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Sample records for quantitative real-time reverse

  1. Analysis of liver connexin expression using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Michaël; Willebrords, Joost; Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Although connexin production is mainly regulated at the protein level, altered connexin gene expression has been identified as the underlying mechanism of several pathologies. When studying the latter, appropriate methods to quantify connexin mRNA levels are required. The present chapter describes a well-established reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure optimized for analysis of hepatic connexins. The method includes RNA extraction and subsequent quantification, generation of complementary DNA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and data analysis. PMID:27207283

  2. Analysis of Liver Connexin Expression Using Reverse Transcription Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michaël; Willebrords, Joost; Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Although connexin production is mainly regulated at the protein level, altered connexin gene expression has been identified as the underlying mechanism of several pathologies. When studying the latter, appropriate methods to quantify connexin RNA levels are required. The present chapter describes a well-established reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure optimized for analysis of hepatic connexins. The method includes RNA extraction and subsequent quantification, generation of complementary DNA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and data analysis. PMID:27207283

  3. Selection of reference genes for reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR normalization in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli).

    PubMed

    Liman, Ma; Wenji, Wang; Conghui, Liu; Haiyang, Yu; Zhigang, Wang; Xubo, Wang; Jie, Qi; Quanqi, Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a technique widely used for quantification of mRNA transcription. Data normalization is an indispensable process for RT-qPCR and reference genes are most commonly used to normalize RT-qPCR and to reduce possible errors generated in the quantification of genes among several proposed methods. To date, RT-qPCR has been used in terms of gene expression studies in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) but the majority of published RT-qPCR studies still lack proper validation of the reference genes. In the present study, mRNA transcription profiles of eight putative reference genes (18S rRNA, ACTB, GAPDH, TUBA, RPL17, EF1A, HPRT, and B2M) were examined using RT-qPCR in different tissues and larvae developmental stages of black rockfish. Three common statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were used to assess expression stability and select the most stable genes for gene normalization. Two reference genes, RPL17 and EF1A showed high stability in black rockfish tissue analysis, while GAPDH was the least stable gene. During larvae developmental stages, EF1A, RPL17 and ACTB were identified as the optimal reference genes for data normalization, whereas B2M appeared unsuitable as the reference gene. In summary, our results could provide a useful guideline for reference gene selection and enable more accurate normalization of gene expression data in gene expression studies of black rockfish.

  4. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR in orchardgrass subjected to various abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linkai; Yan, Haidong; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xinquan; Ji, Yang; Zeng, Bing; Xu, Bin; Yin, Guohua; Lee, Samantha; Yan, Yanhong; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan

    2014-12-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful tool for the measurement of gene expression; however, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The objective of the present study was to identify the stable reference genes in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), a principal cool-season forage grass in the world. Ten candidate reference genes were selected in this study including ATP-binding [ABC], actin [ACTIN], cyclophilin [CYP2], glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], beta-amylase 4 [BAM4], zeitlupe [ZTL], MAP Kinase 4 [MPK4], ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [UBC], S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [SAMDC], and translationally controlled tumor protein [TCTP]. The candidate genes were assessed in orchardgrass leaves and roots under conditions of drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. We used GeNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and RefFinder for qRT-PCR normalization and validation to determine that the expression of these reference genes was stress-dependent. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were found to be the most stably expressed genes for drought stress while ACTIN, TCTP, and ABC were the most stable under salt stress. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were all found to be good reference genes for studying heat stress. Likewise, CYP2, MPK4, and ABC were most suitable to study waterlogging, and ACTIN, CYP2, and MPK4 were determined as the three best reference genes for ABA studies. Our study identified and validated the possible reference genes in orchardgrass that may be used for quantification of target gene expression under various abiotic stresses.

  5. Development of duplex SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR for detection and discrimination of grapevine viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A SYBR® Green-based real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay in combination with melt curve analysis (MCA) was developed for the detection of nine grapevine viruses. The detection limits for singleplex qRT-PCR for all nine grapevine viruses were determined to be in the range ...

  6. A novel duplex real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for rubella virus with armored RNA as a noncompetitive internal positive control.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lihong; Li, Ruiying; Liu, Aihua; Zhao, Shuping

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to build and apply a duplex real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for rubella virus. Firstly, a 60-bp-long armored RV RNA was constructed in the laboratory. Secondly, a duplex real time RT-PCR assay was established. Thirdly, the 60-bp-long armored RV RNA was used as an internal positive control (IPC) for the duplex real time RT-PCR. And finally the duplex real time RT-PCR assay was applied to detect RV RNA in clinical specimens. The in-house assay has a high amplification efficiency (0.99), a high analytical sensitivity (200 copies/mL), and a good reproducibility. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the in-house assay were both 100%, due to the monitoring of the armored RV RNA IPC. Therefore, the in-house duplex real time quantitative RT-PCR assay is a specific, sensitive, reproducible and accurate assay for quantitation of RV RNA in clinical specimens. And noncompetitive armored RV RNA IPC can monitor RT-PCR inhibition and prevent false-negative and inaccurate results in the real time detection system.

  7. Development of TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the detection and quantitation of porcine kobuvirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Wang, Yufei; Chen, Jianfei; Zhang, Xin; Shi, Hongyan; Shi, Da; Gao, Jing; Feng, Li

    2016-08-01

    Porcine kobuvirus (PKV) is a newly emerging virus that has been detected in diarrheic pigs. Presently, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-loop-mediated amplification are the only methods that can be used to detect PKV. To develop a TaqMan real-time RT-PCR for the rapid detection and quantitation of PKV nucleic acid in fecal samples, a pair of primers and a probe were designed to amplify the conserved 3D region of the PKV genome. After optimization, the TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was highly specific and ∼1000 times more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, and the detection limit was as low as 30 DNA copies. Among the 148 intestinal samples from piglets with diarrhea, 136 and 118 were positive based on the TaqMan and conventional RT-PCR methods, respectively, indicating that the TaqMan RT-PCR was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, and the total concordance of the two methods was approximately 87.84%. Thus, the TaqMan real-time RT-PCR should be a useful tool for the early detection and quantitation of PKV. PMID:26912233

  8. SYBR(®) Green-based real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR for detection and discrimination of grapevine viruses.

    PubMed

    Poojari, Sudarsana; Alabi, Olufemi J; Okubara, Patricia A; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-09-01

    A SYBR(®) Green-based real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay in combination with melt-curve analysis (MCA) was optimized for the detection of nine grapevine viruses. The detection limits for simplex qRT-PCR for all nine grapevine viruses were estimated to be in the range of 214-1112 copies of the virus genome. Amplicons with melting temperatures (Tm) separated by at least 2°C in the MCA could differentiate two viruses in the same reaction. Therefore, eight of the nine viruses could be co-diagnosed in five different combinations of duplex assays. Of 305 grape leaf samples from the field or greenhouse, 162 were positive for at least one of the nine grapevine viruses using the duplex qRT-PCR assays. In contrast, only 127 samples were positive using endpoint RT-PCR and PCR assays, indicating the enhanced sensitivity of duplex real-time PCR. In addition, the duplex qRT-PCR assays were be used to detect Grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in its vector, the grape mealybug (Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrhorn), and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) in Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh). The simplex and duplex real-time PCR assays developed in this study can be used to examine transmission of co-occruing viruses by insect vectors as well as for rapid and sensitive detection of viruses in infected grapevines.

  9. SYBR(®) Green-based real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR for detection and discrimination of grapevine viruses.

    PubMed

    Poojari, Sudarsana; Alabi, Olufemi J; Okubara, Patricia A; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-09-01

    A SYBR(®) Green-based real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay in combination with melt-curve analysis (MCA) was optimized for the detection of nine grapevine viruses. The detection limits for simplex qRT-PCR for all nine grapevine viruses were estimated to be in the range of 214-1112 copies of the virus genome. Amplicons with melting temperatures (Tm) separated by at least 2°C in the MCA could differentiate two viruses in the same reaction. Therefore, eight of the nine viruses could be co-diagnosed in five different combinations of duplex assays. Of 305 grape leaf samples from the field or greenhouse, 162 were positive for at least one of the nine grapevine viruses using the duplex qRT-PCR assays. In contrast, only 127 samples were positive using endpoint RT-PCR and PCR assays, indicating the enhanced sensitivity of duplex real-time PCR. In addition, the duplex qRT-PCR assays were be used to detect Grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in its vector, the grape mealybug (Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrhorn), and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) in Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh). The simplex and duplex real-time PCR assays developed in this study can be used to examine transmission of co-occruing viruses by insect vectors as well as for rapid and sensitive detection of viruses in infected grapevines. PMID:27246908

  10. Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjeet; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is a technique for simultaneous amplification and product quantification of a target DNA as the process takes place in real time in a "closed-tube" system. Although this technique can provide an absolute quantification of the initial template copy number, quantification relative to a control sample or second sequence is typically adequate. The quantification process employs melting curve analysis and/or fluorescent detection systems and can provide amplification and genotyping in a relatively short time. Here we describe the properties and uses of various fluorescent detection systems used for quantification. PMID:26843055

  11. Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjeet; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is a technique for simultaneous amplification and product quantification of a target DNA as the process takes place in real time in a "closed-tube" system. Although this technique can provide an absolute quantification of the initial template copy number, quantification relative to a control sample or second sequence is typically adequate. The quantification process employs melting curve analysis and/or fluorescent detection systems and can provide amplification and genotyping in a relatively short time. Here we describe the properties and uses of various fluorescent detection systems used for quantification.

  12. Strand-specific real-time RT-PCR quantitation of Maize fine streak virus genomic and positive-sense RNAs using high temperature reverse transcription

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to analyze the replicative RNA produced by Maize fine streak virus (MVSF) within maize tissue was complicated by the lack of specificity during cDNA generation using standard reverse transcriptase protocols. Real-time qRT-PCR using cDNA generated by priming with random hexamers does not dist...

  13. Identification and Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) by Reverse Transcription Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Carl; Patel, Mitulkumar V.; Colvin, John; Bailey, David; Seal, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a reliable method for performing reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to measure gene expression in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), utilising suitable reference genes for data normalisation. We identified orthologs of commonly used reference genes (actin (ACT), cyclophilin 1 (CYP1), elongation factor 1α (EF1A), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), and α-tubulin (TUB1A)), measured the levels of their transcripts by RT-qPCR during development and in response to thermal stress, and evaluated their suitability as endogenous controls using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder programs. Overall, TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 were the most stable reference genes during B. tabaci development, and TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A were the most stable reference genes in the context of thermal stress. An analysis of the effects of reference gene choice on the transcript profile of a developmentally-regulated gene encoding vitellogenin demonstrated the importance of selecting the correct endogenous controls for RT-qPCR studies. We propose the use of TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 as endogenous controls for transcript profiling studies of B. tabaci development, whereas the combination of TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A should be employed for studies into thermal stress. The data presented here will assist future transcript profiling studies in whiteflies. PMID:25373210

  14. Comparative analysis of quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR and commercial enzyme imunoassays for detection of enterotoxigenic Bacillus thuringiensis isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Yernazarova, Aliya; Murawska, Emilia; Swiecicki, Jakub; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Bideshi, Dennis K; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2014-08-01

    Entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis is closely related to Bacillus cereus, a human pathogen known to cause emesis and diarrhea. Standard detection methods do not distinguish these bacilli. Hemolysin BL (hbl) and non-hemolytic enterotoxin (nhe) genes that encode, respectively, HBL and NHE enterotoxins, are known to be harbored in both bacterial species, suggesting that differentiation of these bacilli is clinically and epidemiologically relevant. In this study the reliability of quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) in detecting hbl and nhe transcripts and corresponding toxins in environmental B. thuringiensis isolates was assessed. At least one enterotoxin gene was present in each isolate, and nhe or hbl genes were found in 85% and 55% of the strains, respectively. Based on statistical analyses, both BCET-RPLA and Duopath detected HBL at similar levels, and TECRA and Duopath can be used interchangeably for the detection of NHE, although TECRA has significantly lower sensitivity than Duopath. Thus, as potential enterotoxic B. thuringiensis strains occur in the natural environment, and EIA results may not correspond with the presence of enterotoxin genes and their expression, we suggest that reliable interpretation will be significantly enhanced by including qRT-PCR to support inferences based on EIAs.

