitate the use of this technology in low-resource settings. In this study we developed and evaluated quantitative image analysis criteria for the evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic squamous esophageal mucosa. Methods We performed image analysis of 177 patients undergoing standard upper endoscopy for screening or surveillance of esophageal squamous neoplasia, using high-resolution microendoscopy, at 2 hospitals in China and 1 in the United States from May 2010 to October 2012. Biopsies were collected from imaged sites (n=375); a consensus diagnosis was provided by 2 expert gastrointestinal pathologists and used as the standard. Results Quantitative information from the high-resolution images was used to develop an algorithm to identify high-grade squamous dysplasia or invasive squamous cell cancer, based on histopathology findings. Optimal performance was obtained using mean nuclear area as the basis for classification, resulting in sensitivities and specificities of 93% and 92% in the training set, 87% and 97% in the test set, and 84% and 95% in an independent validation set, respectively. Conclusions High-resolution microendoscopy with quantitative image analysis can aid in the identification of esophageal squamous neoplasia. Use of software-based image guides may overcome issues of training and expertise in low-resource settings, allowing for widespread use of these optical biopsy technologies. PMID:25066838

  3. Quantitative analysis of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy images for surface structure determination: Sulfur on Re(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogletree, D.F.; Dunphy, J.C.; Salmeron, M.B.; Sautet, P. |

    1993-02-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) images of adsorbed atoms and molecules on single crystal substrates provide important information on surface structure and order. In many cases images are interpreted qualitatively based on other information on the system. To obtain quantitative information, a theoretical analysis of the STM image is required. A new method of calculating STM images is presented that includes a full description of the STM tip and surface structure. This method is applied to experimental STM images of sulfur adsorbed on Re(0001). Effects of adsorption site, adsorbate geometry, tip composition and tunnel gap resistance on STM image contrast are analyzed. The chemical identity of tip apex atom and substrate subsurface structure are both shown to significantly affect STM image contrast.

  4. High resolution quantitative phase imaging of live cells with constrained optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; Khare, Kedar; John, Renu

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) aims at studying weakly scattering and absorbing biological specimens with subwavelength accuracy without any external staining mechanisms. Use of a reference beam at an angle is one of the necessary criteria for recording of high resolution holograms in most of the interferometric methods used for quantitative phase imaging. The spatial separation of the dc and twin images is decided by the reference beam angle and Fourier-filtered reconstructed image will have a very poor resolution if hologram is recorded below a minimum reference angle condition. However, it is always inconvenient to have a large reference beam angle while performing high resolution microscopy of live cells and biological specimens with nanometric features. In this paper, we treat reconstruction of digital holographic microscopy images as a constrained optimization problem with smoothness constraint in order to recover only complex object field in hologram plane even with overlapping dc and twin image terms. We solve this optimization problem by gradient descent approach iteratively and the smoothness constraint is implemented by spatial averaging with appropriate size. This approach will give excellent high resolution image recovery compared to Fourier filtering while keeping a very small reference angle. We demonstrate this approach on digital holographic microscopy of live cells by recovering the quantitative phase of live cells from a hologram recorded with nearly zero reference angle.

  5. Quantitative Imaging of Single Unstained Magnetotactic Bacteria by Coherent X-ray Diffraction Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Qingjie; Yao, Shengkun; Zong, Yunbing; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Huaidong

    2015-06-16

    Novel coherent diffraction microscopy provides a powerful lensless imaging method to obtain a better understanding of the microorganism at the nanoscale. Here we demonstrated quantitative imaging of intact unstained magnetotactic bacteria using coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy combined with an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Although the signal-to-noise ratio of the X-ray diffraction pattern from single magnetotactic bacterium is weak due to low-scattering ability of biomaterials, an 18.6 nm half-period resolution of reconstructed image was achieved by using a hybrid input-output phase retrieval algorithm. On the basis of the quantitative reconstructed images, the morphology and some intracellular structures, such as nucleoid, polyβ-hydroxybutyrate granules, and magnetosomes, were identified, which were also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. With the benefit from the quantifiability of coherent diffraction imaging, for the first time to our knowledge, an average density of magnetotactic bacteria was calculated to be ∼1.19 g/cm(3). This technique has a wide range of applications, especially in quantitative imaging of low-scattering biomaterials and multicomponent materials at nanoscale resolution. Combined with the cryogenic technique or X-ray free electron lasers, the method could image cells in a hydrated condition, which helps to maintain their natural structure.

  6. Quantitative sub-surface and non-contact imaging using scanning microwave microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramse, Georg; Brinciotti, Enrico; Lucibello, Andrea; Patil, Samadhan B.; Kasper, Manuel; Rankl, Christian; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Marcelli, Romolo; Kienberger, Ferry

    2015-03-01

    The capability of scanning microwave microscopy for calibrated sub-surface and non-contact capacitance imaging of silicon (Si) samples is quantitatively studied at broadband frequencies ranging from 1 to 20 GHz. Calibrated capacitance images of flat Si test samples with varying dopant density (1015-1019 atoms cm-3) and covered with dielectric thin films of SiO2 (100-400 nm thickness) are measured to demonstrate the sensitivity of scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) for sub-surface imaging. Using standard SMM imaging conditions the dopant areas could still be sensed under a 400 nm thick oxide layer. Non-contact SMM imaging in lift-mode and constant height mode is quantitatively demonstrated on a 50 nm thick SiO2 test pad. The differences between non-contact and contact mode capacitances are studied with respect to the main parameters influencing the imaging contrast, namely the probe tip diameter and the tip-sample distance. Finite element modelling was used to further analyse the influence of the tip radius and the tip-sample distance on the SMM sensitivity. The understanding of how the two key parameters determine the SMM sensitivity and quantitative capacitances represents an important step towards its routine application for non-contact and sub-surface imaging.

  7. Highly Rapid Amplification-Free and Quantitative DNA Imaging Assay

    PubMed Central

    Klamp, Tobias; Camps, Marta; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Ranasinghe, Rohan T.; Wiedemann, Jens; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra; Klenerman, David; Sauer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for rapid and highly sensitive detection of pathogen-derived DNA in a point-of-care (POC) device for diagnostics in hospitals and clinics. This device needs to work in a ‘sample-in-result-out’ mode with minimum number of steps so that it can be completely integrated into a cheap and simple instrument. We have developed a method that directly detects unamplified DNA, and demonstrate its sensitivity on realistically sized 5 kbp target DNA fragments of Micrococcus luteus in small sample volumes of 20 μL. The assay consists of capturing and accumulating of target DNA on magnetic beads with specific capture oligonucleotides, hybridization of complementary fluorescently labeled detection oligonucleotides, and fluorescence imaging on a miniaturized wide-field fluorescence microscope. Our simple method delivers results in less than 20 minutes with a limit of detection (LOD) of ~5 pM and a linear detection range spanning three orders of magnitude. PMID:23677392

  8. Quantitative imaging of I-124 using positron emission tomography with applications to radioimmunodiagnosis and radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pentlow, K.S.; Graham, M.C.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Cheung, N.K.; Larson, S.M. )

    1991-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is potentially useful for the quantitative imaging of radiolabeled antibodies, leading in turn to improved dosimetry in radioimmunotherapy. Iodine-124 is a positron-emitting nuclide with appropriate chemical properties and half-life (4.2 days) for such studies since the radiolabeling of antibodies with iodine is well understood and the half-life permits measurements over several days. Unfortunately, I-124 has a complex decay scheme with many high-energy gamma rays and a positron abundance of only 25%. It has therefore been largely ignored as a PET-imaging nuclide. However, measurements made with phantoms and animals under realistic conditions using a BGO-based PET scanner have shown that satisfactory imaging and quantitation can be achieved. Investigations of spatial resolution, the linearity of regional observed count rate versus activity in the presence of other activity, and the visualization and quantitation of activity in spheres with different surrounding background activities were carried out with phantoms up to 22 cm in diameter. Compared with F-18, spatial resolution was only slightly degraded (13.5 mm FWHM vs 12 mm FWHM) while linearity was the same over a 10:1 activity range (0.015 to 0.15 MBq/ml for I-124). The visualization and quantitation of spheres was also slightly degraded when using similar imaging times. Increasing the imaging time for I-124 reduced the difference. To verify that the technique would work in vivo, measurements were made of human neuroblastoma tumors in rats which had been injected with I-124 labeled 3F8 antibody. Although the number of samples was small, good agreement was achieved between image-based measurements and direct measurements of excised 4-g tumors. Thus quantitative imaging of I-124 labeled antibodies appears to be possible under realistic conditions.

  9. Immunocytochemical study of transforming growth factor expression in benign and malignant gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, V.; Barrett, J. M.; Bockman, S.; Pantazis, C. G.; Allen, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    Immunocytochemical studies using polyclonal antibodies to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha and beta were performed on 20 cases of human gliomas. EGF immunoreactive material was detected in both benign and malignant glial tumors. In addition, EGF immunoreactive material was detected in normal brain. TGF-beta was detected in both benign and malignant tumors, but was not detected in normal brain. In contrast, TGF-alpha was highly conserved in its expression, occurring predominantly in malignant compared with benign or normal brain tissue (P less than 0.0001). In malignant gliomas, glioblastomas contained 76% TGF-alpha reactivity (immunoreactive product), and anaplastic types contained 85% reactivity. Benign gliomas contained only 13% TGF-alpha reactivity. These findings support the role of TGF-alpha as an oncoprotein marker in brain neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2705509

  10. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2015-04-13

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  11. Quantitative description of collagen fibre network on trabecular bone surfaces based on AFM imaging.

    PubMed

    Hua, W-D; Chen, P-P; Xu, M-Q; Ao, Z; Liu, Y; Han, D; He, F

    2016-04-01

    The collagen fibre network is an important part of extracellular matrix (ECM) on trabecular bone surface. The geometry features of the network can provide us insights into its physical and physiological properties. However, previous researches have not focused on the geometry and the quantitative description of the collagen fibre network on trabecular bone surface. In this study,we developed a procedure to quantitatively describe the network and verified the validity of the procedure. The experiment proceeds as follow. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to acquire submicron resolution images of the trabecular surface. Then, an image analysing procedure was built to extract important parameters, including, fibre orientation, fibre density, fibre width, fibre crossing numbers, the number of holes formed by fibre s, and the area of holes from AFM images. In order to verify the validity of the parameters extracted by image analysing methods, we adopted two other methods, which are statistical geometry model and computer simulation, to calculate those same parameters and check the consistency of the three methods' results. Statistical tests indicate that there is no significant difference between three groups. We conclude that, (a) the ECM on trabecular surface mainly consists of random collagen fibre network with oriented fibres; (b) our method based on image analysing can be used to characterize quantitative geometry features of the collagen fibre network effectively. This method may provide a basis for quantitative investigating the architecture and function of collagen fibre network.

  12. Quantitative assessment of p-glycoprotein expression and function using confocal image analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamrang, Zahra; Arthanari, Yamini; Clarke, David; Pluen, Alain

    2014-10-01

    P-glycoprotein is implicated in clinical drug resistance; thus, rapid quantitative analysis of its expression and activity is of paramout importance to the design and success of novel therapeutics. The scope for the application of quantitative imaging and image analysis tools in this field is reported here at "proof of concept" level. P-glycoprotein expression was utilized as a model for quantitative immunofluorescence and subsequent spatial intensity distribution analysis (SpIDA). Following expression studies, p-glycoprotein inhibition as a function of verapamil concentration was assessed in two cell lines using live cell imaging of intracellular Calcein retention and a routine monolayer fluorescence assay. Intercellular and sub-cellular distributions in the expression of the p-glycoprotein transporter between parent and MDR1-transfected Madin-Derby Canine Kidney cell lines were examined. We have demonstrated that quantitative imaging can provide dose-response parameters while permitting direct microscopic analysis of intracellular fluorophore distributions in live and fixed samples. Analysis with SpIDA offers the ability to detect heterogeniety in the distribution of labeled species, and in conjunction with live cell imaging and immunofluorescence staining may be applied to the determination of pharmacological parameters or analysis of biopsies providing a rapid prognostic tool.

  13. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  14. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  15. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. G.; Zhu, H. H.; Xu, Y.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565-750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565-750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as <0.66, 0.66-1.06, 1.06-1.62, and >1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems.

  16. Quantitative imaging of basic functions in renal (patho)physiology.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Julie; Toma, Ildiko; Sipos, Arnold; McCulloch, Fiona; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2006-08-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy offers the advantages of deep optical sectioning of living tissue with minimal phototoxicity and high optical resolution. More importantly, dynamic processes and multiple functions of an intact organ can be visualized in real time using noninvasive methods, and quantified. These studies aimed to extend existing methods of multiphoton fluorescence imaging to directly observe and quantify basic physiological parameters of the kidney including glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and permeability, blood flow, urinary concentration/dilution, renin content and release, as well as more integrated and complex functions like the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF)-mediated oscillations in glomerular filtration and tubular flow. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes significantly increased single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) from 32.4 +/- 0.4 to 59.5 +/- 2.5 nl/min and glomerular permeability to a 70-kDa fluorophore approximately eightfold. The loop diuretic furosemide 2-fold diluted and increased approximately 10-fold the volume of distal tubular fluid, while also causing the release of 20% of juxtaglomerular renin content. Significantly higher speeds of individual red blood cells were measured in intraglomerular capillaries (16.7 +/- 0.4 mm/s) compared with peritubular vessels (4.7 +/- 0.2 mm/s). Regular periods of glomerular contraction-relaxation were observed, resulting in oscillations of filtration and tubular flow rate. Oscillations in proximal and distal tubular flow showed similar cycle times ( approximately 45 s) to glomerular filtration, with a delay of approximately 5-10 and 25-30 s, respectively. These innovative technologies provide the most complex, immediate, and dynamic portrayal of renal function, clearly depicting the components and mechanisms involved in normal physiology and pathophysiology.

  17. Velocity map imaging with non-uniform detection: Quantitative molecular axis alignment measurements via Coulomb explosion imaging.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jonathan G; Procino, I; Christiansen, L; Maurer, J; Stapelfeldt, H

    2015-07-01

    We present a method for inverting charged particle velocity map images which incorporates a non-uniform detection function. This method is applied to the specific case of extracting molecular axis alignment from Coulomb explosion imaging probes in which the probe itself has a dependence on molecular orientation which often removes cylindrical symmetry from the experiment and prevents the use of standard inversion techniques for the recovery of the molecular axis distribution. By incorporating the known detection function, it is possible to remove the angular bias of the Coulomb explosion probe process and invert the image to allow quantitative measurement of the degree of molecular axis alignment.

  18. Confocal scanning laser microscopy and quantitative image analysis: application to cream cheese microstructure investigation.

    PubMed

    Fenoul, F; Le Denmat, M; Hamdi, F; Cuvelier, G; Michon, C

    2008-04-01

    The naked eye observation of cream cheese confocal scanning laser microscopy images only provides qualitative information about its microstructure. Because those products are dense dairy gels, confocal scanning laser microscopy images of 2 different cream cheeses may appear close. Quantitative image analysis is then necessary to compensate for human eye deficiency (e.g., lack of precision, subjectivity). Two kinds of quantitative image analysis were performed in this study: high-order statistical methods and grayscale mathematical morphology. They were applied to study the microstructure of 3 different cream cheeses (same manufacturing process, same dry matter content, but different fat and protein contents). Advantages and drawbacks of both methods are reviewed. The way they may be used to describe cream cheese microstructure is also presented.

  19. Microscope-Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (M-Qlis) Description and User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, K. A.

    1991-10-01

    A Microscope Quantitative Luminescence Imaging System (M-QLIS} has been designed and constructed. The M-QLIS is designed for use in studies of chemiluminescent phenomena associated with absorption of radio-frequency radiation. The system consists of a radio-frequency waveguide/sample holder, microscope, intensified video camera, radiometric calibration source and optics, and computer-based image processor with radiometric analysis software. The system operation, hardware, software, and radiometric procedures are described.

  20. Immunocytochemical localization of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in developing potato tuber cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woo Taek; Franceschi, V.R.; Okita, T.W. ); Robinson, N.L.; Morell, M.; Preiss, J. )

    1989-09-01

    The subcellular localization of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis, was determined in developing potato tuber cells by immunocytochemical localization techniques at the light microscopy level. Specific labeling of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase by either immunofluorescence or immunogold followed by silver enhancement was detected only in the amyloplasts and indicates that this enzyme is located exclusively in the amyloplasts in developing potato tuber cells. Labeling occurred on the starch grains and, in some instances, specific labeling patterns were evident which may be related to sites active in starch deposition.

  1. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nicotina, P A; Ruggeri, P; Ferlazzo, G; Fimiani, V

    1991-01-01

    Some cytochemical and immunocytochemical investigations were carried out on actively growing Yoshida ascites sarcoma cells. These cells displayed an intense granular alpha-naphthylacetate esterase (ANAE) staining while the alpha-naphthylbutyrate esterase (ANBE) reaction was in part fluoride-sensitive and marked particularly in the large-size malignant cells. Acid phosphatase as well as peroxidase activities were not detected. The lack of immunoreactive lysozyme and alpha 1-antitrypsin suggested a poor differentiation of the above-mentioned tumor cells, but fibronectin and S-100 protein where highly expressed, as in tumors arising from the mononuclear phagocyte system.

  2. Quantitative Neutron Dark-field Imaging through Spin-Echo Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Strobl, Markus; Sales, Morten; Plomp, Jeroen; Bouwman, Wim G.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Kaestner, Anders; Pappas, Catherine; Habicht, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Neutron dark-field imaging constitutes a seminal progress in the field of neutron imaging as it combines real space resolution capability with information provided by one of the most significant neutron scattering techniques, namely small angle scattering. The success of structural characterizations bridging the gap between macroscopic and microscopic features has been enabled by the introduction of grating interferometers so far. The induced interference pattern, a spatial beam modulation, allows for mapping of small-angle scattering signals and hence addressing microstructures beyond direct spatial resolution of the imaging system with high efficiency. However, to date the quantification in the small angle scattering regime is severely limited by the monochromatic approach. To overcome such drawback we here introduce an alternative and more flexible method of interferometric beam modulation utilizing a spin-echo technique. This novel method facilitates straightforward quantitative dark-field neutron imaging, i.e. the required quantitative microstructural characterization combined with real space image resolution. For the first time quantitative microstructural reciprocal space information from small angle neutron scattering becomes available together with macroscopic image information creating the potential to quantify several orders of magnitude in structure sizes simultaneously. PMID:26560644

  3. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging Applied to the Noninvasive and Quantitative Imaging of Blood Vessels in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, J.; Papadacci, C.; Demene, C.; Gennisson, J-L.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast Doppler Imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on three-dimensional plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that non-invasive 3-D Ultrafast Power Doppler, Pulsed Doppler, and Color Doppler Imaging can be used to perform quantitative imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of three-dimensional tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D Ultrafast Imaging. Using a 32X32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. 3-D Ultrafast Power Doppler Imaging was first validated by imaging Tygon tubes of varying diameter and its in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D Color and Pulsed Doppler Imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer. PMID:26276956

  4. IMAGE-WARP: a real-space restoration method for high-resolution STEM images using quantitative HRTEM analysis.

    PubMed

    Recnik, Aleksander; Möbus, Günter; Sturm, Saso

    2005-07-01

    We have developed a new method for processing distorted high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. The method is based on finding the displaced vertices in the experimental STEM image and warping to geometrically correct reference grid of the object. As a reference grid for warping a structural model obtained using a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis of the area of interest is utilised. Combined with quantitative HRTEM analysis the IMAGE-WARP method provides a real-space restoration of high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM images without affecting the original Z-contrast information. The method can be applied to extract valuable compositional atomic-column data from any HAADF-STEM image of any kind of bulk crystals with local occupancy or chemistry fluctuations, stacking faults, special grain boundaries or interfaces, for which we have an available structural model. After the warping, distortion-corrected images can be further enhanced using conventional image-filtering techniques, and finally quantified with HAADF-STEM image simulations. The applicability of the IMAGE-WARP method was illustrated using experimental HAADF-STEM images of a strontium titanate crystal disrupted with a Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundary.

  5. Application of multispectral imaging in quantitative immunohistochemistry study of breast cancer: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Lou; Wang, Lin-Wei; Chen, Jia-Mei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Xiang, Qing-Ming; Yang, Gui-Fang; Qu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) based on imaging and spectroscopy, as relatively novel to the field of histopathology, has been used in biomedical multidisciplinary researches. We analyzed and compared the utility of multispectral (MS) versus conventional red-green-blue (RGB) images for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining to explore the advantages of MSI in clinical-pathological diagnosis. The MS images acquired of IHC-stained membranous marker human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytoplasmic marker cytokeratin5/6 (CK5/6), and nuclear marker estrogen receptor (ER) have higher resolution, stronger contrast, and more accurate segmentation than the RGB images. The total signal optical density (OD) values for each biomarker were higher in MS images than in RGB images (all P < 0.05). Moreover, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that a greater area under the curve (AUC), higher sensitivity, and specificity in evaluation of HER2 gene were achieved by MS images (AUC = 0.91, 89.1 %, 83.2 %) than RGB images (AUC = 0.87, 84.5, and 81.8 %). There was no significant difference between quantitative results of RGB images and clinico-pathological characteristics (P > 0.05). However, by quantifying MS images, the total signal OD values of HER2 positive expression were correlated with lymph node status and histological grades (P = 0.02 and 0.04). Additionally, the consistency test results indicated the inter-observer agreement was more robust in MS images for HER2 (inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.95, r s = 0.94), CK5/6 (ICC = 0.90, r s = 0.88), and ER (ICC = 0.94, r s = 0.94) (all P < 0.001) than that in RGB images for HER2 (ICC = 0.91, r s = 0.89), CK5/6 (ICC = 0.85, r s = 0.84), and ER (ICC = 0.90, r s = 0.89) (all P < 0.001). Our results suggest that the application of MS images in quantitative IHC analysis could obtain higher accuracy, reliability, and more

  6. Quantitative analysis of rib kinematics based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Sakuta, Keita; Kawashima, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    An image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs has been developed. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 16 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector and processed to create bone images by using commercial software (Clear Read BS, Riverain Technologies). Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as a reduced rib velocity field, resulting in an asymmetrical distribution of rib movement. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left/right symmetric distributions of the velocity field, whereas those in abnormal cases showed asymmetric distributions because of locally limited rib movements. Dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements. The present method has a potential for an additional functional examination in chest radiography.

  7. Quantitative imaging of glutathione in live cells using a reversible reaction-based ratiometric fluorescent probe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in maintaining redox homeostasis inside cells. Currently, there are no methods available to quantitatively assess the GSH concentration in live cells. Live cell fluorescence imaging revolutionized the understanding of cell biology and has become an indispens...

  8. The PNNL Quantitative IR Database for Infrared Remote Sensing and Hyperspectral Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2002-10-16

    PNNL is presentle complying a quantitive, high spectral resolution set of infrared reference data that are specifically designed for atmospheric monitoring, remote sensing and hyperspectral imaging. The final lost of target componds will contain nearly 500 gas-phase species, where by each species is reported as a composite reference spectrum at 25 degress Celsius.

  9. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared – non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents.

  10. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared – non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents. PMID:27147293

  11. Raman spectral imaging for quantitative contaminant evaluation in skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study uses a point-scan Raman spectral imaging system for quantitative detection of melamine in milk powder. A sample depth of 2 mm and corresponding laser intensity of 200 mW were selected after evaluating the penetration of a 785 nm laser through milk powder. Horizontal and vertical spatial r...

  12. Quantitative Phase Imaging with a Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, M. D.; Hornberger, B.; Holzner, C.; Legnini, D.; Paterson, D.; McNulty, I.; Jacobsen, C.; Vogt, S.

    2010-01-01

    We obtain quantitative phase reconstructions from differential phase contrast images obtained with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope and 2.5 keV x rays. The theoretical basis of the technique is presented along with measurements and their interpretation. PMID:18518198

  13. Advances in quantitative nanoscale subsurface imaging by mode-synthesizing atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Vitry, P.; Bourillot, E.; Plassard, C.; Lacroute, Y.; Lesniewska, E.; Tetard, L.

    2014-08-04

    This paper reports on advances toward quantitative non-destructive nanoscale subsurface investigation of a nanofabricated sample based on mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy with heterodyne detection, addressing the need to correlate the role of actuation frequencies of the probe f{sub p} and the sample f{sub s} with depth resolution for 3D tomography reconstruction. Here, by developing a simple model and validating the approach experimentally through the study of the nanofabricated calibration depth samples consisting of buried metallic patterns, we demonstrate avenues for quantitative nanoscale subsurface imaging. Our findings enable the reconstruction of the sample depth profile and allow high fidelity resolution of the buried nanostructures. Non-destructive quantitative nanoscale subsurface imaging offers great promise in the study of the structures and properties of complex systems at the nanoscale.

  14. Fast quantitative retardance imaging of biological samples using quadri-wave interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Bon, Pierre; Savatier, Julien; Monneret, Serge; Wattellier, Benoit F.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the use of polarized spatially coherent illumination to perform linear retardance imaging and measurements of semi-transparent biological samples using a quantitative phase imaging technique [1]. Quantitative phase imaging techniques [2-5] are used in microscopy for the imaging of semi-transparent samples and gives information about the optical path difference (OPD). The strength of those techniques is their non-invasive (the sample is not labelled) and fast approach. However, this high contrast is non-specific and cannot be linked to specific properties of the sample. To overcome this limitation, we propose to use polarized light in combination with QPI. Indeed, anisotropy has been used to reveal ordered fibrous structures in biological samples without any staining or labelling with polarized light microscopy [6-8]. Recent studies have shown polarimetry as a potential diagnostic tool for various dermatological diseases on thick tissue samples [9]. Particularly, specific collagen fibers spatial distribution has been demonstrated to be a signature for the optical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in tissues [10]. In this paper, we describe a technical improvement of our technique based on high-resolution quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) and liquid crystal retarder to perform quantitative linear birefringence measurements on biological samples. The system combines a set of quantitative phase images with different excitation polarizations to create birefringence images. These give information about the local retardance and orientation of biological anisotropic components. We propose using a commercial QWLSI [11] (SID4Bio, Phasics SA, Saint Aubin, France) directly plugged onto a lateral video port of an inverted microscope (TE2000-U, Nikon, Japan). We are able to take retardance images in less than 1 second which allows us to record dynamic phenomena (living cells study) and make high speed acquisitions to reconstruct tissues virtual

  15. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  16. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest in an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.

