Science.gov

Sample records for quantitative performance metrics

  1. New Performance Metrics for Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Microbial Source Tracking Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Binary sensitivity and specificity metrics are not adequate to describe the performance of quantitative microbial source tracking methods because the estimates depend on the amount of material tested and limit of detection. We introduce a new framework to compare the performance ...

  2. Survey of Quantitative Research Metrics to Assess Pilot Performance in Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    Accidents attributable to in-flight loss of control are the primary cause for fatal commercial jet accidents worldwide. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine and identify the quantitative standards for assessing upset recovery performance. This review contains current recovery procedures for both military and commercial aviation and includes the metrics researchers use to assess aircraft recovery performance. Metrics include time to first input, recognition time and recovery time and whether that input was correct or incorrect. Other metrics included are: the state of the autopilot and autothrottle, control wheel/sidestick movement resulting in pitch and roll, and inputs to the throttle and rudder. In addition, airplane state measures, such as roll reversals, altitude loss/gain, maximum vertical speed, maximum/minimum air speed, maximum bank angle and maximum g loading are reviewed as well.

  3. Metrics for Performance Evaluation of Patient Exercises during Physical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Ferguson, Jake M; Lee, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    The article proposes a set of metrics for evaluation of patient performance in physical therapy exercises. Taxonomy is employed that classifies the metrics into quantitative and qualitative categories, based on the level of abstraction of the captured motion sequences. Further, the quantitative metrics are classified into model-less and model-based metrics, in reference to whether the evaluation employs the raw measurements of patient performed motions, or whether the evaluation is based on a mathematical model of the motions. The reviewed metrics include root-mean square distance, Kullback Leibler divergence, log-likelihood, heuristic consistency, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and similar. The metrics are evaluated for a set of five human motions captured with a Kinect sensor. The metrics can potentially be integrated into a system that employs machine learning for modelling and assessment of the consistency of patient performance in home-based therapy setting. Automated performance evaluation can overcome the inherent subjectivity in human performed therapy assessment, and it can increase the adherence to prescribed therapy plans, and reduce healthcare costs.

  4. Performance Metrics for Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Systems in Proteomics Analyses*

    PubMed Central

    Rudnick, Paul A.; Clauser, Karl R.; Kilpatrick, Lisa E.; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V.; Neta, Pedatsur; Blonder, Nikša; Billheimer, Dean D.; Blackman, Ronald K.; Bunk, David M.; Cardasis, Helene L.; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Jaffe, Jacob D.; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Neubert, Thomas A.; Schilling, Birgit; Tabb, David L.; Tegeler, Tony J.; Vega-Montoto, Lorenzo; Variyath, Asokan Mulayath; Wang, Mu; Wang, Pei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Carr, Steven A.; Fisher, Susan J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Regnier, Fred E.; Rodriguez, Henry; Spiegelman, Cliff; Tempst, Paul; Liebler, Daniel C.; Stein, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    A major unmet need in LC-MS/MS-based proteomics analyses is a set of tools for quantitative assessment of system performance and evaluation of technical variability. Here we describe 46 system performance metrics for monitoring chromatographic performance, electrospray source stability, MS1 and MS2 signals, dynamic sampling of ions for MS/MS, and peptide identification. Applied to data sets from replicate LC-MS/MS analyses, these metrics displayed consistent, reasonable responses to controlled perturbations. The metrics typically displayed variations less than 10% and thus can reveal even subtle differences in performance of system components. Analyses of data from interlaboratory studies conducted under a common standard operating procedure identified outlier data and provided clues to specific causes. Moreover, interlaboratory variation reflected by the metrics indicates which system components vary the most between laboratories. Application of these metrics enables rational, quantitative quality assessment for proteomics and other LC-MS/MS analytical applications. PMID:19837981

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intracranial Hypotension: Diagnostic Value of Combined Qualitative Signs and Quantitative Metrics.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kerim; Gunbey, Hediye Pinar; Tomak, Leman; Ozmen, Zafer; Incesu, Lutfi

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of combination quantitative metrics (mamillopontine distance [MPD], pontomesencephalic angle, and mesencephalon anterior-posterior/medial-lateral diameter ratios) with qualitative signs (dural enhancement, subdural collections/hematoma, venous engorgement, pituitary gland enlargements, and tonsillar herniations) provides a more accurate diagnosis of intracranial hypotension (IH). The quantitative metrics and qualitative signs of 34 patients and 34 control subjects were assessed by 2 independent observers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative metrics and qualitative signs, and for the diagnosis of IH, optimum cutoff values of quantitative metrics were found with ROC analysis. Combined ROC curve was measured for the quantitative metrics, and qualitative signs combinations in determining diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were found, and the best model combination was formed. Whereas MPD and pontomesencephalic angle were significantly lower in patients with IH when compared with the control group (P < 0.001), mesencephalon anterior-posterior/medial-lateral diameter ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.001). For qualitative signs, the highest individual distinctive power was dural enhancement with area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.838. For quantitative metrics, the highest individual distinctive power was MPD with AUC of 0.947. The best accuracy in the diagnosis of IH was obtained by combination of dural enhancement, venous engorgement, and MPD with an AUC of 1.00. This study showed that the combined use of dural enhancement, venous engorgement, and MPD had diagnostic accuracy of 100 % for the diagnosis of IH. Therefore, a more accurate IH diagnosis can be provided with combination of quantitative metrics with qualitative signs.

  6. Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.

  7. Engineering performance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.

    1993-03-01

    Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.

  8. Specification and implementation of IFC based performance metrics to support building life cycle assessment of hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Elmer; O'Donnell, James; Keane, Marcus

    2004-03-29

    Minimizing building life cycle energy consumption is becoming of paramount importance. Performance metrics tracking offers a clear and concise manner of relating design intent in a quantitative form. A methodology is discussed for storage and utilization of these performance metrics through an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) instantiated Building Information Model (BIM). The paper focuses on storage of three sets of performance data from three distinct sources. An example of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilizing the sets of performance data, two discrete performance effectiveness ratios may be computed, thus offeringmore » an accurate method of quantitatively assessing building performance.« less

  9. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for technical performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Raunig, David L; McShane, Lisa M; Pennello, Gene; Gatsonis, Constantine; Carson, Paul L; Voyvodic, James T; Wahl, Richard L; Kurland, Brenda F; Schwarz, Adam J; Gönen, Mithat; Zahlmann, Gudrun; Kondratovich, Marina V; O'Donnell, Kevin; Petrick, Nicholas; Cole, Patricia E; Garra, Brian; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    Technological developments and greater rigor in the quantitative measurement of biological features in medical images have given rise to an increased interest in using quantitative imaging biomarkers to measure changes in these features. Critical to the performance of a quantitative imaging biomarker in preclinical or clinical settings are three primary metrology areas of interest: measurement linearity and bias, repeatability, and the ability to consistently reproduce equivalent results when conditions change, as would be expected in any clinical trial. Unfortunately, performance studies to date differ greatly in designs, analysis method, and metrics used to assess a quantitative imaging biomarker for clinical use. It is therefore difficult or not possible to integrate results from different studies or to use reported results to design studies. The Radiological Society of North America and the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance with technical, radiological, and statistical experts developed a set of technical performance analysis methods, metrics, and study designs that provide terminology, metrics, and methods consistent with widely accepted metrological standards. This document provides a consistent framework for the conduct and evaluation of quantitative imaging biomarker performance studies so that results from multiple studies can be compared, contrasted, or combined. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Design and Implementation of Performance Metrics for Evaluation of Assessments Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Irfan; Bhatti, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Evocative evaluation of assessment data is essential to quantify the achievements at course and program levels. The objective of this paper is to design performance metrics and respective formulas to quantitatively evaluate the achievement of set objectives and expected outcomes at the course levels for program accreditation. Even though…

  11. On Applying the Prognostic Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for prognostic uncertainty management are developed, a standardized methodology for performance evaluation becomes extremely important to guide improvement efforts in a constructive manner. This paper is in continuation of previous efforts where several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics were introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. Several shortcomings identified, while applying these metrics to a variety of real applications, are also summarized along with discussions that attempt to alleviate these problems. Further, these metrics have been enhanced to include the capability of incorporating probability distribution information from prognostic algorithms as opposed to evaluation based on point estimates only. Several methods have been suggested and guidelines have been provided to help choose one method over another based on probability distribution characteristics. These approaches also offer a convenient and intuitive visualization of algorithm performance with respect to some of these new metrics like prognostic horizon and alpha-lambda performance, and also quantify the corresponding performance while incorporating the uncertainty information.

  12. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers: A Review of Statistical Methods for Technical Performance Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Technological developments and greater rigor in the quantitative measurement of biological features in medical images have given rise to an increased interest in using quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) to measure changes in these features. Critical to the performance of a QIB in preclinical or clinical settings are three primary metrology areas of interest: measurement linearity and bias, repeatability, and the ability to consistently reproduce equivalent results when conditions change, as would be expected in any clinical trial. Unfortunately, performance studies to date differ greatly in designs, analysis method and metrics used to assess a QIB for clinical use. It is therefore, difficult or not possible to integrate results from different studies or to use reported results to design studies. The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA) with technical, radiological and statistical experts developed a set of technical performance analysis methods, metrics and study designs that provide terminology, metrics and methods consistent with widely accepted metrological standards. This document provides a consistent framework for the conduct and evaluation of QIB performance studies so that results from multiple studies can be compared, contrasted or combined. PMID:24919831

  13. Texture metric that predicts target detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culpepper, Joanne B.

    2015-12-01

    Two texture metrics based on gray level co-occurrence error (GLCE) are used to predict probability of detection and mean search time. The two texture metrics are local clutter metrics and are based on the statistics of GLCE probability distributions. The degree of correlation between various clutter metrics and the target detection performance of the nine military vehicles in complex natural scenes found in the Search_2 dataset are presented. Comparison is also made between four other common clutter metrics found in the literature: root sum of squares, Doyle, statistical variance, and target structure similarity. The experimental results show that the GLCE energy metric is a better predictor of target detection performance when searching for targets in natural scenes than the other clutter metrics studied.

  14. Development of a Quantitative Decision Metric for Selecting the Most Suitable Discretization Method for SN Transport Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunert, Sebastian

    In this work we develop a quantitative decision metric for spatial discretization methods of the SN equations. The quantitative decision metric utilizes performance data from selected test problems for computing a fitness score that is used for the selection of the most suitable discretization method for a particular SN transport application. The fitness score is aggregated as a weighted geometric mean of single performance indicators representing various performance aspects relevant to the user. Thus, the fitness function can be adjusted to the particular needs of the code practitioner by adding/removing single performance indicators or changing their importance via the supplied weights. Within this work a special, broad class of methods is considered, referred to as nodal methods. This class is naturally comprised of the DGFEM methods of all function space families. Within this work it is also shown that the Higher Order Diamond Difference (HODD) method is a nodal method. Building on earlier findings that the Arbitrarily High Order Method of the Nodal type (AHOTN) is also a nodal method, a generalized finite-element framework is created to yield as special cases various methods that were developed independently using profoundly different formalisms. A selection of test problems related to a certain performance aspect are considered: an Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) test suite for assessing accuracy and execution time, Lathrop's test problem for assessing resilience against occurrence of negative fluxes, and a simple, homogeneous cube test problem to verify if a method possesses the thick diffusive limit. The contending methods are implemented as efficiently as possible under a common SN transport code framework to level the playing field for a fair comparison of their computational load. Numerical results are presented for all three test problems and a qualitative rating of each method's performance is provided for each aspect: accuracy

  15. Quantitative application of sigma metrics in medical biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Ray, Lopamudra

    2013-12-01

    Laboratory errors are result of a poorly designed quality system in the laboratory. Six Sigma is an error reduction methodology that has been successfully applied at Motorola and General Electric. Sigma (σ) is the mathematical symbol for standard deviation (SD). Sigma methodology can be applied wherever an outcome of a process has to be measured. A poor outcome is counted as an error or defect. This is quantified as defects per million (DPM). A six sigma process is one in which 99.999666% of the products manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects. Six sigma concentrates, on regulating a process to 6 SDs, represents 3.4 DPM (defects per million) opportunities. It can be inferred that as sigma increases, the consistency and steadiness of the test improves, thereby reducing the operating costs. We aimed to gauge performance of our laboratory parameters by sigma metrics. Evaluation of sigma metrics in interpretation of parameter performance in clinical biochemistry. The six month internal QC (October 2012 to march 2013) and EQAS (external quality assurance scheme) were extracted for the parameters-Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, Total Bilirubin, Total Protein, Albumin, Uric acid, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Chloride, SGOT, SGPT and ALP. Coefficient of variance (CV) were calculated from internal QC for these parameters. Percentage bias for these parameters was calculated from the EQAS. Total allowable errors were followed as per Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) guidelines. Sigma metrics were calculated from CV, percentage bias and total allowable error for the above mentioned parameters. For parameters - Total bilirubin, uric acid, SGOT, SGPT and ALP, the sigma values were found to be more than 6. For parameters - glucose, Creatinine, triglycerides, urea, the sigma values were found to be between 3 to 6. For parameters - total protein, albumin, cholesterol and chloride, the sigma values were found to be less than 3. ALP was the best

  16. Performance Metrics, Error Modeling, and Uncertainty Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Nearing, Grey S.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Tang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A common set of statistical metrics has been used to summarize the performance of models or measurements-­ the most widely used ones being bias, mean square error, and linear correlation coefficient. They assume linear, additive, Gaussian errors, and they are interdependent, incomplete, and incapable of directly quantifying un­certainty. The authors demonstrate that these metrics can be directly derived from the parameters of the simple linear error model. Since a correct error model captures the full error information, it is argued that the specification of a parametric error model should be an alternative to the metrics-based approach. The error-modeling meth­odology is applicable to both linear and nonlinear errors, while the metrics are only meaningful for linear errors. In addition, the error model expresses the error structure more naturally, and directly quantifies uncertainty. This argument is further explained by highlighting the intrinsic connections between the performance metrics, the error model, and the joint distribution between the data and the reference.

  17. Tool independence for the Web Accessibility Quantitative Metric.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Markel; Brajnik, Giorgio; Arrue, Myriam; Abascal, Julio

    2009-07-01

    The Web Accessibility Quantitative Metric (WAQM) aims at accurately measuring the accessibility of web pages. One of the main features of WAQM among others is that it is evaluation tool independent for ranking and accessibility monitoring scenarios. This article proposes a method to attain evaluation tool independence for all foreseeable scenarios. After demonstrating that homepages have a more similar error profile than any other web page in a given web site, 15 homepages were measured with 10,000 different values of WAQM parameters using EvalAccess and LIFT, two automatic evaluation tools for accessibility. A similar procedure was followed with random pages and with several test files obtaining several tuples that minimise the difference between both tools. One thousand four hundred forty-nine web pages from 15 web sites were measured with these tuples and those values that minimised the difference between the tools were selected. Once the WAQM was tuned, the accessibility of 15 web sites was measured with two metrics for web sites, concluding that even if similar values can be produced, obtaining the same scores is undesirable since evaluation tools behave in a different way.

  18. 75 FR 7581 - RTO/ISO Performance Metrics; Notice Requesting Comments on RTO/ISO Performance Metrics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... performance communicate about the benefits of RTOs and, where appropriate, (2) changes that need to be made to... of staff from all the jurisdictional ISOs/RTOs to develop a set of performance metrics that the ISOs/RTOs will use to report annually to the Commission. Commission staff and representatives from the ISOs...

  19. A novel approach for evaluating the performance of real time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based methods.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Gavin J; Svenstrup, Helle F; Donald, Carol E; Carder, Caroline; Stephenson, Judith M; Morris-Jones, Stephen; Huggett, Jim F; Foy, Carole A

    2014-12-01

    Molecular diagnostic measurements are currently underpinned by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There are also a number of alternative nucleic acid amplification technologies, which unlike PCR, work at a single temperature. These 'isothermal' methods, reportedly offer potential advantages over PCR such as simplicity, speed and resistance to inhibitors and could also be used for quantitative molecular analysis. However there are currently limited mechanisms to evaluate their quantitative performance, which would assist assay development and study comparisons. This study uses a sexually transmitted infection diagnostic model in combination with an adapted metric termed isothermal doubling time (IDT), akin to PCR efficiency, to compare quantitative PCR and quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP) assays, and to quantify the impact of matrix interference. The performance metric described here facilitates the comparison of qLAMP assays that could assist assay development and validation activities.

  20. A Classification Scheme for Smart Manufacturing Systems’ Performance Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. Tina; Kumaraguru, Senthilkumaran; Jain, Sanjay; Robinson, Stefanie; Helu, Moneer; Hatim, Qais Y.; Rachuri, Sudarsan; Dornfeld, David; Saldana, Christopher J.; Kumara, Soundar

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a classification scheme for performance metrics for smart manufacturing systems. The discussion focuses on three such metrics: agility, asset utilization, and sustainability. For each of these metrics, we discuss classification themes, which we then use to develop a generalized classification scheme. In addition to the themes, we discuss a conceptual model that may form the basis for the information necessary for performance evaluations. Finally, we present future challenges in developing robust, performance-measurement systems for real-time, data-intensive enterprises. PMID:28785744

  1. Quantitative criteria for assessment of gamma-ray imager performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, Steve; Keller, Kristi; Malik, Hans

    2015-08-01

    In recent years gamma ray imagers such as the GammaCamTM and Polaris have demonstrated good imaging performance in the field. Imager performance is often summarized as "resolution", either angular, or spatial at some distance from the imager, however the definition of resolution is not always related to the ability to image an object. It is difficult to quantitatively compare imagers without a common definition of image quality. This paper examines three categories of definition: point source; line source; and area source. It discusses the details of those definitions and which ones are more relevant for different situations. Metrics such as Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM), variations on the Rayleigh criterion, and some analogous to National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) are discussed. The performance against these metrics is evaluated for a high resolution coded aperture imager modeled using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP), and for a medium resolution imager measured in the lab.

  2. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  3. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  4. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  5. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  6. A lighting metric for quantitative evaluation of accent lighting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acholo, Cyril O.; Connor, Kenneth A.; Radke, Richard J.

    2014-09-01

    Accent lighting is critical for artwork and sculpture lighting in museums, and subject lighting for stage, Film and television. The research problem of designing effective lighting in such settings has been revived recently with the rise of light-emitting-diode-based solid state lighting. In this work, we propose an easy-to-apply quantitative measure of the scene's visual quality as perceived by human viewers. We consider a well-accent-lit scene as one which maximizes the information about the scene (in an information-theoretic sense) available to the user. We propose a metric based on the entropy of the distribution of colors, which are extracted from an image of the scene from the viewer's perspective. We demonstrate that optimizing the metric as a function of illumination configuration (i.e., position, orientation, and spectral composition) results in natural, pleasing accent lighting. We use a photorealistic simulation tool to validate the functionality of our proposed approach, showing its successful application to two- and three-dimensional scenes.

  7. The power metric: a new statistically robust enrichment-type metric for virtual screening applications with early recovery capability.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Julio Cesar Dias; Dos Santos, Fábio Mendes; Martins-José, Andrelly; Augustyns, Koen; De Winter, Hans

    2017-01-01

    A new metric for the evaluation of model performance in the field of virtual screening and quantitative structure-activity relationship applications is described. This metric has been termed the power metric and is defined as the fraction of the true positive rate divided by the sum of the true positive and false positive rates, for a given cutoff threshold. The performance of this metric is compared with alternative metrics such as the enrichment factor, the relative enrichment factor, the receiver operating curve enrichment factor, the correct classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient and Cohen's kappa coefficient. The performance of this new metric is found to be quite robust with respect to variations in the applied cutoff threshold and ratio of the number of active compounds to the total number of compounds, and at the same time being sensitive to variations in model quality. It possesses the correct characteristics for its application in early-recognition virtual screening problems.

  8. The importance of metrics for evaluating scientific performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    Evaluation of scientific performance is a major factor that determines the behavior of both individual researchers and the academic institutes to which they belong. Because the number of researchers heavily outweighs the number of available research posts, and the competitive funding accounts for an ever-increasing proportion of research budget, some objective indicators of research performance have gained recognition for increasing transparency and openness. It is common practice to use metrics and indices to evaluate a researcher's performance or the quality of their grant applications. Such measures include the number of publications, the number of times these papers are cited and, more recently, the h-index, which measures the number of highly-cited papers the researcher has written. However, academic institutions and funding agencies in Japan have been rather slow to adopt such metrics. In this article, I will outline some of the currently available metrics, and discuss why we need to use such objective indicators of research performance more often in Japan. I will also discuss how to promote the use of metrics and what we should keep in mind when using them, as well as their potential impact on the research community in Japan.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of semi-automatic quantitative metrics as an alternative to expert reading of CT myocardial perfusion in the CORE320 study.

    PubMed

    Ostovaneh, Mohammad R; Vavere, Andrea L; Mehra, Vishal C; Kofoed, Klaus F; Matheson, Matthew B; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Schuijf, Joanne D; Rochitte, Carlos E; Scholte, Arthur J; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Dewey, Marc; Cox, Christopher; DiCarli, Marcelo F; George, Richard T; Lima, Joao A C

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of semi-automatic quantitative metrics compared to expert reading for interpretation of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. The CORE320 multicenter diagnostic accuracy clinical study enrolled patients between 45 and 85 years of age who were clinically referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Computed tomography angiography (CTA), CTP, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and ICA images were interpreted manually in blinded core laboratories by two experienced readers. Additionally, eight quantitative CTP metrics as continuous values were computed semi-automatically from myocardial and blood attenuation and were combined using logistic regression to derive a final quantitative CTP metric score. For the reference standard, hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as a quantitative ICA stenosis of 50% or greater and a corresponding perfusion defect by SPECT. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Of the total 377 included patients, 66% were male, median age was 62 (IQR: 56, 68) years, and 27% had prior myocardial infarction. In patient based analysis, the AUC (95% CI) for combined CTA-CTP expert reading and combined CTA-CTP semi-automatic quantitative metrics was 0.87(0.84-0.91) and 0.86 (0.83-0.9), respectively. In vessel based analyses the AUC's were 0.85 (0.82-0.88) and 0.84 (0.81-0.87), respectively. No significant difference in AUC was found between combined CTA-CTP expert reading and CTA-CTP semi-automatic quantitative metrics in patient based or vessel based analyses(p > 0.05 for all). Combined CTA-CTP semi-automatic quantitative metrics is as accurate as CTA-CTP expert reading to detect hemodynamically significant CAD. Copyright © 2018 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance metrics for the evaluation of hyperspectral chemical identification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truslow, Eric; Golowich, Steven; Manolakis, Dimitris; Ingle, Vinay

    2016-02-01

    Remote sensing of chemical vapor plumes is a difficult but important task for many military and civilian applications. Hyperspectral sensors operating in the long-wave infrared regime have well-demonstrated detection capabilities. However, the identification of a plume's chemical constituents, based on a chemical library, is a multiple hypothesis testing problem which standard detection metrics do not fully describe. We propose using an additional performance metric for identification based on the so-called Dice index. Our approach partitions and weights a confusion matrix to develop both the standard detection metrics and identification metric. Using the proposed metrics, we demonstrate that the intuitive system design of a detector bank followed by an identifier is indeed justified when incorporating performance information beyond the standard detection metrics.

  11. Tide or Tsunami? The Impact of Metrics on Scholarly Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnell, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Australian universities are increasingly resorting to the use of journal metrics such as impact factors and ranking lists in appraisal and promotion processes, and are starting to set quantitative "performance expectations" which make use of such journal-based metrics. The widespread use and misuse of research metrics is leading to…

  12. Evaluating Algorithm Performance Metrics Tailored for Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics has taken a center stage in Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) where it is desired to estimate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of the system so that remedial measures may be taken in advance to avoid catastrophic events or unwanted downtimes. Validation of such predictions is an important but difficult proposition and a lack of appropriate evaluation methods renders prognostics meaningless. Evaluation methods currently used in the research community are not standardized and in many cases do not sufficiently assess key performance aspects expected out of a prognostics algorithm. In this paper we introduce several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics and show that they can effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically four algorithms namely; Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Polynomial Regression (PR) are compared. These algorithms vary in complexity and their ability to manage uncertainty around predicted estimates. Results show that the new metrics rank these algorithms in different manner and depending on the requirements and constraints suitable metrics may be chosen. Beyond these results, these metrics offer ideas about how metrics suitable to prognostics may be designed so that the evaluation procedure can be standardized. 1

  13. Benchmarking the performance of fixed-image receptor digital radiography systems. Part 2: system performance metric.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kam L; Bernardo, Michael; Ireland, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    This is part two of a two-part study in benchmarking system performance of fixed digital radiographic systems. The study compares the system performance of seven fixed digital radiography systems based on quantitative metrics like modulation transfer function (sMTF), normalised noise power spectrum (sNNPS), detective quantum efficiency (sDQE) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). It was found that the most efficient image receptors (greatest sDQE) were not necessarily operating at the lowest ESAK. In part one of this study, sMTF is shown to depend on system configuration while sNNPS is shown to be relatively consistent across systems. Systems are ranked on their signal-to-noise ratio efficiency (sDQE) and their ESAK. Systems using the same equipment configuration do not necessarily have the same system performance. This implies radiographic practice at the site will have an impact on the overall system performance. In general, systems are more dose efficient at low dose settings.

  14. Metric-driven harm: an exploration of unintended consequences of performance measurement.

    PubMed

    Rambur, Betty; Vallett, Carol; Cohen, Judith A; Tarule, Jill Mattuck

    2013-11-01

    Performance measurement is an increasingly common element of the US health care system. Typically a proxy for high quality outcomes, there has been little systematic investigation of the potential negative unintended consequences of performance metrics, including metric-driven harm. This case study details an incidence of post-surgical metric-driven harm and offers Smith's 1995 work and a patient centered, context sensitive metric model for potential adoption by nurse researchers and clinicians. Implications for further research are discussed. © 2013.

  15. Metrics for building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.

    This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs,more » (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.« less

  16. Quantitative and qualitative research across cultures and languages: cultural metrics and their application.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Hansen, Karolina; Kronberger, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Growing globalisation of the world draws attention to cultural differences between people from different countries or from different cultures within the countries. Notwithstanding the diversity of people's worldviews, current cross-cultural research still faces the challenge of how to avoid ethnocentrism; comparing Western-driven phenomena with like variables across countries without checking their conceptual equivalence clearly is highly problematic. In the present article we argue that simple comparison of measurements (in the quantitative domain) or of semantic interpretations (in the qualitative domain) across cultures easily leads to inadequate results. Questionnaire items or text produced in interviews or via open-ended questions have culturally laden meanings and cannot be mapped onto the same semantic metric. We call the culture-specific space and relationship between variables or meanings a 'cultural metric', that is a set of notions that are inter-related and that mutually specify each other's meaning. We illustrate the problems and their possible solutions with examples from quantitative and qualitative research. The suggested methods allow to respect the semantic space of notions in cultures and language groups and the resulting similarities or differences between cultures can be better understood and interpreted.

  17. Snow removal performance metrics : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-05-01

    This document is the final report for the Clear Roads project entitled Snow Removal Performance Metrics. The project team was led by researchers at Washington State University on behalf of Clear Roads, an ongoing pooled fund research effort focused o...

  18. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculationsmore » and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.« less

  19. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculationsmore » and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.« less

  20. Evaluating hydrological model performance using information theory-based metrics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The accuracy-based model performance metrics not necessarily reflect the qualitative correspondence between simulated and measured streamflow time series. The objective of this work was to use the information theory-based metrics to see whether they can be used as complementary tool for hydrologic m...

  1. Performance Metrics for Soil Moisture Retrievals and Applications Requirements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quadratic performance metrics such as root-mean-square error (RMSE) and time series correlation are often used to assess the accuracy of geophysical retrievals and true fields. These metrics are generally related; nevertheless each has advantages and disadvantages. In this study we explore the relat...

  2. Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Metrics as Predictors of Functional Task Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Redd, Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle J.; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The ability to predict task performance using physiological performance metrics is vital to ensure that astronauts can execute their jobs safely and effectively. This investigation used a weighted suit to evaluate task performance at various ratios of strength, power, and endurance to body weight. METHODS: Twenty subjects completed muscle performance tests and functional tasks representative of those that would be required of astronauts during planetary exploration (see table for specific tests/tasks). Subjects performed functional tasks while wearing a weighted suit with additional loads ranging from 0-120% of initial body weight. Performance metrics were time to completion for all tasks except hatch opening, which consisted of total work. Task performance metrics were plotted against muscle metrics normalized to "body weight" (subject weight + external load; BW) for each trial. Fractional polynomial regression was used to model the relationship between muscle and task performance. CONCLUSION: LPMIF/BW is the best predictor of performance for predominantly lower-body tasks that are ambulatory and of short duration. LPMIF/BW is a very practical predictor of occupational task performance as it is quick and relatively safe to perform. Accordingly, bench press work best predicts hatch-opening work performance.

  3. A probability metric for identifying high-performing facilities: an application for pay-for-performance programs.

    PubMed

    Shwartz, Michael; Peköz, Erol A; Burgess, James F; Christiansen, Cindy L; Rosen, Amy K; Berlowitz, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Two approaches are commonly used for identifying high-performing facilities on a performance measure: one, that the facility is in a top quantile (eg, quintile or quartile); and two, that a confidence interval is below (or above) the average of the measure for all facilities. This type of yes/no designation often does not do well in distinguishing high-performing from average-performing facilities. To illustrate an alternative continuous-valued metric for profiling facilities--the probability a facility is in a top quantile--and show the implications of using this metric for profiling and pay-for-performance. We created a composite measure of quality from fiscal year 2007 data based on 28 quality indicators from 112 Veterans Health Administration nursing homes. A Bayesian hierarchical multivariate normal-binomial model was used to estimate shrunken rates of the 28 quality indicators, which were combined into a composite measure using opportunity-based weights. Rates were estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods as implemented in WinBUGS. The probability metric was calculated from the simulation replications. Our probability metric allowed better discrimination of high performers than the point or interval estimate of the composite score. In a pay-for-performance program, a smaller top quantile (eg, a quintile) resulted in more resources being allocated to the highest performers, whereas a larger top quantile (eg, being above the median) distinguished less among high performers and allocated more resources to average performers. The probability metric has potential but needs to be evaluated by stakeholders in different types of delivery systems.

  4. Interaction Metrics for Feedback Control of Sound Radiation from Stiffened Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction metrics developed for the process control industry are used to evaluate decentralized control of sound radiation from bays on an aircraft fuselage. The metrics are applied to experimentally measured frequency response data from a model of an aircraft fuselage. The purpose is to understand how coupling between multiple bays of the fuselage can destabilize or limit the performance of a decentralized active noise control system. The metrics quantitatively verify observations from a previous experiment, in which decentralized controllers performed worse than centralized controllers. The metrics do not appear to be useful for explaining control spillover which was observed in a previous experiment.

  5. Performance metrics used by freight transport providers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-30

    The newly-established National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) has allocated $300,000 in funding to a project entitled Performance Metrics for Freight Transportation (NCFRP 03). The project is scheduled for completion in September ...

  6. Towards New Metrics for High-Performance Computing Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Hukerikar, Saurabh; Ashraf, Rizwan A; Engelmann, Christian

    Ensuring the reliability of applications is becoming an increasingly important challenge as high-performance computing (HPC) systems experience an ever-growing number of faults, errors and failures. While the HPC community has made substantial progress in developing various resilience solutions, it continues to rely on platform-based metrics to quantify application resiliency improvements. The resilience of an HPC application is concerned with the reliability of the application outcome as well as the fault handling efficiency. To understand the scope of impact, effective coverage and performance efficiency of existing and emerging resilience solutions, there is a need for new metrics. In this paper, wemore » develop new ways to quantify resilience that consider both the reliability and the performance characteristics of the solutions from the perspective of HPC applications. As HPC systems continue to evolve in terms of scale and complexity, it is expected that applications will experience various types of faults, errors and failures, which will require applications to apply multiple resilience solutions across the system stack. The proposed metrics are intended to be useful for understanding the combined impact of these solutions on an application's ability to produce correct results and to evaluate their overall impact on an application's performance in the presence of various modes of faults.« less

  7. Climate Classification is an Important Factor in ­Assessing Hospital Performance Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, M. R.; Parhi, P.; Gentine, P.; Tatonetti, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Context/Purpose: Climate is a known modulator of disease, but its impact on hospital performance metrics remains unstudied. Methods: We assess the relationship between Köppen-Geiger climate classification and hospital performance metrics, specifically 30-day mortality, as reported in Hospital Compare, and collected for the period July 2013 through June 2014 (7/1/2013 - 06/30/2014). A hospital-level multivariate linear regression analysis was performed while controlling for known socioeconomic factors to explore the relationship between all-cause mortality and climate. Hospital performance scores were obtained from 4,524 hospitals belonging to 15 distinct Köppen-Geiger climates and 2,373 unique counties. Results: Model results revealed that hospital performance metrics for mortality showed significant climate dependence (p<0.001) after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Interpretation: Currently, hospitals are reimbursed by Governmental agencies using 30-day mortality rates along with 30-day readmission rates. These metrics allow Government agencies to rank hospitals according to their `performance' along these metrics. Various socioeconomic factors are taken into consideration when determining individual hospitals performance. However, no climate-based adjustment is made within the existing framework. Our results indicate that climate-based variability in 30-day mortality rates does exist even after socioeconomic confounder adjustment. Use of standardized high-level climate classification systems (such as Koppen-Geiger) would be useful to incorporate in future metrics. Conclusion: Climate is a significant factor in evaluating hospital 30-day mortality rates. These results demonstrate that climate classification is an important factor when comparing hospital performance across the United States.

  8. On the correlation between reservoir metrics and performance for time series classification under the influence of synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chrol-Cannon, Joseph; Jin, Yaochu

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing provides a simpler paradigm of training recurrent networks by initialising and adapting the recurrent connections separately to a supervised linear readout. This creates a problem, though. As the recurrent weights and topology are now separated from adapting to the task, there is a burden on the reservoir designer to construct an effective network that happens to produce state vectors that can be mapped linearly into the desired outputs. Guidance in forming a reservoir can be through the use of some established metrics which link a number of theoretical properties of the reservoir computing paradigm to quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a given design. We provide a comprehensive empirical study of four metrics; class separation, kernel quality, Lyapunov's exponent and spectral radius. These metrics are each compared over a number of repeated runs, for different reservoir computing set-ups that include three types of network topology and three mechanisms of weight adaptation through synaptic plasticity. Each combination of these methods is tested on two time-series classification problems. We find that the two metrics that correlate most strongly with the classification performance are Lyapunov's exponent and kernel quality. It is also evident in the comparisons that these two metrics both measure a similar property of the reservoir dynamics. We also find that class separation and spectral radius are both less reliable and less effective in predicting performance.

  9. Orbit design and optimization based on global telecommunication performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Lee, Charles H.; Kerridge, Stuart; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Edwards, Charles D.

    2006-01-01

    The orbit selection of telecommunications orbiters is one of the critical design processes and should be guided by global telecom performance metrics and mission-specific constraints. In order to aid the orbit selection, we have coupled the Telecom Orbit Analysis and Simulation Tool (TOAST) with genetic optimization algorithms. As a demonstration, we have applied the developed tool to select an optimal orbit for general Mars telecommunications orbiters with the constraint of being a frozen orbit. While a typical optimization goal is to minimize tele-communications down time, several relevant performance metrics are examined: 1) area-weighted average gap time, 2) global maximum of local maximum gap time, 3) global maximum of local minimum gap time. Optimal solutions are found with each of the metrics. Common and different features among the optimal solutions as well as the advantage and disadvantage of each metric are presented. The optimal solutions are compared with several candidate orbits that were considered during the development of Mars Telecommunications Orbiter.

  10. Ranking streamflow model performance based on Information theory metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Gonzalo; Pachepsky, Yakov; Pan, Feng; Wagener, Thorsten; Nicholson, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy-based model performance metrics not necessarily reflect the qualitative correspondence between simulated and measured streamflow time series. The objective of this work was to use the information theory-based metrics to see whether they can be used as complementary tool for hydrologic model evaluation and selection. We simulated 10-year streamflow time series in five watersheds located in Texas, North Carolina, Mississippi, and West Virginia. Eight model of different complexity were applied. The information-theory based metrics were obtained after representing the time series as strings of symbols where different symbols corresponded to different quantiles of the probability distribution of streamflow. The symbol alphabet was used. Three metrics were computed for those strings - mean information gain that measures the randomness of the signal, effective measure complexity that characterizes predictability and fluctuation complexity that characterizes the presence of a pattern in the signal. The observed streamflow time series has smaller information content and larger complexity metrics than the precipitation time series. Watersheds served as information filters and and streamflow time series were less random and more complex than the ones of precipitation. This is reflected the fact that the watershed acts as the information filter in the hydrologic conversion process from precipitation to streamflow. The Nash Sutcliffe efficiency metric increased as the complexity of models increased, but in many cases several model had this efficiency values not statistically significant from each other. In such cases, ranking models by the closeness of the information-theory based parameters in simulated and measured streamflow time series can provide an additional criterion for the evaluation of hydrologic model performance.

  11. Metrics for evaluating performance and uncertainty of Bayesian network models

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a selected set of existing and new metrics for gauging Bayesian network model performance and uncertainty. Selected existing and new metrics are discussed for conducting model sensitivity analysis (variance reduction, entropy reduction, case file simulation); evaluating scenarios (influence analysis); depicting model complexity (numbers of model...

  12. Up Periscope! Designing a New Perceptual Metric for Imaging System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Modern electronic imaging systems include optics, sensors, sampling, noise, processing, compression, transmission and display elements, and are viewed by the human eye. Many of these elements cannot be assessed by traditional imaging system metrics such as the MTF. More complex metrics such as NVTherm do address these elements, but do so largely through parametric adjustment of an MTF-like metric. The parameters are adjusted through subjective testing of human observers identifying specific targets in a set of standard images. We have designed a new metric that is based on a model of human visual pattern classification. In contrast to previous metrics, ours simulates the human observer identifying the standard targets. One application of this metric is to quantify performance of modern electronic periscope systems on submarines.

  13. Visual salience metrics for image inpainting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardis, Paul A.; Singhal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative metrics for successful image inpainting currently do not exist, with researchers instead relying upon qualitative human comparisons to evaluate their methodologies and techniques. In an attempt to rectify this situation, we propose two new metrics to capture the notions of noticeability and visual intent in order to evaluate inpainting results. The proposed metrics use a quantitative measure of visual salience based upon a computational model of human visual attention. We demonstrate how these two metrics repeatably correlate with qualitative opinion in a human observer study, correctly identify the optimum uses for exemplar-based inpainting (as specified in the original publication), and match qualitative opinion in published examples.

  14. SIMPATIQCO: a server-based software suite which facilitates monitoring the time course of LC-MS performance metrics on Orbitrap instruments.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Peter; Mazanek, Michael; Dusberger, Frederico; Weilnböck, Lisa; Huber, Christian G; Stingl, Christoph; Luider, Theo M; Straube, Werner L; Köcher, Thomas; Mechtler, Karl

    2012-11-02

    While the performance of liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation continues to increase, applications such as analyses of complete or near-complete proteomes and quantitative studies require constant and optimal system performance. For this reason, research laboratories and core facilities alike are recommended to implement quality control (QC) measures as part of their routine workflows. Many laboratories perform sporadic quality control checks. However, successive and systematic longitudinal monitoring of system performance would be facilitated by dedicated automatic or semiautomatic software solutions that aid an effortless analysis and display of QC metrics over time. We present the software package SIMPATIQCO (SIMPle AuTomatIc Quality COntrol) designed for evaluation of data from LTQ Orbitrap, Q-Exactive, LTQ FT, and LTQ instruments. A centralized SIMPATIQCO server can process QC data from multiple instruments. The software calculates QC metrics supervising every step of data acquisition from LC and electrospray to MS. For each QC metric the software learns the range indicating adequate system performance from the uploaded data using robust statistics. Results are stored in a database and can be displayed in a comfortable manner from any computer in the laboratory via a web browser. QC data can be monitored for individual LC runs as well as plotted over time. SIMPATIQCO thus assists the longitudinal monitoring of important QC metrics such as peptide elution times, peak widths, intensities, total ion current (TIC) as well as sensitivity, and overall LC-MS system performance; in this way the software also helps identify potential problems. The SIMPATIQCO software package is available free of charge.

  15. SIMPATIQCO: A Server-Based Software Suite Which Facilitates Monitoring the Time Course of LC–MS Performance Metrics on Orbitrap Instruments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    While the performance of liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation continues to increase, applications such as analyses of complete or near-complete proteomes and quantitative studies require constant and optimal system performance. For this reason, research laboratories and core facilities alike are recommended to implement quality control (QC) measures as part of their routine workflows. Many laboratories perform sporadic quality control checks. However, successive and systematic longitudinal monitoring of system performance would be facilitated by dedicated automatic or semiautomatic software solutions that aid an effortless analysis and display of QC metrics over time. We present the software package SIMPATIQCO (SIMPle AuTomatIc Quality COntrol) designed for evaluation of data from LTQ Orbitrap, Q-Exactive, LTQ FT, and LTQ instruments. A centralized SIMPATIQCO server can process QC data from multiple instruments. The software calculates QC metrics supervising every step of data acquisition from LC and electrospray to MS. For each QC metric the software learns the range indicating adequate system performance from the uploaded data using robust statistics. Results are stored in a database and can be displayed in a comfortable manner from any computer in the laboratory via a web browser. QC data can be monitored for individual LC runs as well as plotted over time. SIMPATIQCO thus assists the longitudinal monitoring of important QC metrics such as peptide elution times, peak widths, intensities, total ion current (TIC) as well as sensitivity, and overall LC–MS system performance; in this way the software also helps identify potential problems. The SIMPATIQCO software package is available free of charge. PMID:23088386

  16. Stability and Performance Metrics for Adaptive Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Nguyen, Nhan; VanEykeren, Luarens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of verifying adaptive control techniques for enabling safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions. Since the adaptive systems are non-linear by design, the existing control verification metrics are not applicable to adaptive controllers. Moreover, these systems are in general highly uncertain. Hence, the system's characteristics cannot be evaluated by relying on the available dynamical models. This necessitates the development of control verification metrics based on the system's input-output information. For this point of view, a set of metrics is introduced that compares the uncertain aircraft's input-output behavior under the action of an adaptive controller to that of a closed-loop linear reference model to be followed by the aircraft. This reference model is constructed for each specific maneuver using the exact aerodynamic and mass properties of the aircraft to meet the stability and performance requirements commonly accepted in flight control. The proposed metrics are unified in the sense that they are model independent and not restricted to any specific adaptive control methods. As an example, we present simulation results for a wing damaged generic transport aircraft with several existing adaptive controllers.

  17. Performance Benchmarks for Scholarly Metrics Associated with Fisheries and Wildlife Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Swihart, Robert K.; Sundaram, Mekala; Höök, Tomas O.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Kellner, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    Research productivity and impact are often considered in professional evaluations of academics, and performance metrics based on publications and citations increasingly are used in such evaluations. To promote evidence-based and informed use of these metrics, we collected publication and citation data for 437 tenure-track faculty members at 33 research-extensive universities in the United States belonging to the National Association of University Fisheries and Wildlife Programs. For each faculty member, we computed 8 commonly used performance metrics based on numbers of publications and citations, and recorded covariates including academic age (time since Ph.D.), sex, percentage of appointment devoted to research, and the sub-disciplinary research focus. Standardized deviance residuals from regression models were used to compare faculty after accounting for variation in performance due to these covariates. We also aggregated residuals to enable comparison across universities. Finally, we tested for temporal trends in citation practices to assess whether the “law of constant ratios”, used to enable comparison of performance metrics between disciplines that differ in citation and publication practices, applied to fisheries and wildlife sub-disciplines when mapped to Web of Science Journal Citation Report categories. Our regression models reduced deviance by ¼ to ½. Standardized residuals for each faculty member, when combined across metrics as a simple average or weighted via factor analysis, produced similar results in terms of performance based on percentile rankings. Significant variation was observed in scholarly performance across universities, after accounting for the influence of covariates. In contrast to findings for other disciplines, normalized citation ratios for fisheries and wildlife sub-disciplines increased across years. Increases were comparable for all sub-disciplines except ecology. We discuss the advantages and limitations of our methods

  18. Performance Benchmarks for Scholarly Metrics Associated with Fisheries and Wildlife Faculty.

    PubMed

    Swihart, Robert K; Sundaram, Mekala; Höök, Tomas O; DeWoody, J Andrew; Kellner, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Research productivity and impact are often considered in professional evaluations of academics, and performance metrics based on publications and citations increasingly are used in such evaluations. To promote evidence-based and informed use of these metrics, we collected publication and citation data for 437 tenure-track faculty members at 33 research-extensive universities in the United States belonging to the National Association of University Fisheries and Wildlife Programs. For each faculty member, we computed 8 commonly used performance metrics based on numbers of publications and citations, and recorded covariates including academic age (time since Ph.D.), sex, percentage of appointment devoted to research, and the sub-disciplinary research focus. Standardized deviance residuals from regression models were used to compare faculty after accounting for variation in performance due to these covariates. We also aggregated residuals to enable comparison across universities. Finally, we tested for temporal trends in citation practices to assess whether the "law of constant ratios", used to enable comparison of performance metrics between disciplines that differ in citation and publication practices, applied to fisheries and wildlife sub-disciplines when mapped to Web of Science Journal Citation Report categories. Our regression models reduced deviance by ¼ to ½. Standardized residuals for each faculty member, when combined across metrics as a simple average or weighted via factor analysis, produced similar results in terms of performance based on percentile rankings. Significant variation was observed in scholarly performance across universities, after accounting for the influence of covariates. In contrast to findings for other disciplines, normalized citation ratios for fisheries and wildlife sub-disciplines increased across years. Increases were comparable for all sub-disciplines except ecology. We discuss the advantages and limitations of our methods

  19. Establishing Quantitative Software Metrics in Department of the Navy Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    13 Quality to Metrics Dependency Matrix...11 7. Quality characteristics to metrics dependecy matrix...In accomplishing this goal, a need exists for a formalized set of software quality metrics . This document establishes the validity of those necessary

  20. GPS Device Testing Based on User Performance Metrics

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-02

    1. Rationale for a Test Program Based on User Performance Metrics ; 2. Roberson and Associates Test Program ; 3. Status of, and Revisions to, the Roberson and Associates Test Program ; 4. Comparison of Roberson and DOT/Volpe Programs

  1. Metrics help rural hospitals achieve world-class performance.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the emerging trend of using metrics in rural hospitals to achieve world-class performance. This trend is a response to the fact that rural hospitals have small patient volumes yet must maintain a profit margin in order to fulfill their mission to the community. The conceptual idea for this article is based largely on Robert Kaplan and David Norton's Balanced Scorecard articles in the Harvard Business Review. The ideas also come from the experiences of the 60-plus rural hospitals that are using the Balanced Scorecard and their implementation of metrics to influence performance and behavior. It is indeed possible for rural hospitals to meet and exceed the unique needs of patients and physicians (customers), to achieve healthy profit margins, and to be the rural hospital of choice that employees are proud to work for.

  2. Grading the Metrics: Performance-Based Funding in the Florida State University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Luke M.; Cavanaugh, Terence W.

    2016-01-01

    A policy analysis of Florida's 10-factor Performance-Based Funding system for state universities. The focus of the article is on the system of performance metrics developed by the state Board of Governors and their impact on institutions and their missions. The paper also discusses problems and issues with the metrics, their ongoing evolution, and…

  3. Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2011-10-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed by several types of market participants, ranging from residential customers to large-scale project developers and utilities. Each type of market participant frequently uses a different economic performance metric to characterize PV value because they are looking for different types of returns from a PV investment. This report finds that different economic performance metrics frequently show different price thresholds for when a PV investment becomes profitable or attractive. Several project parameters, such as financing terms, can have a significant impact on some metrics [e.g., internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and benefit-to-cost (B/C)more » ratio] while having a minimal impact on other metrics (e.g., simple payback time). As such, the choice of economic performance metric by different customer types can significantly shape each customer's perception of PV investment value and ultimately their adoption decision.« less

  4. Performance evaluation of objective quality metrics for HDR image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzise, Giuseppe; De Simone, Francesca; Lauga, Paul; Dufaux, Frederic

    2014-09-01

    Due to the much larger luminance and contrast characteristics of high dynamic range (HDR) images, well-known objective quality metrics, widely used for the assessment of low dynamic range (LDR) content, cannot be directly applied to HDR images in order to predict their perceptual fidelity. To overcome this limitation, advanced fidelity metrics, such as the HDR-VDP, have been proposed to accurately predict visually significant differences. However, their complex calibration may make them difficult to use in practice. A simpler approach consists in computing arithmetic or structural fidelity metrics, such as PSNR and SSIM, on perceptually encoded luminance values but the performance of quality prediction in this case has not been clearly studied. In this paper, we aim at providing a better comprehension of the limits and the potentialities of this approach, by means of a subjective study. We compare the performance of HDR-VDP to that of PSNR and SSIM computed on perceptually encoded luminance values, when considering compressed HDR images. Our results show that these simpler metrics can be effectively employed to assess image fidelity for applications such as HDR image compression.

  5. Evaluation metrics for bone segmentation in ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, Matthew; Fichtinger, Gabor; Ungi, Tamas

    2015-03-01

    Tracked ultrasound is a safe alternative to X-ray for imaging bones. The interpretation of bony structures is challenging as ultrasound has no specific intensity characteristic of bones. Several image segmentation algorithms have been devised to identify bony structures. We propose an open-source framework that would aid in the development and comparison of such algorithms by quantitatively measuring segmentation performance in the ultrasound images. True-positive and false-negative metrics used in the framework quantify algorithm performance based on correctly segmented bone and correctly segmented boneless regions. Ground-truth for these metrics are defined manually and along with the corresponding automatically segmented image are used for the performance analysis. Manually created ground truth tests were generated to verify the accuracy of the analysis. Further evaluation metrics for determining average performance per slide and standard deviation are considered. The metrics provide a means of evaluating accuracy of frames along the length of a volume. This would aid in assessing the accuracy of the volume itself and the approach to image acquisition (positioning and frequency of frame). The framework was implemented as an open-source module of the 3D Slicer platform. The ground truth tests verified that the framework correctly calculates the implemented metrics. The developed framework provides a convenient way to evaluate bone segmentation algorithms. The implementation fits in a widely used application for segmentation algorithm prototyping. Future algorithm development will benefit by monitoring the effects of adjustments to an algorithm in a standard evaluation framework.

  6. A novel spatial performance metric for robust pattern optimization of distributed hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stisen, S.; Demirel, C.; Koch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of performance is an integral part of model development and calibration as well as it is of paramount importance when communicating modelling results to stakeholders and the scientific community. There exists a comprehensive and well tested toolbox of metrics to assess temporal model performance in the hydrological modelling community. On the contrary, the experience to evaluate spatial performance is not corresponding to the grand availability of spatial observations readily available and to the sophisticate model codes simulating the spatial variability of complex hydrological processes. This study aims at making a contribution towards advancing spatial pattern oriented model evaluation for distributed hydrological models. This is achieved by introducing a novel spatial performance metric which provides robust pattern performance during model calibration. The promoted SPAtial EFficiency (spaef) metric reflects three equally weighted components: correlation, coefficient of variation and histogram overlap. This multi-component approach is necessary in order to adequately compare spatial patterns. spaef, its three components individually and two alternative spatial performance metrics, i.e. connectivity analysis and fractions skill score, are tested in a spatial pattern oriented model calibration of a catchment model in Denmark. The calibration is constrained by a remote sensing based spatial pattern of evapotranspiration and discharge timeseries at two stations. Our results stress that stand-alone metrics tend to fail to provide holistic pattern information to the optimizer which underlines the importance of multi-component metrics. The three spaef components are independent which allows them to complement each other in a meaningful way. This study promotes the use of bias insensitive metrics which allow comparing variables which are related but may differ in unit in order to optimally exploit spatial observations made available by remote sensing

  7. Quantitative Metrics for Provenance in the Global Change Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, R. A.; Tipton, K.; Elamparuthy, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Change Information System (GCIS) is an open-source web-based resource to provide traceable provenance for government climate information, particularly the National Climate Assessment and other climate science reports from the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Since 2014, GCIS has been adding and updating information and linking records to make the system as complete as possible for the key reports. Our total count of records has grown to well over 20,000, but until recently there hasn't been an easy way to measure how well all those records were serving the mission of providing provenance. The GCIS team has recently established quantitative measures of whether each record has sufficient metadata and linkages to be useful for users of our featured climate reports. We will describe our metrics and show how they can be used to guide future development of GCIS and aid users of government climate data.

  8. Metrics for measuring performance of market transformation initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, F.; Schlegel, J.; Grabner, K.

    1998-07-01

    Regulators have traditionally rewarded utility efficiency programs based on energy and demand savings. Now, many regulators are encouraging utilities and other program administrators to save energy by transforming markets. Prior to achieving sustainable market transformation, the program administrators often must take actions to understand the markets, establish baselines for success, reduce market barriers, build alliances, and build market momentum. Because these activities often precede savings, year-by-year measurement of savings can be an inappropriate measure of near-term success. Because ultimate success in transforming markets is defined in terms of sustainable changes in market structure and practice, traditional measures of success canmore » also be misleading as initiatives reach maturity. This paper reviews early efforts in Massachusetts to develop metrics, or yardsticks, to gauge regulatory rewards for utility market transformation initiatives. From experience in multiparty negotiations, the authors review options for metrics based alternatively on market effects, outcomes, and good faith implementation. Additionally, alternative approaches are explored, based on end-results, interim results, and initial results. The political and practical constraints are described which have thus far led to a preference for one-year metrics, based primarily on good faith implementation. Strategies are offered for developing useful metrics which might be acceptable to regulators, advocates, and program administrators. Finally, they emphasize that the use of market transformation performance metrics is in its infancy. Both regulators and program administrators are encouraged to advance into this area with an experimental mind-set; don't put all the money on one horse until there's more of a track record.« less

  9. Resilience-based performance metrics for water resources management under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, Tom; Kapelan, Zoran; Ledbetter, Ralph

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to develop new, resilience type metrics for long-term water resources management under uncertain climate change and population growth. Resilience is defined here as the ability of a water resources management system to 'bounce back', i.e. absorb and then recover from a water deficit event, restoring the normal system operation. Ten alternative metrics are proposed and analysed addressing a range of different resilience aspects including duration, magnitude, frequency and volume of related water deficit events. The metrics were analysed on a real-world case study of the Bristol Water supply system in the UK and compared with current practice. The analyses included an examination of metrics' sensitivity and correlation, as well as a detailed examination into the behaviour of metrics during water deficit periods. The results obtained suggest that multiple metrics which cover different aspects of resilience should be used simultaneously when assessing the resilience of a water resources management system, leading to a more complete understanding of resilience compared with current practice approaches. It was also observed that calculating the total duration of a water deficit period provided a clearer and more consistent indication of system performance compared to splitting the deficit periods into the time to reach and time to recover from the worst deficit events.