  15. Effect of saliva stabilisers on detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in oral fluid by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Decorte, Inge; Van der Stede, Yves; Nauwynck, Hans; De Regge, Nick; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of extraction-amplification methods, storage temperature and saliva stabilisers on detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in porcine oral fluid. The diagnostic performance of different extraction-amplification methods was examined using a dilution series of oral fluid spiked with PRRSV. To determine RNA stability, porcine oral fluid, with or without commercially available saliva stabilisers, was spiked with PRRSV, stored at 4°C or room temperature and tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA by qRT-PCR. PRRSV RNA could be detected in oral fluid using all extraction-amplification combinations, but the limit of detection varied amongst different combinations. Storage temperature and saliva stabilisers had an effect on the stability of PRRSV RNA, which could only be detected for 7 days when PRRSV spiked oral fluid was kept at 4°C or stabilised at room temperature with a commercial mRNA stabiliser.

  16. Gene expression analysis in biomarker research and early drug development using function tested reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Sabine; Herold, Andrea; Bergauer, Tobias; Belousov, Anton; Betzl, Gisela; Demario, Mark; Dietrich, Manuel; Luistro, Leopoldo; Poignée-Heger, Manuela; Schostack, Kathy; Simcox, Mary; Walch, Heiko; Yin, Xuefeng; Zhong, Hua; Weisser, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The identification of new biomarkers is essential in the implementation of personalized health care strategies that offer new therapeutic approaches with optimized and individualized treatment. In support of hypothesis generation and testing in the course of our biomarker research an online portal and respective function-tested reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR assays (RT-qPCR) facilitated the selection of relevant biomarker genes. We have established workflows applicable for convenient high throughput gene expression analysis in biomarker research with cell lines (in vitro studies) and xenograft mouse models (in vivo studies) as well as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) sections from various human research and clinical tumor samples. Out of 92 putative biomarker candidate genes selected in silico, 35 were shown to exhibit differential expression in various tumor cell lines. These were further analysed by in vivo xenograft mouse models, which identified 13 candidate genes including potential response prediction biomarkers and a potential pharmacodynamic biomarker. Six of these candidate genes were selected for further evaluation in FFPET samples, where optimized RNA isolation, reverse transcription and qPCR assays provided reliable determination of relative expression levels as precondition for differential gene expression analysis of FFPET samples derived from projected clinical studies. Thus, we successfully applied function tested RT-qPCR assays in our biomarker research for hypothesis generation with in vitro and in vivo models as well as for hypothesis testing with human FFPET samples. Hence, appropriate function-tested RT-qPCR assays are available in biomarker research accompanying the different stages of drug development, starting from target identification up to early clinical development. The workflow presented here supports the identification and validation of new biomarkers and may lead to advances in efforts to achieve the

  17. Selection of reliable reference genes for expression studies by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR in litchi under different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-Ying; Chen, Jian-Wen; Li, Cai-Qin; Chen, Lei; Wu, Jian-Yang; Chen, Jian-Ye; Lu, Wang-Jin; Li, Jian-Guo

    2011-04-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression, depends on the stability of the reference gene(s) used for data normalization. Only a few studies on reference genes have been done in fruit trees and none in litchi. In the present study, seven frequently used candidate reference genes, including actin (ACTIN), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GADPH), elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α), poly ubiquitin enzyme (UBQ), α-tubulin (TUA), β-tubulin (TUB) and RNA polymerase-II transcription factor (RPII), were evaluated for their expression stability in litchi. A total of 78 samples, including different varieties, tissues, organs, developmental stages and treatments, such as NAA, shading and girdling plus defoliation, were addressed in this analysis. Our results showed that GAPDH was the most suitable reference gene among all the tested samples, different organs and NAA treatment. ACTIN was stably expressed in varieties and fruit developmental stages. RPII and UBQ exhibited better expression stability in tissues. EF-1α was the most stable gene in shading and girdling plus defoliation treatments. Moreover, using combination of two genes as reference genes might improve the reliability of gene expression by RT-qPCR in litchi. A better combination was GAPDH + EF-1α or GAPDH + ACTIN for all the examined samples. In addition, the validated reference genes were further relied on to quantify the expression of an interested gene, LcARF13 under different experimental conditions. These results first provide guidelines for reference genes selection under different experimental conditions and also a foundation for more accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in litchi. PMID:21301853

  18. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to detect propionibacterial ribosomal RNA in the lymph nodes of Chinese patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Wei, Y-R; Zhang, Y; Du, S-S; Baughman, R P; Li, H-P

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of using the copy number of propionibacterial rRNA as a biomarker for sarcoidosis. Ribosomal RNA of Propionibacterium acnes and P. granulosum was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of lymph node biopsy from 65 Chinese patients with sarcoidosis, 45 with tuberculosis and 50 controls with other diseases (23 with non-specific lymphadenitis and 27 with mediastinal lymph node metastasis from lung cancer). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was analysed to determine an optimal cut-off value for diagnosis, and the diagnostic accuracy of the cut-off value was evaluated in additional tissue samples [24 patients with sarcoidosis and 22 with tuberculosis (TB)]. P. acnes or P. granulosum rRNA was detected in 48 of the 65 sarcoidosis samples but only in four of the 45 TB samples and three of the 50 control samples. Analysis of the ROC curve revealed that an optimal cut-off value of the copy number of propionibacterial rRNA for diagnosis of sarcoidosis was 50·5 copies/ml with a sensitivity and specificity of 73·8 and 92·6%, respectively. Based on the cut-off value, 19 of the 24 additional sarcoidosis samples exhibited positive P. acnes or P. granulosum, whereas only one of the 22 additional TB samples was positive, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 79·2 and 95·5%, respectively. These findings suggest that propionibacteria might be associated with sarcoidosis granulomatous inflammation. Detection of propionibacterial rRNA by RT-PCR might possibly distinguish sarcoidosis from TB. PMID:25959360

  19. Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer by using a sensitive quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR technique.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sha; Wang, Fang; Shao, Qiong; Zhang, Xu; Duan, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Shao, Jian-Yong

    2015-04-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is present in approximately 5% of lung adenocarcinoma. Clinical trials on ALK inhibitor phase I to III have shown an interesting disease control rate and acceptable tolerability in ALK rearrangement patients. In clinical application, the precise diagnostic strategy for identifying ALK rearrangements remains to be determined. In this study, ALK rearrangement was screened by using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), direct sequencing, 2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays, and immunohistochemistry in 173 lung adenocarcinomas. We identified 18 cases (10.4%) with EML4-ALK fusion-positive by qRT-PCR, and all were positive for EML4-ALK fusion gene validated by direct sequencing. The result was consistent with that of other methods. Furthermore, of the 18 EML4-ALK fusion-positive cases, 16 (9.2%) were positive by using EML4-ALK fusion probe FISH, and 15 (8.7%) were positive by using ALK break-apart probe FISH and immunohistochemistry staining. Of the 18 ALK fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas, 8 cases (44.4%) were histologically diagnosed as subtypes of cribriform adenocarcinoma, 7 cases (38.9%) as cribriform adenocarcinoma mixed with papillary and/or mucinous pattern, 2 cases (11.1%) as papillary adenocarcinoma, and 1 case (5.6%) as mucinous adenocarcinoma. In the present study, the ALK rearrangement frequency detected by qRT-PCR in Chinese NSCLC patients was higher than that in the western populations. QRT-PCR is a rapid, sensitive technology that could be used as a screening tool for identifying EML4-ALK fusion-positive NSCLC patients who would be sensitive for receiving ALK inhibitor therapy.

  20. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to detect propionibacterial ribosomal RNA in the lymph nodes of Chinese patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Wei, Y-R; Zhang, Y; Du, S-S; Baughman, R P; Li, H-P

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of using the copy number of propionibacterial rRNA as a biomarker for sarcoidosis. Ribosomal RNA of Propionibacterium acnes and P. granulosum was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of lymph node biopsy from 65 Chinese patients with sarcoidosis, 45 with tuberculosis and 50 controls with other diseases (23 with non-specific lymphadenitis and 27 with mediastinal lymph node metastasis from lung cancer). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was analysed to determine an optimal cut-off value for diagnosis, and the diagnostic accuracy of the cut-off value was evaluated in additional tissue samples [24 patients with sarcoidosis and 22 with tuberculosis (TB)]. P. acnes or P. granulosum rRNA was detected in 48 of the 65 sarcoidosis samples but only in four of the 45 TB samples and three of the 50 control samples. Analysis of the ROC curve revealed that an optimal cut-off value of the copy number of propionibacterial rRNA for diagnosis of sarcoidosis was 50·5 copies/ml with a sensitivity and specificity of 73·8 and 92·6%, respectively. Based on the cut-off value, 19 of the 24 additional sarcoidosis samples exhibited positive P. acnes or P. granulosum, whereas only one of the 22 additional TB samples was positive, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 79·2 and 95·5%, respectively. These findings suggest that propionibacteria might be associated with sarcoidosis granulomatous inflammation. Detection of propionibacterial rRNA by RT-PCR might possibly distinguish sarcoidosis from TB.