  17. Quantitative annular dark-field imaging of single-layer graphene-II: atomic-resolution image contrast.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shunsuke; Koshiya, Shogo; Nagai, Takuro; Kikkawa, Jun; Ishizuka, Kazuo; Kimoto, Koji

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated how accurately atomic-resolution annular dark-field (ADF) images match between experiments and simulations to conduct more reliable crystal structure analyses. Quantitative ADF imaging, in which the ADF intensity at each pixel represents the fraction of the incident probe current, allows us to perform direct comparisons with simulations without the use of fitting parameters. Although the conventional comparison suffers from experimental uncertainties such as an amorphous surface layer and specimen thickness, in this study we eliminated such uncertainties by using a single-layer graphene as a specimen. Furthermore, to reduce image distortion and shot noises in experimental images, multiple acquisitions with drift correction were performed, and the atomic ADF contrast was quantitatively acquired. To reproduce the experimental ADF contrast, we used three distribution functions as the effective source distribution in simulations. The optimum distribution function and its full-width at half-maximum were evaluated by measuring the residuals between the experimental and simulated images. It was found that the experimental images could be explained well by a linear combination of a Gaussian function and a Lorentzian function with a longer tail than the Gaussian function.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of annular bright-field phase images in STEM.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Tanji, Takayoshi; Ikuta, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    A phase reconstruction method based on multiple scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images was evaluated quantitatively using image simulations. The simulation results indicated that the phase shift caused by a single atom was proportional to the 0.6th power of the atomic number Z. For a thin SrTiO3 [001] crystal, the reconstructed phase at each atomic column increased according to the specimen thickness. The STEM phase images can quantify the oxygen vacancy concentration if the thickness is less than several nanometers.

  19. Noninvasive quantitative documentation of cutaneous inflammation in vivo using spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatas, Georgios N.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2006-02-01

    Skin inflammation is often accompanied by edema and erythema. While erythema is the result of capillary dilation and subsequent local increase of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration, edema is characterized by an increase in extracellular fluid in the dermis leading to local tissue swelling. Edema and erythema are typically graded visually. In this work we tested the potential of spectral imaging as a non-invasive method for quantitative documentation of both the erythema and the edema reactions. As examples of dermatological conditions that exhibit skin inflammation we imaged patients suffering from acne, herpes zoster, and poison ivy rashes using a hyperspectral-imaging camera. Spectral images were acquired in the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum, where oxy-Hb and water demonstrate absorption bands. The values of apparent concentrations of oxy-Hb and water were calculated based on an algorithm that takes into account spectral contributions of deoxy-hemoglobin, melanin, and scattering. In each case examined concentration maps of oxy-Hb and water can be constructed that represent quantitative visualizations of the intensity and extent of erythema and edema correspondingly. In summary, we demonstrate that spectral imaging can be used in dermatology to quantitatively document parameters relating to skin inflammation. Applications may include monitoring of disease progression as well as efficacy of treatments.

  20. Monitoring and quantitative assessment of tumor burden using in vivo bioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Chi; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Ting, Gann; Tseng, Yun-Long; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Whang-Peng, Jaqueline

    2007-02-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating tumor growth. In this study, the kinetic of tumor growth has been assessed in C26 colon carcinoma bearing BALB/c mouse model. The ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth of subcutaneous tumors transplanted with C26 cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (C26/ tk-luc). A good correlation ( R2=0.998) of photon emission to the cell number was found in vitro. Tumor burden and tumor volume were monitored in vivo over time by quantitation of photon emission using Xenogen IVIS 50 and standard external caliper measurement, respectively. At various time intervals, tumor-bearing mice were imaged to determine the correlation of in vivo BLI to tumor volume. However, a correlation of BLI to tumor volume was observed when tumor volume was smaller than 1000 mm 3 ( R2=0.907). γ Scintigraphy combined with [ 131I]FIAU was another imaging modality used for verifying the previous results. In conclusion, this study showed that bioluminescence imaging is a powerful and quantitative tool for the direct assay to monitor tumor growth in vivo. The dual reporter genes transfected tumor-bearing animal model can be applied in the evaluation of the efficacy of new developed anti-cancer drugs.

  1. Review of Quantitative Ultrasound: Envelope Statistics and Backscatter Coefficient Imaging and Contributions to Diagnostic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Michael L; Mamou, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Conventional medical imaging technologies, including ultrasound, have continued to improve over the years. For example, in oncology, medical imaging is characterized by high sensitivity, i.e., the ability to detect anomalous tissue features, but the ability to classify these tissue features from images often lacks specificity. As a result, a large number of biopsies of tissues with suspicious image findings are performed each year with a vast majority of these biopsies resulting in a negative finding. To improve specificity of cancer imaging, quantitative imaging techniques can play an important role. Conventional ultrasound B-mode imaging is mainly qualitative in nature. However, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging can provide specific numbers related to tissue features that can increase the specificity of image findings leading to improvements in diagnostic ultrasound. QUS imaging can encompass a wide variety of techniques including spectral-based parameterization, elastography, shear wave imaging, flow estimation, and envelope statistics. Currently, spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics are not available on most conventional clinical ultrasound machines. However, in recent years, QUS techniques involving spectral-based parameterization and envelope statistics have demonstrated success in many applications, providing additional diagnostic capabilities. Spectral-based techniques include the estimation of the backscatter coefficient (BSC), estimation of attenuation, and estimation of scatterer properties such as the correlation length associated with an effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and the effective acoustic concentration (EAC) of scatterers. Envelope statistics include the estimation of the number density of scatterers and quantification of coherent to incoherent signals produced from the tissue. Challenges for clinical application include correctly accounting for attenuation effects and transmission losses and implementation of QUS on

  2. Mapping the developing human brain in utero using quantitative MR imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the human fetal brain has been a clinical tool for many years and provides valuable additional information to compliment more common ultrasound studies. Advances in both MRI acquisition and post processing over the last 10 years have enabled full 3D imaging and the accurate combination of data acquired in different head positions to create improved geometric integrity, tissue contrast and resolution. This research is now motivating the development of new quantitative MRI based techniques for clinical imaging that can more accurately characterize brain development and detect abnormalities. In this paper we will review some of the key areas that are driving changes in our understanding of fetal brain growth using quantitative measures derived from inutero MRI, and possible directions for its increased use in improving the evaluation of pregnancies and the accurate characterization of abnormal brain growth. PMID:25813665

  3. Mapping the developing human brain in utero using quantitative MR imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Studholme, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the human fetal brain has been a clinical tool for many years and provides valuable additional information to compliment more common ultrasound studies. Advances in both MRI acquisition and post processing over the last 10 years have enabled full 3D imaging and the accurate combination of data acquired in different head positions to create improved geometric integrity, tissue contrast, and resolution. This research is now motivating the development of new quantitative MRI-based techniques for clinical imaging that can more accurately characterize brain development and detect abnormalities. In this article, we will review some of the key areas that are driving changes in our understanding of fetal brain growth using quantitative measures derived from in utero MRI and the possible directions for its increased use in improving the evaluation of pregnancies and the accurate characterization of abnormal brain growth.

  4. Quantitative determination of sibutramine in adulterated herbal slimming formulations by TLC-image analysis method.

    PubMed

    Phattanawasin, Panadda; Sotanaphun, Uthai; Sukwattanasinit, Tasamaporn; Akkarawaranthorn, Jariya; Kitchaiya, Sarunyaporn

    2012-06-10

    A simple thin layer chromatographic (TLC)-image analysis method was developed for rapid determination and quantitation of sibutramine hydrochloride (SH) adulterated in herbal slimming products. Chromatographic separation of SH was achieved on a silica gel 60 F(254) TLC plate, using toluene-n-hexane-diethylamine (9:1:0.3, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and Dragendorff reagent as spot detection. Image analysis of the scanned TLC plate was performed to quantify the amount of SH. The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship in the concentration range of 1-6 μg/spot. The limits of detection and quantitation were 190 and 634 ng/spot, respectively. The method gave satisfactory specificity, precision, accuracy, robustness and was applied for determination of SH in herbal formulations. The contents of SH in adulterated samples determined by the TLC-image analysis and TLC-densitometry were also compared.

  5. Quantitative validation of anti-PTBP1 antibody for diagnostic neuropathology use: Image analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Goceri, Evgin; Goksel, Behiye; Elder, James B; Puduvalli, Vinay K; Otero, Jose J; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-12-26

    Traditional diagnostic neuropathology relies on subjective interpretation of visual data obtained from a brightfield microscopy. This approach causes high variability, unsatisfactory reproducibility, and inability for multiplexing even among experts. These problems may affect patient outcomes and confound clinical decision-making. Also, standard histological processing of pathological specimens leads to auto-fluorescence and other artifacts, a reason why fluorescent microscopy is not routinely implemented in diagnostic pathology. To overcome these problems, objective and quantitative methods are required to help neuropathologists in their clinical decision-making. Therefore, we propose a computerized image analysis method to validate anti-PTBP1 antibody for its potential use in diagnostic neuropathology. Images were obtained from standard neuropathological specimens stained with anti-PTBP1 antibody. First, the noise characteristics of the images were modeled and images are de-noised according to the noise model. Next, images are filtered with sigma-adaptive Gaussian filtering for normalization, and cell nuclei are detected and segmented with a k-means-based deterministic approach. Experiments on 29 data sets from 3 cases of brain tumor and reactive gliosis show statistically significant differences between the number of positively stained nuclei in images stained with and without anti-PTBP1 antibody. The experimental analysis of specimens from 3 different brain tumor groups and 1 reactive gliosis group indicates the feasibility of using anti-PTBP1 antibody in diagnostic neuropathology, and computerized image analysis provides a systematic and quantitative approach to explore feasibility.

  6. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A; Yeom, Kristen W; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of noise reduction and vesselness filters for liver vessel segmentation on abdominal CTA images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Ha Manh; Klink, Camiel; Moelker, Adriaan; Niessen, Wiro; van Walsum, Theo

    2015-05-01

    Liver vessel segmentation in CTA images is a challenging task, especially in the case of noisy images. This paper investigates whether pre-filtering improves liver vessel segmentation in 3D CTA images. We introduce a quantitative evaluation of several well-known filters based on a proposed liver vessel segmentation method on CTA images. We compare the effect of different diffusion techniques i.e. Regularized Perona-Malik, Hybrid Diffusion with Continuous Switch and Vessel Enhancing Diffusion as well as the vesselness approaches proposed by Sato, Frangi and Erdt. Liver vessel segmentation of the pre-processed images is performed using a histogram-based region grown with local maxima as seed points. Quantitative measurements (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) are determined based on manual landmarks inside and outside the vessels, followed by T-tests for statistic comparisons on 51 clinical CTA images. The evaluation demonstrates that all the filters make liver vessel segmentation have a significantly higher accuracy than without using a filter (p  <  0.05) Hybrid Diffusion with Continuous Switch achieves the best performance. Compared to the diffusion filters, vesselness filters have a greater sensitivity but less specificity. In addition, the proposed liver vessel segmentation method with pre-filtering is shown to perform robustly on a clinical dataset having a low contrast-to-noise of up to 3 (dB). The results indicate that the pre-filtering step significantly improves liver vessel segmentation on 3D CTA images.

  8. A custom-built PET phantom design for quantitative imaging of printed distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, P. J.; Angelis, G. I.; Kotasidis, F.; Green, M.; Lionheart, W. R.; Reader, A. J.; Matthews, J. C.

    2011-11-01

    This note presents a practical approach to a custom-made design of PET phantoms enabling the use of digital radioactive distributions with high quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution. The phantom design allows planar sources of any radioactivity distribution to be imaged in transaxial and axial (sagittal or coronal) planes. Although the design presented here is specially adapted to the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT), the presented methods can be adapted to almost any PET scanner. Although the presented phantom design has many advantages, a number of practical issues had to be overcome such as positioning of the printed source, calibration, uniformity and reproducibility of printing. A well counter (WC) was used in the calibration procedure to find the nonlinear relationship between digital voxel intensities and the actual measured radioactive concentrations. Repeated printing together with WC measurements and computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plates (IP) were used to evaluate the reproducibility and uniformity of such printing. Results show satisfactory printing uniformity and reproducibility; however, calibration is dependent on the printing mode and the physical state of the cartridge. As a demonstration of the utility of using printed phantoms, the image resolution and quantitative accuracy of reconstructed HRRT images are assessed. There is very good quantitative agreement in the calibration procedure between HRRT, CR and WC measurements. However, the high resolution of CR and its quantitative accuracy supported by WC measurements made it possible to show the degraded resolution of HRRT brain images caused by the partial-volume effect and the limits of iterative image reconstruction.

  9. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  10. Real time quantitative imaging for semiconductor crystal growth, control and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative real time image processing system has been developed which can be software-reconfigured for semiconductor processing and characterization tasks. In thermal imager mode, 2D temperature distributions of semiconductor melt surfaces (900-1600 C) can be obtained with temperature and spatial resolutions better than 0.5 C and 0.5 mm, respectively, as demonstrated by analysis of melt surface thermal distributions. Temporal and spatial image processing techniques and multitasking computational capabilities convert such thermal imaging into a multimode sensor for crystal growth control. A second configuration of the image processing engine in conjunction with bright and dark field transmission optics is used to nonintrusively determine the microdistribution of free charge carriers and submicron sized crystalline defects in semiconductors. The IR absorption characteristics of wafers are determined with 10-micron spatial resolution and, after calibration, are converted into charge carrier density.

  11. Quantitative segmentation of fluorescence microscopy images of heterogeneous tissue: Approach for tuning algorithm parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Jenna L.; Harmany, Zachary T.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Kim, Yongbaek; Dodd, Leslie; Geradts, Joseph; Kirsch, David G.; Willett, Rebecca M.; Brown, J. Quincy; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2013-02-01

    The combination of fluorescent contrast agents with microscopy is a powerful technique to obtain real time images of tissue histology without the need for fixing, sectioning, and staining. The potential of this technology lies in the identification of robust methods for image segmentation and quantitation, particularly in heterogeneous tissues. Our solution is to apply sparse decomposition (SD) to monochrome images of fluorescently-stained microanatomy to segment and quantify distinct tissue types. The clinical utility of our approach is demonstrated by imaging excised margins in a cohort of mice after surgical resection of a sarcoma. Representative images of excised margins were used to optimize the formulation of SD and tune parameters associated with the algorithm. Our results demonstrate that SD is a robust solution that can advance vital fluorescence microscopy as a clinically significant technology.

  12. Fluorescence Image Analyzer - FLIMA: software for quantitative analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Silva, H C M; Martins-Júnior, M M C; Ribeiro, L B; Matoso, D A

    2017-03-30

    The Fluorescence Image Analyzer (FLIMA) software was developed for the quantitative analysis of images generated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Currently, the images of FISH are examined without a coefficient that enables a comparison between them. Through GD Graphics Library, the FLIMA software calculates the amount of pixels on image and recognizes each present color. The coefficient generated by the algorithm shows the percentage of marks (probes) hybridized on the chromosomes. This software can be used for any type of image generated by a fluorescence microscope and is able to quantify digoxigenin probes exhibiting a red color, biotin probes exhibiting a green color, and double-FISH probes (digoxigenin and biotin used together), where the white color is displayed.

  13. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W; Clench, Malcolm R; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

    2016-11-24

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  14. Quantitative image analysis for the characterization of microbial aggregates in biological wastewater treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Costa, J C; Mesquita, D P; Amaral, A L; Alves, M M; Ferreira, E C

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative image analysis techniques have gained an undeniable role in several fields of research during the last decade. In the field of biological wastewater treatment (WWT) processes, several computer applications have been developed for monitoring microbial entities, either as individual cells or in different types of aggregates. New descriptors have been defined that are more reliable, objective, and useful than the subjective and time-consuming parameters classically used to monitor biological WWT processes. Examples of this application include the objective prediction of filamentous bulking, known to be one of the most problematic phenomena occurring in activated sludge technology. It also demonstrated its usefulness in classifying protozoa and metazoa populations. In high-rate anaerobic processes, based on granular sludge, aggregation times and fragmentation phenomena could be detected during critical events, e.g., toxic and organic overloads. Currently, the major efforts and needs are in the development of quantitative image analysis techniques focusing on its application coupled with stained samples, either by classical or fluorescent-based techniques. The use of quantitative morphological parameters in process control and online applications is also being investigated. This work reviews the major advances of quantitative image analysis applied to biological WWT processes.

  15. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Swales, John G.; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Webborn, Peter J. H.; Goodwin, Richard J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported. PMID:27883030

  16. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swales, John G.; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Webborn, Peter J. H.; Goodwin, Richard J. A.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  17. Automatic full compensation of quantitative phase imaging in off-axis digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Carlos; Castañeda, Raúl; Piedrahita-Quintero, Pablo; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2016-12-20

    An automatic method that fully compensates the quantitative phase measurements in off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is presented. The two main perturbations of the quantitative phase measurements in off-axis DHM are automatically removed. While the curvature phase flaw introduced by the microscope objective is avoided by the use of an optimized telecentric imaging system for the recording of the holograms, the remaining phase perturbation due to the tilt of the reference wave is removed by the automatic computation of a digital compensating reference wave. The method has been tested on both nonbiological and biological samples with and improving on the quality of the recovered phase maps.

  18. Quantitative histological image analyses of reticulin fibers in a myelofibrotic mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Hector A.; Patterson, Shenia; Matsuura, Shinobu; Ravid, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) reticulin fibrosis (RF), revealed by silver staining of tissue sections, is associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms, while tools for quantitative assessment of reticulin deposition throughout a femur BM are still in need. Here, we present such a method, allowing via analysis of hundreds of composite images to identify a patchy nature of RF throughout the BM during disease progression in a mouse model of myelofibrosis. To this end, initial conversion of silver stained BM color images into binary images identified two limitations: variable color, owing to polychromatic staining of reticulin fibers, and variable background in different sections of the same batch, limiting application of the color deconvolution method, and use of constant threshold, respectively. By blind coding image identities, to allow for threshold input (still within a narrow range), and using shape filtering to further eliminate background we were able to quantitate RF in myelofibrotic Gata-1low (experimental) and wild type (control) mice as a function of animal age. Color images spanning the whole femur BM were batch-analyzed using ImageJ software, aided by our two newly added macros. The results show heterogeneous RF density in different areas of the marrow of Gata-1low mice, with degrees of heterogeneity reduced upon aging. This method can be applied uniformly across laboratories in studies assessing RF remodeling induced by aging or other conditions in animal models. PMID:28008415

  19. A method for normalizing pathology images to improve feature extraction for quantitative pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Allison; Barker, Jocelyn; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: With the advent of digital slide scanning technologies and the potential proliferation of large repositories of digital pathology images, many research studies can leverage these data for biomedical discovery and to develop clinical applications. However, quantitative analysis of digital pathology images is impeded by batch effects generated by varied staining protocols and staining conditions of pathological slides. Methods: To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, fully automated stain normalization method to reduce batch effects and thus aid research in digital pathology applications. Their method, intensity centering and histogram equalization (ICHE), normalizes a diverse set of pathology images by first scaling the centroids of the intensity histograms to a common point and then applying a modified version of contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. Normalization was performed on two datasets of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of different tissue slices from the same lung tumor, and one immunohistochemistry dataset of digitized slides created by restaining one of the H&E datasets. Results: The ICHE method was evaluated based on image intensity values, quantitative features, and the effect on downstream applications, such as a computer aided diagnosis. For comparison, three methods from the literature were reimplemented and evaluated using the same criteria. The authors found that ICHE not only improved performance compared with un-normalized images, but in most cases showed improvement compared with previous methods for correcting batch effects in the literature. Conclusions: ICHE may be a useful preprocessing step a digital pathology image processing pipeline.

  20. Histological Image Processing Features Induce a Quantitative Characterization of Chronic Tumor Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sundstrom, Andrew; Grabocka, Elda; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Mishra, Bud

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia in tumors signifies resistance to therapy. Despite a wealth of tumor histology data, including anti-pimonidazole staining, no current methods use these data to induce a quantitative characterization of chronic tumor hypoxia in time and space. We use image-processing algorithms to develop a set of candidate image features that can formulate just such a quantitative description of xenographed colorectal chronic tumor hypoxia. Two features in particular give low-variance measures of chronic hypoxia near a vessel: intensity sampling that extends radially away from approximated blood vessel centroids, and multithresholding to segment tumor tissue into normal, hypoxic, and necrotic regions. From these features we derive a spatiotemporal logical expression whose truth value depends on its predicate clauses that are grounded in this histological evidence. As an alternative to the spatiotemporal logical formulation, we also propose a way to formulate a linear regression function that uses all of the image features to learn what chronic hypoxia looks like, and then gives a quantitative similarity score once it is trained on a set of histology images.

  1. Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huaidong; Song, Changyong; Chen, Chien-Chun; Xu, Rui; Raines, Kevin S; Fahimian, Benjamin P; Lu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Nakashima, Akio; Urano, Jun; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Miao, Jianwei

    2010-06-22

    Microscopy has greatly advanced our understanding of biology. Although significant progress has recently been made in optical microscopy to break the diffraction-limit barrier, reliance of such techniques on fluorescent labeling technologies prohibits quantitative 3D imaging of the entire contents of cells. Cryoelectron microscopy can image pleomorphic structures at a resolution of 3-5 nm, but is only applicable to thin or sectioned specimens. Here, we report quantitative 3D imaging of a whole, unstained cell at a resolution of 50-60 nm by X-ray diffraction microscopy. We identified the 3D morphology and structure of cellular organelles including cell wall, vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, granules, nucleus, and nucleolus inside a yeast spore cell. Furthermore, we observed a 3D structure protruding from the reconstructed yeast spore, suggesting the spore germination process. Using cryogenic technologies, a 3D resolution of 5-10 nm should be achievable by X-ray diffraction microscopy. This work hence paves a way for quantitative 3D imaging of a wide range of biological specimens at nanometer-scale resolutions that are too thick for electron microscopy.

  2. Histological Image Processing Features Induce a Quantitative Characterization of Chronic Tumor Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Grabocka, Elda; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Mishra, Bud

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia in tumors signifies resistance to therapy. Despite a wealth of tumor histology data, including anti-pimonidazole staining, no current methods use these data to induce a quantitative characterization of chronic tumor hypoxia in time and space. We use image-processing algorithms to develop a set of candidate image features that can formulate just such a quantitative description of xenographed colorectal chronic tumor hypoxia. Two features in particular give low-variance measures of chronic hypoxia near a vessel: intensity sampling that extends radially away from approximated blood vessel centroids, and multithresholding to segment tumor tissue into normal, hypoxic, and necrotic regions. From these features we derive a spatiotemporal logical expression whose truth value depends on its predicate clauses that are grounded in this histological evidence. As an alternative to the spatiotemporal logical formulation, we also propose a way to formulate a linear regression function that uses all of the image features to learn what chronic hypoxia looks like, and then gives a quantitative similarity score once it is trained on a set of histology images. PMID:27093539

  3. X-ray Phase Contrast Allows Three Dimensional, Quantitative Imaging of Hydrogel Implants

    DOE PAGES

    Appel, Alyssa A.; Larson, Jeffrey C.; Jiang, Bin; ...

    2015-10-20

    Three dimensional imaging techniques are needed for the evaluation and assessment of biomaterials used for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogels are a particularly popular class of materials for medical applications but are difficult to image in tissue using most available imaging modalities. Imaging techniques based on X-ray Phase Contrast (XPC) have shown promise for tissue engineering applications due to their ability to provide image contrast based on multiple X-ray properties. In this manuscript we describe results using XPC to image a model hydrogel and soft tissue structure. Porous fibrin loaded poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were synthesized and implanted inmore » a rodent subcutaneous model. Samples were explanted and imaged with an analyzer-based XPC technique and processed and stained for histology for comparison. Both hydrogel and soft tissues structures could be identified in XPC images. Structure in skeletal muscle adjacent could be visualized and invading fibrovascular tissue could be quantified. In quantitative results, there were no differences between XPC and the gold-standard histological measurements. These results provide evidence of the significant potential of techniques based on XPC for 3D imaging of hydrogel structure and local tissue response.« less

  4. X-ray Phase Contrast Allows Three Dimensional, Quantitative Imaging of Hydrogel Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, Alyssa A.; Larson, Jeffrey C.; Jiang, Bin; Zhong, Zhong; Anastasio, Mark A.; Brey, Eric M.

    2015-10-20

    Three dimensional imaging techniques are needed for the evaluation and assessment of biomaterials used for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogels are a particularly popular class of materials for medical applications but are difficult to image in tissue using most available imaging modalities. Imaging techniques based on X-ray Phase Contrast (XPC) have shown promise for tissue engineering applications due to their ability to provide image contrast based on multiple X-ray properties. In this manuscript we describe results using XPC to image a model hydrogel and soft tissue structure. Porous fibrin loaded poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were synthesized and implanted in a rodent subcutaneous model. Samples were explanted and imaged with an analyzer-based XPC technique and processed and stained for histology for comparison. Both hydrogel and soft tissues structures could be identified in XPC images. Structure in skeletal muscle adjacent could be visualized and invading fibrovascular tissue could be quantified. In quantitative results, there were no differences between XPC and the gold-standard histological measurements. These results provide evidence of the significant potential of techniques based on XPC for 3D imaging of hydrogel structure and local tissue response.