  10. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Adriana E. S.; Smart, Simon M.; Henrys, Peter A.; Ashmore, Mike R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as ‘positive indicator-species’ (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists’ assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  11. Prognostic Value of Quantitative Metabolic Metrics on Baseline Pre-Sunitinib FDG PET/CT in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Barkhodari, Amir; Harshman, Lauren; Srinivas, Sandy; Quon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate various quantitative metrics on FDG PET/CT for monitoring sunitinib therapy and predicting prognosis in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). Methods Seventeen patients (mean age: 59.0 ± 11.6) prospectively underwent a baseline FDG PET/CT and interim PET/CT after 2 cycles (12 weeks) of sunitinib therapy. We measured the highest maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of all identified lesions (highest SUVmax), sum of SUVmax with maximum six lesions (sum of SUVmax), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) from baseline PET/CT and interim PET/CT, and the % decrease in highest SUVmax of lesion (%Δ highest SUVmax), the % decrease in sum of SUVmax, the % decrease in TLG (%ΔTLG) and the % decrease in MTV (%ΔMTV) between baseline and interim PET/CT, and the imaging results were validated by clinical follow-up at 12 months after completion of therapy for progression free survival (PFS). Results At 12 month follow-up, 6/17 (35.3%) patients achieved PFS, while 11/17 (64.7%) patients were deemed to have progression of disease or recurrence within the previous 12 months. At baseline, PET/CT demonstrated metabolically active cancer in all cases. Using baseline PET/CT alone, all of the quantitative imaging metrics were predictive of PFS. Using interim PET/CT, the %Δ highest SUVmax, %Δ sum of SUVmax, and %ΔTLG were also predictive of PFS. Otherwise, interim PET/CT showed no significant difference between the two survival groups regardless of the quantitative metric utilized including MTV and TLG. Conclusions Quantitative metabolic measurements on baseline PET/CT appears to be predictive of PFS at 12 months post-therapy in patients scheduled to undergo sunitinib therapy for mRCC. Change between baseline and interim PET/CT also appeared to have prognostic value but otherwise interim PET/CT after 12 weeks of sunitinib did not appear to be predictive of PFS. PMID:27123976

  12. Construct validity of individual and summary performance metrics associated with a computer-based laparoscopic simulator.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Justin D; Vergis, Ashley S; Unger, Bertram J; Hardy, Krista M; Andrew, Chris G; Gillman, Lawrence M; Park, Jason

    2014-06-01

    Computer-based surgical simulators capture a multitude of metrics based on different aspects of performance, such as speed, accuracy, and movement efficiency. However, without rigorous assessment, it may be unclear whether all, some, or none of these metrics actually reflect technical skill, which can compromise educational efforts on these simulators. We assessed the construct validity of individual performance metrics on the LapVR simulator (Immersion Medical, San Jose, CA, USA) and used these data to create task-specific summary metrics. Medical students with no prior laparoscopic experience (novices, N = 12), junior surgical residents with some laparoscopic experience (intermediates, N = 12), and experienced surgeons (experts, N = 11) all completed three repetitions of four LapVR simulator tasks. The tasks included three basic skills (peg transfer, cutting, clipping) and one procedural skill (adhesiolysis). We selected 36 individual metrics on the four tasks that assessed six different aspects of performance, including speed, motion path length, respect for tissue, accuracy, task-specific errors, and successful task completion. Four of seven individual metrics assessed for peg transfer, six of ten metrics for cutting, four of nine metrics for clipping, and three of ten metrics for adhesiolysis discriminated between experience levels. Time and motion path length were significant on all four tasks. We used the validated individual metrics to create summary equations for each task, which successfully distinguished between the different experience levels. Educators should maintain some skepticism when reviewing the plethora of metrics captured by computer-based simulators, as some but not all are valid. We showed the construct validity of a limited number of individual metrics and developed summary metrics for the LapVR. The summary metrics provide a succinct way of assessing skill with a single metric for each task, but require further validation.

  13. National Quality Forum Colon Cancer Quality Metric Performance: How Are Hospitals Measuring Up?

    PubMed

    Mason, Meredith C; Chang, George J; Petersen, Laura A; Sada, Yvonne H; Tran Cao, Hop S; Chai, Christy; Berger, David H; Massarweh, Nader N

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of care at high-performing hospitals on the National Quality Forum (NQF) colon cancer metrics. The NQF endorses evaluating ≥12 lymph nodes (LNs), adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for stage III patients, and AC within 4 months of diagnosis as colon cancer quality indicators. Data on hospital-level metric performance and the association with survival are unclear. Retrospective cohort study of 218,186 patients with resected stage I to III colon cancer in the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2012). High-performing hospitals (>75% achievement) were identified by the proportion of patients achieving each measure. The association between hospital performance and survival was evaluated using Cox shared frailty modeling. Only hospital LN performance improved (15.8% in 2004 vs 80.7% in 2012; trend test, P < 0.001), with 45.9% of hospitals performing well on all 3 measures concurrently in the most recent study year. Overall, 5-year survival was 75.0%, 72.3%, 72.5%, and 69.5% for those treated at hospitals with high performance on 3, 2, 1, and 0 metrics, respectively (log-rank, P < 0.001). Care at hospitals with high metric performance was associated with lower risk of death in a dose-response fashion [0 metrics, reference; 1, hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (0.89-1.03); 2, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); 3, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90); 2 vs 1, HR 0.96 (0.91-1.01); 3 vs 1, HR 0.89 (0.84-0.93); 3 vs 2, HR 0.95 (0.89-0.95)]. Performance on metrics in combination was associated with lower risk of death [LN + AC, HR 0.86 (0.78-0.95); AC + timely AC, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); LN + AC + timely AC, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90)], whereas individual measures were not [LN, HR 0.95 (0.88-1.04); AC, HR 0.95 (0.87-1.05)]. Less than half of hospitals perform well on these NQF colon cancer metrics concurrently, and high performance on individual measures is not associated with improved survival. Quality improvement efforts should shift focus from individual measures to defining composite measures

  14. Sugar concentration in nectar: a quantitative metric of crop attractiveness for refined pollinator risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Knopper, Loren D; Dan, Tereza; Reisig, Dominic D; Johnson, Josephine D; Bowers, Lisa M

    2016-10-01

    Those involved with pollinator risk assessment know that agricultural crops vary in attractiveness to bees. Intuitively, this means that exposure to agricultural pesticides is likely greatest for attractive plants and lowest for unattractive plants. While crop attractiveness in the risk assessment process has been qualitatively remarked on by some authorities, absent is direction on how to refine the process with quantitative metrics of attractiveness. At a high level, attractiveness of crops to bees appears to depend on several key variables, including but not limited to: floral, olfactory, visual and tactile cues; seasonal availability; physical and behavioral characteristics of the bee; plant and nectar rewards. Notwithstanding the complexities and interactions among these variables, sugar content in nectar stands out as a suitable quantitative metric by which to refine pollinator risk assessments for attractiveness. Provided herein is a proposed way to use sugar nectar concentration to adjust the exposure parameter (with what is called a crop attractiveness factor) in the calculation of risk quotients in order to derive crop-specific tier I assessments. This Perspective is meant to invite discussion on incorporating such changes in the risk assessment process. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. On Railroad Tank Car Puncture Performance: Part I - Considering Metrics

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-12

    This paper is the first in a two-part series on the puncture performance of railroad tank cars carrying hazardous materials in the event of an accident. Various metrics are often mentioned in the open literature to characterize the structural perform...

  16. Application of quantitative microbial risk assessments for estimation of risk management metrics: Clostridium perfringens in ready-to-eat and partially cooked meat and poultry products as an example.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Edmund A; Labarre, David; Golden, Neal J; Kause, Janell R; Dearfield, Kerry L

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service is exploring quantitative risk assessment methodologies to incorporate the use of the Codex Alimentarius' newly adopted risk management metrics (e.g., food safety objectives and performance objectives). It is suggested that use of these metrics would more closely tie the results of quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) to public health outcomes. By estimating the food safety objective (the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at the time of consumption) and the performance objective (the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at a specified step in the food chain before the time of consumption), risk managers will have a better understanding of the appropriate level of protection (ALOP) from microbial hazards for public health protection. We here demonstrate a general methodology that allows identification of an ALOP and evaluation of corresponding metrics at appropriate points in the food chain. It requires a two-dimensional probabilistic risk assessment, the example used being the Monte Carlo QMRA for Clostridium perfringens in ready-to eat and partially cooked meat and poultry products, with minor modifications to evaluate and abstract required measures. For demonstration purposes, the QMRA model was applied specifically to hot dogs produced and consumed in the United States. Evaluation of the cumulative uncertainty distribution for illness rate allows a specification of an ALOP that, with defined confidence, corresponds to current industry practices.

  17. A GPS Phase-Locked Loop Performance Metric Based on the Phase Discriminator Output

    PubMed Central

    Stevanovic, Stefan; Pervan, Boris

    2018-01-01

    We propose a novel GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) performance metric based on the standard deviation of tracking error (defined as the discriminator’s estimate of the true phase error), and explain its advantages over the popular phase jitter metric using theory, numerical simulation, and experimental results. We derive an augmented GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) linear model, which includes the effect of coherent averaging, to be used in conjunction with this proposed metric. The augmented linear model allows more accurate calculation of tracking error standard deviation in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as compared to traditional linear models. The standard deviation of tracking error, with a threshold corresponding to half of the arctangent discriminator pull-in region, is shown to be a more reliable/robust measure of PLL performance under interference conditions than the phase jitter metric. In addition, the augmented linear model is shown to be valid up until this threshold, which facilitates efficient performance prediction, so that time-consuming direct simulations and costly experimental testing can be reserved for PLL designs that are much more likely to be successful. The effect of varying receiver reference oscillator quality on the tracking error metric is also considered. PMID:29351250

  18. Greenroads : a sustainability performance metric for roadway design and construction.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-11-01

    Greenroads is a performance metric for quantifying sustainable practices associated with roadway design and construction. Sustainability is defined as having seven key components: ecology, equity, economy, extent, expectations, experience and exposur...

  19. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport

    DOE PAGES

    Holland, C.

    2016-06-22

    Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnosticsmore » to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. Furthermore, the utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak, as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.« less

  20. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, C.

    Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnosticsmore » to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. Furthermore, the utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak, as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.« less

  1. Automated Metrics in a Virtual-Reality Myringotomy Simulator: Development and Construct Validity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caiwen; Cheng, Horace; Bureau, Yves; Ladak, Hanif M; Agrawal, Sumit K

    2018-06-15

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop and implement a set of automated performance metrics into the Western myringotomy simulator, and 2) to establish construct validity. Prospective simulator-based assessment study. The Auditory Biophysics Laboratory at Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Eleven participants were recruited from the Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery at Western University: four senior otolaryngology consultants and seven junior otolaryngology residents. Educational simulation. Discrimination between expert and novice participants on five primary automated performance metrics: 1) time to completion, 2) surgical errors, 3) incision angle, 4) incision length, and 5) the magnification of the microscope. Automated performance metrics were developed, programmed, and implemented into the simulator. Participants were given a standardized simulator orientation and instructions on myringotomy and tube placement. Each participant then performed 10 procedures and automated metrics were collected. The metrics were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction. All metrics discriminated senior otolaryngologists from junior residents with a significance of p < 0.002. Junior residents had 2.8 times more errors compared with the senior otolaryngologists. Senior otolaryngologists took significantly less time to completion compared with junior residents. The senior group also had significantly longer incision lengths, more accurate incision angles, and lower magnification keeping both the umbo and annulus in view. Automated quantitative performance metrics were successfully developed and implemented, and construct validity was established by discriminating between expert and novice participants.

  2. Differences between genders in colorectal morphology on CT colonography using a quantitative approach: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Weber, Charles N; Poff, Jason A; Lev-Toaff, Anna S; Levine, Marc S; Zafar, Hanna M

    To explore quantitative differences between genders in morphologic colonic metrics and determine metric reproducibility. Quantitative colonic metrics from 20 male and 20 female CTC datasets were evaluated twice by two readers; all exams were performed after incomplete optical colonoscopy. Intra-/inter-reader reliability was measured with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Women had overall decreased colonic volume, increased tortuosity and compactness and lower sigmoid apex height on CTC compared to men (p<0.0001,all). Quantitative measurements in colonic metrics were highly reproducible (ICC=0.9989 and 0.9970; CCC=0.9945). Quantitative morphologic differences between genders can be reproducibility measured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Immediate Interpretation of Screening Tomosynthesis Mammography on Performance Metrics.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Nicole S; Freer, Phoebe; Anzai, Yoshimi; Hu, Nan; Stein, Matthew

    2018-05-07

    This study aimed to compare performance metrics for immediate and delayed batch interpretation of screening tomosynthesis mammograms. This HIPAA compliant study was approved by institutional review board with a waiver of consent. A retrospective analysis of screening performance metrics for tomosynthesis mammograms interpreted in 2015 when mammograms were read immediately was compared to historical controls from 2013 to 2014 when mammograms were batch interpreted after the patient had departed. A total of 5518 screening tomosynthesis mammograms (n = 1212 for batch interpretation and n = 4306 for immediate interpretation) were evaluated. The larger sample size for the latter group reflects a group practice shift to performing tomosynthesis for the majority of patients. Age, breast density, comparison examinations, and high-risk status were compared. An asymptotic proportion test and multivariable analysis were used to compare performance metrics. There was no statistically significant difference in recall or cancer detection rates for the batch interpretation group compared to immediate interpretation group with respective recall rate of 6.5% vs 5.3% = +1.2% (95% confidence interval -0.3 to 2.7%; P = .101) and cancer detection rate of 6.6 vs 7.2 per thousand = -0.6 (95% confidence interval -5.9 to 4.6; P = .825). There was no statistically significant difference in positive predictive values (PPVs) including PPV1 (screening recall), PPV2 (biopsy recommendation), or PPV 3 (biopsy performed) with batch interpretation (10.1%, 42.1%, and 40.0%, respectively) and immediate interpretation (13.6%, 39.2%, and 39.7%, respectively). After adjusting for age, breast density, high-risk status, and comparison mammogram, there was no difference in the odds of being recalled or cancer detection between the two groups. There is no statistically significant difference in interpretation performance metrics for screening tomosynthesis mammograms interpreted

  4. Quantitative performance of a polarization diffraction grating polarimeter encoded onto two liquid-crystal-on-silicon displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofré, Aarón; Vargas, Asticio; Torres-Ruiz, Fabián A.; Campos, Juan; Lizana, Angel; del Mar Sánchez-López, María; Moreno, Ignacio

    2017-11-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the performance of a complete snapshot polarimeter based on a polarization diffraction grating (PDGr). The PDGr is generated in a common path polarization interferometer with a Z optical architecture that uses two liquid-crystal on silicon (LCoS) displays to imprint two different phase-only diffraction gratings onto two orthogonal linear states of polarization. As a result, we obtain a programmable PDGr capable to act as a simultaneous polarization state generator (PSG), yielding diffraction orders with different states of polarization. The same system is also shown to operate as a polarization state analyzer (PSA), therefore useful for the realization of a snapshot polarimeter. We analyze its performance using quantitative metrics such as the conditional number, and verify its reliability for the detection of states of polarization.

  5. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric in a High Performance Computing Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew

    2013-06-30

    As data centers proliferate in size and number, the improvement of their energy efficiency and productivity has become an economic and environmental imperative. Making these improvements requires metrics that are robust, interpretable, and practical. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented,more » high-performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and between data centers.« less

  6. 48 CFR 711.002-70 - Metric system waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Metric system waivers. 711... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 711.002-70 Metric system waivers. (a) Criteria. The FAR 11.002(b) requirement to use the metric system of measurement for specifications and quantitative data that are...

  7. 48 CFR 711.002-70 - Metric system waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Metric system waivers. 711... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 711.002-70 Metric system waivers. (a) Criteria. The FAR 11.002(b) requirement to use the metric system of measurement for specifications and quantitative data that are...

  8. 48 CFR 711.002-70 - Metric system waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Metric system waivers. 711... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 711.002-70 Metric system waivers. (a) Criteria. The FAR 11.002(b) requirement to use the metric system of measurement for specifications and quantitative data that are...

  9. 48 CFR 711.002-70 - Metric system waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Metric system waivers. 711... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 711.002-70 Metric system waivers. (a) Criteria. The FAR 11.002(b) requirement to use the metric system of measurement for specifications and quantitative data that are...

  10. Defining Sustainability Metric Targets in an Institutional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Jason N.; Newman, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to expand on the development of university and college sustainability metrics by implementing an adaptable metric target strategy. Design/methodology/approach: A combined qualitative and quantitative methodology is derived that both defines what a sustainable metric target might be and describes the path a…

  11. Performance evaluation of no-reference image quality metrics for face biometric images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinwei; Pedersen, Marius; Charrier, Christophe; Bours, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    The accuracy of face recognition systems is significantly affected by the quality of face sample images. The recent established standardization proposed several important aspects for the assessment of face sample quality. There are many existing no-reference image quality metrics (IQMs) that are able to assess natural image quality by taking into account similar image-based quality attributes as introduced in the standardization. However, whether such metrics can assess face sample quality is rarely considered. We evaluate the performance of 13 selected no-reference IQMs on face biometrics. The experimental results show that several of them can assess face sample quality according to the system performance. We also analyze the strengths and weaknesses of different IQMs as well as why some of them failed to assess face sample quality. Retraining an original IQM by using face database can improve the performance of such a metric. In addition, the contribution of this paper can be used for the evaluation of IQMs on other biometric modalities; furthermore, it can be used for the development of multimodality biometric IQMs.

  12. Performance metrics for the assessment of satellite data products: an ocean color case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance assessment of ocean color satellite data has generally relied on statistical metrics chosen for their common usage and the rationale for selecting certain metrics is infrequently explained. Commonly reported statistics based on mean squared errors, such as the coeffic...

  13. On Railroad Tank Car Puncture Performance: Part II - Estimating Metrics

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-12

    This paper is the second in a two-part series on the puncture performance of railroad tank cars carrying hazardous materials in the event of an accident. Various metrics are often mentioned in the open literature to characterize the structural perfor...

  14. Development of an Objective Space Suit Mobility Performance Metric Using Metabolic Cost and Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating EVA suit performance and mobility have historically concentrated on isolated joint range of motion and torque. However, these techniques do little to evaluate how well a suited crewmember can actually perform during an EVA. An alternative method of characterizing suited mobility through measurement of metabolic cost to the wearer has been evaluated at Johnson Space Center over the past several years. The most recent study involved six test subjects completing multiple trials of various functional tasks in each of three different space suits; the results indicated it was often possible to discern between different suit designs on the basis of metabolic cost alone. However, other variables may have an effect on real-world suited performance; namely, completion time of the task, the gravity field in which the task is completed, etc. While previous results have analyzed completion time, metabolic cost, and metabolic cost normalized to system mass individually, it is desirable to develop a single metric comprising these (and potentially other) performance metrics. This paper outlines the background upon which this single-score metric is determined to be feasible, and initial efforts to develop such a metric. Forward work includes variable coefficient determination and verification of the metric through repeated testing.

  15. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, C., E-mail: chholland@ucsd.edu

    Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnosticsmore » to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. The utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.« less

  16. Impact of distance-based metric learning on classification and visualization model performance and structure-activity landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kireeva, Natalia V; Ovchinnikova, Svetlana I; Kuznetsov, Sergey L; Kazennov, Andrey M; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu

    2014-02-01

    This study concerns large margin nearest neighbors classifier and its multi-metric extension as the efficient approaches for metric learning which aimed to learn an appropriate distance/similarity function for considered case studies. In recent years, many studies in data mining and pattern recognition have demonstrated that a learned metric can significantly improve the performance in classification, clustering and retrieval tasks. The paper describes application of the metric learning approach to in silico assessment of chemical liabilities. Chemical liabilities, such as adverse effects and toxicity, play a significant role in drug discovery process, in silico assessment of chemical liabilities is an important step aimed to reduce costs and animal testing by complementing or replacing in vitro and in vivo experiments. Here, to our knowledge for the first time, a distance-based metric learning procedures have been applied for in silico assessment of chemical liabilities, the impact of metric learning on structure-activity landscapes and predictive performance of developed models has been analyzed, the learned metric was used in support vector machines. The metric learning results have been illustrated using linear and non-linear data visualization techniques in order to indicate how the change of metrics affected nearest neighbors relations and descriptor space.

  17. Impact of distance-based metric learning on classification and visualization model performance and structure-activity landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireeva, Natalia V.; Ovchinnikova, Svetlana I.; Kuznetsov, Sergey L.; Kazennov, Andrey M.; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu.

    2014-02-01

    This study concerns large margin nearest neighbors classifier and its multi-metric extension as the efficient approaches for metric learning which aimed to learn an appropriate distance/similarity function for considered case studies. In recent years, many studies in data mining and pattern recognition have demonstrated that a learned metric can significantly improve the performance in classification, clustering and retrieval tasks. The paper describes application of the metric learning approach to in silico assessment of chemical liabilities. Chemical liabilities, such as adverse effects and toxicity, play a significant role in drug discovery process, in silico assessment of chemical liabilities is an important step aimed to reduce costs and animal testing by complementing or replacing in vitro and in vivo experiments. Here, to our knowledge for the first time, a distance-based metric learning procedures have been applied for in silico assessment of chemical liabilities, the impact of metric learning on structure-activity landscapes and predictive performance of developed models has been analyzed, the learned metric was used in support vector machines. The metric learning results have been illustrated using linear and non-linear data visualization techniques in order to indicate how the change of metrics affected nearest neighbors relations and descriptor space.

  18. Sigma metric analysis for performance of creatinine with fresh frozen serum.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Chuanbao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Six sigma provides an objective and quantitative methodology to describe the laboratory testing performance. In this study, we conducted a national trueness verification scheme with fresh frozen serum (FFS) for serum creatinine to evaluate its performance in China. Two different concentration levels of FFS, targeted with reference method, were sent to 98 laboratories in China. Imprecision and bias of the measurement procedure were calculated for each participant to further evaluate the sigma value. Quality goal index (QGI) analysis was used to investigate the reason of unacceptable performance for laboratories with σ < 3. Our study indicated that the sample with high concentration of creatinine had preferable sigma values. For the enzymatic method, 7.0% (5/71) to 45.1% (32/71) of the laboratories need to improve their measurement procedures (σ < 3). And for the Jaffe method, the percentages were from 11.5% (3/26) to 73.1% (19/26). QGI analysis suggested that most of the laboratories (62.5% for the enzymatic method and 68.4% for the Jaffe method) should make an effort to improve the trueness (QGI > 1.2). Only 3.1-5.3% of the laboratories should improve both of the precision and trueness. Sigma metric analysis of the serum creatinine assays is disappointing, which was mainly due to the unacceptable analytical bias according to the QGI analysis. Further effort is needed to enhance the trueness of the creatinine measurement.

  19. Development and validation of trauma surgical skills metrics: Preliminary assessment of performance after training.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Stacy; Garofalo, Evan; Shalin, Valerie; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin F

    2015-07-01

    Maintaining trauma-specific surgical skills is an ongoing challenge for surgical training programs. An objective assessment of surgical skills is needed. We hypothesized that a validated surgical performance assessment tool could detect differences following a training intervention. We developed surgical performance assessment metrics based on discussion with expert trauma surgeons, video review of 10 experts and 10 novice surgeons performing three vascular exposure procedures and lower extremity fasciotomy on cadavers, and validated the metrics with interrater reliability testing by five reviewers blinded to level of expertise and a consensus conference. We tested these performance metrics in 12 surgical residents (Year 3-7) before and 2 weeks after vascular exposure skills training in the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. Performance was assessed in three areas as follows: knowledge (anatomic, management), procedure steps, and technical skills. Time to completion of procedures was recorded, and these metrics were combined into a single performance score, the Trauma Readiness Index (TRI). Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test compared pretraining/posttraining effects. Mean time to complete procedures decreased by 4.3 minutes (from 13.4 minutes to 9.1 minutes). The performance component most improved by the 1-day skills training was procedure steps, completion of which increased by 21%. Technical skill scores improved by 12%. Overall knowledge improved by 3%, with 18% improvement in anatomic knowledge. TRI increased significantly from 50% to 64% with ASSET training. Interrater reliability of the surgical performance assessment metrics was validated with single intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.7 to 0.98. A trauma-relevant surgical performance assessment detected improvements in specific procedure steps and anatomic knowledge taught during a 1-day course, quantified by the TRI. ASSET training reduced time to complete vascular

  20. A quantitative metric to identify critical elements within seafood supply networks.

    PubMed

    Plagányi, Éva E; van Putten, Ingrid; Thébaud, Olivier; Hobday, Alistair J; Innes, James; Lim-Camacho, Lilly; Norman-López, Ana; Bustamante, Rodrigo H; Farmery, Anna; Fleming, Aysha; Frusher, Stewart; Green, Bridget; Hoshino, Eriko; Jennings, Sarah; Pecl, Gretta; Pascoe, Sean; Schrobback, Peggy; Thomas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical basis is required for comparing key features and critical elements in wild fisheries and aquaculture supply chains under a changing climate. Here we develop a new quantitative metric that is analogous to indices used to analyse food-webs and identify key species. The Supply Chain Index (SCI) identifies critical elements as those elements with large throughput rates, as well as greater connectivity. The sum of the scores for a supply chain provides a single metric that roughly captures both the resilience and connectedness of a supply chain. Standardised scores can facilitate cross-comparisons both under current conditions as well as under a changing climate. Identification of key elements along the supply chain may assist in informing adaptation strategies to reduce anticipated future risks posed by climate change. The SCI also provides information on the relative stability of different supply chains based on whether there is a fairly even spread in the individual scores of the top few key elements, compared with a more critical dependence on a few key individual supply chain elements. We use as a case study the Australian southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii fishery, which is challenged by a number of climate change drivers such as impacts on recruitment and growth due to changes in large-scale and local oceanographic features. The SCI identifies airports, processors and Chinese consumers as the key elements in the lobster supply chain that merit attention to enhance stability and potentially enable growth. We also apply the index to an additional four real-world Australian commercial fishery and two aquaculture industry supply chains to highlight the utility of a systematic method for describing supply chains. Overall, our simple methodological approach to empirically-based supply chain research provides an objective method for comparing the resilience of supply chains and highlighting components that may be critical.

  1. A Quantitative Metric to Identify Critical Elements within Seafood Supply Networks

    PubMed Central

    Plagányi, Éva E.; van Putten, Ingrid; Thébaud, Olivier; Hobday, Alistair J.; Innes, James; Lim-Camacho, Lilly; Norman-López, Ana; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Farmery, Anna; Fleming, Aysha; Frusher, Stewart; Green, Bridget; Hoshino, Eriko; Jennings, Sarah; Pecl, Gretta; Pascoe, Sean; Schrobback, Peggy; Thomas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical basis is required for comparing key features and critical elements in wild fisheries and aquaculture supply chains under a changing climate. Here we develop a new quantitative metric that is analogous to indices used to analyse food-webs and identify key species. The Supply Chain Index (SCI) identifies critical elements as those elements with large throughput rates, as well as greater connectivity. The sum of the scores for a supply chain provides a single metric that roughly captures both the resilience and connectedness of a supply chain. Standardised scores can facilitate cross-comparisons both under current conditions as well as under a changing climate. Identification of key elements along the supply chain may assist in informing adaptation strategies to reduce anticipated future risks posed by climate change. The SCI also provides information on the relative stability of different supply chains based on whether there is a fairly even spread in the individual scores of the top few key elements, compared with a more critical dependence on a few key individual supply chain elements. We use as a case study the Australian southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii fishery, which is challenged by a number of climate change drivers such as impacts on recruitment and growth due to changes in large-scale and local oceanographic features. The SCI identifies airports, processors and Chinese consumers as the key elements in the lobster supply chain that merit attention to enhance stability and potentially enable growth. We also apply the index to an additional four real-world Australian commercial fishery and two aquaculture industry supply chains to highlight the utility of a systematic method for describing supply chains. Overall, our simple methodological approach to empirically-based supply chain research provides an objective method for comparing the resilience of supply chains and highlighting components that may be critical. PMID:24633147

  2. Target Scattering Metrics: Model-Model and Model-Data Comparisons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-13

    measured synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) data or from numerical models is investigated. Metrics are needed for quantitative comparisons for signals...candidate metrics for model-model comparisons are examined here with a goal to consider raw data prior to its reduction to data products, which may...be suitable for input to classification schemes. The investigated metrics are then applied to model-data comparisons. INTRODUCTION Metrics for

  3. Target Scattering Metrics: Model-Model and Model Data comparisons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-13

    measured synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) data or from numerical models is investigated. Metrics are needed for quantitative comparisons for signals...candidate metrics for model-model comparisons are examined here with a goal to consider raw data prior to its reduction to data products, which may...be suitable for input to classification schemes. The investigated metrics are then applied to model-data comparisons. INTRODUCTION Metrics for

  4. Performance metrics for the assessment of satellite data products: an ocean color case study

    PubMed Central

    Seegers, Bridget N.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Schaeffer, Blake A.; Loftin, Keith A.; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Performance assessment of ocean color satellite data has generally relied on statistical metrics chosen for their common usage and the rationale for selecting certain metrics is infrequently explained. Commonly reported statistics based on mean squared errors, such as the coefficient of determination (r2), root mean square error, and regression slopes, are most appropriate for Gaussian distributions without outliers and, therefore, are often not ideal for ocean color algorithm performance assessment, which is often limited by sample availability. In contrast, metrics based on simple deviations, such as bias and mean absolute error, as well as pair-wise comparisons, often provide more robust and straightforward quantities for evaluating ocean color algorithms with non-Gaussian distributions and outliers. This study uses a SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a validation data set to demonstrate a framework for satellite data product assessment and recommends a multi-metric and user-dependent approach that can be applied within science, modeling, and resource management communities. PMID:29609296

  5. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  6. Effect of quality metric monitoring and colonoscopy performance.

    PubMed

    Razzak, Anthony; Smith, Dineen; Zahid, Maliha; Papachristou, Georgios; Khalid, Asif

    2016-10-01

    Background and aims: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) and cecal withdrawal time (CWT) have been identified as measures of colonoscopy quality. This study evaluates the impact of monitoring these measures on provider performance. Methods: Six blinded gastroenterologists practicing at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center were prospectively monitored over 9 months. Data for screening, adenoma surveillance, and fecal occult blood test positive (FOBT +) indicated colonoscopies were obtained, including exam preparation quality, cecal intubation rate, CWT, ADR, adenomas per colonoscopy (APC), and adverse events. Metrics were continuously monitored after a period of informed CWT monitoring and informed CWT + ADR monitoring. The primary outcome was impact on ADR and APC. Results: A total of 1671 colonoscopies were performed during the study period with 540 before informed monitoring, 528 during informed CWT monitoring, and 603 during informed CWT + ADR monitoring. No statistically significant impact on ADR was noted across each study phase. Multivariate regression revealed a trend towards fewer adenomas removed during the CWT monitoring phase (OR = 0.79; 95 %CI 0.62 - 1.02, P  = 0.065) and a trend towards more adenomas removed during the CWT + ADR monitoring phase when compared to baseline (OR = 1.26; 95 %CI 0.99 - 1.61, P  = 0.062). Indication for examination and provider were significant predictors for higher APC. Provider-specific data demonstrated a direct relationship between high ADR performers and increased CWT. Conclusions: Monitoring quality metrics did not significantly alter colonoscopy performance across a small heterogeneous group of providers. Non-significant trends towards higher APC were noted with CWT + ADR monitoring. Providers with a longer CWT had a higher ADR. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of monitoring on colonoscopy performance.

  7. A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics as Quality Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel C.; Melo, Walcelio

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which we empirically investigated the suits of object-oriented (00) design metrics introduced in another work. More specifically, our goal is to assess these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes and, therefore, determine whether they can be used as early quality indicators. This study is complementary to the work described where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform our validation accurately, we collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements. All eight projects were developed using a sequential life cycle model, a well-known 00 analysis/design method and the C++ programming language. Based on empirical and quantitative analysis, the advantages and drawbacks of these 00 metrics are discussed. Several of Chidamber and Kamerer's 00 metrics appear to be useful to predict class fault-proneness during the early phases of the life-cycle. Also, on our data set, they are better predictors than 'traditional' code metrics, which can only be collected at a later phase of the software development processes.

  8. Proposed Performance-Based Metrics for the Future Funding of Graduate Medical Education: Starting the Conversation.

    PubMed

    Caverzagie, Kelly J; Lane, Susan W; Sharma, Niraj; Donnelly, John; Jaeger, Jeffrey R; Laird-Fick, Heather; Moriarty, John P; Moyer, Darilyn V; Wallach, Sara L; Wardrop, Richard M; Steinmann, Alwin F

    2017-12-12

    Graduate medical education (GME) in the United States is financed by contributions from both federal and state entities that total over $15 billion annually. Within institutions, these funds are distributed with limited transparency to achieve ill-defined outcomes. To address this, the Institute of Medicine convened a committee on the governance and financing of GME to recommend finance reform that would promote a physician training system that meets society's current and future needs. The resulting report provided several recommendations regarding the oversight and mechanisms of GME funding, including implementation of performance-based GME payments, but did not provide specific details about the content and development of metrics for these payments. To initiate a national conversation about performance-based GME funding, the authors asked: What should GME be held accountable for in exchange for public funding? In answer to this question, the authors propose 17 potential performance-based metrics for GME funding that could inform future funding decisions. Eight of the metrics are described as exemplars to add context and to help readers obtain a deeper understanding of the inherent complexities of performance-based GME funding. The authors also describe considerations and precautions for metric implementation.

  9. Performance assessment of geospatial simulation models of land-use change--a landscape metric-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sakieh, Yousef; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-03-01

    Performance evaluation is a critical step when developing land-use and cover change (LUCC) models. The present study proposes a spatially explicit model performance evaluation method, adopting a landscape metric-based approach. To quantify GEOMOD model performance, a set of composition- and configuration-based landscape metrics including number of patches, edge density, mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance, largest patch index, class area, landscape shape index, and splitting index were employed. The model takes advantage of three decision rules including neighborhood effect, persistence of change direction, and urbanization suitability values. According to the results, while class area, largest patch index, and splitting indices demonstrated insignificant differences between spatial pattern of ground truth and simulated layers, there was a considerable inconsistency between simulation results and real dataset in terms of the remaining metrics. Specifically, simulation outputs were simplistic and the model tended to underestimate number of developed patches by producing a more compact landscape. Landscape-metric-based performance evaluation produces more detailed information (compared to conventional indices such as the Kappa index and overall accuracy) on the model's behavior in replicating spatial heterogeneity features of a landscape such as frequency, fragmentation, isolation, and density. Finally, as the main characteristic of the proposed method, landscape metrics employ the maximum potential of observed and simulated layers for a performance evaluation procedure, provide a basis for more robust interpretation of a calibration process, and also deepen modeler insight into the main strengths and pitfalls of a specific land-use change model when simulating a spatiotemporal phenomenon.

  10. Performance of a normalized energy metric without jammer state information for an FH/MFSK system in worst case partial band jamming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    For a frequency-hopped noncoherent MFSK communication system without jammer state information (JSI) in a worst case partial band jamming environment, it is well known that the use of a conventional unquantized metric results in very poor performance. In this paper, a 'normalized' unquantized energy metric is suggested for such a system. It is shown that with this metric, one can save 2-3 dB in required signal energy over the system with hard decision metric without JSI for the same desired performance. When this very robust metric is compared to the conventional unquantized energy metric with JSI, the loss in required signal energy is shown to be small. Thus, the use of this normalized metric provides performance comparable to systems for which JSI is known. Cutoff rate and bit error rate with dual-k coding are used for the performance measures.

  11. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the prostate: should we use quantitative metrics to better characterize focal lesions originating in the peripheral zone?

    PubMed

    Pierre, Thibaut; Cornud, Francois; Colléter, Loïc; Beuvon, Frédéric; Foissac, Frantz; Delongchamps, Nicolas B; Legmann, Paul

    2018-05-01

    To compare inter-reader concordance and accuracy of qualitative diffusion-weighted (DW) PIRADSv2.0 score with those of quantitative DW-MRI for the diagnosis of peripheral zone prostate cancer. Two radiologists independently assigned a DW-MRI-PIRADS score to 92 PZ-foci, in 74 patients (64.3±5.6 years old; median PSA level: 8 ng/ml, normal DRE in 70 men). A standardised ADCmean and nine ADC-derived parameters were measured, including ADCratios with the whole-prostate (WP-ADCratio) or the mirror-PZ (mirror-ADCratio) as reference areas. Surgical histology and MRI-TRUS fusion-biopsy were the reference for tumours and benign foci, respectively. Inter-reader agreement was assessed by the Cohen-kappa-coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Univariate-multivariate regressions determined the most predictive factor for cancer. Fifty lesions were malignant. Inter-reader concordance was fair for qualitative assessment, but excellent for quantitative assessment for all quantitative variables. At univariate analysis, ADCmean, WP-ADCratio and WL-ADCmean performed equally, but significantly better than the mirror-ADCratio (p<0.001). At multivariate analysis, the only independent variable significantly associated with malignancy was the whole-prostate-ADCratio. At a cut-off value of 0.68, sensitivity was 94-90 % and specificity was 60-38 % for readers 1 and 2, respectively. The whole-prostate-ADCratio improved the qualitative inter-reader concordance and characterisation of focal PZ-lesions. • Inter-reader concordance of DW PI-RADSv2.0 score for PZ lesions was only fair. • Using a standardised ADCmean measurement and derived DW-quantitative parameters, concordance was excellent. • The whole-prostate ADCratio performed significantly better than the mirror-ADCratio for cancer detection. • At a cut-off of 0.68, sensitivity values of WP-ADCratio were 94-90 %. • The whole-prostate ADCratio may circumvent variations of ADC metrics across centres.

  12. Information-theoretic model comparison unifies saliency metrics

    PubMed Central

    Kümmerer, Matthias; Wallis, Thomas S. A.; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Learning the properties of an image associated with human gaze placement is important both for understanding how biological systems explore the environment and for computer vision applications. There is a large literature on quantitative eye movement models that seeks to predict fixations from images (sometimes termed “saliency” prediction). A major problem known to the field is that existing model comparison metrics give inconsistent results, causing confusion. We argue that the primary reason for these inconsistencies is because different metrics and models use different definitions of what a “saliency map” entails. For example, some metrics expect a model to account for image-independent central fixation bias whereas others will penalize a model that does. Here we bring saliency evaluation into the domain of information by framing fixation prediction models probabilistically and calculating information gain. We jointly optimize the scale, the center bias, and spatial blurring of all models within this framework. Evaluating existing metrics on these rephrased models produces almost perfect agreement in model rankings across the metrics. Model performance is separated from center bias and spatial blurring, avoiding the confounding of these factors in model comparison. We additionally provide a method to show where and how models fail to capture information in the fixations on the pixel level. These methods are readily extended to spatiotemporal models of fixation scanpaths, and we provide a software package to facilitate their use. PMID:26655340

  13. Data-driven management using quantitative metric and automatic auditing program (QMAP) improves consistency of radiation oncology processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Naichang; Xia, Ping; Mastroianni, Anthony; Kolar, Matthew D; Chao, Samuel T; Greskovich, John F; Suh, John H

    Process consistency in planning and delivery of radiation therapy is essential to maintain patient safety and treatment quality and efficiency. Ensuring the timely completion of each critical clinical task is one aspect of process consistency. The purpose of this work is to report our experience in implementing a quantitative metric and automatic auditing program (QMAP) with a goal of improving the timely completion of critical clinical tasks. Based on our clinical electronic medical records system, we developed a software program to automatically capture the completion timestamp of each critical clinical task while providing frequent alerts of potential delinquency. These alerts were directed to designated triage teams within a time window that would offer an opportunity to mitigate the potential for late completion. Since July 2011, 18 metrics were introduced in our clinical workflow. We compared the delinquency rates for 4 selected metrics before the implementation of the metric with the delinquency rate of 2016. One-tailed Student t test was used for statistical analysis RESULTS: With an average of 150 daily patients on treatment at our main campus, the late treatment plan completion rate and late weekly physics check were reduced from 18.2% and 8.9% in 2011 to 4.2% and 0.1% in 2016, respectively (P < .01). The late weekly on-treatment physician visit rate was reduced from 7.2% in 2012 to <1.6% in 2016. The yearly late cone beam computed tomography review rate was reduced from 1.6% in 2011 to <0.1% in 2016. QMAP is effective in reducing late completions of critical tasks, which can positively impact treatment quality and patient safety by reducing the potential for errors resulting from distractions, interruptions, and rush in completion of critical tasks. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Noisy EEG signals classification based on entropy metrics. Performance assessment using first and second generation statistics.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Frau, David; Miró-Martínez, Pau; Jordán Núñez, Jorge; Oltra-Crespo, Sandra; Molina Picó, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of first generation entropy metrics, featured by the well known and widely used Approximate Entropy (ApEn) and Sample Entropy (SampEn) metrics, and what can be considered an evolution from these, Fuzzy Entropy (FuzzyEn), in the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal classification context. The study uses the commonest artifacts found in real EEGs, such as white noise, and muscular, cardiac, and ocular artifacts. Using two different sets of publicly available EEG records, and a realistic range of amplitudes for interfering artifacts, this work optimises and assesses the robustness of these metrics against artifacts in class segmentation terms probability. The results show that the qualitative behaviour of the two datasets is similar, with SampEn and FuzzyEn performing the best, and the noise and muscular artifacts are the most confounding factors. On the contrary, there is a wide variability as regards initialization parameters. The poor performance achieved by ApEn suggests that this metric should not be used in these contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of a virtual reality wheelchair simulator to include qualitative and quantitative performance metrics.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C S; Grant, P M; Conway, B A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing importance of inclusive design and in particular accessibility guidelines established in the U.K. 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) has been a prime motivation for the work on wheelchair access, a subset of the DDA guidelines, described in this article. The development of these guidelines mirrors the long-standing provisions developed in the U.S. In order to raise awareness of these guidelines and in particular to give architects, building designers, and users a physical sensation of how a planned development could be experienced, a wheelchair virtual reality system was developed. This compares with conventional methods of measuring against drawings and comparing dimensions against building regulations, established in the U.K. under British standards. Features of this approach include the marriage of an electromechanical force-feedback system with high-quality immersive graphics as well as the potential ability to generate a physiological rating of buildings that do not yet exist. The provision of this sense of "feel" augments immersion within the virtual reality environment and also provides the basis from which both qualitative and quantitative measures of a building's access performance can be gained.

  16. Bayesian performance metrics and small system integration in recent homeland security and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Patton, Edward; Pradhan, Ranjit; Shih, Min-Yi; Walter, Kevin; Savant, Gajendra; Shie, Rick; Forrester, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, Bayesian inference is applied to performance metrics definition of the important class of recent Homeland Security and defense systems called binary sensors, including both (internal) system performance and (external) CONOPS. The medical analogy is used to define the PPV (Positive Predictive Value), the basic Bayesian metrics parameter of the binary sensors. Also, Small System Integration (SSI) is discussed in the context of recent Homeland Security and defense applications, emphasizing a highly multi-technological approach, within the broad range of clusters ("nexus") of electronics, optics, X-ray physics, γ-ray physics, and other disciplines.

  17. Early Warning Look Ahead Metrics: The Percent Milestone Backlog Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Stephen A.; Anderson, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    All complex development projects experience delays and corresponding backlogs of their project control milestones during their acquisition lifecycles. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate (FPD) teamed with The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to develop a collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics that would provide GSFC leadership with some independent indication of the programmatic health of GSFC flight projects. As part of the collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics, the Percent Milestone Backlog metric is particularly revealing, and has utility as a stand-alone execution performance monitoring tool. This paper describes the purpose, development methodology, and utility of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric. The other four Early Warning Look Ahead metrics are also briefly discussed. Finally, an example of the use of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric in providing actionable insight is described, along with examples of its potential use in other commodities.

  18. Quantitative exposure metrics for sleep disturbance and their association with breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Girschik, Jennifer; Fritschi, Lin; Erren, Thomas C; Heyworth, Jane

    2013-05-01

    It has been acknowledged by those in the field of sleep epidemiology that the current measures of sleep used in many epidemiological studies do not adequately capture the complexity and variability of sleep. A number of ways to improve the measurement of sleep have been proposed. This study aimed to assess the relationship between novel 'sleep disturbance' metrics, as expanded measures of sleep, and breast cancer risk. Data for this study were derived from a population-based case-control study conducted in Western Australia between 2009 and 2011. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions about demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle factors in addition to questions on sleep. Four metrics of exposure to sleep disturbance (cumulative, average, duration, and peak) were developed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between metrics of sleep disturbance and breast cancer risk. There was no evidence to support an association between any of the sleep disturbance metrics and breast cancer risk. Compared with the reference group of unexposed women, the fully adjusted ORs for cumulative sleep disturbance (harm) metric were as follows: 1st tertile 0.90 (95 % CI: 0.72-1.13); OR for the 2nd tertile 1.04 (95 % CI: 0.84-1.29); and OR for the 3rd tertile 1.02 (95 % CI: 0.82-1.27). This study found no association between several metrics of sleep disturbance and risk of breast cancer. Our experience with developing metrics of sleep disturbance may be of use to others in sleep epidemiology wishing to expand their scope of sleep measurement.

  19. Assessment of various supervised learning algorithms using different performance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susheel Kumar, S. M.; Laxkar, Deepak; Adhikari, Sourav; Vijayarajan, V.

    2017-11-01

    Our work brings out comparison based on the performance of supervised machine learning algorithms on a binary classification task. The supervised machine learning algorithms which are taken into consideration in the following work are namely Support Vector Machine(SVM), Decision Tree(DT), K Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Naïve Bayes(NB) and Random Forest(RF). This paper mostly focuses on comparing the performance of above mentioned algorithms on one binary classification task by analysing the Metrics such as Accuracy, F-Measure, G-Measure, Precision, Misclassification Rate, False Positive Rate, True Positive Rate, Specificity, Prevalence.

  20. A condition metric for Eucalyptus woodland derived from expert evaluations.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Steve J; Bruce, Matthew J; Griffioen, Peter; Dodd, Amanda; White, Matthew D

    2018-02-01

    The evaluation of ecosystem quality is important for land-management and land-use planning. Evaluation is unavoidably subjective, and robust metrics must be based on consensus and the structured use of observations. We devised a transparent and repeatable process for building and testing ecosystem metrics based on expert data. We gathered quantitative evaluation data on the quality of hypothetical grassy woodland sites from experts. We used these data to train a model (an ensemble of 30 bagged regression trees) capable of predicting the perceived quality of similar hypothetical woodlands based on a set of 13 site variables as inputs (e.g., cover of shrubs, richness of native forbs). These variables can be measured at any site and the model implemented in a spreadsheet as a metric of woodland quality. We also investigated the number of experts required to produce an opinion data set sufficient for the construction of a metric. The model produced evaluations similar to those provided by experts, as shown by assessing the model's quality scores of expert-evaluated test sites not used to train the model. We applied the metric to 13 woodland conservation reserves and asked managers of these sites to independently evaluate their quality. To assess metric performance, we compared the model's evaluation of site quality with the managers' evaluations through multidimensional scaling. The metric performed relatively well, plotting close to the center of the space defined by the evaluators. Given the method provides data-driven consensus and repeatability, which no single human evaluator can provide, we suggest it is a valuable tool for evaluating ecosystem quality in real-world contexts. We believe our approach is applicable to any ecosystem. © 2017 State of Victoria.

  1. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, R. V.; Riitters, K.H.; Wickham, J.D.; Jones, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop and interpret quantitative measures of spatial pattern-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about the statistical properties of these pattern metrics and suggests some additional metrics based on island biogeography, percolation theory, hierarchy theory, and economic geography. Assessment applications of this approach have required interpreting the pattern metrics in terms of specific environmental endpoints, such as wildlife and water quality, and research into how to represent synergystic effects of many overlapping sources of stress.

  2. A novel patient-centered "intention-to-treat" metric of U.S. lung transplant center performance.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Dawn A; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Lederer, David J

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of pretransplantation outcomes, 1-year posttransplantation survival is typically considered the primary metric of lung transplant center performance in the United States. We designed a novel lung transplant center performance metric that incorporates both pre- and posttransplantation survival time. We performed an ecologic study of 12 187 lung transplant candidates listed at 56 U.S. lung transplant centers between 2006 and 2012. We calculated an "intention-to-treat" survival (ITTS) metric as the percentage of waiting list candidates surviving at least 1 year after transplantation. The median center-level 1-year posttransplantation survival rate was 84.1%, and the median center-level ITTS was 66.9% (mean absolute difference 19.6%, 95% limits of agreement 4.3 to 35.1%). All but 10 centers had ITTS values that were significantly lower than 1-year posttransplantation survival rates. Observed ITTS was significantly lower than expected ITTS for 7 centers. These data show that one third of lung transplant candidates do not survive 1 year after transplantation, and that 12% of centers have lower than expected ITTS. An "intention-to-treat" survival metric may provide a more realistic expectation of patient outcomes at transplant centers and may be of value to transplant centers and policymakers. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Performation Metrics Development Analysis for Information and Communications Technology Outsourcing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how and to what extent the development and use of the OV-5a operational architecture decomposition tree (OADT) from the Department of Defense (DoD) Architecture Framework (DoDAF) affects requirements analysis with respect to complete performance metrics for performance-based services acquisition of ICT under rigid…

  4. Spectrum splitting metrics and effect of filter characteristics on photovoltaic system performance.

    PubMed

    Russo, Juan M; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2014-03-10

    During the past few years there has been a significant interest in spectrum splitting systems to increase the overall efficiency of photovoltaic solar energy systems. However, methods for comparing the performance of spectrum splitting systems and the effects of optical spectral filter design on system performance are not well developed. This paper addresses these two areas. The system conversion efficiency is examined in detail and the role of optical spectral filters with respect to the efficiency is developed. A new metric termed the Improvement over Best Bandgap is defined which expresses the efficiency gain of the spectrum splitting system with respect to a similar system that contains the highest constituent single bandgap photovoltaic cell. This parameter indicates the benefit of using the more complex spectrum splitting system with respect to a single bandgap photovoltaic system. Metrics are also provided to assess the performance of experimental spectral filters in different spectrum splitting configurations. The paper concludes by using the methodology to evaluate spectrum splitting systems with different filter configurations and indicates the overall efficiency improvement that is possible with ideal and experimental designs.

  5. MO-D-213-06: Quantitative Image Quality Metrics Are for Physicists, Not Radiologists: How to Communicate to Your Radiologists Using Their Language

    SciTech Connect

    Szczykutowicz, T; Rubert, N; Ranallo, F

    Purpose: A framework for explaining differences in image quality to non-technical audiences in medial imaging is needed. Currently, this task is something that is learned “on the job.” The lack of a formal methodology for communicating optimal acquisition parameters into the clinic effectively mitigates many technological advances. As a community, medical physicists need to be held responsible for not only advancing image science, but also for ensuring its proper use in the clinic. This work outlines a framework that bridges the gap between the results from quantitative image quality metrics like detectability, MTF, and NPS and their effect on specificmore » anatomical structures present in diagnostic imaging tasks. Methods: Specific structures of clinical importance were identified for a body, an extremity, a chest, and a temporal bone protocol. Using these structures, quantitative metrics were used to identify the parameter space that should yield optimal image quality constrained within the confines of clinical logistics and dose considerations. The reading room workflow for presenting the proposed changes for imaging each of these structures is presented. The workflow consists of displaying images for physician review consisting of different combinations of acquisition parameters guided by quantitative metrics. Examples of using detectability index, MTF, NPS, noise and noise non-uniformity are provided. During review, the physician was forced to judge the image quality solely on those features they need for diagnosis, not on the overall “look” of the image. Results: We found that in many cases, use of this framework settled mis-agreements between physicians. Once forced to judge images on the ability to detect specific structures inter reader agreement was obtained. Conclusion: This framework will provide consulting, research/industrial, or in-house physicists with clinically relevant imaging tasks to guide reading room image review. This framework

  6. Metrics and the effective computational scientist: process, quality and communication.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Eric T

    2012-09-01

    Recent treatments of computational knowledge worker productivity have focused upon the value the discipline brings to drug discovery using positive anecdotes. While this big picture approach provides important validation of the contributions of these knowledge workers, the impact accounts do not provide the granular detail that can help individuals and teams perform better. I suggest balancing the impact-focus with quantitative measures that can inform the development of scientists. Measuring the quality of work, analyzing and improving processes, and the critical evaluation of communication can provide immediate performance feedback. The introduction of quantitative measures can complement the longer term reporting of impacts on drug discovery. These metric data can document effectiveness trends and can provide a stronger foundation for the impact dialogue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Approaches to Cycle Analysis and Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parson, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    The following notes were prepared as part of an American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) sponsored short course entitled Air Breathing Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) Technology. The course was presented in January of 2003, and again in July of 2004 at two different AIAA meetings. It was taught by seven instructors, each of whom provided information on particular areas of PDE research. These notes cover two areas. The first is titled Approaches to Cycle Analysis and Performance Metrics. Here, the various methods of cycle analysis are introduced. These range from algebraic, thermodynamic equations, to single and multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) solutions. Also discussed are the various means by which performance is measured, and how these are applied in a device which is fundamentally unsteady. The second topic covered is titled PDE Hybrid Applications. Here the concept of coupling a PDE to a conventional turbomachinery based engine is explored. Motivation for such a configuration is provided in the form of potential thermodynamic benefits. This is accompanied by a discussion of challenges to the technology.

  8. What are the Ingredients of a Scientifically and Policy-Relevant Hydrologic Connectivity Metric?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, G.; English, C.; McCullough, G.; Stainton, M.

    2014-12-01

    While the concept of hydrologic connectivity is of significant importance to both researchers and policy makers, there is no consensus on how to express it in quantitative terms. This lack of consensus was further exacerbated by recent rulings of the U.S. Supreme Court that rely on the idea of "significant nexuses": critical degrees of landscape connectivity now have to be demonstrated to warrant environmental protection under the Clean Water Act. Several indicators of connectivity have been suggested in the literature, but they are often computationally intensive and require soil water content information, a requirement that makes them inapplicable over large, data-poor areas for which management decisions are needed. Here our objective was to assess the extent to which the concept of connectivity could become more operational by: 1) drafting a list of potential, watershed-scale connectivity metrics; 2) establishing a list of criteria for ranking the performance of those metrics; 3) testing them in various landscapes. Our focus was on a dozen agricultural Prairie watersheds where the interaction between near-level topography, perennial and intermittent streams, pothole wetlands and man-made drains renders the estimation of connectivity difficult. A simple procedure was used to convert RADARSAT images, collected between 1997 and 2011, into binary maps of saturated versus non-saturated areas. Several pattern-based and graph-theoretic metrics were then computed for a dynamic assessment of connectivity. The metrics performance was compared with regards to their sensitivity to antecedent precipitation, their correlation with watershed discharge, and their ability to portray aggregation effects. Results show that no single connectivity metric could satisfy all our performance criteria. Graph-theoretic metrics however seemed to perform better in pothole-dominated watersheds, thus highlighting the need for region-specific connectivity assessment frameworks.

  9. Bayesian performance metrics of binary sensors in homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Forrester, Thomas C.

    2008-04-01

    Bayesian performance metrics, based on such parameters, as: prior probability, probability of detection (or, accuracy), false alarm rate, and positive predictive value, characterizes the performance of binary sensors; i.e., sensors that have only binary response: true target/false target. Such binary sensors, very common in Homeland Security, produce an alarm that can be true, or false. They include: X-ray airport inspection, IED inspections, product quality control, cancer medical diagnosis, part of ATR, and many others. In this paper, we analyze direct and inverse conditional probabilities in the context of Bayesian inference and binary sensors, using X-ray luggage inspection statistical results as a guideline.

  10. Performance metric comparison study for non-magnetic bi-stable energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udani, Janav P.; Wrigley, Cailin; Arrieta, Andres F.

    2017-04-01

    Energy harvesting employing non-linear systems offers considerable advantages over linear systems given the broadband resonant response which is favorable for applications involving diverse input vibrations. In this respect, the rich dynamics of bi-stable systems present a promising means for harvesting vibrational energy from ambient sources. Harvesters deriving their bi-stability from thermally induced stresses as opposed to magnetic forces are receiving significant attention as it reduces the need for ancillary components and allows for bio- compatible constructions. However, the design of these bi-stable harvesters still requires further optimization to completely exploit the dynamic behavior of these systems. This study presents a comparison of the harvesting capabilities of non-magnetic, bi-stable composite laminates under variations in the design parameters as evaluated utilizing established power metrics. Energy output characteristics of two bi-stable composite laminate plates with a piezoelectric patch bonded on the top surface are experimentally investigated for variations in the thickness ratio and inertial mass positions for multiple load conditions. A particular design configuration is found to perform better over the entire range of testing conditions which include single and multiple frequency excitation, thus indicating that design optimization over the geometry of the harvester yields robust performance. The experimental analysis further highlights the need for appropriate design guidelines for optimization and holistic performance metrics to account for the range of operational conditions.