  1. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to detect propionibacterial ribosomal RNA in the lymph nodes of Chinese patients with sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y; Wei, Y-R; Zhang, Y; Du, S-S; Baughman, R P; Li, H-P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of using the copy number of propionibacterial rRNA as a biomarker for sarcoidosis. Ribosomal RNA of Propionibacterium acnes and P. granulosum was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of lymph node biopsy from 65 Chinese patients with sarcoidosis, 45 with tuberculosis and 50 controls with other diseases (23 with non-specific lymphadenitis and 27 with mediastinal lymph node metastasis from lung cancer). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was analysed to determine an optimal cut-off value for diagnosis, and the diagnostic accuracy of the cut-off value was evaluated in additional tissue samples [24 patients with sarcoidosis and 22 with tuberculosis (TB)]. P. acnes or P. granulosum rRNA was detected in 48 of the 65 sarcoidosis samples but only in four of the 45 TB samples and three of the 50 control samples. Analysis of the ROC curve revealed that an optimal cut-off value of the copy number of propionibacterial rRNA for diagnosis of sarcoidosis was 50·5 copies/ml with a sensitivity and specificity of 73·8 and 92·6%, respectively. Based on the cut-off value, 19 of the 24 additional sarcoidosis samples exhibited positive P. acnes or P. granulosum, whereas only one of the 22 additional TB samples was positive, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 79·2 and 95·5%, respectively. These findings suggest that propionibacteria might be associated with sarcoidosis granulomatous inflammation. Detection of propionibacterial rRNA by RT–PCR might possibly distinguish sarcoidosis from TB. PMID:25959360

  2. Establishment of real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for transcriptional analysis of duck enteritis virus UL55 gene

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) has become the benchmark for detection and quantification of target gene expression level and been utilized increasingly in detection of viral load and therapy monitoring. The dynamic transcription variation of duck enteritis virus UL55 gene during the life cycle of duck enteritis virus in infected cells has not been reported yet. Results The newly identified duck enteritis virus UL55 gene was amplified and cloned into pMD18-T vector after digestion to generate a recombinant plasmid pMD18-T/UL55 for the establishment of qRT-PCR as standard DNA. The results of agarose gel electrophoresis and melting curve analysis demonstrated the primers we designed for qRT-PCR were specific and available. We used β-actin as a reference gene for normalization and established two standard curves based on pMD18-T/UL55 and pMD18-T/β-actin successfully. Based on that, the transcriptional analysis of DEV UL55 gene was performed, and the result suggested the expression of UL55 mRNA was at a low level from 0 to 8 h post-infection(p.i.), then accumulated quickly since 12 h p.i. and peaked at 36 h p.i., it can be detected till 60 h p.i.. Nucleic acid inhibition test was carried out for analyzing a temporal regulation condition of DEV UL55 gene, result revealed that it was sensitive to ganciclovir. Synthesis procedures of DEV UL55 gene can be inhibited by ganciclovir. Conclusions The method we established in this paper can provide quantitative values reflecting the amounts of measured mRNA in samples. It's available for detection and quantification, also can be used in DEV diagnosis. The DEV UL55 gene was produced most abundantly during the late phase of replication in DEV-infected cells and the transcription of it depended on the synthesized DNA. DEV UL55 gene is a γ2 gene which occurs last and have a strict requirement for viral DNA synthesis. PMID:21631934

  3. New in situ capture quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription-PCR method as an alternative approach for determining inactivation of Tulane virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dapeng; Xu, Shuxia; Yang, David; Young, Glenn M; Tian, Peng

    2014-04-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Although quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely used for detecting HuNoVs, it only detects the presence of viral RNA and does not indicate viral infectivity. Human blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been identified as receptors/co-receptors for both HuNoVs and Tulane virus (TV) and are crucial for viral infection. We propose that viral infectivity can be evaluated with a molecular assay based on receptor-captured viruses. In this study, we employed TV as an HuNoV surrogate to validate the HBGA-based capture qRT-PCR method against the 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) method. We employed type B HBGA on an immuno-well module to concentrate TV, followed by amplification of the captured viral genome by in situ qRT-PCR. We first demonstrated that this in situ capture qRT-PCR (ISC-qRT-PCR) method could effectively concentrate and detect TV. We then treated TV under either partial or full inactivation conditions and measured the remaining infectivity by ISC-qRT-PCR and a tissue culture-based amplification method (TCID50). We found that the ISC-qRT-PCR method could be used to evaluate virus inactivation deriving from damage to the capsid and study interactions between the capsid and viral receptor. Heat, chlorine, and ethanol treatment primarily affect the capsid structure, which in turns affects the ability of the capsid to bind to viral receptors. Inactivation of the virus by these methods could be reflected by the ISC-qRT-PCR method and confirmed by TCID50 assay. However, the loss of the infectivity caused by damage to the viral genome (such as that from UV irradiation) could not be effectively reflected by this method. Despite this limitation, the ISC-qRT-PCR provides an alternative approach to determine inactivation of Tulane virus. A particular advantage of the ISC-qRT-PCR method is that it is also a faster and easier method to effectively

  4. Evaluation of internal reference genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time reverse transcription-PCR in somatic cells from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Modesto, P; Peletto, S; Pisoni, G; Cremonesi, P; Castiglioni, B; Colussi, S; Caramelli, M; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P; Acutis, P L

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription (RT) quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most accurate and easy-to-perform technique to measure the expression level of a selected gene of interest by quantifying mRNA transcripts. The use of reference genes is commonly accepted as the most reliable approach to normalize RT-qPCR data and reduce possible errors generated in the quantification of gene expression. The optimal number and choice of reference genes are experimentally validated for specific tissues or cell types and experimental designs. To date, data on qPCR normalization in goats are scarce and the most suitable reference genes in this species have been identified for only a limited number of tissues. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal combination of stably expressed reference genes in caprine milk somatic cells (MSC) from healthy and infected mammary glands. For the purpose, we performed RT-qPCR for 10 commonly used reference genes from various functional classes and then determined their expression level in MSC from goats intramammary challenged with Staphylococcus aureus and in MSC from healthy controls, with a view to select genes whose stability would be unaffected under infection conditions. The geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used for validating the reference genes. Furthermore, to demonstrate the importance of normalization of gene expression with appropriate reference genes, we tested the effect of using a combination of the least stable genes for expression analysis evaluation. On the basis of our evaluation, we recommend the use of a panel of reference genes that should include G6PD, YWHAZ, and ACTB for caprine MSC gene expression profiling. The expression of the 2 genes of interest, pentraxin-related protein (PTX3) and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), was evaluated by RT-qPCR in all samples collected pre- and postinfection, and the recommended reference genes were used to normalize the data. Our study provides a validated panel of optimal

  5. Identification and validation of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR reference genes for gene expression analysis in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is currently the preferred choice of the timber trade for fabrication of woody products due to its extraordinary qualities and is widely grown around the world. Gene expression studies are essential to explore wood formation of vascular plants, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique employed for quantifying gene expression levels. One or more appropriate reference genes are crucial to accurately compare mRNA transcripts through different tissues/organs and experimental conditions. Despite being the focus of some genetic studies, a lack of molecular information has hindered genetic exploration of teak. To date, qRT-PCR reference genes have not been identified and validated for teak. Results Identification and cloning of nine commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes from teak, including ribosomal protein 60s (rp60s), clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit family (Cac), actin (Act), histone 3 (His3), sand family (Sand), β-Tubulin (Β-Tub), ubiquitin (Ubq), elongation factor 1-α (Ef-1α), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Expression profiles of these genes were evaluated by qRT-PCR in six tissue and organ samples (leaf, flower, seedling, root, stem and branch secondary xylem) of teak. Appropriate gene cloning and sequencing, primer specificity and amplification efficiency was verified for each gene. Their stability as reference genes was validated by NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm and Delta Ct programs. Results obtained from all programs showed that TgUbq and TgEf-1α are the most stable genes to use as qRT-PCR reference genes and TgAct is the most unstable gene in teak. The relative expression of the teak cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (TgCAD) gene in lignified tissues at different ages was assessed by qRT-PCR, using TgUbq and TgEf-1α as internal controls. These analyses exposed a consistent expression pattern with both reference genes. Conclusion This study

  6. Monitoring gene expression: quantitative real-time rt-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Elke M

    2013-01-01

    Two-step quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), also known as real-time RT-PCR, kinetic RT-PCR, or quantitative fluorescent RT-PCR, has become the method of choice for gene expression analysis during the last few years. It is a fast and convenient PCR method that combines traditional RT-PCR with the phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using fluorogenic primers. The detection of changes in fluorescence intensity during the reaction enables the user to follow the PCR reaction in real time.RT-qPCR comprises several steps: (1) RNA is isolated from target tissue/cells; (2) mRNA is reverse-transcribed to cDNA; (3) modified gene-specific PCR primers are used to amplify a segment of the cDNA of interest, following the reaction in real time; and (4) the initial concentration of the selected transcript in a specific tissue or cell type is calculated from the exponential phase of the reaction. Relative quantification or absolute quantification compared to standards that are run in parallel can be performed.This chapter describes the entire procedure from isolation of total RNA from liver and fatty tissues/cells to the use of RT-qPCR to study gene expression in these tissues. We perform relative quantification of transcripts to calculate the fold-difference of a certain mRNA level between different samples. In addition, tips for choosing primers and performing analyses are provided to help the beginner in understanding the technique.

  7. Real-time video codec using reversible wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gen Dow; Chiang, David J.; Huang, Yi-En; Cheng, Allen

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the hardware implementation of a real-time video codec using reversible Wavelets. The TechSoft (TS) real-time video system employs the Wavelet differencing for the inter-frame compression based on the independent Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT) of the embedded bit stream. This high performance scalable image compression using EBCOT has been selected as part of the ISO new image compression standard, JPEG2000. The TS real-time video system can process up to 30 frames per second (fps) of the DVD format. In addition, audio signals are also processed by the same design for the cost reduction. Reversible Wavelets are used not only for the cost reduction, but also for the lossless applications. Design and implementation issues of the TS real-time video system are discussed.

  8. Quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA in testicular germ cell tumors by quantitative fluorescence real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Mark; Burger, Angelika M; Müller, Markus; Krause, Hans; Straub, Bernd; Smith, Gilian L; Newlands, Eward S; Miller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme which is endogenously expressed in germ, stem and tumor cells, but absent in benign somatic cells. The two major telomerase components are human telomerase RNA (hTR) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). It has been shown that hTERT is rate-limiting for telomerase activity and that it plays a central role in human carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the potential of hTERT and hTR gene expression as diagnostic markers in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). hTERT mRNA and hTR expression were quantified in 55 testicular germ cell tumors comprising 36 primary and 19 germ cell tumors from retroperitonal sides by fluorescence real-time RT-PCR using the LightCycler technology. Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) was used as housekeeping gene and to enable relative quantification. For comparison to TGCTs, 38 benign testicular biopsies from patients with fertility disorders were assayed. hTERT expression was detected in all examined undifferentiated TGCTs and in the benign testicular tissue specimens with germ cell content (N(hTERT) 38-127). In contrast, mature teratomas from primary and post-chemotherapy masses, which are characterized by well-differentiated tissue components showed a nearly complete downregulation of hTERT expression (N(hTERT) 2-4, p<0.001). hTR levels however, were high in all tumors and independently of the presence of germ cells also in the benign tissue control group. hTERT mRNA is expressed in all undifferentiated TGCTs but repressed in mature teratomas. This suggests an inverse correlation between the differentiation status of germ cell tumors and hTERT expression. Thus, detection of hTERT expression in tumors histopathologically classified as mature teratomas enables a molecular-diagnostic confirmation and might aid decision making for treatment of patients presenting with this tumor subtype.

  9. Detection of live Salmonella sp. cells in produce by a TaqMan-based quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR targeting invA mRNA.

    PubMed

    González-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S; Russell, Mindi; Jacobson, Andrew P; De Jesús, Antonio J; Brown, Eric W; Lampel, Keith A

    2009-06-01

    Salmonella enterica contamination in foods is a significant concern for public health. When DNA detection methods are used for analysis of foods, one of the major concerns is false-positive results from the detection of dead cells. To circumvent this crucial issue, a TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay with an RNA internal control was developed. invA RNA standards were used to determine the detection limit of this assay as well as to determine invA mRNA levels in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase cells. This assay has a detection limit of 40 copies of invA mRNA per reaction. The levels of invA mRNA in mid-exponential-, late-exponential-, and stationary-phase S. enterica cells was approximately 1 copy per 3 CFU, 1 copy per CFU, and 4 copies per 10(3) CFU, respectively. Spinach, tomatoes, jalapeno peppers, and serrano peppers were artificially contaminated with four different Salmonella serovars at levels of 10(5) and less than 10 CFU. These foods were analyzed with qRT-PCR and with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method (W. A. Andrews and T. S. Hammack, in G. J. Jackson et al., ed., Bacteriological analytical manual online, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/ approximately ebam/bam-5.html, 2007). Comparable results were obtained by both methods. Only live Salmonella cells could be detected by this qRT-PCR assay, thus avoiding the dangers of false-positive results from nonviable cells. False negatives (inhibition of the PCR) were also ruled out through the use of an RNA internal control. This assay allows for the fast and accurate detection of viable Salmonella spp. in spinach, tomatoes, and in both jalapeno and serrano peppers.