  5. WE-G-207-05: Relationship Between CT Image Quality, Segmentation Performance, and Quantitative Image Feature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J; Nishikawa, R; Reiser, I; Boone, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Segmentation quality can affect quantitative image feature analysis. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between computed tomography (CT) image quality, segmentation performance, and quantitative image feature analysis. Methods: A total of 90 pathology proven breast lesions in 87 dedicated breast CT images were considered. An iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithm was used to obtain CT images with different quality. With different combinations of 4 variables in the algorithm, this study obtained a total of 28 different qualities of CT images. Two imaging tasks/objectives were considered: 1) segmentation and 2) classification of the lesion as benign or malignant. Twenty-three image features were extracted after segmentation using a semi-automated algorithm and 5 of them were selected via a feature selection technique. Logistic regression was trained and tested using leave-one-out-cross-validation and its area under the ROC curve (AUC) was recorded. The standard deviation of a homogeneous portion and the gradient of a parenchymal portion of an example breast were used as an estimate of image noise and sharpness. The DICE coefficient was computed using a radiologist’s drawing on the lesion. Mean DICE and AUC were used as performance metrics for each of the 28 reconstructions. The relationship between segmentation and classification performance under different reconstructions were compared. Distributions (median, 95% confidence interval) of DICE and AUC for each reconstruction were also compared. Results: Moderate correlation (Pearson’s rho = 0.43, p-value = 0.02) between DICE and AUC values was found. However, the variation between DICE and AUC values for each reconstruction increased as the image sharpness increased. There was a combination of IIR parameters that resulted in the best segmentation with the worst classification performance. Conclusion: There are certain images that yield better segmentation or classification

  6. Quantitative ultrasound images generated by a PE-CMOS sensor array: scatter modeling and image restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu-Chuan; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Kula, John; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2007-03-01

    In the projection geometry, the detected ultrasound energy through a soft-tissue is mainly attributed to the attenuated primary intensity and the scatter intensity. In order to extract ultrasound image of attenuated primary beam out of the detected raw data, the scatter component must be carefully quantified for restoring the original image. In this study, we have designed a set of apparatus to modeling the ultrasound scattering in soft-tissue. The employed ultrasound imaging device was a C-Scan (projection) prototype using a 4th generation PE-CMOS sensor array (model I400, by Imperium Inc., Silver Spring, MD) as the detector. Right after the plane wave ultrasound transmitting through a soft-tissue mimicking material (Zerdine, by CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA), a ring aperture is used to collimate the signal before reaching the acoustic lens and the PE-CMOS sensor. Three sets of collimated ring images were acquired and analyzed to obtain the scattering components as a function of the off-center distance. Several pathological specimens and breast phantoms consisting of simulated breast tissue with masses, cysts and microcalcifications were imaged by the same C-Scan imaging prototype. The restoration of these ultrasound images were performed by using a standard deconvolution computation. Our study indicated that the resultant images show shaper edges and detailed features as compared to their unprocessed counterparts.

  7. Pathology imaging informatics for quantitative analysis of whole-slide images

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H; Stokes, Todd H; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives With the objective of bringing clinical decision support systems to reality, this article reviews histopathological whole-slide imaging informatics methods, associated challenges, and future research opportunities. Target audience This review targets pathologists and informaticians who have a limited understanding of the key aspects of whole-slide image (WSI) analysis and/or a limited knowledge of state-of-the-art technologies and analysis methods. Scope First, we discuss the importance of imaging informatics in pathology and highlight the challenges posed by histopathological WSI. Next, we provide a thorough review of current methods for: quality control of histopathological images; feature extraction that captures image properties at the pixel, object, and semantic levels; predictive modeling that utilizes image features for diagnostic or prognostic applications; and data and information visualization that explores WSI for de novo discovery. In addition, we highlight future research directions and discuss the impact of large public repositories of histopathological data, such as the Cancer Genome Atlas, on the field of pathology informatics. Following the review, we present a case study to illustrate a clinical decision support system that begins with quality control and ends with predictive modeling for several cancer endpoints. Currently, state-of-the-art software tools only provide limited image processing capabilities instead of complete data analysis for clinical decision-making. We aim to inspire researchers to conduct more research in pathology imaging informatics so that clinical decision support can become a reality. PMID:23959844

  8. MO-C-BRB-06: Translating NIH / NIBIB funding to clinical reality in quantitative diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, E.

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  9. Exploring new quantitative CT image features to improve assessment of lung cancer prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emaminejad, Nastaran; Qian, Wei; Kang, Yan; Guan, Yubao; Lure, Fleming; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Due to the promotion of lung cancer screening, more Stage I non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are currently detected, which usually have favorable prognosis. However, a high percentage of the patients have cancer recurrence after surgery, which reduces overall survival rate. To achieve optimal efficacy of treating and managing Stage I NSCLC patients, it is important to develop more accurate and reliable biomarkers or tools to predict cancer prognosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate a new quantitative image analysis method to predict the risk of lung cancer recurrence of Stage I NSCLC patients after the lung cancer surgery using the conventional chest computed tomography (CT) images and compare the prediction result with a popular genetic biomarker namely, protein expression of the excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) genes. In this study, we developed and tested a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to segment lung tumors and initially compute 35 tumor-related morphologic and texture features from CT images. By applying a machine learning based feature selection method, we identified a set of 8 effective and non-redundant image features. Using these features we trained a naïve Bayesian network based classifier to predict the risk of cancer recurrence. When applying to a test dataset with 79 Stage I NSCLC cases, the computed areas under ROC curves were 0.77±0.06 and 0.63±0.07 when using the quantitative image based classifier and ERCC1, respectively. The study results demonstrated the feasibility of improving accuracy of predicting cancer prognosis or recurrence risk using a CAD-based quantitative image analysis method.

  10. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  11. Quantitative myocardial perfusion PET parametric imaging at the voxel-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohy-ud-Din, Hassan; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative myocardial perfusion (MP) PET has the potential to enhance detection of early stages of atherosclerosis or microvascular dysfunction, characterization of flow-limiting effects of coronary artery disease (CAD), and identification of balanced reduction of flow due to multivessel stenosis. We aim to enable quantitative MP-PET at the individual voxel level, which has the potential to allow enhanced visualization and quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and flow reserve (MFR) as computed from uptake parametric images. This framework is especially challenging for the 82Rb radiotracer. The short half-life enables fast serial imaging and high patient throughput; yet, the acquired dynamic PET images suffer from high noise-levels introducing large variability in uptake parametric images and, therefore, in the estimates of MBF and MFR. Robust estimation requires substantial post-smoothing of noisy data, degrading valuable functional information of physiological and pathological importance. We present a feasible and robust approach to generate parametric images at the voxel-level that substantially reduces noise without significant loss of spatial resolution. The proposed methodology, denoted physiological clustering, makes use of the functional similarity of voxels to penalize deviation of voxel kinetics from physiological partners. The results were validated using extensive simulations (with transmural and non-transmural perfusion defects) and clinical studies. Compared to post-smoothing, physiological clustering depicted enhanced quantitative noise versus bias performance as well as superior recovery of perfusion defects (as quantified by CNR) with minimal increase in bias. Overall, parametric images obtained from the proposed methodology were robust in the presence of high-noise levels as manifested in the voxel time-activity-curves.

  12. Simultaneous imaging of locus coeruleus and substantia nigra with a quantitative neuromelanin MRI approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangchuan; Huddleston, Daniel E; Langley, Jason; Ahn, Sinyeob; Barnum, Christopher J; Factor, Stewart A; Levey, Allan I; Hu, Xiaoping

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative MRI of neuromelanin (NM) containing structures (referred to as NM-MRI) in the brainstem, namely the locus coeruleus (LC) and substantia nigra (SN), may assist with the early detection of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as differential diagnosis in the early disease stages. In this study, two gradient echo (GRE) sequences with magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) preparation pulses were developed to simultaneously image the LC and SN. This has been a challenge with NM-MRI techniques used in previous studies due to the relatively high specific absorption rate (SAR) induced by these techniques. In addition, a semi-automated quantitative analysis scheme was applied to estimate volumes and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of the LC and SN based on segmentation of both structures. Compared to a T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence typically used for simultaneous imaging of the LC and SN, the two GRE-MTC sequences exhibited improved performance in terms of higher sensitivity (in CNR) in imaging the SN and lower SAR during the scans. A multiple-measurement protocol was adopted as well so that motion degraded measurements could be removed and artifacts associated with motion could be corrected. The present approach has demonstrated advantages in image acquisition (lower SAR and higher sensitivity), image pre-processing (with motion correction) and quantitative image analysis (segmentation-based estimation of volume and CNR) when compared with existing NM-MRI approaches. This approach has potential for detection and monitoring of neurodegeneration in LC and SN in disease states including AD and PD.

  13. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-05-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution

  14. Quantitative characterization of the contrast mechanisms of ultra-small angle x-ray scattering imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Long, G. G.; Levine, L.E.; Ilavsky, J.; Jemain, P.R.; NIST

    2008-04-01

    A general treatment of X-ray imaging contrast for ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) imaging is presented; this approach makes use of phase propagation and dynamical diffraction theory to account quantitatively for the intensity distribution at the detector plane. Simulated results from a model system of micrometer-sized spherical SiO{sub 2} particles embedded in a polypropylene matrix show good agreement with experimental measurements. Simulations by means of a separate geometrical ray-tracing method also account for the features in the USAXS images and offer a complementary view of small-angle X-ray scattering as a contrast mechanism. The ray-tracing analysis indicates that refraction, in the form of Porod scattering, and, to a much lesser extent, X-ray reflection account for the USAXS imaging contrast.

  15. Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Dilworth Y; McDermott, Gerry; Etkin, Laurence D; Le Gros, Mark A; Larabell, Carolyn A

    2008-06-01

    Imaging has long been one of the principal techniques used in biological and biomedical research. Indeed, the field of cell biology grew out of the first electron microscopy images of organelles in a cell. Since this landmark event, much work has been carried out to image and classify the organelles in eukaryotic cells using electron microscopy. Fluorescently labeled organelles can now be tracked in live cells, and recently, powerful light microscope techniques have pushed the limit of optical resolution to image single molecules. In this paper, we describe the use of soft X-ray tomography, a new tool for quantitative imaging of organelle structure and distribution in whole, fully hydrated eukaryotic Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells. In addition to imaging intact cells, soft X-ray tomography has the advantage of not requiring the use of any staining or fixation protocols--cells are simply transferred from their growth environment to a sample holder and immediately cryofixed. In this way the cells can be imaged in a near native state. Soft X-ray tomography is also capable of imaging relatively large numbers of cells in a short period of time, and is therefore a technique that has the potential to produce information on organelle morphology from statistically significant numbers of cells.

  16. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  17. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  18. Refractive index variance of cells and tissues measured by quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingguang; Kandel, Mikhail E; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-01-23

    The refractive index distribution of cells and tissues governs their interaction with light and can report on morphological modifications associated with disease. Through intensity-based measurements, refractive index information can be extracted only via scattering models that approximate light propagation. As a result, current knowledge of refractive index distributions across various tissues and cell types remains limited. Here we use quantitative phase imaging and the statistical dispersion relation (SDR) to extract information about the refractive index variance in a variety of specimens. Due to the phase-resolved measurement in three-dimensions, our approach yields refractive index results without prior knowledge about the tissue thickness. With the recent progress in quantitative phase imaging systems, we anticipate that using SDR will become routine in assessing tissue optical properties.

  19. Quantitative cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dongmei; Zhu, Shouping Chen, Xueli; Chao, Tiantian; Cao, Xu; Zhao, Fengjun; Huang, Liyu; Liang, Jimin

    2014-11-10

    X-ray luminescence tomography (XLT) is an imaging technology based on X-ray-excitable materials. The main purpose of this paper is to obtain quantitative luminescence concentration using the structural information of the X-ray computed tomography (XCT) in the hybrid cone beam XLT/XCT system. A multi-wavelength luminescence cone beam XLT method with the structural a priori information is presented to relieve the severe ill-posedness problem in the cone beam XLT. The nanophosphors and phantom experiments were undertaken to access the linear relationship of the system response. Then, an in vivo mouse experiment was conducted. The in vivo experimental results show that the recovered concentration error as low as 6.67% with the location error of 0.85 mm can be achieved. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately recover the nanophosphor inclusion and realize the quantitative imaging.

  20. Dynamic quantitative phase imaging for biological objects using a pixelated phase mask

    PubMed Central

    Creath, Katherine; Goldstein, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes research in developing a dynamic quantitative phase imaging microscope providing instantaneous measurements of dynamic motions within and among live cells without labels or contrast agents. It utilizes a pixelated phase mask enabling simultaneous measurement of multiple interference patterns derived using the polarization properties of light to track dynamic motions and morphological changes. Optical path difference (OPD) and optical thickness (OT) data are obtained from phase images. Two different processing routines are presented to remove background surface shape to enable quantification of changes in cell position and volume over time. Data from a number of different moving biological organisms and cell cultures are presented. PMID:23162725

  1. Quantitative STEM Imaging of Order-Disorder Phenomena in Double Perovskite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. D.; Hauser, A. J.; Williams, R. E. A.; Allen, L. J.; Woodward, P. M.; Yang, F. Y.; McComb, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    Using aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), we investigate ordering phenomena in epitaxial thin films of the double perovskite Sr2 CrReO6 . Experimental and simulated imaging and diffraction are used to identify antiphase domains in the films. Image simulation provides insight into the effects of atomic-scale ordering along the beam direction on HAADF-STEM intensity. We show that probe channeling results in ±20 % variation in intensity for a given composition, allowing 3D ordering information to be probed using quantitative STEM.

  2. Quantitative STEM Imaging of Order-Disorder Phenomena in Double Perovskite Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Esser, B D; Hauser, A J; Williams, R E A; Allen, L J; Woodward, P M; Yang, F Y; McComb, D W

    2016-10-21

    Using aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), we investigate ordering phenomena in epitaxial thin films of the double perovskite Sr_{2}CrReO_{6}. Experimental and simulated imaging and diffraction are used to identify antiphase domains in the films. Image simulation provides insight into the effects of atomic-scale ordering along the beam direction on HAADF-STEM intensity. We show that probe channeling results in ±20% variation in intensity for a given composition, allowing 3D ordering information to be probed using quantitative STEM.

  3. Impact of Model Uncertainties on Quantitative Analysis of FUV Auroral Images: Peak Production Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.; Lummerzheim, D.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Spann, James F., Jr.; Richards, Phil G.

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that small uncertainties in the modeled height of peak production for FUV emissions can lead to significant uncertainties in the analysis of these sai-ne emissions. In particular, an uncertainty of only 3 km in the peak production height can lead to a 50% uncertainty in the mean auroral energy deduced from the images. This altitude uncertainty is comparable to differences in different auroral deposition models currently used for UVI analysis. Consequently, great care must be taken in quantitative photometric analysis and interpretation of FUV auroral images.

  4. Oxygen octahedra picker: A software tool to extract quantitative information from STEM images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Salzberger, Ute; Sigle, Wilfried; Eren Suyolcu, Y; van Aken, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    In perovskite oxide based materials and hetero-structures there are often strong correlations between oxygen octahedral distortions and functionality. Thus, atomistic understanding of the octahedral distortion, which requires accurate measurements of atomic column positions, will greatly help to engineer their properties. Here, we report the development of a software tool to extract quantitative information of the lattice and of BO6 octahedral distortions from STEM images. Center-of-mass and 2D Gaussian fitting methods are implemented to locate positions of individual atom columns. The precision of atomic column distance measurements is evaluated on both simulated and experimental images. The application of the software tool is demonstrated using practical examples.

  5. Characterization of Cerebral White Matter Properties Using Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Stains

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Samuel A.; Samsonov, Alexey A.; Adluru, Nagesh; Hosseinbor, Ameer Pasha; Mossahebi, Pouria; Tromp, Do P.M.; Zakszewski, Elizabeth; Field, Aaron S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The image contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive to several mechanisms that are modulated by the properties of the tissue environment. The degree and type of contrast weighting may be viewed as image filters that accentuate specific tissue properties. Maps of quantitative measures of these mechanisms, akin to microstructural/environmental-specific tissue stains, may be generated to characterize the MRI and physiological properties of biological tissues. In this article, three quantitative MRI (qMRI) methods for characterizing white matter (WM) microstructural properties are reviewed. All of these measures measure complementary aspects of how water interacts with the tissue environment. Diffusion MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging, characterizes the diffusion of water in the tissues and is sensitive to the microstructural density, spacing, and orientational organization of tissue membranes, including myelin. Magnetization transfer imaging characterizes the amount and degree of magnetization exchange between free water and macromolecules like proteins found in the myelin bilayers. Relaxometry measures the MRI relaxation constants T1 and T2, which in WM have a component associated with the water trapped in the myelin bilayers. The conduction of signals between distant brain regions occurs primarily through myelinated WM tracts; thus, these methods are potential indicators of pathology and structural connectivity in the brain. This article provides an overview of the qMRI stain mechanisms, acquisition and analysis strategies, and applications for these qMRI stains. PMID:22432902

  6. Quantitative simultaneous In-111/Tc-99m planar imaging in a long-bone infection phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuping; Park, Mi-Ae; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    2007-12-01

    In-111-white-blood-cell and Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid dual-radionuclide imaging are frequently utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. We have developed a quantitative planar imaging method in which Tc-99m and In-111 scans are acquired simultaneously in accurate spatial registration. Long, thin tubes containing only In-111 or Tc-99m were first imaged in a list mode within a water bath inclined with respect to the water surface; from these, 12 energy spectra corresponding to different Tc/In ratios were synthesized. Triple-energy-window (TEW) parameters for scatter and radionuclide crosstalk correction, including scatter windows and weights, were optimized using 100 noise realizations of each of the spectra (1200 total). A long-bone phantom containing a simulated infection site was then imaged in water with five In/Tc ratios; 100 noise realizations of two conjugate-view images were generated from each acquisition (500 total). Two regions of interest (ROIs) were defined, and the ratio of In/Tc count ratios in these two ROIs was evaluated with and without the TEW scatter correction and geometric mean attenuation compensation. The average bias improved from 17.2% to 5.3%, with comparable precision. TEW corrections with non-optimized but practical energy windows also improved the bias to 6.4%. Compared with subjective visual assessment, quantitation of In-111/Tc-99m ratios may improve diagnostic accuracy and could eventually permit grading of osteomyelitis.

  7. Quantitative characterization of the x-ray imaging capability of rotating modulation collimators with laser light.

    PubMed

    Gaither Iii, C C; Schmahl, E J; Crannell, C J; Dennis, B R; Lang, F L; Orwig, L E; Hartman, C N; Hurford, G J

    1996-12-01

    We developed a method for making quantitative characterizations of bi-grid rotating modulation collimators (RMC's) that are used in a Fourier transform x-ray imager. With appropriate choices of the collimator spacings, this technique can be implemented with a beam-expanded He-Ne laser to simulate the plane wave produced by a point source at infinity even though the RMC's are diffraction limited at the He-Ne wavelength of 632.8 nm. The expanded beam passes through the grid pairs at a small angle with respect to their axis of rotation, and the modulated transmission through the grids as the RMC's rotate is detected with a photomultiplier tube. In addition to providing a quantitative characterization of the RMC's, the method also produces a measured point response function and provides an end-to-end check of the imaging system. We applied our method to the RMC's on the high-energy imaging device (HEIDI) balloon payload in its preflight configuration. We computed the harmonic ratios of the modulation time profile from the laser measurements and compared them with theoretical calculations, including the diffraction effects on irregular grids. Our results indicate the 25-in. (64-cm) x-ray imaging optics on HEIDI are capable of achieving images near the theoretical limit and are not seriously compromised by imperfections in the grids.

  8. Quantitative characterization of the x-ray imaging capability of rotating modulation collimators with laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaither, C. C., III; Schmahl, E. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Lang, F. L.; Orwig, L. E.; Hartman, C. N.; Hurford, G. J.

    1996-12-01

    We developed a method for making quantitative characterizations of bi-grid rotating modulation collimators (RMC's) that are used in a Fourier transform x-ray imager. With appropriate choices of the collimator spacings, this technique can be implemented with a beam-expanded He-Ne laser to simulate the plane wave produced by a point source at infinity even though the RMC's are diffraction limited at the He-Ne wavelength of 632.8 nm. The expanded beam passes through the grid pairs at a small angle with respect to their axis of rotation, and the modulated transmission through the grids as the RMC's rotate is detected with a photomultiplier tube. In addition to providing a quantitative characterization of the RMC's, the method also produces a measured point response function and provides an end-to-end check of the imaging system. We applied our method to the RMC's on the high-energy imaging device (HEIDI) balloon payload in its preflight configuration. We computed the harmonic ratios of the modulation time profile from the laser measurements and compared them with theoretical calculations, including the diffraction effects on irregular grids. Our results indicate the 25-in. (64-cm) x-ray imaging optics on HEIDI are capable of achieving images near the theoretical limit and are not seriously compromised by imperfections in the grids.

  9. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™

    PubMed Central

    Iuanow, Elaine; Malik, Bilal; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Wiskin, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT) Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists' confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM) is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%–90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy. PMID:27752261

  10. Quantitative imaging of the human upper airway: instrument design and clinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, M. S.; Armstrong, J. J.; Paduch, A.; Sampson, D. D.; Walsh, J. H.; Hillman, D. R.; Eastwood, P. R.

    2006-08-01

    Imaging of the human upper airway is widely used in medicine, in both clinical practice and research. Common imaging modalities include video endoscopy, X-ray CT, and MRI. However, no current modality is both quantitative and safe to use for extended periods of time. Such a capability would be particularly valuable for sleep research, which is inherently reliant on long observation sessions. We have developed an instrument capable of quantitative imaging of the human upper airway, based on endoscopic optical coherence tomography. There are no dose limits for optical techniques, and the minimally invasive imaging probe is safe for use in overnight studies. We report on the design of the instrument and its use in preliminary clinical studies, and we present results from a range of initial experiments. The experiments show that the instrument is capable of imaging during sleep, and that it can record dynamic changes in airway size and shape. This information is useful for research into sleep disorders, and potentially for clinical diagnosis and therapies.

  11. Automatic identification and quantitative morphometry of unstained spinal nerve using molecular hyperspectral imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Chen, Zenggan; He, Xiaofu; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Xu, Qintong

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative observation of nerve fiber sections is often complemented by morphological analysis in both research and clinical condition. However, existing manual or semi-automated methods are tedious and labour intensive, fully automated morphometry methods are complicated as the information of color or gray images captured by traditional microscopy is limited. Moreover, most of the methods are time-consuming as the nerve sections need to be stained with some reagents before observation. To overcome these shortcomings, a molecular hyperspectral imaging system is developed and used to observe the spinal nerve sections. The molecular hyperspectral images contain both the structural and biochemical information of spinal nerve sections which is very useful for automatic identification and quantitative morphological analysis of nerve fibers. This characteristic makes it possible for researchers to observe the unstained spinal nerve and live cells in their native environment. To evaluate the performance of the new method, the molecular hyperspectral images were captured and the improved spectral angle mapper algorithm was proposed and used to segment the myelin contours. Then the morphological parameters such as myelin thickness and myelin area were calculated and evaluated. With these morphological parameters, the three dimension surface view images were drawn to help the investigators observe spinal nerve at different angles. The experiment results show that the hyperspectral based method has the potential to identify the spinal nerve more accurate than the traditional method as the new method contains both the spectral and spatial information of nerve sections.

  12. The evolution of medical imaging from qualitative to quantitative: opportunities, challenges, and approaches (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Edward F.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increasing focus on quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs), which are defined as "objectively measured characteristics derived from in vivo images as indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or response to a therapeutic intervention"1. To evolve qualitative imaging assessments to the use of QIBs requires the development and standardization of data acquisition, data analysis, and data display techniques, as well as appropriate reporting structures. As such, successful implementation of QIB applications relies heavily on expertise from the fields of medical physics, radiology, statistics, and informatics as well as collaboration from vendors of imaging acquisition, analysis, and reporting systems. When successfully implemented, QIBs will provide image-derived metrics with known bias and variance that can be validated with anatomically and physiologically relevant measures, including treatment response (and the heterogeneity of that response) and outcome. Such non-invasive quantitative measures can then be used effectively in clinical and translational research and will contribute significantly to the goals of precision medicine. This presentation will focus on 1) outlining the opportunities for QIB applications, with examples to demonstrate applications in both research and patient care, 2) discussing key challenges in the implementation of QIB applications, and 3) providing overviews of efforts to address such challenges from federal, scientific, and professional organizations, including, but not limited to, the RSNA, NCI, FDA, and NIST. 1Sullivan, Obuchowski, Kessler, et al. Radiology, epub August 2015.

  13. Using Non-Invasive Multi-Spectral Imaging to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Vasculature

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, A; Chernomordik, V; Riley, J; Hassan, M; Amyot, F; Dasgeb, B; Demos, S G; Pursley, R; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Tao, Y; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2007-10-04

    This research describes a non-invasive, non-contact method used to quantitatively analyze the functional characteristics of tissue. Multi-spectral images collected at several near-infrared wavelengths are input into a mathematical optical skin model that considers the contributions from different analytes in the epidermis and dermis skin layers. Through a reconstruction algorithm, we can quantify the percent of blood in a given area of tissue and the fraction of that blood that is oxygenated. Imaging normal tissue confirms previously reported values for the percent of blood in tissue and the percent of blood that is oxygenated in tissue and surrounding vasculature, for the normal state and when ischemia is induced. This methodology has been applied to assess vascular Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and the surrounding tissue before and during experimental therapies. The multi-spectral imaging technique has been combined with laser Doppler imaging to gain additional information. Results indicate that these techniques are able to provide quantitative and functional information about tissue changes during experimental drug therapy and investigate progression of disease before changes are visibly apparent, suggesting a potential for them to be used as complementary imaging techniques to clinical assessment.