  11. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  12. Evaluation of the performance of a micromethod for measuring urinary iodine by using six sigma quality metrics.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Husniza; Khalid, Norhayati Mustafa; Selamat, Rusidah; Wan Nazaimoon, Wan Mohamud

    2013-09-01

    The urinary iodine micromethod (UIMM) is a modification of the conventional method and its performance needs evaluation. UIMM performance was evaluated using the method validation and 2008 Iodine Deficiency Disorders survey data obtained from four urinary iodine (UI) laboratories. Method acceptability tests and Sigma quality metrics were determined using total allowable errors (TEas) set by two external quality assurance (EQA) providers. UIMM obeyed various method acceptability test criteria with some discrepancies at low concentrations. Method validation data calculated against the UI Quality Program (TUIQP) TEas showed that the Sigma metrics were at 2.75, 1.80, and 3.80 for 51±15.50 µg/L, 108±32.40 µg/L, and 149±38.60 µg/L UI, respectively. External quality control (EQC) data showed that the performance of the laboratories was within Sigma metrics of 0.85-1.12, 1.57-4.36, and 1.46-4.98 at 46.91±7.05 µg/L, 135.14±13.53 µg/L, and 238.58±17.90 µg/L, respectively. No laboratory showed a calculated total error (TEcalc)performance for the medium-high level, and two laboratories showed an acceptable performance for the high level. When calculated against the Ensuring the Quality of UI Procedures (EQUIP) TEas, the performance of all laboratories was≤2.49 Sigma metrics at all concentrations. Only one laboratory had TEcalcperformance for the iodine deficiency levels and variable performance at other concentrations according to different TEas.

  13. Target detection cycle criteria when using the targeting task performance metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, Jonathan G.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Vollmerhausen, Richard H.

    2004-12-01

    The US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate of the US Army (NVESD) has developed a new target acquisition metric to better predict the performance of modern electro-optical imagers. The TTP metric replaces the Johnson criteria. One problem with transitioning to the new model is that the difficulty of searching in a terrain has traditionally been quantified by an "N50." The N50 is the number of Johnson criteria cycles needed for the observer to detect the target half the time, assuming that the observer is not time limited. In order to make use of this empirical data base, a conversion must be found relating Johnson cycles for detection to TTP cycles for detection. This paper describes how that relationship is established. We have found that the relationship between Johnson and TTP is 1:2.7 for the recognition and identification tasks.

  14. Metrication report to the Congress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's principal metrication accomplishments for FY 1990 were establishment of metrication policy for major programs, development of an implementing instruction for overall metric policy and initiation of metrication planning for the major program offices. In FY 1991, development of an overall NASA plan and individual program office plans will be completed, requirement assessments will be performed for all support areas, and detailed assessment and transition planning will be undertaken at the institutional level. Metric feasibility decisions on a number of major programs are expected over the next 18 months.

  15. A novel ECG detector performance metric and its relationship with missing and false heart rate limit alarms.

    PubMed

    Daluwatte, Chathuri; Vicente, Jose; Galeotti, Loriano; Johannesen, Lars; Strauss, David G; Scully, Christopher G

    Performance of ECG beat detectors is traditionally assessed on long intervals (e.g.: 30min), but only incorrect detections within a short interval (e.g.: 10s) may cause incorrect (i.e., missed+false) heart rate limit alarms (tachycardia and bradycardia). We propose a novel performance metric based on distribution of incorrect beat detection over a short interval and assess its relationship with incorrect heart rate limit alarm rates. Six ECG beat detectors were assessed using performance metrics over long interval (sensitivity and positive predictive value over 30min) and short interval (Area Under empirical cumulative distribution function (AUecdf) for short interval (i.e., 10s) sensitivity and positive predictive value) on two ECG databases. False heart rate limit and asystole alarm rates calculated using a third ECG database were then correlated (Spearman's rank correlation) with each calculated performance metric. False alarm rates correlated with sensitivity calculated on long interval (i.e., 30min) (ρ=-0.8 and p<0.05) and AUecdf for sensitivity (ρ=0.9 and p<0.05) in all assessed ECG databases. Sensitivity over 30min grouped the two detectors with lowest false alarm rates while AUecdf for sensitivity provided further information to identify the two beat detectors with highest false alarm rates as well, which was inseparable with sensitivity over 30min. Short interval performance metrics can provide insights on the potential of a beat detector to generate incorrect heart rate limit alarms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping after Sports-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    Koch, K M; Meier, T B; Karr, R; Nencka, A S; Muftuler, L T; McCrea, M

    2018-06-07

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping using MR imaging can assess changes in brain tissue structure and composition. This report presents preliminary results demonstrating changes in tissue magnetic susceptibility after sports-related concussion. Longitudinal quantitative susceptibility mapping metrics were produced from imaging data acquired from cohorts of concussed and control football athletes. One hundred thirty-six quantitative susceptibility mapping datasets were analyzed across 3 separate visits (24 hours after injury, 8 days postinjury, and 6 months postinjury). Longitudinal quantitative susceptibility mapping group analyses were performed on stability-thresholded brain tissue compartments and selected subregions. Clinical concussion metrics were also measured longitudinally in both cohorts and compared with the measured quantitative susceptibility mapping. Statistically significant increases in white matter susceptibility were identified in the concussed athlete group during the acute (24 hour) and subacute (day 8) period. These effects were most prominent at the 8-day visit but recovered and showed no significant difference from controls at the 6-month visit. The subcortical gray matter showed no statistically significant group differences. Observed susceptibility changes after concussion appeared to outlast self-reported clinical recovery metrics at a group level. At an individual subject level, susceptibility increases within the white matter showed statistically significant correlations with return-to-play durations. The results of this preliminary investigation suggest that sports-related concussion can induce physiologic changes to brain tissue that can be detected using MR imaging-based magnetic susceptibility estimates. In group analyses, the observed tissue changes appear to persist beyond those detected on clinical outcome assessments and were associated with return-to-play duration after sports-related concussion. © 2018 by American Journal of

  17. Repeatability, interocular correlation and agreement of quantitative swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography macular metrics in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Fang, Danqi; Tang, Fang Yao; Huang, Haifan; Cheung, Carol Y; Chen, Haoyu

    2018-05-29

    To investigate the repeatability, interocular correlation and agreement of quantitative swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) metrics in healthy subjects. Thirty-three healthy normal subjects were enrolled. The macula was scanned four times by an SS-OCTA system using the 3 mm×3 mm mode. The superficial capillary map images were analysed using a MATLAB program. A series of parameters were measured: foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ perimeter, FAZ circularity, parafoveal vessel density, fractal dimension and vessel diameter index (VDI). The repeatability of four scans was determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Then the averaged results were analysed for intereye difference, correlation and agreement using paired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), ICC and Bland-Altman plot. The repeatability assessment of the macular metrics exported high ICC values (ranged from 0.853 to 0.996). There is no statistically significant difference in the OCTA metrics between the two eyes. FAZ area (ICC=0.961, r=0.929) and FAZ perimeter (ICC=0.884, r=0.802) showed excellent binocular correlation. Fractal dimension (ICC=0.732, r=0.578) and VDI (ICC=0.707, r=0.547) showed moderate binocular correlation, while parafoveal vessel density had poor binocular correlation. Bland-Altman plots showed the range of agreement was from -0.0763 to 0.0954 mm 2 for FAZ area and from -0.0491 to 0.1136 for parafoveal vessel density. The macular metrics obtained using SS-OCTA showed excellent repeatability in healthy subjects. We showed high intereye correlation in FAZ area and perimeter, moderate correlation in fractal dimension and VDI, while vessel density had poor correlation in normal healthy subjects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  19. Bibliometrics: tracking research impact by selecting the appropriate metrics.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Tatagari, Sindhuja; Esteves, Sandro C; Harlev, Avi; Henkel, Ralf; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Homa, Sheryl; Puchalt, Nicolás Garrido; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Majzoub, Ahmad; Ly, Kim Dao; Tvrda, Eva; Assidi, Mourad; Kesari, Kavindra; Sharma, Reecha; Banihani, Saleem; Ko, Edmund; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Gosalvez, Jaime; Bashiri, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher is assessed by the number of publications he or she publishes in peer-reviewed, indexed, high impact journals. This essential yardstick, often referred to as the impact of a specific researcher, is assessed through the use of various metrics. While researchers may be acquainted with such matrices, many do not know how to use them to enhance their careers. In addition to these metrics, a number of other factors should be taken into consideration to objectively evaluate a scientist's profile as a researcher and academician. Moreover, each metric has its own limitations that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate metric for evaluation. This paper provides a broad overview of the wide array of metrics currently in use in academia and research. Popular metrics are discussed and defined, including traditional metrics and article-level metrics, some of which are applied to researchers for a greater understanding of a particular concept, including varicocele that is the thematic area of this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. We recommend the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation using judiciously selected metrics for a more objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact.

  20. Resilience Metrics for the Electric Power System: A Performance-Based Approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Castillo, Andrea R; Silva-Monroy, Cesar Augusto

    Grid resilience is a concept related to a power system's ability to continue operating and delivering power even in the event that low probability, high-consequence disruptions such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and cyber-attacks occur. Grid resilience objectives focus on managing and, ideally, minimizing potential consequences that occur as a result of these disruptions. Currently, no formal grid resilience definitions, metrics, or analysis methods have been universally accepted. This document describes an effort to develop and describe grid resilience metrics and analysis methods. The metrics and methods described herein extend upon the Resilience Analysis Process (RAP) developed by Watson et al. formore » the 2015 Quadrennial Energy Review. The extension allows for both outputs from system models and for historical data to serve as the basis for creating grid resilience metrics and informing grid resilience planning and response decision-making. This document describes the grid resilience metrics and analysis methods. Demonstration of the metrics and methods is shown through a set of illustrative use cases.« less

  1. A priori discretization error metrics for distributed hydrologic modeling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongli; Tolson, Bryan A.; Craig, James R.; Shafii, Mahyar

    2016-12-01

    Watershed spatial discretization is an important step in developing a distributed hydrologic model. A key difficulty in the spatial discretization process is maintaining a balance between the aggregation-induced information loss and the increase in computational burden caused by the inclusion of additional computational units. Objective identification of an appropriate discretization scheme still remains a challenge, in part because of the lack of quantitative measures for assessing discretization quality, particularly prior to simulation. This study proposes a priori discretization error metrics to quantify the information loss of any candidate discretization scheme without having to run and calibrate a hydrologic model. These error metrics are applicable to multi-variable and multi-site discretization evaluation and provide directly interpretable information to the hydrologic modeler about discretization quality. The first metric, a subbasin error metric, quantifies the routing information loss from discretization, and the second, a hydrological response unit (HRU) error metric, improves upon existing a priori metrics by quantifying the information loss due to changes in land cover or soil type property aggregation. The metrics are straightforward to understand and easy to recode. Informed by the error metrics, a two-step discretization decision-making approach is proposed with the advantage of reducing extreme errors and meeting the user-specified discretization error targets. The metrics and decision-making approach are applied to the discretization of the Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada. Results show that information loss increases as discretization gets coarser. Moreover, results help to explain the modeling difficulties associated with smaller upstream subbasins since the worst discretization errors and highest error variability appear in smaller upstream areas instead of larger downstream drainage areas. Hydrologic modeling experiments under

  2. Health impact metrics for air pollution management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Wilkins, Donele; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) inform policy and decision making by providing information regarding future health concerns, and quantitative HIAs now are being used for local and urban-scale projects. HIA results can be expressed using a variety of metrics that differ in meaningful ways, and guidance is lacking with respect to best practices for the development and use of HIA metrics. This study reviews HIA metrics pertaining to air quality management and presents evaluative criteria for their selection and use. These are illustrated in a case study where PM2.5 concentrations are lowered from 10 to 8 µg/m3 in an urban area of 1.8 million people. Health impact functions are used to estimate the number of premature deaths, unscheduled hospitalizations and other morbidity outcomes. The most common metric in recent quantitative HIAs has been the number of cases of adverse outcomes avoided. Other metrics include time-based measures, e.g., disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), monetized impacts, functional-unit based measures, e.g., benefits per ton of emissions reduced, and other economic indicators, e.g., cost-benefit ratios. These metrics are evaluated by considering their comprehensiveness, the spatial and temporal resolution of the analysis, how equity considerations are facilitated, and the analysis and presentation of uncertainty. In the case study, the greatest number of avoided cases occurs for low severity morbidity outcomes, e.g., asthma exacerbations (n=28,000) and minor-restricted activity days (n=37,000); while DALYs and monetized impacts are driven by the severity, duration and value assigned to a relatively low number of premature deaths (n=190 to 230 per year). The selection of appropriate metrics depends on the problem context and boundaries, the severity of impacts, and community values regarding health. The number of avoided cases provides an estimate of the number of people affected, and monetized impacts facilitate additional economic analyses

  3. Health impact metrics for air pollution management strategies.

    PubMed

    Martenies, Sheena E; Wilkins, Donele; Batterman, Stuart A

    2015-12-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) inform policy and decision making by providing information regarding future health concerns, and quantitative HIAs now are being used for local and urban-scale projects. HIA results can be expressed using a variety of metrics that differ in meaningful ways, and guidance is lacking with respect to best practices for the development and use of HIA metrics. This study reviews HIA metrics pertaining to air quality management and presents evaluative criteria for their selection and use. These are illustrated in a case study where PM2.5 concentrations are lowered from 10 to 8μg/m(3) in an urban area of 1.8 million people. Health impact functions are used to estimate the number of premature deaths, unscheduled hospitalizations and other morbidity outcomes. The most common metric in recent quantitative HIAs has been the number of cases of adverse outcomes avoided. Other metrics include time-based measures, e.g., disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), monetized impacts, functional-unit based measures, e.g., benefits per ton of emissions reduced, and other economic indicators, e.g., cost-benefit ratios. These metrics are evaluated by considering their comprehensiveness, the spatial and temporal resolution of the analysis, how equity considerations are facilitated, and the analysis and presentation of uncertainty. In the case study, the greatest number of avoided cases occurs for low severity morbidity outcomes, e.g., asthma exacerbations (n=28,000) and minor-restricted activity days (n=37,000); while DALYs and monetized impacts are driven by the severity, duration and value assigned to a relatively low number of premature deaths (n=190 to 230 per year). The selection of appropriate metrics depends on the problem context and boundaries, the severity of impacts, and community values regarding health. The number of avoided cases provides an estimate of the number of people affected, and monetized impacts facilitate additional economic analyses

  4. Highway safety performance metrics and emergency response in an advanced transportation environment : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    Traditional highway safety performance metrics have been largely based on fatal crashes and more recently serious injury crashes. In the near future however, there may be less severe motor vehicle crashes due to advances in driver assistance systems,...

  5. Changing Metrics of Organ Procurement Organization Performance in Order to Increase Organ Donation Rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D; Kallan, M J; Fu, L; Ciccarone, M; Ramirez, J; Rosenberg, P; Arnold, J; Segal, G; Moritsugu, K P; Nathan, H; Hasz, R; Abt, P L

    2017-12-01

    The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation. These estimates were compared to patient-level data from chart review from two large OPOs. Among 2,907,658 inpatient deaths from 2009-2012, 96,028 (3.3%) were a "possible deceased-organ donor." The two proposed metrics of OPO performance were: (1) donation percentage (percentage of possible deceased-donors who become actual donors; range: 20.0-57.0%); and (2) organs transplanted per possible donor (range: 0.52-1.74). These metrics allow for comparisons of OPO performance and geographic-level donation rates, and identify areas in greatest need of interventions to improve donation rates. We demonstrate that administrative data can be used to identify possible deceased donors in the US and could be a data source for CMS to implement new OPO performance metrics in a standardized fashion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Models and metrics for software management and engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to characterize and present a state of the art view of several quantitative models and metrics of the software life cycle. These models and metrics can be used to aid in managing and engineering software projects. They deal with various aspects of the software process and product, including resources allocation and estimation, changes and errors, size, complexity and reliability. Some indication is given of the extent to which the various models have been used and the success they have achieved.

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how themore » process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.« less

  8. Rank Order Entropy: why one metric is not enough

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Margaret R.; Ryan, M. Dominic; Breneman, Curt M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship models to address problems in drug discovery has a mixed history, generally resulting from the mis-application of QSAR models that were either poorly constructed or used outside of their domains of applicability. This situation has motivated the development of a variety of model performance metrics (r2, PRESS r2, F-tests, etc) designed to increase user confidence in the validity of QSAR predictions. In a typical workflow scenario, QSAR models are created and validated on training sets of molecules using metrics such as Leave-One-Out or many-fold cross-validation methods that attempt to assess their internal consistency. However, few current validation methods are designed to directly address the stability of QSAR predictions in response to changes in the information content of the training set. Since the main purpose of QSAR is to quickly and accurately estimate a property of interest for an untested set of molecules, it makes sense to have a means at hand to correctly set user expectations of model performance. In fact, the numerical value of a molecular prediction is often less important to the end user than knowing the rank order of that set of molecules according to their predicted endpoint values. Consequently, a means for characterizing the stability of predicted rank order is an important component of predictive QSAR. Unfortunately, none of the many validation metrics currently available directly measure the stability of rank order prediction, making the development of an additional metric that can quantify model stability a high priority. To address this need, this work examines the stabilities of QSAR rank order models created from representative data sets, descriptor sets, and modeling methods that were then assessed using Kendall Tau as a rank order metric, upon which the Shannon Entropy was evaluated as a means of quantifying rank-order stability. Random removal of data from the training set, also

  9. Systems Engineering Metrics: Organizational Complexity and Product Quality Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    Innovative organizational complexity and product quality models applicable to performance metrics for NASA-MSFC's Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory (SAIL) missions and objectives are presented. An intensive research effort focuses on the synergistic combination of stochastic process modeling, nodal and spatial decomposition techniques, organizational and computational complexity, systems science and metrics, chaos, and proprietary statistical tools for accelerated risk assessment. This is followed by the development of a preliminary model, which is uniquely applicable and robust for quantitative purposes. Exercise of the preliminary model using a generic system hierarchy and the AXAF-I architectural hierarchy is provided. The Kendall test for positive dependence provides an initial verification and validation of the model. Finally, the research and development of the innovation is revisited, prior to peer review. This research and development effort results in near-term, measurable SAIL organizational and product quality methodologies, enhanced organizational risk assessment and evolutionary modeling results, and 91 improved statistical quantification of SAIL productivity interests.

  10. Bibliometrics: tracking research impact by selecting the appropriate metrics

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Tatagari, Sindhuja; Esteves, Sandro C; Harlev, Avi; Henkel, Ralf; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Homa, Sheryl; Puchalt, Nicolás Garrido; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Majzoub, Ahmad; Ly, Kim Dao; Tvrda, Eva; Assidi, Mourad; Kesari, Kavindra; Sharma, Reecha; Banihani, Saleem; Ko, Edmund; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Gosalvez, Jaime; Bashiri, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the success of a researcher is assessed by the number of publications he or she publishes in peer-reviewed, indexed, high impact journals. This essential yardstick, often referred to as the impact of a specific researcher, is assessed through the use of various metrics. While researchers may be acquainted with such matrices, many do not know how to use them to enhance their careers. In addition to these metrics, a number of other factors should be taken into consideration to objectively evaluate a scientist's profile as a researcher and academician. Moreover, each metric has its own limitations that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate metric for evaluation. This paper provides a broad overview of the wide array of metrics currently in use in academia and research. Popular metrics are discussed and defined, including traditional metrics and article-level metrics, some of which are applied to researchers for a greater understanding of a particular concept, including varicocele that is the thematic area of this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. We recommend the combined use of quantitative and qualitative evaluation using judiciously selected metrics for a more objective assessment of scholarly output and research impact. PMID:26806079

  11. Dose-volume metrics and their relation to memory performance in pediatric brain tumor patients: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Raghubar, Kimberly P; Lamba, Michael; Cecil, Kim M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Mahone, E Mark; Limke, Christina; Grosshans, David; Beckwith, Travis J; Ris, M Douglas

    2018-06-01

    Advances in radiation treatment (RT), specifically volumetric planning with detailed dose and volumetric data for specific brain structures, have provided new opportunities to study neurobehavioral outcomes of RT in children treated for brain tumor. The present study examined the relationship between biophysical and physical dose metrics and neurocognitive ability, namely learning and memory, 2 years post-RT in pediatric brain tumor patients. The sample consisted of 26 pediatric patients with brain tumor, 14 of whom completed neuropsychological evaluations on average 24 months post-RT. Prescribed dose and dose-volume metrics for specific brain regions were calculated including physical metrics (i.e., mean dose and maximum dose) and biophysical metrics (i.e., integral biological effective dose and generalized equivalent uniform dose). We examined the associations between dose-volume metrics (whole brain, right and left hippocampus), and performance on measures of learning and memory (Children's Memory Scale). Biophysical dose metrics were highly correlated with the physical metric of mean dose but not with prescribed dose. Biophysical metrics and mean dose, but not prescribed dose, correlated with measures of learning and memory. These preliminary findings call into question the value of prescribed dose for characterizing treatment intensity; they also suggest that biophysical dose has only a limited advantage compared to physical dose when calculated for specific regions of the brain. We discuss the implications of the findings for evaluating and understanding the relation between RT and neurocognitive functioning. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Integrating Metrics across the Marketing Curriculum: The Digital and Social Media Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiller, Lisa; Tuten, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Modern digital and social media formats have revolutionized marketing measurement, producing an abundance of data, meaningful metrics, new tools, and methodologies. This increased emphasis on metrics in the marketing industry signifies the need for increased quantitative and critical thinking content in our marketing coursework if we are to…

  13. Viewpoint matters: objective performance metrics for surgeon endoscope control during robot-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Jarc, Anthony M; Curet, Myriam J

    2017-03-01

    Effective visualization of the operative field is vital to surgical safety and education. However, additional metrics for visualization are needed to complement other common measures of surgeon proficiency, such as time or errors. Unlike other surgical modalities, robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RAMIS) enables data-driven feedback to trainees through measurement of camera adjustments. The purpose of this study was to validate and quantify the importance of novel camera metrics during RAMIS. New (n = 18), intermediate (n = 8), and experienced (n = 13) surgeons completed 25 virtual reality simulation exercises on the da Vinci Surgical System. Three camera metrics were computed for all exercises and compared to conventional efficiency measures. Both camera metrics and efficiency metrics showed construct validity (p < 0.05) across most exercises (camera movement frequency 23/25, camera movement duration 22/25, camera movement interval 19/25, overall score 24/25, completion time 25/25). Camera metrics differentiated new and experienced surgeons across all tasks as well as efficiency metrics. Finally, camera metrics significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with completion time (camera movement frequency 21/25, camera movement duration 21/25, camera movement interval 20/25) and overall score (camera movement frequency 20/25, camera movement duration 19/25, camera movement interval 20/25) for most exercises. We demonstrate construct validity of novel camera metrics and correlation between camera metrics and efficiency metrics across many simulation exercises. We believe camera metrics could be used to improve RAMIS proficiency-based curricula.

  14. Metrics for Evaluation of Student Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelanek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Researchers use many different metrics for evaluation of performance of student models. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of commonly used metrics, to discuss properties, advantages, and disadvantages of different metrics, to summarize current practice in educational data mining, and to provide guidance for evaluation of student…

  15. Comparison of task-based exposure metrics for an epidemiologic study of isocyanate inhalation exposures among autobody shop workers.

    PubMed

    Woskie, Susan R; Bello, Dhimiter; Gore, Rebecca J; Stowe, Meredith H; Eisen, Ellen A; Liu, Youcheng; Sparer, Judy A; Redlich, Carrie A; Cullen, Mark R

    2008-09-01

    Because many occupational epidemiologic studies use exposure surrogates rather than quantitative exposure metrics, the UMass Lowell and Yale study of autobody shop workers provided an opportunity to evaluate the relative utility of surrogates and quantitative exposure metrics in an exposure response analysis of cross-week change in respiratory function. A task-based exposure assessment was used to develop several metrics of inhalation exposure to isocyanates. The metrics included the surrogates, job title, counts of spray painting events during the day, counts of spray and bystander exposure events, and a quantitative exposure metric that incorporated exposure determinant models based on task sampling and a personal workplace protection factor for respirator use, combined with a daily task checklist. The result of the quantitative exposure algorithm was an estimate of the daily time-weighted average respirator-corrected total NCO exposure (microg/m(3)). In general, these four metrics were found to be variable in agreement using measures such as weighted kappa and Spearman correlation. A logistic model for 10% drop in FEV(1) from Monday morning to Thursday morning was used to evaluate the utility of each exposure metric. The quantitative exposure metric was the most favorable, producing the best model fit, as well as the greatest strength and magnitude of association. This finding supports the reports of others that reducing exposure misclassification can improve risk estimates that otherwise would be biased toward the null. Although detailed and quantitative exposure assessment can be more time consuming and costly, it can improve exposure-disease evaluations and is more useful for risk assessment purposes. The task-based exposure modeling method successfully produced estimates of daily time-weighted average exposures in the complex and changing autobody shop work environment. The ambient TWA exposures of all of the office workers and technicians and 57% of the

  16. Sigma metrics as a tool for evaluating the performance of internal quality control in a clinical chemistry laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Vinodh; Mohan, Thuthi

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Six Sigma is one of the most popular quality management system tools employed for process improvement. The Six Sigma methods are usually applied when the outcome of the process can be measured. This study was done to assess the performance of individual biochemical parameters on a Sigma Scale by calculating the sigma metrics for individual parameters and to follow the Westgard guidelines for appropriate Westgard rules and levels of internal quality control (IQC) that needs to be processed to improve target analyte performance based on the sigma metrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study, and data required for the study were extracted between July 2015 and June 2016 from a Secondary Care Government Hospital, Chennai. The data obtained for the study are IQC - coefficient of variation percentage and External Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS) - Bias% for 16 biochemical parameters. RESULTS: For the level 1 IQC, four analytes (alkaline phosphatase, magnesium, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) showed an ideal performance of ≥6 sigma level, five analytes (urea, total bilirubin, albumin, cholesterol, and potassium) showed an average performance of <3 sigma level and for level 2 IQCs, same four analytes of level 1 showed a performance of ≥6 sigma level, and four analytes (urea, albumin, cholesterol, and potassium) showed an average performance of <3 sigma level. For all analytes <6 sigma level, the quality goal index (QGI) was <0.8 indicating the area requiring improvement to be imprecision except cholesterol whose QGI >1.2 indicated inaccuracy. CONCLUSION: This study shows that sigma metrics is a good quality tool to assess the analytical performance of a clinical chemistry laboratory. Thus, sigma metric analysis provides a benchmark for the laboratory to design a protocol for IQC, address poor assay performance, and assess the efficiency of existing laboratory processes. PMID:29692587

  17. Sigma metrics as a tool for evaluating the performance of internal quality control in a clinical chemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Vinodh; Mohan, Thuthi

    2018-01-01

    Six Sigma is one of the most popular quality management system tools employed for process improvement. The Six Sigma methods are usually applied when the outcome of the process can be measured. This study was done to assess the performance of individual biochemical parameters on a Sigma Scale by calculating the sigma metrics for individual parameters and to follow the Westgard guidelines for appropriate Westgard rules and levels of internal quality control (IQC) that needs to be processed to improve target analyte performance based on the sigma metrics. This is a retrospective study, and data required for the study were extracted between July 2015 and June 2016 from a Secondary Care Government Hospital, Chennai. The data obtained for the study are IQC - coefficient of variation percentage and External Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS) - Bias% for 16 biochemical parameters. For the level 1 IQC, four analytes (alkaline phosphatase, magnesium, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) showed an ideal performance of ≥6 sigma level, five analytes (urea, total bilirubin, albumin, cholesterol, and potassium) showed an average performance of <3 sigma level and for level 2 IQCs, same four analytes of level 1 showed a performance of ≥6 sigma level, and four analytes (urea, albumin, cholesterol, and potassium) showed an average performance of <3 sigma level. For all analytes <6 sigma level, the quality goal index (QGI) was <0.8 indicating the area requiring improvement to be imprecision except cholesterol whose QGI >1.2 indicated inaccuracy. This study shows that sigma metrics is a good quality tool to assess the analytical performance of a clinical chemistry laboratory. Thus, sigma metric analysis provides a benchmark for the laboratory to design a protocol for IQC, address poor assay performance, and assess the efficiency of existing laboratory processes.

  18. Assessing colonoscopic inspection skill using a virtual withdrawal simulation: a preliminary validation of performance metrics.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Christine M; Wallis, Guy M; Hill, Andrew; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Riek, Stephan; Plooy, Annaliese M; Horswill, Mark S; Watson, Marcus O; de Visser, Hans; Conlan, David; Hewett, David G

    2017-07-12

    The effectiveness of colonoscopy for diagnosing and preventing colon cancer is largely dependent on the ability of endoscopists to fully inspect the colonic mucosa, which they achieve primarily through skilled manipulation of the colonoscope during withdrawal. Performance assessment during live procedures is problematic. However, a virtual withdrawal simulation can help identify and parameterise actions linked to successful inspection, and offer standardised assessments for trainees. Eleven experienced endoscopists and 18 endoscopy novices (medical students) completed a mucosal inspection task during three simulated colonoscopic withdrawals. The two groups were compared on 10 performance metrics to preliminarily assess the validity of these measures to describe inspection quality. Four metrics were related to aspects of polyp detection: percentage of polyp markers found; number of polyp markers found per minute; percentage of the mucosal surface illuminated by the colonoscope (≥0.5 s); and percentage of polyp markers illuminated (≥2.5 s) but not identified. A further six metrics described the movement of the colonoscope: withdrawal time; linear distance travelled by the colonoscope tip; total distance travelled by the colonoscope tip; and distance travelled by the colonoscope tip due to movement of the up/down angulation control, movement of the left/right angulation control, and axial shaft rotation. Statistically significant experienced-novice differences were found for 8 of the 10 performance metrics (p's < .005). Compared with novices, experienced endoscopists inspected more of the mucosa and detected more polyp markers, at a faster rate. Despite completing the withdrawals more quickly than the novices, the experienced endoscopists also moved the colonoscope more in terms of linear distance travelled and overall tip movement, with greater use of both the up/down angulation control and axial shaft rotation. However, the groups did not differ in the

  19. Assessing deep and shallow learning methods for quantitative prediction of acute chemical toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruifeng; Madore, Michael; Glover, Kyle P; Feasel, Michael G; Wallqvist, Anders

    2018-05-02

    Animal-based methods for assessing chemical toxicity are struggling to meet testing demands. In silico approaches, including machine-learning methods, are promising alternatives. Recently, deep neural networks (DNNs) were evaluated and reported to outperform other machine-learning methods for quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of molecular properties. However, most of the reported performance evaluations relied on global performance metrics, such as the root mean squared error (RMSE) between the predicted and experimental values of all samples, without considering the impact of sample distribution across the activity spectrum. Here, we carried out an in-depth analysis of DNN performance for quantitative prediction of acute chemical toxicity using several datasets. We found that the overall performance of DNN models on datasets of up to 30,000 compounds was similar to that of random forest (RF) models, as measured by the RMSE and correlation coefficients between the predicted and experimental results. However, our detailed analyses demonstrated that global performance metrics are inappropriate for datasets with a highly uneven sample distribution, because they show a strong bias for the most populous compounds along the toxicity spectrum. For highly toxic compounds, DNN and RF models trained on all samples performed much worse than the global performance metrics indicated. Surprisingly, our variable nearest neighbor method, which utilizes only structurally similar compounds to make predictions, performed reasonably well, suggesting that information of close near neighbors in the training sets is a key determinant of acute toxicity predictions.

  20. The Combined Quantification and Interpretation of Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics Enlightens Longitudinal Changes Compatible with Brain Repair in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Bonnier, Guillaume; Maréchal, Benedicte; Fartaria, Mário João; Falkowskiy, Pavel; Marques, José P; Simioni, Samanta; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Krueger, Gunnar; Granziera, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative and semi-quantitative MRI (qMRI) metrics provide complementary specificity and differential sensitivity to pathological brain changes compatible with brain inflammation, degeneration, and repair. Moreover, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with overlapping elements amplify the true tissue-related information and limit measurement noise. In this work, we combined multiple advanced MRI parameters to assess focal and diffuse brain changes over 2 years in a group of early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients. Thirty relapsing-remitting MS patients with less than 5 years disease duration and nine healthy subjects underwent 3T MRI at baseline and after 2 years including T1, T2, T2* relaxometry, and magnetization transfer imaging. To assess longitudinal changes in normal-appearing (NA) tissue and lesions, we used analyses of variance and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the correlation between clinical outcome and multiparametric MRI changes in lesions and NA tissue. In patients, we measured a significant longitudinal decrease of mean T2 relaxation times in NA white matter ( p  = 0.005) and a decrease of T1 relaxation times in the pallidum ( p  < 0.05), which are compatible with edema reabsorption and/or iron deposition. No longitudinal changes in qMRI metrics were observed in controls. In MS lesions, we measured a decrease in T1 relaxation time ( p -value < 2.2e-16) and a significant increase in MTR ( p -value < 1e-6), suggesting repair mechanisms, such as remyelination, increased axonal density, and/or a gliosis. Last, the evolution of advanced MRI metrics-and not changes in lesions or brain volume-were correlated to motor and cognitive tests scores evolution (Adj- R 2  > 0.4, p  < 0.05). In summary, the combination of multiple advanced MRI provided evidence of changes compatible with focal and diffuse brain repair at early MS stages as suggested

  1. Critical thinking skills in nursing students: comparison of simulation-based performance with metrics.

    PubMed

    Fero, Laura J; O'Donnell, John M; Zullo, Thomas G; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Kitutu, Julius; Samosky, Joseph T; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of an examination of the relationship between metrics of critical thinking skills and performance in simulated clinical scenarios. Paper and pencil assessments are commonly used to assess critical thinking but may not reflect simulated performance. In 2007, a convenience sample of 36 nursing students participated in measurement of critical thinking skills and simulation-based performance using videotaped vignettes, high-fidelity human simulation, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Simulation-based performance was rated as 'meeting' or 'not meeting' overall expectations. Test scores were categorized as strong, average, or weak. Most (75.0%) students did not meet overall performance expectations using videotaped vignettes or high-fidelity human simulation; most difficulty related to problem recognition and reporting findings to the physician. There was no difference between overall performance based on method of assessment (P = 0.277). More students met subcategory expectations for initiating nursing interventions (P ≤ 0.001) using high-fidelity human simulation. The relationship between videotaped vignette performance and critical thinking disposition or skills scores was not statistically significant, except for problem recognition and overall critical thinking skills scores (Cramer's V = 0.444, P = 0.029). There was a statistically significant relationship between overall high-fidelity human simulation performance and overall critical thinking disposition scores (Cramer's V = 0.413, P = 0.047). Students' performance reflected difficulty meeting expectations in simulated clinical scenarios. High-fidelity human simulation performance appeared to approximate scores on metrics of critical thinking best. Further research is needed to determine if simulation-based performance correlates with critical thinking skills in the clinical setting. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced

  2. Critical thinking skills in nursing students: comparison of simulation-based performance with metrics

    PubMed Central

    Fero, Laura J.; O’Donnell, John M.; Zullo, Thomas G.; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Kitutu, Julius; Samosky, Joseph T.; Hoffman, Leslie A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of an examination of the relationship between metrics of critical thinking skills and performance in simulated clinical scenarios. Background Paper and pencil assessments are commonly used to assess critical thinking but may not reflect simulated performance. Methods In 2007, a convenience sample of 36 nursing students participated in measurement of critical thinking skills and simulation-based performance using videotaped vignettes, high-fidelity human simulation, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Simulation- based performance was rated as ‘meeting’ or ‘not meeting’ overall expectations. Test scores were categorized as strong, average, or weak. Results Most (75·0%) students did not meet overall performance expectations using videotaped vignettes or high-fidelity human simulation; most difficulty related to problem recognition and reporting findings to the physician. There was no difference between overall performance based on method of assessment (P = 0·277). More students met subcategory expectations for initiating nursing interventions (P ≤ 0·001) using high-fidelity human simulation. The relationship between video-taped vignette performance and critical thinking disposition or skills scores was not statistically significant, except for problem recognition and overall critical thinking skills scores (Cramer’s V = 0·444, P = 0·029). There was a statistically significant relationship between overall high-fidelity human simulation performance and overall critical thinking disposition scores (Cramer’s V = 0·413, P = 0·047). Conclusion Students’ performance reflected difficulty meeting expectations in simulated clinical scenarios. High-fidelity human simulation performance appeared to approximate scores on metrics of critical thinking best. Further research is needed to determine if simulation-based performance correlates with critical thinking skills

  3. Metrics and Mappings: A Framework for Understanding Real-World Quantitative Estimation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Norman R.; Siegler, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A metrics and mapping framework is proposed to account for how heuristics, domain-specific reasoning, and intuitive statistical induction processes are integrated to generate estimates. Results of 4 experiments involving 188 undergraduates illustrate framework usefulness and suggest when people use heuristics and when they emphasize…

  4. An Overview of ACRL"Metrics", Part II: Using NCES and IPEDs Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This report is the second in a two-part analysis of ACRL"Metrics", an online service that provides access to a range of quantitative data for academic libraries. In this analysis, ACRL"Metrics"' inclusion of data from the National Center for Educational Statistics' Academic Libraries Survey and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System is…

  5. Making the Case for Objective Performance Metrics in Newborn Screening by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldo, Piero; Zafari, Saba; Tortorelli, Silvia; Matern, Dietrich

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of newborn screening programs to include multiplex testing by tandem mass spectrometry requires understanding and close monitoring of performance metrics. This is not done consistently because of lack of defined targets, and interlaboratory comparison is almost nonexistent. Between July 2004 and April 2006 (N = 176,185 cases), the…

  6. Applying Sigma Metrics to Reduce Outliers.

    PubMed

    Litten, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Sigma metrics can be used to predict assay quality, allowing easy comparison of instrument quality and predicting which tests will require minimal quality control (QC) rules to monitor the performance of the method. A Six Sigma QC program can result in fewer controls and fewer QC failures for methods with a sigma metric of 5 or better. The higher the number of methods with a sigma metric of 5 or better, the lower the costs for reagents, supplies, and control material required to monitor the performance of the methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative Verse in a Quantity-Insensitive Language: Baif's "vers mesures."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Barbara E.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the quantitative metrical verse of French Renaissance poet Jean-Antoine de Baif finds that the metrics, often seen as unscannable and using an incomprehensible phonetic orthography, derive largely from a system that is accentual, with the orthography permitting the poet to encode quantitative distinctions that coincide with the meter.…

  8. Do Your Students Measure Up Metrically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, P. Mark; Simms, Ken; Kim, Ok-Kyeong; Reys, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines released metric items from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 3rd and 4th grade results. Recommends refocusing instruction on the metric system to improve student performance in measurement. (KHR)

  9. Patterns of Hospital Performance on the Hospital-Wide 30-Day Readmission Metric: Is the Playing Field Level?

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Erik H; Padula, William V; Brotman, Daniel J; Reid, Natalie; Leung, Curtis; Lepley, Diane; Deutschendorf, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Hospital performance on the 30-day hospital-wide readmission (HWR) metric as calculated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is currently reported as a quality measure. Focusing on patient-level factors may provide an incomplete picture of readmission risk at the hospital level to explain variations in hospital readmission rates. To evaluate and quantify hospital-level characteristics that track with hospital performance on the current HWR metric. Retrospective cohort study. A total of 4785 US hospitals. We linked publically available data on individual hospitals published by CMS on patient-level adjusted 30-day HWR rates from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2014, to the 2014 American Hospital Association annual survey. Primary outcome was performance in the worst CMS-calculated HWR quartile. Primary hospital-level exposure variables were defined as: size (total number of beds), safety net status (top quartile of disproportionate share), academic status [member of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)], National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCI-CCC) status, and hospital services offered (e.g., transplant, hospice, emergency department). Multilevel regression was used to evaluate the association between 30-day HWR and the hospital-level factors. Hospital-level characteristics significantly associated with performing in the worst CMS-calculated HWR quartile included: safety net status [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.99, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.61-2.45, p < 0.001], large size (> 400 beds, aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.07-1.90, p = 0.016), AAMC alone status (aOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.35-2.83, p < 0.001), and AAMC plus NCI-CCC status (aOR 5.16, 95% CI 2.58-10.31, p < 0.001). Hospitals with more critical care beds (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.56, p = 0.033), those with transplant services (aOR 2.80, 95% CI 1.48-5.31,p = 0.001), and those with emergency room services (aOR 3.37, 95% CI 1.12-10.15, p = 0.031) demonstrated

  10. Performance Metrics in Professional Baseball Pitchers before and after Surgical Treatment for Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robert W; Dawkins, Corey; Vemuri, Chandu; Mulholland, Michael W; Hadzinsky, Tyler D; Pearl, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    High-performance throwing athletes may be susceptible to the development of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). This condition can be career-threatening but the outcomes of treatment for NTOS in elite athletes have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to utilize objective performance metrics to evaluate the impact of surgical treatment for NTOS in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. Thirteen established MLB pitchers underwent operations for NTOS between July 2001 and July 2014. For those returning to MLB, traditional and advanced (PitchF/x) MLB performance metrics were acquired from public databases for various time-period scenarios before and after surgery, with comparisons made using paired t-tests, Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests, and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Ten of 13 pitchers (77%) achieved a sustained return to MLB, with a mean age of 30.2 ± 1.4 years at the time of surgery and 10.8 ± 1.5 months of postoperative rehabilitation before the return to MLB. Pre- and postoperative career data revealed no significant differences for 15 traditional pitching metrics, including earned run average (ERA), fielding independent pitching, walks plus hits per inning pitched (WHIP), walks per 9 innings, and strikeouts to walk ratio (SO/BB). There were also no significant differences between the 3 years before and the 3 years after surgical treatment. Using PitchF/x data for 72 advanced metrics and 25 different time-period scenarios, the highest number of significant relationships (n = 18) was observed for the 8 weeks before/12 weeks after scenario. In this analysis, 54 (75%) measures were unchanged (including ERA, WHIP, and SO/BB) and 14 (19%) were significantly improved, while only 4 (6%) were significantly decreased (including hard pitch maximal velocity 93.1 ± 1.0 vs. 92.5 ± 0.9 miles/hr, P = 0.047). Six pitchers remained active in MLB during the study period, while the other 4 had retired due to

  11. Devising tissue ingrowth metrics: a contribution to the computational characterization of engineered soft tissue healing.

    PubMed

    Alves, Antoine; Attik, Nina; Bayon, Yves; Royet, Elodie; Wirth, Carine; Bourges, Xavier; Piat, Alexis; Dolmazon, Gaëlle; Clermont, Gaëlle; Boutrand, Jean-Pierre; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Gritsch, Kerstin

    2018-03-14

    The paradigm shift brought about by the expansion of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine away from the use of biomaterials, currently questions the value of histopathologic methods in the evaluation of biological changes. To date, the available tools of evaluation are not fully consistent and satisfactory for these advanced therapies. We have developed a new, simple and inexpensive quantitative digital approach that provides key metrics for structural and compositional characterization of the regenerated tissues. For example, metrics provide the tissue ingrowth rate (TIR) which integrates two separate indicators; the cell ingrowth rate (CIR) and the total collagen content (TCC) as featured in the equation, TIR% = CIR% + TCC%. Moreover a subset of quantitative indicators describing the directional organization of the collagen (relating structure and mechanical function of tissues), the ratio of collagen I to collagen III (remodeling quality) and the optical anisotropy property of the collagen (maturity indicator) was automatically assessed as well. Using an image analyzer, all metrics were extracted from only two serial sections stained with either Feulgen & Rossenbeck (cell specific) or Picrosirius Red F3BA (collagen specific). To validate this new procedure, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds were intraperitoneally implanted in healthy and in diabetic rats. It was hypothesized that quantitatively, the healing tissue would be significantly delayed and of poor quality in diabetic rats in comparison to healthy rats. In addition, a chemically modified 3D scaffold was similarly implanted in a third group of healthy rats with the assumption that modulation of the ingrown tissue would be quantitatively present in comparison to the 3D scaffold-healthy group. After 21 days of implantation, both hypotheses were verified by use of this novel computerized approach. When the two methods were run in parallel, the quantitative results revealed fine details and

  12. Frontal Representation as a Metric of Model Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, E.; Mask, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Representation of fronts detected by altimetry are used to evaluate the performance of the HYCOM global operational product. Fronts are detected and assessed in daily alongtrack altimetry. Then, modeled sea surface height is interpolated to the locations of the alongtrack observations, and the same frontal detection algorithm is applied to the interpolated model output. The percentage of fronts found in the altimetry and replicated in the model gives a score (0-100) that assesses the model's ability to replicate fronts in the proper location with the proper orientation. Further information can be obtained from determining the number of "extra" fronts found in the model but not in the altimetry, and from assessing the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the front in the model as compared to observations. Finally, the sensitivity of this metric to choices regarding the smoothing of noisy alongtrack altimetry observations, and to the minimum size of fronts being analyzed, is assessed.

  13. Objective assessment based on motion-related metrics and technical performance in laparoscopic suturing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Oropesa, Ignacio; Enciso, Silvia; Gómez, Enrique J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to present the construct and concurrent validity of a motion-tracking method of laparoscopic instruments based on an optical pose tracker and determine its feasibility as an objective assessment tool of psychomotor skills during laparoscopic suturing. A group of novice ([Formula: see text] laparoscopic procedures), intermediate (11-100 laparoscopic procedures) and experienced ([Formula: see text] laparoscopic procedures) surgeons performed three intracorporeal sutures on an ex vivo porcine stomach. Motion analysis metrics were recorded using the proposed tracking method, which employs an optical pose tracker to determine the laparoscopic instruments' position. Construct validation was measured for all 10 metrics across the three groups and between pairs of groups. Concurrent validation was measured against a previously validated suturing checklist. Checklists were completed by two independent surgeons over blinded video recordings of the task. Eighteen novices, 15 intermediates and 11 experienced surgeons took part in this study. Execution time and path length travelled by the laparoscopic dissector presented construct validity. Experienced surgeons required significantly less time ([Formula: see text]), travelled less distance using both laparoscopic instruments ([Formula: see text]) and made more efficient use of the work space ([Formula: see text]) compared with novice and intermediate surgeons. Concurrent validation showed strong correlation between both the execution time and path length and the checklist score ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The suturing performance was successfully assessed by the motion analysis method. Construct and concurrent validity of the motion-based assessment method has been demonstrated for the execution time and path length metrics. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the presented method for objective evaluation of psychomotor skills in laparoscopic suturing

  14. PV System 'Availability' as a Reliability Metric -- Improving Standards, Contract Language and Performance Models

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey T.; Hill, Roger; Walker, Andy

    The use of the term 'availability' to describe a photovoltaic (PV) system and power plant has been fraught with confusion for many years. A term that is meant to describe equipment operational status is often omitted, misapplied or inaccurately combined with PV performance metrics due to attempts to measure performance and reliability through the lens of traditional power plant language. This paper discusses three areas where current research in standards, contract language and performance modeling is improving the way availability is used with regards to photovoltaic systems and power plants.

  15. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  16. R&D100: Lightweight Distributed Metric Service

    ScienceCinema

    Gentile, Ann; Brandt, Jim; Tucker, Tom; Showerman, Mike

    2018-06-12

    On today's High Performance Computing platforms, the complexity of applications and configurations makes efficient use of resources difficult. The Lightweight Distributed Metric Service (LDMS) is monitoring software developed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide detailed metrics of system performance. LDMS provides collection, transport, and storage of data from extreme-scale systems at fidelities and timescales to provide understanding of application and system performance with no statistically significant impact on application performance.

  17. R&D100: Lightweight Distributed Metric Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Ann; Brandt, Jim; Tucker, Tom

    2015-11-19

    On today's High Performance Computing platforms, the complexity of applications and configurations makes efficient use of resources difficult. The Lightweight Distributed Metric Service (LDMS) is monitoring software developed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide detailed metrics of system performance. LDMS provides collection, transport, and storage of data from extreme-scale systems at fidelities and timescales to provide understanding of application and system performance with no statistically significant impact on application performance.

  18. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  19. Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects.

  20. A Case Study Based Analysis of Performance Metrics for Green Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Ajami, N.; Quesnel, K.

    2017-12-01

    Aging infrastructure, population growth, and urbanization are demanding new approaches to management of all components of the urban water cycle, including stormwater. Traditionally, urban stormwater infrastructure was designed to capture and convey rainfall-induced runoff out of a city through a network of curbs, gutters, drains, and pipes, also known as grey infrastructure. These systems were planned with a single-purpose and designed under the assumption of hydrologic stationarity, a notion that no longer holds true in the face of a changing climate. One solution gaining momentum around the world is green infrastructure (GI). Beyond stormwater quality improvement and quantity reduction (or technical benefits), GI solutions offer many environmental, economic, and social benefits. Yet many practical barriers have prevented the widespread adoption of these systems worldwide. At the center of these challenges is the inability of stakeholders to know how to monitor, measure, and assess the multi-sector performance of GI systems. Traditional grey infrastructure projects require different monitoring strategies than natural systems; there are no overarching policies on how to best design GI monitoring and evaluation systems and measure performance. Previous studies have attempted to quantify the performance of GI, mostly using one evaluation method on a specific case study. We use a case study approach to address these knowledge gaps and develop a conceptual model of how to evaluate the performance of GI through the lens of financing. First, we examined many different case studies of successfully implemented GI around the world. Then we narrowed in on 10 exemplary case studies. For each case studies, we determined what performance method the project developer used such as LCA, TBL, Low Impact Design Assessment (LIDA) and others. Then, we determined which performance metrics were used to determine success and what data was needed to calculate those metrics. Finally, we

  1. On Information Metrics for Spatial Coding.

    PubMed

    Souza, Bryan C; Pavão, Rodrigo; Belchior, Hindiael; Tort, Adriano B L

    2018-04-01

    The hippocampal formation is involved in navigation, and its neuronal activity exhibits a variety of spatial correlates (e.g., place cells, grid cells). The quantification of the information encoded by spikes has been standard procedure to identify which cells have spatial correlates. For place cells, most of the established metrics derive from Shannon's mutual information (Shannon, 1948), and convey information rate in bits/s or bits/spike (Skaggs et al., 1993, 1996). Despite their widespread use, the performance of these metrics in relation to the original mutual information metric has never been investigated. In this work, using simulated and real data, we find that the current information metrics correlate less with the accuracy of spatial decoding than the original mutual information metric. We also find that the top informative cells may differ among metrics, and show a surrogate-based normalization that yields comparable spatial information estimates. Since different information metrics may identify different neuronal populations, we discuss current and alternative definitions of spatially informative cells, which affect the metric choice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A framework for organizing and selecting quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment.

    PubMed

    Puhan, Milo A; Singh, Sonal; Weiss, Carlos O; Varadhan, Ravi; Boyd, Cynthia M

    2012-11-19

    Several quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment of health care interventions exist but it is unclear how the approaches differ. Our aim was to review existing quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment and to develop an organizing framework that clarifies differences and aids selection of quantitative approaches for a particular benefit-harm assessment. We performed a review of the literature to identify quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. Our team, consisting of clinicians, epidemiologists, and statisticians, discussed the approaches and identified their key characteristics. We developed a framework that helps investigators select quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment that are appropriate for a particular decisionmaking context. Our framework for selecting quantitative approaches requires a concise definition of the treatment comparison and population of interest, identification of key benefit and harm outcomes, and determination of the need for a measure that puts all outcomes on a single scale (which we call a benefit and harm comparison metric). We identified 16 quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. These approaches can be categorized into those that consider single or multiple key benefit and harm outcomes, and those that use a benefit-harm comparison metric or not. Most approaches use aggregate data and can be used in the context of single studies or systematic reviews. Although the majority of approaches provides a benefit and harm comparison metric, only four approaches provide measures of uncertainty around the benefit and harm comparison metric (such as a 95 percent confidence interval). None of the approaches considers the actual joint distribution of benefit and harm outcomes, but one approach considers competing risks when calculating profile-specific event rates. Nine approaches explicitly allow incorporating patient preferences. The choice of quantitative approaches depends on the

  3. A framework for organizing and selecting quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment of health care interventions exist but it is unclear how the approaches differ. Our aim was to review existing quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment and to develop an organizing framework that clarifies differences and aids selection of quantitative approaches for a particular benefit-harm assessment. Methods We performed a review of the literature to identify quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. Our team, consisting of clinicians, epidemiologists, and statisticians, discussed the approaches and identified their key characteristics. We developed a framework that helps investigators select quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment that are appropriate for a particular decisionmaking context. Results Our framework for selecting quantitative approaches requires a concise definition of the treatment comparison and population of interest, identification of key benefit and harm outcomes, and determination of the need for a measure that puts all outcomes on a single scale (which we call a benefit and harm comparison metric). We identified 16 quantitative approaches for benefit-harm assessment. These approaches can be categorized into those that consider single or multiple key benefit and harm outcomes, and those that use a benefit-harm comparison metric or not. Most approaches use aggregate data and can be used in the context of single studies or systematic reviews. Although the majority of approaches provides a benefit and harm comparison metric, only four approaches provide measures of uncertainty around the benefit and harm comparison metric (such as a 95 percent confidence interval). None of the approaches considers the actual joint distribution of benefit and harm outcomes, but one approach considers competing risks when calculating profile-specific event rates. Nine approaches explicitly allow incorporating patient preferences. Conclusion The choice of

  4. Statistical issues in the comparison of quantitative imaging biomarker algorithms using pulmonary nodule volume as an example.

    PubMed

    Obuchowski, Nancy A; Barnhart, Huiman X; Buckler, Andrew J; Pennello, Gene; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Kim, Hyun J Grace; Reeves, Anthony P

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative imaging biomarkers are being used increasingly in medicine to diagnose and monitor patients' disease. The computer algorithms that measure quantitative imaging biomarkers have different technical performance characteristics. In this paper we illustrate the appropriate statistical methods for assessing and comparing the bias, precision, and agreement of computer algorithms. We use data from three studies of pulmonary nodules. The first study is a small phantom study used to illustrate metrics for assessing repeatability. The second study is a large phantom study allowing assessment of four algorithms' bias and reproducibility for measuring tumor volume and the change in tumor volume. The third study is a small clinical study of patients whose tumors were measured on two occasions. This study allows a direct assessment of six algorithms' performance for measuring tumor change. With these three examples we compare and contrast study designs and performance metrics, and we illustrate the advantages and limitations of various common statistical methods for quantitative imaging biomarker studies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Landscape metrics as functional traits in plants: perspectives from a glacier foreland

    PubMed Central

    Dainese, Matteo; Krüsi, Bertil O.; McCollin, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Spatial patterns of vegetation arise from an interplay of functional traits, environmental characteristics and chance. The retreat of glaciers offers exposed substrates which are colonised by plants forming distinct patchy patterns. The aim of this study was to unravel whether patch-level landscape metrics of plants can be treated as functional traits. We sampled 46 plots, each 1 m × 1 m, distributed along a restricted range of terrain age and topsoil texture on the foreland of the Nardis glacier, located in the South-Eastern Alps, Italy. Nine quantitative functional traits were selected for 16 of the plant species present, and seven landscape metrics were measured to describe the spatial arrangement of the plant species’ patches on the study plots, at a resolution of 1 cm × 1 cm. We studied the relationships among plant communities, landscape metrics, terrain age and topsoil texture. RLQ-analysis was used to examine trait-spatial configuration relationships. To assess the effect of terrain age and topsoil texture variation on trait performance, we applied a partial-RLQ analysis approach. Finally, we used the fourth-corner statistic to quantify and test relationships between traits, landscape metrics and RLQ axes. Floristically-defined relevé clusters differed significantly with regard to several landscape metrics. Diversity in patch types and size increased and patch size decreased with increasing canopy height, leaf size and weight. Moreover, more compact patch shapes were correlated with an increased capacity for the conservation of nutrients in leaves. Neither plant species composition nor any of the landscape metrics were found to differ amongst the three classes of terrain age or topsoil texture. We conclude that patch-level landscape metrics of plants can be treated as species-specific functional traits. We recommend that existing databases of functional traits should incorporate these type of data. PMID:28785514

  6. Landscape metrics as functional traits in plants: perspectives from a glacier foreland.

    PubMed

    Sitzia, Tommaso; Dainese, Matteo; Krüsi, Bertil O; McCollin, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Spatial patterns of vegetation arise from an interplay of functional traits, environmental characteristics and chance. The retreat of glaciers offers exposed substrates which are colonised by plants forming distinct patchy patterns. The aim of this study was to unravel whether patch-level landscape metrics of plants can be treated as functional traits. We sampled 46 plots, each 1 m × 1 m, distributed along a restricted range of terrain age and topsoil texture on the foreland of the Nardis glacier, located in the South-Eastern Alps, Italy. Nine quantitative functional traits were selected for 16 of the plant species present, and seven landscape metrics were measured to describe the spatial arrangement of the plant species' patches on the study plots, at a resolution of 1 cm × 1 cm. We studied the relationships among plant communities, landscape metrics, terrain age and topsoil texture. RLQ-analysis was used to examine trait-spatial configuration relationships. To assess the effect of terrain age and topsoil texture variation on trait performance, we applied a partial-RLQ analysis approach. Finally, we used the fourth-corner statistic to quantify and test relationships between traits, landscape metrics and RLQ axes. Floristically-defined relevé clusters differed significantly with regard to several landscape metrics. Diversity in patch types and size increased and patch size decreased with increasing canopy height, leaf size and weight. Moreover, more compact patch shapes were correlated with an increased capacity for the conservation of nutrients in leaves. Neither plant species composition nor any of the landscape metrics were found to differ amongst the three classes of terrain age or topsoil texture. We conclude that patch-level landscape metrics of plants can be treated as species-specific functional traits. We recommend that existing databases of functional traits should incorporate these type of data.