  10. [Research progress of real-time quantitative PCR method for group A rotavirus detection].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Qing; Li, Dan-Di; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Group A rotavirus is one of the most significant etiological agents which causes acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. So far, several method which includes electron microscopy (EM), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and Real-time Quantitative PCR has been established for the detection of rotavirus. Compared with other methods, Real-time quantitative PCR have advantages in specificity, sensitivity, genotyping and quantitative accuracy. This article shows a overview of the application of real-time quantitative PCR technique to detecte group A rotavirus.

  11. Validation and Application of a Commercial Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-PCR Assay in Investigation of a Large Dengue Virus Outbreak in Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huey-Pin; Tsai, You-Yuan; Lin, I-Ting; Kuo, Pin-Hwa; Chang, Kung-Chao; Chen, Jung-Chin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate, rapid, and early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infections is essential for optimal clinical care. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-LightMix dengue virus EC kit for DENV detection using samples from a dengue outbreak in Taiwan in 2015. Methods Sera from patients with suspected DENV infection were analyzed and compared using the LightMix kit, a Dengue NS1 Ag + Ab Combo kit for detection of NS1 antigen and DENV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and an “in-house” qualitative DENV-specific RT-PCR assay. Results A total of 8,989, 8,954, and 1581 samples were subjected to NS1 antigen detection, IgM and IgG detection, and LightMix assays, respectively. The LightMix assay yielded a linear curve for viral loads (VL) between 102 and 106 copies/reaction, and the minimum detection limits for DENV serotype 1 (DENV1) and DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4 were 1, 10, and 100 focus forming units (FFU)/mL, respectively. There was 88.9% concordance between the results obtained using the NS1 antigen combo kit and by LightMix analysis, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the two methods were 89.4 and 100%, and 84.7 and 100%, respectively. Notably, fatal cases were attributed to DENV2 infection, and 79.5% (27/34) of these cases occurred in patients ≥ 71 years of age. Among these older patients, 82.3% (14/17) were NS1/IgM/IgG (+/-/-), exhibiting VLs between 106–109 copies/mL, which was markedly higher than the rate observed in the other age groups. Conclusions The LightMix assay was effective for early diagnosis of DENV infection. Our data indicate that high VLs during primary infection in elderly patients may be a positive predictor for severe illness, and may contribute to high mortality rates. PMID:27732593

  12. Development and Validation of a Quantitative, One-Step, Multiplex, Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Monika; Myers, Todd; Guevara, Carolina; Jungkind, Donald; Williams, Maya; Houng, Huo-Shu

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens with common transmission vectors and similar clinical presentations. Patient care may be impacted by the misdiagnosis of DENV and CHIKV in areas where both viruses cocirculate. In this study, we have developed and validated a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) to simultaneously detect, quantify, and differentiate between four DENV serotypes (pan-DENV) and chikungunya virus. The assay uses TaqMan technology, employing two forward primers, three reverse primers, and four fluorophore-labeled probes in a single-reaction format. Coextracted and coamplified RNA was used as an internal control (IC), and in vitro-transcribed DENV and CHIKV RNAs were used to generate standard curves for absolute quantification. The diagnostic 95% limits of detection (LOD) within the linear range were 50 and 60 RNA copies/reaction for DENV (serotypes 1 to 4) and CHIKV, respectively. Our assay was able to detect 53 different strains of DENV, representing four serotypes, and six strains of CHIKV. No cross-reactivity was observed with related flaviviruses and alphaviruses, To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, 89 clinical samples positive or negative for DENV (serotypes 1 to 4) and CHIKV by the standard virus isolation method were tested in our assay. The multiplex RT-PCR assay showed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity for DENV and 100% sensitivity and specificity for CHIKV. With an assay turnaround time of less than 2 h, including extraction of RNA, the multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assay provides rapid diagnosis for the differential detection of two clinically indistinguishable diseases, whose geographical occurrence is increasingly overlapping. PMID:27098955

  13. Application of Reverse Transcription-PCR and Real-Time PCR in Nanotoxicity Research

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yiqun; Wan, Rong; Zhang, Qunwei

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a relatively simple and inexpensive technique to determine the expression level of target genes and is widely used in biomedical science research including nanotoxicology studies for semiquantitative analysis. Real-time PCR allows for the detection of PCR amplification in the exponential growth phase of the reaction and is much more quantitative than traditional RT-PCR. Although a number of kits and reagents for RT-PCR and real-time PCR are commercially available, the basic principles are the same. Here, we describe the procedures for total RNA isolation by using TRI Reagent, for reverse transcription (RT) by M-MLV reverse transcriptase, and for PCR by GoTaq® DNA Polymerase. And real-time PCR will be performed on an iQ5 multicolor real-time PCR detection system by using iQ™ SYBR Green Supermix. PMID:22975959

  14. Towards quantitative mRNA analysis in paraffin-embedded tissues using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: a methodological study on lymph nodes from melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Helene Nortvig; Steiniche, Torben; Nexo, Ebba; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2003-02-01

    Improved extraction techniques combined with sensitive real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction may allow detection of mRNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials, but the factors affecting mRNA quantification in clinical material using these methods have not been systematically analyzed. We designed analyses using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for quantification of MART-1, beta-actin, and beta(2)-microglobulin mRNAs. The analytical intra- and interassay imprecision (coefficient of variation) was in the range 10 to 20% for all three genes studied. Using these protocols, we studied the influence of tissue autolysis and length of formalin-fixation on mRNA detection in metastatic melanoma. Delay in freezing reduced detectable mRNA, although this was less than predicted and mostly occurred early in autolysis. MART-1, beta-actin, and beta(2)-microglobulin mRNAs were consistently detected in FFPE metastatic melanoma even after fixation for up to 3 weeks, although the total mRNA detected was markedly reduced in fixed compared with fresh tissues (up to 99%). Quantification of MART-1 was, however, possible if this was expressed relative to a housekeeping gene. The polymerase chain reaction product from FFPE tissues could be increased up to 100-fold amplifying short (<136 bp) compared with long amplicons. Variations in time before tissue processing and in fixation length seem to be less important sources of imprecision than previously assumed. Our findings suggest that quantitative analysis of mRNA in archive and routine diagnostic tissues may be possible.

  15. Real-time NASBA detection of SARS-associated coronavirus and comparison with real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Keightley, Maria Cristina; Sillekens, Peter; Schippers, Wim; Rinaldo, Charles; George, Kirsten St

    2005-12-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) exhibits a high mortality rate and the potential for rapid epidemic spread. Additionally, it has a poorly defined clinical presentation, and no known treatment or prevention methods. Collectively, these factors underscore the need for early diagnosis. Molecular tests have been developed to detect SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) RNA using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with varying levels of sensitivity. However, RNA amplification methods have been demonstrated to be more sensitive for the detection of some RNA viruses. We therefore developed a real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) test for SARS-CoV. A number of primer/beacon sets were designed to target different regions of the SARS-CoV genome, and were tested for sensitivity and specificity. The performance of the assays was compared with RT-PCR assays. A multi-target real-time NASBA application was developed for detection of SARS-CoV polymerase (Pol) and nucleocapsid (N) genes. The N targets were found to be consistently more sensitive than the Pol targets, and the real-time NASBA assay demonstrates equivalent sensitivity when compared to testing by real-time RT-PCR. A multi-target real-time NASBA assay has been successfully developed for the sensitive detection of SARS-CoV.

  16. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hoa V; Bhaduri, Basanta; Tangella, Krishnarao; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Popescu, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter) are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology. PMID:23405194

  17. Development and validation of a real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay for investigation of wild poliovirus type 1-South Asian (SOAS) strain reintroduced into Israel, 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Hindiyeh, M Y; Moran-Gilad, J; Manor, Y; Ram, D; Shulman, L M; Sofer, D; Mendelson, E

    2014-02-20

    In February 2013, wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reintroduced into southern Israel and resulted in continuous silent circulation in the highly immune population. As a part of the public health emergency response, a novel real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was developed, to allow for the sensitive and specific detection of the circulatingWPV1-South Asian (SOAS) strain. Specific primers and probes derived from the VP-1 region were designed, based on sequenced sewage isolates, and used to simultaneously amplify this WPV1-SOAS sequence together with bacteriophage MS-2 as internal control. High titre WPV1-SOAS stock virus was used for assay optimisation and 50 processed sewage samples collected from southern Israel and tested by reference culture based methods were used for analytical validation of the assay’s performance. The limit of detection of the multiplex qRT-PCR (SOAS/MS-2) assay was 0.1 plaque-forming unit (pfu)/reaction (20 pfu/mL) for WPV1-SOAS RNA with 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values when compared to the culture based method. The turnaround time was rapid, providing results for environmental samples within 24 to 48 hours from completion of sewage processing, instead of five to seven days by culture-based analysis. Direct sewage testing by qRT-PCR assay proved to be a useful tool for rapid detection and environmental surveillance of WPV1-SOAS circulating strain during emergency response. Application of the approach for detection of WPV1-SOAS in stool samples obtained during acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance or field surveys should be further evaluated.

  18. Detection of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Jenny; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo

    2011-07-01

    The thermophilic actinomycete species Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula has been associated with the exogen allergic alveolitis (EAA). EAA is caused by the inhalation of high amounts of airborne spores that can be found for example in environments of agricultural production, compost facilities, mushroom cultivation rooms, or rooms with technical air moistening. Because of the medical relevance of S. rectivirgula, a reliable detection system is needed. Therefore, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer system was designed, targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the type strain S. rectivirgula DSM 43747(T) and six other S. rectivirgula reference strains. Our investigation showed that S. rectivirgula presumably own four operons of the 16S rRNA gene, which has to be considered for estimation of cell equivalents. Furthermore, the DNA recovery efficiency from these strains was tested in combination with bioaerosol or material sample as well as the influence of non-target DNA to the recovery rate. Results showed a recovery DNA efficiency of 7-55%. The recovery rate of DNA in a mixture with non-target DNA resulted in ∼87%. In summary, a high amplification efficiency using real-time PCR was found, for which estimated concentrations revealed cell numbers of 2.7 × 10(5) cells m(-3) in bioaerosol and 2.8 × 10(6) cells g(-1) fw(-1) in material samples from a duck house. The specificity of the new developed quantification system was shown by generation of two clone libraries from bioarosol samples, from a duck house, and from a composting plant. Totally, the results clearly show the specificity and practicability of the established qPCR assay for detection of S. rectivirgula.

  19. Real-Time Quantitative PCR for Human Herpesvirus 6 DNA

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Giuseppe; Santoro, Fabio; Veglia, Fabrizio; Gobbi, Alberto; Lusso, Paolo; Malnati, Mauro S.