  14. Quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging: a review of sources of variability

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M.-X.; Mulvana, H.; Gauthier, T.; Lim, A. K. P.; Cosgrove, D. O.; Eckersley, R. J.; Stride, E.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound provides a valuable tool for medical diagnosis offering real-time imaging with excellent spatial resolution and low cost. The advent of microbubble contrast agents has provided the additional ability to obtain essential quantitative information relating to tissue vascularity, tissue perfusion and even endothelial wall function. This technique has shown great promise for diagnosis and monitoring in a wide range of clinical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, with considerable potential benefits in terms of patient care. A key challenge of this technique, however, is the existence of significant variations in the imaging results, and the lack of understanding regarding their origin. The aim of this paper is to review the potential sources of variability in the quantification of tissue perfusion based on microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound images. These are divided into the following three categories: (i) factors relating to the scanner setting, which include transmission power, transmission focal depth, dynamic range, signal gain and transmission frequency, (ii) factors relating to the patient, which include body physical differences, physiological interaction of body with bubbles, propagation and attenuation through tissue, and tissue motion, and (iii) factors relating to the microbubbles, which include the type of bubbles and their stability, preparation and injection and dosage. It has been shown that the factors in all the three categories can significantly affect the imaging results and contribute to the variations observed. How these factors influence quantitative imaging is explained and possible methods for reducing such variations are discussed. PMID:22866229

  15. Hyperspectral and differential CARS microscopy for quantitative chemical imaging in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Watson, Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the applicability of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) micro-spectroscopy for quantitative chemical imaging of saturated and unsaturated lipids in human stem-cell derived adipocytes. We compare dual-frequency/differential CARS (D-CARS), which enables rapid imaging and simple data analysis, with broadband hyperspectral CARS microscopy analyzed using an unsupervised phase-retrieval and factorization method recently developed by us for quantitative chemical image analysis. Measurements were taken in the vibrational fingerprint region (1200-2000/cm) and in the CH stretch region (2600-3300/cm) using a home-built CARS set-up which enables hyperspectral imaging with 10/cm resolution via spectral focussing from a single broadband 5 fs Ti:Sa laser source. Through a ratiometric analysis, both D-CARS and phase-retrieved hyperspectral CARS determine the concentration of unsaturated lipids with comparable accuracy in the fingerprint region, while in the CH stretch region D-CARS provides only a qualitative contrast owing to its non-linear behavior. When analyzing hyperspectral CARS images using the blind factorization into susceptibilities and concentrations of chemical components recently demonstrated by us, we are able to determine vol:vol concentrations of different lipid components and spatially resolve inhomogeneities in lipid composition with superior accuracy compared to state-of-the art ratiometric methods.

  16. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™.

    PubMed

    Klock, John C; Iuanow, Elaine; Malik, Bilal; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Wiskin, James; Lenox, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT) Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists' confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM) is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%-90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy.

  17. Quantitation of membrane receptor distributions by image correlation spectroscopy: concept and application.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, N O; Höddelius, P L; Wiseman, P W; Seger, O; Magnusson, K E

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of receptor distributions on cell surfaces is one important aspect of understanding the mechanism whereby receptors function. In recent years, scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy has emerged as an excellent tool for making quantitative measurements of cluster sizes and densities. However, the measurements are slow and usually require fixed preparations. Moreover, while the precision is good, the accuracy is limited by the relatively small amount of information in each measurement, such that many are required. Here we present a novel extension of the scanning correlation spectroscopy that solves a number of the present problems. The new technique, which we call image correlation spectroscopy, is based on quantitative analysis of confocal scanning laser microscopy images. Since these can be generated in a matter of a second or so, the measurements become more rapid. The image is collected over a large cell area so that more sampling is done, improving the accuracy. The sacrifice is a lower resolution in the sampling, which leads to a lower precision. This compromise of precision in favor of speed and accuracy still provides an enormous advantage for image correlation spectroscopy over scanning correlation spectroscopy. The present work demonstrates the underlying theory, showing how the principles can be applied to measurements on standard fluorescent beads and changes in distribution of receptors for platelet-derived growth factor on human foreskin fibroblasts. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:8241393

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Imaging in Single Photon Emission Tomography for Nuclear Medicine Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoomi, Mojtaba (Arash).

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. An important goal of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) is the determination of absolute regional radionuclide concentration as a function of time. Quantitative and qualitative studies of SPECT with regard to clinical application is the object of this work. Three basic approaches for image reconstruction and factors which affect the choice of a reconstruction algorithm have been reviewed, discussed and the reconstruction techniques, GRADY and CBP evaluated, based on computer modelling. A sophisticated package of computational subroutines, RECLBL, for image reconstruction and for generation of phantoms, which was fully implemented on PRIME was used throughout this study. Two different systems, a rotating gamma-camera and a prototype scanning-rig have been used to carry out tomography experiments with different phantoms in emission and transmission mode. Performance assessment and reproducibility of the gamma-camera was tested prior to the experimental work. SPECT studies are generally hampered for a number of reasons, the most severe being attenuation and scattering. The effect of scattered photons on image quality was discussed, three distinct techniques were utilised to correct the images and results were compared. Determination of the depth of the source, Am-241 and Tc-99m in the attenuating media, water and TEMEX by analysing the spectroscopic data base on the SPR and spatial resolution was studied, results revealed that both techniques had the same range of depth sensitivity. A method of simultaneous emission and transmission tomography was developed to correct the images for attenuation. The reproducibility of the technique was examined. Results showed that the technique is able to present a promising and a practical approach to more accurate quantitative SPECT imaging. A procedure to evaluate images, under certain conditions has been defined, its properties were evaluated using computer

  19. Quantitative Evaluation of Scintillation Camera Imaging Characteristics of Isotopes Used in Liver Radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Elschot, Mattijs; Nijsen, Johannes Franciscus Wilhelmus; Dam, Alida Johanna; de Jong, Hugo Wilhelmus Antonius Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Scintillation camera imaging is used for treatment planning and post-treatment dosimetry in liver radioembolization (RE). In yttrium-90 (90Y) RE, scintigraphic images of technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for treatment planning, while 90Y Bremsstrahlung images are used for post-treatment dosimetry. In holmium-166 (166Ho) RE, scintigraphic images of 166Ho can be used for both treatment planning and post-treatment dosimetry. The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate and compare the imaging characteristics of these three isotopes, in order that imaging protocols can be optimized and RE studies with varying isotopes can be compared. Methodology/Principal Findings Phantom experiments were performed in line with NEMA guidelines to assess the spatial resolution, sensitivity, count rate linearity, and contrast recovery of 99mTc, 90Y and 166Ho. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain detailed information about the history of detected photons. The results showed that the use of a broad energy window and the high-energy collimator gave optimal combination of sensitivity, spatial resolution, and primary photon fraction for 90Y Bremsstrahlung imaging, although differences with the medium-energy collimator were small. For 166Ho, the high-energy collimator also slightly outperformed the medium-energy collimator. In comparison with 99mTc, the image quality of both 90Y and 166Ho is degraded by a lower spatial resolution, a lower sensitivity, and larger scatter and collimator penetration fractions. Conclusions/Significance The quantitative evaluation of the scintillation camera characteristics presented in this study helps to optimize acquisition parameters and supports future analysis of clinical comparisons between RE studies. PMID:22073149

  20. Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Laasanen, Mikko S.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Töyräs, Juha

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair.

  1. Dynamic phase imaging of host cells attacked by Vibrio vulnificus using quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungrag; Yang, Wenzhong; Lee, Ji Yong; Cha, Mi Hye; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Dug Young

    2010-02-01

    We present the real time quantitative analysis of Vibrio vulnificus-infected host cells using high stability quantitative phase microscopy (HSQPM). It provides the ability to retrieve the phase or optical path length distribution over the cell from a single interferogram image, which has been measured with nanometer path length sensitivity for long periods of time. We have applied HSQPM to study dynamic cell morphologic changes and to quantify noninvasively cell volumes of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells infected with pathogenic bacteria V. vulnificus strains, wild type (MO6-24/O) and RTX toxin mutant (CMM770). During the process of V. vulnificus wild type infection to RBL-2H3 cells, the dynamic changes of quantitative phase images, cell volumes and areas were observed in real time using HSQPM. In contrast, the dramatic changes were not detected in RBL-2H3 cells infected with RTX toxin mutant. The results showed the good correlation between HSQPM analysis and biochemical assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and β-hexosaminidase release assay. We suggest that HSQPM is useful real time quantitative method to study the dynamic process of host cells infected with pathogen in a noninvasive manner.

  2. Quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography for noncontact mechanical characterization of myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Morikawa, Yuka; Tao, Ge; Li, Jiasong; Larina, Irina V.; Martin, James F.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging low-coherence imaging technique that provides noninvasive assessment of tissue biomechanics with high spatial resolution. Among various OCE methods, the capability of quantitative measurement of tissue elasticity is of great importance for tissue characterization and pathology detection across different samples. Here we report a quantitative OCE technique, termed quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (Q-SWI-OCT), which enables noncontact measurement of tissue Young's modulus based on the ultra-fast imaging of the shear wave propagation inside the sample. A focused air-puff device is used to interrogate the tissue with a low-pressure short-duration air stream that stimulates a localized displacement with the scale at micron level. The propagation of this tissue deformation in the form of shear wave is captured by a phase-sensitive OCT system running with the scan of the M-mode imaging over the path of the wave propagation. The temporal characteristics of the shear wave is quantified based on the cross-correlation of the tissue deformation profiles at all the measurement locations, and linear regression is utilized to fit the data plotted in the domain of time delay versus wave propagation distance. The wave group velocity is thus calculated, which results in the quantitative measurement of the Young's modulus. As the feasibility demonstration, experiments are performed on tissuemimicking phantoms with different agar concentrations and the quantified elasticity values with Q-SWI-OCT agree well with the uniaxial compression tests. For functional characterization of myocardium with this OCE technique, we perform our pilot experiments on ex vivo mouse cardiac muscle tissues with two studies, including 1) elasticity difference of cardiac muscle under relaxation and contract conditions and 2) mechanical heterogeneity of the heart introduced by the muscle fiber orientation. Our results suggest the

  3. Ratiometric MRI sensors based on core-shell nanoparticles for quantitative pH imaging.

    PubMed

    Okada, Satoshi; Mizukami, Shin; Sakata, Takao; Matsumura, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2014-05-21

    Ratiometric MRI sensors consist of paramagnetic cores and pH-sensitive polymer shells. The core-shell nanostructure enables the coexistence of two incompatible NMR relaxation properties in one particle. The sensors show pH sensitivity in transverse relaxivity (r2 ), but not in longitudinal relaxivity (r1 ). Quantitative pH imaging is achieved by measuring the r2 /r1 value with a clinical 3 T MRI scanner.

  4. Quantitative Phase Imaging Techniques for the Study of Cell Pathophysiology: From Principles to Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KyeoReh; Kim, Kyoohyun; Jung, Jaehwang; Heo, JiHan; Cho, Sangyeon; Lee, Sangyun; Chang, Gyuyoung; Jo, YoungJu; Park, Hyunjoo; Park, YongKeun

    2013-01-01

    A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:23539026

  5. Immunocytochemical markers of neuronal maturation in human diagnostic neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Sarnat, Harvey B

    2015-01-01

    Histological descriptions of morphogenesis in human fetal brain and in malformations and tumours can now be supplemented by the timing and sequence of the maturation of individual neurons. In human neuropathology, this is principally achieved by immunocytochemical reactivities used as maturational markers of neuronal properties denoted by molecules and cell products. Cytological markers can appear early and then regress, often being replaced by more mature molecules, or might not exhibit the onset of immunoreactivity until a certain stage of neuronal differentiation is achieved, some early, others intermediate and some late during the maturational process. Inter-specific differences occur in some structures of the brain. The classification of markers of neuronal maturation can be based, in addition to those mentioned above, on several criteria: cytological localisation, water solubility, biochemical nature of the antigen, specificity and various technical factors. The most useful immunocytochemical markers of neuronal maturation in human neuropathology are NeuN, synaptophysin, calretinin and other calcium-binding molecules, various microtubule-associated proteins and chromogranins. Non-antibody histochemical stains that denote maturational processes include luxol fast blue for myelination, acridine orange fluorochrome for nucleic acids, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and argentophilic impregnations. Neural crest derivatives of the peripheral nervous system, including chromaffin and neuroendocrine cells, have special features that are shared and others that differ greatly between lineages. Other techniques used in human diagnostic neuropathology, particularly as applied to tumours, include chromosomal and genetic analyses, the mTOR signalling pathway, BRAF V600E and other tumour-suppressor gene products, transcription products of developmental genes and the proliferation index of the tumour cells and of mitotic neuroepithelial cells.

  6. Immunocytochemical characterisation of olfactory ensheathing cells of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Bettini, Simone; Franceschini, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Continuous lifelong neurogenesis is typical of the vertebrate olfactory system. The regenerative ability of olfactory receptor neurons is dependent on the glial cell type specific to the olfactory pathway, designated ‘olfactory ensheathing cells'. Several studies to date have focused on mammalian olfactory ensheathing cells, owing to their potential roles in cell-based therapy for spinal cord injury repair. However, limited information is available regarding this glial cell type in non-mammalian vertebrates, particularly anamniotes. In the current immunocytochemical study, we analysed the features of olfactory ensheathing cells in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Fish provide a good model for studying glial cells associated with the olfactory pathway of non-mammalian vertebrates. In particular, zebrafish has numerous valuable features that enable its use as a prime model organism for genetic, neurobiological and developmental studies, as well as toxicology and genomics research. Paraffin sections from decalcified heads of zebrafish were processed immunocytochemically to detect proteins used in the research on mammalian olfactory ensheathing cells, including glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), S100, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), polysialylated NCAM (PSA-NCAM), vimentin (VIM), p75NTR and galactin (Gal)-1. Notably, GFAP, S100, NCAM and Gal-1 were clearly observed, whereas no vimentin staining was detected. Weak immunostaining for PSA-NCAM and p75NTR was evident. Moreover the degree of marker expression was not uniform in various tracts of the zebrafish olfactory pathway. The immunostaining patterns of the zebrafish olfactory system are distinct from those of other fish to some extent, suggesting interspecific differences. We also showed that the olfactory pathway of zebrafish expresses markers of mammalian olfactory ensheathing cells. The olfactory systems of vertebrates have similarities but there are also marked variations between them. The issue of whether

  7. Immunocytochemical localization of the GABA transporter in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Radian, R; Ottersen, O P; Storm-Mathisen, J; Castel, M; Kanner, B I

    1990-04-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the GABA transporter (GABA-Tp) purified from rat brain tissue (Radian et al., 1986) and used for immunocytochemical localization of the antigen in several rat brain areas, including the cerebellum, hippocampus, substantia nigra, and cerebral cortex. Light microscopic studies with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase and biotin-avidin-peroxidase techniques suggested that GABA-Tp is localized in the same types of axons and terminals that contain endogenous GABA, as judged by comparison with parallel sections incubated with antibodies against glutaraldehyde-conjugated GABA. However, as expected from biochemical results, different neurons differed in their relative contents of GABA-Tp and GABA; thus, GABA-Tp was relatively low in striatonigral and Purkinje axon terminals and relatively high in nerve plexus around the bases of cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal and granule cells. The GABA-Tp antiserum did not produce detectable labeling of nerve cell bodies. Electron microscopic studies supported the light microscopic observations and provided direct evidence of cellular co-localization of GABA-Tp and GABA (as visualized by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique and postembedding immunogold labeling, respectively). The ultrastructural studies indicated the presence of GABA-Tp also in glial processes but not in glial cell bodies. The relative intensity of the neuronal and glial staining varied among regions: glial staining predominated over neuronal staining in the substantia nigra, whereas the converse was true in the cerebellum and hippocampus. The present immunocytochemical data demonstrate directly what has previously been inferred from biochemical and autoradiographic evidence: that the mechanisms for high-affinity GABA uptake is selectively and differentially localized in GABAergic neurons and in glial cells.

  8. Image coregistration: quantitative processing framework for the assessment of brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Huhdanpaa, Hannu; Hwang, Darryl H; Gasparian, Gregory G; Booker, Michael T; Cen, Yong; Lerner, Alexander; Boyko, Orest B; Go, John L; Kim, Paul E; Rajamohan, Anandh; Law, Meng; Shiroishi, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    The quantitative, multiparametric assessment of brain lesions requires coregistering different parameters derived from MRI sequences. This will be followed by analysis of the voxel values of the ROI within the sequences and calculated parametric maps, and deriving multiparametric models to classify imaging data. There is a need for an intuitive, automated quantitative processing framework that is generalized and adaptable to different clinical and research questions. As such flexible frameworks have not been previously described, we proceeded to construct a quantitative post-processing framework with commonly available software components. Matlab was chosen as the programming/integration environment, and SPM was chosen as the coregistration component. Matlab routines were created to extract and concatenate the coregistration transforms, take the coregistered MRI sequences as inputs to the process, allow specification of the ROI, and store the voxel values to the database for statistical analysis. The functionality of the framework was validated using brain tumor MRI cases. The implementation of this quantitative post-processing framework enables intuitive creation of multiple parameters for each voxel, facilitating near real-time in-depth voxel-wise analysis. Our initial empirical evaluation of the framework is an increased usage of analysis requiring post-processing and increased number of simultaneous research activities by clinicians and researchers with non-technical backgrounds. We show that common software components can be utilized to implement an intuitive real-time quantitative post-processing framework, resulting in improved scalability and increased adoption of post-processing needed to answer important diagnostic questions.

  9. Comparison of quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging CT to fluorescent microsphere-based flow from high-resolution cryo-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Levi, Jacob; Fares, Anas; Wu, Hao; Li, Yuemeng; Vembar, Mani; Dhanantwari, Amar; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging using CT (MPI-CT) has the potential to provide quantitative measures of myocardial blood flow (MBF) which can aid the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of MPI-CT in a porcine model of balloon-induced LAD coronary artery ischemia guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR). We quantified MBF at baseline (FFR=1.0) and under moderate ischemia (FFR=0.7) using MPI-CT and compared to fluorescent microsphere-based MBF from high-resolution cryo-images. Dynamic, contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained using a spectral detector CT (Philips Healthcare). Projection-based mono-energetic images were reconstructed and processed to obtain MBF. Three MBF quantification approaches were evaluated: singular value decomposition (SVD) with fixed Tikhonov regularization (ThSVD), SVD with regularization determined by the L-Curve criterion (LSVD), and Johnson-Wilson parameter estimation (JW). The three approaches over-estimated MBF compared to cryo-images. JW produced the most accurate MBF, with average error 33.3+/-19.2mL/min/100g, whereas LSVD and ThSVD had greater over-estimation, 59.5+/-28.3mL/min/100g and 78.3+/-25.6 mL/min/100g, respectively. Relative blood flow as assessed by a flow ratio of LAD-to-remote myocardium was strongly correlated between JW and cryo-imaging, with R2=0.97, compared to R2=0.88 and 0.78 for LSVD and ThSVD, respectively. We assessed tissue impulse response functions (IRFs) from each approach for sources of error. While JW was constrained to physiologic solutions, both LSVD and ThSVD produced IRFs with non-physiologic properties due to noise. The L-curve provided noise-adaptive regularization but did not eliminate non-physiologic IRF properties or optimize for MBF accuracy. These findings suggest that model-based MPI-CT approaches may be more appropriate for quantitative MBF estimation and that cryo-imaging can support the development of MPI-CT by providing spatial distributions of MBF.

  10. MRI technique for the snapshot imaging of quantitative velocity maps using RARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiko, G.; Sederman, A. J.; Gladden, L. F.

    2012-03-01

    A quantitative PGSE-RARE pulse sequence was developed and successfully applied to the in situ dissolution of two pharmaceutical formulations dissolving over a range of timescales. The new technique was chosen over other existing fast velocity imaging techniques because it is T2 weighted, not T2∗ weighted, and is, therefore, robust for imaging time-varying interfaces and flow in magnetically heterogeneous systems. The complex signal was preserved intact by separating odd and even echoes to obtain two phase maps which are then averaged in post-processing. Initially, the validity of the technique was shown when imaging laminar flow in a pipe. Subsequently, the dissolution of two drugs was followed in situ, where the technique enables the imaging and quantification of changes in the form of the tablet and the flow field surrounding it at high spatial and temporal resolution. First, the complete 3D velocity field around an eroding salicylic acid tablet was acquired at a resolution of 98 × 49 μm2, within 20 min, and monitored over ˜13 h. The tablet was observed to experience a heterogeneous flow field and, hence a heterogeneous shear field, which resulted in the non-symmetric erosion of the tablet. Second, the dissolution of a fast dissolving immediate release tablet was followed using one-shot 2D velocity images acquired every 5.2 s at a resolution of 390 × 390 μm2. The quantitative nature of the technique and fast acquisition times provided invaluable information on the dissolution behaviour of this tablet, which had not been attainable previously with conventional quantitative MRI techniques.

  11. Quantitative interpretation of mineral hyperspectral images based on principal component analysis and independent component analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiping; Jiang, Yu; Wu, Fang; Wu, Fenghuang

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of mineral hyperspectral images provides large amounts of high-dimensional data, which is often complicated by mixed pixels. The quantitative interpretation of hyperspectral images is known to be extremely difficult when three types of information are unknown, namely, the number of pure pixels, the spectrum of pure pixels, and the mixing matrix. The problem is made even more complex by the disturbance of noise. The key to interpreting abstract mineral component information, i.e., pixel unmixing and abundance inversion, is how to effectively reduce noise, dimension, and redundancy. A three-step procedure is developed in this study for quantitative interpretation of hyperspectral images. First, the principal component analysis (PCA) method can be used to process the pixel spectrum matrix and keep characteristic vectors with larger eigenvalues. This can effectively reduce the noise and redundancy, which facilitates the abstraction of major component information. Second, the independent component analysis (ICA) method can be used to identify and unmix the pixels based on the linear mixed model. Third, the pure-pixel spectrums can be normalized for abundance inversion, which gives the abundance of each pure pixel. In numerical experiments, both simulation data and actual data were used to demonstrate the performance of our three-step procedure. Under simulation data, the results of our procedure were compared with theoretical values. Under the actual data measured from core hyperspectral images, the results obtained through our algorithm are compared with those of similar software (Mineral Spectral Analysis 1.0, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources). The comparisons show that our method is effective and can provide reference for quantitative interpretation of hyperspectral images.

  12. Qualification of NCI-Designated Cancer Centers for Quantitative PET/CT Imaging in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, Joshua S; Reddin, Janet S; Opanowski, Adam; Kinahan, Paul E; Siegel, Barry A; Shankar, Lalitha K; Karp, Joel S

    2017-03-02

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Centers for Quantitative Imaging Excellence (CQIE) initiative in 2010 to pre-qualify imaging facilities at all of the NCI-designated Comprehensive and Clinical Cancer Centers for oncology trials using advanced imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET). This paper reviews the CQIE PET/CT (Computed Tomography) scanner qualification process and results in detail. Methods: Over a period of approximately 5 years, sites were requested to submit a variety of phantom, including uniform and ACR (American College of Radiology) phantoms, PET/CT images, as well as examples of clinical images. Submissions were divided into 3 distinct time points: initial submission (T0), followed by two requalification submissions (T1 and T2). Images were analyzed using standardized procedures and scanners received a pass or fail designation. Sites had the opportunity to submit new data for failed scanners. Quantitative results were compared: across scanners within a given time point and across time points for a given scanner. Results: 65 unique PET/CT scanners across 42 sites were submitted for CQIE T0 qualification, with 64 passing qualification. 44 (68%) of the scanners from T0 had data submitted for T2. From T0 to T2 the percentage of scanners passing the CQIE qualification on the first attempt rose from 38% in T1 to 67% in T2. The most common reasons for failure were: standardized uptake value (SUV) out of specifications, incomplete data submission and uniformity issues. Uniform phantom and ACR phantom results between scanner manufacturers are similar. Conclusion: The results of the CQIE process show that periodic requalification may decrease the frequency of deficient data submissions. The CQIE project also highlighted the concern within imaging facilities about the burden of maintaining different qualifications and accreditations. Finally, we note that for quantitative imaging-based trials the relationships between

  13. Dual-mode quantitative imaging of wound tissue oxygenation and perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ruogu; Huang, Jiwei; Xu, Jeff S.; Ding, Liya; Gnyawali, Surya; Sen, Chandan K.; Huang, Kun; Xu, Ronald X.

    2010-02-01

    Accurate assessment of wound oxygenation and perfusion is important for evaluating wound healing/regression and guiding following therapeutic processes. However, many existing techniques and clinical practices are subjective and qualitative due to background bias, tissue heterogeneity, and inter-patient variation. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modal imaging system for in vivo, non-invasive, real-time quantitative assessment of wound tissue oxygenation and perfusion. The imaging system integrated a broadband light source, a high-resolution CCD camera, a highly sensitive thermal camera, and a liquid crystal tunable filter. A user-friendly interface was developed to control all the components systematically. Advanced algorithms were explored for reliable reconstruction of tissue oxygenation and appropriate co-registration between thermal images and multispectral images. Dual-mode oxygenation and perfusion imaging was demonstrated on both benchtop models and human subjects, and compared with measurements using other methods, such as Laser Doppler and tissue oximeter. The test results suggested that the dual-modal imaging system has the potential for non-contact real-time imaging of wound tissue oxygenation and perfusion.

  14. Deep Learning Automates the Quantitative Analysis of Individual Cells in Live-Cell Imaging Experiments.

    PubMed

    Van Valen, David A; Kudo, Takamasa; Lane, Keara M; Macklin, Derek N; Quach, Nicolas T; DeFelice, Mialy M; Maayan, Inbal; Tanouchi, Yu; Ashley, Euan A; Covert, Markus W

    2016-11-01

    Live-cell imaging has opened an exciting window into the role cellular heterogeneity plays in dynamic, living systems. A major critical challenge for this class of experiments is the problem of image segmentation, or determining which parts of a microscope image correspond to which individual cells. Current approaches require many hours of manual curation and depend on approaches that are difficult to share between labs. They are also unable to robustly segment the cytoplasms of mammalian cells. Here, we show that deep convolutional neural networks, a supervised machine learning method, can solve this challenge for multiple cell types across the domains of life. We demonstrate that this approach can robustly segment fluorescent images of cell nuclei as well as phase images of the cytoplasms of individual bacterial and mammalian cells from phase contrast images without the need for a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker. These networks also enable the simultaneous segmentation and identification of different mammalian cell types grown in co-culture. A quantitative comparison with prior methods demonstrates that convolutional neural networks have improved accuracy and lead to a significant reduction in curation time. We relay our experience in designing and optimizing deep convolutional neural networks for this task and outline several design rules that we found led to robust performance. We conclude that deep convolutional neural networks are an accurate method that require less curation time, are generalizable to a multiplicity of cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, and expand live-cell imaging capabilities to include multi-cell type systems.