  7. Use of social media in health promotion: purposes, key performance indicators, and evaluation metrics.

    PubMed

    Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Van Wagenen, Sarah A; Hanson, Carl L; West, Joshua H; Barnes, Michael D; Fagen, Michael C

    2012-03-01

    Despite the expanding use of social media, little has been published about its appropriate role in health promotion, and even less has been written about evaluation. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) outline purposes for social media in health promotion, (b) identify potential key performance indicators associated with these purposes, and (c) propose evaluation metrics for social media related to the key performance indicators. Process evaluation is presented in this article as an overarching evaluation strategy for social media.

  8. A perceptual metric for photo retouching.

    PubMed

    Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany

    2011-12-13

    In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality.

  9. A neural net-based approach to software metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boetticher, G.; Srinivas, Kankanahalli; Eichmann, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Software metrics provide an effective method for characterizing software. Metrics have traditionally been composed through the definition of an equation. This approach is limited by the fact that all the interrelationships among all the parameters be fully understood. This paper explores an alternative, neural network approach to modeling metrics. Experiments performed on two widely accepted metrics, McCabe and Halstead, indicate that the approach is sound, thus serving as the groundwork for further exploration into the analysis and design of software metrics.

  10. Validation of the updated ArthroS simulator: face and construct validity of a passive haptic virtual reality simulator with novel performance metrics.

    PubMed

    Garfjeld Roberts, Patrick; Guyver, Paul; Baldwin, Mathew; Akhtar, Kash; Alvand, Abtin; Price, Andrew J; Rees, Jonathan L

    2017-02-01

    To assess the construct and face validity of ArthroS, a passive haptic VR simulator. A secondary aim was to evaluate the novel performance metrics produced by this simulator. Two groups of 30 participants, each divided into novice, intermediate or expert based on arthroscopic experience, completed three separate tasks on either the knee or shoulder module of the simulator. Performance was recorded using 12 automatically generated performance metrics and video footage of the arthroscopic procedures. The videos were blindly assessed using a validated global rating scale (GRS). Participants completed a survey about the simulator's realism and training utility. This new simulator demonstrated construct validity of its tasks when evaluated against a GRS (p ≤ 0.003 in all cases). Regarding it's automatically generated performance metrics, established outputs such as time taken (p ≤ 0.001) and instrument path length (p ≤ 0.007) also demonstrated good construct validity. However, two-thirds of the proposed 'novel metrics' the simulator reports could not distinguish participants based on arthroscopic experience. Face validity assessment rated the simulator as a realistic and useful tool for trainees, but the passive haptic feedback (a key feature of this simulator) is rated as less realistic. The ArthroS simulator has good task construct validity based on established objective outputs, but some of the novel performance metrics could not distinguish between surgical experience. The passive haptic feedback of the simulator also needs improvement. If simulators could offer automated and validated performance feedback, this would facilitate improvements in the delivery of training by allowing trainees to practise and self-assess.

  11. Identification of robust statistical downscaling methods based on a comprehensive suite of performance metrics for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, H. I.; Cannon, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models are a key provider to investigate impacts of projected future climate conditions on regional hydrologic systems. However, there is a considerable mismatch of spatial resolution between GCMs and regional applications, in particular a region characterized by complex terrain such as Korean peninsula. Therefore, a downscaling procedure is an essential to assess regional impacts of climate change. Numerous statistical downscaling methods have been used mainly due to the computational efficiency and simplicity. In this study, four statistical downscaling methods [Bias-Correction/Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD), Bias-Correction/Constructed Analogue (BCCA), Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA), and Bias-Correction/Climate Imprint (BCCI)] are applied to downscale the latest Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data to stations for precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature over South Korea. By split sampling scheme, all methods are calibrated with observational station data for 19 years from 1973 to 1991 are and tested for the recent 19 years from 1992 to 2010. To assess skill of the downscaling methods, we construct a comprehensive suite of performance metrics that measure an ability of reproducing temporal correlation, distribution, spatial correlation, and extreme events. In addition, we employ Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to identify robust statistical downscaling methods based on the performance metrics for each season. The results show that downscaling skill is considerably affected by the skill of CFSR and all methods lead to large improvements in representing all performance metrics. According to seasonal performance metrics evaluated, when TOPSIS is applied, MACA is identified as the most reliable and robust method for all variables and seasons. Note that such result is derived from CFSR output which is recognized as near perfect climate data in climate studies. Therefore, the

  12. Performance of the METRIC model in estimating evapotranspiration fluxes over an irrigated field in Saudi Arabia using Landsat-8 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Hassaballa, Abdalhaleem A.; Patil, Virupakshagouda C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) is essential for hydrological modeling and efficient crop water management in hyper-arid climates. In this study, we applied the METRIC algorithm on Landsat-8 images, acquired from June to October 2013, for the mapping of ET of a 50 ha center-pivot irrigated alfalfa field in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The METRIC-estimated energy balance components and ET were evaluated against the data provided by an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower installed in the field. Results indicated that the METRIC algorithm provided accurate ET estimates over the study area, with RMSE values of 0.13 and 4.15 mm d-1. The METRIC algorithm was observed to perform better in full canopy conditions compared to partial canopy conditions. On average, the METRIC algorithm overestimated the hourly ET by 6.6 % in comparison to the EC measurements; however, the daily ET was underestimated by 4.2 %.

  13. Structural texture similarity metrics for image analysis and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zujovic, Jana; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N; Neuhoff, David L

    2013-07-01

    We develop new metrics for texture similarity that accounts for human visual perception and the stochastic nature of textures. The metrics rely entirely on local image statistics and allow substantial point-by-point deviations between textures that according to human judgment are essentially identical. The proposed metrics extend the ideas of structural similarity and are guided by research in texture analysis-synthesis. They are implemented using a steerable filter decomposition and incorporate a concise set of subband statistics, computed globally or in sliding windows. We conduct systematic tests to investigate metric performance in the context of "known-item search," the retrieval of textures that are "identical" to the query texture. This eliminates the need for cumbersome subjective tests, thus enabling comparisons with human performance on a large database. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed metrics outperform peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity metric (SSIM) and its variations, as well as state-of-the-art texture classification metrics, using standard statistical measures.

  14. Diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative and quantitative stress CMR perfusion analysis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, R; van Assen, M; Vliegenthart, R; de Bock, G H; van der Harst, P; Oudkerk, M

    2017-11-27

    Stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging is a promising modality for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) due to high spatial resolution and absence of radiation. Semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of CMR perfusion are based on signal-intensity curves produced during the first-pass of gadolinium contrast. Multiple semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters have been introduced. Diagnostic performance of these parameters varies extensively among studies and standardized protocols are lacking. This study aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy of semi- quantitative and quantitative CMR perfusion parameters, compared to multiple reference standards. Pubmed, WebOfScience, and Embase were systematically searched using predefined criteria (3272 articles). A check for duplicates was performed (1967 articles). Eligibility and relevance of the articles was determined by two reviewers using pre-defined criteria. The primary data extraction was performed independently by two researchers with the use of a predefined template. Differences in extracted data were resolved by discussion between the two researchers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the 'Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies Tool' (QUADAS-2). True positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives were subtracted/calculated from the articles. The principal summary measures used to assess diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity, specificity, andarea under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Data was pooled according to analysis territory, reference standard and perfusion parameter. Twenty-two articles were eligible based on the predefined study eligibility criteria. The pooled diagnostic accuracy for segment-, territory- and patient-based analyses showed good diagnostic performance with sensitivity of 0.88, 0.82, and 0.83, specificity of 0.72, 0.83, and 0.76 and AUC of 0.90, 0.84, and 0.87, respectively. In per territory

  15. Researcher and Author Impact Metrics: Variety, Value, and Context

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Numerous quantitative indicators are currently available for evaluating research productivity. No single metric is suitable for comprehensive evaluation of the author-level impact. The choice of particular metrics depends on the purpose and context of the evaluation. The aim of this article is to overview some of the widely employed author impact metrics and highlight perspectives of their optimal use. The h-index is one of the most popular metrics for research evaluation, which is easy to calculate and understandable for non-experts. It is automatically displayed on researcher and author profiles on citation databases such as Scopus and Web of Science. Its main advantage relates to the combined approach to the quantification of publication and citation counts. This index is increasingly cited globally. Being an appropriate indicator of publication and citation activity of highly productive and successfully promoted authors, the h-index has been criticized primarily for disadvantaging early career researchers and authors with a few indexed publications. Numerous variants of the index have been proposed to overcome its limitations. Alternative metrics have also emerged to highlight ‘societal impact.’ However, each of these traditional and alternative metrics has its own drawbacks, necessitating careful analyses of the context of social attention and value of publication and citation sets. Perspectives of the optimal use of researcher and author metrics is dependent on evaluation purposes and compounded by information sourced from various global, national, and specialist bibliographic databases. PMID:29713258

  16. Researcher and Author Impact Metrics: Variety, Value, and Context.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Duisenova, Akmaral; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Kitas, George D

    2018-04-30

    Numerous quantitative indicators are currently available for evaluating research productivity. No single metric is suitable for comprehensive evaluation of the author-level impact. The choice of particular metrics depends on the purpose and context of the evaluation. The aim of this article is to overview some of the widely employed author impact metrics and highlight perspectives of their optimal use. The h -index is one of the most popular metrics for research evaluation, which is easy to calculate and understandable for non-experts. It is automatically displayed on researcher and author profiles on citation databases such as Scopus and Web of Science. Its main advantage relates to the combined approach to the quantification of publication and citation counts. This index is increasingly cited globally. Being an appropriate indicator of publication and citation activity of highly productive and successfully promoted authors, the h -index has been criticized primarily for disadvantaging early career researchers and authors with a few indexed publications. Numerous variants of the index have been proposed to overcome its limitations. Alternative metrics have also emerged to highlight 'societal impact.' However, each of these traditional and alternative metrics has its own drawbacks, necessitating careful analyses of the context of social attention and value of publication and citation sets. Perspectives of the optimal use of researcher and author metrics is dependent on evaluation purposes and compounded by information sourced from various global, national, and specialist bibliographic databases.

  17. Performance metrics for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions: aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, B K; Glenzer, S; Edwards, M J

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'THD' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metric called themore » experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.« less

  18. Quantitative metrics that describe river deltas and their channel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Douglas A.; Paola, Chris; Hoyal, David C. J. D.; Sheets, Ben A.

    2011-12-01

    Densely populated river deltas are losing land at an alarming rate and to successfully restore these environments we must understand the details of their morphology. Toward this end we present a set of five metrics that describe delta morphology: (1) the fractal dimension, (2) the distribution of island sizes, (3) the nearest-edge distance, (4) a synthetic distribution of sediment fluxes at the shoreline, and (5) the nourishment area. The nearest-edge distance is the shortest distance to channelized or unchannelized water from a given location on the delta and is analogous to the inverse of drainage density in tributary networks. The nourishment area is the downstream delta area supplied by the sediment coming through a given channel cross section and is analogous to catchment area in tributary networks. As a first step, we apply these metrics to four relatively simple, fluvially dominated delta networks. For all these deltas, the average nearest-edge distances are remarkably constant moving down delta suggesting that the network organizes itself to maintain a consistent distance to the nearest channel. Nourishment area distributions can be predicted from a river mouth bar model of delta growth, and also scale with the width of the channel and with the length of the longest channel, analogous to Hack's law for drainage basins. The four delta channel networks are fractal, but power laws and scale invariance appear to be less pervasive than in tributary networks. Thus, deltas may occupy an advantageous middle ground between complete similarity and complete dissimilarity, where morphologic differences indicate different behavior.

  19. A Three-Dimensional Receiver Operator Characteristic Surface Diagnostic Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly applied as metrics for quantifying the performance of binary fault detection systems. An ROC curve provides a visual representation of a detection system s True Positive Rate versus False Positive Rate sensitivity as the detection threshold is varied. The area under the curve provides a measure of fault detection performance independent of the applied detection threshold. While the standard ROC curve is well suited for quantifying binary fault detection performance, it is not suitable for quantifying the classification performance of multi-fault classification problems. Furthermore, it does not provide a measure of diagnostic latency. To address these shortcomings, a novel three-dimensional receiver operator characteristic (3D ROC) surface metric has been developed. This is done by generating and applying two separate curves: the standard ROC curve reflecting fault detection performance, and a second curve reflecting fault classification performance. A third dimension, diagnostic latency, is added giving rise to 3D ROC surfaces. Applying numerical integration techniques, the volumes under and between the surfaces are calculated to produce metrics of the diagnostic system s detection and classification performance. This paper will describe the 3D ROC surface metric in detail, and present an example of its application for quantifying the performance of aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. Metric limitations and potential enhancements are also discussed

  20. Perceived assessment metrics for visible and infrared color fused image quality without reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuelian; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua; Ren, Jianle; Sui, Xiubao

    2015-02-01

    Designing objective quality assessment of color-fused image is a very demanding and challenging task. We propose four no-reference metrics based on human visual system characteristics for objectively evaluating the quality of false color fusion image. The perceived edge metric (PEM) is defined based on visual perception model and color image gradient similarity between the fused image and the source images. The perceptual contrast metric (PCM) is established associating multi-scale contrast and varying contrast sensitivity filter (CSF) with color components. The linear combination of the standard deviation and mean value over the fused image construct the image colorfulness metric (ICM). The color comfort metric (CCM) is designed by the average saturation and the ratio of pixels with high and low saturation. The qualitative and quantitative experimental results demonstrate that the proposed metrics have a good agreement with subjective perception.

  1. Constrained Metric Learning by Permutation Inducing Isometries.

    PubMed

    Bosveld, Joel; Mahmood, Arif; Huynh, Du Q; Noakes, Lyle

    2016-01-01

    The choice of metric critically affects the performance of classification and clustering algorithms. Metric learning algorithms attempt to improve performance, by learning a more appropriate metric. Unfortunately, most of the current algorithms learn a distance function which is not invariant to rigid transformations of images. Therefore, the distances between two images and their rigidly transformed pair may differ, leading to inconsistent classification or clustering results. We propose to constrain the learned metric to be invariant to the geometry preserving transformations of images that induce permutations in the feature space. The constraint that these transformations are isometries of the metric ensures consistent results and improves accuracy. Our second contribution is a dimension reduction technique that is consistent with the isometry constraints. Our third contribution is the formulation of the isometry constrained logistic discriminant metric learning (IC-LDML) algorithm, by incorporating the isometry constraints within the objective function of the LDML algorithm. The proposed algorithm is compared with the existing techniques on the publicly available labeled faces in the wild, viewpoint-invariant pedestrian recognition, and Toy Cars data sets. The IC-LDML algorithm has outperformed existing techniques for the tasks of face recognition, person identification, and object classification by a significant margin.

  2. Impact of hydrogeological data on measures of uncertainty, site characterization and environmental performance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Ezzedine, Souheil; Rubin, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    The significance of conditioning predictions of environmental performance metrics (EPMs) on hydrogeological data in heterogeneous porous media is addressed. Conditioning EPMs on available data reduces uncertainty and increases the reliability of model predictions. We present a rational and concise approach to investigate the impact of conditioning EPMs on data as a function of the location of the environmentally sensitive target receptor, data types and spacing between measurements. We illustrate how the concept of comparative information yield curves introduced in de Barros et al. [de Barros FPJ, Rubin Y, Maxwell R. The concept of comparative information yield curves and its application to risk-based site characterization. Water Resour Res 2009;45:W06401. doi:10.1029/2008WR007324] could be used to assess site characterization needs as a function of flow and transport dimensionality and EPMs. For a given EPM, we show how alternative uncertainty reduction metrics yield distinct gains of information from a variety of sampling schemes. Our results show that uncertainty reduction is EPM dependent (e.g., travel times) and does not necessarily indicate uncertainty reduction in an alternative EPM (e.g., human health risk). The results show how the position of the environmental target, flow dimensionality and the choice of the uncertainty reduction metric can be used to assist in field sampling campaigns.

  3. An Underwater Color Image Quality Evaluation Metric.

    PubMed

    Yang, Miao; Sowmya, Arcot

    2015-12-01

    Quality evaluation of underwater images is a key goal of underwater video image retrieval and intelligent processing. To date, no metric has been proposed for underwater color image quality evaluation (UCIQE). The special absorption and scattering characteristics of the water medium do not allow direct application of natural color image quality metrics especially to different underwater environments. In this paper, subjective testing for underwater image quality has been organized. The statistical distribution of the underwater image pixels in the CIELab color space related to subjective evaluation indicates the sharpness and colorful factors correlate well with subjective image quality perception. Based on these, a new UCIQE metric, which is a linear combination of chroma, saturation, and contrast, is proposed to quantify the non-uniform color cast, blurring, and low-contrast that characterize underwater engineering and monitoring images. Experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed UCIQE metric and its capability to measure the underwater image enhancement results. They show that the proposed metric has comparable performance to the leading natural color image quality metrics and the underwater grayscale image quality metrics available in the literature, and can predict with higher accuracy the relative amount of degradation with similar image content in underwater environments. Importantly, UCIQE is a simple and fast solution for real-time underwater video processing. The effectiveness of the presented measure is also demonstrated by subjective evaluation. The results show better correlation between the UCIQE and the subjective mean opinion score.

  4. Enterprise Sustainment Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    Ponte Verde Beach: Supply Chain Management Institute. Lambert, D. M., & Pohlen, T. L. (2014). Supply Chain Metrics. In D. M. Lambert, Supply Chain...Partnerships, Performance (pp. 239-256). Ponte Verde Beach: Supply Chain Management Institute Mills, J. S. (1843). A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and

  5. Metric for evaluation of filter efficiency in spectral cameras.

    PubMed

    Nahavandi, Alireza Mahmoudi; Tehran, Mohammad Amani

    2016-11-10

    Although metric functions that show the performance of a colorimetric imaging device have been investigated, a metric for performance analysis of a set of filters in wideband filter-based spectral cameras has rarely been studied. Based on a generalization of Vora's Measure of Goodness (MOG) and the spanning theorem, a single function metric that estimates the effectiveness of a filter set is introduced. The improved metric, named MMOG, varies between one, for a perfect, and zero, for the worst possible set of filters. Results showed that MMOG exhibits a trend that is more similar to the mean square of spectral reflectance reconstruction errors than does Vora's MOG index, and it is robust to noise in the imaging system. MMOG as a single metric could be exploited for further analysis of manufacturing errors.

  6. NeuronMetrics: software for semi-automated processing of cultured neuron images.

    PubMed

    Narro, Martha L; Yang, Fan; Kraft, Robert; Wenk, Carola; Efrat, Alon; Restifo, Linda L

    2007-03-23

    Using primary cell culture to screen for changes in neuronal morphology requires specialized analysis software. We developed NeuronMetrics for semi-automated, quantitative analysis of two-dimensional (2D) images of fluorescently labeled cultured neurons. It skeletonizes the neuron image using two complementary image-processing techniques, capturing fine terminal neurites with high fidelity. An algorithm was devised to span wide gaps in the skeleton. NeuronMetrics uses a novel strategy based on geometric features called faces to extract a branch number estimate from complex arbors with numerous neurite-to-neurite contacts, without creating a precise, contact-free representation of the neurite arbor. It estimates total neurite length, branch number, primary neurite number, territory (the area of the convex polygon bounding the skeleton and cell body), and Polarity Index (a measure of neuronal polarity). These parameters provide fundamental information about the size and shape of neurite arbors, which are critical factors for neuronal function. NeuronMetrics streamlines optional manual tasks such as removing noise, isolating the largest primary neurite, and correcting length for self-fasciculating neurites. Numeric data are output in a single text file, readily imported into other applications for further analysis. Written as modules for ImageJ, NeuronMetrics provides practical analysis tools that are easy to use and support batch processing. Depending on the need for manual intervention, processing time for a batch of approximately 60 2D images is 1.0-2.5 h, from a folder of images to a table of numeric data. NeuronMetrics' output accelerates the quantitative detection of mutations and chemical compounds that alter neurite morphology in vitro, and will contribute to the use of cultured neurons for drug discovery.

  7. Sharp metric obstructions for quasi-Einstein metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Jeffrey S.

    2013-02-01

    Using the tractor calculus to study smooth metric measure spaces, we adapt results of Gover and Nurowski to give sharp metric obstructions to the existence of quasi-Einstein metrics on suitably generic manifolds. We do this by introducing an analogue of the Weyl tractor W to the setting of smooth metric measure spaces. The obstructions we obtain can be realized as tensorial invariants which are polynomial in the Riemann curvature tensor and its divergence. By taking suitable limits of their tensorial forms, we then find obstructions to the existence of static potentials, generalizing to higher dimensions a result of Bartnik and Tod, and to the existence of potentials for gradient Ricci solitons.

  8. Assessing forest fragmentation metrics from forest inventory cluster samples

    Treesearch

    Christoph Kleinn

    2000-01-01

    Fragmentation of forest area plays an important role in the ongoing discussion of forest dynamics and biological and ecosystem diversity. Among its contributing factors are size, shape, number, and spatial arrangement of forest patches. Several metrics and indexes are in use, predominantly in quantitative landscape ecology. An important area of interest is the...

  9. Student Borrowing in America: Metrics, Demographics, Default Aversion Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesterman, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The use of Cohort Default Rate (CDR) as the primary measure of student loan defaults among undergraduates was investigated. The study used data extracted from the National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS), quantitative analysis of Likert-scale survey responses from 153 student financial aid professionals on proposed changes to present metrics and…

  10. Metric Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Cindy D.

    2007-01-01

    Created for a Metric Day activity, Metric Madness is a board game for two to four players. Students review and practice metric vocabulary, measurement, and calculations by playing the game. Playing time is approximately twenty to thirty minutes.

  11. Validation of a Quality Management Metric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    quality management metric (QMM) was used to measure the performance of ten software managers on Department of Defense (DoD) software development programs. Informal verification and validation of the metric compared the QMM score to an overall program success score for the entire program and yielded positive correlation. The results of applying the QMM can be used to characterize the quality of software management and can serve as a template to improve software management performance. Future work includes further refining the QMM, applying the QMM scores to provide feedback

  12. Make It Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Thomas

    Measurement is perhaps the most frequently used form of mathematics. This book presents activities for learning about the metric system designed for upper intermediate and junior high levels. Discussions include: why metrics, history of metrics, changing to a metric world, teaching tips, and formulas. Activities presented are: metrics all around…

  13. Implicit Contractive Mappings in Modular Metric and Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, N.; Salimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of modular metric spaces being a natural generalization of classical modulars over linear spaces like Lebesgue, Orlicz, Musielak-Orlicz, Lorentz, Orlicz-Lorentz, and Calderon-Lozanovskii spaces was recently introduced. In this paper we investigate the existence of fixed points of generalized α-admissible modular contractive mappings in modular metric spaces. As applications, we derive some new fixed point theorems in partially ordered modular metric spaces, Suzuki type fixed point theorems in modular metric spaces and new fixed point theorems for integral contractions. In last section, we develop an important relation between fuzzy metric and modular metric and deduce certain new fixed point results in triangular fuzzy metric spaces. Moreover, some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results. PMID:25003157

  14. Quantitative evaluation of manufacturability and performance for ILT produced mask shapes using a single-objective function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Heon; Wang, Wei-long; Kallingal, Chidam

    2015-03-01

    The continuous scaling of semiconductor devices is quickly outpacing the resolution improvements of lithographic exposure tools and processes. This one-sided progression has pushed optical lithography to its limits, resulting in the use of well-known techniques such as Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAF's), Source-Mask Optimization (SMO), and double-patterning, to name a few. These techniques, belonging to a larger category of Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RET), have extended the resolution capabilities of optical lithography at the cost of increasing mask complexity, and therefore cost. One such technique, called Inverse Lithography Technique (ILT), has attracted much attention for its ability to produce the best possible theoretical mask design. ILT treats the mask design process as an inverse problem, where the known transformation from mask to wafer is carried out backwards using a rigorous mathematical approach. One practical problem in the application of ILT is the resulting contour-like mask shapes that must be "Manhattanized" (composed of straight edges and 90-deg corners) in order to produce a manufacturable mask. This conversion process inherently degrades the mask quality as it is a departure from the "optimal mask" represented by the continuously curved shapes produced by ILT. However, simpler masks composed of longer straight edges reduce the mask cost as it lowers the shot count and saves mask writing time during mask fabrication, resulting in a conflict between manufacturability and performance for ILT produced masks1,2. In this study, various commonly used metrics will be combined into an objective function to produce a single number to quantitatively measure a particular ILT solution's ability to balance mask manufacturability and RET performance. Several metrics that relate to mask manufacturing costs (i.e. mask vertex count, ILT computation runtime) are appropriately weighted against metrics that represent RET capability (i.e. process

  15. Revision and extension of Eco-LCA metrics for sustainability assessment of the energy and chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiying; Yang, Siyu; Kraslawski, Andrzej; Qian, Yu

    2013-12-17

    Ecologically based life cycle assessment (Eco-LCA) is an appealing approach for the evaluation of resources utilization and environmental impacts of the process industries from an ecological scale. However, the aggregated metrics of Eco-LCA suffer from some drawbacks: the environmental impact metric has limited applicability; the resource utilization metric ignores indirect consumption; the renewability metric fails to address the quantitative distinction of resources availability; the productivity metric seems self-contradictory. In this paper, the existing Eco-LCA metrics are revised and extended for sustainability assessment of the energy and chemical processes. A new Eco-LCA metrics system is proposed, including four independent dimensions: environmental impact, resource utilization, resource availability, and economic effectiveness. An illustrative example of comparing assessment between a gas boiler and a solar boiler process provides insight into the features of the proposed approach.

  16. Cophenetic metrics for phylogenetic trees, after Sokal and Rohlf.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Gabriel; Mir, Arnau; Rosselló, Francesc; Rotger, Lucía; Sánchez, David

    2013-01-16

    Phylogenetic tree comparison metrics are an important tool in the study of evolution, and hence the definition of such metrics is an interesting problem in phylogenetics. In a paper in Taxon fifty years ago, Sokal and Rohlf proposed to measure quantitatively the difference between a pair of phylogenetic trees by first encoding them by means of their half-matrices of cophenetic values, and then comparing these matrices. This idea has been used several times since then to define dissimilarity measures between phylogenetic trees but, to our knowledge, no proper metric on weighted phylogenetic trees with nested taxa based on this idea has been formally defined and studied yet. Actually, the cophenetic values of pairs of different taxa alone are not enough to single out phylogenetic trees with weighted arcs or nested taxa. For every (rooted) phylogenetic tree T, let its cophenetic vectorφ(T) consist of all pairs of cophenetic values between pairs of taxa in T and all depths of taxa in T. It turns out that these cophenetic vectors single out weighted phylogenetic trees with nested taxa. We then define a family of cophenetic metrics dφ,p by comparing these cophenetic vectors by means of Lp norms, and we study, either analytically or numerically, some of their basic properties: neighbors, diameter, distribution, and their rank correlation with each other and with other metrics. The cophenetic metrics can be safely used on weighted phylogenetic trees with nested taxa and no restriction on degrees, and they can be computed in O(n2) time, where n stands for the number of taxa. The metrics dφ,1 and dφ,2 have positive skewed distributions, and they show a low rank correlation with the Robinson-Foulds metric and the nodal metrics, and a very high correlation with each other and with the splitted nodal metrics. The diameter of dφ,p, for p⩾1 , is in O(n(p+2)/p), and thus for low p they are more discriminative, having a wider range of values.

  17. Imaging acquisition display performance: an evaluation and discussion of performance metrics and procedures.

    PubMed

    Silosky, Michael S; Marsh, Rebecca M; Scherzinger, Ann L

    2016-07-08

    When The Joint Commission updated its Requirements for Diagnostic Imaging Services for hospitals and ambulatory care facilities on July 1, 2015, among the new requirements was an annual performance evaluation for acquisition workstation displays. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a large cohort of acquisition displays used in a clinical environment and compare the results with existing performance standards provided by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Measurements of the minimum luminance, maximum luminance, and luminance uniformity, were performed on 42 acquisition displays across multiple imaging modalities. The mean values, standard deviations, and ranges were calculated for these metrics. Additionally, visual evaluations of contrast, spatial resolution, and distortion were performed using either the Society of Motion Pictures and Television Engineers test pattern or the TG-18-QC test pattern. Finally, an evaluation of local nonuniformities was performed using either a uniform white display or the TG-18-UN80 test pattern. Displays tested were flat panel, liquid crystal displays that ranged from less than 1 to up to 10 years of use and had been built by a wide variety of manufacturers. The mean values for Lmin and Lmax for the displays tested were 0.28 ± 0.13 cd/m2 and 135.07 ± 33.35 cd/m2, respectively. The mean maximum luminance deviation for both ultrasound and non-ultrasound displays was 12.61% ± 4.85% and 14.47% ± 5.36%, respectively. Visual evaluation of display performance varied depending on several factors including brightness and contrast settings and the test pattern used for image quality assessment. This work provides a snapshot of the performance of 42 acquisition displays across several imaging modalities in clinical use at a large medical center. Comparison with existing performance standards reveals that changes in display technology and the move from cathode ray

  18. Linearization improves the repeatability of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kyle M; Pagel, Mark D; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the repeatabilities of the linear and nonlinear Tofts and reference region models (RRM) for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). Simulated and experimental DCE-MRI data from 12 rats with a flank tumor of C6 glioma acquired over three consecutive days were analyzed using four quantitative and semi-quantitative DCE-MRI metrics. The quantitative methods used were: 1) linear Tofts model (LTM), 2) non-linear Tofts model (NTM), 3) linear RRM (LRRM), and 4) non-linear RRM (NRRM). The following semi-quantitative metrics were used: 1) maximum enhancement ratio (MER), 2) time to peak (TTP), 3) initial area under the curve (iauc64), and 4) slope. LTM and NTM were used to estimate K trans , while LRRM and NRRM were used to estimate K trans relative to muscle (R Ktrans ). Repeatability was assessed by calculating the within-subject coefficient of variation (wSCV) and the percent intra-subject variation (iSV) determined with the Gage R&R analysis. The iSV for R Ktrans using LRRM was two-fold lower compared to NRRM at all simulated and experimental conditions. A similar trend was observed for the Tofts model, where LTM was at least 50% more repeatable than the NTM under all experimental and simulated conditions. The semi-quantitative metrics iauc64 and MER were as equally repeatable as K trans and R Ktrans estimated by LTM and LRRM respectively. The iSV for iauc64 and MER were significantly lower than the iSV for slope and TTP. In simulations and experimental results, linearization improves the repeatability of quantitative DCE-MRI by at least 30%, making it as repeatable as semi-quantitative metrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing a Common Metric for Evaluating Police Performance in Deadly Force Situations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-27

    2005).“Police Inservice Deadly Force Training and Requalification in Washington State.” Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 5(2):67-86. NIJ Metric...OF: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background There is a critical lack of scientific evidence about whether deadly force management, accountability and training ...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS training metrics develoment, deadly encounters

  20. Measuring US Army medical evacuation: Metrics for performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, Samuel M; Mabry, Robert L; Maddry, Joseph; Kharod, Chetan U; Walrath, Benjamin D; Powell, Elizabeth; Shackelford, Stacy

    2018-01-01

    The US Army medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) community has maintained a reputation for high levels of success in transporting casualties from the point of injury to definitive care. This work served as a demonstration project to advance a model of quality assurance surveillance and medical direction for prehospital MEDEVAC providers within the Joint Trauma System. A retrospective interrupted time series analysis using prospectively collected data was performed as a process improvement project. Records were reviewed during two distinct periods: 2009 and 2014 to 2015. MEDEVAC records were matched to outcomes data available in the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. Abstracted deidentified data were reviewed for specific outcomes, procedures, and processes of care. Descriptive statistics were applied as appropriate. A total of 1,008 patients were included in this study. Nine quality assurance metrics were assessed. These metrics were: airway management, management of hypoxemia, compliance with a blood transfusion protocol, interventions for hypotensive patients, quality of battlefield analgesia, temperature measurement and interventions, proportion of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with hypoxemia and/or hypotension, proportion of traumatic brain injury patients with an appropriate assessment, and proportion of missing data. Overall survival in the subset of patients with outcomes data available in the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was 97.5%. The data analyzed for this study suggest overall high compliance with established tactical combat casualty care guidelines. In the present study, nearly 7% of patients had at least one documented oxygen saturation of less than 90%, and 13% of these patients had no documentation of any intervention for hypoxemia, indicating a need for training focus on airway management for hypoxemia. Advances in battlefield analgesia continued to evolve over the period when data for this study was collected. Given the inherent high

  1. Relevance of motion-related assessment metrics in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Lamata, Pablo; Rodrigues, Sharon P; Enciso, Silvia; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-06-01

    Motion metrics have become an important source of information when addressing the assessment of surgical expertise. However, their direct relationship with the different surgical skills has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of motion-related metrics in the evaluation processes of basic psychomotor laparoscopic skills and their correlation with the different abilities sought to measure. A framework for task definition and metric analysis is proposed. An explorative survey was first conducted with a board of experts to identify metrics to assess basic psychomotor skills. Based on the output of that survey, 3 novel tasks for surgical assessment were designed. Face and construct validation was performed, with focus on motion-related metrics. Tasks were performed by 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts). Movements of the laparoscopic instruments were registered with the TrEndo tracking system and analyzed. Time, path length, and depth showed construct validity for all 3 tasks. Motion smoothness and idle time also showed validity for tasks involving bimanual coordination and tasks requiring a more tactical approach, respectively. Additionally, motion smoothness and average speed showed a high internal consistency, proving them to be the most task-independent of all the metrics analyzed. Motion metrics are complementary and valid for assessing basic psychomotor skills, and their relevance depends on the skill being evaluated. A larger clinical implementation, combined with quality performance information, will give more insight on the relevance of the results shown in this study.

  2. The Use of Performance Metrics for the Assessment of Safeguards Effectiveness at the State Level

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner K. M.; George Anzelon, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Yana Feldman, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Mark Goodman,Department of State, Washington, DC Dunbar Lockwood, National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC Jonathan B. Sanborn, JBS Consulting, LLC, Arlington, VA.

    In the ongoing evolution of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the state level, many safeguards implementation principles have been emphasized: effectiveness, efficiency, non-discrimination, transparency, focus on sensitive materials, centrality of material accountancy for detecting diversion, independence, objectivity, and grounding in technical considerations, among others. These principles are subject to differing interpretations and prioritizations and sometimes conflict. This paper is an attempt to develop metrics and address some of the potential tradeoffs inherent in choices about how various safeguards policy principles are implemented. The paper carefully defines effective safeguards, including in the context of safeguards approaches that take accountmore » of the range of state-specific factors described by the IAEA Secretariat and taken note of by the Board in September 2014, and (2) makes use of performance metrics to help document, and to make transparent, how safeguards implementation would meet such effectiveness requirements.« less

  3. Evaluation of image deblurring methods via a classification metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Daniele; Humphreys, David; Lamb, Robert A.; Favaro, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    The performance of single image deblurring algorithms is typically evaluated via a certain discrepancy measure between the reconstructed image and the ideal sharp image. The choice of metric, however, has been a source of debate and has also led to alternative metrics based on human visual perception. While fixed metrics may fail to capture some small but visible artifacts, perception-based metrics may favor reconstructions with artifacts that are visually pleasant. To overcome these limitations, we propose to assess the quality of reconstructed images via a task-driven metric. In this paper we consider object classification as the task and therefore use the rate of classification as the metric to measure deblurring performance. In our evaluation we use data with different types of blur in two cases: Optical Character Recognition (OCR), where the goal is to recognise characters in a black and white image, and object classification with no restrictions on pose, illumination and orientation. Finally, we show how off-the-shelf classification algorithms benefit from working with deblurred images.

  4. A New Metric for Quantifying Performance Impairment on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    used the coefficient of determination (R2) and the P-values based on Bartelss test of randomness of the residual error to quantify the goodness - of - fit ...we used the goodness - of - fit between each metric and the corresponding individualized two-process model output (Rajaraman et al., 2008, 2009) to assess...individualized two-process model fits for each of the 12 subjects using the five metrics. The P-values are for Bartelss

  5. Software Quality Metrics Enhancements. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    the mathematical relationships which relate metrics to ratings of the various quality factors) for factors which were not validated previously were...function, provides a mathematical relationship between the metrics and the quality factors. (3) Validation of these normalization functions was performed by...samples, further research is needed before a high degree of confidence can be placed on the mathematical relationships established to date l (3.3.3) 6

  6. Research on quality metrics of wireless adaptive video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuefei

    2018-04-01

    With the development of wireless networks and intelligent terminals, video traffic has increased dramatically. Adaptive video streaming has become one of the most promising video transmission technologies. For this type of service, a good QoS (Quality of Service) of wireless network does not always guarantee that all customers have good experience. Thus, new quality metrics have been widely studies recently. Taking this into account, the objective of this paper is to investigate the quality metrics of wireless adaptive video streaming. In this paper, a wireless video streaming simulation platform with DASH mechanism and multi-rate video generator is established. Based on this platform, PSNR model, SSIM model and Quality Level model are implemented. Quality Level Model considers the QoE (Quality of Experience) factors such as image quality, stalling and switching frequency while PSNR Model and SSIM Model mainly consider the quality of the video. To evaluate the performance of these QoE models, three performance metrics (SROCC, PLCC and RMSE) which are used to make a comparison of subjective and predicted MOS (Mean Opinion Score) are calculated. From these performance metrics, the monotonicity, linearity and accuracy of these quality metrics can be observed.

  7. Analysis of Network Clustering Algorithms and Cluster Quality Metrics at Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kobourov, Stephen; Gallant, Mike; Börner, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Overview Notions of community quality underlie the clustering of networks. While studies surrounding network clustering are increasingly common, a precise understanding of the realtionship between different cluster quality metrics is unknown. In this paper, we examine the relationship between stand-alone cluster quality metrics and information recovery metrics through a rigorous analysis of four widely-used network clustering algorithms—Louvain, Infomap, label propagation, and smart local moving. We consider the stand-alone quality metrics of modularity, conductance, and coverage, and we consider the information recovery metrics of adjusted Rand score, normalized mutual information, and a variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work. Our study includes both synthetic graphs and empirical data sets of sizes varying from 1,000 to 1,000,000 nodes. Cluster Quality Metrics We find significant differences among the results of the different cluster quality metrics. For example, clustering algorithms can return a value of 0.4 out of 1 on modularity but score 0 out of 1 on information recovery. We find conductance, though imperfect, to be the stand-alone quality metric that best indicates performance on the information recovery metrics. Additionally, our study shows that the variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work cannot be assumed to differ only slightly from traditional normalized mutual information. Network Clustering Algorithms Smart local moving is the overall best performing algorithm in our study, but discrepancies between cluster evaluation metrics prevent us from declaring it an absolutely superior algorithm. Interestingly, Louvain performed better than Infomap in nearly all the tests in our study, contradicting the results of previous work in which Infomap was superior to Louvain. We find that although label propagation performs poorly when clusters are less clearly defined, it scales efficiently and accurately to large

  8. Assessment of Performance Measures for Security of the Maritime Transportation Network, Port Security Metrics : Proposed Measurement of Deterrence Capability

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-03

    This report is the thirs in a series describing the development of performance measures pertaining to the security of the maritime transportation network (port security metrics). THe development of measures to guide improvements in maritime security ...

  9. WE-G-207-05: Relationship Between CT Image Quality, Segmentation Performance, and Quantitative Image Feature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J; Nishikawa, R; Reiser, I

    Purpose: Segmentation quality can affect quantitative image feature analysis. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between computed tomography (CT) image quality, segmentation performance, and quantitative image feature analysis. Methods: A total of 90 pathology proven breast lesions in 87 dedicated breast CT images were considered. An iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithm was used to obtain CT images with different quality. With different combinations of 4 variables in the algorithm, this study obtained a total of 28 different qualities of CT images. Two imaging tasks/objectives were considered: 1) segmentation and 2) classification of the lesion as benignmore » or malignant. Twenty-three image features were extracted after segmentation using a semi-automated algorithm and 5 of them were selected via a feature selection technique. Logistic regression was trained and tested using leave-one-out-cross-validation and its area under the ROC curve (AUC) was recorded. The standard deviation of a homogeneous portion and the gradient of a parenchymal portion of an example breast were used as an estimate of image noise and sharpness. The DICE coefficient was computed using a radiologist’s drawing on the lesion. Mean DICE and AUC were used as performance metrics for each of the 28 reconstructions. The relationship between segmentation and classification performance under different reconstructions were compared. Distributions (median, 95% confidence interval) of DICE and AUC for each reconstruction were also compared. Results: Moderate correlation (Pearson’s rho = 0.43, p-value = 0.02) between DICE and AUC values was found. However, the variation between DICE and AUC values for each reconstruction increased as the image sharpness increased. There was a combination of IIR parameters that resulted in the best segmentation with the worst classification performance. Conclusion: There are certain images that yield better segmentation or

  10. Adaptive distance metric learning for diffusion tensor image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Youyong; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Hui, Steve C N; Chu, Winnie C W

    2014-01-01

    High quality segmentation of diffusion tensor images (DTI) is of key interest in biomedical research and clinical application. In previous studies, most efforts have been made to construct predefined metrics for different DTI segmentation tasks. These methods require adequate prior knowledge and tuning parameters. To overcome these disadvantages, we proposed to automatically learn an adaptive distance metric by a graph based semi-supervised learning model for DTI segmentation. An original discriminative distance vector was first formulated by combining both geometry and orientation distances derived from diffusion tensors. The kernel metric over the original distance and labels of all voxels were then simultaneously optimized in a graph based semi-supervised learning approach. Finally, the optimization task was efficiently solved with an iterative gradient descent method to achieve the optimal solution. With our approach, an adaptive distance metric could be available for each specific segmentation task. Experiments on synthetic and real brain DTI datasets were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed distance metric learning approach. The performance of our approach was compared with three classical metrics in the graph based semi-supervised learning framework.

  11. Adaptive Distance Metric Learning for Diffusion Tensor Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Youyong; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Hui, Steve C. N.; Chu, Winnie C. W.

    2014-01-01

    High quality segmentation of diffusion tensor images (DTI) is of key interest in biomedical research and clinical application. In previous studies, most efforts have been made to construct predefined metrics for different DTI segmentation tasks. These methods require adequate prior knowledge and tuning parameters. To overcome these disadvantages, we proposed to automatically learn an adaptive distance metric by a graph based semi-supervised learning model for DTI segmentation. An original discriminative distance vector was first formulated by combining both geometry and orientation distances derived from diffusion tensors. The kernel metric over the original distance and labels of all voxels were then simultaneously optimized in a graph based semi-supervised learning approach. Finally, the optimization task was efficiently solved with an iterative gradient descent method to achieve the optimal solution. With our approach, an adaptive distance metric could be available for each specific segmentation task. Experiments on synthetic and real brain DTI datasets were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed distance metric learning approach. The performance of our approach was compared with three classical metrics in the graph based semi-supervised learning framework. PMID:24651858

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Color Differences within High Contrast, Low Power Reversible Electrophoretic Displays

    DOE PAGES

    Giera, Brian; Bukosky, Scott; Lee, Elaine; ...

    2018-01-23

    Here, quantitative color analysis is performed on videos of high contrast, low power reversible electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-based displays operated under different applied voltages. This analysis is coded in an open-source software, relies on a color differentiation metric, ΔE * 00, derived from digital video, and provides an intuitive relationship between the operating conditions of the devices and their performance. Time-dependent ΔE * 00 color analysis reveals color relaxation behavior, recoverability for different voltage sequences, and operating conditions that can lead to optimal performance.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Color Differences within High Contrast, Low Power Reversible Electrophoretic Displays

    SciTech Connect

    Giera, Brian; Bukosky, Scott; Lee, Elaine

    Here, quantitative color analysis is performed on videos of high contrast, low power reversible electrophoretic deposition (EPD)-based displays operated under different applied voltages. This analysis is coded in an open-source software, relies on a color differentiation metric, ΔE * 00, derived from digital video, and provides an intuitive relationship between the operating conditions of the devices and their performance. Time-dependent ΔE * 00 color analysis reveals color relaxation behavior, recoverability for different voltage sequences, and operating conditions that can lead to optimal performance.

  14. Toward best practices in data processing and analysis for intact biotherapeutics by MS in quantitative bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kellie, John F; Kehler, Jonathan R; Karlinsey, Molly Z; Summerfield, Scott G

    2017-12-01

    Typically, quantitation of biotherapeutics from biological matrices by LC-MS is based on a surrogate peptide approach to determine molecule concentration. Recent efforts have focused on quantitation of the intact protein molecules or larger mass subunits of monoclonal antibodies. To date, there has been limited guidance for large or intact protein mass quantitation for quantitative bioanalysis. Intact- and subunit-level analyses of biotherapeutics from biological matrices are performed at 12-25 kDa mass range with quantitation data presented. Linearity, bias and other metrics are presented along with recommendations made on the viability of existing quantitation approaches. This communication is intended to start a discussion around intact protein data analysis and processing, recognizing that other published contributions will be required.

  15. Thermodynamic metrics and optimal paths.

    PubMed

    Sivak, David A; Crooks, Gavin E

    2012-05-11

    A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.

  16. Evaluation techniques and metrics for assessment of pan+MSI fusion (pansharpening)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercovich, Ryan A.

    2015-05-01

    Fusion of broadband panchromatic data with narrow band multispectral data - pansharpening - is a common and often studied problem in remote sensing. Many methods exist to produce data fusion results with the best possible spatial and spectral characteristics, and a number have been commercially implemented. This study examines the output products of 4 commercial implementations with regard to their relative strengths and weaknesses for a set of defined image characteristics and analyst use-cases. Image characteristics used are spatial detail, spatial quality, spectral integrity, and composite color quality (hue and saturation), and analyst use-cases included a variety of object detection and identification tasks. The imagery comes courtesy of the RIT SHARE 2012 collect. Two approaches are used to evaluate the pansharpening methods, analyst evaluation or qualitative measure and image quality metrics or quantitative measures. Visual analyst evaluation results are compared with metric results to determine which metrics best measure the defined image characteristics and product use-cases and to support future rigorous characterization the metrics' correlation with the analyst results. Because pansharpening represents a trade between adding spatial information from the panchromatic image, and retaining spectral information from the MSI channels, the metrics examined are grouped into spatial improvement metrics and spectral preservation metrics. A single metric to quantify the quality of a pansharpening method would necessarily be a combination of weighted spatial and spectral metrics based on the importance of various spatial and spectral characteristics for the primary task of interest. Appropriate metrics and weights for such a combined metric are proposed here, based on the conducted analyst evaluation. Additionally, during this work, a metric was developed specifically focused on assessment of spatial structure improvement relative to a reference image and

  17. Correlation of Admission Metrics with Eventual Success in Mathematics Academic Performance of Freshmen in AMAIUB's Business Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calucag, Lina S.; Talisic, Geraldo C.; Caday, Aileen B.

    2016-01-01

    This is a correlational study research design, which aimed to determine the correlation of admission metrics with eventual success in mathematics academic performance of the admitted 177 first year students of Bachelor of Science in Business Informatics and 59 first year students of Bachelor of Science in International Studies. Using Pearson's…

  18. Multiview marker-free registration of forest terrestrial laser scanner data with embedded confidence metrics

    DOE PAGES

    Kelbe, David; Oak Ridge National Lab.; van Aardt, Jan; ...

    2016-10-18

    Terrestrial laser scanning has demonstrated increasing potential for rapid comprehensive measurement of forest structure, especially when multiple scans are spatially registered in order to reduce the limitations of occlusion. Although marker-based registration techniques (based on retro-reflective spherical targets) are commonly used in practice, a blind marker-free approach is preferable, insofar as it supports rapid operational data acquisition. To support these efforts, we extend the pairwise registration approach of our earlier work, and develop a graph-theoretical framework to perform blind marker-free global registration of multiple point cloud data sets. Pairwise pose estimates are weighted based on their estimated error, in ordermore » to overcome pose conflict while exploiting redundant information and improving precision. The proposed approach was tested for eight diverse New England forest sites, with 25 scans collected at each site. Quantitative assessment was provided via a novel embedded confidence metric, with a mean estimated root-mean-square error of 7.2 cm and 89% of scans connected to the reference node. Lastly, this paper assesses the validity of the embedded multiview registration confidence metric and evaluates the performance of the proposed registration algorithm.« less

  19. Performance and Scalability of Discriminative Metrics for Comparative Gene Identification in 12 Drosophila Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michael F.; Deoras, Ameya N.; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Kellis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    Comparative genomics of multiple related species is a powerful methodology for the discovery of functional genomic elements, and its power should increase with the number of species compared. Here, we use 12 Drosophila genomes to study the power of comparative genomics metrics to distinguish between protein-coding and non-coding regions. First, we study the relative power of different comparative metrics and their relationship to single-species metrics. We find that even relatively simple multi-species metrics robustly outperform advanced single-species metrics, especially for shorter exons (≤240 nt), which are common in animal genomes. Moreover, the two capture largely independent features of protein-coding genes, with different sensitivity/specificity trade-offs, such that their combinations lead to even greater discriminatory power. In addition, we study how discovery power scales with the number and phylogenetic distance of the genomes compared. We find that species at a broad range of distances are comparably effective informants for pairwise comparative gene identification, but that these are surpassed by multi-species comparisons at similar evolutionary divergence. In particular, while pairwise discovery power plateaued at larger distances and never outperformed the most advanced single-species metrics, multi-species comparisons continued to benefit even from the most distant species with no apparent saturation. Last, we find that genes in functional categories typically considered fast-evolving can nonetheless be recovered at very high rates using comparative methods. Our results have implications for comparative genomics analyses in any species, including the human. PMID:18421375

  20. Quantitative radiomics: impact of stochastic effects on textural feature analysis implies the need for standards

    PubMed Central

    Nyflot, Matthew J.; Yang, Fei; Byrd, Darrin; Bowen, Stephen R.; Sandison, George A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Image heterogeneity metrics such as textural features are an active area of research for evaluating clinical outcomes with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and other modalities. However, the effects of stochastic image acquisition noise on these metrics are poorly understood. We performed a simulation study by generating 50 statistically independent PET images of the NEMA IQ phantom with realistic noise and resolution properties. Heterogeneity metrics based on gray-level intensity histograms, co-occurrence matrices, neighborhood difference matrices, and zone size matrices were evaluated within regions of interest surrounding the lesions. The impact of stochastic variability was evaluated with percent difference from the mean of the 50 realizations, coefficient of variation and estimated sample size for clinical trials. Additionally, sensitivity studies were performed to simulate the effects of patient size and image reconstruction method on the quantitative performance of these metrics. Complex trends in variability were revealed as a function of textural feature, lesion size, patient size, and reconstruction parameters. In conclusion, the sensitivity of PET textural features to normal stochastic image variation and imaging parameters can be large and is feature-dependent. Standards are needed to ensure that prospective studies that incorporate textural features are properly designed to measure true effects that may impact clinical outcomes. PMID:26251842

  1. Quantitative radiomics: impact of stochastic effects on textural feature analysis implies the need for standards.

    PubMed

    Nyflot, Matthew J; Yang, Fei; Byrd, Darrin; Bowen, Stephen R; Sandison, George A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    Image heterogeneity metrics such as textural features are an active area of research for evaluating clinical outcomes with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and other modalities. However, the effects of stochastic image acquisition noise on these metrics are poorly understood. We performed a simulation study by generating 50 statistically independent PET images of the NEMA IQ phantom with realistic noise and resolution properties. Heterogeneity metrics based on gray-level intensity histograms, co-occurrence matrices, neighborhood difference matrices, and zone size matrices were evaluated within regions of interest surrounding the lesions. The impact of stochastic variability was evaluated with percent difference from the mean of the 50 realizations, coefficient of variation and estimated sample size for clinical trials. Additionally, sensitivity studies were performed to simulate the effects of patient size and image reconstruction method on the quantitative performance of these metrics. Complex trends in variability were revealed as a function of textural feature, lesion size, patient size, and reconstruction parameters. In conclusion, the sensitivity of PET textural features to normal stochastic image variation and imaging parameters can be large and is feature-dependent. Standards are needed to ensure that prospective studies that incorporate textural features are properly designed to measure true effects that may impact clinical outcomes.

  2. NASA metric transition plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA science publications have used the metric system of measurement since 1970. Although NASA has maintained a metric use policy since 1979, practical constraints have restricted actual use of metric units. In 1988, an amendment to the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 required the Federal Government to adopt the metric system except where impractical. In response to Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770, NASA revised its metric use policy and developed this Metric Transition Plan. NASA's goal is to use the metric system for program development and functional support activities to the greatest practical extent by the end of 1995. The introduction of the metric system into new flight programs will determine the pace of the metric transition. Transition of institutional capabilities and support functions will be phased to enable use of the metric system in flight program development and operations. Externally oriented elements of this plan will introduce and actively support use of the metric system in education, public information, and small business programs. The plan also establishes a procedure for evaluating and approving waivers and exceptions to the required use of the metric system for new programs. Coordination with other Federal agencies and departments (through the Interagency Council on Metric Policy) and industry (directly and through professional societies and interest groups) will identify sources of external support and minimize duplication of effort.

  3. Beyond Benchmarking: Value-Adding Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-enz, Jac

    2007-01-01

    HR metrics has grown up a bit over the past two decades, moving away from simple benchmarking practices and toward a more inclusive approach to measuring institutional performance and progress. In this article, the acknowledged "father" of human capital performance benchmarking provides an overview of several aspects of today's HR metrics…

  4. Analysis of Network Clustering Algorithms and Cluster Quality Metrics at Scale.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Scott; Kobourov, Stephen; Gallant, Mike; Börner, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Notions of community quality underlie the clustering of networks. While studies surrounding network clustering are increasingly common, a precise understanding of the realtionship between different cluster quality metrics is unknown. In this paper, we examine the relationship between stand-alone cluster quality metrics and information recovery metrics through a rigorous analysis of four widely-used network clustering algorithms-Louvain, Infomap, label propagation, and smart local moving. We consider the stand-alone quality metrics of modularity, conductance, and coverage, and we consider the information recovery metrics of adjusted Rand score, normalized mutual information, and a variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work. Our study includes both synthetic graphs and empirical data sets of sizes varying from 1,000 to 1,000,000 nodes. We find significant differences among the results of the different cluster quality metrics. For example, clustering algorithms can return a value of 0.4 out of 1 on modularity but score 0 out of 1 on information recovery. We find conductance, though imperfect, to be the stand-alone quality metric that best indicates performance on the information recovery metrics. Additionally, our study shows that the variant of normalized mutual information used in previous work cannot be assumed to differ only slightly from traditional normalized mutual information. Smart local moving is the overall best performing algorithm in our study, but discrepancies between cluster evaluation metrics prevent us from declaring it an absolutely superior algorithm. Interestingly, Louvain performed better than Infomap in nearly all the tests in our study, contradicting the results of previous work in which Infomap was superior to Louvain. We find that although label propagation performs poorly when clusters are less clearly defined, it scales efficiently and accurately to large graphs with well-defined clusters.