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection represents a complex issue because the most widely used diagnostic tools, such as immunoglobulin G antibody titer determination and qualitative DNA PCR with blood cells, are unable to distinguish between latent (clinically silent) and active (often clinically relevant) infection. We have developed a new, highly sensitive, quantitative PCR assay for the accurate measurement of HHV-6 DNA in tissue-derived cell suspensions and body fluids. The test uses a 5′ nuclease, fluorogenic assay combined with real-time detection of PCR amplification products with the ABI PRISM 7700 sequence detector system. The sensitivity of this method is equal to the sensitivity of a nested PCR protocol (lower detection limit, 1 viral genome equivalent/test) for both the A and the B HHV-6 subgroups and shows a wider dynamic range of detection (from 1 to 106 viral genome equivalents/test) and a higher degree of accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility compared to those of a standard quantitative-competitive PCR assay developed with the same reference DNA molecule. The novel technique is versatile, showing the same sensitivity and dynamic range with viral DNA extracted from different fluids (i.e., culture medium or plasma) or from tissue-derived cell suspensions. Furthermore, by virtue of its high-throughput format, this method is well suited for large epidemiological surveys. PMID:11060066

  20. Real-time quantitative phase imaging for cell studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hoa Vinh

    Most biological cells are not clearly visible with a bright field microscope. Several methods have been developed to improve contrast in cell imaging, including use of exogenous contrast agents such as fluorescence microscopy, as well as utilizing properties of light-specimen interaction for optics design, to reveal the endogenous contrast, such as phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Although PCM and DIC methods significantly improve the image contrast without the need for staining agents, they only provide qualitative information about the phase change induced by the cells as light passes through them. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has recently emerged as an effective imaging tool which provides not only better image contrast but also cell-induced phase shifts in the optical pathlength, thus allowing nanometer-scale measurements of structures and dynamics of the cells. Other important aspects of an imaging system are its imaging speed and throughput. High-throughput, high-speed, real-time quantitative phase imaging with high spatial and temporal sensitivity is highly desirable in many applications including applied physics and biomedicine. In this dissertation, to address this need, I discuss the development of such an imaging system that includes the white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a new optical imaging method, and image reconstruction/analysis algorithms using graphics processing units (GPUs). wDPM can measure optical pathlength changes at nanometer scale both spatially and temporally with single-shot image acquisition, enabling very fast imaging. I also exploit the broadband spectrum of white light used as the light source in wDPM to develop a system called spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy (sDPM). This sDPM system allows QPI measurements at several wavelengths, which solves the problem of thickness and refractive index coupling in the phase shifts induced by the cell, and which

  1. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions.

    PubMed

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed-or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology-to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification.

  2. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions

    SciTech Connect

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-08-15

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed—or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology—to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. - Highlights: • We introduce four methods for virus particle-based quantification of viruses. • They allow for quantification of a wide range of samples in under an hour time. • The additional measurement of size and zeta potential is possible for some.

  3. Critical analysis of rhinovirus RNA load quantification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Schibler, Manuel; Yerly, Sabine; Vieille, Gaël; Docquier, Mylène; Turin, Lara; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2012-09-01

    Rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of human respiratory infections, and quantitative rhinovirus diagnostic tools are needed for clinical investigations. Although results obtained by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays are frequently converted to viral RNA loads, this presents several limitations regarding accurate virus RNA quantification, particularly given the need to reliably quantify all known rhinovirus genotypes with a single assay. Using an internal extraction control and serial dilutions of an in vitro-transcribed rhinovirus RNA reference standard, we validated a quantitative one-step real-time PCR assay. We then used chimeric rhinovirus genomes with 5'-untranslated regions (5'UTRs) originating from the three rhinovirus species and from one enterovirus to estimate the impact of the 5'UTR diversity. Respiratory specimens from infected patients were then also analyzed. The assay quantification ability ranged from 4.10 to 9.10 log RNA copies/ml, with an estimated error margin of ±10%. This variation was mainly linked to target variability and interassay variability. Taken together, our results indicate that our assay can reliably estimate rhinovirus RNA load, provided that the appropriate error margin is used. In contrast, due to the lack of a universal rhinovirus RNA standard and the variability related to sample collection procedures, accurate absolute rhinovirus RNA quantification in respiratory specimens is currently hardly feasible.

  4. QUANTIFICATION OF ENTEROVIRUS AND HEPATITIS A VIRUSES IN WELLS AND SPRINGS IN EAST TENNESSEE USING REAL-TIME REVERSE TRANSCIPTION PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves development, validation testing and application of a fast, efficient method of quantitatively measuring occurrence and concentration of common human viral pathogens, enterovirus and hepatitis A virus, in ground water samples using real-time reverse transcrip...

  5. Real Time Quantitative Radiological Monitoring Equipment for Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Giles; Lyle G. Roybal; Michael V. Carpenter

    2006-03-01

    and measures. These analyses are combined to provide real-time areal activity and coverage maps that are displayed to the operator as the survey progresses. The flexible functionality of the INL systems are well suited to multiple roles supporting homeland security needs.

  6. Quantitative detection of Listeria monocytogenes in biofilms by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Guilbaud, Morgan; de Coppet, Pierre; Bourion, Fabrice; Rachman, Cinta; Prévost, Hervé; Dousset, Xavier

    2005-04-01

    A quantitative method based on a real-time PCR assay to enumerate Listeria monocytogenes in biofilms was developed. The specificity for L. monocytogenes of primers targeting the listeriolysin gene was demonstrated using a SYBR Green I real-time PCR assay. The number of L. monocytogenes detected growing in biofilms was 6 x 10(2) CFU/cm2.

  7. Real Time Quantitative 3-D Imaging of Diffusion Flame Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Daniel J.; Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for study of combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Even the use of so-called 'limiting cases' or the construction of 1-D or 2-D models and experiments fail to make the analysis of combustion simultaneously simple and accurate. Ideally, to bridge the gap between chemistry and fluid mechanics in microgravity combustion, species concentrations and temperature profiles are needed throughout the flame. However, restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, especially size and weight considerations, have generally limited microgravity combustion studies to the capture of flame emissions on film or video laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated studies are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the computational models. While there have been a myriad of fluid mechanical visualization studies in microgravity combustion, little experimental work has been completed to obtain reactant and product concentrations within a microgravity flame. This is largely due to the fact that traditional sampling methods (quenching microprobes using GC and/or mass spec analysis) are too heavy, slow, and cumbersome for microgravity experiments. Non-intrusive optical spectroscopic techniques have - up until now - also required excessively bulky, power hungry equipment. However, with the advent of near-IR diode

  8. Evaluation of absolute quantitation by nonlinear regression in probe-based real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Rasmus; Olsen, Trine; Cui, Guanglin; Florholmen, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Background In real-time PCR data analysis, the cycle threshold (CT) method is currently the gold standard. This method is based on an assumption of equal PCR efficiency in all reactions, and precision may suffer if this condition is not met. Nonlinear regression analysis (NLR) or curve fitting has therefore been suggested as an alternative to the cycle threshold method for absolute quantitation. The advantages of NLR are that the individual sample efficiency is simulated by the model and that absolute quantitation is possible without a standard curve, releasing reaction wells for unknown samples. However, the calculation method has not been evaluated systematically and has not previously been applied to a TaqMan platform. Aim: To develop and evaluate an automated NLR algorithm capable of generating batch production regression analysis. Results Total RNA samples extracted from human gastric mucosa were reverse transcribed and analysed for TNFA, IL18 and ACTB by TaqMan real-time PCR. Fluorescence data were analysed by the regular CT method with a standard curve, and by NLR with a positive control for conversion of fluorescence intensity to copy number, and for this purpose an automated algorithm was written in SPSS syntax. Eleven separate regression models were tested, and the output data was subjected to Altman-Bland analysis. The Altman-Bland analysis showed that the best regression model yielded quantitative data with an intra-assay variation of 58% vs. 24% for the CT derived copy numbers, and with a mean inter-method deviation of × 0.8. Conclusion NLR can be automated for batch production analysis, but the CT method is more precise for absolute quantitation in the present setting. The observed inter-method deviation is an indication that assessment of the fluorescence conversion factor used in the regression method can be improved. However, the versatility depends on the level of precision required, and in some settings the increased cost effectiveness of NLR

  9. The workflow of single-cell expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Kubista, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Biological material is heterogeneous and when exposed to stimuli the various cells present respond differently. Much of the complexity can be eliminated by disintegrating the sample, studying the cells one by one. Single-cell profiling reveals responses that go unnoticed when classical samples are studied. New cell types and cell subtypes may be found and relevant pathways and expression networks can be identified. The most powerful technique for single-cell expression profiling is currently quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). A robust RT-qPCR workflow for highly sensitive and specific measurements in high-throughput and a reasonable degree of multiplexing has been developed for targeting mRNAs, but also microRNAs, non-coding RNAs and most recently also proteins. We review the current state of the art of single-cell expression profiling and present also the improvements and developments expected in the next 5 years. PMID:24649819

  10. Quantification of substance p mRNA in human immune cells by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jian-Ping; Douglas, Steven D; Shaheen, Farida; Pleasure, David E; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2002-01-01

    We have applied a newly developed real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR (RT-PCR) assay for quantification of substance P (SP) mRNA expression (the SP real-time RT-PCR assay) in human blood monocyte-derived macrophages, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and microglia isolated from fetal brain. The SP real-time RT-PCR assay had a sensitivity of 60 mRNA copies, with a dynamic range of detection between 60 and 600,000 copies of the SP gene transcript per reaction mixture. The coefficient of variation of the threshold cycle number between the SP real-time RT-PCR assays was less than 1.16%. This assay with an SP-specific primer pair efficiently recognizes all four isoforms of preprotachykinin A (the SP precursor) gene transcripts. In order to use this assay to measure the levels of SP mRNA in the human immune cells quantitatively, we designed a specific probe (molecular beacon) derived from exon 3 of the SP gene. We demonstrated that the real-time RT-PCR quantitatively detected SP mRNA in the human immune cells, among which the microglia isolated from fetal brain had the highest levels of SP mRNA. The SP real-time PCR assay yielded reproducible data, as the intra-assay variation was less than 1%. Thus, it is feasible to apply the real-time RT-PCR assay for quantification of SP mRNA levels in human immune cells, as well as in other nonneuronal cells. Since SP is a major modulator of neuroimmunoregulation, this assay has the potential for widespread application for basic and clinical investigations.

  11. Quantitative detection of Aspergillus spp. by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanan; Perlin, David S

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and quantitative detection of Aspergillus from clinical samples may facilitate an early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). As nucleic acid-based detection is a viable option, we demonstrate that Aspergillus burdens can be rapidly and accurately detected by a novel real-time nucleic acid assay other than qPCR by using the combination of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and the molecular beacon (MB) technology. Here, we detail a real-time NASBA assay to determine quantitative Aspergillus burdens in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids of rats with experimental IPA.

  12. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    PubMed

    Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P; Miguel, Célia

    2012-01-01

    The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks.

  13. Gene Profiling Studies in Skeletal Muscle by Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Shephali; Panguluri, Siva K.; Kumar, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Gene profiling is an excellent tool to identify the genetic mechanisms, networks, and molecular pathways involved in skeletal muscle development and muscular disorders. Oligonucleotide or cDNA microarray can be the first step to identify the global gene expression in the study of interest. As microarray techniques provide a large set of differentially expressed genes in a given comparison, the expression profile can be narrowed down by taking various parameters into consideration such as fold values, p-values, and their relevance to the study. Every technique has its own limitations. Therefore, further validation of the results with a different technique is always necessary. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most common technique to validate microarray data and to study the relative expression of specific genes in any experimental set-up. Here, we describe, the qRT-PCR technique, in detail, for -successful gene expression studies in skeletal muscle cells and tissues. PMID:22130845

  14. [Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in cotton bollworm, Helicoverna armigera].