  15. Enhancing contrast and quantitation by spatial frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jessica; Hathi, Deep; Zhou, Haiying; Shokeen, Monica; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    Optical imaging with fluorescent contrast agents is highly sensitive for molecular imaging but is limited in depth to a few centimeters below the skin. Planar fluorescence imaging with full-field, uniform illumination and scientific camera image capture provides a portable and robust configuration for real-time, sensitive fluorescence detection with scalable resolution, but is inherently surface weighted and therefore limited in depth to a few millimeters. At the NIR region (700-1000 nm), tissue absorption and autofluorescence are relatively reduced, increasing depth penetration and reducing background signal, respectively. Optical imaging resolution scales with depth, limiting microscopic resolution with multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography to < 3 mm depth. Unfortunately, patient skin and peri-tumoral tissues are not uniform, varying in thickness and color, complicating subsurface fluorescence measurements. Diffuse optical imaging methods have been developed that better quantify optical signals relative to faster full-field planar reflectance imaging, but require long scan times, complex instrumentation, and reconstruction algorithms. Here we report a novel strategy for rapid measurement of subsurface fluorescence using structured light illumination to improve quantitation of deep-seated fluorescence molecular probe accumulation. This technique, in combination with highly specific, tumor-avid fluorescent molecular probes, will easily integrate noninvasive diagnostics for superficial cancers and fluorescence guided surgery.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of noise reduction strategies in dual-energy imaging.

    PubMed

    Warp, Richard J; Dobbins, James T

    2003-02-01

    In this paper we describe a quantitative evaluation of the performance of three dual-energy noise reduction algorithms: Kalender's correlated noise reduction (KCNR), noise clipping (NOC), and edge-predictive adaptive smoothing (EPAS). These algorithms were compared to a simple smoothing filter approach, using the variance and noise power spectrum measurements of the residual noise in dual-energy images acquired with an a-Si TFT flat-panel x-ray detector. An estimate of the true noise was made through a new method with subpixel accuracy by subtracting an individual image from an ensemble average image. The results indicate that in the lung regions of the tissue image, all three algorithms reduced the noise by similar percentages at high spatial frequencies (KCNR=88%, NOC=88%, EPAS=84%, NOC/KCNR=88%) and somewhat less at low spatial frequencies (KCNR=45%, NOC=54%, EPAS=52%, NOC/KCNR=55%). At low frequencies, the presence of edge artifacts from KCNR made the performance worse, thus NOC or NOC combined with KCNR performed best. At high frequencies, KCNR performed best in the bone image, yet NOC performed best in the tissue image. Noise reduction strategies in dual-energy imaging can be effective and should focus on blending various algorithms depending on anatomical locations.

  17. Quantitative Magnetic Particle Imaging Monitors the Transplantation, Biodistribution, and Clearance of Stem Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bo; von See, Marc P.; Yu, Elaine; Gunel, Beliz; Lu, Kuan; Vazin, Tandis; Schaffer, David V.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapies have enormous potential for treating many debilitating diseases, including heart failure, stroke and traumatic brain injury. For maximal efficacy, these therapies require targeted cell delivery to specific tissues followed by successful cell engraftment. However, targeted delivery remains an open challenge. As one example, it is common for intravenous deliveries of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to become entrapped in lung microvasculature instead of the target tissue. Hence, a robust, quantitative imaging method would be essential for developing efficacious cell therapies. Here we show that Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), a novel technique that directly images iron-oxide nanoparticle-tagged cells, can longitudinally monitor and quantify MSC administration in vivo. MPI offers near-ideal image contrast, depth penetration, and robustness; these properties make MPI both ultra-sensitive and linearly quantitative. Here, we imaged, for the first time, the dynamic trafficking of intravenous MSC administrations using MPI. Our results indicate that labeled MSC injections are immediately entrapped in lung tissue and then clear to the liver within one day, whereas standard iron oxide particle (Resovist) injections are immediately taken up by liver and spleen. Longitudinal MPI-CT imaging also indicated a clearance half-life of MSC iron oxide labels in the liver at 4.6 days. Finally, our ex vivo MPI biodistribution measurements of iron in liver, spleen, heart, and lungs after injection showed excellent agreement (R2 = 0.943) with measurements from induction coupled plasma spectrometry. These results demonstrate that MPI offers strong utility for noninvasively imaging and quantifying the systemic distribution of cell therapies and other therapeutic agents. PMID:26909106

  18. Quantitative Magnetic Particle Imaging Monitors the Transplantation, Biodistribution, and Clearance of Stem Cells In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; von See, Marc P; Yu, Elaine; Gunel, Beliz; Lu, Kuan; Vazin, Tandis; Schaffer, David V; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapies have enormous potential for treating many debilitating diseases, including heart failure, stroke and traumatic brain injury. For maximal efficacy, these therapies require targeted cell delivery to specific tissues followed by successful cell engraftment. However, targeted delivery remains an open challenge. As one example, it is common for intravenous deliveries of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to become entrapped in lung microvasculature instead of the target tissue. Hence, a robust, quantitative imaging method would be essential for developing efficacious cell therapies. Here we show that Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), a novel technique that directly images iron-oxide nanoparticle-tagged cells, can longitudinally monitor and quantify MSC administration in vivo. MPI offers near-ideal image contrast, depth penetration, and robustness; these properties make MPI both ultra-sensitive and linearly quantitative. Here, we imaged, for the first time, the dynamic trafficking of intravenous MSC administrations using MPI. Our results indicate that labeled MSC injections are immediately entrapped in lung tissue and then clear to the liver within one day, whereas standard iron oxide particle (Resovist) injections are immediately taken up by liver and spleen. Longitudinal MPI-CT imaging also indicated a clearance half-life of MSC iron oxide labels in the liver at 4.6 days. Finally, our ex vivo MPI biodistribution measurements of iron in liver, spleen, heart, and lungs after injection showed excellent agreement (R(2) = 0.943) with measurements from induction coupled plasma spectrometry. These results demonstrate that MPI offers strong utility for noninvasively imaging and quantifying the systemic distribution of cell therapies and other therapeutic agents.

  19. Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldoon, Timothy J.; Thekkek, Nadhi; Roblyer, Darren; Maru, Dipen; Harpaz, Noam; Potack, Jonathan; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-03-01

    Early detection of neoplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus is essential to improve outcomes. The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the ability of high-resolution microendoscopic imaging and quantitative image analysis to identify neoplastic lesions in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Nine patients with pathologically confirmed Barrett's esophagus underwent endoscopic examination with biopsies or endoscopic mucosal resection. Resected fresh tissue was imaged with fiber bundle microendoscopy; images were analyzed by visual interpretation or by quantitative image analysis to predict whether the imaged sites were non-neoplastic or neoplastic. The best performing pair of quantitative features were chosen based on their ability to correctly classify the data into the two groups. Predictions were compared to the gold standard of histopathology. Subjective analysis of the images by expert clinicians achieved average sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 61%, respectively. The best performing quantitative classification algorithm relied on two image textural features and achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 85%, respectively. This ex vivo pilot trial demonstrates that quantitative analysis of images obtained with a simple microendoscope system can distinguish neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus with good sensitivity and specificity when compared to histopathology and to subjective image interpretation.

  20. Image analysis techniques. The problem of the quantitative evaluation of thechromatin ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Maraldi, N M; Marinelli, F; Squarzoni, S; Santi, S; Barbieri, M

    1991-02-01

    The application of image analysis methods to conventional thin sections for electron microscopy to analyze the chromatin arrangement are quite limited. We developed a method which utilizes freeze-fractured samples; the results indicate that the method is suitable for identifying the changes in the chromatin arrangement which occur in physiological, experimental and pathological conditions. The modern era of image analysis begins in 1964, when pictures of the moon transmitted by Ranger 7 were processed by a computer. This processing improved the original picture by enhancing and restoring the image affected by various types of distorsion. These performances have been allowed by the third-generation of computers having the speed and the storage capabilities required for practical use of image processing algorithms. Each image can be converted into a two-dimensional light intensity function: f (x, y), where x and y are the spatial coordinates and f value is proportional to the gray level of the image at that point. The digital image is therefore a matrix whose elements are the pixels (picture elements). A typical digital image can be obtained with a quality comparable to monochrome TV, with a 512×512 pixel array with 64 gray levels. The magnetic disks of commercial minicomputers are thus capable of storing some tenths of images which can be elaborated by the image processor, converting the signal into digital form. In biological images, obtained by light microscopy, the digitation converts the chromatic differences into gray level intensities, thus allowing to define the contours of the cytoplasm, of the nucleus and of the nucleoli. The use of a quantitative staining method for the DNA, the Feulgen reaction, permits to evaluate the ratio between condensed chromatin (stained) and euchromatin (unstained). The digitized images obtained by transmission electron microscopy are rich in details at high resolution. However, the application of image analysis techniques to

  1. Preclinical MR fingerprinting (MRF) at 7 T: effective quantitative imaging for rodent disease models.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Chen, Yong; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Herrmann, Kelsey A; Vincent, Jason A; Dell, Katherine M; Drumm, Mitchell L; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M; Griswold, Mark A; Flask, Chris A; Lu, Lan

    2015-03-01

    High-field preclinical MRI scanners are now commonly used to quantitatively assess disease status and the efficacy of novel therapies in a wide variety of rodent models. Unfortunately, conventional MRI methods are highly susceptible to respiratory and cardiac motion artifacts resulting in potentially inaccurate and misleading data. We have developed an initial preclinical 7.0-T MRI implementation of the highly novel MR fingerprinting (MRF) methodology which has been described previously for clinical imaging applications. The MRF technology combines a priori variation in the MRI acquisition parameters with dictionary-based matching of acquired signal evolution profiles to simultaneously generate quantitative maps of T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density. This preclinical MRF acquisition was constructed from a fast imaging with steady-state free precession (FISP) MRI pulse sequence to acquire 600 MRF images with both evolving T1 and T2 weighting in approximately 30 min. This initial high-field preclinical MRF investigation demonstrated reproducible and differentiated estimates of in vitro phantoms with different relaxation times. In vivo preclinical MRF results in mouse kidneys and brain tumor models demonstrated an inherent resistance to respiratory motion artifacts as well as sensitivity to known pathology. These results suggest that MRF methodology may offer the opportunity for the quantification of numerous MRI parameters for a wide variety of preclinical imaging applications.

  2. Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Quantitatively Controlled Bioconjugation for Photoacoustic Imaging of Live Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Qian, Wei; Shao, Xia; Xie, Zhixing; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Shengchun; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Bing; Wang, Xueding

    2016-12-01

    Detection and imaging of single cancer cells is critical for cancer diagnosis and understanding of cellular dynamics. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) provides a potential tool for the study of cancer cell dynamics, but faces the challenge that most cancer cells lack sufficient endogenous contrast. Here, a type of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are physically fabricated and are precisely functionalized with quantitative amounts of functional ligands (i.e., polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and (Arginine(R)-Glycine(G)-Aspartic(D))4 (RGD) peptides) to serve as an exogenous contrast agent for PAI of single cells. The functionalized AuNPs, with a fixed number of PEG but different RGD densities, are delivered into human prostate cancer cells. Radioactivity and photoacoustic analyses show that, although cellular uptake efficiency of the AuNPs linearly increases along with RGD density, photoacoustic signal generation efficiency does not and only maximize at a moderate RGD density. The functionalization of the AuNPs is in turn optimized based on the experimental finding, and single cancer cells are imaged using a custom photoacoustic microscopy with high-resolution. The quantitatively functionalized AuNPs together with the high-resolution PAI system provide a unique platform for the detection and imaging of single cancer cells, and may impact not only basic science but also clinical diagnostics on a range of cancers.

  3. Quantitative Lifetime Unmixing of Multiexponentially Decaying Fluorophores Using Single-Frequency Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Gert-Jan; van Munster, Erik B.; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a quantitative microscopy technique for imaging nanosecond decay times of fluorophores. In the case of frequency-domain FLIM, several methods have been described to resolve the relative abundance of two fluorescent species with different fluorescence decay times. Thus far, single-frequency FLIM methods generally have been limited to quantifying two species with monoexponential decay. However, multiexponential decays are the norm rather than the exception, especially for fluorescent proteins and biological samples. Here, we describe a novel method for determining the fractional contribution in each pixel of an image of a sample containing two (multiexponentially) decaying species using single-frequency FLIM. We demonstrate that this technique allows the unmixing of binary mixtures of two spectrally identical cyan or green fluorescent proteins, each with multiexponential decay. Furthermore, because of their spectral identity, quantitative images of the relative molecular abundance of these fluorescent proteins can be generated that are independent of the microscope light path. The method is rigorously tested using samples of known composition and applied to live cell microscopy using cells expressing multiple (multiexponentially decaying) fluorescent proteins. PMID:18359789

  4. Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Quantitatively Controlled Bioconjugation for Photoacoustic Imaging of Live Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chao; Shao, Xia; Xie, Zhixing; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Shengchun; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Detection and imaging of single cancer cells is critical for cancer diagnosis and understanding of cellular dynamics. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) provides a potential tool for the study of cancer cell dynamics, but faces the challenge that most cancer cells lack sufficient endogenous contrast. Here, a type of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are physically fabricated and are precisely functionalized with quantitative amounts of functional ligands (i.e., polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and (Arginine(R)–Glycine(G)–Aspartic(D))4 (RGD) peptides) to serve as an exogenous contrast agent for PAI of single cells. The functionalized AuNPs, with a fixed number of PEG but different RGD densities, are delivered into human prostate cancer cells. Radioactivity and photoacoustic analyses show that, although cellular uptake efficiency of the AuNPs linearly increases along with RGD density, photoacoustic signal generation efficiency does not and only maximize at a moderate RGD density. The functionalization of the AuNPs is in turn optimized based on the experimental finding, and single cancer cells are imaged using a custom photoacoustic microscopy with high‐resolution. The quantitatively functionalized AuNPs together with the high‐resolution PAI system provide a unique platform for the detection and imaging of single cancer cells, and may impact not only basic science but also clinical diagnostics on a range of cancers. PMID:27981012

  5. 3D quantitative imaging of the microvasculature with the Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Botvinick, Elliott L.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Gough, David A.

    2001-11-01

    There is a growing need for developing 3D quantitative imaging tools that can operate at high speed enabling real-time visualization for the field of biology, material science, and the semiconductor industry. We will present our 3D quantitative imaging system based on a confocal microscope built with a Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). By using the DMD as a spatial light modulator, confocal transverse surface (x, y) scanning can be performed in parallel at speeds faster than video rate without physical movement of the sample. The DMD allows us to programmably configure the source and the detection pinhole array in the lateral direction to achieve the best signal and to reduce the crosstalk noise. Investigations of the microcirculation were performed on 40 g to 45 g golden Syrian hamsters fit with dorsal skin fold window chambers. FITC-Dextran or Red blood cells from donor hamsters, stained with Celltracker CM-DiI, were injected into the circulation and imaged with the confocal microscope. We will present the measured results for the axial resolution, in vivo, as well as experimental results from imaging the window chamber.

  6. Accounting for systematic errors in bioluminescence imaging to improve quantitative accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Perry, Tracey A.; Styles, Iain B.; Cobbold, Mark; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a widely used pre-clinical imaging technique, but there are a number of limitations to its quantitative accuracy. This work uses an animal model to demonstrate some significant limitations of BLI and presents processing methods and algorithms which overcome these limitations, increasing the quantitative accuracy of the technique. The position of the imaging subject and source depth are both shown to affect the measured luminescence intensity. Free Space Modelling is used to eliminate the systematic error due to the camera/subject geometry, removing the dependence of luminescence intensity on animal position. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is then used to provide additional information about the depth and intensity of the source. A substantial limitation in the number of sources identified using BLI is also presented. It is shown that when a given source is at a significant depth, it can appear as multiple sources when imaged using BLI, while the use of BLT recovers the true number of sources present.

  7. Quantitative magnetic imaging at the nanometer scale by ballistic electron magnetic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Herve, M.; Tricot, S.; Guezo, S.; Delhaye, G.; Lepine, B.; Schieffer, P.; Turban, P.

    2013-06-21

    We demonstrate quantitative ballistic electron magnetic microscopy (BEMM) imaging of simple model Fe(001) nanostructures. We use in situ nanostencil shadow mask resistless patterning combined with molecular beam epitaxy deposition to prepare under ultra-high vacuum conditions nanostructured epitaxial Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001) spin-valves. In this epitaxial system, the magnetization of the bottom Fe/GaAs(001) electrode is parallel to the [110] direction, defining accurately the analysis direction for the BEMM experiments. The large hot-electron magnetoresistance of the Fe/Au/Fe/GaAs(001) epitaxial spin-valve allows us to image various stable magnetic configurations on the as-grown Fe(001) microstructures with a high sensitivity, even for small misalignments of both magnetic electrodes. The angular dependence of the hot-electron magnetocurrent is used to convert magnetization maps calculated by micromagnetic simulations into simulated BEMM images. The calculated BEMM images and magnetization rotation profiles show quantitative agreement with experiments and allow us to investigate the magnetic phase diagram of these model Fe(001) microstructures. Finally, magnetic domain reversals are observed under high current density pulses. This opens the way for further BEMM investigations of current-induced magnetization dynamics.

  8. Analysis of edge effects in attenuating phase-shift masks using quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Aamod; Sczyrba, Martin; Connolly, Brid; Neureuther, Andy; Waller, Laura

    2013-09-01

    Thick mask electromagnetic edge effects in attenuating phase-shift masks (ATT-PSM) are analyzed by extracting optical phase at the wafer plane from a series of through focus aerial images with 193nm light. The thick edges of an ATT-PSM can lead to phase distortions, creating asymmetric intensity contrast on either side of focus. Here we use through focus intensity images from an AIMS tool to quantitatively recover phase via the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE). The TIE can recover the effective phase across the mask due to edge effects by analyzing the through focus image stack. We verify a previously proposed model for edge effects by adding quadrature phase boundary layers at the edges during simulation and compare the simulated through focus images with experimental data. After tuning the real and imaginary part of the boundary layer and the angle of the substrate, the simulated through focus behavior agrees with experiment, giving a measure of the edge effects. This leads to comparable quantitative phase profiles recovered at the wafer plane for simulation and experiment with the ATT-PSM. We expect that the method is applicable for the approximation of topographical effects in other types of thick masks as well.

  9. General solution for quantitative dark-field contrast imaging with grating interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, M.

    2014-11-01

    Grating interferometer based imaging with X-rays and neutrons has proven to hold huge potential for applications in key research fields conveying biology and medicine as well as engineering and magnetism, respectively. The thereby amenable dark-field imaging modality implied the promise to access structural information beyond reach of direct spatial resolution. However, only here a yet missing approach is reported that finally allows exploiting this outstanding potential for non-destructive materials characterizations. It enables to obtain quantitative structural small angle scattering information combined with up to 3-dimensional spatial image resolution even at lab based x-ray or at neutron sources. The implied two orders of magnitude efficiency gain as compared to currently available techniques in this regime paves the way for unprecedented structural investigations of complex sample systems of interest for material science in a vast range of fields.

  10. Integrated quantitative phase and birefringence microscopy for imaging malaria-infected red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengshuai; Chen, Shichao; Klemba, Michael; Zhu, Yizheng

    2016-09-01

    A dual-modality birefringence/phase imaging system is presented. The system features a crystal retarder that provides polarization mixing and generates two interferometric carrier waves in a single signal spectrum. The retardation and orientation of sample birefringence can then be measured simultaneously based on spectral multiplexing interferometry. Further, with the addition of a Nomarski prism, the same setup can be used for quantitative differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging. Sample phase can then be obtained with two-dimensional integration. In addition, birefringence-induced phase error can be corrected using the birefringence data. This dual-modality approach is analyzed theoretically with Jones calculus and validated experimentally with malaria-infected red blood cells. The system generates not only corrected DIC and phase images, but a birefringence map that highlights the distribution of hemozoin crystals.

  11. Single-Shot Smartphone-Based Quantitative Phase Imaging Using a Distorted Grating

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenyu; Zhan, Qiwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood testing has been used as an essential tool to diagnose diseases for decades. Recently, there has been a rapid developing trend in using Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) methods for blood cell screening. Compared to traditional blood testing techniques, QPI has the advantage of avoiding dyeing or staining the specimen, which may cause damage to the cells. However, most existing systems are bulky and costly, requiring experienced personnel to operate. This work demonstrates the integration of one QPI method onto a smartphone platform and the application of imaging red blood cells. The adopted QPI method is based on solving the Intensity Transport Equation (ITE) from two de-focused pupil images taken in one shot by the smartphone camera. The device demonstrates a system resolution of about 1 μm, and is ready to be used for 3D morphological study of red blood cells. PMID:27441837

  12. Iron in Multiple Sclerosis and Its Noninvasive Imaging with Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Stüber, Carsten; Pitt, David; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is considered to play a key role in the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In particular, iron that accumulates in myeloid cells after the blood-brain barrier (BBB) seals may contribute to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and eventually neurodegeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established tool for the non-invasive study of MS. In recent years, an advanced MRI method, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), has made it possible to study brain iron through in vivo imaging. Moreover, immunohistochemical investigations have helped defining the lesional and cellular distribution of iron in MS brain tissue. Imaging studies in MS patients and of brain tissue combined with histological studies have provided important insights into the role of iron in inflammation and neurodegeneration in MS. PMID:26784172

  13. Quantitative spin polarization analysis in photoelectron emission microscopy with an imaging spin filter.

    PubMed

    Tusche, Christian; Ellguth, Martin; Krasyuk, Alexander; Winkelmann, Aimo; Kutnyakhov, Dmytro; Lushchyk, Pavel; Medjanik, Katerina; Schönhense, Gerd; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2013-07-01

    Using a photoelectron emission microscope (PEEM), we demonstrate spin-resolved electron spectroscopic imaging of ultrathin magnetic Co films grown on Cu(100). The spin-filter, based on the spin-dependent reflection of low energy electrons from a W(100) crystal, is attached to an aberration corrected electrostatic energy analyzer coupled to an electrostatic PEEM column. We present a method for the quantitative measurement of the electron spin polarization at 4 × 10³ points of the PEEM image, simultaneously. This approach uses the subsequent acquisition of two images with different scattering energies of the electrons at the W(100) target to directly derive the spin polarization without the need of magnetization reversal of the sample.

  14. Quantitative Imaging of the Solar Wind: CME Mass Evolution and the Interplanetary Magnetic Flux Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, Craig

    2012-05-01

    We recently developed post-processing techniques for heliospheric images from the STEREO spacecraft; the new data sets enable, for the first time, quantitative photometric studies of evolving wind features at distances up to 1 A.U. from the Sun. We have used the new data to trace several CMEs and magnetic disconnection events to their origins in the solar corona, and to infer the force balance and entrained magnetic flux in those features. We present recent results showing the relationship between ICME and CME anatomy, in particular the origin of an observed interplanetary flux rope and the relationship between original launched solar material and piled-up sheath material and flux in the storm at 1. A.U. We discuss implications for understanding space weather physics and predicting individual events, and point out the importance of future imaging technologies such as polarized heliospheric imaging.

  15. Quantitative index imaging of coculture cells by scanning focused refractive index microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Teng-Qian; Ye, Qing; Hu, Fen; Liu, Shi-ke; Wang, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhi-Chao; Mei, Jian-Chun; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Wang, Xin-Yu; Pan, Lei-Ting; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2016-08-01

    We report the quantitative refractive index (RI) imaging of cocultured cells in their living environment by scanning focused refractive index microscopy (SFRIM). Mouse microglial cells and synovial cells are cocultured on the top surface of a trapezoid prism. The RI imaging of living cells is obtained in a reflection-type method. The RI information is deduced with the simple derivative total internal reflection method, where a complex retrieval algorithm or reconstruction process is unnecessary. The outline of each cell is determined according to the RI value compared with that of the immersion liquid. The cocultured cells can be discriminated in the RI image. The measurement is nondestructive and label-free. The experimental results prove that SFRIM is a promising tool in the field of biological optics.

  16. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology.

    PubMed

    Kolasinski, James; Stagg, Charlotte J; Chance, Steven A; Deluca, Gabriele C; Esiri, Margaret M; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A; McNab, Jennifer A; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  17. Automated Detection of P. falciparum Using Machine Learning Algorithms with Quantitative Phase Images of Unstained Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han Sang; Rinehart, Matthew T.; Walzer, Katelyn A.; Chi, Jen-Tsan Ashley; Wax, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Malaria detection through microscopic examination of stained blood smears is a diagnostic challenge that heavily relies on the expertise of trained microscopists. This paper presents an automated analysis method for detection and staging of red blood cells infected by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at trophozoite or schizont stage. Unlike previous efforts in this area, this study uses quantitative phase images of unstained cells. Erythrocytes are automatically segmented using thresholds of optical phase and refocused to enable quantitative comparison of phase images. Refocused images are analyzed to extract 23 morphological descriptors based on the phase information. While all individual descriptors are highly statistically different between infected and uninfected cells, each descriptor does not enable separation of populations at a level satisfactory for clinical utility. To improve the diagnostic capacity, we applied various machine learning techniques, including linear discriminant classification (LDC), logistic regression (LR), and k-nearest neighbor classification (NNC), to formulate algorithms that combine all of the calculated physical parameters to distinguish cells more effectively. Results show that LDC provides the highest accuracy of up to 99.7% in detecting schizont stage infected cells compared to uninfected RBCs. NNC showed slightly better accuracy (99.5%) than either LDC (99.0%) or LR (99.1%) for discriminating late trophozoites from uninfected RBCs. However, for early trophozoites, LDC produced the best accuracy of 98%. Discrimination of infection stage was less accurate, producing high specificity (99.8%) but only 45.0%-66.8% sensitivity with early trophozoites most often mistaken for late trophozoite or schizont stage and late trophozoite and schizont stage most often confused for each other. Overall, this methodology points to a significant clinical potential of using quantitative phase imaging to detect and stage malaria infection

  18. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-07-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo.