  5. The LSST metrics analysis framework (MAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. L.; Yoachim, Peter; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cook, Kem H.; Ivezic, Željko; Krughoff, K. S.; Petry, Catherine; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the Metrics Analysis Framework (MAF), an open-source python framework developed to provide a user-friendly, customizable, easily-extensible set of tools for analyzing data sets. MAF is part of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Simulations effort. Its initial goal is to provide a tool to evaluate LSST Operations Simulation (OpSim) simulated surveys to help understand the effects of telescope scheduling on survey performance, however MAF can be applied to a much wider range of datasets. The building blocks of the framework are Metrics (algorithms to analyze a given quantity of data), Slicers (subdividing the overall data set into smaller data slices as relevant for each Metric), and Database classes (to access the dataset and read data into memory). We describe how these building blocks work together, and provide an example of using MAF to evaluate different dithering strategies. We also outline how users can write their own custom Metrics and use these within the framework.

  6. Long Term Performance Metrics of the GD SDR on the SCaN Testbed: The First Year on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer; Wilson, Molly C.

    2014-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SCaN Testbed was installed on the ISS in August of 2012. After installation, the initial checkout and commissioning phases were completed and experimental operations commenced. One goal of the SCaN Testbed is to collect long term performance metrics for SDRs operating in space in order to demonstrate long term reliability. These metrics include the time the SDR powered on, the time the power amplifier (PA) is powered on, temperature trends, error detection and correction (EDAC) behavior, and waveform operational usage time. This paper describes the performance of the GD SDR over the first year of operations on the ISS.

  7. Analytical performance evaluation of a high-volume hematology laboratory utilizing sigma metrics as standard of excellence.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M S; Moiz, B

    2016-04-01

    Around two-thirds of important clinical decisions about the management of patients are based on laboratory test results. Clinical laboratories are required to adopt quality control (QC) measures to ensure provision of accurate and precise results. Six sigma is a statistical tool, which provides opportunity to assess performance at the highest level of excellence. The purpose of this study was to assess performance of our hematological parameters on sigma scale in order to identify gaps and hence areas of improvement in patient care. Twelve analytes included in the study were hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red cell distribution width (RDW), total leukocyte count (TLC) with percentages of neutrophils (Neutr%) and lymphocytes (Lymph %), platelet count (Plt), mean platelet volume (MPV), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen (Fbg). Internal quality control data and external quality assurance survey results were utilized for the calculation of sigma metrics for each analyte. Acceptable sigma value of ≥3 was obtained for the majority of the analytes included in the analysis. MCV, Plt, and Fbg achieved value of <3 for level 1 (low abnormal) control. PT performed poorly on both level 1 and 2 controls with sigma value of <3. Despite acceptable conventional QC tools, application of sigma metrics can identify analytical deficits and hence prospects for the improvement in clinical laboratories. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Video-Based Method of Quantifying Performance and Instrument Motion During Simulated Phonosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Ellen; Surender, Ketan; Geng, Zhixian; Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth; Jiang, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To investigate the use of the Video-Based Phonomicrosurgery Instrument Tracking System to collect instrument position data during simulated phonomicrosurgery and calculate motion metrics using these data. We used this system to determine if novice subject motion metrics improved over 1 week of training. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Ten subjects performed simulated surgical tasks once per day for 5 days. Instrument position data were collected and used to compute motion metrics (path length, depth perception, and motion smoothness). Data were analyzed to determine if motion metrics improved with practice time. Task outcome was also determined each day, and relationships between task outcome and motion metrics were used to evaluate the validity of motion metrics as indicators of surgical performance. Results Significant decreases over time were observed for path length (P <.001), depth perception (P <.001), and task outcome (P <.001). No significant change was observed for motion smoothness. Significant relationships were observed between task outcome and path length (P <.001), depth perception (P <.001), and motion smoothness (P <.001). Conclusions Our system can estimate instrument trajectory and provide quantitative descriptions of surgical performance. It may be useful for evaluating phonomicrosurgery performance. Path length and depth perception may be particularly useful indicators. PMID:24737286

  9. Methods of Measurement the Quality Metrics in a Printing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varepo, L. G.; Brazhnikov, A. Yu; Nagornova, I. V.; Novoselskaya, O. A.

    2018-04-01

    One of the main criteria for choosing ink as a component of printing system is scumming ability of the ink. The realization of algorithm for estimating the quality metrics in a printing system is shown. The histograms of ink rate of various printing systems are presented. A quantitative estimation of stability of offset inks emulsifiability is given.

  10. Synchronization of multi-agent systems with metric-topological interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Chen, Guanrong

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid multi-agent systems model integrating the advantages of both metric interaction and topological interaction rules, called the metric-topological model, is developed. This model describes planar motions of mobile agents, where each agent can interact with all the agents within a circle of a constant radius, and can furthermore interact with some distant agents to reach a pre-assigned number of neighbors, if needed. Some sufficient conditions imposed only on system parameters and agent initial states are presented, which ensure achieving synchronization of the whole group of agents. It reveals the intrinsic relationships among the interaction range, the speed, the initial heading, and the density of the group. Moreover, robustness against variations of interaction range, density, and speed are investigated by comparing the motion patterns and performances of the hybrid metric-topological interaction model with the conventional metric-only and topological-only interaction models. Practically in all cases, the hybrid metric-topological interaction model has the best performance in the sense of achieving highest frequency of synchronization, fastest convergent rate, and smallest heading difference.

  11. Limitations of using same-hospital readmission metrics.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sheryl M; Saynina, Olga; McDonald, Kathryn M; Baker, Laurence C

    2013-12-01

    To quantify the limitations associated with restricting readmission metrics to same-hospital only readmission. Using 2000-2009 California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development Patient Discharge Data Nonpublic file, we identified the proportion of 7-, 15- and 30-day readmissions occurring to the same hospital as the initial admission using All-cause Readmission (ACR) and 3M Corporation Potentially Preventable Readmissions (PPR) Metric. We examined the correlation between performance using same and different hospital readmission, the percent of hospitals remaining in the extreme deciles when utilizing different metrics, agreement in identifying outliers and differences in longitudinal performance. Using logistic regression, we examined the factors associated with admission to the same hospital. 68% of 30-day ACR and 70% of 30-day PPR occurred to the same hospital. Abdominopelvic procedures had higher proportions of same-hospital readmissions (87.4-88.9%), cardiac surgery had lower (72.5-74.9%) and medical DRGs were lower than surgical DRGs (67.1 vs. 71.1%). Correlation and agreement in identifying high- and low-performing hospitals was weak to moderate, except for 7-day metrics where agreement was stronger (r = 0.23-0.80, Kappa = 0.38-0.76). Agreement for within-hospital significant (P < 0.05) longitudinal change was weak (Kappa = 0.05-0.11). Beyond all patient refined-diagnostic related groups, payer was the most predictive factor with Medicare and MediCal patients having a higher likelihood of same-hospital readmission (OR 1.62, 1.73). Same-hospital readmission metrics are limited for all tested applications. Caution should be used when conducting research, quality improvement or comparative applications that do not account for readmissions to other hospitals.

  12. A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel; Melo, Walcelio L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted at the University of Maryland in which we experimentally investigated the suite of Object-Oriented (00) design metrics introduced by [Chidamber and Kemerer, 1994]. In order to do this, we assessed these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes. This study is complementary to [Lieand Henry, 1993] where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform our validation accurately, we collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements. All eight projects were developed using a sequential life cycle model, a well-known 00 analysis/design method and the C++ programming language. Based on experimental results, the advantages and drawbacks of these 00 metrics are discussed and suggestions for improvement are provided. Several of Chidamber and Kemerer's 00 metrics appear to be adequate to predict class fault-proneness during the early phases of the life-cycle. We also showed that they are, on our data set, better predictors than "traditional" code metrics, which can only be collected at a later phase of the software development processes.

  13. Quantitative Evaluation of Performance during Robot-assisted Treatment.

    PubMed

    Peri, E; Biffi, E; Maghini, C; Servodio Iammarrone, F; Gagliardi, C; Germiniasi, C; Pedrocchi, A; Turconi, A C; Reni, G

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Methodologies, Models and Algorithms for Patients Rehabilitation". The great potential of robots in extracting quantitative and meaningful data is not always exploited in clinical practice. The aim of the present work is to describe a simple parameter to assess the performance of subjects during upper limb robotic training exploiting data automatically recorded by the robot, with no additional effort for patients and clinicians. Fourteen children affected by cerebral palsy (CP) performed a training with Armeo®Spring. Each session was evaluated with P, a simple parameter that depends on the overall performance recorded, and median and interquartile values were computed to perform a group analysis. Median (interquartile) values of P significantly increased from 0.27 (0.21) at T0 to 0.55 (0.27) at T1 . This improvement was functionally validated by a significant increase of the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function. The parameter described here was able to show variations in performance over time and enabled a quantitative evaluation of motion abilities in a way that is reliable with respect to a well-known clinical scale.

  14. An Evaluation of the IntelliMetric[SM] Essay Scoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Garcia, Veronica; Welch, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a two-part evaluation of the IntelliMetric[SM] automated essay scoring system based on its performance scoring essays from the Analytic Writing Assessment of the Graduate Management Admission Test[TM] (GMAT[TM]). The IntelliMetric system performance is first compared to that of individual human raters, a Bayesian system…

  15. A computational imaging target specific detectivity metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Bradley L.; Nehmetallah, George

    2017-05-01

    Due to the large quantity of low-cost, high-speed computational processing available today, computational imaging (CI) systems are expected to have a major role for next generation multifunctional cameras. The purpose of this work is to quantify the performance of theses CI systems in a standardized manner. Due to the diversity of CI system designs that are available today or proposed in the near future, significant challenges in modeling and calculating a standardized detection signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to measure the performance of these systems. In this paper, we developed a path forward for a standardized detectivity metric for CI systems. The detectivity metric is designed to evaluate the performance of a CI system searching for a specific known target or signal of interest, and is defined as the optimal linear matched filter SNR, similar to the Hotelling SNR, calculated in computational space with special considerations for standardization. Therefore, the detectivity metric is designed to be flexible, in order to handle various types of CI systems and specific targets, while keeping the complexity and assumptions of the systems to a minimum.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Technological Innovation in Knee Arthroplasty: Using Patent and Publication Metrics to Identify Developments and Trends.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David M; Burke, Thomas P; Kelly, Enda G; Curtin, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Surgery is in a constant continuum of innovation with refinement of technique and instrumentation. Arthroplasty surgery potentially represents an area with highly innovative process. This study highlights key area of innovation in knee arthroplasty over the past 35 years using patent and publication metrics. Growth rates and patterns are analyzed. Patents are correlated to publications as a measure of scientific support. Electronic patent and publication databases were searched over the interval 1980-2014 for "knee arthroplasty" OR "knee replacement." The resulting patent codes were allocated into technology clusters. Citation analysis was performed to identify any important developments missed on initial analysis. The technology clusters identified were further analyzed, individual repeat searches performed, and growth curves plotted. The initial search revealed 3574 patents and 16,552 publications. The largest technology clusters identified were Unicompartmental, Patient-Specific Instrumentation (PSI), Navigation, and Robotic knee arthroplasties. The growth in patent activity correlated strongly with publication activity (Pearson correlation value 0.892, P < .01), but was growing at a faster rate suggesting a decline in vigilance. PSI, objectively the fastest growing technology in the last 5 years, is currently in a period of exponential growth that began a decade ago. Established technologies in the study have double s-shaped patent curves. Identifying trends in emerging technologies is possible using patent metrics and is useful information for training and regulatory bodies. The decline in ratio of publications to patents and the uninterrupted growth of PSI are developments that may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing a Security Metrics Scorecard for Healthcare Organizations.

    PubMed

    Elrefaey, Heba; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In healthcare, information security is a key aspect of protecting a patient's privacy and ensuring systems availability to support patient care. Security managers need to measure the performance of security systems and this can be achieved by using evidence-based metrics. In this paper, we describe the development of an evidence-based security metrics scorecard specific to healthcare organizations. Study participants were asked to comment on the usability and usefulness of a prototype of a security metrics scorecard that was developed based on current research in the area of general security metrics. Study findings revealed that scorecards need to be customized for the healthcare setting in order for the security information to be useful and usable in healthcare organizations. The study findings resulted in the development of a security metrics scorecard that matches the healthcare security experts' information requirements.

  18. Numerical model validation using experimental data: Application of the area metric on a Francis runner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatenet, Q.; Tahan, A.; Gagnon, M.; Chamberland-Lauzon, J.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, engineers are able to solve complex equations thanks to the increase of computing capacity. Thus, finite elements software is widely used, especially in the field of mechanics to predict part behavior such as strain, stress and natural frequency. However, it can be difficult to determine how a model might be right or wrong, or whether a model is better than another one. Nevertheless, during the design phase, it is very important to estimate how the hydroelectric turbine blades will behave according to the stress to which it is subjected. Indeed, the static and dynamic stress levels will influence the blade's fatigue resistance and thus its lifetime, which is a significant feature. In the industry, engineers generally use either graphic representation, hypothesis tests such as the Student test, or linear regressions in order to compare experimental to estimated data from the numerical model. Due to the variability in personal interpretation (reproducibility), graphical validation is not considered objective. For an objective assessment, it is essential to use a robust validation metric to measure the conformity of predictions against data. We propose to use the area metric in the case of a turbine blade that meets the key points of the ASME Standards and produces a quantitative measure of agreement between simulations and empirical data. This validation metric excludes any belief and criterion of accepting a model which increases robustness. The present work is aimed at applying a validation method, according to ASME V&V 10 recommendations. Firstly, the area metric is applied on the case of a real Francis runner whose geometry and boundaries conditions are complex. Secondly, the area metric will be compared to classical regression methods to evaluate the performance of the method. Finally, we will discuss the use of the area metric as a tool to correct simulations.

  19. Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near‐fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (Ⓔ see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.

  20. It's A Metric World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Instructional Services.

    Topics covered in the first part of this document include eight advantages of the metric system; a summary of metric instruction; the International System of Units (SI) style and usage; metric decimal tables; the metric system; and conversion tables. An alphabetized list of organizations which market metric materials for educators is provided with…

  1. Colonoscopy Quality: Metrics and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, Audrey H.; Jacobson, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Colonoscopy is an excellent area for quality improvement 1 because it is high volume, has significant associated risk and expense, and there is evidence that variability in its performance affects outcomes. The best endpoint for validation of quality metrics in colonoscopy is colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, but because of feasibility issues, a more readily accessible metric is the adenoma detection rate (ADR). Fourteen quality metrics were proposed by the joint American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy/American College of Gastroenterology Task Force on “Quality Indicators for Colonoscopy” in 2006, which are described in further detail below. Use of electronic health records and quality-oriented registries will facilitate quality measurement and reporting. Unlike traditional clinical research, implementation of quality improvement initiatives involves rapid assessments and changes on an iterative basis, and can be done at the individual, group, or facility level. PMID:23931862

  2. Requirement Metrics for Risk Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore; Huffman, Lenore; Wilson, William; Rosenberg, Linda; Hyatt, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is part of the Office of Mission Assurance of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SATC's mission is to assist National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects to improve the quality of software which they acquire or develop. The SATC's efforts are currently focused on the development and use of metric methodologies and tools that identify and assess risks associated with software performance and scheduled delivery. This starts at the requirements phase, where the SATC, in conjunction with software projects at GSFC and other NASA centers is working to identify tools and metric methodologies to assist project managers in identifying and mitigating risks. This paper discusses requirement metrics currently being used at NASA in a collaborative effort between the SATC and the Quality Assurance Office at GSFC to utilize the information available through the application of requirements management tools.

  3. Metric learning for automatic sleep stage classification.

    PubMed

    Phan, Huy; Do, Quan; Do, The-Luan; Vu, Duc-Lung

    2013-01-01

    We introduce in this paper a metric learning approach for automatic sleep stage classification based on single-channel EEG data. We show that learning a global metric from training data instead of using the default Euclidean metric, the k-nearest neighbor classification rule outperforms state-of-the-art methods on Sleep-EDF dataset with various classification settings. The overall accuracy for Awake/Sleep and 4-class classification setting are 98.32% and 94.49% respectively. Furthermore, the superior accuracy is achieved by performing classification on a low-dimensional feature space derived from time and frequency domains and without the need for artifact removal as a preprocessing step.

  4. Metrics for the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    This document defines an initial set of metrics for use by the NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP). ASP consists of the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. The work in each project is organized along multiple, discipline-level Research Focus Areas (RFAs). Each RFA is developing future concept elements in support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as defined by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). In addition, a single, system-level RFA is responsible for integrating concept elements across RFAs in both projects and for assessing system-wide benefits. The primary purpose of this document is to define a common set of metrics for measuring National Airspace System (NAS) performance before and after the introduction of ASP-developed concepts for NextGen as the system handles increasing traffic. The metrics are directly traceable to NextGen goals and objectives as defined by the JPDO and hence will be used to measure the progress of ASP research toward reaching those goals. The scope of this document is focused on defining a common set of metrics for measuring NAS capacity, efficiency, robustness, and safety at the system-level and at the RFA-level. Use of common metrics will focus ASP research toward achieving system-level performance goals and objectives and enable the discipline-level RFAs to evaluate the impact of their concepts at the system level.

  5. Development and Implementation of a Design Metric for Systems Containing Long-Term Fluid Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.

    2016-01-01

    John Steele, a chemist and technical fellow from United Technologies Corporation, provided a water quality module to assist engineers and scientists with a metric tool to evaluate risks associated with the design of space systems with fluid loops. This design metric is a methodical, quantitative, lessons-learned based means to evaluate the robustness of a long-term fluid loop system design. The tool was developed by a cross-section of engineering disciplines who had decades of experience and problem resolution.

  6. Disaster metrics: quantitative benchmarking of hospital surge capacity in trauma-related multiple casualty events.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Jamil D; Zuabi, Shawki; Subbarao, Italo

    2011-06-01

    Hospital surge capacity in multiple casualty events (MCE) is the core of hospital medical response, and an integral part of the total medical capacity of the community affected. To date, however, there has been no consensus regarding the definition or quantification of hospital surge capacity. The first objective of this study was to quantitatively benchmark the various components of hospital surge capacity pertaining to the care of critically and moderately injured patients in trauma-related MCE. The second objective was to illustrate the applications of those quantitative parameters in local, regional, national, and international disaster planning; in the distribution of patients to various hospitals by prehospital medical services; and in the decision-making process for ambulance diversion. A 2-step approach was adopted in the methodology of this study. First, an extensive literature search was performed, followed by mathematical modeling. Quantitative studies on hospital surge capacity for trauma injuries were used as the framework for our model. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization triage categories (T1-T4) were used in the modeling process for simplicity purposes. Hospital Acute Care Surge Capacity (HACSC) was defined as the maximum number of critical (T1) and moderate (T2) casualties a hospital can adequately care for per hour, after recruiting all possible additional medical assets. HACSC was modeled to be equal to the number of emergency department beds (#EDB), divided by the emergency department time (EDT); HACSC = #EDB/EDT. In trauma-related MCE, the EDT was quantitatively benchmarked to be 2.5 (hours). Because most of the critical and moderate casualties arrive at hospitals within a 6-hour period requiring admission (by definition), the hospital bed surge capacity must match the HACSC at 6 hours to ensure coordinated care, and it was mathematically benchmarked to be 18% of the staffed hospital bed capacity. Defining and quantitatively benchmarking the

  7. Rotorcraft flight control design using quantitative feedback theory and dynamic crossfeeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Rendy P.

    1995-01-01

    A multi-input, multi-output controls design with robust crossfeeds is presented for a rotorcraft in near-hovering flight using quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Decoupling criteria are developed for dynamic crossfeed design and implementation. Frequency dependent performance metrics focusing on piloted flight are developed and tested on 23 flight configurations. The metrics show that the resulting design is superior to alternative control system designs using conventional fixed-gain crossfeeds and to feedback-only designs which rely on high gains to suppress undesired off-axis responses. The use of dynamic, robust crossfeeds prior to the QFT design reduces the magnitude of required feedback gain and results in performance that meets current handling qualities specifications relative to the decoupling of off-axis responses. The combined effect of the QFT feedback design following the implementation of low-order, dynamic crossfeed compensator successfully decouples ten of twelve off-axis channels. For the other two channels it was not possible to find a single, low-order crossfeed that was effective.

  8. Towards a Visual Quality Metric for Digital Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1998-01-01

    The advent of widespread distribution of digital video creates a need for automated methods for evaluating visual quality of digital video. This is particularly so since most digital video is compressed using lossy methods, which involve the controlled introduction of potentially visible artifacts. Compounding the problem is the bursty nature of digital video, which requires adaptive bit allocation based on visual quality metrics. In previous work, we have developed visual quality metrics for evaluating, controlling, and optimizing the quality of compressed still images. These metrics incorporate simplified models of human visual sensitivity to spatial and chromatic visual signals. The challenge of video quality metrics is to extend these simplified models to temporal signals as well. In this presentation I will discuss a number of the issues that must be resolved in the design of effective video quality metrics. Among these are spatial, temporal, and chromatic sensitivity and their interactions, visual masking, and implementation complexity. I will also touch on the question of how to evaluate the performance of these metrics.

  9. Metrics for assessing the performance of morphodynamic models of braided rivers at event and reach scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard; Measures, Richard; Hicks, Murray; Brasington, James

    2017-04-01

    Advances in geomatics technologies have transformed the monitoring of reach-scale (100-101 km) river morphodynamics. Hyperscale Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can now be acquired at temporal intervals that are commensurate with the frequencies of high-flow events that force morphological change. The low vertical errors associated with such DEMs enable DEMs of Difference (DoDs) to be generated to quantify patterns of erosion and deposition, and derive sediment budgets using the morphological approach. In parallel with reach-scale observational advances, high-resolution, two-dimensional, physics-based numerical morphodynamic models are now computationally feasible for unsteady, reach-scale simulations. In light of this observational and predictive progress, there is a need to identify appropriate metrics that can be extracted from DEMs and DoDs to assess model performance. Nowhere is this more pertinent than in braided river environments, where numerous mobile channels that intertwine around mid-channel bars result in complex patterns of erosion and deposition, thus making model assessment particularly challenging. This paper identifies and evaluates a range of morphological and morphological-change metrics that can be used to assess predictions of braided river morphodynamics at the timescale of single storm events. A depth-averaged, mixed-grainsize Delft3D morphodynamic model was used to simulate morphological change during four discrete high-flow events, ranging from 91 to 403 m3s-1, along a 2.5 x 0.7 km reach of the braided, gravel-bed Rees River, New Zealand. Pre- and post-event topographic surveys, using a fusion of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and optical-empirical bathymetric mapping, were used to produce 0.5 m resolution DEMs and DoDs. The pre- and post-event DEMs for a moderate (227m3s-1) high-flow event were used to calibrate the model. DEMs and DoDs from the other three high-flow events were used for model assessment using two approaches. First

  10. A Metric-Based Validation Process to Assess the Realism of Synthetic Power Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Birchfield, Adam; Schweitzer, Eran; Athari, Mir

    Public power system test cases that are of high quality benefit the power systems research community with expanded resources for testing, demonstrating, and cross-validating new innovations. Building synthetic grid models for this purpose is a relatively new problem, for which a challenge is to show that created cases are sufficiently realistic. This paper puts forth a validation process based on a set of metrics observed from actual power system cases. These metrics follow the structure, proportions, and parameters of key power system elements, which can be used in assessing and validating the quality of synthetic power grids. Though wide diversitymore » exists in the characteristics of power systems, the paper focuses on an initial set of common quantitative metrics to capture the distribution of typical values from real power systems. The process is applied to two new public test cases, which are shown to meet the criteria specified in the metrics of this paper.« less

  11. A Metric-Based Validation Process to Assess the Realism of Synthetic Power Grids

    DOE PAGES

    Birchfield, Adam; Schweitzer, Eran; Athari, Mir; ...

    2017-08-19

    Public power system test cases that are of high quality benefit the power systems research community with expanded resources for testing, demonstrating, and cross-validating new innovations. Building synthetic grid models for this purpose is a relatively new problem, for which a challenge is to show that created cases are sufficiently realistic. This paper puts forth a validation process based on a set of metrics observed from actual power system cases. These metrics follow the structure, proportions, and parameters of key power system elements, which can be used in assessing and validating the quality of synthetic power grids. Though wide diversitymore » exists in the characteristics of power systems, the paper focuses on an initial set of common quantitative metrics to capture the distribution of typical values from real power systems. The process is applied to two new public test cases, which are shown to meet the criteria specified in the metrics of this paper.« less

  12. Metric Learning for Hyperspectral Image Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Brian D.; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Castano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We present a metric learning approach to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. Unsupervised spatial segmentation can assist both user visualization and automatic recognition of surface features. Analysts can use spatially-continuous segments to decrease noise levels and/or localize feature boundaries. However, existing segmentation methods use tasks-agnostic measures of similarity. Here we learn task-specific similarity measures from training data, improving segment fidelity to classes of interest. Multiclass Linear Discriminate Analysis produces a linear transform that optimally separates a labeled set of training classes. The defines a distance metric that generalized to a new scenes, enabling graph-based segmentation that emphasizes key spectral features. We describe tests based on data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) in which learned metrics improve segment homogeneity with respect to mineralogical classes.

  13. Building structural similarity database for metric learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guoxin; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new approach for constructing databases for training and testing similarity metrics for structurally lossless image compression. Our focus is on structural texture similarity (STSIM) metrics and the matched-texture compression (MTC) approach. We first discuss the metric requirements for structurally lossless compression, which differ from those of other applications such as image retrieval, classification, and understanding. We identify "interchangeability" as the key requirement for metric performance, and partition the domain of "identical" textures into three regions, of "highest," "high," and "good" similarity. We design two subjective tests for data collection, the first relies on ViSiProG to build a database of "identical" clusters, and the second builds a database of image pairs with the "highest," "high," "good," and "bad" similarity labels. The data for the subjective tests is generated during the MTC encoding process, and consist of pairs of candidate and target image blocks. The context of the surrounding image is critical for training the metrics to detect lighting discontinuities, spatial misalignments, and other border artifacts that have a noticeable effect on perceptual quality. The identical texture clusters are then used for training and testing two STSIM metrics. The labelled image pair database will be used in future research.

  14. Standardised metrics for global surgical surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Thomas G; Makary, Martin A; Haynes, Alex B; Dziekan, Gerald; Berry, William R; Gawande, Atul A

    2009-09-26

    Public health surveillance relies on standardised metrics to evaluate disease burden and health system performance. Such metrics have not been developed for surgical services despite increasing volume, substantial cost, and high rates of death and disability associated with surgery. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative of WHO's Patient Safety Programme has developed standardised public health metrics for surgical care that are applicable worldwide. We assembled an international panel of experts to develop and define metrics for measuring the magnitude and effect of surgical care in a population, while taking into account economic feasibility and practicability. This panel recommended six measures for assessing surgical services at a national level: number of operating rooms, number of operations, number of accredited surgeons, number of accredited anaesthesia professionals, day-of-surgery death ratio, and postoperative in-hospital death ratio. We assessed the feasibility of gathering such statistics at eight diverse hospitals in eight countries and incorporated them into the WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery, in which methods for data collection, analysis, and reporting are outlined.

  15. The use of vision-based image quality metrics to predict low-light performance of camera phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultgren, B.; Hertel, D.

    2010-01-01

    Small digital camera modules such as those in mobile phones have become ubiquitous. Their low-light performance is of utmost importance since a high percentage of images are made under low lighting conditions where image quality failure may occur due to blur, noise, and/or underexposure. These modes of image degradation are not mutually exclusive: they share common roots in the physics of the imager, the constraints of image processing, and the general trade-off situations in camera design. A comprehensive analysis of failure modes is needed in order to understand how their interactions affect overall image quality. Low-light performance is reported for DSLR, point-and-shoot, and mobile phone cameras. The measurements target blur, noise, and exposure error. Image sharpness is evaluated from three different physical measurements: static spatial frequency response, handheld motion blur, and statistical information loss due to image processing. Visual metrics for sharpness, graininess, and brightness are calculated from the physical measurements, and displayed as orthogonal image quality metrics to illustrate the relative magnitude of image quality degradation as a function of subject illumination. The impact of each of the three sharpness measurements on overall sharpness quality is displayed for different light levels. The power spectrum of the statistical information target is a good representation of natural scenes, thus providing a defined input signal for the measurement of power-spectrum based signal-to-noise ratio to characterize overall imaging performance.

  16. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  17. Metric Conversion

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    Metric Weights and Measures The metric system is based on 10s.  For example, 10 millimeters = 1 centimeter, 10 ... Special Publications: NIST Guide to SI Units: Conversion Factors NIST Guide to SI Units: Conversion Factors listed ...

  18. A framework for quantification of groundwater dynamics - concepts and hydro(geo-)logical metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaf, Ezra; Heudorfer, Benedikt; Stahl, Kerstin; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Fluctuation patterns in groundwater hydrographs are generally assumed to contain information on aquifer characteristics, climate and environmental controls. However, attempts to disentangle this information and map the dominant controls have been few. This is due to the substantial heterogeneity and complexity of groundwater systems, which is reflected in the abundance of morphologies of groundwater time series. To describe the structure and shape of hydrographs, descriptive terms like "slow"/ "fast" or "flashy"/ "inert" are frequently used, which are subjective, irreproducible and limited. This lack of objective and refined concepts limit approaches for regionalization of hydrogeological characteristics as well as our understanding of dominant processes controlling groundwater dynamics. Therefore, we propose a novel framework for groundwater hydrograph characterization in an attempt to categorize morphologies explicitly and quantitatively based on perceptual concepts of aspects of the dynamics. This quantitative framework is inspired by the existing and operational eco-hydrological classification frameworks for streamflow. The need for a new framework for groundwater systems is justified by the fundamental differences between the state variable groundwater head and the flow variable streamflow. Conceptually, we extracted exemplars of specific dynamic patterns, attributing descriptive terms for means of systematisation. Metrics, primarily taken from streamflow literature, were subsequently adapted to groundwater and assigned to the described patterns for means of quantification. In this study, we focused on the particularities of groundwater as a state variable. Furthermore, we investigated the descriptive skill of individual metrics as well as their usefulness for groundwater hydrographs. The ensemble of categorized metrics result in a framework, which can be used to describe and quantify groundwater dynamics. It is a promising tool for the setup of a successful

  19. Quantification of Dynamic Model Validation Metrics Using Uncertainty Propagation from Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Peck, Jeffrey A.; Stewart, Eric C.

    2018-01-01

    The Space Launch System, NASA's new large launch vehicle for long range space exploration, is presently in the final design and construction phases, with the first launch scheduled for 2019. A dynamic model of the system has been created and is critical for calculation of interface loads and natural frequencies and mode shapes for guidance, navigation, and control (GNC). Because of the program and schedule constraints, a single modal test of the SLS will be performed while bolted down to the Mobile Launch Pad just before the first launch. A Monte Carlo and optimization scheme will be performed to create thousands of possible models based on given dispersions in model properties and to determine which model best fits the natural frequencies and mode shapes from modal test. However, the question still remains as to whether this model is acceptable for the loads and GNC requirements. An uncertainty propagation and quantification (UP and UQ) technique to develop a quantitative set of validation metrics that is based on the flight requirements has therefore been developed and is discussed in this paper. There has been considerable research on UQ and UP and validation in the literature, but very little on propagating the uncertainties from requirements, so most validation metrics are "rules-of-thumb;" this research seeks to come up with more reason-based metrics. One of the main assumptions used to achieve this task is that the uncertainty in the modeling of the fixed boundary condition is accurate, so therefore that same uncertainty can be used in propagating the fixed-test configuration to the free-free actual configuration. The second main technique applied here is the usage of the limit-state formulation to quantify the final probabilistic parameters and to compare them with the requirements. These techniques are explored with a simple lumped spring-mass system and a simplified SLS model. When completed, it is anticipated that this requirements-based validation

  20. Measuring economic complexity of countries and products: which metric to use?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Vidmer, Alexandre; Medo, Matsúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating the economies of countries and their relations with products in the global market is a central problem in economics, with far-reaching implications to our theoretical understanding of the international trade as well as to practical applications, such as policy making and financial investment planning. The recent Economic Complexity approach aims to quantify the competitiveness of countries and the quality of the exported products based on the empirical observation that the most competitive countries have diversified exports, whereas developing countries only export few low quality products - typically those exported by many other countries. Two different metrics, Fitness-Complexity and the Method of Reflections, have been proposed to measure country and product score in the Economic Complexity framework. We use international trade data and a recent ranking evaluation measure to quantitatively compare the ability of the two metrics to rank countries and products according to their importance in the network. The results show that the Fitness-Complexity metric outperforms the Method of Reflections in both the ranking of products and the ranking of countries. We also investigate a generalization of the Fitness-Complexity metric and show that it can produce improved rankings provided that the input data are reliable.

  1. Experimental constraints on metric and non-metric theories of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Clifford M.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental constraints on metric and non-metric theories of gravitation are reviewed. Tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle indicate that only metric theories of gravity are likely to be viable. Solar system experiments constrain the parameters of the weak field, post-Newtonian limit to be close to the values predicted by general relativity. Future space experiments will provide further constraints on post-Newtonian gravity.

  2. From the eyes and the heart: a novel eye-gaze metric that predicts video preferences of a large audience

    PubMed Central

    Christoforou, Christoforos; Christou-Champi, Spyros; Constantinidou, Fofi; Theodorou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking has been extensively used to quantify audience preferences in the context of marketing and advertising research, primarily in methodologies involving static images or stimuli (i.e., advertising, shelf testing, and website usability). However, these methodologies do not generalize to narrative-based video stimuli where a specific storyline is meant to be communicated to the audience. In this paper, a novel metric based on eye-gaze dispersion (both within and across viewings) that quantifies the impact of narrative-based video stimuli to the preferences of large audiences is presented. The metric is validated in predicting the performance of video advertisements aired during the 2014 Super Bowl final. In particular, the metric is shown to explain 70% of the variance in likeability scores of the 2014 Super Bowl ads as measured by the USA TODAY Ad-Meter. In addition, by comparing the proposed metric with Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indices, we have associated the metric with biological processes relating to attention allocation. The underlying idea behind the proposed metric suggests a shift in perspective when it comes to evaluating narrative-based video stimuli. In particular, it suggests that audience preferences on video are modulated by the level of viewers lack of attention allocation. The proposed metric can be calculated on any narrative-based video stimuli (i.e., movie, narrative content, emotional content, etc.), and thus has the potential to facilitate the use of such stimuli in several contexts: prediction of audience preferences of movies, quantitative assessment of entertainment pieces, prediction of the impact of movie trailers, identification of group, and individual differences in the study of attention-deficit disorders, and the study of desensitization to media violence. PMID:26029135

  3. From the eyes and the heart: a novel eye-gaze metric that predicts video preferences of a large audience.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, Christoforos; Christou-Champi, Spyros; Constantinidou, Fofi; Theodorou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking has been extensively used to quantify audience preferences in the context of marketing and advertising research, primarily in methodologies involving static images or stimuli (i.e., advertising, shelf testing, and website usability). However, these methodologies do not generalize to narrative-based video stimuli where a specific storyline is meant to be communicated to the audience. In this paper, a novel metric based on eye-gaze dispersion (both within and across viewings) that quantifies the impact of narrative-based video stimuli to the preferences of large audiences is presented. The metric is validated in predicting the performance of video advertisements aired during the 2014 Super Bowl final. In particular, the metric is shown to explain 70% of the variance in likeability scores of the 2014 Super Bowl ads as measured by the USA TODAY Ad-Meter. In addition, by comparing the proposed metric with Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indices, we have associated the metric with biological processes relating to attention allocation. The underlying idea behind the proposed metric suggests a shift in perspective when it comes to evaluating narrative-based video stimuli. In particular, it suggests that audience preferences on video are modulated by the level of viewers lack of attention allocation. The proposed metric can be calculated on any narrative-based video stimuli (i.e., movie, narrative content, emotional content, etc.), and thus has the potential to facilitate the use of such stimuli in several contexts: prediction of audience preferences of movies, quantitative assessment of entertainment pieces, prediction of the impact of movie trailers, identification of group, and individual differences in the study of attention-deficit disorders, and the study of desensitization to media violence.

  4. Using Publication Metrics to Highlight Academic Productivity and Research Impact

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Cone, David C.; Sarli, Cathy C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of widely available measures of academic productivity and impact using publication data and highlights uses of these metrics for various purposes. Metrics based on publication data include measures such as number of publications, number of citations, the journal impact factor score, and the h-index, as well as emerging metrics based on document-level metrics. Publication metrics can be used for a variety of purposes for tenure and promotion, grant applications and renewal reports, benchmarking, recruiting efforts, and administrative purposes for departmental or university performance reports. The authors also highlight practical applications of measuring and reporting academic productivity and impact to emphasize and promote individual investigators, grant applications, or department output. PMID:25308141

  5. Data Driven Performance Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frery, Alejandro C.; Ramos, Heitor S.; Alencar-Neto, José; Nakamura, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks are presented as devices for signal sampling and reconstruction. Within this framework, the qualitative and quantitative influence of (i) signal granularity, (ii) spatial distribution of sensors, (iii) sensors clustering, and (iv) signal reconstruction procedure are assessed. This is done by defining an error metric and performing a Monte Carlo experiment. It is shown that all these factors have significant impact on the quality of the reconstructed signal. The extent of such impact is quantitatively assessed. PMID:22294920

  6. Properties of C-metric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Anca; Apreutesei, Gabriela; Mastorakis, Nikos E.

    2017-09-01

    The subject of this paper belongs to the theory of approximate metrics [23]. An approximate metric on X is a real application defined on X × X that satisfies only a part of the metric axioms. In a recent paper [23], we introduced a new type of approximate metric, named C-metric, that is an application which satisfies only two metric axioms: symmetry and triangular inequality. The remarkable fact in a C-metric space is that a topological structure induced by the C-metric can be defined. The innovative idea of this paper is that we obtain some convergence properties of a C-metric space in the absence of a metric. In this paper we investigate C-metric spaces. The paper is divided into four sections. Section 1 is for Introduction. In Section 2 we recall some concepts and preliminary results. In Section 3 we present some properties of C-metric spaces, such as convergence properties, a canonical decomposition and a C-fixed point theorem. Finally, in Section 4 some conclusions are highlighted.

  7. Energy-Based Metrics for Arthroscopic Skills Assessment.

    PubMed

    Poursartip, Behnaz; LeBel, Marie-Eve; McCracken, Laura C; Escoto, Abelardo; Patel, Rajni V; Naish, Michael D; Trejos, Ana Luisa

    2017-08-05

    Minimally invasive skills assessment methods are essential in developing efficient surgical simulators and implementing consistent skills evaluation. Although numerous methods have been investigated in the literature, there is still a need to further improve the accuracy of surgical skills assessment. Energy expenditure can be an indication of motor skills proficiency. The goals of this study are to develop objective metrics based on energy expenditure, normalize these metrics, and investigate classifying trainees using these metrics. To this end, different forms of energy consisting of mechanical energy and work were considered and their values were divided by the related value of an ideal performance to develop normalized metrics. These metrics were used as inputs for various machine learning algorithms including support vector machines (SVM) and neural networks (NNs) for classification. The accuracy of the combination of the normalized energy-based metrics with these classifiers was evaluated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The proposed method was validated using 26 subjects at two experience levels (novices and experts) in three arthroscopic tasks. The results showed that there are statistically significant differences between novices and experts for almost all of the normalized energy-based metrics. The accuracy of classification using SVM and NN methods was between 70% and 95% for the various tasks. The results show that the normalized energy-based metrics and their combination with SVM and NN classifiers are capable of providing accurate classification of trainees. The assessment method proposed in this study can enhance surgical training by providing appropriate feedback to trainees about their level of expertise and can be used in the evaluation of proficiency.

  8. Quantitative comparison using Generalized Relative Object Detectability (G-ROD) metrics of an amorphous selenium detector with high resolution Microangiographic Fluoroscopes (MAF) and standard flat panel detectors (FPD).

    PubMed

    Russ, M; Shankar, A; Jain, A; Setlur Nagesh, S V; Ionita, C N; Scott, C; Karim, K S; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2016-02-27

    A novel amorphous selenium (a-Se) direct detector with CMOS readout has been designed, and relative detector performance investigated. The detector features include a 25 μ m pixel pitch, and 1000 μ m thick a-Se layer operating at 10V/ μ m bias field. A simulated detector DQE was determined, and used in comparative calculations of the Relative Object Detectability (ROD) family of prewhitening matched-filter (PWMF) observer and non-prewhitening matched filter (NPWMF) observer model metrics to gauge a-Se detector performance against existing high resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscopic (MAF) detectors and a standard flat panel detector (FPD). The PWMF-ROD or ROD metric compares two x-ray imaging detectors in their relative abilities in imaging a given object by taking the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier transform of the detector DQE weighted by an object function, divided by the comparable integral for a different detector. The generalized-ROD (G-ROD) metric incorporates clinically relevant parameters (focal-spot size, magnification, and scatter) to show the degradation in imaging performance for detectors that are part of an imaging chain. Preliminary ROD calculations using simulated spheres as the object predicted superior imaging performance by the a-Se detector as compared to existing detectors. New PWMF-G-ROD and NPWMF-G-ROD results still indicate better performance by the a-Se detector in an imaging chain over all sphere sizes for various focal spot sizes and magnifications, although a-Se performance advantages were degraded by focal spot blurring. Nevertheless, the a-Se technology has great potential to provide breakthrough abilities such as visualization of fine details including of neuro-vascular perforator vessels and of small vascular devices.

  9. About Using the Metric System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet contains a brief introduction to the use of the metric system. Topics covered include: (1) what is the metric system; (2) how to think metric; (3) some advantages of the metric system; (4) basics of the metric system; (5) how to measure length, area, volume, mass and temperature the metric way; (6) some simple calculations using…

  10. UMAMI: A Recipe for Generating Meaningful Metrics through Holistic I/O Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, Glenn K.; Yoo, Wucherl; Byna, Suren

    I/O efficiency is essential to productivity in scientific computing, especially as many scientific domains become more data-intensive. Many characterization tools have been used to elucidate specific aspects of parallel I/O performance, but analyzing components of complex I/O subsystems in isolation fails to provide insight into critical questions: how do the I/O components interact, what are reasonable expectations for application performance, and what are the underlying causes of I/O performance problems? To address these questions while capitalizing on existing component-level characterization tools, we propose an approach that combines on-demand, modular synthesis of I/O characterization data into a unified monitoring and metricsmore » interface (UMAMI) to provide a normalized, holistic view of I/O behavior. We evaluate the feasibility of this approach by applying it to a month-long benchmarking study on two distinct largescale computing platforms. We present three case studies that highlight the importance of analyzing application I/O performance in context with both contemporaneous and historical component metrics, and we provide new insights into the factors affecting I/O performance. By demonstrating the generality of our approach, we lay the groundwork for a production-grade framework for holistic I/O analysis.« less

  11. Metrics for linear kinematic features in sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, G.; Coon, M.; Sulsky, D.

    2006-12-01

    The treatment of leads as cracks or discontinuities (see Coon et al. presentation) requires some shift in the procedure of evaluation and comparison of lead-resolving models and their validation against observations. Common metrics used to evaluate ice model skills are by and large an adaptation of a least square "metric" adopted from operational numerical weather prediction data assimilation systems and are most appropriate for continuous fields and Eilerian systems where the observations and predictions are commensurate. However, this class of metrics suffers from some flaws in areas of sharp gradients and discontinuities (e.g., leads) and when Lagrangian treatments are more natural. After a brief review of these metrics and their performance in areas of sharp gradients, we present two new metrics specifically designed to measure model accuracy in representing linear features (e.g., leads). The indices developed circumvent the requirement that both the observations and model variables be commensurate (i.e., measured with the same units) by considering the frequencies of the features of interest/importance. We illustrate the metrics by scoring several hypothetical "simulated" discontinuity fields against the lead interpreted from RGPS observations.

  12. Reproducibility and repeatability of semi-quantitative 18F-fluorodihydrotestosterone (FDHT) uptake metrics in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastases: a prospective multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Kramer, Gem M; Scott, Andrew M; Weickhardt, Andrew; Meier, Andreas A; Parada, Nicole; Beattie, Bradley J; Humm, John L; Staton, Kevin D; Zanzonico, Pat B; Lyashchenko, Serge K; Lewis, Jason S; Yaqub, Maqsood; Sosa, Ramon E; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J; Davis, Ian D; Ackermann, Uwe; Pathmaraj, Kunthi; Schuit, Robert C; Windhorst, Albert D; Chua, Sue; Weber, Wolfgang A; Larson, Steven M; Scher, Howard I; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Hoekstra, Otto; Morris, Michael J

    2018-04-06

    uptake time between the two scans. Including the single most avid lesion per patient, the five most avid lesions per patient, only lesions ≥ 4.2 mL, only lesions with an SUV ≥ 4 g/mL, or normalizing of SUV to area under the parent plasma activity concentration-time curve did not significantly affect repeatability. All metrics showed high inter-observer reproducibility (ICC > 0.98; COV < 0.2-10.8%). Conclusion: 18 F-FDHT is a highly reproducible means of imaging mCRPC. Amongst 18 F-FDHT uptake metrics, SUV had the highest repeatability among the measures assessed. These performance characteristics lend themselves to further biomarker development and clinical qualification of the tracer. Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  13. Payload Fuel Energy Efficiency as a Metric for Aviation Environmental Performance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-14

    Aviation provides productivity in the form of transporting passengers and cargo long distances in a shorter period of time than is available via land or sea. Given the recent rise in fuel prices and environmental concerns, a consistent metric is need...

  14. Tracking occupational hearing loss across global industries: A comparative analysis of metrics

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, Deron; McTague, Michael F.; Slade, Martin D.; Wesdock, James C.; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most prevalent occupational conditions; yet, there is no acknowledged international metric to allow comparisons of risk between different industries and regions. In order to make recommendations for an international standard of occupational hearing loss, members of an international industry group (the International Aluminium Association) submitted details of different hearing loss metrics currently in use by members. We compared the performance of these metrics using an audiometric data set for over 6000 individuals working in 10 locations of one member company. We calculated rates for each metric at each location from 2002 to 2006. For comparison, we calculated the difference of observed–expected (for age) binaural high frequency hearing loss (in dB/year) for each location over the same time period. We performed linear regression to determine the correlation between each metric and the observed–expected rate of hearing loss. The different metrics produced discrepant results, with annual rates ranging from 0.0% for a less-sensitive metric to more than 10% for a highly sensitive metric. At least two metrics, a 10 dB age-corrected threshold shift from baseline and a 15 dB nonage-corrected shift metric, correlated well with the difference of observed–expected high-frequency hearing loss. This study suggests that it is feasible to develop an international standard for tracking occupational hearing loss in industrial working populations. PMID:22387709

  15. Performance metrics for inertial confinement fusion implosions: Aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, Brian K.; Glenzer, S.; Edwards, M. J.

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'tritium hydrogen deuterium (THD)' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off-nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metricmore » called the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.« less

  16. Virtual reality simulator training for laparoscopic colectomy: what metrics have construct validity?

    PubMed

    Shanmugan, Skandan; Leblanc, Fabien; Senagore, Anthony J; Ellis, C Neal; Stein, Sharon L; Khan, Sadaf; Delaney, Conor P; Champagne, Bradley J

    2014-02-01

    Virtual reality simulation for laparoscopic colectomy has been used for training of surgical residents and has been considered as a model for technical skills assessment of board-eligible colorectal surgeons. However, construct validity (the ability to distinguish between skill levels) must be confirmed before widespread implementation. This study was designed to specifically determine which metrics for laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy have evidence of construct validity. General surgeons that had performed fewer than 30 laparoscopic colon resections and laparoscopic colorectal experts (>200 laparoscopic colon resections) performed laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy on the LAP Mentor model. All participants received a 15-minute instructional warm-up and had never used the simulator before the study. Performance was then compared between each group for 21 metrics (procedural, 14; intraoperative errors, 7) to determine specifically which measurements demonstrate construct validity. Performance was compared with the Mann-Whitney U-test (p < 0.05 was significant). Fifty-three surgeons; 29 general surgeons, and 24 colorectal surgeons enrolled in the study. The virtual reality simulators for laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy demonstrated construct validity for 8 of 14 procedural metrics by distinguishing levels of surgical experience (p < 0.05). The most discriminatory procedural metrics (p < 0.01) favoring experts were reduced instrument path length, accuracy of the peritoneal/medial mobilization, and dissection of the inferior mesenteric artery. Intraoperative errors were not discriminatory for most metrics and favored general surgeons for colonic wall injury (general surgeons, 0.7; colorectal surgeons, 3.5; p = 0.045). Individual variability within the general surgeon and colorectal surgeon groups was not accounted for. The virtual reality simulators for laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy demonstrated construct validity for 8 procedure-specific metrics. However, using virtual

  17. Are Current Physical Match Performance Metrics in Elite Soccer Fit for Purpose or is the Adoption of an Integrated Approach Needed?

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Ade, Jack D

    2018-01-18

    Time-motion analysis is a valuable data-collection technique used to quantify the physical match performance of elite soccer players. For over 40 years researchers have adopted a 'traditional' approach when evaluating match demands by simply reporting the distance covered or time spent along a motion continuum of walking through to sprinting. This methodology quantifies physical metrics in isolation without integrating other factors and this ultimately leads to a one-dimensional insight into match performance. Thus, this commentary proposes a novel 'integrated' approach that focuses on a sensitive physical metric such as high-intensity running but contextualizes this in relation to key tactical activities for each position and collectively for the team. In the example presented, the 'integrated' model clearly unveils the unique high-intensity profile that exists due to distinct tactical roles, rather than one-dimensional 'blind' distances produced by 'traditional' models. Intuitively this innovative concept may aid the coaches understanding of the physical performance in relation to the tactical roles and instructions given to the players. Additionally, it will enable practitioners to more effectively translate match metrics into training and testing protocols. This innovative model may well aid advances in other team sports that incorporate similar intermittent movements with tactical purpose. Evidence of the merits and application of this new concept are needed before the scientific community accepts this model as it may well add complexity to an area that conceivably needs simplicity.

  18. Sound quality evaluation of air conditioning sound rating metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Peters, Jonathan A.; Burkhardt, Russell C.; Atchley, Anthony A.; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2003-10-01

    A product's success can depend on its acoustic signature as much as on the product's performance. The consumer's perception can strongly influence their satisfaction with and confidence in the product. A metric that can rate the content of the spectrum, and predict its consumer preference, is a valuable tool for manufacturers. The current method of assessing acoustic signatures from residential air conditioning units is defined in the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI 270) 1995 Standard for Sound Rating of Outdoor Unitary Equipment. The ARI 270 metric, and modified versions of that metric, were implemented in software with the flexibility to modify the features applied. Numerous product signatures were analyzed to generate a set of synthesized spectra that targeted spectral configurations that challenged the metric's abilities. A subjective jury evaluation was conducted to establish the consumer preference for those spectra. Statistical correlations were conducted to assess the degree of relationship between the subjective preferences and the various metric calculations. Recommendations were made for modifications to improve the current metric's ability to predict subjective preference. [Research supported by the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute.

  19. The Metric System--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Larry; Hovey, Kathi

    1983-01-01

    Sections look at: (1) Historical Perspective; (2) Naming the New System; (3) The Metric Units; (4) Measuring Larger and Smaller Amounts; (5) Advantage of Using the Metric System; (6) Metric Symbols; (7) Conversion from Metric to Customary System; (8) General Hints for Helping Children Understand; and (9) Current Status of Metric Conversion. (MP)

  20. Evaluation of motion artifact metrics for coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongfeng; Gros, Eric; Szabo, Aniko; Baginski, Scott G; Laste, Zachary R; Kulkarni, Naveen M; Okerlund, Darin; Schmidt, Taly G

    2018-02-01

    This study quantified the performance of coronary artery motion artifact metrics relative to human observer ratings. Motion artifact metrics have been used as part of motion correction and best-phase selection algorithms for Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA). However, the lack of ground truth makes it difficult to validate how well the metrics quantify the level of motion artifact. This study investigated five motion artifact metrics, including two novel metrics, using a dynamic phantom, clinical CCTA images, and an observer study that provided ground-truth motion artifact scores from a series of pairwise comparisons. Five motion artifact metrics were calculated for the coronary artery regions on both phantom and clinical CCTA images: positivity, entropy, normalized circularity, Fold Overlap Ratio (FOR), and Low-Intensity Region Score (LIRS). CT images were acquired of a dynamic cardiac phantom that simulated cardiac motion and contained six iodine-filled vessels of varying diameter and with regions of soft plaque and calcifications. Scans were repeated with different gantry start angles. Images were reconstructed at five phases of the motion cycle. Clinical images were acquired from 14 CCTA exams with patient heart rates ranging from 52 to 82 bpm. The vessel and shading artifacts were manually segmented by three readers and combined to create ground-truth artifact regions. Motion artifact levels were also assessed by readers using a pairwise comparison method to establish a ground-truth reader score. The Kendall's Tau coefficients were calculated to evaluate the statistical agreement in ranking between the motion artifacts metrics and reader scores. Linear regression between the reader scores and the metrics was also performed. On phantom images, the Kendall's Tau coefficients of the five motion artifact metrics were 0.50 (normalized circularity), 0.35 (entropy), 0.82 (positivity), 0.77 (FOR), 0.77(LIRS), where higher Kendall's Tau signifies higher

  1. Observable traces of non-metricity: New constraints on metric-affine gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhom-Latorre, Adrià; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Ronco, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Relaxing the Riemannian condition to incorporate geometric quantities such as torsion and non-metricity may allow to explore new physics associated with defects in a hypothetical space-time microstructure. Here we show that non-metricity produces observable effects in quantum fields in the form of 4-fermion contact interactions, thereby allowing us to constrain the scale of non-metricity to be greater than 1 TeV by using results on Bahbah scattering. Our analysis is carried out in the framework of a wide class of theories of gravity in the metric-affine approach. The bound obtained represents an improvement of several orders of magnitude to previous experimental constraints.

  2. Quantitative comparison using generalized relative object detectability (G-ROD) metrics of an amorphous selenium detector with high resolution microangiographic fluoroscopes (MAF) and standard flat panel detectors (FPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, M.; Shankar, A.; Jain, A.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Ionita, C. N.; Scott, C.; Karim, K. S.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2016-03-01

    A novel amorphous selenium (a-Se) direct detector with CMOS readout has been designed, and relative detector performance investigated. The detector features include a 25μm pixel pitch, and 1000μm thick a-Se layer operating at 10V/μm bias field. A simulated detector DQE was determined, and used in comparative calculations of the Relative Object Detectability (ROD) family of prewhitening matched-filter (PWMF) observer and non-pre-whitening matched filter (NPWMF) observer model metrics to gauge a-Se detector performance against existing high resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscopic (MAF) detectors and a standard flat panel detector (FPD). The PWMF-ROD or ROD metric compares two x-ray imaging detectors in their relative abilities in imaging a given object by taking the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier transform of the detector DQE weighted by an object function, divided by the comparable integral for a different detector. The generalized-ROD (G-ROD) metric incorporates clinically relevant parameters (focal- spot size, magnification, and scatter) to show the degradation in imaging performance for detectors that are part of an imaging chain. Preliminary ROD calculations using simulated spheres as the object predicted superior imaging performance by the a-Se detector as compared to existing detectors. New PWMF-G-ROD and NPWMF-G-ROD results still indicate better performance by the a-Se detector in an imaging chain over all sphere sizes for various focal spot sizes and magnifications, although a-Se performance advantages were degraded by focal spot blurring. Nevertheless, the a-Se technology has great potential to provide break- through abilities such as visualization of fine details including of neuro-vascular perforator vessels and of small vascular devices.