    PubMed

    Chandra, G Sharath; Asokan, R; Manamohan, M; Kumar, N K K; Sita, T

    2014-01-01

    Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), a sensitive technique is being extensively employed in quantification of gene expression. However this requires normalization with suitable reference gene (RG) which is crucial in minimizing inter sample variations. Information regarding suitable RG is scarce in general and more so in insects, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, an economically important pest. In management of this pest RNA interference (RNAi), is perceived as a potential tool, which is achieved by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery. These studies demand accurate quantification of gene silencing. In this study we assessed the suitability of five RGs viz. β-actin (ACTB), 18S rRNA (18S), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-tubulin (TUB) and elongation fator-1-alfa (EF1-α) for gene expression studies in dsRNA treatment and across different developmental stages of H. armigera and ranked using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. Data analysis revealed that best ranked RGs were varied in dsRNA treatment and in developmental stages. Under dsRNA treatment, 18S and GAPDH were more stable whereas, TUB and GAPDH were more stable across developmental stages. We also demonstrate that inappropriate selection of RG led to erroneous estimation of the target gene, chymotrypsin, expression. These results facilitate accurate quantification of gene expression in H. armigera.

  15. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  16. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for the Detection of Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays available to detect and enumerate fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and probes that target different rRNA genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in concentration es...

  17. Quantitation of Bacillus clausii in biological samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Mario; Mancini, Nicasio; Cavallero, Annalisa; Carletti, Silvia; Canducci, Filippo; Burioni, Roberto; Clementi, Massimo

    2006-06-01

    A real-time PCR assay targeting the highly specific erm34 sequence of Bacillus clausii DNA was developed and optimized. The quantitative assay showed a sensitivity level of 10(2) CFU/microl of sample. The method may represent a useful tool for monitoring the role of B. clausii as probiotic in vivo. PMID:16318892

  18. Real-Time Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for SARS-associated Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Shannon L.; Bowen, Michael D.; Newton, Bruce R.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Meyer, Richard F.; Tong, Suxiang; Cook, Byron T.; Holloway, Brian P.; McCaustland, Karen A.; Rota, Paul A.; Bankamp, Bettina; Lowe, Luis E.; Ksiazek, Tom G.; Bellini, William J.; Anderson, Larry J.

    2004-01-01

    A real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to rapidly detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The assay, based on multiple primer and probe sets located in different regions of the SARS-CoV genome, could discriminate SARS-CoV from other human and animal coronaviruses with a potential detection limit of <10 genomic copies per reaction. The real-time RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than a conventional RT-PCR assay or culture isolation and proved suitable to detect SARS-CoV in clinical specimens. Application of this assay will aid in diagnosing SARS-CoV infection. PMID:15030703

  19. Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hoa; Ding, Huafeng; Sobh, Nahil; Do, Minh; Patel, Sanjay; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate real time off-axis Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) using a phase reconstruction algorithm based on NVIDIA’s CUDA programming model. The phase unwrapping component is based on Goldstein’s algorithm. By mapping the process of extracting phase information and unwrapping to GPU, we are able to speed up the whole procedure by more than 18.8× with respect to CPU processing and ultimately achieve video rate for mega-pixel images. Our CUDA implementation also supports processing of multiple images simultaneously. This enables our imaging system to support high speed, high throughput, and real-time image acquisition and visualization. PMID:21750757

  20. Quantitation of viral load by real-time PCR-monitoring Invader reaction.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Egashira, Toru; Hara, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    With its broad effective range for fluorescence detection, real-time PCR is one of the most valuable techniques for quantitation in molecular biology. A modified real-time PCR assay is described for determining viral load. The assay uses fluorescence to measure the number of PCR amplicons by monitoring the Invader reaction in four steps in the thermal cycle. The Invader reaction with its cleavase was performed at moderate temperature after the amplicon was denatured at a high temperature. The method was as effective as real-time PCR with a TaqMan probe in determining the quantity of virus in samples of human papillomavirus type 16. Importantly, the assay allows the use of a common probe for multiple reactions. Thus, this method is a rapid inexpensive assay with a common fluorescence probe that does not depend on the conformation of the target DNAs. PMID:19014973

  1. Ion sensing (EIS) real-time quantitative monitorization of isothermal DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Veigas, Bruno; Branquinho, Rita; Pinto, Joana V; Wojcik, Pawel J; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro V

    2014-02-15

    Field-effect-based devices are becoming a basic structural element in a new generation of microbiosensors. Reliable molecular characterization of DNA and/or RNA is of paramount importance for disease diagnostics and to follow up alterations in gene expression profiles. The use of such devices for point-of-need diagnostics has been hindered by the need of standard or real-time PCR amplification procedures. The present work focuses on the development of a tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) based sensor for the real-time label free detection of DNA amplification via loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allowing for quantitative analysis of the cMYC proto-oncogene. The strategy based on the field effect sensor was tested within a range of 1 × 10(8)-10(11) copies of target DNA, and a linear relationship between the log copy number of the initial template DNA and threshold time was observed allowing for a semi-quantitative analysis of DNA template. The concept offers many of the advantages of isothermal quantitative real-time DNA amplification in a label free approach and may pave the way to point-of-care quantitative molecular analysis focused on ease of use and low cost. PMID:24021655

  2. Quantitative assay of photoinduced DNA strand breaks by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wiczk, Justyna; Westphal, Kinga; Rak, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) - a modern methodology primarily used for studying gene expression has been employed for the quantitative assay of an important class of DNA damage - single strand breaks. These DNA lesions which may lead to highly cytotoxic double strand breaks were quantified in a model system where double stranded DNA was sensitized to UV photons by labeling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. The amount of breaks formed due to irradiation with several doses of 320nm photons was assayed by two independent methods: LC-MS and qPCR. A very good agreement between the relative damage measured by the two completely different analytical tools proves the applicability of qPCR for the quantitative analysis of SSBs. Our results suggest that the popularity of the hitherto underestimated though accurate and site-specific technique of real-time PCR may increase in future DNA damage studies.

  3. Expression profiling by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).

    PubMed

    Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR is a variation of the standard PCR technique that is commonly used to quantify nucleic acid. However, in this technique the amount of amplified specific sequence can be quantified at each stage of the PCR cycle. If investigated sequence is present in large number of copies in particular sample, amplification product is detected already in earlier cycles; if the sequence is rare, amplification is observed in later cycles. Quantification of amplified product is acquired using fluorescent probes or fluorescent DNA-binding dyes. Accumulation of fluorescent signal can be measured by real-time PCR instruments during each of 35-45 cycwwles of the PCR reaction, which simplify the procedure by eliminating the visualization of the amplified products using gel electrophoresis. Real-time-PCR allows quantifying the amount of product already during the PCR reaction as soon as it is detectable. Correctly performed, this method may be used for precise gene expression analysis in life science, medicine, and diagnostics and has become the standard method of choice for the quantification of mRNA. However in the past few years it became obvious that real-time PCR is complex and variability of RNA templates, assay designs, inappropriate data normalization, and data interpretation may cause diverse analytical problems.

  4. Real-time PCR assay for rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Erika; Perkátai, Katalin; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Farkas, Agnes; Kucsera, István

    2012-12-01

    Simple real-time PCR assay with one set of primer and probe for rapid, sensitive qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica has been used. Consensus sequences were used to amplify a species-specific region of the 16S rRNA gene, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes were used for detection in a LightCycler platform (Roche). The anchor probe sequence was designed to be a perfect match for the 16S rRNA gene of Entamoeba species, while the acceptor probe sequence was designed for Entamoeba histolytica, which allowed differentiation. The performed characteristics of the real-time PCR assay were compared with ELISA antigen and microscopical detection from 77 samples of individuals with suspected clinical diagnosis of imported E. histolytica infection. Stool and liver abscess pus samples were examined with analytical sensitivity of 5 parasites per PCR reaction. The melting curve means Tms (standard deviation) in clinical isolates were 54°C. The real-time assay was 100% sensitive and specific for differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, compared with conventional ELISA or microscopy. This real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis is rapid, and specific for the detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica. The suitability for routine use of this assay in clinical diagnostic laboratories is discussed.

  5. Real-time Assessment of Flow Reversal in an Eccentric Arterial Stenotic Model

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lisong; Zhang, Lequan; Dai, Wangde; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2010-01-01

    Plaque rupture is the leading cause of acute coronary syndromes and stroke. Plaque formation, or otherwise known as stenosis, preferentially occurs in the regions of arterial bifurcation or curvatures. To date, real-time assessment of stenosis-induced flow reversal remains a clinical challenge. By interfacing Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) thermal sensors with the high frequency Pulsed Wave (PW) Doppler ultrasound, we proposed to assess flow reversal in the presence of an eccentric stenosis. We developed a 3-D stenotic model (inner diameter of 6 mm, an eccentric stenosis with a height of 2.75mm and width of 21 mm) simulating a superficial arterial vessel. We demonstrated that heat transfer from the sensing element (2 × 80 μm) to the flow field peaked as a function of flow rates at the throat of the stenosis alone the center/midline of arterial model, and dropped downstream from the stenosis where flow reversal was detected by the high frequency ultrasound device at 45 MHz. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes were in agreement with the ultrasound-acquired flow profiles upstream, downstream, and at the throat of the stenosis. Hence, we characterized regions of eccentric stenosis in terms of changes in heat transfer alone the midline of vessel and identified points of flow reversal with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:20655537

  6. Real-time RT-PCR for quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji Hong; Lai, Jian Ping; Douglas, Steven D; Metzger, David; Zhu, Xian Hua; Ho, Wen Zhe

    2002-04-01

    A newly developed real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction assay for quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in human plasma and serum was applied. A pair of primers and a probe (molecular beacon) were designed that are specific for the recognition of a highly conservative 5'-non-coding region (5'-NCR) in HCV genome. HCV real-time RT-PCR assay had a sensitivity of 1000 RNA copies per reaction, with a dynamic range of detection between 10(3) and 10(7) RNA copies. The coefficient variation of threshold cycle (Ct) values in intra- and inter-runs were less than 1.37 and 4.66%, respectively. The real-time RT-PCR assay on the HCV sero-positive samples yielded reproducible data, with less than 2.09% of the inter-assay variation. In order to determine its potential for clinical diagnosis, real-time RT-PCR was used to examine the HCV RNA levels in plasma from sero-positive and negative subjects, showing that the assay is highly sensitive and has specificity of 100%. It was demonstrated that the real-time RT-PCR was able to amplify HCV RNA in reference sera with seven genotypes (1A, 1B, 2B, 3A, 4, 5A and 6A) that include six major HCV genotypes circulated in the world. Since HCV is a major pathogen of post-transfusion and community-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis, this assay has a broad application for basic and clinical investigations.