  19. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo. PMID:25027002

  20. Fully automated screening of immunocytochemically stained specimens for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, André A.; Schneider, Timna E.; Müller-Frank, Dirk A. C.; Meyer-Ebrecht, Dietrich; Böcking, Alfred; Aach, Til

    2007-03-01

    Cytopathological cancer diagnoses can be obtained less invasive than histopathological investigations. Cells containing specimens can be obtained without pain or discomfort, bloody biopsies are avoided, and the diagnosis can, in some cases, even be made earlier. Since no tissue biopsies are necessary these methods can also be used in screening applications, e.g., for cervical cancer. Among the cytopathological methods a diagnosis based on the analysis of the amount of DNA in individual cells achieves high sensitivity and specificity. Yet this analysis is time consuming, which is prohibitive for a screening application. Hence, it will be advantageous to retain, by a preceding selection step, only a subset of suspicious specimens. This can be achieved using highly sensitive immunocytochemical markers like p16 ink4a for preselection of suspicious cells and specimens. We present a method to fully automatically acquire images at distinct positions at cytological specimens using a conventional computer controlled microscope and an autofocus algorithm. Based on the thus obtained images we automatically detect p16 ink4a-positive objects. This detection in turn is based on an analysis of the color distribution of the p16 ink4a marker in the Lab-colorspace. A Gaussian-mixture-model is used to describe this distribution and the method described in this paper so far achieves a sensitivity of up to 90%.

  1. Quantitative analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy images of mixed-ligand-functionalized nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Fabio; Ong, Quy Khac; Albonetti, Cristiano; Liscio, Fabiola; Longobardi, Maria; Mali, Kunal S; Ciesielski, Artur; Reguera, Javier; Renner, Christoph; De Feyter, Steven; Samorì, Paolo; Stellacci, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Ligand-protected gold nanoparticles exhibit large local curvatures, features rapidly varying over small scales, and chemical heterogeneity. Their imaging by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can, in principle, provide direct information on the architecture of their ligand shell, yet STM images require laborious analysis and are challenging to interpret. Here, we report a straightforward, robust, and rigorous method for the quantitative analysis of the multiscale features contained in STM images of samples consisting of functionalized Au nanoparticles deposited onto Au/mica. The method relies on the analysis of the topographical power spectral density (PSD) and allows us to extract the characteristic length scales of the features exhibited by nanoparticles in STM images. For the mixed-ligand-protected Au nanoparticles analyzed here, the characteristic length scale is 1.2 ± 0.1 nm, whereas for the homoligand Au NPs this scale is 0.75 ± 0.05 nm. These length scales represent spatial correlations independent of scanning parameters, and hence the features in the PSD can be ascribed to a fingerprint of the STM contrast of ligand-protected nanoparticles. PSD spectra from images recorded at different laboratories using different microscopes and operators can be overlapped across most of the frequency range, proving that the features in the STM images of nanoparticles can be compared and reproduced.

  2. 4D PET iterative deconvolution with spatiotemporal regularization for quantitative dynamic PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Reilhac, Anthonin; Charil, Arnaud; Wimberley, Catriona; Angelis, Georgios; Hamze, Hasar; Callaghan, Paul; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Boisson, Frederic; Ryder, Will; Meikle, Steven R; Gregoire, Marie-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements in dynamic PET imaging are usually limited by the poor counting statistics particularly in short dynamic frames and by the low spatial resolution of the detection system, resulting in partial volume effects (PVEs). In this work, we present a fast and easy to implement method for the restoration of dynamic PET images that have suffered from both PVE and noise degradation. It is based on a weighted least squares iterative deconvolution approach of the dynamic PET image with spatial and temporal regularization. Using simulated dynamic [(11)C] Raclopride PET data with controlled biological variations in the striata between scans, we showed that the restoration method provides images which exhibit less noise and better contrast between emitting structures than the original images. In addition, the method is able to recover the true time activity curve in the striata region with an error below 3% while it was underestimated by more than 20% without correction. As a result, the method improves the accuracy and reduces the variability of the kinetic parameter estimates calculated from the corrected images. More importantly it increases the accuracy (from less than 66% to more than 95%) of measured biological variations as well as their statistical detectivity.

  3. 3D/2D Model-to-Image Registration for Quantitative Dietary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Li, Zhaoxin; Sun, Yung-Nien; Sun, Mingui

    2012-12-31

    Image-based dietary assessment is important for health monitoring and management because it can provide quantitative and objective information, such as food volume, nutrition type, and calorie intake. In this paper, a new framework, 3D/2D model-to-image registration, is presented for estimating food volume from a single-view 2D image containing a reference object (i.e., a circular dining plate). First, the food is segmented from the background image based on Otsu's thresholding and morphological operations. Next, the food volume is obtained from a user-selected, 3D shape model. The position, orientation and scale of the model are optimized by a model-to-image registration process. Then, the circular plate in the image is fitted and its spatial information is used as constraints for solving the registration problem. Our method takes the global contour information of the shape model into account to obtain a reliable food volume estimate. Experimental results using regularly shaped test objects and realistically shaped food models with known volumes both demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  4. Quantitative diagnosis of bladder cancer by morphometric analysis of HE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Nebylitsa, Samantha V.; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Jain, Manu

    2015-02-01

    In clinical practice, histopathological analysis of biopsied tissue is the main method for bladder cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The diagnosis is performed by a pathologist based on the morphological features in the image of a hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained tissue sample. This manuscript proposes algorithms to perform morphometric analysis on the HE images, quantify the features in the images, and discriminate bladder cancers with different grades, i.e. high grade and low grade. The nuclei are separated from the background and other types of cells such as red blood cells (RBCs) and immune cells using manual outlining, color deconvolution and image segmentation. A mask of nuclei is generated for each image for quantitative morphometric analysis. The features of the nuclei in the mask image including size, shape, orientation, and their spatial distributions are measured. To quantify local clustering and alignment of nuclei, we propose a 1-nearest-neighbor (1-NN) algorithm which measures nearest neighbor distance and nearest neighbor parallelism. The global distributions of the features are measured using statistics of the proposed parameters. A linear support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to classify the high grade and low grade bladder cancers. The results show using a particular group of nuclei such as large ones, and combining multiple parameters can achieve better discrimination. This study shows the proposed approach can potentially help expedite pathological diagnosis by triaging potentially suspicious biopsies.

  5. Image-based quantitative analysis of gold immunochromatographic strip via cellular neural network approach.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Nianyin; Wang, Zidong; Zineddin, Bachar; Li, Yurong; Du, Min; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Xiaohui; Young, Terry

    2014-05-01

    Gold immunochromatographic strip assay provides a rapid, simple, single-copy and on-site way to detect the presence or absence of the target analyte. This paper aims to develop a method for accurately segmenting the test line and control line of the gold immunochromatographic strip (GICS) image for quantitatively determining the trace concentrations in the specimen, which can lead to more functional information than the traditional qualitative or semi-quantitative strip assay. The canny operator as well as the mathematical morphology method is used to detect and extract the GICS reading-window. Then, the test line and control line of the GICS reading-window are segmented by the cellular neural network (CNN) algorithm, where the template parameters of the CNN are designed by the switching particle swarm optimization (SPSO) algorithm for improving the performance of the CNN. It is shown that the SPSO-based CNN offers a robust method for accurately segmenting the test and control lines, and therefore serves as a novel image methodology for the interpretation of GICS. Furthermore, quantitative comparison is carried out among four algorithms in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio. It is concluded that the proposed CNN algorithm gives higher accuracy and the CNN is capable of parallelism and analog very-large-scale integration implementation within a remarkably efficient time.

  6. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-07

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear

  7. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images. Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable. The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  9. A Practical Approach to Quantitative Processing and Analysis of Small Biological Structures by Fluorescent Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Noller, Crystal M.; Boulina, Maria; McNamara, George; Szeto, Angela; McCabe, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Standards in quantitative fluorescent imaging are vaguely recognized and receive insufficient discussion. A common best practice is to acquire images at Nyquist rate, where highest signal frequency is assumed to be the highest obtainable resolution of the imaging system. However, this particular standard is set to insure that all obtainable information is being collected. The objective of the current study was to demonstrate that for quantification purposes, these correctly set acquisition rates can be redundant; instead, linear size of the objects of interest can be used to calculate sufficient information density in the image. We describe optimized image acquisition parameters and unbiased methods for processing and quantification of medium-size cellular structures. Sections of rabbit aortas were immunohistochemically stained to identify and quantify sympathetic varicosities, >2 μm in diameter. Images were processed to reduce background noise and segment objects using free, open-access software. Calculations of the optimal sampling rate for the experiment were based on the size of the objects of interest. The effect of differing sampling rates and processing techniques on object quantification was demonstrated. Oversampling led to a substantial increase in file size, whereas undersampling hindered reliable quantification. Quantification of raw and incorrectly processed images generated false structures, misrepresenting the underlying data. The current study emphasizes the importance of defining image-acquisition parameters based on the structure(s) of interest. The proposed postacquisition processing steps effectively removed background and noise, allowed for reliable quantification, and eliminated user bias. This customizable, reliable method for background subtraction and structure quantification provides a reproducible tool for researchers across biologic disciplines. PMID:27182204

  10. Quantitative in vivo imaging of entire embryos with Digital Scanned Laser Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Keller, Philipp J; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2008-12-01

    The observation of biological processes in their natural in vivo context is a key requirement for quantitative experimental studies in the life sciences. In many instances, it will be crucial to achieve high temporal and spatial resolution over long periods of time without compromising the physiological development of the specimen. Here, we discuss the principles underlying light sheet-based fluorescence microscopes. The most recent implementation DSLM is a tool optimized to deliver quantitative data for entire embryos at high spatio-temporal resolution. We compare DSLM to the two established light microscopy techniques: confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. DSLM provides up to 50 times higher imaging speeds and a 10-100 times higher signal-to-noise ratio, while exposing the specimens to at least three orders of magnitude less light energy than confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopes. We conclude with a perspective for future development.

  11. New approach for quantitative analysis of myocardial perfusion with magnetic resonance first-pass bolus imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Helmut; Schnackenburg, Bernd; Bornstedt, Axel; Gross, Michael; Al-Saadi, Nidal; Nagel, Eicke; Fleck, Eckart

    1999-05-01

    Myocardial perfusion reserve can be noninvasively assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. With magnetic resonance (MR) multislice dynamic imaging techniques it is possible to acquire the complete heart during the first pass of a contrast agent bolus. For diagnostic reasons an important question is to obtain quantitative parameters of the perfusion of the myocardium. We developed a model for the analysis of the contrast agent bolus pass in the myocardium and established a process for the complete task, which will support a routine clinical use delivering these quantitative parameters in a reproducible way. To evaluate the analysis in a collective of patients with single vessel disease and without significant coronary artery disease the signal intensity curves of the first pass of a gadolinium-DTPA bolus injected via a central vein were estimated before and after dipyridamole infusion.

  12. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for computer algorithm comparisons.

    PubMed

    Obuchowski, Nancy A; Reeves, Anthony P; Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Buckler, Andrew J; Kim, Hyun J Grace; Barnhart, Huiman X; Jackson, Edward F; Giger, Maryellen L; Pennello, Gene; Toledano, Alicia Y; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V; Kinahan, Paul E; Myers, Kyle J; Goldgof, Dmitry B; Barboriak, Daniel P; Gillies, Robert J; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative biomarkers from medical images are becoming important tools for clinical diagnosis, staging, monitoring, treatment planning, and development of new therapies. While there is a rich history of the development of quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) techniques, little attention has been paid to the validation and comparison of the computer algorithms that implement the QIB measurements. In this paper we provide a framework for QIB algorithm comparisons. We first review and compare various study designs, including designs with the true value (e.g. phantoms, digital reference images, and zero-change studies), designs with a reference standard (e.g. studies testing equivalence with a reference standard), and designs without a reference standard (e.g. agreement studies and studies of algorithm precision). The statistical methods for comparing QIB algorithms are then presented for various study types using both aggregate and disaggregate approaches. We propose a series of steps for establishing the performance of a QIB algorithm, identify limitations in the current statistical literature, and suggest future directions for research.

  13. Uncertainty analysis of quantitative imaging features extracted from contrast-enhanced CT in lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Lifei; Fave, Xenia J.; Fried, David V.; Stingo, Francesco C.; Ng, Chaan S.; Court, Laurence E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the uncertainty of quantitative imaging features extracted from contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of lung cancer patients in terms of the dependency on the time after contrast injection and the feature reproducibility between scans. Methods Eight patients underwent contrast-enhanced CT scans of lung tumors on two sessions 2–7 days apart. Each session included 6 CT scans of the same anatomy taken every 15 seconds, starting 50 seconds after contrast injection. Image features based on intensity histogram, co-occurrence matrix, neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix, run-length matrix, and geometric shape were extracted from the tumor for each scan. Spearman’s correlation was used to examine the dependency of features on the time after contrast injection, with values over 0.50 considered time-dependent. Concordance correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the reproducibility of each feature between times of scans after contrast injection and between scanning sessions, with values greater than 0.90 considered reproducible. Results The features were found to have little dependency on the time between the contrast injection and the CT scan. Most features were reproducible between times of scans after contrast injection and between scanning sessions. Some features were more reproducible when they were extracted from a CT scan performed at a longer time after contrast injection. Conclusion The quantitative imaging features tested here are mostly reproducible and show little dependency on the time after contrast injection. PMID:26745258

  14. Hyperspectral quantitative imaging of gas sources in the mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Conejo, M A; Meléndez, Juan

    2015-01-10

    An imaging Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the medium infrared (1800-5000  cm(-1)) has been used to image two gas sources: a controlled CO2 leak at room temperature and the exhaust of a combustion engine. Spectra have been acquired at a resolution of 0.5  cm(-1) using an extended blackbody as the background. By fitting them with theoretical spectra generated with parameters from the High-Resolution Transmission Molecular Absorption database, quantitative maps of temperature and gas column density (concentration·path product) for the gas plumes have been obtained. Spectra are related to gas plume parameters by means of a radiometric model that takes into account not only gas absorption, but also its emission and the atmospheric absorption, as well as the instrument lineshape function. Measurements for the gas leak show very good agreement between retrieved and nominal values of temperature and CO2 column density. This result has direct application to obtain quantitative imaging of exhaust emissions from automobiles and other mobile sources, as shown here with measurements of exhaust gases in a diesel engine.

  15. Quantitative Imaging of Ozone Vapor Using Photofragmentation Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Kajsa; Hot, Dina; Ehn, Andreas; Lantz, Andreas; Weng, Wubin; Aldén, Marcus; Bood, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, the spectral properties of gaseous ozone (O3) have been investigated aiming to perform quantitative concentration imaging of ozone by using a single laser pulse at 248 nm from a KrF excimer laser. The O3 molecule is first photodissociated by the laser pulse into two fragments, O and O2. Then the same laser pulse electronically excites the O2 fragment, which is vibrationally hot, whereupon fluorescence is emitted. The fluorescence intensity is found to be proportional to the concentration of ozone. Both emission and absorption characteristics have been investigated, as well as how the laser fluence affects the fluorescence signal. Quantitative ozone imaging data have been achieved based on calibration measurements in known mixtures of O3. In addition, a simultaneous study of the emission intensity captured by an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera and a spectrograph has been performed. The results show that any signal contribution not stemming from ozone is negligible compared to the strong fluorescence induced by the O2 fragment, thus proving interference-free ozone imaging. The single-shot detection limit has been estimated to ∼400 ppm. The authors believe that the presented technique offers a valuable tool applicable in various research fields, such as plasma sterilization, water and soil remediation, and plasma-assisted combustion.

  16. Studying the relationship between redox and cell growth using quantitative phase imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Leslie, Matthew T.; Bapst, Natalya; Smith, John; Gaskins, H. Rex; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging has been used in the past to study the dry mass of cells and study cell growth under various treatment conditions. However, the relationship between cellular redox and growth rates has not yet been studied in this context. This study employed the recombinant Glrx-roGFP2 redox biosensor targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or cytosolic compartments of A549 lung epithelial carcinoma cells. The Glrx-roGFP2s biosensor consists of a modified GFP protein containing internal cysteine residues sensitive to the local redox environment. The formation/dissolution of sulfide bridges contorts the internal chromophore, dictating corresponding changes in florescence emission that provide direct measures of the local redox potential. Combining 2-channel florescent imaging of the redox sensor with quantitative phase imaging allowed observation of redox homeostasis alongside measurements of cellular mass during full cycles of cellular division. The results indicate that mitochondrial redox showed a stronger inverse correlation with cell growth than cytoplasmic redox states; although redox changes are restricted to a 5% range. We are now studying the relationship between mitochondrial redox and cell growth in an isogenic series of breast cell lines built upon the MCF-10A genetic background that vary both in malignancy and metastatic potential.

  17. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers: A Review of Statistical Methods for Computer Algorithm Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative biomarkers from medical images are becoming important tools for clinical diagnosis, staging, monitoring, treatment planning, and development of new therapies. While there is a rich history of the development of quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) techniques, little attention has been paid to the validation and comparison of the computer algorithms that implement the QIB measurements. In this paper we provide a framework for QIB algorithm comparisons. We first review and compare various study designs, including designs with the true value (e.g. phantoms, digital reference images, and zero-change studies), designs with a reference standard (e.g. studies testing equivalence with a reference standard), and designs without a reference standard (e.g. agreement studies and studies of algorithm precision). The statistical methods for comparing QIB algorithms are then presented for various study types using both aggregate and disaggregate approaches. We propose a series of steps for establishing the performance of a QIB algorithm, identify limitations in the current statistical literature, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:24919829

  18. Quantitative evaluation of mucosal vascular contrast in narrow band imaging using Monte Carlo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Du; Wang, Quanzeng; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Pfefer, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a spectrally-selective reflectance imaging technique for enhanced visualization of superficial vasculature. Prior clinical studies have indicated NBI's potential for detection of vasculature abnormalities associated with gastrointestinal mucosal neoplasia. While the basic mechanisms behind the increased vessel contrast - hemoglobin absorption and tissue scattering - are known, a quantitative understanding of the effect of tissue and device parameters has not been achieved. In this investigation, we developed and implemented a numerical model of light propagation that simulates NBI reflectance distributions. This was accomplished by incorporating mucosal tissue layers and vessel-like structures in a voxel-based Monte Carlo algorithm. Epithelial and mucosal layers as well as blood vessels were defined using wavelength-specific optical properties. The model was implemented to calculate reflectance distributions and vessel contrast values as a function of vessel depth (0.05 to 0.50 mm) and diameter (0.01 to 0.10 mm). These relationships were determined for NBI wavelengths of 410 nm and 540 nm, as well as broadband illumination common to standard endoscopic imaging. The effects of illumination bandwidth on vessel contrast were also simulated. Our results provide a quantitative analysis of the effect of absorption and scattering on vessel contrast. Additional insights and potential approaches for improving NBI system contrast are discussed.

  19. Measuring the Nonuniform Evaporation Dynamics of Sprayed Sessile Microdroplets with Quantitative Phase Imaging.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Chris; Arbabi, Amir; Bhaduri, Basanta; Wang, Xiaozhen; Ganti, Raman; Yunker, Peter J; Yodh, Arjun G; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford L

    2015-10-13

    We demonstrate real-time quantitative phase imaging as a new optical approach for measuring the evaporation dynamics of sessile microdroplets. Quantitative phase images of various droplets were captured during evaporation. The images enabled us to generate time-resolved three-dimensional topographic profiles of droplet shape with nanometer accuracy and, without any assumptions about droplet geometry, to directly measure important physical parameters that characterize surface wetting processes. Specifically, the time-dependent variation of the droplet height, volume, contact radius, contact angle distribution along the droplet's perimeter, and mass flux density for two different surface preparations are reported. The studies clearly demonstrate three phases of evaporation reported previously: pinned, depinned, and drying modes; the studies also reveal instances of partial pinning. Finally, the apparatus is employed to investigate the cooperative evaporation of the sprayed droplets. We observe and explain the neighbor-induced reduction in evaporation rate, that is, as compared to predictions for isolated droplets. In the future, the new experimental methods should stimulate the exploration of colloidal particle dynamics on the gas-liquid-solid interface.

  20. Combined quantitative ultrasonic and time-resolved interaction force AFM imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlak, Z.; Degertekin, F. L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a method where quantitative ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM) is achieved during time-resolved interaction force (TRIF) imaging in intermittent contact mode. The method uses a calibration procedure for quantitative UAFM. It improves elasticity measurements of stiff regions of surfaces while retaining the capabilities of the TRIF mode for topography, adhesion, dissipation, and elasticity measurements on soft regions of sample surfaces. This combination is especially advantageous when measuring and imaging samples with broad stiffness range in a nondestructive manner. The experiments utilize an active AFM probe with high bandwidth and the UAFM calibration is performed by measuring the magnitude of the time-resolved UAFM signal at a judiciously chosen frequency for different contact stiffness values during individual taps. Improved sensitivity to stiff surface elasticity is demonstrated on a special sample. The results show that combining UAFM with TRIF provides 2.5 GPa (5%) standard deviation on the silicon surface reduced Young's modulus, representing 5× improvement over using only TRIF mode imaging.

  1. Quantitative chemical imaging and unsupervised analysis using hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Masia, Francesco; Glen, Adam; Stephens, Phil; Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2013-11-19

    In this work, we report a method to acquire and analyze hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy images of organic materials and biological samples resulting in an unbiased quantitative chemical analysis. The method employs singular value decomposition on the square root of the CARS intensity, providing an automatic determination of the components above noise, which are retained. Complex CARS susceptibility spectra, which are linear in the chemical composition, are retrieved from the CARS intensity spectra using the causality of the susceptibility by two methods, and their performance is evaluated by comparison with Raman spectra. We use non-negative matrix factorization applied to the imaginary part and the nonresonant real part of the susceptibility with an additional concentration constraint to obtain absolute susceptibility spectra of independently varying chemical components and their absolute concentration. We demonstrate the ability of the method to provide quantitative chemical analysis on known lipid mixtures. We then show the relevance of the method by imaging lipid-rich stem-cell-derived mouse adipocytes as well as differentiated embryonic stem cells with a low density of lipids. We retrieve and visualize the most significant chemical components with spectra given by water, lipid, and proteins segmenting the image into the cell surrounding, lipid droplets, cytosol, and the nucleus, and we reveal the chemical structure of the cells, with details visualized by the projection of the chemical contrast into a few relevant channels.

  2. A novel image-based quantitative method for the characterization of NETosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenpu; Fogg, Darin K.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2015-01-01

    NETosis is a newly recognized mechanism of programmed neutrophil death. It is characterized by a stepwise progression of chromatin decondensation, membrane rupture, and release of bactericidal DNA-based structures called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Conventional ‘suicidal’ NETosis has been described in pathogenic models of systemic autoimmune disorders. Recent in vivo studies suggest that a process of ‘vital’ NETosis also exists, in which chromatin is condensed and membrane integrity is preserved. Techniques to assess ‘suicidal’ or ‘vital’ NET formation in a specific, quantitative, rapid and semiautomated way have been lacking, hindering the characterization of this process. Here we have developed a new method to simultaneously assess both ‘suicidal’ and ‘vital’ NETosis, using high-speed multi-spectral imaging coupled to morphometric image analysis, to quantify spontaneous NET formation observed ex-vivo or stimulus-induced NET formation triggered in vitro. Use of imaging flow cytometry allows automated, quantitative and rapid analysis of subcellular morphology and texture, and introduces the potential for further investigation using NETosis as a biomarker in pre-clinical and clinical studies. PMID:26003624

  3. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  4. Electrical impedance tomography-based sensing skin for quantitative imaging of damage in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallaji, Milad; Seppänen, Aku; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    This paper outlines the development of a large-area sensing skin for damage detection in concrete structures. The developed sensing skin consists of a thin layer of electrically conductive copper paint that is applied to the surface of the concrete. Cracking of the concrete substrate results in the rupture of the sensing skin, decreasing its electrical conductivity locally. The decrease in conductivity is detected with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) imaging. In previous works, electrically based sensing skins have provided only qualitative information on the damage on the substrate surface. In this paper, we study whether quantitative imaging of the damage is possible. We utilize application-specific models and computational methods in the image reconstruction, including a total variation (TV) prior model for the damage and an approximate correction of the modeling errors caused by the inhomogeneity of the painted sensing skin. The developed damage detection method is tested experimentally by applying the sensing skin to polymeric substrates and a reinforced concrete beam under four-point bending. In all test cases, the EIT-based sensing skin provides quantitative information on cracks and/or other damages on the substrate surface: featuring a very low conductivity in the damage locations, and a reliable indication of the lengths and shapes of the cracks. The results strongly support the applicability of the painted EIT-based sensing skin for damage detection in reinforced concrete elements and other substrates.

  5. Quantitative imaging of chemical composition using dual-energy, dual-source CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Primak, Andrew N.; Yu, Lifeng; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Morin, Richard L.