  3. Quantitative comparison using Generalized Relative Object Detectability (G-ROD) metrics of an amorphous selenium detector with high resolution Microangiographic Fluoroscopes (MAF) and standard flat panel detectors (FPD)

    PubMed Central

    Russ, M.; Shankar, A.; Jain, A.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Ionita, C. N.; Scott, C.; Karim, K. S.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2017-01-01

    A novel amorphous selenium (a-Se) direct detector with CMOS readout has been designed, and relative detector performance investigated. The detector features include a 25μm pixel pitch, and 1000μm thick a-Se layer operating at 10V/μm bias field. A simulated detector DQE was determined, and used in comparative calculations of the Relative Object Detectability (ROD) family of prewhitening matched-filter (PWMF) observer and non-prewhitening matched filter (NPWMF) observer model metrics to gauge a-Se detector performance against existing high resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscopic (MAF) detectors and a standard flat panel detector (FPD). The PWMF-ROD or ROD metric compares two x-ray imaging detectors in their relative abilities in imaging a given object by taking the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier transform of the detector DQE weighted by an object function, divided by the comparable integral for a different detector. The generalized-ROD (G-ROD) metric incorporates clinically relevant parameters (focal-spot size, magnification, and scatter) to show the degradation in imaging performance for detectors that are part of an imaging chain. Preliminary ROD calculations using simulated spheres as the object predicted superior imaging performance by the a-Se detector as compared to existing detectors. New PWMF-G-ROD and NPWMF-G-ROD results still indicate better performance by the a-Se detector in an imaging chain over all sphere sizes for various focal spot sizes and magnifications, although a-Se performance advantages were degraded by focal spot blurring. Nevertheless, the a-Se technology has great potential to provide breakthrough abilities such as visualization of fine details including of neuro-vascular perforator vessels and of small vascular devices. PMID:28615795

  4. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performancemore » measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.« less

  5. Beyond metrics? Utilizing 'soft intelligence' for healthcare quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham P; McKee, Lorna; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2015-10-01

    Formal metrics for monitoring the quality and safety of healthcare have a valuable role, but may not, by themselves, yield full insight into the range of fallibilities in organizations. 'Soft intelligence' is usefully understood as the processes and behaviours associated with seeking and interpreting soft data-of the kind that evade easy capture, straightforward classification and simple quantification-to produce forms of knowledge that can provide the basis for intervention. With the aim of examining current and potential practice in relation to soft intelligence, we conducted and analysed 107 in-depth qualitative interviews with senior leaders, including managers and clinicians, involved in healthcare quality and safety in the English National Health Service. We found that participants were in little doubt about the value of softer forms of data, especially for their role in revealing troubling issues that might be obscured by conventional metrics. Their struggles lay in how to access softer data and turn them into a useful form of knowing. Some of the dominant approaches they used risked replicating the limitations of hard, quantitative data. They relied on processes of aggregation and triangulation that prioritised reliability, or on instrumental use of soft data to animate the metrics. The unpredictable, untameable, spontaneous quality of soft data could be lost in efforts to systematize their collection and interpretation to render them more tractable. A more challenging but potentially rewarding approach involved processes and behaviours aimed at disrupting taken-for-granted assumptions about quality, safety, and organizational performance. This approach, which explicitly values the seeking out and the hearing of multiple voices, is consistent with conceptual frameworks of organizational sensemaking and dialogical understandings of knowledge. Using soft intelligence this way can be challenging and discomfiting, but may offer a critical defence against the

  6. SU-F-T-312: Identifying Distinct Radiation Therapy Plan Classes Through Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Plan Complexity Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, V; Labby, Z; Culberson, W

    Purpose: To determine whether body site-specific treatment plans form unique “plan class” clusters in a multi-dimensional analysis of plan complexity metrics such that a single beam quality correction determined for a representative plan could be universally applied within the “plan class”, thereby increasing the dosimetric accuracy of a detector’s response within a subset of similarly modulated nonstandard deliveries. Methods: We collected 95 clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans from four body sites (brain, lung, prostate, and spine). The lung data was further subdivided into SBRT and non-SBRT data for a total of five plan classes. For each control pointmore » in each plan, a variety of aperture-based complexity metrics were calculated and stored as unique characteristics of each patient plan. A multiple comparison of means analysis was performed such that every plan class was compared to every other plan class for every complexity metric in order to determine which groups could be considered different from one another. Statistical significance was assessed after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Results: Six out of a possible 10 pairwise plan class comparisons were uniquely distinguished based on at least nine out of 14 of the proposed metrics (Brain/Lung, Brain/SBRT lung, Lung/Prostate, Lung/SBRT Lung, Lung/Spine, Prostate/SBRT Lung). Eight out of 14 of the complexity metrics could distinguish at least six out of the possible 10 pairwise plan class comparisons. Conclusion: Aperture-based complexity metrics could prove to be useful tools to quantitatively describe a distinct class of treatment plans. Certain plan-averaged complexity metrics could be considered unique characteristics of a particular plan. A new approach to generating plan-class specific reference (pcsr) fields could be established through a targeted preservation of select complexity metrics or a clustering algorithm that identifies plans exhibiting similar

  7. Comparison of 3D displays using objective metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, Paul; McIntire, John; Dixon, Sharon; Moore, Jason; Reis, George

    2008-04-01

    Previously, we (Havig, Aleva, Reis, Moore, and McIntire, 2007) presented a taxonomy for the development of three-dimensional (3D) displays. We proposed three levels of metrics: objective (in which physical measurements are made of the display), subjective (Likert-type rating scales to show preferences of the display), and subjective-objective (performance metrics in which one shows how the 3D display may be more or less useful than a 2D display or a different 3D display). We concluded that for each level of metric, drawing practical comparisons among currently disparate 3D displays is difficult. In this paper we attempt to define more clearly the objective metrics for 3D displays. We set out to collect and measure physical attributes of several 3D displays and compare the results. We discuss our findings in terms of both difficulties in making the measurements in the first place, due to the physical set-up of the display, to issues in comparing the results we found and comparing how similar (or dissimilar) two 3D displays may or may not be. We conclude by discussing the next steps in creating objective metrics for three-dimensional displays as well as a proposed way ahead for the other two levels of metrics based on our findings.

  8. Future of the PCI Readmission Metric.

    PubMed

    Wasfy, Jason H; Yeh, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    Between 2013 and 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the National Cardiovascular Data Registry publically reported risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a pilot project. A key strength of this public reporting effort included risk adjustment with clinical rather than administrative data. Furthermore, because readmission after PCI is common, expensive, and preventable, this metric has substantial potential to improve quality and value in American cardiology care. Despite this, concerns about the metric exist. For example, few PCI readmissions are caused by procedural complications, limiting the extent to which improved procedural technique can reduce readmissions. Also, similar to other readmission measures, PCI readmission is associated with socioeconomic status and race. Accordingly, the metric may unfairly penalize hospitals that care for underserved patients. Perhaps in the context of these limitations, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has not yet included PCI readmission among metrics that determine Medicare financial penalties. Nevertheless, provider organizations may still wish to focus on this metric to improve value for cardiology patients. PCI readmission is associated with low-risk chest discomfort and patient anxiety. Therefore, patient education, improved triage mechanisms, and improved care coordination offer opportunities to minimize PCI readmissions. Because PCI readmission is common and costly, reducing PCI readmission offers provider organizations a compelling target to improve the quality of care, and also performance in contracts involve shared financial risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Algal bioassessment metrics for wadeable streams and rivers of Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, Thomas J.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Tsomides, Leonidas; DiFranco, Jeanne L.; Connors, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Many state water-quality agencies use biological assessment methods based on lotic fish and macroinvertebrate communities, but relatively few states have incorporated algal multimetric indices into monitoring programs. Algae are good indicators for monitoring water quality because they are sensitive to many environmental stressors. We evaluated benthic algal community attributes along a landuse gradient affecting wadeable streams and rivers in Maine, USA, to identify potential bioassessment metrics. We collected epilithic algal samples from 193 locations across the state. We computed weighted-average optima for common taxa for total P, total N, specific conductance, % impervious cover, and % developed watershed, which included all land use that is no longer forest or wetland. We assigned Maine stream tolerance values and categories (sensitive, intermediate, tolerant) to taxa based on their optima and responses to watershed disturbance. We evaluated performance of algal community metrics used in multimetric indices from other regions and novel metrics based on Maine data. Metrics specific to Maine data, such as the relative richness of species characterized as being sensitive in Maine, were more correlated with % developed watershed than most metrics used in other regions. Few community-structure attributes (e.g., species richness) were useful metrics in Maine. Performance of algal bioassessment models would be improved if metrics were evaluated with attributes of local data before inclusion in multimetric indices or statistical models. ?? 2011 by The North American Benthological Society.

  10. Value-based metrics and Internet-based enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Krishan M.

    2001-10-01

    Within the last few years, a host of value-based metrics like EVA, MVA, TBR, CFORI, and TSR have evolved. This paper attempts to analyze the validity and applicability of EVA and Balanced Scorecard for Internet based organizations. Despite the collapse of the dot-com model, the firms engaged in e- commerce continue to struggle to find new ways to account for customer-base, technology, employees, knowledge, etc, as part of the value of the firm. While some metrics, like the Balance Scorecard are geared towards internal use, others like EVA are for external use. Value-based metrics are used for performing internal audits as well as comparing firms against one another; and can also be effectively utilized by individuals outside the firm looking to determine if the firm is creating value for its stakeholders.

  11. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  12. Foul tip impact attenuation of baseball catcher masks using head impact metrics

    PubMed Central

    White, Terrance R.; Cutcliffe, Hattie C.; Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Bass, Cameron R.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, no scientific consensus exists on the relative safety of catcher mask styles and materials. Due to differences in mass and material properties, the style and material of a catcher mask influences the impact metrics observed during simulated foul ball impacts. The catcher surrogate was a Hybrid III head and neck equipped with a six degree of freedom sensor package to obtain linear accelerations and angular rates. Four mask styles were impacted using an air cannon for six 30 m/s and six 35 m/s impacts to the nasion. To quantify impact severity, the metrics peak linear acceleration, peak angular acceleration, Head Injury Criterion, Head Impact Power, and Gadd Severity Index were used. An Analysis of Covariance and a Tukey’s HSD Test were conducted to compare the least squares mean between masks for each head injury metric. For each injury metric a P-Value less than 0.05 was found indicating a significant difference in mask performance. Tukey’s HSD test found for each metric, the traditional style titanium mask fell in the lowest performance category while the hockey style mask was in the highest performance category. Limitations of this study prevented a direct correlation from mask testing performance to mild traumatic brain injury. PMID:29856814

  13. A New Metrics for Countries' Fitness and Products' Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchella, Andrea; Cristelli, Matthieu; Caldarelli, Guido; Gabrielli, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Classical economic theories prescribe specialization of countries industrial production. Inspection of the country databases of exported products shows that this is not the case: successful countries are extremely diversified, in analogy with biosystems evolving in a competitive dynamical environment. The challenge is assessing quantitatively the non-monetary competitive advantage of diversification which represents the hidden potential for development and growth. Here we develop a new statistical approach based on coupled non-linear maps, whose fixed point defines a new metrics for the country Fitness and product Complexity. We show that a non-linear iteration is necessary to bound the complexity of products by the fitness of the less competitive countries exporting them. We show that, given the paradigm of economic complexity, the correct and simplest approach to measure the competitiveness of countries is the one presented in this work. Furthermore our metrics appears to be economically well-grounded.

  14. Comparing masked target transform volume (MTTV) clutter metric to human observer evaluation of visual clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, H. A.; Moyer, Steven; Moore, Richard K.

    2010-04-01

    The Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate's current time-limited search (TLS) model, which makes use of the targeting task performance (TTP) metric to describe image quality, does not explicitly account for the effects of visual clutter on observer performance. The TLS model is currently based on empirical fits to describe human performance for a time of day, spectrum and environment. Incorporating a clutter metric into the TLS model may reduce the number of these empirical fits needed. The masked target transform volume (MTTV) clutter metric has been previously presented and compared to other clutter metrics. Using real infrared imagery of rural images with varying levels of clutter, NVESD is currently evaluating the appropriateness of the MTTV metric. NVESD had twenty subject matter experts (SME) rank the amount of clutter in each scene in a series of pair-wise comparisons. MTTV metric values were calculated and then compared to the SME observers rankings. The MTTV metric ranked the clutter in a similar manner to the SME evaluation, suggesting that the MTTV metric may emulate SME response. This paper is a first step in quantifying clutter and measuring the agreement to subjective human evaluation.

  15. Efficient dual approach to distance metric learning.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chunhua; Kim, Junae; Liu, Fayao; Wang, Lei; van den Hengel, Anton

    2014-02-01

    Distance metric learning is of fundamental interest in machine learning because the employed distance metric can significantly affect the performance of many learning methods. Quadratic Mahalanobis metric learning is a popular approach to the problem, but typically requires solving a semidefinite programming (SDP) problem, which is computationally expensive. The worst case complexity of solving an SDP problem involving a matrix variable of size D×D with O(D) linear constraints is about O(D(6.5)) using interior-point methods, where D is the dimension of the input data. Thus, the interior-point methods only practically solve problems exhibiting less than a few thousand variables. Because the number of variables is D(D+1)/2, this implies a limit upon the size of problem that can practically be solved around a few hundred dimensions. The complexity of the popular quadratic Mahalanobis metric learning approach thus limits the size of problem to which metric learning can be applied. Here, we propose a significantly more efficient and scalable approach to the metric learning problem based on the Lagrange dual formulation of the problem. The proposed formulation is much simpler to implement, and therefore allows much larger Mahalanobis metric learning problems to be solved. The time complexity of the proposed method is roughly O(D(3)), which is significantly lower than that of the SDP approach. Experiments on a variety of data sets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves an accuracy comparable with the state of the art, but is applicable to significantly larger problems. We also show that the proposed method can be applied to solve more general Frobenius norm regularized SDP problems approximately.

  16. Meta-analysis of the technical performance of an imaging procedure: guidelines and statistical methodology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; McShane, Lisa M; Gönen, Mithat; Ye, Jingjing; Buckler, Andrew J; Kinahan, Paul E; Reeves, Anthony P; Jackson, Edward F; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Zahlmann, Gudrun

    2015-02-01

    Medical imaging serves many roles in patient care and the drug approval process, including assessing treatment response and guiding treatment decisions. These roles often involve a quantitative imaging biomarker, an objectively measured characteristic of the underlying anatomic structure or biochemical process derived from medical images. Before a quantitative imaging biomarker is accepted for use in such roles, the imaging procedure to acquire it must undergo evaluation of its technical performance, which entails assessment of performance metrics such as repeatability and reproducibility of the quantitative imaging biomarker. Ideally, this evaluation will involve quantitative summaries of results from multiple studies to overcome limitations due to the typically small sample sizes of technical performance studies and/or to include a broader range of clinical settings and patient populations. This paper is a review of meta-analysis procedures for such an evaluation, including identification of suitable studies, statistical methodology to evaluate and summarize the performance metrics, and complete and transparent reporting of the results. This review addresses challenges typical of meta-analyses of technical performance, particularly small study sizes, which often causes violations of assumptions underlying standard meta-analysis techniques. Alternative approaches to address these difficulties are also presented; simulation studies indicate that they outperform standard techniques when some studies are small. The meta-analysis procedures presented are also applied to actual [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) test-retest repeatability data for illustrative purposes. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Meta-analysis of the technical performance of an imaging procedure: Guidelines and statistical methodology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; McShane, Lisa M; Gönen, Mithat; Ye, Jingjing; Buckler, Andrew J; Kinahan, Paul E; Reeves, Anthony P; Jackson, Edward F; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Zahlmann, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Medical imaging serves many roles in patient care and the drug approval process, including assessing treatment response and guiding treatment decisions. These roles often involve a quantitative imaging biomarker, an objectively measured characteristic of the underlying anatomic structure or biochemical process derived from medical images. Before a quantitative imaging biomarker is accepted for use in such roles, the imaging procedure to acquire it must undergo evaluation of its technical performance, which entails assessment of performance metrics such as repeatability and reproducibility of the quantitative imaging biomarker. Ideally, this evaluation will involve quantitative summaries of results from multiple studies to overcome limitations due to the typically small sample sizes of technical performance studies and/or to include a broader range of clinical settings and patient populations. This paper is a review of meta-analysis procedures for such an evaluation, including identification of suitable studies, statistical methodology to evaluate and summarize the performance metrics, and complete and transparent reporting of the results. This review addresses challenges typical of meta-analyses of technical performance, particularly small study sizes, which often causes violations of assumptions underlying standard meta-analysis techniques. Alternative approaches to address these difficulties are also presented; simulation studies indicate that they outperform standard techniques when some studies are small. The meta-analysis procedures presented are also applied to actual [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) test–retest repeatability data for illustrative purposes. PMID:24872353

  18. Mastering Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Annette M.

    2005-01-01

    By the time students reach a middle school science course, they are expected to make measurements using the metric system. However, most are not practiced in its use, as their experience in metrics is often limited to one unit they were taught in elementary school. This lack of knowledge is not wholly the fault of formal education. Although the…

  19. The LSST Metrics Analysis Framework (MAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Lynne; Yoachim, Peter; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cook, Kem H.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Krughoff, K. Simon; Petry, Catherine E.; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Studying potential observing strategies or cadences for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complicated but important problem. To address this, LSST has created an Operations Simulator (OpSim) to create simulated surveys, including realistic weather and sky conditions. Analyzing the results of these simulated surveys for the wide variety of science cases to be considered for LSST is, however, difficult. We have created a Metric Analysis Framework (MAF), an open-source python framework, to be a user-friendly, customizable and easily extensible tool to help analyze the outputs of the OpSim.MAF reads the pointing history of the LSST generated by the OpSim, then enables the subdivision of these pointings based on position on the sky (RA/Dec, etc.) or the characteristics of the observations (e.g. airmass or sky brightness) and a calculation of how well these observations meet a specified science objective (or metric). An example simple metric could be the mean single visit limiting magnitude for each position in the sky; a more complex metric might be the expected astrometric precision. The output of these metrics can be generated for a full survey, for specified time intervals, or for regions of the sky, and can be easily visualized using a web interface.An important goal for MAF is to facilitate analysis of the OpSim outputs for a wide variety of science cases. A user can often write a new metric to evaluate OpSim for new science goals in less than a day once they are familiar with the framework. Some of these new metrics are illustrated in the accompanying poster, "Analyzing Simulated LSST Survey Performance With MAF".While MAF has been developed primarily for application to OpSim outputs, it can be applied to any dataset. The most obvious examples are examining pointing histories of other survey projects or telescopes, such as CFHT.

  20. Fault Management Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  1. Validation Metrics for Improving Our Understanding of Turbulent Transport - Moving Beyond Proof by Pretty Picture and Loud Assertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C.

    2013-10-01

    Developing validated models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. This tutorial will present an overview of the key guiding principles and practices for state-of-the-art validation studies, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The primary focus of the talk will be the development of quantiatve validation metrics, which are essential for moving beyond qualitative and subjective assessments of model performance and fidelity. Particular emphasis and discussion is given to (i) the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment, and (ii) the importance of robust uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics. To illustrate these concepts, we first review the structure and key insights gained from commonly used ``global'' transport model metrics (e.g. predictions of incremental stored energy or radially-averaged temperature), as well as their limitations. Building upon these results, a new form of turbulent transport metrics is then proposed, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local gradients and fluctuation characteristics against observation. We demonstrate the utility of these metrics by applying them to simulations and modeling of a newly developed ``validation database'' derived from the results of a systematic, multi-year turbulent transport validation campaign on the DIII-D tokamak, in which comprehensive profile and fluctuation measurements have been obtained from a wide variety of heating and confinement scenarios. Finally, we discuss extensions of these metrics and their underlying design concepts to other areas of plasma confinement research, including both magnetohydrodynamic stability and integrated scenario modeling. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-07ER54917 and DE-FC02-08ER54977.

  2. Sigma Routing Metric for RPL Protocol.

    PubMed

    Sanmartin, Paul; Rojas, Aldo; Fernandez, Luis; Avila, Karen; Jabba, Daladier; Valle, Sebastian

    2018-04-21

    This paper presents the adaptation of a specific metric for the RPL protocol in the objective function MRHOF. Among the functions standardized by IETF, we find OF0, which is based on the minimum hop count, as well as MRHOF, which is based on the Expected Transmission Count (ETX). However, when the network becomes denser or the number of nodes increases, both OF0 and MRHOF introduce long hops, which can generate a bottleneck that restricts the network. The adaptation is proposed to optimize both OFs through a new routing metric. To solve the above problem, the metrics of the minimum number of hops and the ETX are combined by designing a new routing metric called SIGMA-ETX, in which the best route is calculated using the standard deviation of ETX values between each node, as opposed to working with the ETX average along the route. This method ensures a better routing performance in dense sensor networks. The simulations are done through the Cooja simulator, based on the Contiki operating system. The simulations showed that the proposed optimization outperforms at a high margin in both OF0 and MRHOF, in terms of network latency, packet delivery ratio, lifetime, and power consumption.

  3. Sigma Routing Metric for RPL Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Aldo; Fernandez, Luis

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the adaptation of a specific metric for the RPL protocol in the objective function MRHOF. Among the functions standardized by IETF, we find OF0, which is based on the minimum hop count, as well as MRHOF, which is based on the Expected Transmission Count (ETX). However, when the network becomes denser or the number of nodes increases, both OF0 and MRHOF introduce long hops, which can generate a bottleneck that restricts the network. The adaptation is proposed to optimize both OFs through a new routing metric. To solve the above problem, the metrics of the minimum number of hops and the ETX are combined by designing a new routing metric called SIGMA-ETX, in which the best route is calculated using the standard deviation of ETX values between each node, as opposed to working with the ETX average along the route. This method ensures a better routing performance in dense sensor networks. The simulations are done through the Cooja simulator, based on the Contiki operating system. The simulations showed that the proposed optimization outperforms at a high margin in both OF0 and MRHOF, in terms of network latency, packet delivery ratio, lifetime, and power consumption. PMID:29690524

  4. Nonlinear Semi-Supervised Metric Learning Via Multiple Kernels and Local Topology.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Bai, Yanqin; Peng, Yaxin; Du, Shaoyi; Ying, Shihui

    2018-03-01

    Changing the metric on the data may change the data distribution, hence a good distance metric can promote the performance of learning algorithm. In this paper, we address the semi-supervised distance metric learning (ML) problem to obtain the best nonlinear metric for the data. First, we describe the nonlinear metric by the multiple kernel representation. By this approach, we project the data into a high dimensional space, where the data can be well represented by linear ML. Then, we reformulate the linear ML by a minimization problem on the positive definite matrix group. Finally, we develop a two-step algorithm for solving this model and design an intrinsic steepest descent algorithm to learn the positive definite metric matrix. Experimental results validate that our proposed method is effective and outperforms several state-of-the-art ML methods.

  5. First results from a combined analysis of CERN computing infrastructure metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duellmann, Dirk; Nieke, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The IT Analysis Working Group (AWG) has been formed at CERN across individual computing units and the experiments to attempt a cross cutting analysis of computing infrastructure and application metrics. In this presentation we will describe the first results obtained using medium/long term data (1 months — 1 year) correlating box level metrics, job level metrics from LSF and HTCondor, IO metrics from the physics analysis disk pools (EOS) and networking and application level metrics from the experiment dashboards. We will cover in particular the measurement of hardware performance and prediction of job duration, the latency sensitivity of different job types and a search for bottlenecks with the production job mix in the current infrastructure. The presentation will conclude with the proposal of a small set of metrics to simplify drawing conclusions also in the more constrained environment of public cloud deployments.

  6. Double metric, generalized metric, and α' -deformed double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton

    2016-03-01

    We relate the unconstrained "double metric" of the "α' -geometry" formulation of double field theory to the constrained generalized metric encoding the spacetime metric and b -field. This is achieved by integrating out auxiliary field components of the double metric in an iterative procedure that induces an infinite number of higher-derivative corrections. As an application, we prove that, to first order in α' and to all orders in fields, the deformed gauge transformations are Green-Schwarz-deformed diffeomorphisms. We also prove that to first order in α' the spacetime action encodes precisely the Green-Schwarz deformation with Chern-Simons forms based on the torsionless gravitational connection. This seems to be in tension with suggestions in the literature that T-duality requires a torsionful connection, but we explain that these assertions are ambiguous since actions that use different connections are related by field redefinitions.

  7. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Craig G. Rieger

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integritymore » metrics can be applied to establish performance, and« less

  8. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: QA TESTS, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Microscopy System Performance: QA tests, Quantitation and Spectroscopy.

    Robert M. Zucker 1 and Jeremy M. Lerner 2,
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research Development, U.S. Environmen...

  9. Reuse Metrics for Object Oriented Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieman, James M.

    1998-01-01

    One way to increase the quality of software products and the productivity of software development is to reuse existing software components when building new software systems. In order to monitor improvements in reuse, the level of reuse must be measured. In this NASA supported project we (1) derived a suite of metrics which quantify reuse attributes for object oriented, object based, and procedural software, (2) designed prototype tools to take these measurements in Ada, C++, Java, and C software, (3) evaluated the reuse in available software, (4) analyzed the relationship between coupling, cohesion, inheritance, and reuse, (5) collected object oriented software systems for our empirical analyses, and (6) developed quantitative criteria and methods for restructuring software to improve reusability.

  10. Evaluation of eye metrics as a detector of fatigue.

    PubMed

    McKinley, R Andy; McIntire, Lindsey K; Schmidt, Regina; Repperger, Daniel W; Caldwell, John A

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated oculometrics as a detector of fatigue in Air Force-relevant tasks after sleep deprivation. Using the metrics of total eye closure duration (PERCLOS) and approximate entropy (ApEn), the relation between these eye metrics and fatigue-induced performance decrements was investigated. One damaging effect to the successful outcome of operational military missions is that attributed to sleep deprivation-induced fatigue. Consequently, there is interest in the development of reliable monitoring devices that can assess when an operator is overly fatigued. Ten civilian participants volunteered to serve in this study. Each was trained on three performance tasks: target identification, unmanned aerial vehicle landing, and the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Experimental testing began after 14 hr awake and continued every 2 hr until 28 hr of sleep deprivation was reached. Performance on the PVT and target identification tasks declined significantly as the level of sleep deprivation increased.These performance declines were paralleled more closely by changes in the ApEn compared to the PERCLOS measure. The results provide evidence that the ApEn eye metric can be used to detect fatigue in relevant military aviation tasks. Military and commercial operators could benefit from an alertness monitoring device.

  11. PSQM-based RR and NR video quality metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhongkang; Lin, Weisi; Ong, Eeping; Yang, Xiaokang; Yao, Susu

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a new and general concept, PQSM (Perceptual Quality Significance Map), to be used in measuring the visual distortion. It makes use of the selectivity characteristic of HVS (Human Visual System) that it pays more attention to certain area/regions of visual signal due to one or more of the following factors: salient features in image/video, cues from domain knowledge, and association of other media (e.g., speech or audio). PQSM is an array whose elements represent the relative perceptual-quality significance levels for the corresponding area/regions for images or video. Due to its generality, PQSM can be incorporated into any visual distortion metrics: to improve effectiveness or/and efficiency of perceptual metrics; or even to enhance a PSNR-based metric. A three-stage PQSM estimation method is also proposed in this paper, with an implementation of motion, texture, luminance, skin-color and face mapping. Experimental results show the scheme can improve the performance of current image/video distortion metrics.

  12. Metric Development for Continuous Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    observable ( Cropley , 1998). All measurement is done within a context (Morse, 2003), which is shaped by a purpose, existing knowledge, capabilities, and...performance: metrics for entrepreneurship and strategic management research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2006. Print. 9. Cropley , D. H., “Towards

  13. Gamut Volume Index: a color preference metric based on meta-analysis and optimized colour samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Huang, Zheng; Xiao, Kaida; Pointer, Michael R; Westland, Stephen; Luo, M Ronnier

    2017-07-10

    A novel metric named Gamut Volume Index (GVI) is proposed for evaluating the colour preference of lighting. This metric is based on the absolute gamut volume of optimized colour samples. The optimal colour set of the proposed metric was obtained by optimizing the weighted average correlation between the metric predictions and the subjective ratings for 8 psychophysical studies. The performance of 20 typical colour metrics was also investigated, which included colour difference based metrics, gamut based metrics, memory based metrics as well as combined metrics. It was found that the proposed GVI outperformed the existing counterparts, especially for the conditions where correlated colour temperatures differed.

  14. SU-D-204-05: Quantitative Comparison of a High Resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopic (MAF) Detector with a Standard Flat Panel Detector (FPD) Using the New Metric of Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD)

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, M; Ionita, C; Bednarek, D

    Purpose: In endovascular image-guided neuro-interventions, visualization of fine detail is paramount. For example, the ability of the interventionist to visualize the stent struts depends heavily on the x-ray imaging detector performance. Methods: A study to examine the relative performance of the high resolution MAF-CMOS (pixel size 75µm, Nyquist frequency 6.6 cycles/mm) and a standard Flat Panel Detector (pixel size 194µm, Nyquist frequency 2.5 cycles/mm) detectors in imaging a neuro stent was done using the Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) metric. Low quantum noise images of a deployed stent were obtained by averaging 95 frames obtained by both detectors withoutmore » changing other exposure or geometric parameters. The square of the Fourier transform of each image is taken and divided by the generalized normalized noise power spectrum to give an effective measured task-specific signal-to-noise ratio. This expression is then integrated from 0 to each of the detector’s Nyquist frequencies, and the GM-ROD value is determined by taking a ratio of the integrals for the MAF-CMOS to that of the FPD. The lower bound of integration can be varied to emphasize high frequencies in the detector comparisons. Results: The MAF-CMOS detector exhibits vastly superior performance over the FPD when integrating over all frequencies, yielding a GM-ROD value of 63.1. The lower bound of integration was stepped up in increments of 0.5 cycles/mm for higher frequency comparisons. As the lower bound increased, the GM-ROD value was augmented, reflecting the superior performance of the MAF-CMOS in the high frequency regime. Conclusion: GM-ROD is a versatile metric that can provide quantitative detector and task dependent comparisons that can be used as a basis for detector selection. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.« less

  15. Evaluation Metrics for Biostatistical and Epidemiological Collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Doris McGartland; del Junco, Deborah J.; Bhore, Rafia; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Oster, Robert A.; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Welty, Leah J.; Li, Yi-Ju; DeMets, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demands for evidence-based medicine and for the translation of biomedical research into individual and public health benefit have been accompanied by the proliferation of special units that offer expertise in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design (BERD) within academic health centers. Objective metrics that can be used to evaluate, track, and improve the performance of these BERD units are critical to their successful establishment and sustainable future. To develop a set of reliable but versatile metrics that can be adapted easily to different environments and evolving needs, we consulted with members of BERD units from the consortium of academic health centers funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Award Program of the National Institutes of Health. Through a systematic process of consensus building and document drafting, we formulated metrics that covered the three identified domains of BERD practices: the development and maintenance of collaborations with clinical and translational science investigators, the application of BERD-related methods to clinical and translational research, and the discovery of novel BERD-related methodologies. In this article, we describe the set of metrics and advocate their use for evaluating BERD practices. The routine application, comparison of findings across diverse BERD units, and ongoing refinement of the metrics will identify trends, facilitate meaningful changes, and ultimately enhance the contribution of BERD activities to biomedical research. PMID:21284015

  16. Evaluation metrics for biostatistical and epidemiological collaborations.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Doris McGartland; Del Junco, Deborah J; Bhore, Rafia; Lindsell, Christopher J; Oster, Robert A; Wittkowski, Knut M; Welty, Leah J; Li, Yi-Ju; Demets, Dave

    2011-10-15

    Increasing demands for evidence-based medicine and for the translation of biomedical research into individual and public health benefit have been accompanied by the proliferation of special units that offer expertise in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design (BERD) within academic health centers. Objective metrics that can be used to evaluate, track, and improve the performance of these BERD units are critical to their successful establishment and sustainable future. To develop a set of reliable but versatile metrics that can be adapted easily to different environments and evolving needs, we consulted with members of BERD units from the consortium of academic health centers funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Award Program of the National Institutes of Health. Through a systematic process of consensus building and document drafting, we formulated metrics that covered the three identified domains of BERD practices: the development and maintenance of collaborations with clinical and translational science investigators, the application of BERD-related methods to clinical and translational research, and the discovery of novel BERD-related methodologies. In this article, we describe the set of metrics and advocate their use for evaluating BERD practices. The routine application, comparison of findings across diverse BERD units, and ongoing refinement of the metrics will identify trends, facilitate meaningful changes, and ultimately enhance the contribution of BERD activities to biomedical research. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Metrication study for large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creswick, F. A.; Weller, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Various approaches which could be taken in developing a metric-system design for the Large Space Telescope, considering potential penalties on development cost and time, commonality with other satellite programs, and contribution to national goals for conversion to the metric system of units were investigated. Information on the problems, potential approaches, and impacts of metrication was collected from published reports on previous aerospace-industry metrication-impact studies and through numerous telephone interviews. The recommended approach to LST metrication formulated in this study cells for new components and subsystems to be designed in metric-module dimensions, but U.S. customary practice is allowed where U.S. metric standards and metric components are not available or would be unsuitable. Electrical/electronic-system design, which is presently largely metric, is considered exempt from futher metrication. An important guideline is that metric design and fabrication should in no way compromise the effectiveness of the LST equipment.

  18. Application of Climate Impact Metrics to Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Multiple metrics are applied to the design of large civil rotorcraft, integrating minimum cost and minimum environmental impact. The design mission is passenger transport with similar range and capacity to a regional jet. Separate aircraft designs are generated for minimum empty weight, fuel burn, and environmental impact. A metric specifically developed for the design of aircraft is employed to evaluate emissions. The designs are generated using the NDARC rotorcraft sizing code, and rotor analysis is performed with the CAMRAD II aeromechanics code. Design and mission parameters such as wing loading, disk loading, and cruise altitude are varied to minimize both cost and environmental impact metrics. This paper presents the results of these parametric sweeps as well as the final aircraft designs.

  19. Changing to the Metric System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Donald L.; Dowling, Kenneth W.

    This report examines educational aspects of the conversion to the metric system of measurement in the United States. Statements of positions on metrication and basic mathematical skills are given from various groups. Base units, symbols, prefixes, and style of the metric system are outlined. Guidelines for teaching metric concepts are given,…

  20. Software metrics: Software quality metrics for distributed systems. [reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Software quality metrics was extended to cover distributed computer systems. Emphasis is placed on studying embedded computer systems and on viewing them within a system life cycle. The hierarchy of quality factors, criteria, and metrics was maintained. New software quality factors were added, including survivability, expandability, and evolvability.

  1. Implementing the Metric System in Agricultural Occupations. Metric Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Hal M.; And Others

    Addressed to the agricultural education teacher, this guide is intended to provide appropriate information, viewpoints, and attitudes regarding the metric system and to make suggestions regarding presentation of the material in the classroom. An introductory section on teaching suggestions emphasizes the need for a "think metric" approach made up…

  2. Implementing the Metric System in Health Occupations. Metric Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Wilson P.; And Others

    Addressed to the health occupations education teacher, this guide is intended to provide appropriate information, viewpoints, and attitudes regarding the metric system and to make suggestions regarding presentation of the material in the classroom. An introductory section on teaching suggestions emphasizes the need for a "think metric" approach…

  3. On the performance of metrics to predict quality in point cloud representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexiou, Evangelos; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2017-09-01

    Point clouds are a promising alternative for immersive representation of visual contents. Recently, an increased interest has been observed in the acquisition, processing and rendering of this modality. Although subjective and objective evaluations are critical in order to assess the visual quality of media content, they still remain open problems for point cloud representation. In this paper we focus our efforts on subjective quality assessment of point cloud geometry, subject to typical types of impairments such as noise corruption and compression-like distortions. In particular, we propose a subjective methodology that is closer to real-life scenarios of point cloud visualization. The performance of the state-of-the-art objective metrics is assessed by considering the subjective scores as the ground truth. Moreover, we investigate the impact of adopting different test methodologies by comparing them. Advantages and drawbacks of every approach are reported, based on statistical analysis. The results and conclusions of this work provide useful insights that could be considered in future experimentation.

  4. A Contrast in Use of Metrics in Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Behnke, Jeanne; Hines-Watts, Tonjua

    2007-01-01

    measured through "metrics", which can be a combination of quantitative as well as qualitative assessments. The specific metrics of interest depend on the user of the metrics as well as the type of data system. The users of metrics can be data system managers, program managers, funding agency or the public. Data system managers need metrics for assessing and improving the performance of the system and for future planning. Program managers need metrics to assess progress and the value of the data systems sponsored by them. Also, there is a difference in the metrics needed for core capabilities that tend to be more complex, larger and longer-term compared to community capabilities and the community capabilities that tend to be simpler, smaller and shorter-term. Even among community capabilities there are differences; hence the same set of metrics does not apply to all. Some provide data products to users, some provide services that enable better utilization of data or interoperability among other systems, and some are a part of a larger project where provision of data or services is only a minor activity. There is also a contrast between metrics used for internal and external purposes. Examples of internal purposes are: ensuring that the system meets its requirements, and planning for evolution and growth. Examples of external purposes are: providing to sponsors indicators of success of the systems, demonstrating the contributions of the system to overall program success, etc. This paper will consider EOSDIS, REASON and ACCESS programs to show the various types of metrics needed and how they need to be tailored to the types of data systems while maintaining the overall management goals of measuring progress and contributions made by the data systems.

  5. A Contrast in Use of Metrics in Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Behnke, J.; Hines-Watts, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    through metrics, which can be a combination of quantitative as well as qualitative assessments. The specific metrics of interest depend on the user of the metrics as well as the type of data system. The users of metrics can be data system managers, program managers, funding agency or the public. Data system managers need metrics for assessing and improving the performance of the system and for future planning. Program managers need metrics to assess progress and the value of the data systems sponsored by them. Also, there is a difference in the metrics needed for core capabilities that tend to be more complex, larger and longer-term compared to community capabilities and the community capabilities that tend to be simpler, smaller and shorter-term. Even among community capabilities there are differences; hence the same set of metrics does not apply to all. Some provide data products to users, some provide services that enable better utilization of data or interoperability among other systems, and some are a part of a larger project where provision of data or services is only a minor activity. There is also a contrast between metrics used for internal and external purposes. Examples of internal purposes are: ensuring that the system meets its requirements, and planning for evolution and growth. Examples of external purposes are: providing to sponsors indicators of success of the systems, demonstrating the contributions of the system to overall program success, etc. This paper will consider EOSDIS, REASoN and ACCESS programs to show the various types of metrics needed and how they need to be tailored to the types of data systems while maintaining the overall management goals of measuring progress and contributions made by the data systems.

  6. Metrics in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindbeck, John R.

    The United States is rapidly becoming a metric nation. Industry, education, business, and government are all studying the issue of metrication to learn how they can prepare for it. The book is designed to help teachers and students in career education programs learn something about metrics. Presented in an easily understood manner, the textbook's…

  7. Quantitative assessment based on kinematic measures of functional impairments during upper extremity movements: A review.

    PubMed

    de los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Dimbwadyo-Terrer, Iris; Trincado-Alonso, Fernando; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Torricelli, Diego; Gil-Agudo, Angel

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative measures of human movement quality are important for discriminating healthy and pathological conditions and for expressing the outcomes and clinically important changes in subjects' functional state. However the most frequently used instruments for the upper extremity functional assessment are clinical scales, that previously have been standardized and validated, but have a high subjective component depending on the observer who scores the test. But they are not enough to assess motor strategies used during movements, and their use in combination with other more objective measures is necessary. The objective of the present review is to provide an overview on objective metrics found in literature with the aim of quantifying the upper extremity performance during functional tasks, regardless of the equipment or system used for registering kinematic data. A search in Medline, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore databases was performed following a combination of a series of keywords. The full scientific papers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the review. A set of kinematic metrics was found in literature in relation to joint displacements, analysis of hand trajectories and velocity profiles. These metrics were classified into different categories according to the movement characteristic that was being measured. These kinematic metrics provide the starting point for a proposed objective metrics for the functional assessment of the upper extremity in people with movement disorders as a consequence of neurological injuries. Potential areas of future and further research are presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metrication report to the Congress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The principal NASA metrication activities for FY 1989 were a revision of NASA metric policy and evaluation of the impact of using the metric system of measurement for the design and construction of the Space Station Freedom. Additional studies provided a basis for focusing follow-on activity. In FY 1990, emphasis will shift to implementation of metric policy and development of a long-range metrication plan. The report which follows addresses Policy Development, Planning and Program Evaluation, and Supporting Activities for the past and coming year.

  9. Introducing Co-Activation Pattern Metrics to Quantify Spontaneous Brain Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Chang, Catie; Greicius, Michael D.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, fMRI researchers have begun to realize that the brain's intrinsic network patterns may undergo substantial changes during a single resting state (RS) scan. However, despite the growing interest in brain dynamics, metrics that can quantify the variability of network patterns are still quite limited. Here, we first introduce various quantification metrics based on the extension of co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis, a recently proposed point-process analysis that tracks state alternations at each individual time frame and relies on very few assumptions; then apply these proposed metrics to quantify changes of brain dynamics during a sustained 2-back working memory (WM) task compared to rest. We focus on the functional connectivity of two prominent RS networks, the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN). We first demonstrate less variability of global Pearson correlations with respect to the two chosen networks using a sliding-window approach during WM task compared to rest; then we show that the macroscopic decrease in variations in correlations during a WM task is also well characterized by the combined effect of a reduced number of dominant CAPs, increased spatial consistency across CAPs, and increased fractional contributions of a few dominant CAPs. These CAP metrics may provide alternative and more straightforward quantitative means of characterizing brain network dynamics than time-windowed correlation analyses. PMID:25662866

  10. Beyond metrics? Utilizing ‘soft intelligence’ for healthcare quality and safety

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Graham P.; McKee, Lorna; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Formal metrics for monitoring the quality and safety of healthcare have a valuable role, but may not, by themselves, yield full insight into the range of fallibilities in organizations. ‘Soft intelligence’ is usefully understood as the processes and behaviours associated with seeking and interpreting soft data—of the kind that evade easy capture, straightforward classification and simple quantification—to produce forms of knowledge that can provide the basis for intervention. With the aim of examining current and potential practice in relation to soft intelligence, we conducted and analysed 107 in-depth qualitative interviews with senior leaders, including managers and clinicians, involved in healthcare quality and safety in the English National Health Service. We found that participants were in little doubt about the value of softer forms of data, especially for their role in revealing troubling issues that might be obscured by conventional metrics. Their struggles lay in how to access softer data and turn them into a useful form of knowing. Some of the dominant approaches they used risked replicating the limitations of hard, quantitative data. They relied on processes of aggregation and triangulation that prioritised reliability, or on instrumental use of soft data to animate the metrics. The unpredictable, untameable, spontaneous quality of soft data could be lost in efforts to systematize their collection and interpretation to render them more tractable. A more challenging but potentially rewarding approach involved processes and behaviours aimed at disrupting taken-for-granted assumptions about quality, safety, and organizational performance. This approach, which explicitly values the seeking out and the hearing of multiple voices, is consistent with conceptual frameworks of organizational sensemaking and dialogical understandings of knowledge. Using soft intelligence this way can be challenging and discomfiting, but may offer a critical defence

  11. Implementing the Metric System in Business Occupations. Metric Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retzer, Kenneth A.; And Others

    Addressed to the business education teacher, this guide is intended to provide appropriate information, viewpoints, and attitudes regarding the metric system and to make suggestions regarding presentation of the material in the classroom. An introductory section on teaching suggestions emphasizes the need for a "think metric" approach made up of…

  12. Implementing the Metric System in Industrial Occupations. Metric Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retzer, Kenneth A.

    Addressed to the industrial education teacher, this guide is intended to provide appropriate information, viewpoints, and attitudes regarding the metric system and to make suggestions regarding presentation of the material in the classroom. An introductory section on teaching suggestions emphasizes the need for a "think metric" approach made up of…

  13. The metric system: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, Susan M.

    On 13 Jul. 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory's policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell's memo announced the Laboratory's intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory's conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on 25 Jul. 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation's conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.

  14. Instrument Motion Metrics for Laparoscopic Skills Assessment in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Boel A; Chen, Chi-Ya; Noyes, Julie A; Ragle, Claude A

    2016-11-01

    To determine the construct and concurrent validity of instrument motion metrics for laparoscopic skills assessment in virtual reality and augmented reality simulators. Evaluation study. Veterinarian students (novice, n = 14) and veterinarians (experienced, n = 11) with no or variable laparoscopic experience. Participants' minimally invasive surgery (MIS) experience was determined by hospital records of MIS procedures performed in the Teaching Hospital. Basic laparoscopic skills were assessed by 5 tasks using a physical box trainer. Each participant completed 2 tasks for assessments in each type of simulator (virtual reality: bowel handling and cutting; augmented reality: object positioning and a pericardial window model). Motion metrics such as instrument path length, angle or drift, and economy of motion of each simulator were recorded. None of the motion metrics in a virtual reality simulator showed correlation with experience, or to the basic laparoscopic skills score. All metrics in augmented reality were significantly correlated with experience (time, instrument path, and economy of movement), except for the hand dominance metric. The basic laparoscopic skills score was correlated to all performance metrics in augmented reality. The augmented reality motion metrics differed between American College of Veterinary Surgeons diplomates and residents, whereas basic laparoscopic skills score and virtual reality metrics did not. Our results provide construct validity and concurrent validity for motion analysis metrics for an augmented reality system, whereas a virtual reality system was validated only for the time score. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Assessing precision, bias and sigma-metrics of 53 measurands of the Alinity ci system.

    PubMed

    Westgard, Sten; Petrides, Victoria; Schneider, Sharon; Berman, Marvin; Herzogenrath, Jörg; Orzechowski, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Assay performance is dependent on the accuracy and precision of a given method. These attributes can be combined into an analytical Sigma-metric, providing a simple value for laboratorians to use in evaluating a test method's capability to meet its analytical quality requirements. Sigma-metrics were determined for 37 clinical chemistry assays, 13 immunoassays, and 3 ICT methods on the Alinity ci system. Analytical Performance Specifications were defined for the assays, following a rationale of using CLIA goals first, then Ricos Desirable goals when CLIA did not regulate the method, and then other sources if the Ricos Desirable goal was unrealistic. A precision study was conducted at Abbott on each assay using the Alinity ci system following the CLSI EP05-A2 protocol. Bias was estimated following the CLSI EP09-A3 protocol using samples with concentrations spanning the assay's measuring interval tested in duplicate on the Alinity ci system and ARCHITECT c8000 and i2000 SR systems, where testing was also performed at Abbott. Using the regression model, the %bias was estimated at an important medical decisions point. Then the Sigma-metric was estimated for each assay and was plotted on a method decision chart. The Sigma-metric was calculated using the equation: Sigma-metric=(%TEa-|%bias|)/%CV. The Sigma-metrics and Normalized Method Decision charts demonstrate that a majority of the Alinity assays perform at least at five Sigma or higher, at or near critical medical decision levels. More than 90% of the assays performed at Five and Six Sigma. None performed below Three Sigma. Sigma-metrics plotted on Normalized Method Decision charts provide useful evaluations of performance. The majority of Alinity ci system assays had sigma values >5 and thus laboratories can expect excellent or world class performance. Laboratorians can use these tools as aids in choosing high-quality products, further contributing to the delivery of excellent quality healthcare for patients

  16. Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levien, Raph

    The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.

  17. Language Games: University Responses to Ranking Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Troy A.; Heffernan, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    League tables of universities that measure performance in various ways are now commonplace, with numerous bodies providing their own rankings of how institutions throughout the world are seen to be performing on a range of metrics. This paper uses Lyotard's notion of language games to theorise that universities are regaining some power over being…

  18. Metric Issues for Small Business.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    time, it seems that small business is meeting the problens (f ()ijutarv, metric conversion within its own resources ( manager ",a1, t, ,’bral, an...AD-AI07 861 UNITED STATES METRIC BOARD ARLINGTON VA FIG 5/3 METRIC ISSUES FOR SMALL BUSINESS . (U) UNCASIF AUG a I EHEHEi-17i i/ll/l///i//,° i MENNEN...METRIC ISSUES FOR SMALL BUSINESS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY DTIC ifELECT A This o@~ant )u enapo.I fW pu~~w Z. Ias ,!W% si~ts La-i UNITED STATES METRIC BOARD

  19. Uncertainty quantification of environmental performance metrics in heterogeneous aquifers with long-range correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi, Mahsa; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how the uncertainty stemming from disordered porous media that display long-range correlation in the hydraulic conductivity (K) field propagates to predictions of environmental performance metrics (EPMs). In this study, the EPMs are quantities that are of relevance to risk analysis and remediation, such as peak flux-averaged concentration, early and late arrival times among others. By using stochastic simulations, we quantify the uncertainty associated with the EPMs for a given disordered spatial structure of the K-field and identify the probability distribution function (PDF) model that best captures the statistics of the EPMs of interest. Results indicate that the probabilistic distribution of the EPMs considered in this study follows lognormal PDF. Finally, through the use of information theory, we reveal how the persistent/anti-persistent correlation structure of the K-field influences the EPMs and corresponding uncertainties.

  20. Statistical Issues in the Comparison of Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Algorithms using Pulmonary Nodule Volume as an Example

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) are being used increasingly in medicine to diagnose and monitor patients’ disease. The computer algorithms that measure QIBs have different technical performance characteristics. In this paper we illustrate the appropriate statistical methods for assessing and comparing the bias, precision, and agreement of computer algorithms. We use data from three studies of pulmonary nodules. The first study is a small phantom study used to illustrate metrics for assessing repeatability. The second study is a large phantom study allowing assessment of four algorithms’ bias and reproducibility for measuring tumor volume and the change in tumor volume. The third study is a small clinical study of patients whose tumors were measured on two occasions. This study allows a direct assessment of six algorithms’ performance for measuring tumor change. With these three examples we compare and contrast study designs and performance metrics, and we illustrate the advantages and limitations of various common statistical methods for QIB studies. PMID:24919828

  1. Multidisciplinary life cycle metrics and tools for green buildings.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Jennifer F; Lippiatt, Barbara C

    2009-07-01

    Building sector stakeholders need compelling metrics, tools, data, and case studies to support major investments in sustainable technologies. Proponents of green building widely claim that buildings integrating sustainable technologies are cost effective, but often these claims are based on incomplete, anecdotal evidence that is difficult to reproduce and defend. The claims suffer from 2 main weaknesses: 1) buildings on which claims are based are not necessarily "green" in a science-based, life cycle assessment (LCA) sense and 2) measures of cost effectiveness often are not based on standard methods for measuring economic worth. Yet, the building industry demands compelling metrics to justify sustainable building designs. The problem is hard to solve because, until now, neither methods nor robust data supporting defensible business cases were available. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Building and Fire Research Laboratory is beginning to address these needs by developing metrics and tools for assessing the life cycle economic and environmental performance of buildings. Economic performance is measured with the use of standard life cycle costing methods. Environmental performance is measured by LCA methods that assess the "carbon footprint" of buildings, as well as 11 other sustainability metrics, including fossil fuel depletion, smog formation, water use, habitat alteration, indoor air quality, and effects on human health. Carbon efficiency ratios and other eco-efficiency metrics are established to yield science-based measures of the relative worth, or "business cases," for green buildings. Here, the approach is illustrated through a realistic building case study focused on different heating, ventilation, air conditioning technology energy efficiency. Additionally, the evolution of the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability multidisciplinary team and future plans in this area are described.

  2. Comparison of the Performance of Noise Metrics as Predictions of the Annoyance of Stage 2 and Stage 3 Aircraft Overflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, Karl S.; Howe, Richard R.; Sneddon, Matthew D.; Fidell, Sanford

    1996-01-01

    Thirty audiometrically screened test participants judged the relative annoyance of two comparison (variable level) and thirty-four standard (fixed level) signals in an adaptive paired comparison psychoacoustic study. The signal ensemble included both FAR Part 36 Stage 2 and 3 aircraft overflights, as well as synthesized aircraft noise signatures and other non-aircraft signals. All test signals were presented for judgment as heard indoors, in the presence of continuous background noise, under free-field listening conditions in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the performance of 30 noise metrics as predictors of these annoyance judgments confirmed that the more complex metrics were generally more accurate and precise predictors than the simpler methods. EPNL was somewhat less accurate and precise as a predictor of the annoyance judgments than a duration-adjusted variant of Zwicker's Loudness Level.

  3. A framework for quantification of groundwater dynamics - redundancy and transferability of hydro(geo-)logical metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heudorfer, Benedikt; Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland; Stahl, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    A new framework for quantification of groundwater dynamics has been proposed in a companion study (Haaf et al., 2017). In this framework, a number of conceptual aspects of dynamics, such as seasonality, regularity, flashiness or inter-annual forcing, are described, which are then linked to quantitative metrics. Hereby, a large number of possible metrics are readily available from literature, such as Pardé Coefficients, Colwell's Predictability Indices or Base Flow Index. In the present work, we focus on finding multicollinearity and in consequence redundancy among the metrics representing different patterns of dynamics found in groundwater hydrographs. This is done also to verify the categories of dynamics aspects suggested by Haaf et al., 2017. To determine the optimal set of metrics we need to balance the desired minimum number of metrics and the desired maximum descriptive property of the metrics. To do this, a substantial number of candidate metrics are applied to a diverse set of groundwater hydrographs from France, Germany and Austria within the northern alpine and peri-alpine region. By applying Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to the correlation matrix of the metrics, we determine a limited number of relevant metrics that describe the majority of variation in the dataset. The resulting reduced set of metrics comprise an optimized set that can be used to describe the aspects of dynamics that were identified within the groundwater dynamics framework. For some aspects of dynamics a single significant metric could be attributed. Other aspects have a more fuzzy quality that can only be described by an ensemble of metrics and are re-evaluated. The PCA is furthermore applied to groups of groundwater hydrographs containing regimes of similar behaviour in order to explore transferability when applying the metric-based characterization framework to groups of hydrographs from diverse groundwater systems. In conclusion, we identify an optimal number of metrics

  4. Multi-metric calibration of hydrological model to capture overall flow regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Shao, Quanxi; Zhang, Shifeng; Zhai, Xiaoyan; She, Dunxian

    2016-08-01

    Flow regimes (e.g., magnitude, frequency, variation, duration, timing and rating of change) play a critical role in water supply and flood control, environmental processes, as well as biodiversity and life history patterns in the aquatic ecosystem. The traditional flow magnitude-oriented calibration of hydrological model was usually inadequate to well capture all the characteristics of observed flow regimes. In this study, we simulated multiple flow regime metrics simultaneously by coupling a distributed hydrological model with an equally weighted multi-objective optimization algorithm. Two headwater watersheds in the arid Hexi Corridor were selected for the case study. Sixteen metrics were selected as optimization objectives, which could represent the major characteristics of flow regimes. Model performance was compared with that of the single objective calibration. Results showed that most metrics were better simulated by the multi-objective approach than those of the single objective calibration, especially the low and high flow magnitudes, frequency and variation, duration, maximum flow timing and rating. However, the model performance of middle flow magnitude was not significantly improved because this metric was usually well captured by single objective calibration. The timing of minimum flow was poorly predicted by both the multi-metric and single calibrations due to the uncertainties in model structure and input data. The sensitive parameter values of the hydrological model changed remarkably and the simulated hydrological processes by the multi-metric calibration became more reliable, because more flow characteristics were considered. The study is expected to provide more detailed flow information by hydrological simulation for the integrated water resources management, and to improve the simulation performances of overall flow regimes.