  7. Quantitation of HIV-1 RNA in breast milk by real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Becquart, Pierre; Foulongne, Vincent; Willumsen, Juana; Rouzioux, Christine; Segondy, Michel; Van de Perre, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    HIV-1 RNA in breast milk is a strong predictor of HIV-1 transmission through breastfeeding. In the present report, breast milk samples from HIV-1 uninfected donors were spiked with dilution of quantified culture supernatant from HIV-1(NDK) infected PBMC. Two RNA extraction techniques based on silica extraction, Nuclisens (BioMerieux) and Triazol (Qiagen), two techniques based on guanidine thiocynanate/chloroforme extraction, TRIzol (Life Technologie) and Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor (Roche Diagnostic Systems), and one technique based on electrostatic adsorption on iron oxide micro beads (Promega) were compared. HIV-1 RNA was quantitated by real time PCR (LTR gene) and Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor. Combining magnetic micro beads extraction and real time PCR quantitation allowed to correctly quantify breast milk HIV-1 RNA, with a difference between the expected and measured HIV-1 RNA levels always lower than 0.3 log copies/ml. The same combination was confirmed on 25 breast milk samples from HIV-1 infected women collected in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, by comparing measurements with those obtained by the Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor (r(2)=0.88). Nucleic acid extraction by magnetic micro beads followed by real time PCR is a reliable, sensitive, rapid and simple procedure to quantify HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and allows for PCR inhibitors found frequently in these samples.

  8. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this. PMID:19602858

  9. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this.

  10. Quantitative real-time monitoring of dryer effluent using fiber optic near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Harris, S C; Walker, D S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes a method for real-time quantitation of the solvents evaporating from a dryer. The vapor stream in the vacuum line of a dryer was monitored in real time using a fiber optic-coupled acousto-optic tunable filter near-infrared (AOTF-NIR) spectrometer. A balance was placed in the dryer, and mass readings were recorded for every scan of the AOTF-NIR. A partial least-squares (PLS) calibration was subsequently built based on change in mass over change in time for solvents typically used in a chemical manufacturing plant. Controlling software for the AOTF-NIR was developed. The software collects spectra, builds the PLS calibration model, and continuously fits subsequently collected spectra to the calibration, allowing the operator to follow the mass loss of solvent from the dryer. The results indicate that solvent loss can be monitored and quantitated in real time using NIR for the optimization of drying times. These time-based mass loss values have also been used to calculate "dynamic" vapor density values for the solvents. The values calculated are in agreement with values determined from the ideal gas law and could prove valuable as tools to measure temperature or pressure indirectly. PMID:10944383

  11. A real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection and quantification of Vesiculovirus

    PubMed Central

    Tolardo, Aline Lavado; de Souza, William Marciel; Romeiro, Marilia Farignoli; Vieira, Luiz Carlos; Luna, Luciano Kleber de Souza; Henriques, Dyana Alves; de Araujo, Jansen; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo Hassegawa; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Aquino, Victor Hugo; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Morais; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Vesiculoviruses (VSV) are zoonotic viruses that cause vesicular stomatitis disease in cattle, horses and pigs, as well as sporadic human cases of acute febrile illness. Therefore, diagnosis of VSV infections by reliable laboratory techniques is important to allow a proper case management and implementation of strategies for the containment of virus spread. We show here a sensitive and reproducible real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection and quantification of VSV. The assay was evaluated with arthropods and serum samples obtained from horses, cattle and patients with acute febrile disease. The real-time RT-PCR amplified the Piry, Carajas, Alagoas and Indiana Vesiculovirus at a melting temperature 81.02 ± 0.8ºC, and the sensitivity of assay was estimated in 10 RNA copies/mL to the Piry Vesiculovirus. The viral genome has been detected in samples of horses and cattle, but not detected in human sera or arthropods. Thus, this assay allows a preliminary differential diagnosis of VSV infections. PMID:27276185

  12. Quantitation of HIV-1 by real-time PCR with a unique fluorogenic probe.

    PubMed

    Saha, B K; Tian, B; Bucy, R P

    2001-04-01

    Quantitation of HIV-1 specific RNA and DNA is pivotal to understanding the pathophysiology of HIV-1 diseases. A method has been developed for quantitation of HIV-1 DNA/RNA by real-time PCR using a unique fluorogenic primer-probe adduct known as scorpion. The probe hybridises to the extension of the adjoining primer intramolecularly, a process kinetically and thermodynamically more favourable than the conventional bimolecular probe-target hybridisation. Data presented in this paper indicate that the scorpion assay is extremely robust and is quite comparable to beacon-based assays. The scorpion assay is also comparable to quantitative competitive PCR (QC--PCR) assays but requires only a fraction of time and effort. Additionally, the dynamic range of the scorpion assay is several log-fold higher than the conventional end point PCR assays. As few as ten copies of vDNA can be detected in the presence of a large excess of exogenously added genomic DNA. Limiting dilution analysis indicates that the assay is capable of detecting a single copy of the viral template. Thus, the scorpion assay presents a specific and sensitive approach for quantitation of DNA/RNA templates by real-time PCR.

  13. Rapid quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in meat and fermented sausages by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Martín, Belén; Jofré, Anna; Garriga, Margarita; Pla, Maria; Aymerich, Teresa

    2006-09-01

    A quick and simple method for quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in fermented sausages was successfully developed. It is based on Chelex-100-based DNA purification and real-time PCR enumeration using a TaqMan fluorescence probe. Primers and probes were designed in the L. sakei 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region, and the assay was evaluated using L. sakei genomic DNA and an artificially inoculated sausage model. The detection limit of this technique was approximately 3 cells per reaction mixture using both purified DNA and the inoculated sausage model. The quantification limit was established at 30 cells per reaction mixture in both models. The assay was then applied to enumerate L. sakei in real samples, and the results were compared to the MRS agar count method followed by confirmation of the percentage of L. sakei colonies. The results obtained by real-time PCR were not statistically significantly different than those obtained by plate count on MRS agar (P > 0.05), showing a satisfactory agreement between both methods. Therefore, the real-time PCR assay developed can be considered a promising rapid alternative method for the quantification of L. sakei and evaluation of the implantation of starter strains of L. sakei in fermented sausages.

  14. Evaluation of internal control for gene expression in Phalaenopsis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiu-Yun; Jiang, Su-Hua; Wang, Mo-Fei; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Xian-Yun; Cui, Bo

    2014-07-01

    The selection of appropriate reference genes is one of the most important steps to obtain reliable results for normalizing quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of MADS-box gene in Phalaenopsis. In this study, we cloned 12 candidate reference genes including 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α), cytoskeletal structural protein actin (ACT1, ACT2, ACT3, ACT4, ACT5), ubiquitin protein (UBQ1 and UBQ2), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the cytoskeletal structural proteins α-tubulin (TUA) and β-tubulin (TUB) in Phalaenopsis and evaluated their expression reliability. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed using geNorm and normFinder software packages; the results showed that ACT2 and ACT4 were the highest stability reference genes for all experiment sets based on normFinder, followed by ACT1 or ACT3, while ACT3 and ACT4 were the highest stability reference genes for most experiment sets based on geNorm, then TUB or others. Taken together, Actin genes were the higher stability reference genes for all tissues at total developmental stages, and similar results came from analysis by normFinder. According to geNorm analysis, ACT3 and ACT4 were the most stable reference genes for all tissues tested and tissues at reproductive stages; TUB and ACT5 or ACT4 were the most stable reference genes for vegetative tissues or roots. The most stable reference genes for all vegetative tissues and only leaves were ACT4 and ACT5, ACT2 and ACT3, respectively; ACT1 and ACT3 were the most stable genes and sufficient for reliable normalization of flower tissues. While EF1α, UBQ1, UBQ2, and GAPDH were found to be unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis for flower tissues, total tissues, and reproductive stages; UBQ2 and 18S were identified as the least stable reference genes for vegetative tissues at different stages, different tissues at vegetative stages; TUA and 18S were the

  15. Quantitation of HIV-1 by real-time amplification and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Paul M.; Yang, Naiquan; Kroeger, Paul E.

    1998-04-01

    A model assay for HIV-1 using a non-competitive internal standard in quantitative RT-PCR was coupled with real-time detection of both analyte and internal standard (IS) signals in a closed system. Real-time detection by the PE-ABI Prism 7700 relied on TaqMan probes specific for HIV and IS. The exogenous, non-competitive IS RNA was added in the same, known amount to a series of HIV RNA standards. The threshold cycle ratio from this internal standard calibration curve was used in the quantitation of HIV. Two configurations of reporter labels were compared. The HEX-HIV:FAM-IS system was the most precise, with nearly half-log discrimination over a range of 102 through 105 copies HIV-1 RNA. The FAM- HIV:HEX-IS system was less precise, but more sensitive and resistant to sample inhibition. The analysis of these signals and their impact on the range and precision of HIV quantitation is discussed. The design and synthesis of the fluorescently-labelled probes is also described.

  16. Quantitative analysis of periodontal pathogens by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The development of analytical methods enabling the accurate identification and enumeration of bacterial species colonizing the oral cavity has led to the identification of a small number of bacterial pathogens that are major factors in the etiology of periodontal disease. Further, these methods also underpin more recent epidemiological analyses of the impact of periodontal disease on general health. Given the complex milieu of over 700 species of microorganisms known to exist within the complex biofilms found in the oral cavity, the identification and enumeration of oral periodontopathogens has not been an easy task. In recent years however, some of the intrinsic limitations of the more traditional microbiological analyses previously used have been overcome with the advent of immunological and molecular analytical methods. Of the plethora of methodologies reported in the literature, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which combines the specificity of antibody with the sensitivity of simple enzyme assays and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been widely utilized in both laboratory and clinical applications. Although conventional PCR does not allow quantitation of the target organism, real-time PCR (rtPCR) has the ability to detect amplicons as they accumulate in "real time" allowing subsequent quantitation. These methods enable the accurate quantitation of as few as 10(2) (using rtPCR) to 10(4) (using ELISA) periodontopathogens in dental plaque samples.

  17. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Gene Transcripts of Mosquito Follicles.

    PubMed

    Telang, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Real-time (quantitative) PCR, or QPCR, has become an indispensible tool for characterizing gene expression. Depending on the experimental design, researchers can use either the relative or absolute (standard curve) method to quantify transcript abundance. Characterizing the expression of genes in mosquito ovaries will require use of the standard curve method of quantification. Here, I describe reagents and equipment necessary to run standard curve QPCR. I also provide details on the construction of the standard linear curve and calculations required to determine transcript abundance. PMID:27557577

  18. Development and validation of a quantitative real time PCR assay for BK virus.

    PubMed

    Mitui, Midori; Leos, N Kristine; Lacey, Damon; Doern, Christopher; Rogers, Beverly B; Park, Jason Y

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that BK viral load in plasma and urine are reliable markers for the detection of BK virus associated nephropathy (BKVAN) in renal transplant patients. We developed a quantitative real time PCR assay based on TaqMan technology for the measurement of BK viral load in plasma and urine. Considering the high similarity of the nucleotide sequence of the BK virus (BKV) with the JC virus (JCV), we designed this assay to specifically amplify BKV. We determined the viral DNA recovery rate on manual (QIAGEN's QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit) and automated (BioMerieux's NucliSENS EasyMAG) extraction methods. The comparison showed a higher viral DNA recovery rate on the automated extraction (61-76% in plasma and 52-65% in urine) as compared to the manual method (49-52% in plasma and 33-56% in urine). Quantitation of the viral load was performed using an external standard curve that was constructed with serial dilution of a plasmid containing the full length of the BKV genome. Commercially available quantitative BKV standards showed good correlation with the plasmid standard. The reproducibility of the assay was determined based on the Ct values of the amplified products as well as in BK copies per milliliter of sample. This assay is linear over a 7 log range (10 to 1 × 10(7) copies per reaction), no cross-reactivity was detected with the closest-related polyomavirus JCV, as well as other viruses that may be found in immunocompromised patients, and human genomic DNA. The limit of detection of the assay is 300 copies per milliliter in both plasma and urine and the limit of quantitation is 1000 copies per milliliter using the NATtrol BK Virus Linearity Panel (ZeptoMetrix). This real time PCR assay provides a reliable and sensitive method for the quantitation of BKV in plasma and urine samples.