    2008-03-01

    Dual-energy x-ray material decomposition has been proposed as a noninvasive quantitative imaging technique for more than 20 years. In this paper, we summarize previously developed dual-energy material decomposition methods and propose a simple yet accurate method for quantitatively measuring chemical composition in vivo. In order to take advantage of the newly developed dual-source CT, the proposed method is based upon post reconstruction (image space) data. Different from other post reconstruction methods, this method is designed to directly measure element composition (mass fraction) in a tissue by a simple table lookup procedure. The method has been tested in phantom studies and also applied to a clinical case. The results showed that this method is capable of accurately measuring elemental concentrations, such as iron in tissue, under low noise imaging conditions. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and fast processing times. We believe that this method can be applied clinically to measure the mass fraction of any chemical element in a two-material object, such as to quantify the iron overload in the liver (hemochromatosis). Further investigations on de-noising techniques, as well as clinical validation, are merited.

  6. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  7. Postoperative Quantitative Assessment of Reconstructive Tissue Status in Cutaneous Flap Model using Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yafi, Amr; Vetter, Thomas S; Scholz, Thomas; Patel, Sarin; Saager, Rolf B; Cuccia, David J; Evans, Gregory R; Durkin, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the capabilities of a novel optical wide-field imaging technology known as Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI) to quantitatively assess reconstructive tissue status. Methods Twenty two cutaneous pedicle flaps were created on eleven rats based on the inferior epigastric vessels. After baseline measurement, all flaps underwent vascular ischemia, induced by clamping the supporting vessels for two hours (either arterio-venous or selective venous occlusions) normal saline was injected to the control flap, and hypertonic hyperoncotic saline solution to the experimental flap. Flaps were monitored for two hours after reperfusion. The SFDI system was used for quantitative assessment of flap status over the duration of the experiment. Results All flaps demonstrated a significant decline in oxy-hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation in response to occlusion. Total hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin were markedly increased in the selective venous occlusion group. After reperfusion and the solutions were administered, oxy-hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation in those flaps that survived gradually returned to the baseline levels. However, flaps for which oxy-hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation didn’t show any signs of recovery appeared to be compromised and eventually became necrotic within 24–48 hours in both occlusion groups. Conclusion SFDI technology provides a quantitative, objective method to assess tissue status. This study demonstrates the potential of this optical technology to assess tissue perfusion in a very precise and quantitative way, enabling wide-field visualization of physiological parameters. The results of this study suggest that SFDI may provide a means for prospectively identifying dysfunctional flaps well in advance of failure. PMID:21200206

  8. Gamma camera calibration and validation for quantitative SPECT imaging with (177)Lu.

    PubMed

    D'Arienzo, M; Cazzato, M; Cozzella, M L; Cox, M; D'Andrea, M; Fazio, A; Fenwick, A; Iaccarino, G; Johansson, L; Strigari, L; Ungania, S; De Felice, P

    2016-06-01

    Over the last years (177)Lu has received considerable attention from the clinical nuclear medicine community thanks to its wide range of applications in molecular radiotherapy, especially in peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In addition to short-range beta particles, (177)Lu emits low energy gamma radiation of 113keV and 208keV that allows gamma camera quantitative imaging. Despite quantitative cancer imaging in molecular radiotherapy having been proven to be a key instrument for the assessment of therapeutic response, at present no general clinically accepted quantitative imaging protocol exists and absolute quantification studies are usually based on individual initiatives. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an approach to gamma camera calibration for absolute quantification in tomographic imaging with (177)Lu. We assessed the gamma camera calibration factors for a Philips IRIX and Philips AXIS gamma camera system using various reference geometries, both in air and in water. Images were corrected for the major effects that contribute to image degradation, i.e. attenuation, scatter and dead- time. We validated our method in non-reference geometry using an anthropomorphic torso phantom provided with the liver cavity uniformly filled with (177)LuCl3. Our results showed that calibration factors depend on the particular reference condition. In general, acquisitions performed with the IRIX gamma camera provided good results at 208keV, with agreement within 5% for all geometries. The use of a Jaszczak 16mL hollow sphere in water provided calibration factors capable of recovering the activity in anthropomorphic geometry within 1% for the 208keV peak, for both gamma cameras. The point source provided the poorest results, most likely because scatter and attenuation correction are not incorporated in the calibration factor. However, for both gamma cameras all geometries provided calibration factors capable of recovering the activity in

  9. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Plant Roots Growing in Soil Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kochs, Johannes; Pflugfelder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Precise measurements of root system architecture traits are an important requirement for plant phenotyping. Most of the current methods for analyzing root growth require either artificial growing conditions (e.g. hydroponics), are severely restricted in the fraction of roots detectable (e.g. rhizotrons), or are destructive (e.g. soil coring). On the other hand, modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are noninvasive and allow high-quality three-dimensional imaging of roots in soil. Here, we present a plant root imaging and analysis pipeline using MRI together with an advanced image visualization and analysis software toolbox named NMRooting. Pots up to 117 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height can be measured with the 4.7 T MRI instrument used here. For 1.5 l pots (81 mm diameter, 300 mm high), a fully automated system was developed enabling measurement of up to 18 pots per day. The most important root traits that can be nondestructively monitored over time are root mass, length, diameter, tip number, and growth angles (in two-dimensional polar coordinates) and spatial distribution. Various validation measurements for these traits were performed, showing that roots down to a diameter range between 200 μm and 300 μm can be quantitatively measured. Root fresh weight correlates linearly with root mass determined by MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of MRI and the dedicated imaging pipeline in experimental series performed on soil-grown maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants. PMID:26729797

  10. Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy for live-cell quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabý, TomáÅ.¡; Křížová, Aneta; Lošt'ák, Martin; Čolláková, Jana; Jůzová, Veronika; Veselý, Pavel; Chmelík, Radim

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) and various examples of observations of living cells including combination of CCHM with fluorescence microscopy. CCHM is a novel technique of quantitative phase imaging (QPI). It is based on grating off-axis interferometer, which is fully adapted for the use of incoherent illumination. This enables high-quality QPI free from speckles and parasitic interferences and lateral resolution of classical widefield microscopes. Label-free nature of QPI makes CCHM a useful tool for long-term observations of living cells. Moreover, coherence-gating effect induced by the use of incoherent illumination enables QPI of cells even in scattering media. Combination of CCHM with common imaging techniques brings the possibility to exploit advantages of QPI while simultaneously identifying the observed structures or processes by well-established imaging methods. We used CCHM for investigation of general parameters of cell life cycles and for research of cells reactions to different treatment. Cells were also visualized in 3D collagen gel with the use of CCHM. It was found that both the cell activity and movement of the collagen fibers can be registered. The method of CCHM in combination with fluorescence microscopy was used in order to obtain complementary information about cell morphology and identify typical morphological changes associated with different types of cell death. This combination of CCHM with common imaging technique has a potential to provide new knowledge about various processes and simultaneously their confirmation by comparison with known imaging method.

  11. Quantitative analysis of centromeric FISH spots during the cell cycle by image cytometry.

    PubMed

    Amakawa, Genta; Ikemoto, Kenzo; Ito, Hideaki; Furuya, Tomoko; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2013-10-01

    Two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome enumeration DNA probes specific to chromosomes 7, 11, 17, and 18 was applied to CAL-51 breast cancer cells to examine whether the fluorescence intensity of FISH spots was associated with cell cycle progression. The fluorescence intensity of each FISH spot was quantitatively analyzed based on the cell cycle stage determined by image cytometry at the single-cell level. The spot intensity of cells in the G2 phase was larger than that in the G0/1 phase. This increased intensity was not seen during the early and mid S phases, whereas the cells in the late S phase showed significant increases in spot intensity, reaching the same level as that observed in the G2 phase, indicating that alpha satellite DNA in the centromeric region was replicated in the late S phase. Thus, image cytometry can successfully detect small differences in the fluorescence intensities of centromeric spots of homologous chromosomes. This combinational image analysis of FISH spots and the cell cycle with cell image cytometry provides insights into new aspects of the cell cycle. This is the first report demonstrating that image cytometry can be used to analyze the fluorescence intensity of FISH signals during the cell cycle.

  12. Holographic quantitative imaging of sample hidden by turbid medium or occluding objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, V.; Miccio, L.; Merola, F.; Memmolo, P.; Gennari, O.; Paturzo, Melania; Netti, P. A.; Ferraro, P.

    2015-03-01

    Digital Holography (DH) numerical procedures have been developed to allow imaging through turbid media. A fluid is considered turbid when dispersed particles provoke strong light scattering, thus destroying the image formation by any standard optical system. Here we show that sharp amplitude imaging and phase-contrast mapping of object hidden behind turbid medium and/or occluding objects are possible in harsh noise conditions and with a large field-of view by Multi-Look DH microscopy. In particular, it will be shown that both amplitude imaging and phase-contrast mapping of cells hidden behind a flow of Red Blood Cells can be obtained. This allows, in a noninvasive way, the quantitative evaluation of living processes in Lab on Chip platforms where conventional microscopy techniques fail. The combination of this technique with endoscopic imaging can pave the way for the holographic blood vessel inspection, e.g. to look for settled cholesterol plaques as well as blood clots for a rapid diagnostics of blood diseases.

  13. Quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes using satellite image data at different scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    When aerial and satellite photographs and images are used in the quantitative analysis of geomorphic processes, either through direct observation of active processes or by analysis of landforms resulting from inferred active or dormant processes, a number of limitations in the use of such data must be considered. Active geomorphic processes work at different scales and rates. Therefore, the capability of imaging an active or dormant process depends primarily on the scale of the process and the spatial-resolution characteristic of the imaging system. Scale is an important factor in recording continuous and discontinuous active geomorphic processes, because what is not recorded will not be considered or even suspected in the analysis of orbital images. If the geomorphic process of landform change caused by the process is less than 200 m in x to y dimension, then it will not be recorded. Although the scale factor is critical, in the recording of discontinuous active geomorphic processes, the repeat interval of orbital-image acquisition of a planetary surface also is a consideration in order to capture a recurring short-lived geomorphic process or to record changes caused by either a continuous or a discontinuous geomorphic process.

  14. Quantitative analysis of coronary dynamics by time-dependent ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marraccini, Paolo; Salvetti, Ovidio; Braccini, Giovanni; Bragagni, Paolo; Levorato, Dianora; L'Abbate, Antonio; Marzilli, Mario

    1995-04-01

    Intravascular ultrasound imaging is a new technique that displays information on lumen and arterial walls, and is capable of providing real-time monitoring of cross-sectional high- resolution images. This technique has potential application for studying the dynamics of the arterial wall with respect to the presence or absence of pathology and the vascular response to physiological or pharmacological stimuli. Although the extraction of information related to coronary dynamics and wall pathologies is possible by manual procedures it is very time consuming and influenced by intra- and interobserver errors. We developed an evaluation system for analyzing 3D spaces defined by digitized cross-sectional ultrasound images of coronaries quantifying the vasomotion in relation to the morphology of the arterial wall. Sequences of echographic images were obtained and recorded as ordered stacks of 2D frames on a VHS videotape. For each image, an automatic lumen edge segmentation was performed, then 3D reconstruction was obtained to evaluate time-dependent lumen and vessel wall changes. These 3D representations serve to demonstrate dynamic phenomena and to perform quantitative analyses (e.g., area/hemidiameter variations, projections, sections, 'carving,' etc.).

  15. Quantitative Determination of Lateral Mode Dispersion in Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators through Laser Acoustic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Telschow; John D. Larson III

    2006-10-01

    Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators are useful for many signal processing applications. Detailed knowledge of their operation properties are needed to optimize their design for specific applications. The finite size of these resonators precludes their use in single acoustic modes; rather, multiple wave modes, such as, lateral wave modes are always excited concurrently. In order to determine the contributions of these modes, we have been using a newly developed full-field laser acoustic imaging approach to directly measure their amplitude and phase throughout the resonator. This paper describes new results comparing modeling of both elastic and piezoelectric effects in the active material with imaging measurement of all excited modes. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a quantitative determination of excited mode amplitude and wavenumber at any frequency. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode excitation and dispersion for the device under test allowing mode identification and comparison with predicted operational properties. Discussion and analysis are presented for modes near the first longitudinal thickness resonance (~900 MHz) in an AlN thin film resonator. Plate wave modeling, taking account of material crystalline orientation, elastic and piezoelectric properties and overlayer metallic films, will be discussed in relation to direct image measurements.

  16. Calibration of HST wide field camera for quantitative analysis of faint galaxy images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Casertano, Stefano; Neuschaefer, Lyman W.; Wyckoff, Eric W.

    1994-01-01

    We present the methods adopted to optimize the calibration of images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera (WFC) (1991-1993). Our main goal is to improve quantitative measurement of faint images, with special emphasis on the faint (I approximately 20-24 mag) stars and galaxies observed as a part of the Medium-Deep Survey. Several modifications to the standard calibration procedures have been introduced, including improved bias and dark images, and a new supersky flatfield obtained by combining a large number of relatively object-free Medium-Deep Survey exposures of random fields. The supersky flat has a pixel-to-pixel rms error of about 2.0% in F555W and of 2.4% in F785LP; large-scale variations are smaller than 1% rms. Overall, our modifications improve the quality of faint images with respect to the standard calibration by about a factor of five in photometric accuracy and about 0.3 mag in sensitivity, corresponding to about a factor of two in observing time. The relevant calibration images have been made available to the scientific community.

  17. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Plant Roots Growing in Soil Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Metzner, Ralf; Kochs, Johannes; Postma, Johannes A; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Bühler, Jonas; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2016-03-01

    Precise measurements of root system architecture traits are an important requirement for plant phenotyping. Most of the current methods for analyzing root growth require either artificial growing conditions (e.g. hydroponics), are severely restricted in the fraction of roots detectable (e.g. rhizotrons), or are destructive (e.g. soil coring). On the other hand, modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are noninvasive and allow high-quality three-dimensional imaging of roots in soil. Here, we present a plant root imaging and analysis pipeline using MRI together with an advanced image visualization and analysis software toolbox named NMRooting. Pots up to 117 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height can be measured with the 4.7 T MRI instrument used here. For 1.5 l pots (81 mm diameter, 300 mm high), a fully automated system was developed enabling measurement of up to 18 pots per day. The most important root traits that can be nondestructively monitored over time are root mass, length, diameter, tip number, and growth angles (in two-dimensional polar coordinates) and spatial distribution. Various validation measurements for these traits were performed, showing that roots down to a diameter range between 200 μm and 300 μm can be quantitatively measured. Root fresh weight correlates linearly with root mass determined by MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of MRI and the dedicated imaging pipeline in experimental series performed on soil-grown maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

  18. An automated voxelized dosimetry tool for radionuclide therapy based on serial quantitative SPECT/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Price A.; Kron, Tomas; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Hofman, Michael S.; Hogg, Annette; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To create an accurate map of the distribution of radiation dose deposition in healthy and target tissues during radionuclide therapy.Methods: Serial quantitative SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4, 24, and 72 h for 28 {sup 177}Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) administrations in 17 patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Deformable image registration was combined with an in-house programming algorithm to interpolate pharmacokinetic uptake and clearance at a voxel level. The resultant cumulated activity image series are comprised of values representing the total number of decays within each voxel's volume. For PRRT, cumulated activity was translated to absorbed dose based on Monte Carlo-determined voxel S-values at a combination of long and short ranges. These dosimetric image sets were compared for mean radiation absorbed dose to at-risk organs using a conventional MIRD protocol (OLINDA 1.1).Results: Absorbed dose values to solid organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) were within 10% using both techniques. Dose estimates to marrow were greater using the voxelized protocol, attributed to the software incorporating crossfire effect from nearby tumor volumes.Conclusions: The technique presented offers an efficient, automated tool for PRRT dosimetry based on serial post-therapy imaging. Following retrospective analysis, this method of high-resolution dosimetry may allow physicians to prescribe activity based on required dose to tumor volume or radiation limits to healthy tissue in individual patients.

  19. Quantitative neuroanatomy of all Purkinje cells with light sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Paciscopi, Marco; Soda, Paolo; Biamonte, Filippo; Iannello, Giulio; Frasconi, Paolo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the cytoarchitecture of mammalian central nervous system on a brain-wide scale is becoming a compelling need in neuroscience. For example, realistic modeling of brain activity requires the definition of quantitative features of large neuronal populations in the whole brain. Quantitative anatomical maps will also be crucial to classify the cytoarchtitectonic abnormalities associated with neuronal pathologies in a high reproducible and reliable manner. In this paper, we apply recent advances in optical microscopy and image analysis to characterize the spatial distribution of Purkinje cells (PCs) across the whole cerebellum. Light sheet microscopy was used to image with micron-scale resolution a fixed and cleared cerebellum of an L7-GFP transgenic mouse, in which all PCs are fluorescently labeled. A fast and scalable algorithm for fully automated cell identification was applied on the image to extract the position of all the fluorescent PCs. This vectorized representation of the cell population allows a thorough characterization of the complex three-dimensional distribution of the neurons, highlighting the presence of gaps inside the lamellar organization of PCs, whose density is believed to play a significant role in autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, clustering analysis of the localized somata permits dividing the whole cerebellum in groups of PCs with high spatial correlation, suggesting new possibilities of anatomical partition. The quantitative approach presented here can be extended to study the distribution of different types of cell in many brain regions and across the whole encephalon, providing a robust base for building realistic computational models of the brain, and for unbiased morphological tissue screening in presence of pathologies and/or drug treatments. PMID:26074783

  20. Differentiation of Glioblastoma from Brain Metastasis: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using Arterial Spin Labeling MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Leonard; You, Sung-Hye; Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sun-Won; Jung, Cheolkyu; Park, Chul-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to differentiate glioblastoma (GBM) from brain metastasis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board of our hospital approved this retrospective study. The study population consisted of 128 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection and were diagnosed as either GBM (n = 89) or brain metastasis (n = 39). All participants underwent preoperative MR imaging including ASL. For qualitative analysis, the tumors were visually graded into five categories based on ASL-CBF maps by two blinded reviewers. For quantitative analysis, the reviewers drew regions of interest (ROIs) on ASL-CBF maps upon the most hyperperfused portion within the tumor and upon peritumoral T2 hyperintensity area. Signal intensities of intratumoral and peritumoral ROIs for each subject were normalized by dividing the values by those of contralateral normal gray matter (nCBFintratumoral and nCBFperitumoral, respectively). Visual grading scales and quantitative parameters between GBM and brain metastasis were compared. In addition, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ASL-driven CBF to differentiate GBM from brain metastasis. Results For qualitative analysis, GBM group showed significantly higher grade compared to metastasis group (p = 0.001). For quantitative analysis, both nCBFintratumoral and nCBFperitumoral in GBM were significantly higher than those in metastasis (both p < 0.001). The areas under the curve were 0.677, 0.714, and 0.835 for visual grading, nCBFintratumoral, and nCBFperitumoral, respectively (all p < 0.001). Conclusion ASL perfusion MR imaging can aid in the differentiation of GBM from brain metastasis. PMID:27861605

  1. Quantitative neuroanatomy of all Purkinje cells with light sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Paciscopi, Marco; Soda, Paolo; Biamonte, Filippo; Iannello, Giulio; Frasconi, Paolo; Pavone, Francesco S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the cytoarchitecture of mammalian central nervous system on a brain-wide scale is becoming a compelling need in neuroscience. For example, realistic modeling of brain activity requires the definition of quantitative features of large neuronal populations in the whole brain. Quantitative anatomical maps will also be crucial to classify the cytoarchtitectonic abnormalities associated with neuronal pathologies in a high reproducible and reliable manner. In this paper, we apply recent advances in optical microscopy and image analysis to characterize the spatial distribution of Purkinje cells (PCs) across the whole cerebellum. Light sheet microscopy was used to image with micron-scale resolution a fixed and cleared cerebellum of an L7-GFP transgenic mouse, in which all PCs are fluorescently labeled. A fast and scalable algorithm for fully automated cell identification was applied on the image to extract the position of all the fluorescent PCs. This vectorized representation of the cell population allows a thorough characterization of the complex three-dimensional distribution of the neurons, highlighting the presence of gaps inside the lamellar organization of PCs, whose density is believed to play a significant role in autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, clustering analysis of the localized somata permits dividing the whole cerebellum in groups of PCs with high spatial correlation, suggesting new possibilities of anatomical partition. The quantitative approach presented here can be extended to study the distribution of different types of cell in many brain regions and across the whole encephalon, providing a robust base for building realistic computational models of the brain, and for unbiased morphological tissue screening in presence of pathologies and/or drug treatments.

  2. Agreement experiments: a method for quantitatively testing new medical image display approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Richard E.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Perry, John R.; Pizer, Stephen M.; Delany, David J.; Parker, L. A.

    1990-08-01

    New medical image display devices or processes are commonly evaluated by anecdotal reports or subjective evaluations which are informative and relatively easy to acquire but do not provide quantitative nieasures. On the other hand, experinients eniploying ROC analysis, yield quantitative measurements but are very laborious and demand pathological proof of outcome. We have designed and are employing a new approach, which we have termed "agreement experiments," to quantitatively test the equivalence of observer performance on two systems. This was specifically developed to test whether a radiologist using a new display technique, which has some clear advantages over the standard technique, will detect and interpret diagnostic signs as he would with the standard display technique. Agreement experiments use checklists and confidence ratings to measure how well two radiologists agree on the presence of diagnostic signs when both view images on the standard display. This yields a baseline measure of agreement. Agreement measurements are then obtained when the two radiologists view cases using the new display, or display method, compared to the standard technique. If the levels of agreement when one reads from the new and one reads from the standard display are not statistically different from the baseline measures of agreement, we conclude the two systems are equivalent in conveying diagnostic signs. We will report on an experiment using this test. The experiment compares the agreement of radiological findings for chest CT studies viewed on the conventional multiformat film/lightbox to agreement of radiological findings from chest CT images presented on a multiple screen video system. The study consists of 80 chest CT studies. The results were an 86% to 81% agreement between the two viewing modalities which fell within our criteria of showing agreement.

  3. Optical tweezers assisted quantitative phase imaging led to thickness mapping of red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Nelson; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) allows dynamic mapping of optical path length of microscopic samples with high temporal and axial resolution. However, decoupling of the geometric thickness from the refractive index in phase measurements is challenging. Here, we report use of optical tweezers combined with QPM for decoupling geometric thickness from the refractive index. This is demonstrated by orienting the microscopic sample (red blood cell) by optical tweezers and imaging the phase at various orientations. Since optical tweezers can orient wide variety of micro and nanoscopic objects, this integrated method can be employed to accurately determine their physical properties.

  4. Vision ray calibration for the quantitative geometric description of general imaging and projection optics in metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Bothe, Thorsten; Li Wansong; Schulte, Michael; von Kopylow, Christoph; Bergmann, Ralf B.; Jueptner, Werner P. O.

    2010-10-20

    Exact geometric calibration of optical devices like projectors or cameras is the basis for utilizing them in quantitative metrological applications. The common state-of-the-art photogrammetric pinhole-imaging-based models with supplemental polynomial corrections fail in the presence of nonsymmetric or high-spatial-frequency distortions and in describing caustics efficiently. These problems are solved by our vision ray calibration (VRC), which is proposed in this paper. The VRC takes an optical mapping system modeled as a black box and directly delivers corresponding vision rays for each mapped pixel. The underlying model, the calibration process, and examples are visualized and reviewed, demonstrating the potential of the VRC.

  5. A method for operative quantitative interpretation of multispectral images of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    A method for operative retrieval of spatial distributions of biophysical parameters of a biological tissue by using a multispectral image of it has been developed. The method is based on multiple regressions between linearly independent components of the diffuse reflection spectrum of the tissue and unknown parameters. Possibilities of the method are illustrated by an example of determining biophysical parameters of the skin (concentrations of melanin, hemoglobin and bilirubin, blood oxygenation, and scattering coefficient of the tissue). Examples of quantitative interpretation of the experimental data are presented.