  5. A Quantitative Assessment of Student Performance and Examination Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Christopher B.; Dustova, Gandzhina

    2017-01-01

    This research study describes the correlations between student performance and examination format in a higher education teaching and research institution. The researchers employed a quantitative, correlational methodology utilizing linear regression analysis. The data was obtained from undergraduate student test scores over a three-year time span.…

  6. On the new metrics for IMRT QA verification.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Romero, Alejandro; Hernandez-Vitoria, Araceli; Millan-Cebrian, Esther; Alba-Escorihuela, Veronica; Serrano-Zabaleta, Sonia; Ortega-Pardina, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    . This is due to the fact that the dose constraint is often far from the dose that has an actual impact on the radiobiological model, and therefore, biomathematical treatment outcome models are insensitive to big dose differences between the verification system and the treatment planning system. As an alternative, the use of modified radiobiological models which provides a better correlation is proposed. In any case, it is better to choose robust plans from a radiobiological point of view. The robustness index defined in this work is a good predictor of the plan rejection probability according to metrics derived from modified radiobiological models. The global 3D gamma-based metric calculated for each plan volume shows a good correlation with the dose difference metrics and presents a good performance in the acceptance/rejection process. Some discrepancies have been found in dose reconstruction depending on the algorithm employed. Significant and unavoidable discrepancies were found between the conventional metrics and the new ones. The dose difference global function and the 3D gamma for each plan volume are good classifiers regarding dose difference metrics. ROC analysis is useful to evaluate the predictive power of the new metrics. The correlation between biomathematical treatment outcome models and the dose difference-based metrics is enhanced by using modified TCP and NTCP functions that take into account the dose constraints for each plan. The robustness index is useful to evaluate if a plan is likely to be rejected. Conventional verification should be replaced by the new metrics, which are clinically more relevant.

  7. Assessment of six dissimilarity metrics for climate analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Patrick; Parent, Annie-Claude; Huard, David; Anctil, François; Chaumont, Diane

    2013-04-01

    Spatial analogue techniques consist in identifying locations whose recent-past climate is similar in some aspects to the future climate anticipated at a reference location. When identifying analogues, one key step is the quantification of the dissimilarity between two climates separated in time and space, which involves the choice of a metric. In this communication, spatial analogues and their usefulness are briefly discussed. Next, six metrics are presented (the standardized Euclidean distance, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, the nearest-neighbor distance, the Zech-Aslan energy statistic, the Friedman-Rafsky runs statistic and the Kullback-Leibler divergence), along with a set of criteria used for their assessment. The related case study involves the use of numerical simulations performed with the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM-v4.2.3), from which three annual indicators (total precipitation, heating degree-days and cooling degree-days) are calculated over 30-year periods (1971-2000 and 2041-2070). Results indicate that the six metrics identify comparable analogue regions at a relatively large scale, but best analogues may differ substantially. For best analogues, it is also shown that the uncertainty stemming from the metric choice does generally not exceed that stemming from the simulation or model choice. A synthesis of the advantages and drawbacks of each metric is finally presented, in which the Zech-Aslan energy statistic stands out as the most recommended metric for analogue studies, whereas the Friedman-Rafsky runs statistic is the least recommended, based on this case study.

  8. A Locally Weighted Fixation Density-Based Metric for Assessing the Quality of Visual Saliency Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gide, Milind S.; Karam, Lina J.

    2016-08-01

    With the increased focus on visual attention (VA) in the last decade, a large number of computational visual saliency methods have been developed over the past few years. These models are traditionally evaluated by using performance evaluation metrics that quantify the match between predicted saliency and fixation data obtained from eye-tracking experiments on human observers. Though a considerable number of such metrics have been proposed in the literature, there are notable problems in them. In this work, we discuss shortcomings in existing metrics through illustrative examples and propose a new metric that uses local weights based on fixation density which overcomes these flaws. To compare the performance of our proposed metric at assessing the quality of saliency prediction with other existing metrics, we construct a ground-truth subjective database in which saliency maps obtained from 17 different VA models are evaluated by 16 human observers on a 5-point categorical scale in terms of their visual resemblance with corresponding ground-truth fixation density maps obtained from eye-tracking data. The metrics are evaluated by correlating metric scores with the human subjective ratings. The correlation results show that the proposed evaluation metric outperforms all other popular existing metrics. Additionally, the constructed database and corresponding subjective ratings provide an insight into which of the existing metrics and future metrics are better at estimating the quality of saliency prediction and can be used as a benchmark.

  9. Visible contrast energy metrics for detection and discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.; Watson, Andrew B.

    2013-03-01

    Contrast energy was proposed by Watson, Barlow, and Robson (Science, 1983) as a useful metric for representing luminance contrast target stimuli because it represents the detectability of the stimulus in photon noise for an ideal observer. We propose here the use of visible contrast energy metrics for detection and discrimination among static luminance patterns. The visibility is approximated with spatial frequency sensitivity weighting and eccentricity sensitivity weighting. The suggested weighting functions revise the Standard Spatial Observer (Watson and Ahumada, J. Vision, 2005) for luminance contrast detection , extend it into the near periphery, and provide compensation for duration. Under the assumption that the detection is limited only by internal noise, both detection and discrimination performance can be predicted by metrics based on the visible energy of the difference images.

  10. 7 CFR 1794.4 - Metric units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental documents using non-metric equivalents with one of the following two options; metric units in parentheses immediately following the non-metric equivalents or a metric conversion table as an appendix...

  11. 7 CFR 1794.4 - Metric units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental documents using non-metric equivalents with one of the following two options; metric units in parentheses immediately following the non-metric equivalents or a metric conversion table as an appendix...

  12. 7 CFR 1794.4 - Metric units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... environmental documents using non-metric equivalents with one of the following two options; metric units in parentheses immediately following the non-metric equivalents or a metric conversion table as an appendix...

  13. 7 CFR 1794.4 - Metric units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental documents using non-metric equivalents with one of the following two options; metric units in parentheses immediately following the non-metric equivalents or a metric conversion table as an appendix...

  14. 7 CFR 1794.4 - Metric units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental documents using non-metric equivalents with one of the following two options; metric units in parentheses immediately following the non-metric equivalents or a metric conversion table as an appendix...

  15. Dynamic allocation of attention to metrical and grouping accents in rhythmic sequences.

    PubMed

    Kung, Shu-Jen; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Hung, Daisy L; Wu, Denise H

    2011-04-01

    Most people find it easy to perform rhythmic movements in synchrony with music, which reflects their ability to perceive the temporal periodicity and to allocate attention in time accordingly. Musicians and non-musicians were tested in a click localization paradigm in order to investigate how grouping and metrical accents in metrical rhythms influence attention allocation, and to reveal the effect of musical expertise on such processing. We performed two experiments in which the participants were required to listen to isochronous metrical rhythms containing superimposed clicks and then to localize the click on graphical and ruler-like representations with and without grouping structure information, respectively. Both experiments revealed metrical and grouping influences on click localization. Musical expertise improved the precision of click localization, especially when the click coincided with a metrically strong beat. Critically, although all participants located the click accurately at the beginning of an intensity group, only musicians located it precisely when it coincided with a strong beat at the end of the group. Removal of the visual cue of grouping structures enhanced these effects in musicians and reduced them in non-musicians. These results indicate that musical expertise not only enhances attention to metrical accents but also heightens sensitivity to perceptual grouping.

  16. Transactive System: Part II: Analysis of Two Pilot Transactive Systems using Foundational Theory and Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Jianming; Sun, Y.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    This document is the second of a two-part report. Part 1 reviewed several demonstrations of transactive control and compared them in terms of their payoff functions, control decisions, information privacy, and mathematical solution concepts. It was suggested in Part 1 that these four listed components should be adopted for meaningful comparison and design of future transactive systems. Part 2 proposes qualitative and quantitative metrics that will be needed to compare alternative transactive systems. It then uses the analysis and design principles from Part 1 while conducting more in-depth analysis of two transactive demonstrations: the American Electric Power (AEP) gridSMART Demonstration,more » which used a double –auction market mechanism, and a consensus method like that used in the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration. Ultimately, metrics must be devised and used to meaningfully compare alternative transactive systems. One significant contribution of this report is an observation that the decision function used for thermostat control in the AEP gridSMART Demonstration has superior performance if its decision function is recast to more accurately reflect the power that will be used under for thermostatic control under alternative market outcomes.« less

  17. Performance Metrics as Formal Structures and through the Lens of Social Mechanisms: When Do They Work and How Do They Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colyvas, Jeannette A.

    2012-01-01

    Our current educational environment is subject to persistent calls for accountability, evidence-based practice, and data use for improvement, which largely take the form of performance metrics (PMs). This rapid proliferation of PMs has profoundly influenced the ways in which scholars and practitioners think about their own practices and the larger…

  18. Do-It-Yourself Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klubeck, Martin; Langthorne, Michael; Padgett, Don

    2006-01-01

    Something new is on the horizon, and depending on one's role on campus, it might be storm clouds or a cleansing shower. Either way, no matter how hard one tries to avoid it, sooner rather than later he/she will have to deal with metrics. Metrics do not have to cause fear and resistance. Metrics can, and should, be a powerful tool for improvement.…

  19. Feasibility of and Rationale for the Collection of Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery Quality of Care Metrics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anna N; Kozar, Rosemary; Wolinsky, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Reproducible metrics are needed to evaluate the delivery of orthopaedic trauma care, national care, norms, and outliers. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) is uniquely positioned to collect and evaluate the data needed to evaluate orthopaedic trauma care via the Committee on Trauma and the Trauma Quality Improvement Project. We evaluated the first quality metrics the ACS has collected for orthopaedic trauma surgery to determine whether these metrics can be appropriately collected with accuracy and completeness. The metrics include the time to administration of the first dose of antibiotics for open fractures, the time to surgical irrigation and débridement of open tibial fractures, and the percentage of patients who undergo stabilization of femoral fractures at trauma centers nationwide. These metrics were analyzed to evaluate for variances in the delivery of orthopaedic care across the country. The data showed wide variances for all metrics, and many centers had incomplete ability to collect the orthopaedic trauma care metrics. There was a large variability in the results of the metrics collected among different trauma center levels, as well as among centers of a particular level. The ACS has successfully begun tracking orthopaedic trauma care performance measures, which will help inform reevaluation of the goals and continued work on data collection and improvement of patient care. Future areas of research may link these performance measures with patient outcomes, such as long-term tracking, to assess nonunion and function. This information can provide insight into center performance and its effect on patient outcomes. The ACS was able to successfully collect and evaluate the data for three metrics used to assess the quality of orthopaedic trauma care. However, additional research is needed to determine whether these metrics are suitable for evaluating orthopaedic trauma care and cutoff values for each metric.

  20. Key metrics for HFIR HEU and LEU models

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Germina; Betzler, Benjamin R.; Chandler, David

    This report compares key metrics for two fuel design models of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The first model represents the highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel currently in use at HFIR, and the second model considers a low-enriched uranium (LEU) interim design fuel. Except for the fuel region, the two models are consistent, and both include an experiment loading that is representative of HFIR's current operation. The considered key metrics are the neutron flux at the cold source moderator vessel, the mass of 252Cf produced in the flux trap target region as function of cycle time, the fast neutronmore » flux at locations of interest for material irradiation experiments, and the reactor cycle length. These key metrics are a small subset of the overall HFIR performance and safety metrics. They were defined as a means of capturing data essential for HFIR's primary missions, for use in optimization studies assessing the impact of HFIR's conversion from HEU fuel to different types of LEU fuel designs.« less

  1. Development of quality metrics for ambulatory pediatric cardiology: Infection prevention.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Barrett, Cindy S; Franklin, Wayne H; Graham, Eric M; Halnon, Nancy J; Hattendorf, Brandy A; Krawczeski, Catherine D; McGovern, James J; O'Connor, Matthew J; Schultz, Amy H; Vinocur, Jeffrey M; Chowdhury, Devyani; Anderson, Jeffrey B

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the American College of Cardiology's (ACC) Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Council established a program to develop quality metrics to guide ambulatory practices for pediatric cardiology. The council chose five areas on which to focus their efforts; chest pain, Kawasaki Disease, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries after arterial switch, and infection prevention. Here, we sought to describe the process, evaluation, and results of the Infection Prevention Committee's metric design process. The infection prevention metrics team consisted of 12 members from 11 institutions in North America. The group agreed to work on specific infection prevention topics including antibiotic prophylaxis for endocarditis, rheumatic fever, and asplenia/hyposplenism; influenza vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis (palivizumab); preoperative methods to reduce intraoperative infections; vaccinations after cardiopulmonary bypass; hand hygiene; and testing to identify splenic function in patients with heterotaxy. An extensive literature review was performed. When available, previously published guidelines were used fully in determining metrics. The committee chose eight metrics to submit to the ACC Quality Metric Expert Panel for review. Ultimately, metrics regarding hand hygiene and influenza vaccination recommendation for patients did not pass the RAND analysis. Both endocarditis prophylaxis metrics and the RSV/palivizumab metric passed the RAND analysis but fell out during the open comment period. Three metrics passed all analyses, including those for antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with heterotaxy/asplenia, for influenza vaccination compliance in healthcare personnel, and for adherence to recommended regimens of secondary prevention of rheumatic fever. The lack of convincing data to guide quality improvement initiatives in pediatric cardiology is widespread, particularly in infection prevention. Despite this, three metrics were

  2. Hyperkahler metrics on focus-focus fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie

    In this thesis, we focus on the study of hyperkahler metric in four dimensional cases, and practice GMN's construction of hyperkahler metric on focus-focus fibrations. We explicitly compute the action-angle coordinates on the local model of focus-focus fibration, and show its semi-global invariant should be harmonic to admit a compatible holomorphic 2-form. Then we study the canonical semi-flat metric on it. After the instanton correction inspired by physics, we get a family of the generalized Ooguri-Vafa metric on focus-focus fibrations, which becomes more local examples of explicit hyperkahler metric in four dimensional cases. In addition, we also make some exploration of the Ooguri-Vafa metric in the thesis. We study the potential function of the Ooguri-Vafa metric, and prove that its nodal set is a cylinder of bounded radius 1 < R < 1. As a result, we get that only on a finite neighborhood of the singular fibre the Ooguri-Vafa metric is a hyperkahler metric. Finally, we give some estimates for the diameter of the fibration under the Oogui-Vafa metric, which confirms that the Oogui-Vafa metric is not complete. The new family of metric constructed in the thesis, we think, will provide more examples to further study of Lagrangian fibrations and mirror symmetry in future.

  3. Dilution of Precision as a Geometry Metric for Swarm Relative Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-01

    algorithm 2.2 Intuitive DOP Illustration Before proceeding with a quantitative definition of DOP, an intuitive example will be given to illustrate the...in Fig. 11 4.2.2 Constant DOP Example Compare the results of the previous simulation to those shown in Figs. 13 and 14. Instead of only scaling...ARL-TR-8200 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Dilution of Precision as a Geometry Metric for Swarm Relative Localization

  4. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  5. Getting started on metrics - Jet Propulsion Laboratory productivity and quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, M. W.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented to describe the effort and difficulties of reconstructing fifteen years of JPL software history. In 1987 the collection and analysis of project data were started with the objective of creating laboratory-wide measures of quality and productivity for software development. As a result of this two-year Software Product Assurance metrics study, a rough measurement foundation for software productivity and software quality, and an order-of-magnitude quantitative baseline for software systems and subsystems are now available.

  6. Think Metric

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    The International System of Units, as the metric system is officially called, provides for a single "language" to describe weights and measures over the world. We in the United States together with the people of Brunei, Burma, and Yemen are the only ones who have not put this convenient system into effect. In the passage of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975, Congress determined that we also will adopt it, but the transition will be voluntary.

  7. Framework for performance evaluation of face, text, and vehicle detection and tracking in video: data, metrics, and protocol.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Goldgof, Dmitry; Soundararajan, Padmanabhan; Manohar, Vasant; Garofolo, John; Bowers, Rachel; Boonstra, Matthew; Korzhova, Valentina; Zhang, Jing

    2009-02-01

    Common benchmark data sets, standardized performance metrics, and baseline algorithms have demonstrated considerable impact on research and development in a variety of application domains. These resources provide both consumers and developers of technology with a common framework to objectively compare the performance of different algorithms and algorithmic improvements. In this paper, we present such a framework for evaluating object detection and tracking in video: specifically for face, text, and vehicle objects. This framework includes the source video data, ground-truth annotations (along with guidelines for annotation), performance metrics, evaluation protocols, and tools including scoring software and baseline algorithms. For each detection and tracking task and supported domain, we developed a 50-clip training set and a 50-clip test set. Each data clip is approximately 2.5 minutes long and has been completely spatially/temporally annotated at the I-frame level. Each task/domain, therefore, has an associated annotated corpus of approximately 450,000 frames. The scope of such annotation is unprecedented and was designed to begin to support the necessary quantities of data for robust machine learning approaches, as well as a statistically significant comparison of the performance of algorithms. The goal of this work was to systematically address the challenges of object detection and tracking through a common evaluation framework that permits a meaningful objective comparison of techniques, provides the research community with sufficient data for the exploration of automatic modeling techniques, encourages the incorporation of objective evaluation into the development process, and contributes useful lasting resources of a scale and magnitude that will prove to be extremely useful to the computer vision research community for years to come.

  8. Metrics for Operator Situation Awareness, Workload, and Performance in Automated Separation Assurance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strybel, Thomas Z.; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Battiste, Vernol; Dao, Arik-Quang; Dwyer, John P.; Landry, Steven; Johnson, Walter; Ho, Nhut

    2011-01-01

    A research consortium of scientists and engineers from California State University Long Beach (CSULB), San Jose State University Foundation (SJSUF), California State University Northridge (CSUN), Purdue University, and The Boeing Company was assembled to evaluate the impact of changes in roles and responsibilities and new automated technologies, being introduced in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), on operator situation awareness (SA) and workload. To meet these goals, consortium members performed systems analyses of NextGen concepts and airspace scenarios, and concurrently evaluated SA, workload, and performance measures to assess their appropriateness for evaluations of NextGen concepts and tools. The following activities and accomplishments were supported by the NRA: a distributed simulation, metric development, systems analysis, part-task simulations, and large-scale simulations. As a result of this NRA, we have gained a greater understanding of situation awareness and its measurement, and have shared our knowledge with the scientific community. This network provides a mechanism for consortium members, colleagues, and students to pursue research on other topics in air traffic management and aviation, thus enabling them to make greater contributions to the field

  9. Quality metrics for sensor images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, AL

    1993-01-01

    Methods are needed for evaluating the quality of augmented visual displays (AVID). Computational quality metrics will help summarize, interpolate, and extrapolate the results of human performance tests with displays. The FLM Vision group at NASA Ames has been developing computational models of visual processing and using them to develop computational metrics for similar problems. For example, display modeling systems use metrics for comparing proposed displays, halftoning optimizing methods use metrics to evaluate the difference between the halftone and the original, and image compression methods minimize the predicted visibility of compression artifacts. The visual discrimination models take as input two arbitrary images A and B and compute an estimate of the probability that a human observer will report that A is different from B. If A is an image that one desires to display and B is the actual displayed image, such an estimate can be regarded as an image quality metric reflecting how well B approximates A. There are additional complexities associated with the problem of evaluating the quality of radar and IR enhanced displays for AVID tasks. One important problem is the question of whether intruding obstacles are detectable in such displays. Although the discrimination model can handle detection situations by making B the original image A plus the intrusion, this detection model makes the inappropriate assumption that the observer knows where the intrusion will be. Effects of signal uncertainty need to be added to our models. A pilot needs to make decisions rapidly. The models need to predict not just the probability of a correct decision, but the probability of a correct decision by the time the decision needs to be made. That is, the models need to predict latency as well as accuracy. Luce and Green have generated models for auditory detection latencies. Similar models are needed for visual detection. Most image quality models are designed for static imagery

  10. Semantic Metrics for Analysis of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Letha H.; Cox, Glenn W.; Farrington, Phil; Utley, Dawn R.; Ghalston, Sampson; Stein, Cara

    2005-01-01

    A recently conceived suite of object-oriented software metrics focus is on semantic aspects of software, in contradistinction to traditional software metrics, which focus on syntactic aspects of software. Semantic metrics represent a more human-oriented view of software than do syntactic metrics. The semantic metrics of a given computer program are calculated by use of the output of a knowledge-based analysis of the program, and are substantially more representative of software quality and more readily comprehensible from a human perspective than are the syntactic metrics.

  11. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  12. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-03-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  13. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  14. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  15. A metric for success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Gary P.

    1994-05-01

    The federal agencies are working with industry to ease adoption of the metric system. The goal is to help U.S. industry compete more successfully in the global marketplace, increase exports, and create new jobs. The strategy is to use federal procurement, financial assistance, and other business-related activities to encourage voluntary conversion. Based upon the positive experiences of firms and industries that have converted, federal agencies have concluded that metric use will yield long-term benefits that are beyond any one-time costs or inconveniences. It may be time for additional steps to move the Nation out of its dual-system comfort zone and continue to progress toward metrication. This report includes 'Metric Highlights in U.S. History'.

  16. New VHP-Female v. 2.0 full-body computational phantom and its performance metrics using FEM simulator ANSYS HFSS.

    PubMed

    Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Noetscher, Gregory M; Rathi, Vishal K; Maliye, Saili; Win, Htay A; Tran, Anh L; Jackson, Xavier J; Htet, Aung T; Kozlov, Mikhail; Nazarian, Ara; Louie, Sara; Makarov, Sergey N

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of the electromagnetic response of the human body relies heavily upon efficient computational models or phantoms. The first objective of this paper is to present a new platform-independent full-body electromagnetic computational model (computational phantom), the Visible Human Project(®) (VHP)-Female v. 2.0 and to describe its distinct features. The second objective is to report phantom simulation performance metrics using the commercial FEM electromagnetic solver ANSYS HFSS.

  17. Calabi-Yau metrics for quotients and complete intersections

    DOE PAGES

    Braun, Volker; Brelidze, Tamaz; Douglas, Michael R.; ...

    2008-05-22

    We extend previous computations of Calabi-Yau metrics on projective hypersurfaces to free quotients, complete intersections, and free quotients of complete intersections. In particular, we construct these metrics on generic quintics, four-generation quotients of the quintic, Schoen Calabi-Yau complete intersections and the quotient of a Schoen manifold with Z₃ x Z₃ fundamental group that was previously used to construct a heterotic standard model. Various numerical investigations into the dependence of Donaldson's algorithm on the integration scheme, as well as on the Kähler and complex structure moduli, are also performed.

  18. Questionable validity of the catheter-associated urinary tract infection metric used for value-based purchasing.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Lindsay E; Kavanagh, Kevin T; Rice, Mara K

    2015-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) occur in 290,000 US hospital patients annually, with an estimated cost of $290 million. Two different measurement systems are being used to track the US health care system's performance in lowering the rate of CAUTIs. Since 2010, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) metric has shown a 28.2% decrease in CAUTI, whereas the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention metric has shown a 3%-6% increase in CAUTI since 2009. Differences in data acquisition and the definition of the denominator may explain this discrepancy. The AHRQ metric analyzes chart-audited data and reflects both catheter use and care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention metric analyzes self-reported data and primarily reflects catheter care. Because analysis of the AHRQ metric showed a progressive change in performance over time and the scientific literature supports the importance of catheter use in the prevention of CAUTI, it is suggested that risk-adjusted catheter-use data be incorporated into metrics that are used for determining facility performance and for value-based purchasing initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN NEUROSURGERY: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    Object Technological innovation within healthcare may be defined as the introduction of a new technology that initiates a change in clinical practice. Neurosurgery is a particularly technologically intensive surgical discipline, and new technologies have preceded many of the major advances in operative neurosurgical technique. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery using patents and peer-reviewed publications as metrics of technology development and clinical translation respectively. Methods A patent database was searched between 1960 and 2010 using the search terms “neurosurgeon” OR “neurosurgical” OR “neurosurgery”. The top 50 performing patent codes were then grouped into technology clusters. Patent and publication growth curves were then generated for these technology clusters. A top performing technology cluster was then selected as an exemplar for more detailed analysis of individual patents. Results In all, 11,672 patents and 208,203 publications relating to neurosurgery were identified. The top performing technology clusters over the 50 years were: image guidance devices, clinical neurophysiology devices, neuromodulation devices, operating microscopes and endoscopes. Image guidance and neuromodulation devices demonstrated a highly correlated rapid rise in patents and publications, suggesting they are areas of technology expansion. In-depth analysis of neuromodulation patents revealed that the majority of high performing patents were related to Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Conclusions Patent and publication data may be used to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery. PMID:25699414

  20. Technological innovation in neurosurgery: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-07-01

    Technological innovation within health care may be defined as the introduction of a new technology that initiates a change in clinical practice. Neurosurgery is a particularly technology-intensive surgical discipline, and new technologies have preceded many of the major advances in operative neurosurgical techniques. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery using patents and peer-reviewed publications as metrics of technology development and clinical translation, respectively. The authors searched a patent database for articles published between 1960 and 2010 using the Boolean search term "neurosurgeon OR neurosurgical OR neurosurgery." The top 50 performing patent codes were then grouped into technology clusters. Patent and publication growth curves were then generated for these technology clusters. A top-performing technology cluster was then selected as an exemplar for a more detailed analysis of individual patents. In all, 11,672 patents and 208,203 publications related to neurosurgery were identified. The top-performing technology clusters during these 50 years were image-guidance devices, clinical neurophysiology devices, neuromodulation devices, operating microscopes, and endoscopes. In relation to image-guidance and neuromodulation devices, the authors found a highly correlated rapid rise in the numbers of patents and publications, which suggests that these are areas of technology expansion. An in-depth analysis of neuromodulation-device patents revealed that the majority of well-performing patents were related to deep brain stimulation. Patent and publication data may be used to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery.

  1. Scholarly Metrics Baseline: A Survey of Faculty Knowledge, Use, and Opinion about Scholarly Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSanto, Dan; Nichols, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a faculty survey conducted at the University of Vermont during academic year 2014-2015. The survey asked faculty about: familiarity with scholarly metrics, metric-seeking habits, help-seeking habits, and the role of metrics in their department's tenure and promotion process. The survey also gathered faculty…

  2. Say "Yes" to Metric Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Nelson, Marvin N.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the metric system. Discusses the infrequent use of the metric measurement system in the United States, why conversion from the customary system to the metric system is difficult, and the need for change. (Contains 14 resources.) (ASK)

  3. Clinical Outcome Metrics for Optimization of Robust Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D.; Byrne, V. E.; McGuire, K. M.; Hurst, V. W., IV; Kerstman, E. L.; Cole, R. W.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Garcia, K. M.; Reyes, D.; Young, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The emphasis of this research is on the Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability's (ExMC) "Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-Flight Medical Capabilities." Specifically, this project aims to contribute to the closure of gap ExMC 2.02: We do not know how the inclusion of a physician crew medical officer quantitatively impacts clinical outcomes during exploration missions. The experiments are specifically designed to address clinical outcome differences between physician and non-physician cohorts in both near-term and longer-term (mission impacting) outcomes. Methods: Medical simulations will systematically compare success of individual diagnostic and therapeutic procedure simulations performed by physician and non-physician crew medical officer (CMO) analogs using clearly defined short-term (individual procedure) outcome metrics. In the subsequent step of the project, the procedure simulation outcomes will be used as input to a modified version of the NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) to analyze the effect of the outcome (degree of success) of individual procedures (including successful, imperfectly performed, and failed procedures) on overall long-term clinical outcomes and the consequent mission impacts. The procedures to be simulated are endotracheal intubation, fundoscopic examination, kidney/urinary ultrasound, ultrasound-guided intravenous catheter insertion, and a differential diagnosis exercise. Multiple assessment techniques will be used, centered on medical procedure simulation studies occurring at 3, 6, and 12 months after initial training (as depicted in the following flow diagram of the experiment design). Discussion: Analysis of procedure outcomes in the physician and non-physician groups and their subsets (tested at different elapsed times post training) will allow the team to 1) define differences between physician and non-physician CMOs in terms of both procedure performance

  4. Asset sustainability index : quick guide : proposed metrics for the long-term financial sustainability of highway networks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    "This report provides a Quick Guide to the concept of asset sustainability metrics. Such metrics address the long-term performance of highway assets based upon expected expenditure levels. : It examines how such metrics are used in Australia, Britain...

  5. Improvement of Reliability of Diffusion Tensor Metrics in Thigh Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sarah; Chhabra, Avneesh; Ahmed, Shaheen; Kim, Anne C; Chia, Jonathan M; Yamamura, Jin; Wang, Zhiyue J

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of skeletal muscles is challenging due to the bias in DTI metrics, such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), related to insufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This study compares the bias of DTI metrics in skeletal muscles via pixel-based and region-of-interest (ROI)-based analysis. DTI of the thigh muscles was conducted on a 3.0-T system in N = 11 volunteers using a fat-suppressed single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging (SS SE-EPI) sequence with eight repetitions (number of signal averages (NSA) = 4 or 8 for each repeat). The SNR was calculated for different NSAs and estimated for the composite images combining all data (effective NSA = 48) as standard reference. The bias of MD and FA derived by pixel-based and ROI-based quantification were compared at different NSAs. An "intra-ROI diffusion direction dispersion angle (IRDDDA)" was calculated to assess the uniformity of diffusion within the ROI. Using our standard reference image with NSA = 48, the ROI-based and pixel-based measurements agreed for FA and MD. Larger disagreements were observed for the pixel-based quantification at NSA = 4. MD was less sensitive than FA to the noise level. The IRDDDA decreased with higher NSA. At NSA = 4, ROI-based FA showed a lower average bias (0.9% vs. 37.4%) and narrower 95% limits of agreement compared to the pixel-based method. The ROI-based estimation of FA is less prone to bias than the pixel-based estimations when SNR is low. The IRDDDA can be applied as a quantitative quality measure to assess reliability of ROI-based DTI metrics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NeuronMetrics: Software for Semi-Automated Processing of Cultured-Neuron Images

    PubMed Central

    Narro, Martha L.; Yang, Fan; Kraft, Robert; Wenk, Carola; Efrat, Alon; Restifo, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    Using primary cell culture to screen for changes in neuronal morphology requires specialized analysis software. We developed NeuronMetrics™ for semi-automated, quantitative analysis of two-dimensional (2D) images of fluorescently labeled cultured neurons. It skeletonizes the neuron image using two complementary image-processing techniques, capturing fine terminal neurites with high fidelity. An algorithm was devised to span wide gaps in the skeleton. NeuronMetrics uses a novel strategy based on geometric features called faces to extract a branch-number estimate from complex arbors with numerous neurite-to-neurite contacts, without creating a precise, contact-free representation of the neurite arbor. It estimates total neurite length, branch number, primary neurite number, territory (the area of the convex polygon bounding the skeleton and cell body), and Polarity Index (a measure of neuronal polarity). These parameters provide fundamental information about the size and shape of neurite arbors, which are critical factors for neuronal function. NeuronMetrics streamlines optional manual tasks such as removing noise, isolating the largest primary neurite, and correcting length for self-fasciculating neurites. Numeric data are output in a single text file, readily imported into other applications for further analysis. Written as modules for ImageJ, NeuronMetrics provides practical analysis tools that are easy to use and support batch processing. Depending on the need for manual intervention, processing time for a batch of ~60 2D images is 1.0–2.5 hours, from a folder of images to a table of numeric data. NeuronMetrics’ output accelerates the quantitative detection of mutations and chemical compounds that alter neurite morphology in vitro, and will contribute to the use of cultured neurons for drug discovery. PMID:17270152

  7. Metrication report to the Congress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The major NASA metrication activity of 1988 concerned the Space Station. Although the metric system was the baseline measurement system for preliminary design studies, solicitations for final design and development of the Space Station Freedom requested use of the inch-pound system because of concerns with cost impact and potential safety hazards. Under that policy, however use of the metric system would be permitted through waivers where its use was appropriate. Late in 1987, several Department of Defense decisions were made to increase commitment to the metric system, thereby broadening the potential base of metric involvement in the U.S. industry. A re-evaluation of Space Station Freedom units of measure policy was, therefore, initiated in January 1988.

  8. Toward objective image quality metrics: the AIC Eval Program of the JPEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Thomas; Larabi, Chaker

    2008-08-01

    Objective quality assessment of lossy image compression codecs is an important part of the recent call of the JPEG for Advanced Image Coding. The target of the AIC ad-hoc group is twofold: First, to receive state-of-the-art still image codecs and to propose suitable technology for standardization; and second, to study objective image quality metrics to evaluate the performance of such codes. Even tthough the performance of an objective metric is defined by how well it predicts the outcome of a subjective assessment, one can also study the usefulness of a metric in a non-traditional way indirectly, namely by measuring the subjective quality improvement of a codec that has been optimized for a specific objective metric. This approach shall be demonstrated here on the recently proposed HDPhoto format14 introduced by Microsoft and a SSIM-tuned17 version of it by one of the authors. We compare these two implementations with JPEG1 in two variations and a visual and PSNR optimal JPEG200013 implementation. To this end, we use subjective and objective tests based on the multiscale SSIM and a new DCT based metric.

  9. Introduction to Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgecomb, Philip L.; Shapiro, Marion

    Addressed to vocational, or academic middle or high school students, this book reviews mathematics fundamentals using metric units of measurement. It utilizes a common-sense approach to the degree of accuracy needed in solving actual trade and every-day problems. Stress is placed on reading off metric measurements from a ruler or tape, and on…

  10. Metric System Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggi, Gayle J. B.

    Thirty-six lessons for introducing the metric system are outlined. Appropriate grade level is not specified. The metric lessons suggested include 13 lessons on length, 7 lessons on mass, 11 lessons on capacity, and 5 lessons on temperature. Each lesson includes a list of needed materials, a statement of the lesson purpose, and suggested…

  11. Analysis of Subjects' Vulnerability in a Touch Screen Game Using Behavioral Metrics.

    PubMed

    Parsinejad, Payam; Sipahi, Rifat

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we report results on an experimental study conducted with volunteer subjects playing a touch-screen game with two unique difficulty levels. Subjects have knowledge about the rules of both game levels, but only sufficient playing experience with the easy level of the game, making them vulnerable with the difficult level. Several behavioral metrics associated with subjects' playing the game are studied in order to assess subjects' mental-workload changes induced by their vulnerability. Specifically, these metrics are calculated based on subjects' finger kinematics and decision making times, which are then compared with baseline metrics, namely, performance metrics pertaining to how well the game is played and a physiological metric called pnn50 extracted from heart rate measurements. In balanced experiments and supported by comparisons with baseline metrics, it is found that some of the studied behavioral metrics have the potential to be used to infer subjects' mental workload changes through different levels of the game. These metrics, which are decoupled from task specifics, relate to subjects' ability to develop strategies to play the game, and hence have the advantage of offering insight into subjects' task-load and vulnerability assessment across various experimental settings.

  12. Application of Climate Impact Metrics to Civil Tiltrotor Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl R.; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Multiple metrics are applied to the design of a large civil tiltrotor, integrating minimum cost and minimum environmental impact. The design mission is passenger transport with similar range and capacity to a regional jet. Separate aircraft designs are generated for minimum empty weight, fuel burn, and environmental impact. A metric specifically developed for the design of aircraft is employed to evaluate emissions. The designs are generated using the NDARC rotorcraft sizing code, and rotor analysis is performed with the CAMRAD II aeromechanics code. Design and mission parameters such as wing loading, disk loading, and cruise altitude are varied to minimize both cost and environmental impact metrics. This paper presents the results of these parametric sweeps as well as the final aircraft designs.

  13. Some References on Metric Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This resource work lists metric information published by the U.S. Government and the American National Standards Institute. Also organizations marketing metric materials for education are given. A short table of conversions is included as is a listing of basic metric facts for everyday living. (LS)

  14. LANDSCAPE INFLUENCES ON IN-STREAM BIOTIC INTEGRITY: USE OF MACROINVERTEBRATE METRICS TO IDENTIFY LANDSCAPE STRESSORS IN HEADWATER CATCHMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biotic integrity of streams is profoundly influenced by quantitative and qualitative features in the landscape of the surrounding catchment. In this study, aquatic macroinvertebrate metrics (e.g., relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and/or Plecoptera taxa, or t...

  15. Person Re-Identification via Distance Metric Learning With Latent Variables.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chong; Wang, Dong; Lu, Huchuan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an effective person re-identification method with latent variables, which represents a pedestrian as the mixture of a holistic model and a number of flexible models. Three types of latent variables are introduced to model uncertain factors in the re-identification problem, including vertical misalignments, horizontal misalignments and leg posture variations. The distance between two pedestrians can be determined by minimizing a given distance function with respect to latent variables, and then be used to conduct the re-identification task. In addition, we develop a latent metric learning method for learning the effective metric matrix, which can be solved via an iterative manner: once latent information is specified, the metric matrix can be obtained based on some typical metric learning methods; with the computed metric matrix, the latent variables can be determined by searching the state space exhaustively. Finally, extensive experiments are conducted on seven databases to evaluate the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves better performance than other competing algorithms.

  16. Biologically Relevant Heterogeneity: Metrics and Practical Insights

    PubMed Central

    Gough, A; Stern, AM; Maier, J; Lezon, T; Shun, T-Y; Chennubhotla, C; Schurdak, ME; Haney, SA; Taylor, DL

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity is a fundamental property of biological systems at all scales that must be addressed in a wide range of biomedical applications including basic biomedical research, drug discovery, diagnostics and the implementation of precision medicine. There are a number of published approaches to characterizing heterogeneity in cells in vitro and in tissue sections. However, there are no generally accepted approaches for the detection and quantitation of heterogeneity that can be applied in a relatively high throughput workflow. This review and perspective emphasizes the experimental methods that capture multiplexed cell level data, as well as the need for standard metrics of the spatial, temporal and population components of heterogeneity. A recommendation is made for the adoption of a set of three heterogeneity indices that can be implemented in any high throughput workflow to optimize the decision-making process. In addition, a pairwise mutual information method is suggested as an approach to characterizing the spatial features of heterogeneity, especially in tissue-based imaging. Furthermore, metrics for temporal heterogeneity are in the early stages of development. Example studies indicate that the analysis of functional phenotypic heterogeneity can be exploited to guide decisions in the interpretation of biomedical experiments, drug discovery, diagnostics and the design of optimal therapeutic strategies for individual patients. PMID:28231035

  17. Biologically Relevant Heterogeneity: Metrics and Practical Insights.

    PubMed

    Gough, Albert; Stern, Andrew M; Maier, John; Lezon, Timothy; Shun, Tong-Ying; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Schurdak, Mark E; Haney, Steven A; Taylor, D Lansing

    2017-03-01

    Heterogeneity is a fundamental property of biological systems at all scales that must be addressed in a wide range of biomedical applications, including basic biomedical research, drug discovery, diagnostics, and the implementation of precision medicine. There are a number of published approaches to characterizing heterogeneity in cells in vitro and in tissue sections. However, there are no generally accepted approaches for the detection and quantitation of heterogeneity that can be applied in a relatively high-throughput workflow. This review and perspective emphasizes the experimental methods that capture multiplexed cell-level data, as well as the need for standard metrics of the spatial, temporal, and population components of heterogeneity. A recommendation is made for the adoption of a set of three heterogeneity indices that can be implemented in any high-throughput workflow to optimize the decision-making process. In addition, a pairwise mutual information method is suggested as an approach to characterizing the spatial features of heterogeneity, especially in tissue-based imaging. Furthermore, metrics for temporal heterogeneity are in the early stages of development. Example studies indicate that the analysis of functional phenotypic heterogeneity can be exploited to guide decisions in the interpretation of biomedical experiments, drug discovery, diagnostics, and the design of optimal therapeutic strategies for individual patients.

  18. Incorporating big data into treatment plan evaluation: Development of statistical DVH metrics and visualization dashboards.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Charles S; Yao, John; Eisbruch, Avraham; Balter, James M; Litzenberg, Dale W; Matuszak, Martha M; Kessler, Marc L; Weyburn, Grant; Anderson, Carlos J; Owen, Dawn; Jackson, William C; Haken, Randall Ten

    2017-01-01

    To develop statistical dose-volume histogram (DVH)-based metrics and a visualization method to quantify the comparison of treatment plans with historical experience and among different institutions. The descriptive statistical summary (ie, median, first and third quartiles, and 95% confidence intervals) of volume-normalized DVH curve sets of past experiences was visualized through the creation of statistical DVH plots. Detailed distribution parameters were calculated and stored in JavaScript Object Notation files to facilitate management, including transfer and potential multi-institutional comparisons. In the treatment plan evaluation, structure DVH curves were scored against computed statistical DVHs and weighted experience scores (WESs). Individual, clinically used, DVH-based metrics were integrated into a generalized evaluation metric (GEM) as a priority-weighted sum of normalized incomplete gamma functions. Historical treatment plans for 351 patients with head and neck cancer, 104 with prostate cancer who were treated with conventional fractionation, and 94 with liver cancer who were treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy were analyzed to demonstrate the usage of statistical DVH, WES, and GEM in a plan evaluation. A shareable dashboard plugin was created to display statistical DVHs and integrate GEM and WES scores into a clinical plan evaluation within the treatment planning system. Benchmarking with normal tissue complication probability scores was carried out to compare the behavior of GEM and WES scores. DVH curves from historical treatment plans were characterized and presented, with difficult-to-spare structures (ie, frequently compromised organs at risk) identified. Quantitative evaluations by GEM and/or WES compared favorably with the normal tissue complication probability Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, transforming a set of discrete threshold-priority limits into a continuous model reflecting physician objectives and historical experience

  19. Going Metric: Looking Ahead. Report of the Metrication Board for 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metrication Board, London (England).

    Great Britain began changing to the metric system in 1965, in order to improve industrial efficiency and to increase its competitive strength in international trade. Despite internal and external pressures calling for acceleration of the rate of change, a loss of momentum in expanding use of metric standards was noted in 1971. In order to…

  20. Metrics. A Basic Core Curriculum for Teaching Metrics to Vocational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James; Simmons, A. D.

    This core curriculum contains five units for use in teaching metrics to vocational students. Included in the first unit are a series of learning activities to familiarize students with the terminology of metrics, including the prefixes and their values. Measures of distance and speed are covered. Discussed next are measures of volume used with…

  1. Clinical Outcome Metrics for Optimization of Robust Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Doug; Byrne, Vicky; Cole, Richard; Dulchavsky, Scott; Foy, Millennia; Garcia, Kathleen; Gibson, Robert; Ham, David; Hurst, Victor; Kerstman, Eric; hide

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop and use clinical outcome metrics and training tools to quantify the differences in performance of a physician vs non-physician crew medical officer (CMO) analogues during simulations.

  2. Breast lesion shape and margin evaluation: BI-RADS based metrics understate radiologists' actual levels of agreement.

    PubMed

    Rawashdeh, Mohammad; Lewis, Sarah; Zaitoun, Maha; Brennan, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    While there is much literature describing the radiologic detection of breast cancer, there are limited data available on the agreement between experts when delineating and classifying breast lesions. The aim of this work is to measure the level of agreement between expert radiologists when delineating and classifying breast lesions as demonstrated through Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and quantitative shape metrics. Forty mammographic images, each containing a single lesion, were presented to nine expert breast radiologists using a high specification interactive digital drawing tablet with stylus. Each reader was asked to manually delineate the breast masses using the tablet and stylus and then visually classify the lesion according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) BI-RADS lexicon. The delineated lesion compactness and elongation were computed using Matlab software. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa were used to assess inter-observer agreement for delineation and classification outcomes, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was fair for BI-RADS shape (kappa = 0.37) and moderate for margin (kappa = 0.58) assessments. Agreement for quantitative shape metrics was good for lesion elongation (ICC = 0.82) and excellent for compactness (ICC = 0.93). Fair to moderate levels of agreement was shown by radiologists for shape and margin classifications of cancers using the BI-RADS lexicon. When quantitative shape metrics were used to evaluate radiologists' delineation of lesions, good to excellent inter-observer agreement was found. The results suggest that qualitative descriptors such as BI-RADS lesion shape and margin understate the actual level of expert radiologist agreement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative and Qualitative Change in Children's Mental Rotation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Corth, Martin; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated quantitative and qualitative changes in mental rotation performance and solution strategies with a focus on sex differences. German children (N = 519) completed the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in the 5th and 6th grades (interval: one year; age range at time 1: 10-11 years). Boys on average outperformed girls on both…

  4. Metrication in a global environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberg, J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief history about the development of the metric system of measurement is given. The need for the U.S. to implement the 'SI' metric system in the international markets, especially in the aerospace and general trade, is discussed. Development of metric implementation and experiences locally, nationally, and internationally are included.

  5. Metrication, American Style. Fastback 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzi, John

    The purpose of this pamphlet is to provide a starting point of information on the metric system for any concerned or interested reader. The material is organized into five brief chapters: Man and Measurement; Learning the Metric System; Progress Report: Education; Recommended Sources; and Metrication, American Style. Appendixes include an…

  6. Metrics for covariate balance in cohort studies of causal effects.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Jessica M; Rassen, Jeremy A; Ackermann, Diana; Bartels, Dorothee B; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2014-05-10

    Inferring causation from non-randomized studies of exposure requires that exposure groups can be balanced with respect to prognostic factors for the outcome. Although there is broad agreement in the literature that balance should be checked, there is confusion regarding the appropriate metric. We present a simulation study that compares several balance metrics with respect to the strength of their association with bias in estimation of the effect of a binary exposure on a binary, count, or continuous outcome. The simulations utilize matching on the propensity score with successively decreasing calipers to produce datasets with varying covariate balance. We propose the post-matching C-statistic as a balance metric and found that it had consistently strong associations with estimation bias, even when the propensity score model was misspecified, as long as the propensity score was estimated with sufficient study size. This metric, along with the average standardized difference and the general weighted difference, outperformed all other metrics considered in association with bias, including the unstandardized absolute difference, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Lévy distances, overlapping coefficient, Mahalanobis balance, and L1 metrics. Of the best-performing metrics, the C-statistic and general weighted difference also have the advantage that they automatically evaluate balance on all covariates simultaneously and can easily incorporate balance on interactions among covariates. Therefore, when combined with the usual practice of comparing individual covariate means and standard deviations across exposure groups, these metrics may provide useful summaries of the observed covariate imbalance. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Important LiDAR metrics for discriminating forest tree species in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yifang; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Heurich, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Numerous airborne LiDAR-derived metrics have been proposed for classifying tree species. Yet an in-depth ecological and biological understanding of the significance of these metrics for tree species mapping remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of 37 frequently used LiDAR metrics derived under leaf-on and leaf-off conditions, respectively, for discriminating six different tree species in a natural forest in Germany. We firstly assessed the correlation between these metrics. Then we applied a Random Forest algorithm to classify the tree species and evaluated the importance of the LiDAR metrics. Finally, we identified the most important LiDAR metrics and tested their robustness and transferability. Our results indicated that about 60% of LiDAR metrics were highly correlated to each other (|r| > 0.7). There was no statistically significant difference in tree species mapping accuracy between the use of leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR metrics. However, combining leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR metrics significantly increased the overall accuracy from 58.2% (leaf-on) and 62.0% (leaf-off) to 66.5% as well as the kappa coefficient from 0.47 (leaf-on) and 0.51 (leaf-off) to 0.58. Radiometric features, especially intensity related metrics, provided more consistent and significant contributions than geometric features for tree species discrimination. Specifically, the mean intensity of first-or-single returns as well as the mean value of echo width were identified as the most robust LiDAR metrics for tree species discrimination. These results indicate that metrics derived from airborne LiDAR data, especially radiometric metrics, can aid in discriminating tree species in a mixed temperate forest, and represent candidate metrics for tree species classification and monitoring in Central Europe.

  8. Health and Well-Being Metrics in Business: The Value of Integrated Reporting.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Malan, Daniel; Christie, Gillian; Hajat, Cother; Yach, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Health and well-being (HWB) are material to sustainable business performance. Yet, corporate reporting largely lacks the intentional inclusion of HWB metrics. This brief report presents an argument for inclusion of HWB metrics into existing standards for corporate reporting. A Core Scorecard and a Comprehensive Scorecard, designed by a team of subject matter experts, based on available evidence of effectiveness, and organized around the categories of Governance, Management, and Evidence of Success, may be integrated into corporate reporting efforts. Pursuit of corporate integrated reporting requires corporate governance and ethical leadership and values that ultimately align with environmental, social, and economic performance. Agreement on metrics that intentionally include HWB may allow for integrated reporting that has the potential to yield significant value for business and society alike.

  9. A comparison of spectral decorrelation techniques and performance evaluation metrics for a wavelet-based, multispectral data compression algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matic, Roy M.; Mosley, Judith I.

    1994-01-01

    Future space-based, remote sensing systems will have data transmission requirements that exceed available downlinks necessitating the use of lossy compression techniques for multispectral data. In this paper, we describe several algorithms for lossy compression of multispectral data which combine spectral decorrelation techniques with an adaptive, wavelet-based, image compression algorithm to exploit both spectral and spatial correlation. We compare the performance of several different spectral decorrelation techniques including wavelet transformation in the spectral dimension. The performance of each technique is evaluated at compression ratios ranging from 4:1 to 16:1. Performance measures used are visual examination, conventional distortion measures, and multispectral classification results. We also introduce a family of distortion metrics that are designed to quantify and predict the effect of compression artifacts on multi spectral classification of the reconstructed data.

  10. The American College of Academic International Medicine 2017 Consensus Statement on International Medical Programs: Establishing a system of objective valuation and quantitative metrics to facilitate the recognition and incorporation of academic international medical efforts into existing promotion and tenure paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Gregory L.; Garg, Manish; Arquilla, Bonnie; Gracias, Vicente H.; Anderson III, Harry L.; Miller, Andrew C.; Hansoti, Bhakti; Ferrada, Paula; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Galwankar, Sagar C.; Gist, Ramon E.; Jeanmonod, Donald; Jeanmonod, Rebecca; Krebs, Elizabeth; McDonald, Marian P.; Nwomeh, Benedict; Orlando, James P.; Paladino, Lorenzo; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Ricca, Robert L.; Sakran, Joseph V.; Sharpe, Richard P.; Swaroop, Mamta; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.

    2017-01-01

    The growth of academic international medicine (AIM) as a distinct field of expertise resulted in increasing participation by individual and institutional actors from both high-income and low-and-middle-income countries. This trend resulted in the gradual evolution of international medical programs (IMPs). With the growing number of students, residents, and educators who gravitate toward nontraditional forms of academic contribution, the need arose for a system of formalized metrics and quantitative assessment of AIM- and IMP-related efforts. Within this emerging paradigm, an institution's “return on investment” from faculty involvement in AIM and participation in IMPs can be measured by establishing equivalency between international work and various established academic activities that lead to greater institutional visibility and reputational impact. The goal of this consensus statement is to provide a basic framework for quantitative assessment and standardized metrics of professional effort attributable to active faculty engagement in AIM and participation in IMPs. Implicit to the current work is the understanding that the proposed system should be flexible and adaptable to the dynamically evolving landscape of AIM – an increasingly important subset of general academic medical activities. PMID:29291172

  11. Imaging Performance of Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lenox, Mark W.; Wiskin, James; Lewis, Matthew A.; Darrouzet, Stephen; Borup, David; Hsieh, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound (QTUS) is a tomographic transmission ultrasound modality that is capable of generating 3D speed-of-sound maps of objects in the field of view. It performs this measurement by propagating a plane wave through the medium from a transmitter on one side of a water tank to a high resolution receiver on the opposite side. This information is then used via inverse scattering to compute a speed map. In addition, the presence of reflection transducers allows the creation of a high resolution, spatially compounded reflection map that is natively coregistered to the speed map. A prototype QTUS system was evaluated for measurement and geometric accuracy as well as for the ability to correctly determine speed of sound. PMID:26604918

  12. Evaluating which plan quality metrics are appropriate for use in lung SBRT.

    PubMed

    Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Garg, Madhur K; Shen, Jin; Bodner, William R; Mynampati, Dinesh K; Gafar, Aleiya; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Basavatia, Amar K; Ohri, Nitin; Hong, Linda X; Kalnicki, Shalom; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2018-02-01

    Several dose metrics in the categories-homogeneity, coverage, conformity and gradient have been proposed in literature for evaluating treatment plan quality. In this study, we applied these metrics to characterize and identify the plan quality metrics that would merit plan quality assessment in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) dose distributions. Treatment plans of 90 lung SBRT patients, comprising 91 targets, treated in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Dose calculations were performed using anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) with heterogeneity correction. A literature review on published plan quality metrics in the categories-coverage, homogeneity, conformity and gradient was performed. For each patient, using dose-volume histogram data, plan quality metric values were quantified and analysed. For the study, the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) defined plan quality metrics were: coverage (0.90 ± 0.08); homogeneity (1.27 ± 0.07); conformity (1.03 ± 0.07) and gradient (4.40 ± 0.80). Geometric conformity strongly correlated with conformity index (p < 0.0001). Gradient measures strongly correlated with target volume (p < 0.0001). The RTOG lung SBRT protocol advocated conformity guidelines for prescribed dose in all categories were met in ≥94% of cases. The proportion of total lung volume receiving doses of 20 Gy and 5 Gy (V 20 and V 5 ) were mean 4.8% (±3.2) and 16.4% (±9.2), respectively. Based on our study analyses, we recommend the following metrics as appropriate surrogates for establishing SBRT lung plan quality guidelines-coverage % (ICRU 62), conformity (CN or CI Paddick ) and gradient (R 50% ). Furthermore, we strongly recommend that RTOG lung SBRT protocols adopt either CN or CI Padddick in place of prescription isodose to target volume ratio for conformity index evaluation. Advances in knowledge: Our study metrics are valuable tools for establishing lung SBRT plan quality guidelines.

  13. Utilizing Machine Learning and Automated Performance Metrics to Evaluate Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Performance and Predict Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hung, Andrew J; Chen, Jian; Che, Zhengping; Nilanon, Tanachat; Jarc, Anthony; Titus, Micha; Oh, Paul J; Gill, Inderbir S; Liu, Yan

    2018-05-01

    Surgical performance is critical for clinical outcomes. We present a novel machine learning (ML) method of processing automated performance metrics (APMs) to evaluate surgical performance and predict clinical outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We trained three ML algorithms utilizing APMs directly from robot system data (training material) and hospital length of stay (LOS; training label) (≤2 days and >2 days) from 78 RARP cases, and selected the algorithm with the best performance. The selected algorithm categorized the cases as "Predicted as expected LOS (pExp-LOS)" and "Predicted as extended LOS (pExt-LOS)." We compared postoperative outcomes of the two groups (Kruskal-Wallis/Fisher's exact tests). The algorithm then predicted individual clinical outcomes, which we compared with actual outcomes (Spearman's correlation/Fisher's exact tests). Finally, we identified five most relevant APMs adopted by the algorithm during predicting. The "Random Forest-50" (RF-50) algorithm had the best performance, reaching 87.2% accuracy in predicting LOS (73 cases as "pExp-LOS" and 5 cases as "pExt-LOS"). The "pExp-LOS" cases outperformed the "pExt-LOS" cases in surgery time (3.7 hours vs 4.6 hours, p = 0.007), LOS (2 days vs 4 days, p = 0.02), and Foley duration (9 days vs 14 days, p = 0.02). Patient outcomes predicted by the algorithm had significant association with the "ground truth" in surgery time (p < 0.001, r = 0.73), LOS (p = 0.05, r = 0.52), and Foley duration (p < 0.001, r = 0.45). The five most relevant APMs, adopted by the RF-50 algorithm in predicting, were largely related to camera manipulation. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to show that APMs and ML algorithms may help assess surgical RARP performance and predict clinical outcomes. With further accrual of clinical data (oncologic and functional data), this process will become increasingly relevant and valuable in surgical assessment and

  14. A Complexity Metric for Automated Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aweiss, Arwa

    2009-01-01

    A metric is proposed to characterize airspace complexity with respect to an automated separation assurance function. The Maneuver Option metric is a function of the number of conflict-free trajectory change options the automated separation assurance function is able to identify for each aircraft in the airspace at a given time. By aggregating the metric for all aircraft in a region of airspace, a measure of the instantaneous complexity of the airspace is produced. A six-hour simulation of Fort Worth Center air traffic was conducted to assess the metric. Results showed aircraft were twice as likely to be constrained in the vertical dimension than the horizontal one. By application of this metric, situations found to be most complex were those where level overflights and descending arrivals passed through or merged into an arrival stream. The metric identified high complexity regions that correlate well with current air traffic control operations. The Maneuver Option metric did not correlate with traffic count alone, a result consistent with complexity metrics for human-controlled airspace.