  6. Leucoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and high lactate: quantitative magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Steenweg, Marianne E; Pouwels, Petra J W; Wolf, Nicole I; van Wieringen, Wessel N; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2011-11-01

    Leucoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and elevated lactate is a white matter disorder caused by DARS2 mutations. The pathology is unknown. We observed striking discrepancies between improvement on longitudinal conventional magnetic resonance images and clinical deterioration and between large areas of high signal on diffusion-weighted imaging and small areas with low apparent diffusion coefficient values. These observations prompted a longitudinal and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. We investigated eight patients (two males, mean age 27 years). Maps of T(2) relaxation times, fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficients, signal on diffusion-weighted imaging, and axial and radial diffusivities were generated. Brain metabolites, obtained by chemical shift imaging, were quantified. Data analysis focused on: (i) white matter with low apparent diffusion coefficient; (ii) white matter with high T(2) values; (iii) white matter with intermediate T(2) values; and (iv) normal-appearing white matter. The areas were compared with similarly located areas in eight matched controls. In five patients, T(2)-weighted images, spectroscopy, apparent diffusion coefficient maps and diffusion-weighted imaging maps were compared with those obtained 5-7 years ago. In white matter with low apparent diffusion coefficient, axial and radial diffusivities were decreased and fractional anisotropy was high. T(2) values were intermediate. These areas with truly restricted diffusion were small and often observed at the periphery of areas with high T(2) values. In the white matter with high and intermediate T(2) values, apparent diffusion coefficients and axial and radial diffusivities were increased and fractional anisotropy decreased. The signal on diffusion-weighted imaging was highest in white matter with high T(2) values, an effect of T(2) shinethrough. Chemical shift imaging in both white matter types showed increased lactate, increased myo

  7. Errors in quantitative T1rho imaging and the correction methods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation time constant in rotating frame (T1rho) is useful for assessment of the properties of macromolecular environment inside tissue. Quantification of T1rho is found promising in various clinical applications. However, T1rho imaging is prone to image artifacts and quantification errors, which remains one of the greatest challenges to adopt this technique in routine clinical practice. The conventional continuous wave spin-lock is susceptible to B1 radiofrequency (RF) and B0 field inhomogeneity, which appears as banding artifacts in acquired images. A number of methods have been reported to modify T1rho prep RF pulse cluster to mitigate this effect. Adiabatic RF pulse can also be used for spin-lock with insensitivity to both B1 RF and B0 field inhomogeneity. Another source of quantification error in T1rho imaging is signal evolution during imaging data acquisition. Care is needed to affirm such error does not take place when specific pulse sequence is used for imaging data acquisition. Another source of T1rho quantification error is insufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is common among various quantitative imaging approaches. Measurement of T1rho within an ROI can mitigate this issue, but at the cost of reduced resolution. Noise-corrected methods are reported to address this issue in pixel-wise quantification. For certain tissue type, T1rho quantification can be confounded by magic angle effect and the presence of multiple tissue components. Review of these confounding factors from inherent tissue properties is not included in this article. PMID:26435922

  8. Deep Learning Automates the Quantitative Analysis of Individual Cells in Live-Cell Imaging Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Van Valen, David A.; Lane, Keara M.; Quach, Nicolas T.; Maayan, Inbal

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell imaging has opened an exciting window into the role cellular heterogeneity plays in dynamic, living systems. A major critical challenge for this class of experiments is the problem of image segmentation, or determining which parts of a microscope image correspond to which individual cells. Current approaches require many hours of manual curation and depend on approaches that are difficult to share between labs. They are also unable to robustly segment the cytoplasms of mammalian cells. Here, we show that deep convolutional neural networks, a supervised machine learning method, can solve this challenge for multiple cell types across the domains of life. We demonstrate that this approach can robustly segment fluorescent images of cell nuclei as well as phase images of the cytoplasms of individual bacterial and mammalian cells from phase contrast images without the need for a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker. These networks also enable the simultaneous segmentation and identification of different mammalian cell types grown in co-culture. A quantitative comparison with prior methods demonstrates that convolutional neural networks have improved accuracy and lead to a significant reduction in curation time. We relay our experience in designing and optimizing deep convolutional neural networks for this task and outline several design rules that we found led to robust performance. We conclude that deep convolutional neural networks are an accurate method that require less curation time, are generalizable to a multiplicity of cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, and expand live-cell imaging capabilities to include multi-cell type systems. PMID:27814364

  9. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging study for quantitative evaluation of a small field of view (SFOV) gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqahtani, M. S.; Lees, J. E.; Bugby, S. L.; Jambi, L. K.; Perkins, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Hybrid Compact Gamma Camera (HCGC) is a portable optical-gamma hybrid imager designed for intraoperative medical imaging, particularly for sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures. To investigate the capability of the HCGC in lymphatic system imaging, two lymphoscintigraphic phantoms have been designed and constructed. These phantoms allowed quantitative assessment and evaluation of the HCGC for lymphatic vessel (LV) and sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection. Fused optical and gamma images showed good alignment of the two modalities allowing localisation of activity within the LV and the SLN. At an imaging distance of 10 cm, the spatial resolution of the HCGC during the detection process of the simulated LV was not degraded at a separation of more than 1.5 cm (variation <5%) from the injection site (IS). Even in the presence of the IS the targeted LV was detectable with an acquisition time of less than 2 minutes. The HCGC could detect SLNs containing different radioactivity concentrations (ranging between 1:20 to 1:100 SLN to IS activity ratios) and under various scattering thicknesses (ranging between 5 mm to 30 mm) with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values (ranging between 11.6 and 110.8). The HCGC can detect the simulated SLNs at various IS to SLN distances, different IS to SLN activity ratios and through varied scattering medium thicknesses. The HCGC provided an accurate physical localisation of radiopharmaceutical uptake in the simulated SLN. These characteristics of the HCGC reflect its suitability for utilisation in lymphatic vessel drainage imaging and SLN imaging in patients in different critical clinical situations such as interventional and surgical procedures.

  10. Making digital phantoms with spectral and spatial light modulators for quantitative applications of hyperspectral optical medical imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, Bonghwan; Tokumasu, Fuyuki; Lee, Ji Youn; Allen, David W.; Rice, Joseph P.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2015-03-01

    We present a procedure to generate digital phantoms with a hyperspectral image projector (HIP) consisting of two liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulators (SLMs). The digital phantoms are 3D image data cubes of the spatial distribution of spectrally resolved abundances of intracellular light-absorbing oxy-hemoglobin molecules in single erythrocytes. Spectrally and spatially resolved image data indistinguishable from the real scene may be used as standards to calibrate image sensors and validate image analysis algorithms for their measurement quality, performance consistency, and inter-laboratory comparisons for quantitative biomedical imaging applications.

  11. Shotgun Approach for Quantitative Imaging of Phospholipids Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Laskin, Julia

    2014-02-04

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been extensively used for determining spatial distributions of molecules in biological samples, and there is increasing interest in using MSI for quantification. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, or nano-DESI, is an ambient MSI technique where a solvent is used for localized extraction of molecules followed by nanoelectrospray ionization. Doping the nano-DESI solvent with carefully selected standards enables online quantification during MSI experiments. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate this quantification approach can be extended to provide shotgun-like quantification of phospholipids in thin brain tissue sections. Specifically, two phosphatidylcholine (PC) standards were added to the nano-DESI solvent for simultaneous imaging and quantification of 22 PC species observed in nano-DESI MSI. Furthermore, by combining the quantitative data obtained in the individual pixels, we demonstrate quantification of these PC species in seven different regions of a rat brain tissue section.

  12. Quantitative nanoscopy: Tackling sampling limitations in (S)TEM imaging of polymers and composites.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Karthikeyan; Snel, Roderick; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Sampling limitations in electron microscopy questions whether the analysis of a bulk material is representative, especially while analyzing hierarchical morphologies that extend over multiple length scales. We tackled this problem by automatically acquiring a large series of partially overlapping (S)TEM images with sufficient resolution, subsequently stitched together to generate a large-area map using an in-house developed acquisition toolbox (TU/e Acquisition ToolBox) and stitching module (TU/e Stitcher). In addition, we show that quantitative image analysis of the large scale maps provides representative information that can be related to the synthesis and process conditions of hierarchical materials, which moves electron microscopy analysis towards becoming a bulk characterization tool. We demonstrate the power of such an analysis by examining two different multi-phase materials that are structured over multiple length scales.

  13. Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view

    PubMed Central

    Maiden, A. M.; Sarahan, M. C.; Stagg, M. D.; Schramm, S. M.; Humphry, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    As it passes through a sample, an electron beam scatters, producing an exit wavefront rich in information. A range of material properties, from electric and magnetic field strengths to specimen thickness, strain maps and mean inner potentials, can be extrapolated from its phase and mapped at the nanoscale. Unfortunately, the phase signal is not straightforward to obtain. It is most commonly measured using off-axis electron holography, but this is experimentally challenging, places constraints on the sample and has a limited field of view. Here we report an alternative method that avoids these limitations and is easily implemented on an unmodified transmission electron microscope (TEM) operating in the familiar selected area diffraction mode. We use ptychography, an imaging technique popular amongst the X-ray microscopy community; recent advances in reconstruction algorithms now reveal its potential as a tool for highly sensitive, quantitative electron phase imaging. PMID:26423558

  14. Quantitative non-invasive intracellular imaging of Plasmodium falciparum infected human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Farahi, Faramarz

    2014-05-01

    Malaria is a virulent pathological condition which results in over a million annual deaths. The parasitic agent Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in connection with this epidemic but much remains unknown about its development inside the red blood cell host. Optical and fluorescence imaging are among the two most common procedures for investigating infected erythrocytes but both require the introduction of exogenous contrast agents. In this letter, we present a procedure for the non-invasive in situ imaging of malaria infected red blood cells. The procedure is based on the utilization of simultaneously acquired quantitative phase and independent topography data to extract intracellular information. Our method allows for the identification of the developmental stages of the parasite and facilitates in situ analysis of the morphological changes associated with the progression of this disease. This information may assist in the development of efficacious treatment therapies for this condition.

  15. Statistical Issues in Testing Conformance with the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA) Profile Claims.

    PubMed

    Obuchowski, Nancy A; Buckler, Andrew; Kinahan, Paul; Chen-Mayer, Heather; Petrick, Nicholas; Barboriak, Daniel P; Bullen, Jennifer; Barnhart, Huiman; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    A major initiative of the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance is to develop standards-based documents called "Profiles," which describe one or more technical performance claims for a given imaging modality. The term "actor" denotes any entity (device, software, or person) whose performance must meet certain specifications for the claim to be met. The objective of this paper is to present the statistical issues in testing actors' conformance with the specifications. In particular, we present the general rationale and interpretation of the claims, the minimum requirements for testing whether an actor achieves the performance requirements, the study designs used for testing conformity, and the statistical analysis plan. We use three examples to illustrate the process: apparent diffusion coefficient in solid tumors measured by MRI, change in Perc 15 as a biomarker for the progression of emphysema, and percent change in solid tumor volume by computed tomography as a biomarker for lung cancer progression.

  16. A hybrid fluorescence tomography and x-ray CT system for quantitative molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuting; Barber, William C.; Iwanczk, Jan S.; Roeck, Werner W.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2010-02-01

    A gantry-based hybrid fluorescence and x-ray computed tomography (FT/CT) system is developed for quantitative molecular imaging. The performance of the dual modality FT/CT system is evaluated using an irregular shaped phantom with an inclusion containing Indocyanine-Green (ICG). The anatomical data from CT provides structural a priori information for the FT inverse problem. Although a 4.2 mm diameter inclusion can be resolved in the reconstructed concentration image without any a priori information, ICG concentration in the inclusion is recovered with 75% error. On the other hand, the error in the recovered ICG concentration reduces to 15% when a priori information from CT is utilized. The results demonstrate that accurate fluorophore concentration can only be obtained when x-ray CT structural a priori information is available.

  17. Prediction of intracellular storage polymers using quantitative image analysis in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Leal, Cristiano; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Amaral, A Luís; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2013-04-03

    The present study focuses on predicting the concentration of intracellular storage polymers in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. For that purpose, quantitative image analysis techniques were developed for determining the intracellular concentrations of PHA (PHB and PHV) with Nile blue and glycogen with aniline blue staining. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to predict the standard analytical values of these polymers by the proposed methodology. Identification of the aerobic and anaerobic stages proved to be crucial for improving the assessment of PHA, PHB and PHV intracellular concentrations. Current Nile blue based methodology can be seen as a feasible starting point for further enhancement. Glycogen detection based on the developed aniline blue staining methodology combined with the image analysis data proved to be a promising technique, toward the elimination of the need for analytical off-line measurements.

  18. Robust high-resolution imaging and quantitative force measurement with tuned-oscillator atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dagdeviren, Omur E; Götzen, Jan; Hölscher, Hendrik; Altman, Eric I; Schwarz, Udo D

    2016-02-12

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy are based on locally detecting the interactions between a surface and a sharp probe tip. For highest resolution imaging, noncontact modes that avoid tip-sample contact are used; control of the tip's vertical position is accomplished by oscillating the tip and detecting perturbations induced by its interaction with the surface potential. Due to this potential's nonlinear nature, however, achieving reliable control of the tip-sample distance is challenging, so much so that despite its power vacuum-based noncontact AFM has remained a niche technique. Here we introduce a new pathway to distance control that prevents instabilities by externally tuning the oscillator's response characteristics. A major advantage of this operational scheme is that it delivers robust position control in both the attractive and repulsive regimes with only one feedback loop, thereby providing an easy-to-implement route to atomic resolution imaging and quantitative tip-sample interaction force measurement.

  19. Novel analysis for improved validity in semi-quantitative 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Neil; Ferrington, Linda; Olverman, Henry J; Kelly, Paul A T

    2008-10-30

    The original [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic imaging technique allows for the quantitative determination of local cerebral glucose utilisation (LCMRglu) [Sokoloff L, Reivich, M, Kennedy C, Desrosiers M, Patlak C, Pettigrew K, et al. The 2-deoxyglucose-C-14 method for measurement of local cerebral glucose utilisation-theory, procedure and normal values in conscious and anestherized albino rats. J Neurochem 1977;28:897-916]. The range of applications to which the quantitative method can be readily applied is limited, however, by the requirement for the intermittent measurement of arterial radiotracer and glucose concentrations throughout the experiment, via intravascular cannulation. Some studies have applied a modified, semi-quantitative approach to estimate LCMRglu while circumventing the requirement for intravascular cannulation [Kelly S, Bieneman A, Uney J, McCulloch J. Cerebral glucose utilization in transgenic mice over-expressing heat shock protein 70 is altered by dizocilpine. Eur J Neurosci 2002;15(6):945-52; Jordan GR, McCulloch J, Shahid M, Hill DR, Henry B, Horsburgh K. Regionally selective and dose-dependent effects of the ampakines Org 26576 and Org 24448 on local cerebral glucose utilisation in the mouse as assessed by C-14-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. Neuropharmacology 2005;49(2):254-64]. In this method only a terminal blood sample is collected for the determination of plasma [(14)C] and [glucose] and the rate of LCMRglu in each brain region of interest (RoI) is estimated by comparing the [(14)C] concentration in each region relative to a selected control region, which is proposed to demonstrate metabolic stability between the experimental groups. Here we show that the semi-quantitative method has reduced validity in the measurement of LCMRglu as compared to the quantitative method and that the validity of this technique is further compromised by the inability of the methods applied within the analysis to appropriately determine metabolic

  20. Quantitative imaging of cartilage and bone for functional assessment of gene therapy approaches in experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Stok, Kathryn S; Noël, Danièle; Apparailly, Florence; Gould, David; Chernajovsky, Yuti; Jorgensen, Christian; Müller, Ralph

    2010-07-01

    Anti-inflammatory gene therapy can inhibit inflammation driven by TNFalpha in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis. However, assessment of the therapeutic effect on cartilage and bone quality is either missing or unsatisfactory. A multimodal imaging approach, using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and micro-computed tomography (microCT), was used for gathering 3D quantitative image data on diseased and treated murine joints. As proof of concept, the efficacy of anti-TNF-based gene therapy was assessed, comparing imaging techniques with classical investigations. SCID mice knees were injected with human synoviocytes overexpressing TNFalpha. Two days later, electric pulse-mediated DNA transfer was performed after injection of the pGTRTT-plasmid containing a dimeric soluble-TNF receptor (dsTNFR) under the control of a doxycycline-inducible promoter. After 21 days the mice were sacrificed, TNFalpha levels were measured and the joints assessed for cartilage and bone degradation, using CLSM, microCT and histology. TNFalpha levels were decreased in the joints of mice treated with the plasmid in the presence of doxycycline. Concomitantly, histological analysis showed an increase in cartilage thickness and a decrease in specific synovial hyperplasia and cartilage erosion. Bone morphometry revealed that groups with the plasmid in the presence of doxycycline displayed a higher cortical thickness and decreased porosity. Using an anti-TNF gene therapy approach, known to reduce inflammation, as proof of concept, 3D imaging allowed quantitative evaluation of its benefits to joint architecture. It showed that local delivery of a regulated anti-TNF vector allowed decreasing arthritis severity through TNFalpha inhibition. These tools are valuable for understanding the efficacy of gene therapy on whole-joint morphometry.

  1. Characterisation of a PVCP-based tissue-mimicking phantom for quantitative photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Martina; Zeqiri, Bajram; Beard, Paul; Cox, Ben

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging can provide high resolution images of tissue structure, pathology and function. As these images can be obtained at multiple wavelengths, quantitatively accurate, spatially resolved, estimates for chromophore concentration, for example, may be obtainable. Such a capability would find a wide range of clinical and pre-clinical applications. However, despite a growing body of theoretical papers on how this might be achieved, there is a noticeable lack of studies providing validated evidence that it can be achieved experimentally, either in vitro or in vivo. Well-defined, versatile and stable phantom materials are essential to assess the accuracy, robustness and applicability of multispectral Quantitative Photoacoustic Imaging (qPAI) algorithms in experimental scenarios. This study assesses the potential of polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) as a phantom material for qPAI, building on previous work that focused on using PVCP for quality control. Parameters that might be controlled or tuned to assess the performance of qPAI algorithms were studied: broadband acoustic properties, multiwavelength optical properties with added absorbers and scatterers, and photoacoustic efficiency. The optical and acoustic properties of PVCP can be tuned to be broadly representative of soft tissue. The Grüneisen parameter is larger than expected in tissue, which is an advantage as it increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the photoacoustic measurements. Interestingly, when the absorption was altered by adding absorbers, the absorption spectra measured using high peak power nanosecond-pulsed sources (typical in photoacoustics) were repeatably different from the ones measured using the low power source in the spectrophotometer, indicative of photochemical reactions taking place.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of brain development using anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia V; Yoshida, Shoko; Chang, Linda; Mori, Susumu

    2013-11-01

    The development of the brain is structure-specific, and the growth rate of each structure differs depending on the age of the subject. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to evaluate brain development because of the high spatial resolution and contrast that enable the observation of structure-specific developmental status. Currently, most clinical MRIs are evaluated qualitatively to assist in the clinical decision-making and diagnosis. The clinical MRI report usually does not provide quantitative values that can be used to monitor developmental status. Recently, the importance of image quantification to detect and evaluate mild-to-moderate anatomical abnormalities has been emphasized because these alterations are possibly related to several psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities. In the research arena, structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been widely applied to quantify brain development of the pediatric population. To interpret the values from these MR modalities, a "growth percentile chart," which describes the mean and standard deviation of the normal developmental curve for each anatomical structure, is required. Although efforts have been made to create such a growth percentile chart based on MRI and DTI, one of the greatest challenges is to standardize the anatomical boundaries of the measured anatomical structures. To avoid inter- and intra-reader variability about the anatomical boundary definition, and hence, to increase the precision of quantitative measurements, an automated structure parcellation method, customized for the neonatal and pediatric population, has been developed. This method enables quantification of multiple MR modalities using a common analytic framework. In this paper, the attempt to create an MRI- and a DTI-based growth percentile chart, followed by an application to investigate developmental abnormalities related to cerebral palsy, Williams syndrome, and Rett syndrome, have been introduced. Future

  3. Reprint of "Quantitative evaluation of brain development using anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging".

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia V; Yoshida, Shoko; Chang, Linda; Mori, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    The development of the brain is structure-specific, and the growth rate of each structure differs depending on the age of the subject. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to evaluate brain development because of the high spatial resolution and contrast that enable the observation of structure-specific developmental status. Currently, most clinical MRIs are evaluated qualitatively to assist in the clinical decision-making and diagnosis. The clinical MRI report usually does not provide quantitative values that can be used to monitor developmental status. Recently, the importance of image quantification to detect and evaluate mild-to-moderate anatomical abnormalities has been emphasized because these alterations are possibly related to several psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities. In the research arena, structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been widely applied to quantify brain development of the pediatric population. To interpret the values from these MR modalities, a "growth percentile chart," which describes the mean and standard deviation of the normal developmental curve for each anatomical structure, is required. Although efforts have been made to create such a growth percentile chart based on MRI and DTI, one of the greatest challenges is to standardize the anatomical boundaries of the measured anatomical structures. To avoid inter- and intra-reader variability about the anatomical boundary definition, and hence, to increase the precision of quantitative measurements, an automated structure parcellation method, customized for the neonatal and pediatric population, has been developed. This method enables quantification of multiple MR modalities using a common analytic framework. In this paper, the attempt to create an MRI- and a DTI-based growth percentile chart, followed by an application to investigate developmental abnormalities related to cerebral palsy, Williams syndrome, and Rett syndrome, have been introduced. Future

  4. Simple and fast spectral domain algorithm for quantitative phase imaging of living cells with digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Min, Junwei; Yao, Baoli; Ketelhut, Steffi; Engwer, Christian; Greve, Burkhard; Kemper, Björn

    2017-01-15

    We present a simple and fast phase aberration compensation method in digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for quantitative phase imaging of living cells. By analyzing the frequency spectrum of an off-axis hologram, phase aberrations can be compensated for automatically without fitting or pre-knowledge of the setup and/or the object. Simple and effective computation makes the method suitable for quantitative online monitoring with highly variable DHM systems. Results from automated quantitative phase imaging of living NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts demonstrate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the method.

  5. Improving the image and quantitative data of magnetic resonance imaging through hardware and physics techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaggie, Joshua D.

    In Chapter 1, an introduction to basic principles or MRI is given, including the physical principles, basic pulse sequences, and basic hardware. Following the introduction, five different published and yet unpublished papers for improving the utility of MRI are shown. Chapter 2 discusses a small rodent imaging system that was developed for a clinical 3 T MRI scanner. The system integrated specialized radiofrequency (RF) coils with an insertable gradient, enabling 100 microm isotropic resolution imaging of the guinea pig cochlea in vivo, doubling the body gradient strength, slew rate, and contrast-to-noise ratio, and resulting in twice the signal-to-noise (SNR) when compared to the smallest conforming birdcage. Chapter 3 discusses a system using BOLD MRI to measure T2* and invasive fiberoptic probes to measure renal oxygenation (pO2). The significance of this experiment is that it demonstrated previously unknown physiological effects on pO2, such as breath-holds that had an immediate (<1 sec) pO2 decrease (˜6 mmHg), and bladder pressure that had pO2 increases (˜6 mmHg). Chapter 4 determined the correlation between indicators of renal health and renal fat content. The R2 correlation between renal fat content and eGFR, serum cystatin C, urine protein, and BMI was less than 0.03, with a sample size of ˜100 subjects, suggesting that renal fat content will not be a useful indicator of renal health. Chapter 5 is a hardware and pulse sequence technique for acquiring multinuclear 1H and 23Na data within the same pulse sequence. Our system demonstrated a very simple, inexpensive solution to SMI and acquired both nuclei on two 23Na channels using external modifications, and is the first demonstration of radially acquired SMI. Chapter 6 discusses a composite sodium and proton breast array that demonstrated a 2-5x improvement in sodium SNR and similar proton SNR when compared to a large coil with a linear sodium and linear proton channel. This coil is unique in that sodium

  6. Human atherosclerosis. III. Immunocytochemical analysis of the cell composition of lesions of young adults.

    PubMed Central

    Katsuda, S.; Boyd, H. C.; Fligner, C.; Ross, R.; Gown, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    There have been only limited immunocytochemical studies of the cell composition of the early lesions of human atherosclerosis, and none that incorporate a comprehensive panel of antibodies to various cell types and subsets. The authors thus performed a prospective study of 27 lesions from 16 different individuals ranging in age from 15 to 34 years. These were all lesions that appeared grossly as slightly raised, yellow fatty streaks in the posterior ascending aorta, but on histologic examination had varying degrees of round-cell, spindle-cell, and foam-cell accumulation. Using a panel of antibodies, including monoclonal antibodies specific for smooth muscle cells [HHF35], human macrophages [HAM56], endothelial cells [monoclonal antibodies to F. VIII related antigen], lymphocytes [anti-CD45, anti-CD20, anti-CD45RO, anti-T-cell receptor], it was revealed that the predominant cell type in these early lesions was the smooth muscle cell, including the vast majority of the foam cells, which tended to appear in the deeper regions of the lesions. There were variable numbers of smooth muscle cells and lymphocytes; the latter were exclusively T cells. It is concluded that in atherosclerotic lesions of young adults, which may represent various stages of fatty streak formation and advanced fatty streaks, smooth muscle cell accumulation may be an early event. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1562051

  7. Human atherosclerosis. II. Immunocytochemical analysis of the cellular composition of human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Gown, A. M.; Tsukada, T.; Ross, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have performed immunocytochemical investigations of the distribution of various cell types in human atherosclerotic plaques using monoclonal antibodies specific to smooth muscle cells (CGA7 [Gown et al, J Cell Biol 1985, 100:807-813] and HHF35 [Tsukada et al, Am J Pathol (In press)] ); lymphocytes (T200 antigen); endothelial cells (Factor VIII and the Ulex europeus agglutinin); and macrophages, the latter with a new macrophage-specific antibody HAM56. All studies were performed on methanol-Carnoy's-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. In areas of grossly normal aorta, significant numbers of macrophages were noted within areas of diffuse intimal thickening. The cellular composition of the following three types of raised lesions were analyzed: fibro-fatty lesions, which, despite their gross appearance, consistent with fibrous plaques, were composed almost exclusively of macrophages and lymphocytes and almost devoid of smooth muscle cells; fibrous plaques, which were predominantly composed of smooth muscle cells displaying considerable morphologic heterogeneity and an admixture of blood-borne cells; advanced plaques, which were characterized by complex layers of smooth muscle cells and macrophages with considerable variation from region to region. Also noted were foci of medial and even intimal vascularization subjacent to the more advanced plaques. These studies demonstrate the application of monoclonal antibody technology to the study of the cellular composition of human atherosclerotic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 p195-a Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 p201-a Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3777135

  8. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of colonic microendoscopy image features to histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Lai, Keith; Laryea, Jonathan A.; Mizell, Jason S.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    the colonic tumor and surrounding region from microendoscopy images to H&E slides. Quantitative metrics for correlating images were also explored and were obtained by analyzing glandular diameter and spatial distribution as well as image texture.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of colonic microendoscopy image features to histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Lai, Keith; Laryea, Jonathan A.; Mizell, Jason S.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    of the colonic tumor and surrounding region from microendoscopy images to H&E slides. Quantitative metrics for correlating images were also explored and were obtained by analyzing glandular diameter and spatial distribution as well as image texture. PMID:25983371

  10. Quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging in a porcine ischemia model using a prototype spectral detector CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Levi, Jacob; Fares, Anas; Dhanantwari, Amar; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    We optimized and evaluated dynamic myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging on a prototype spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner. Simultaneous acquisition of energy sensitive projections on the SDCT system enabled projection-based material decomposition, which typically performs better than image-based decomposition required by some other system designs. In addition to virtual monoenergetic, or keV images, the SDCT provided conventional (kVp) images, allowing us to compare and contrast results. Physical phantom measurements demonstrated linearity of keV images, a requirement for quantitative perfusion. Comparisons of kVp to keV images demonstrated very significant reductions in tell-tale beam hardening (BH) artifacts in both phantom and pig images. In phantom images, consideration of iodine contrast to noise ratio and small residual BH artifacts suggested optimum processing at 70 keV. The processing pipeline for dynamic CTP measurements included 4D image registration, spatio-temporal noise filtering, and model-independent singular value decomposition deconvolution, auto