  15. Size-adjusted Quantitative Gleason Score as a Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fang-Ming; Donin, Nicholas M; Pe Benito, Ruth; Melamed, Jonathan; Le Nobin, Julien; Zhou, Ming; Ma, Sisi; Wang, Jinhua; Lepor, Herbert

    2016-08-01

    The risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy for pathologic Gleason 7 prostate cancer varies according to the proportion of Gleason 4 component. We sought to explore the value of several novel quantitative metrics of Gleason 4 disease for the prediction of BCR in men with Gleason 7 disease. We analyzed a cohort of 2630 radical prostatectomy cases from 1990-2007. All pathologic Gleason 7 cases were identified and assessed for quantity of Gleason pattern 4. Three methods were used to quantify the extent of Gleason 4: a quantitative Gleason score (qGS) based on the proportion of tumor composed of Gleason pattern 4, a size-weighted score (swGS) incorporating the overall quantity of Gleason 4, and a size index (siGS) incorporating the quantity of Gleason 4 based on the index lesion. Associations between the above metrics and BCR were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. qGS, swGS, and siGS were significantly associated with BCR on multivariate analysis when adjusted for traditional Gleason score, age, prostate specific antigen, surgical margin, and stage. Using Harrell's c-index to compare the scoring systems, qGS (0.83), swGS (0.84), and siGS (0.84) all performed better than the traditional Gleason score (0.82). Quantitative measures of Gleason pattern 4 predict BCR better than the traditional Gleason score. In men with Gleason 7 prostate cancer, quantitative analysis of the proportion of Gleason pattern 4 (quantitative Gleason score), as well as size-weighted measurement of Gleason 4 (size-weighted Gleason score), and a size-weighted measurement of Gleason 4 based on the largest tumor nodule significantly improve the predicted risk of biochemical recurrence compared with the traditional Gleason score. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Objectively Quantifying Radiation Esophagitis With Novel Computed Tomography–Based Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzielski, Joshua S., E-mail: jsniedzielski@mdanderson.org; University of Texas Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Houston, Texas; Yang, Jinzhong

    Purpose: To study radiation-induced esophageal expansion as an objective measure of radiation esophagitis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Eighty-five patients had weekly intra-treatment CT imaging and esophagitis scoring according to Common Terminlogy Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0, (24 Grade 0, 45 Grade 2, and 16 Grade 3). Nineteen esophageal expansion metrics based on mean, maximum, spatial length, and volume of expansion were calculated as voxel-based relative volume change, using the Jacobian determinant from deformable image registration between the planning and weekly CTs. An anatomic variability correction method wasmore » validated and applied to these metrics to reduce uncertainty. An analysis of expansion metrics and radiation esophagitis grade was conducted using normal tissue complication probability from univariate logistic regression and Spearman rank for grade 2 and grade 3 esophagitis endpoints, as well as the timing of expansion and esophagitis grade. Metrics' performance in classifying esophagitis was tested with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Expansion increased with esophagitis grade. Thirteen of 19 expansion metrics had receiver operating characteristic area under the curve values >0.80 for both grade 2 and grade 3 esophagitis endpoints, with the highest performance from maximum axial expansion (MaxExp1) and esophageal length with axial expansion ≥30% (LenExp30%) with area under the curve values of 0.93 and 0.91 for grade 2, 0.90 and 0.90 for grade 3 esophagitis, respectively. Conclusions: Esophageal expansion may be a suitable objective measure of esophagitis, particularly maximum axial esophageal expansion and esophageal length with axial expansion ≥30%, with 2.1 Jacobian value and 98.6 mm as the metric value for 50% probability of grade 3 esophagitis. The uncertainty in esophageal Jacobian calculations can be reduced

  17. Using Vision and Speech Features for Automated Prediction of Performance Metrics in Multimodal Dialogs. Research Report. ETS RR-17-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lange, Patrick; Evanini, Keelan; Molloy, Hillary; Tsuprun, Eugene; Qian, Yao; Suendermann-Oeft, David

    2017-01-01

    Predicting and analyzing multimodal dialog user experience (UX) metrics, such as overall call experience, caller engagement, and latency, among other metrics, in an ongoing manner is important for evaluating such systems. We investigate automated prediction of multiple such metrics collected from crowdsourced interactions with an open-source,…

  18. Increasing Army Supply Chain Performance: Using an Integrated End to End Metrics System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    Sched Deliver Sched Delinquent Contracts Current Metrics PQDR/SDRs Forecasting Accuracy Reliability Demand Management Asset Mgmt Strategies Pipeline...are identified and characterized by statistical analysis. The study proposed a framework and tool for inventory management based on factors such as

  19. Bootstrapping Process Improvement Metrics: CMMI Level 4 Process Improvement Metrics in a Level 3 World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Lewicki, Scott; Morgan, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The measurement techniques for organizations which have achieved the Software Engineering Institutes CMMI Maturity Levels 4 and 5 are well documented. On the other hand, how to effectively measure when an organization is Maturity Level 3 is less well understood, especially when there is no consistency in tool use and there is extensive tailoring of the organizational software processes. Most organizations fail in their attempts to generate, collect, and analyze standard process improvement metrics under these conditions. But at JPL, NASA's prime center for deep space robotic exploration, we have a long history of proving there is always a solution: It just may not be what you expected. In this paper we describe the wide variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques we have been implementing over the last few years, including the various approaches used to communicate the results to both software technical managers and senior managers.

  20. A resilience-oriented approach for quantitatively assessing recurrent spatial-temporal congestion on urban roads.

    PubMed

    Tang, Junqing; Heinimann, Hans Rudolf

    2018-01-01

    Traffic congestion brings not only delay and inconvenience, but other associated national concerns, such as greenhouse gases, air pollutants, road safety issues and risks. Identification, measurement, tracking, and control of urban recurrent congestion are vital for building a livable and smart community. A considerable amount of works has made contributions to tackle the problem. Several methods, such as time-based approaches and level of service, can be effective for characterizing congestion on urban streets. However, studies with systemic perspectives have been minor in congestion quantification. Resilience, on the other hand, is an emerging concept that focuses on comprehensive systemic performance and characterizes the ability of a system to cope with disturbance and to recover its functionality. In this paper, we symbolized recurrent congestion as internal disturbance and proposed a modified metric inspired by the well-applied "R4" resilience-triangle framework. We constructed the metric with generic dimensions from both resilience engineering and transport science to quantify recurrent congestion based on spatial-temporal traffic patterns and made the comparison with other two approaches in freeway and signal-controlled arterial cases. Results showed that the metric can effectively capture congestion patterns in the study area and provides a quantitative benchmark for comparison. Also, it suggested not only a good comparative performance in measuring strength of proposed metric, but also its capability of considering the discharging process in congestion. The sensitivity tests showed that proposed metric possesses robustness against parameter perturbation in Robustness Range (RR), but the number of identified congestion patterns can be influenced by the existence of ϵ. In addition, the Elasticity Threshold (ET) and the spatial dimension of cell-based platform differ the congestion results significantly on both the detected number and intensity. By tackling

  1. Elementary Metric Curriculum - Project T.I.M.E. (Timely Implementation of Metric Education). Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community School District 18, Brooklyn, NY.

    This is a teacher's manual for an ISS-based elementary school course in the metric system. Behavioral objectives and student activities are included. The topics covered include: (1) linear measurement; (2) metric-decimal relationships; (3) metric conversions; (4) geometry; (5) scale drawings; and (6) capacity. This is the first of a two-part…

  2. Evaluating the Performance of the IEEE Standard 1366 Method for Identifying Major Event Days

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Sohn, Michael D.

    IEEE Standard 1366 offers a method for segmenting reliability performance data to isolate the effects of major events from the underlying year-to-year trends in reliability. Recent analysis by the IEEE Distribution Reliability Working Group (DRWG) has found that reliability performance of some utilities differs from the expectations that helped guide the development of the Standard 1366 method. This paper proposes quantitative metrics to evaluate the performance of the Standard 1366 method in identifying major events and in reducing year-to-year variability in utility reliability. The metrics are applied to a large sample of utility-reported reliability data to assess performance of themore » method with alternative specifications that have been considered by the DRWG. We find that none of the alternatives perform uniformly 'better' than the current Standard 1366 method. That is, none of the modifications uniformly lowers the year-to-year variability in System Average Interruption Duration Index without major events. Instead, for any given alternative, while it may lower the value of this metric for some utilities, it also increases it for other utilities (sometimes dramatically). Thus, we illustrate some of the trade-offs that must be considered in using the Standard 1366 method and highlight the usefulness of the metrics we have proposed in conducting these evaluations.« less

  3. 14 CFR 1274.206 - Metric Conversion Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... metric measurement system is stated in NPD 8010.2, Use of the Metric System of Measurement in NASA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metric Conversion Act. 1274.206 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.206 Metric Conversion Act. The Metric Conversion...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.206 - Metric Conversion Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... metric measurement system is stated in NPD 8010.2, Use of the Metric System of Measurement in NASA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metric Conversion Act. 1274.206 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.206 Metric Conversion Act. The Metric Conversion...

  5. In vivo quantification of demyelination and recovery using compartment-specific diffusion MRI metrics validated by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jelescu, Ileana O; Zurek, Magdalena; Winters, Kerryanne V; Veraart, Jelle; Rajaratnam, Anjali; Kim, Nathanael S; Babb, James S; Shepherd, Timothy M; Novikov, Dmitry S; Kim, Sungheon G; Fieremans, Els

    2016-05-15

    There is a need for accurate quantitative non-invasive biomarkers to monitor myelin pathology in vivo and distinguish myelin changes from other pathological features including inflammation and axonal loss. Conventional MRI metrics such as T2, magnetization transfer ratio and radial diffusivity have proven sensitivity but not specificity. In highly coherent white matter bundles, compartment-specific white matter tract integrity (WMTI) metrics can be directly derived from the diffusion and kurtosis tensors: axonal water fraction, intra-axonal diffusivity, and extra-axonal radial and axial diffusivities. We evaluate the potential of WMTI to quantify demyelination by monitoring the effects of both acute (6weeks) and chronic (12weeks) cuprizone intoxication and subsequent recovery in the mouse corpus callosum, and compare its performance with that of conventional metrics (T2, magnetization transfer, and DTI parameters). The changes observed in vivo correlated with those obtained from quantitative electron microscopy image analysis. A 6-week intoxication produced a significant decrease in axonal water fraction (p<0.001), with only mild changes in extra-axonal radial diffusivity, consistent with patchy demyelination, while a 12-week intoxication caused a more marked decrease in extra-axonal radial diffusivity (p=0.0135), consistent with more severe demyelination and clearance of the extra-axonal space. Results thus revealed increased specificity of the axonal water fraction and extra-axonal radial diffusivity parameters to different degrees and patterns of demyelination. The specificities of these parameters were corroborated by their respective correlations with microstructural features: the axonal water fraction correlated significantly with the electron microscopy derived total axonal water fraction (ρ=0.66; p=0.0014) but not with the g-ratio, while the extra-axonal radial diffusivity correlated with the g-ratio (ρ=0.48; p=0.0342) but not with the electron microscopy

  6. Evaluation of image quality metrics for the prediction of subjective best focus.

    PubMed

    Kilintari, Marina; Pallikaris, Aristophanis; Tsiklis, Nikolaos; Ginis, Harilaos S

    2010-03-01

    Seven existing and three new image quality metrics were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in predicting subjective cycloplegic refraction. Monochromatic wavefront aberrations (WA) were measured in 70 eyes using a Shack-Hartmann based device (Complete Ophthalmic Analysis System; Wavefront Sciences). Subjective cycloplegic spherocylindrical correction was obtained using a standard manifest refraction procedure. The dioptric amount required to optimize each metric was calculated and compared with the subjective refraction result. Metrics included monochromatic and polychromatic variants, as well as variants taking into consideration the Stiles and Crawford effect (SCE). WA measurements were performed using infrared light and converted to visible before all calculations. The mean difference between subjective cycloplegic and WA-derived spherical refraction ranged from 0.17 to 0.36 diopters (D), while paraxial curvature resulted in a difference of 0.68 D. Monochromatic metrics exhibited smaller mean differences between subjective cycloplegic and objective refraction. Consideration of the SCE reduced the standard deviation (SD) of the difference between subjective and objective refraction. All metrics exhibited similar performance in terms of accuracy and precision. We hypothesize that errors pertaining to the conversion between infrared and visible wavelengths rather than calculation method may be the limiting factor in determining objective best focus from near infrared WA measurements.

  7. Speckle pattern sequential extraction metric for estimating the focus spot size on a remote diffuse target.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhan; Li, Yuanyang; Liu, Lisheng; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng; Yang, Guoqing

    2017-11-10

    The speckle pattern (line by line) sequential extraction (SPSE) metric is proposed by the one-dimensional speckle intensity level crossing theory. Through the sequential extraction of received speckle information, the speckle metrics for estimating the variation of focusing spot size on a remote diffuse target are obtained. Based on the simulation, we will give some discussions about the SPSE metric range of application under the theoretical conditions, and the aperture size will affect the metric performance of the observation system. The results of the analyses are verified by the experiment. This method is applied to the detection of relative static target (speckled jitter frequency is less than the CCD sampling frequency). The SPSE metric can determine the variation of the focusing spot size over a long distance, moreover, the metric will estimate the spot size under some conditions. Therefore, the monitoring and the feedback of far-field spot will be implemented laser focusing system applications and help the system to optimize the focusing performance.

  8. Fusion set selection with surrogate metric in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Multi-atlas based image segmentation sees unprecedented opportunities but also demanding challenges in the big data era. Relevant atlas selection before label fusion plays a crucial role in reducing potential performance loss from heterogeneous data quality and high computation cost from extensive data. This paper starts with investigating the image similarity metric (termed ‘surrogate’), an alternative to the inaccessible geometric agreement metric (termed ‘oracle’) in atlas relevance assessment, and probes into the problem of how to select the ‘most-relevant’ atlases and how many such atlases to incorporate. We propose an inference model to relate the surrogates and the oracle geometric agreement metrics. Based on this model, we quantify the behavior of the surrogates in mimicking oracle metrics for atlas relevance ordering. Finally, analytical insights on the choice of fusion set size are presented from a probabilistic perspective, with the integrated goal of including the most relevant atlases and excluding the irrelevant ones. Empirical evidence and performance assessment are provided based on prostate and corpus callosum segmentation.

  9. The compressed average image intensity metric for stereoscopic video quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczewski, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    The following article depicts insights towards design, creation and testing of a genuine metric designed for a 3DTV video quality evaluation. The Compressed Average Image Intensity (CAII) mechanism is based upon stereoscopic video content analysis, setting its core feature and functionality to serve as a versatile tool for an effective 3DTV service quality assessment. Being an objective type of quality metric it may be utilized as a reliable source of information about the actual performance of a given 3DTV system, under strict providers evaluation. Concerning testing and the overall performance analysis of the CAII metric, the following paper presents comprehensive study of results gathered across several testing routines among selected set of samples of stereoscopic video content. As a result, the designed method for stereoscopic video quality evaluation is investigated across the range of synthetic visual impairments injected into the original video stream.

  10. Biomechanical metrics of aesthetic perception in dance.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Shippen, James

    2015-12-01

    The brain may be tuned to evaluate aesthetic perception through perceptual chunking when we observe the grace of the dancer. We modelled biomechanical metrics to explain biological determinants of aesthetic perception in dance. Eighteen expert (EXP) and intermediate (INT) dancers performed développé arabesque in three conditions: (1) slow tempo, (2) slow tempo with relevé, and (3) fast tempo. To compare biomechanical metrics of kinematic data, we calculated intra-excursion variability, principal component analysis (PCA), and dimensionless jerk for the gesture limb. Observers, all trained dancers, viewed motion capture stick figures of the trials and ranked each for aesthetic (1) proficiency and (2) movement smoothness. Statistical analyses included group by condition repeated-measures ANOVA for metric data; Mann-Whitney U rank and Friedman's rank tests for nonparametric rank data; Spearman's rho correlations to compare aesthetic rankings and metrics; and linear regression to examine which metric best quantified observers' aesthetic rankings, p < 0.05. The goodness of fit of the proposed models was determined using Akaike information criteria. Aesthetic proficiency and smoothness rankings of the dance movements revealed differences between groups and condition, p < 0.0001. EXP dancers were rated more aesthetically proficient than INT dancers. The slow and fast conditions were judged more aesthetically proficient than slow with relevé (p < 0.0001). Of the metrics, PCA best captured the differences due to group and condition. PCA also provided the most parsimonious model to explain aesthetic proficiency and smoothness rankings. By permitting organization of large data sets into simpler groupings, PCA may mirror the phenomenon of chunking in which the brain combines sensory motor elements into integrated units of behaviour. In this representation, the chunk of information which is remembered, and to which the observer reacts, is the elemental mode shape of

  11. Methodology to Calculate the ACE and HPQ Metrics Used in the Wave Energy Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Frederick R; Weber, Jochem W; Jenne, Dale S

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wave Energy Prize Competition encouraged the development of innovative deep-water wave energy conversion technologies that at least doubled device performance above the 2014 state of the art. Because levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metrics are challenging to apply equitably to new technologies where significant uncertainty exists in design and operation, the prize technical team developed a reduced metric as proxy for LCOE, which provides an equitable comparison of low technology readiness level wave energy converter (WEC) concepts. The metric is called 'ACE' which is short for the ratio of the average climate capture width tomore » the characteristic capital expenditure. The methodology and application of the ACE metric used to evaluate the performance of the technologies that competed in the Wave Energy Prize are explained in this report.« less

  12. Converting Residential Drawing Courses to Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the process of metric conversion in residential drafting courses. Areas of concern are metric paper sizes; metric scale; plot, foundation, floor and electric plans; wall sections; elevations; and heat loss/ heat gain calculations. (SK)

  13. Evaluation of Vehicle-Based Crash Severity Metrics.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Ada H; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle change in velocity (delta-v) is a widely used crash severity metric used to estimate occupant injury risk. Despite its widespread use, delta-v has several limitations. Of most concern, delta-v is a vehicle-based metric which does not consider the crash pulse or the performance of occupant restraints, e.g. seatbelts and airbags. Such criticisms have prompted the search for alternative impact severity metrics based upon vehicle kinematics. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the occupant impact velocity (OIV), acceleration severity index (ASI), vehicle pulse index (VPI), and maximum delta-v (delta-v) to predict serious injury in real world crashes. The study was based on the analysis of event data recorders (EDRs) downloaded from the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) 2000-2013 cases. All vehicles in the sample were GM passenger cars and light trucks involved in a frontal collision. Rollover crashes were excluded. Vehicles were restricted to single-event crashes that caused an airbag deployment. All EDR data were checked for a successful, completed recording of the event and that the crash pulse was complete. The maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS) was used to describe occupant injury outcome. Drivers were categorized into either non-seriously injured group (MAIS2-) or seriously injured group (MAIS3+), based on the severity of any injuries to the thorax, abdomen, and spine. ASI and OIV were calculated according to the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware. VPI was calculated according to ISO/TR 12353-3, with vehicle-specific parameters determined from U.S. New Car Assessment Program crash tests. Using binary logistic regression, the cumulative probability of injury risk was determined for each metric and assessed for statistical significance, goodness-of-fit, and prediction accuracy. The dataset included 102,744 vehicles. A Wald chi-square test showed each vehicle-based crash severity metric

  14. Performance analysis of three-dimensional ridge acquisition from live finger and palm surface scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatehpuria, Abhishika; Lau, Daniel L.; Yalla, Veeraganesh; Hassebrook, Laurence G.

    2007-04-01

    Fingerprints are one of the most commonly used and relied-upon biometric technology. But often the captured fingerprint image is far from ideal due to imperfect acquisition techniques that can be slow and cumbersome to use without providing complete fingerprint information. Most of the diffculties arise due to the contact of the fingerprint surface with the sensor platen. To overcome these diffculties we have been developing a noncontact scanning system for acquiring a 3-D scan of a finger with suffciently high resolution which is then converted into a 2-D rolled equivalent image. In this paper, we describe certain quantitative measures evaluating scanner performance. Specifically, we use some image software components developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, to derive our performance metrics. Out of the eleven identified metrics, three were found to be most suitable for evaluating scanner performance. A comparison is also made between 2D fingerprint images obtained by the traditional means and the 2D images obtained after unrolling the 3D scans and the quality of the acquired scans is quantified using the metrics.

  15. Design, implementation and multisite evaluation of a system suitability protocol for the quantitative assessment of instrument performance in liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-MS (LC-MRM-MS).

    PubMed

    Abbatiello, Susan E; Mani, D R; Schilling, Birgit; Maclean, Brendan; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Feng, Xingdong; Cusack, Michael P; Sedransk, Nell; Hall, Steven C; Addona, Terri; Allen, Simon; Dodder, Nathan G; Ghosh, Mousumi; Held, Jason M; Hedrick, Victoria; Inerowicz, H Dorota; Jackson, Angela; Keshishian, Hasmik; Kim, Jong Won; Lyssand, John S; Riley, C Paige; Rudnick, Paul; Sadowski, Pawel; Shaddox, Kent; Smith, Derek; Tomazela, Daniela; Wahlander, Asa; Waldemarson, Sofia; Whitwell, Corbin A; You, Jinsam; Zhang, Shucha; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Borchers, Christoph H; Buck, Charles; Fisher, Susan J; Gibson, Bradford W; Liebler, Daniel; Maccoss, Michael; Neubert, Thomas A; Paulovich, Amanda; Regnier, Fred; Skates, Steven J; Tempst, Paul; Wang, Mu; Carr, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope dilution (SID) and liquid chromatography (LC) is increasingly used in biological and clinical studies for precise and reproducible quantification of peptides and proteins in complex sample matrices. Robust LC-SID-MRM-MS-based assays that can be replicated across laboratories and ultimately in clinical laboratory settings require standardized protocols to demonstrate that the analysis platforms are performing adequately. We developed a system suitability protocol (SSP), which employs a predigested mixture of six proteins, to facilitate performance evaluation of LC-SID-MRM-MS instrument platforms, configured with nanoflow-LC systems interfaced to triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. The SSP was designed for use with low multiplex analyses as well as high multiplex approaches when software-driven scheduling of data acquisition is required. Performance was assessed by monitoring of a range of chromatographic and mass spectrometric metrics including peak width, chromatographic resolution, peak capacity, and the variability in peak area and analyte retention time (RT) stability. The SSP, which was evaluated in 11 laboratories on a total of 15 different instruments, enabled early diagnoses of LC and MS anomalies that indicated suboptimal LC-MRM-MS performance. The observed range in variation of each of the metrics scrutinized serves to define the criteria for optimized LC-SID-MRM-MS platforms for routine use, with pass/fail criteria for system suitability performance measures defined as peak area coefficient of variation <0.15, peak width coefficient of variation <0.15, standard deviation of RT <0.15 min (9 s), and the RT drift <0.5min (30 s). The deleterious effect of a marginally performing LC-SID-MRM-MS system on the limit of quantification (LOQ) in targeted quantitative assays illustrates the use and need for a SSP to establish robust and reliable system performance. Use of a SSP helps

  16. Design, Implementation and Multisite Evaluation of a System Suitability Protocol for the Quantitative Assessment of Instrument Performance in Liquid Chromatography-Multiple Reaction Monitoring-MS (LC-MRM-MS)*

    PubMed Central

    Abbatiello, Susan E.; Mani, D. R.; Schilling, Birgit; MacLean, Brendan; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Feng, Xingdong; Cusack, Michael P.; Sedransk, Nell; Hall, Steven C.; Addona, Terri; Allen, Simon; Dodder, Nathan G.; Ghosh, Mousumi; Held, Jason M.; Hedrick, Victoria; Inerowicz, H. Dorota; Jackson, Angela; Keshishian, Hasmik; Kim, Jong Won; Lyssand, John S.; Riley, C. Paige; Rudnick, Paul; Sadowski, Pawel; Shaddox, Kent; Smith, Derek; Tomazela, Daniela; Wahlander, Asa; Waldemarson, Sofia; Whitwell, Corbin A.; You, Jinsam; Zhang, Shucha; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Borchers, Christoph H.; Buck, Charles; Fisher, Susan J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Liebler, Daniel; MacCoss, Michael; Neubert, Thomas A.; Paulovich, Amanda; Regnier, Fred; Skates, Steven J.; Tempst, Paul; Wang, Mu; Carr, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope dilution (SID) and liquid chromatography (LC) is increasingly used in biological and clinical studies for precise and reproducible quantification of peptides and proteins in complex sample matrices. Robust LC-SID-MRM-MS-based assays that can be replicated across laboratories and ultimately in clinical laboratory settings require standardized protocols to demonstrate that the analysis platforms are performing adequately. We developed a system suitability protocol (SSP), which employs a predigested mixture of six proteins, to facilitate performance evaluation of LC-SID-MRM-MS instrument platforms, configured with nanoflow-LC systems interfaced to triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. The SSP was designed for use with low multiplex analyses as well as high multiplex approaches when software-driven scheduling of data acquisition is required. Performance was assessed by monitoring of a range of chromatographic and mass spectrometric metrics including peak width, chromatographic resolution, peak capacity, and the variability in peak area and analyte retention time (RT) stability. The SSP, which was evaluated in 11 laboratories on a total of 15 different instruments, enabled early diagnoses of LC and MS anomalies that indicated suboptimal LC-MRM-MS performance. The observed range in variation of each of the metrics scrutinized serves to define the criteria for optimized LC-SID-MRM-MS platforms for routine use, with pass/fail criteria for system suitability performance measures defined as peak area coefficient of variation <0.15, peak width coefficient of variation <0.15, standard deviation of RT <0.15 min (9 s), and the RT drift <0.5min (30 s). The deleterious effect of a marginally performing LC-SID-MRM-MS system on the limit of quantification (LOQ) in targeted quantitative assays illustrates the use and need for a SSP to establish robust and reliable system performance. Use of a SSP helps

  17. SU-E-I-51: Quantitative Assessment of X-Ray Imaging Detector Performance in a Clinical Setting - a Simple Approach Using a Commercial Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoeberg, J; Bujila, R; Omar, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To measure and compare the performance of X-ray imaging detectors in a clinical setting using a dedicated instrument for the quantitative determination of detector performance. Methods: The DQEPro (DQE Instruments Inc., London, Ontario Canada) was used to determine the MTF, NPS and DQE using an IEC compliant methodology for three different imaging modalities: conventional radiography (CsI-based detector), general-purpose radioscopy (CsI-based detector), and mammography (a-Se based detector). The radiation qualities (IEC) RQA-5 and RQA-M-2 were used for the CsI-based and a-Se-based detectors, respectively. The DQEPro alleviates some of the difficulties associated with DQE measurements by automatically positioning test devices overmore » the detector, guiding the user through the image acquisition process and providing software for calculations. Results: A comparison of the NPS showed that the image noise of the a-Se detector was less correlated than the CsI detectors. A consistently higher performance was observed for the a-Se detector at all spatial frequencies (MTF: 0.97@0.25 cy/mm, DQE: 0.72@0.25 cy/mm) and the DQE drops off slower than for the CsI detectors. The CsI detector used for conventional radiography displayed a higher performance at low spatial frequencies compared to the CsI detector used for radioscopy (DQE: 0.65 vs 0.60@0.25 cy/mm). However, at spatial frequencies above 1.3 cy/mm, the radioscopy detector displayed better performance than the conventional radiography detector (DQE: 0.35 vs 0.24@2.00 cy/mm). Conclusion: The difference in the MTF, NPS and DQE that was observed for the two different CsI detectors and the a-Se detector reflect the imaging tasks that the different detector types are intended for. The DQEPro has made the determination and calculation of quantitative metrics of X-ray imaging detector performance substantially more convenient and accessible to undertake in a clinical setting.« less

  18. Image characterization metrics for muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Weidong; Lehovich, Andre; Anashkin, Edward; Bai, Chuanyong; Kindem, Joel; Sossong, Michael; Steiger, Matt

    2014-05-01

    Muon tomography uses naturally occurring cosmic rays to detect nuclear threats in containers. Currently there are no systematic image characterization metrics for muon tomography. We propose a set of image characterization methods to quantify the imaging performance of muon tomography. These methods include tests of spatial resolution, uniformity, contrast, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and vertical smearing. Simulated phantom data and analysis methods were developed to evaluate metric applicability. Spatial resolution was determined as the FWHM of the point spread functions in X, Y and Z axis for 2.5cm tungsten cubes. Uniformity was measured by drawing a volume of interest (VOI) within a large water phantom and defined as the standard deviation of voxel values divided by the mean voxel value. Contrast was defined as the peak signals of a set of tungsten cubes divided by the mean voxel value of the water background. SNR was defined as the peak signals of cubes divided by the standard deviation (noise) of the water background. Vertical smearing, i.e. vertical thickness blurring along the zenith axis for a set of 2 cm thick tungsten plates, was defined as the FWHM of vertical spread function for the plate. These image metrics provided a useful tool to quantify the basic imaging properties for muon tomography.

  19. Applying graphs and complex networks to football metric interpretation.

    PubMed

    Arriaza-Ardiles, E; Martín-González, J M; Zuniga, M D; Sánchez-Flores, J; de Saa, Y; García-Manso, J M

    2018-02-01

    This work presents a methodology for analysing the interactions between players in a football team, from the point of view of graph theory and complex networks. We model the complex network of passing interactions between players of a same team in 32 official matches of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional (Spain), using a passing/reception graph. This methodology allows us to understand the play structure of the team, by analysing the offensive phases of game-play. We utilise two different strategies for characterising the contribution of the players to the team: the clustering coefficient, and centrality metrics (closeness and betweenness). We show the application of this methodology by analyzing the performance of a professional Spanish team according to these metrics and the distribution of passing/reception in the field. Keeping in mind the dynamic nature of collective sports, in the future we will incorporate metrics which allows us to analyse the performance of the team also according to the circumstances of game-play and to different contextual variables such as, the utilisation of the field space, the time, and the ball, according to specific tactical situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Value of Metrics for Science Data Center Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J.; Behnke, J.; Watts, T. H.; Lu, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been collecting and analyzing records of science data archive, processing and product distribution for more than 10 years. The types of information collected and the analysis performed has matured and progressed to become an integral and necessary part of the system management and planning functions. Science data center managers are realizing the importance that metrics can play in influencing and validating their business model. New efforts focus on better understanding of users and their methods. Examples include tracking user web site interactions and conducting user surveys such as the government authorized American Customer Satisfaction Index survey. This paper discusses the metrics methodology, processes and applications that are growing in EOSDIS, the driving requirements and compelling events, and the future envisioned for metrics as an integral part of earth science data systems.

  1. 48 CFR 611.002-70 - Metric system implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information or comparison. Hard metric means the use of only standard metric (SI) measurements in specifications, standards, supplies and services. Hybrid system means the use of both traditional and hard metric... possible. Alternatives to hard metric are soft, dual and hybrid metric terms. The Metric Handbook for...

  2. Gender, Math Confidence, and Grit: Relationships with Quantitative Skills and Performance in an Undergraduate Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, K. M.; Einarson, J.

    2017-01-01

    In a world filled with big data, mathematical models, and statistics, the development of strong quantitative skills is becoming increasingly critical for modern biologists. Teachers in this field must understand how students acquire quantitative skills and explore barriers experienced by students when developing these skills. In this study, we examine the interrelationships among gender, grit, and math confidence for student performance on a pre–post quantitative skills assessment and overall performance in an undergraduate biology course. Here, we show that females significantly underperformed relative to males on a quantitative skills assessment at the start of term. However, females showed significantly higher gains over the semester, such that the gender gap in performance was nearly eliminated by the end of the semester. Math confidence plays an important role in the performance on both the pre and post quantitative skills assessments and overall performance in the course. The effect of grit on student performance, however, is mediated by a student’s math confidence; as math confidence increases, the positive effect of grit decreases. Consequently, the positive impact of a student’s grittiness is observed most strongly for those students with low math confidence. We also found grit to be positively associated with the midterm score and the final grade in the course. Given the relationships established in this study among gender, grit, and math confidence, we provide “instructor actions” from the literature that can be applied in the classroom to promote the development of quantitative skills in light of our findings. PMID:28798209

  3. Toward a perceptual video-quality metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1998-07-01

    The advent of widespread distribution of digital video creates a need for automated methods for evaluating the visual quality of digital video. This is particularly so since most digital video is compressed using lossy methods, which involve the controlled introduction of potentially visible artifacts. Compounding the problem is the bursty nature of digital video, which requires adaptive bit allocation based on visual quality metrics, and the economic need to reduce bit-rate to the lowest level that yields acceptable quality. In previous work, we have developed visual quality metrics for evaluating, controlling,a nd optimizing the quality of compressed still images. These metrics incorporate simplified models of human visual sensitivity to spatial and chromatic visual signals. Here I describe a new video quality metric that is an extension of these still image metrics into the time domain. Like the still image metrics, it is based on the Discrete Cosine Transform. An effort has been made to minimize the amount of memory and computation required by the metric, in order that might be applied in the widest range of applications. To calibrate the basic sensitivity of this metric to spatial and temporal signals we have made measurements of visual thresholds for temporally varying samples of DCT quantization noise.

  4. A Sensor-Independent Gust Hazard Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2001-01-01

    A procedure for calculating an intuitive hazard metric for gust effects on airplanes is described. The hazard metric is for use by pilots and is intended to replace subjective pilot reports (PIREPs) of the turbulence level. The hazard metric is composed of three numbers: the first describes the average airplane response to the turbulence, the second describes the positive peak airplane response to the gusts, and the third describes the negative peak airplane response to the gusts. The hazard metric is derived from any time history of vertical gust measurements and is thus independent of the sensor making the gust measurements. The metric is demonstrated for one simulated airplane encountering different types of gusts including those derived from flight data recorder measurements of actual accidents. The simulated airplane responses to the gusts compare favorably with the hazard metric.

  5. Learning Compositional Shape Models of Multiple Distance Metrics by Information Projection.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ping; Lin, Liang; Liu, Xiaobai

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel compositional contour-based shape model by incorporating multiple distance metrics to account for varying shape distortions or deformations. Our approach contains two key steps: 1) contour feature generation and 2) generative model pursuit. For each category, we first densely sample an ensemble of local prototype contour segments from a few positive shape examples and describe each segment using three different types of distance metrics. These metrics are diverse and complementary with each other to capture various shape deformations. We regard the parameterized contour segment plus an additive residual ϵ as a basic subspace, namely, ϵ -ball, in the sense that it represents local shape variance under the certain distance metric. Using these ϵ -balls as features, we then propose a generative learning algorithm to pursue the compositional shape model, which greedily selects the most representative features under the information projection principle. In experiments, we evaluate our model on several public challenging data sets, and demonstrate that the integration of multiple shape distance metrics is capable of dealing various shape deformations, articulations, and background clutter, hence boosting system performance.

  6. Aluminum-Mediated Formation of Cyclic Carbonates: Benchmarking Catalytic Performance Metrics.

    PubMed

    Rintjema, Jeroen; Kleij, Arjan W

    2017-03-22

    We report a comparative study on the activity of a series of fifteen binary catalysts derived from various reported aluminum-based complexes. A benchmarking of their initial rates in the coupling of various terminal and internal epoxides in the presence of three different nucleophilic additives was carried out, providing for the first time a useful comparison of activity metrics in the area of cyclic organic carbonate formation. These investigations provide a useful framework for how to realistically valorize relative reactivities and which features are important when considering the ideal operational window of each binary catalyst system. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Distance Metric Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-02

    some close- ness constant and dissimilar pairs be more distant than some larger constant. Online and non -linear extensions to the ITML methodology are...is obtained, instead of solving an objective function formed from the entire dataset. Many online learning methods have regret guarantees, that is... function Metric learning seeks to learn a metric that encourages data points marked as similar to be close and data points marked as different to be far

  8. Study of the Ernst metric

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban, E.P.

    In this thesis some properties of the Ernst metric are studied. This metric could provide a model for a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in a magnetic field. In chapter I, some standard propertiess of the Ernst's metric such as the affine connections, the Riemann, the Ricci, and the Weyl conformal tensor are calculated. In chapter II, the geodesics described by test particles in the Ernst space-time are studied. As an application a formula for the perihelion shift is derived. In the last chapter a null tetrad analysis of the Ernst metric is carried out and the resulting formalism applied tomore » the study of three problems. First, the algebraic classification of the Ernst metric is determined to be of type I in the Petrov scheme. Secondly, an explicit formula for the Gaussian curvature for the event horizon is derived. Finally, the form of the electromagnetic field is evaluated.« less

  9. How Soon Will We Measure in Metric?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kenneth F.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of measurement systems beginning with the Egyptians and Babylonians is given, ending with a discussion of the metric system and its adoption by the United States. Tables of metric prefixes, metric units, and common metric conversions are included. (MN)

  10. MDA Establishes Effective Metrics for Energy Reduction and Other Environmental Performance Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-06

    More Efficient Fuel, Electricity & Water Use (Cont’d.)  Energy and resource conservation campaign: beginning to implement an energy and resource...articles about energy conservation awareness and soliciting employee ideas  Reducing water temperature at MDIOC came from someone reporting the...issue after reading about conservation tips in the newsletter 12 Fuel, Electricity & Water Use Metrics  MDA’s objective is energy use reduction of 3

  11. Quantitative EEG Metrics Differ Between Outcome Groups and Change Over the First 72 h in Comatose Cardiac Arrest Patients.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Sara Leingang; Razavi, Babak; Krishnamohan, Prashanth; Mlynash, Michael; Eyngorn, Irina; Meador, Kimford J; Hirsch, Karen G

    2018-02-01

    Forty to sixty-six percent of patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest remain comatose, and historic outcome predictors are unreliable. Quantitative spectral analysis of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) may differ between patients with good and poor outcomes. Consecutive patients with post-cardiac arrest hypoxic-ischemic coma undergoing cEEG were enrolled. Spectral analysis was conducted on artifact-free contiguous 5-min cEEG epochs from each hour. Whole band (1-30 Hz), delta (δ, 1-4 Hz), theta (θ, 4-8 Hz), alpha (α, 8-13 Hz), beta (β, 13-30 Hz), α/δ power ratio, percent suppression, and variability were calculated and correlated with outcome. Graphical patterns of quantitative EEG (qEEG) were described and categorized as correlating with outcome. Clinical outcome was dichotomized, with good neurologic outcome being consciousness recovery. Ten subjects with a mean age = 50 yrs (range = 18-65) were analyzed. There were significant differences in total power (3.50 [3.30-4.06] vs. 0.68 [0.52-1.02], p = 0.01), alpha power (1.39 [0.66-1.79] vs 0.27 [0.17-0.48], p < 0.05), delta power (2.78 [2.21-3.01] vs 0.55 [0.38-0.83], p = 0.01), percent suppression (0.66 [0.02-2.42] vs 73.4 [48.0-97.5], p = 0.01), and multiple measures of variability between good and poor outcome patients (all values median [IQR], good vs. poor). qEEG patterns with high or increasing power or large power variability were associated with good outcome (n = 6). Patterns with consistently low or decreasing power or minimal power variability were associated with poor outcome (n = 4). These preliminary results suggest qEEG metrics correlate with outcome. In some patients, qEEG patterns change over the first three days post-arrest.

  12. CNV-ROC: A cost effective, computer-aided analytical performance evaluator of chromosomal microarrays.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Corey W; Major, Heather J; Walls, William D; Sheffield, Val C; Casavant, Thomas L; Darbro, Benjamin W

    2015-04-01

    Chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) are routinely used in both research and clinical laboratories; yet, little attention has been given to the estimation of genome-wide true and false negatives during the assessment of these assays and how such information could be used to calibrate various algorithmic metrics to improve performance. Low-throughput, locus-specific methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) preclude rigorous calibration of various metrics used by copy number variant (CNV) detection algorithms. To aid this task, we have established a comparative methodology, CNV-ROC, which is capable of performing a high throughput, low cost, analysis of CMAs that takes into consideration genome-wide true and false negatives. CNV-ROC uses a higher resolution microarray to confirm calls from a lower resolution microarray and provides for a true measure of genome-wide performance metrics at the resolution offered by microarray testing. CNV-ROC also provides for a very precise comparison of CNV calls between two microarray platforms without the need to establish an arbitrary degree of overlap. Comparison of CNVs across microarrays is done on a per-probe basis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis is used to calibrate algorithmic metrics, such as log2 ratio threshold, to enhance CNV calling performance. CNV-ROC addresses a critical and consistently overlooked aspect of analytical assessments of genome-wide techniques like CMAs which is the measurement and use of genome-wide true and false negative data for the calculation of performance metrics and comparison of CNV profiles between different microarray experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CNV-ROC: A cost effective, computer-aided analytical performance evaluator of chromosomal microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Corey W.; Major, Heather J.; Walls, William D.; Sheffield, Val C.; Casavant, Thomas L.; Darbro, Benjamin W.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) are routinely used in both research and clinical laboratories; yet, little attention has been given to the estimation of genome-wide true and false negatives during the assessment of these assays and how such information could be used to calibrate various algorithmic metrics to improve performance. Low-throughput, locus-specific methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) preclude rigorous calibration of various metrics used by copy number variant (CNV) detection algorithms. To aid this task, we have established a comparative methodology, CNV-ROC, which is capable of performing a high throughput, low cost, analysis of CMAs that takes into consideration genome-wide true and false negatives. CNV-ROC uses a higher resolution microarray to confirm calls from a lower resolution microarray and provides for a true measure of genome-wide performance metrics at the resolution offered by microarray testing. CNV-ROC also provides for a very precise comparison of CNV calls between two microarray platforms without the need to establish an arbitrary degree of overlap. Comparison of CNVs across microarrays is done on a per-probe basis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis is used to calibrate algorithmic metrics, such as log2 ratio threshold, to enhance CNV calling performance. CNV-ROC addresses a critical and consistently overlooked aspect of analytical assessments of genome-wide techniques like CMAs which is the measurement and use of genome-wide true and false negative data for the calculation of performance metrics and comparison of CNV profiles between different microarray experiments. PMID:25595567

  14. Testing, Requirements, and Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Hyatt, Larry; Hammer, Theodore F.; Huffman, Lenore; Wilson, William

    1998-01-01

    The criticality of correct, complete, testable requirements is a fundamental tenet of software engineering. Also critical is complete requirements based testing of the final product. Modern tools for managing requirements allow new metrics to be used in support of both of these critical processes. Using these tools, potential problems with the quality of the requirements and the test plan can be identified early in the life cycle. Some of these quality factors include: ambiguous or incomplete requirements, poorly designed requirements databases, excessive or insufficient test cases, and incomplete linkage of tests to requirements. This paper discusses how metrics can be used to evaluate the quality of the requirements and test to avoid problems later. Requirements management and requirements based testing have always been critical in the implementation of high quality software systems. Recently, automated tools have become available to support requirements management. At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), automated requirements management tools are being used on several large projects. The use of these tools opens the door to innovative uses of metrics in characterizing test plan quality and assessing overall testing risks. In support of these projects, the Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is working to develop and apply a metrics program that utilizes the information now available through the application of requirements management tools. Metrics based on this information provides real-time insight into the testing of requirements and these metrics assist the Project Quality Office in its testing oversight role. This paper discusses three facets of the SATC's efforts to evaluate the quality of the requirements and test plan early in the life cycle, thus preventing costly errors and time delays later.

  15. Fighter agility metrics, research, and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.; Valasek, John; Eggold, David P.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A completed set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation provided by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available. Simulation documentation and user instructions are provided in an appendix.

  16. Neural decoding with kernel-based metric learning.

    PubMed

    Brockmeier, Austin J; Choi, John S; Kriminger, Evan G; Francis, Joseph T; Principe, Jose C

    2014-06-01

    In studies of the nervous system, the choice of metric for the neural responses is a pivotal assumption. For instance, a well-suited distance metric enables us to gauge the similarity of neural responses to various stimuli and assess the variability of responses to a repeated stimulus-exploratory steps in understanding how the stimuli are encoded neurally. Here we introduce an approach where the metric is tuned for a particular neural decoding task. Neural spike train metrics have been used to quantify the information content carried by the timing of action potentials. While a number of metrics for individual neurons exist, a method to optimally combine single-neuron metrics into multineuron, or population-based, metrics is lacking. We pose the problem of optimizing multineuron metrics and other metrics using centered alignment, a kernel-based dependence measure. The approach is demonstrated on invasively recorded neural data consisting of both spike trains and local field potentials. The experimental paradigm consists of decoding the location of tactile stimulation on the forepaws of anesthetized rats. We show that the optimized metrics highlight the distinguishing dimensions of the neural response, significantly increase the decoding accuracy, and improve nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods for exploratory neural analysis.

  17. Measures and Metrics for Feasibility of Proof-of-Concept Studies With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rapid Point-of-Care Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Pant Pai, Nitika; Chiavegatti, Tiago; Vijh, Rohit; Karatzas, Nicolaos; Daher, Jana; Smallwood, Megan; Wong, Tom; Engel, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Objective Pilot (feasibility) studies form a vast majority of diagnostic studies with point-of-care technologies but often lack use of clear measures/metrics and a consistent framework for reporting and evaluation. To fill this gap, we systematically reviewed data to (a) catalog feasibility measures/metrics and (b) propose a framework. Methods For the period January 2000 to March 2014, 2 reviewers searched 4 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus), retrieved 1441 citations, and abstracted data from 81 studies. We observed 2 major categories of measures, that is, implementation centered and patient centered, and 4 subcategories of measures, that is, feasibility, acceptability, preference, and patient experience. We defined and delineated metrics and measures for a feasibility framework. We documented impact measures for a comparison. Findings We observed heterogeneity in reporting of metrics as well as misclassification and misuse of metrics within measures. Although we observed poorly defined measures and metrics for feasibility, preference, and patient experience, in contrast, acceptability measure was the best defined. For example, within feasibility, metrics such as consent, completion, new infection, linkage rates, and turnaround times were misclassified and reported. Similarly, patient experience was variously reported as test convenience, comfort, pain, and/or satisfaction. In contrast, within impact measures, all the metrics were well documented, thus serving as a good baseline comparator. With our framework, we classified, delineated, and defined quantitative measures and metrics for feasibility. Conclusions Our framework, with its defined measures/metrics, could reduce misclassification and improve the overall quality of reporting for monitoring and evaluation of rapid point-of-care technology strategies and their context-driven optimization. PMID:29333105

  18. The SPAtial EFficiency metric (SPAEF): multiple-component evaluation of spatial patterns for optimization of hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Julian; Cüneyd Demirel, Mehmet; Stisen, Simon

    2018-05-01

    The process of model evaluation is not only an integral part of model development and calibration but also of paramount importance when communicating modelling results to the scientific community and stakeholders. The modelling community has a large and well-tested toolbox of metrics to evaluate temporal model performance. In contrast, spatial performance evaluation does not correspond to the grand availability of spatial observations readily available and to the sophisticate model codes simulating the spatial variability of complex hydrological processes. This study makes a contribution towards advancing spatial-pattern-oriented model calibration by rigorously testing a multiple-component performance metric. The promoted SPAtial EFficiency (SPAEF) metric reflects three equally weighted components: correlation, coefficient of variation and histogram overlap. This multiple-component approach is found to be advantageous in order to achieve the complex task of comparing spatial patterns. SPAEF, its three components individually and two alternative spatial performance metrics, i.e. connectivity analysis and fractions skill score, are applied in a spatial-pattern-oriented model calibration of a catchment model in Denmark. Results suggest the importance of multiple-component metrics because stand-alone metrics tend to fail to provide holistic pattern information. The three SPAEF components are found to be independent, which allows them to complement each other in a meaningful way. In order to optimally exploit spatial observations made available by remote sensing platforms, this study suggests applying bias insensitive metrics which further allow for a comparison of variables which are related but may differ in unit. This study applies SPAEF in the hydrological context using the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; version 5.8), but we see great potential across disciplines related to spatially distributed earth system modelling.

  19. Effects of Socket Size on Metrics of Socket Fit in Trans-Tibial Prosthesis Users

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E; Youngblood, Robert T; Hafner, Brian J; Cagle, John C; McLean, Jake B; Redd, Christian B; Dietrich, Colin R; Ciol, Marcia A; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a preliminary effort to identify quantitative metrics to distinguish a good socket from an oversized socket in people with trans-tibial amputation. Results could be used to inform clinical practices related to socket replacement. A cross-over study was conducted on community ambulators (K-level 3 or 4) with good residual limb sensation. Participants were each provided with two sockets, a duplicate of their as-prescribed socket and a modified socket that was enlarged or reduced by 1.8 mm (~6% of the socket volume) based on the fit quality of the as-prescribed socket. The two sockets were termed a larger socket and a smaller socket. Activity was monitored while participants wore each socket for 4wk. Participants’ gait; self-reported satisfaction, quality of fit, and performance; socket comfort; and morning-to-afternoon limb fluid volume changes were assessed. Visual analysis of plots and estimated effect sizes (measure as mean difference divided by standard deviation) showed largest effects for step time asymmetry, step width asymmetry, anterior and anterior-distal morning-to-afternoon fluid volume change, socket comfort scores, and self-reported measures of utility, satisfaction, and residual limb health. These variables may be viable metrics for early detection of deterioration in socket fit, and should be tested in a larger clinical study. PMID:28373013

  20. Effects of socket size on metrics of socket fit in trans-tibial prosthesis users.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; Youngblood, Robert T; Hafner, Brian J; Cagle, John C; McLean, Jake B; Redd, Christian B; Dietrich, Colin R; Ciol, Marcia A; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a preliminary effort to identify quantitative metrics to distinguish a good socket from an oversized socket in people with trans-tibial amputation. Results could be used to inform clinical practices related to socket replacement. A cross-over study was conducted on community ambulators (K-level 3 or 4) with good residual limb sensation. Participants were each provided with two sockets, a duplicate of their as-prescribed socket and a modified socket that was enlarged or reduced by 1.8mm (∼6% of the socket volume) based on the fit quality of the as-prescribed socket. The two sockets were termed a larger socket and a smaller socket. Activity was monitored while participants wore each socket for 4 weeks. Participants' gait; self-reported satisfaction, quality of fit, and performance; socket comfort; and morning-to-afternoon limb fluid volume changes were assessed. Visual analysis of plots and estimated effect sizes (measured as mean difference divided by standard deviation) showed largest effects for step time asymmetry, step width asymmetry, anterior and anterior-distal morning-to-afternoon fluid volume change, socket comfort score, and self-reported utility. These variables may be viable metrics for early detection of deterioration in socket fit, and should be tested in a larger clinical study. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Joint learning of labels and distance metric.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Zha, Zhengjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Machine learning algorithms frequently suffer from the insufficiency of training data and the usage of inappropriate distance metric. In this paper, we propose a joint learning of labels and distance metric (JLLDM) approach, which is able to simultaneously address the two difficulties. In comparison with the existing semi-supervised learning and distance metric learning methods that focus only on label prediction or distance metric construction, the JLLDM algorithm optimizes the labels of unlabeled samples and a Mahalanobis distance metric in a unified scheme. The advantage of JLLDM is multifold: 1) the problem of training data insufficiency can be tackled; 2) a good distance metric can be constructed with only very few training samples; and 3) no radius parameter is needed since the algorithm automatically determines the scale of the metric. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the JLLDM approach with different semi-supervised learning and distance metric learning methods, and empirical results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  2. Proposal for a biometrics of the cortical surface: a statistical method for relative surface distance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookstein, Fred L.

    1995-08-01

    Recent advances in computational geometry have greatly extended the range of neuroanatomical questions that can be approached by rigorous quantitative methods. One of the major current challenges in this area is to describe the variability of human cortical surface form and its implications for individual differences in neurophysiological functioning. Existing techniques for representation of stochastically invaginated surfaces do not conduce to the necessary parametric statistical summaries. In this paper, following a hint from David Van Essen and Heather Drury, I sketch a statistical method customized for the constraints of this complex data type. Cortical surface form is represented by its Riemannian metric tensor and averaged according to parameters of a smooth averaged surface. Sulci are represented by integral trajectories of the smaller principal strains of this metric, and their statistics follow the statistics of that relative metric. The diagrams visualizing this tensor analysis look like alligator leather but summarize all aspects of cortical surface form in between the principal sulci, the reliable ones; no flattening is required.

  3. Quantitative Metrics in Clinical Radiology Reporting: A Snapshot Perspective from a Single Mixed Academic-Community Practice

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Richard G.; Su, Pei-Fang; Shyr, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative imaging has emerged as a leading priority on the imaging research agenda, yet clinical radiology has traditionally maintained a skeptical attitude toward numerical measurement in diagnostic interpretation. To gauge the extent to which quantitative reporting has been incorporated into routine clinical radiology practice, and to offer preliminary baseline data against which the evolution of quantitative imaging can be measured, we obtained all clinical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports from two randomly selected weekdays in 2011 at a single mixed academic-community practice and evaluated those reports for the presence of quantitative descriptors. We found that 44% of all reports contained at least one “quantitative metric” (QM), defined as any numerical descriptor of a physical property other than quantity, but only 2% of reports contained an “advanced quantitative metric” (AQM), defined as a numerical parameter reporting on lesion function or composition, excluding simple size and distance measurements. Possible reasons for the slow translation of AQMs into routine clinical radiology reporting include perceptions that the primary clinical question may be qualitative in nature or that a qualitative answer may be sufficient; concern that quantitative approaches may obscure important qualitative information, may not be adequately validated, or may not allow sufficient expression of uncertainty; the feeling that “gestalt” interpretation may be superior to quantitative paradigms; and practical workflow limitations. We suggest that quantitative imaging techniques will evolve primarily as dedicated instruments for answering specific clinical questions requiring precise and standardized interpretation. Validation in real-world settings, ease of use, and reimbursement economics will all play a role in determining the rate of translation of AQMs into broad practice. PMID:22795791

  4. How robust is a robust policy? A comparative analysis of alternative robustness metrics for supporting robust decision analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2015-04-01

    In response to climate and socio-economic change, in various policy domains there is increasingly a call for robust plans or policies. That is, plans or policies that performs well in a very large range of plausible futures. In the literature, a wide range of alternative robustness metrics can be found. The relative merit of these alternative conceptualizations of robustness has, however, received less attention. Evidently, different robustness metrics can result in different plans or policies being adopted. This paper investigates the consequences of several robustness metrics on decision making, illustrated here by the design of a flood risk management plan. A fictitious case, inspired by a river reach in the Netherlands is used. The performance of this system in terms of casualties, damages, and costs for flood and damage mitigation actions is explored using a time horizon of 100 years, and accounting for uncertainties pertaining to climate change and land use change. A set of candidate policy options is specified up front. This set of options includes dike raising, dike strengthening, creating more space for the river, and flood proof building and evacuation options. The overarching aim is to design an effective flood risk mitigation strategy that is designed from the outset to be adapted over time in response to how the future actually unfolds. To this end, the plan will be based on the dynamic adaptive policy pathway approach (Haasnoot, Kwakkel et al. 2013) being used in the Dutch Delta Program. The policy problem is formulated as a multi-objective robust optimization problem (Kwakkel, Haasnoot et al. 2014). We solve the multi-objective robust optimization problem using several alternative robustness metrics, including both satisficing robustness metrics and regret based robustness metrics. Satisficing robustness metrics focus on the performance of candidate plans across a large ensemble of plausible futures. Regret based robustness metrics compare the

  5. Analysis of Trinity Power Metrics for Automated Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Michalenko, Ashley Christine

    This is a presentation from Los Alamos National Laboraotyr (LANL) about the analysis of trinity power metrics for automated monitoring. The following topics are covered: current monitoring efforts, motivation for analysis, tools used, the methodology, work performed during the summer, and future work planned.

  6. Metrics for Food Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in food distribution, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  7. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  8. Metrics for Recreation & Tourism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of recreation and tourism students, this instructional package is one of three for the hospitality and recre