  19. Real-time quantitative fluorescence measurement of microscale cell culture analog systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Taek-il; Kim, Donghyun; Tatosian, Daniel; Sung, Jong Hwan; Shuler, Michael

    2007-02-01

    A microscale cell culture analog (μCCA) is a cell-based lab-on-a-chip assay that, as an animal surrogate, is applied to pharmacological studies for toxicology tests. A μCCA typically comprises multiple chambers and microfluidics that connect the chambers, which represent animal organs and blood flow to mimic animal metabolism more realistically. A μCCA is expected to provide a tool for high-throughput drug discovery. Previously, a portable fluorescence detection system was investigated for a single μCCA device in real-time. In this study, we present a fluorescence-based imaging system that provides quantitative real-time data of the metabolic interactions in μCCAs with an emphasis on measuring multiple μCCA samples simultaneously for high-throughput screening. The detection system is based on discrete optics components, with a high-power LED and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as a light source and a detector, for monitoring cellular status on the chambers of each μCCA sample. Multiple samples are characterized mechanically on a motorized linear stage, which is fully-automated. Each μCCA sample has four chambers, where cell lines MES-SA/DX- 5, and MES-SA (tumor cells of human uterus) have been cultured. All cell-lines have been transfected to express the fusion protein H2B-GFP, which is a human histone protein fused at the amino terminus to EGFP. As a model cytotoxic drug, 10 μM doxorubicin (DOX) was used. Real-time quantitative data of the intensity loss of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) during cell death of target cells have been collected over several minutes to 40 hours. Design issues and improvements are also discussed.

  20. Rapid quantification of murine ABC mRNAs by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan Ru; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio

    2002-12-01

    Several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are critically involved in cholesterol and phospholipid efflux, reverse cholesterol transport, and play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Quantification of ABC mRNA is important in studying the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis and mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We have developed a one-step real time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for measuring mRNA levels of ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA2 in murine tissues using the TaqMan(TM) technology. It has significant methodological benefits when compared to classic Northern blotting or semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Using this method, we found high expression levels of ABCA1 in liver and macrophages, and of ABCG1 in the brain and macrophages. The expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 were further induced in macrophages loaded with acLDL. In contrast, ABCA2 was expressed exclusively in the brain with low expression levels in the macrophages. This method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible quantification of ABC mRNA, and can be performed with nanograms of total RNA sample, thus making it a superior method for studying the regulation of ABC transporters in cholesterol efflux and its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in murine models.

  1. Quantification Bias Caused by Plasmid DNA Conformation in Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the gold standard for the quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences. However, a serious concern has been revealed in a recent report: supercoiled plasmid standards cause significant over-estimation in qPCR quantification. In this study, we investigated the effect of plasmid DNA conformation on the quantification of DNA and the efficiency of qPCR. Our results suggest that plasmid DNA conformation has significant impact on the accuracy of absolute quantification by qPCR. DNA standard curves shifted significantly among plasmid standards with different DNA conformations. Moreover, the choice of DNA measurement method and plasmid DNA conformation may also contribute to the measurement error of DNA standard curves. Due to the multiple effects of plasmid DNA conformation on the accuracy of qPCR, efforts should be made to assure the highest consistency of plasmid standards for qPCR. Thus, we suggest that the conformation, preparation, quantification, purification, handling, and storage of standard plasmid DNA should be described and defined in the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) to assure the reproducibility and accuracy of qPCR absolute quantification. PMID:22194997

  2. Real time quantitative phase microscopy based on single-shot transport of intensity equation (ssTIE) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Tian, Xiaolin; He, Xiaoliang; Song, Xiaojun; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2016-08-01

    Microscopy based on transport of intensity equation provides quantitative phase distributions which opens another perspective for cellular observations. However, it requires multi-focal image capturing while mechanical and electrical scanning limits its real time capacity in sample detections. Here, in order to break through this restriction, real time quantitative phase microscopy based on single-shot transport of the intensity equation method is proposed. A programmed phase mask is designed to realize simultaneous multi-focal image recording without any scanning; thus, phase distributions can be quantitatively retrieved in real time. It is believed the proposed method can be potentially applied in various biological and medical applications, especially for live cell imaging.

  3. A quantitative method for measuring innate phagocytosis by human monocytes using real-time flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ben J; Sun, Chun; Fuller, Stephen; Skarratt, Kristen K; Petrou, Steven; Wiley, James S

    2014-04-01

    Phagocytosis is central to immunity however a rapid and standardized method is much needed for quantitative assessment of the phagocytic process. We describe a real-time flow cytometric method to quantitate the phagocytosis of fluorescent latex beads by human monocytes in serum-free conditions. Effects of buffer composition, temperature, pH, and bead surface on phagocytic rate are described. The innate phagocytic ability of human monocytes from single subjects measured by this method was relatively stable over many months although phagocytosis rate varied as much as two-fold between individuals. Comparable results were obtained with a simplified method using several mL of whole blood which is suitable for routine clinical application. This method also allows two-color flow cytometric measurement of cytosolic calcium levels during the phagocytic uptake of fluorescent beads.

  4. Global real-time quantification/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for detecting proto-oncogenes associated with 14q32 chromosomal translocation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Emi; Uranishi, Miyuki; Iida, Shinsuke; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Nitta, Masakazu; Ueda, Ryuzo

    2005-04-01

    A global real-time quantitative/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique for detecting the expression of six 14q32 chromosomal translocation-associated proto-oncogenes in marrow plasma cells was established and applied to myeloma specimens. This technique is an alternative method of detecting 14q32 rearrangements and allows investigation of the relationship between proto-oncogene expression and clinical features.

  5. Universal reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Thompson, Rachel L.; Garver, Kyle A.; Hawley, Laura M.; Batts, William N.; Sprague, Laura; Sampson, Corie; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an acute pathogen of salmonid fishes in North America, Europe and Asia and is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Phylogenetic analysis has identified 5 major virus genogroups of IHNV worldwide, designated U, M, L, E and J; multiple subtypes also exist within those genogroups. Here, we report the development and validation of a universal IHNV reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-rPCR) assay targeting the IHNV nucleocapsid (N) gene. Properties of diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) were defined using laboratory-challenged steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and the new assay was compared to the OIE-accepted conventional PCR test and virus isolation in cell culture. The IHNV N gene RT-rPCR had 100% DSp and DSe and a higher estimated diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) than virus culture or conventional PCR. The RT-rPCR assay was highly repeatable within a laboratory and highly reproducible between laboratories. Field testing of the assay was conducted on a random sample of juvenile steelhead collected from a hatchery raceway experiencing an IHN epizootic. The RT-rPCR detected a greater number of positive samples than cell culture and there was 40% agreement between the 2 tests. Overall, the RT-rPCR assay was highly sensitive, specific, repeatable and reproducible and is suitable for use in a diagnostic setting.

  6. Development and Evaluation of an Enterovirus D68 Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Todd N.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Buller, Richard S.; Cannella, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in clinical specimens. This assay was developed in response to the unprecedented 2014 nationwide EV-D68 outbreak in the United States associated with severe respiratory illness. As part of our evaluation of the outbreak, we sequenced and published the genome sequence of the EV-D68 virus circulating in St. Louis, MO. This sequence, along with other GenBank sequences from past EV-D68 occurrences, was used to computationally select a region of EV-D68 appropriate for targeting in a strain-specific RT-PCR assay. The RT-PCR assay amplifies a segment of the VP1 gene, with an analytic limit of detection of 4 copies per reaction, and it was more sensitive than commercially available assays that detect enteroviruses and rhinoviruses without distinguishing between the two, including three multiplex respiratory panels approved for clinical use by the FDA. The assay did not detect any other enteroviruses or rhinoviruses tested and did detect divergent strains of EV-D68, including the first EV-D68 strain (Fermon) identified in California in 1962. This assay should be useful for identifying and studying current and future outbreaks of EV-D68 viruses. PMID:26063859

  7. Quantitative analysis of real-time tissue elastography for evaluation of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Wang, Xing-Hua; Zhang, Huan-Hu; Zhang, Hai-Qing; Tu, Ji-Zheng; Wei, Kun; Li, Juan; Liu, Xiao-Li

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of quantitative analysis of liver fibrosis using real-time tissue elastography (RTE) and its pathological and molecule biological basis. Methods: Fifty-four New Zealand rabbits were subcutaneously injected with thioacetamide (TAA) to induce liver fibrosis as the model group, and another eight New Zealand rabbits served as the normal control group. Four rabbits were randomly taken every two weeks for real-time tissue elastography (RTE) and quantitative analysis of tissue diffusion. The obtained twelve characteristic quantities included relative mean value (MEAN), standard deviation (SD), blue area % (% AREA), complexity (COMP), kurtosis (KURT), skewness (SKEW), contrast (CONT), entropy (ENT), inverse different moment (IDM), angular secon moment (ASM), correlation (CORR) and liver fibrosis index (LF Index). Rabbits were executed and liver tissues were taken for pathological staging of liver fibrosis (grouped by pathological stage into S0 group, S1 group, S2 group, S3 group and S4 group). In addition, the collagen I (Col I) and collagen III (Col III) expression levels in liver tissue were detected by Western blot. Results: Except for KURT, there were significant differences among the other eleven characteristic quantities (P < 0.05). LF Index, Col I and Col III expression levels showed a rising trend with increased pathological staging of liver fibrosis, presenting a positive correlation with the pathological staging of liver fibrosis (r = 0.718, r = 0.693, r = 0.611, P < 0.05). Conclusion: RTE quantitative analysis is expected for noninvasive evaluation of the pathological staging of liver fibrosis. PMID:24955175

  8. Performance of two real-time PCR assays for hepatitis B virus DNA detection and quantitation.

    PubMed

    Kania, Dramane; Ottomani, Laure; Meda, Nicolas; Peries, Marianne; Dujols, Pierre; Bolloré, Karine; Rénier, Wendy; Viljoen, Johannes; Ducos, Jacques; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-06-01

    In-house developed real-time PCR (qPCR) techniques could be useful conjunctives to the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in resource-limited settings with high prevalence. Two qPCR assays (qPCR1 and qPCR2), based on primers/probes targeting conserved regions of the X and S genes of HBV respectively, were evaluated using clinical samples of varying HBV genotypes, and compared to the commercial Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV Test v2.0. The lower detection limit (LDL) was established at 104 IU/ml for qPCR1, and 91 IU/ml for qPCR2. Good agreement and correlation were obtained between the Roche assay and both qPCR assays (r = 0.834 for qPCR1; and r = 0.870 for qPCR2). Differences in HBV DNA load of > 0.5 Log10 IU/ml between the Roche and the qPCR assays were found in 49/122 samples of qPCR1, and 35/122 samples of qPCR2. qPCR1 tended to underestimate HBV DNA quantity in samples with a low viral load and overestimate HBV DNA concentration in samples with a high viral load when compared to the Roche test. Both molecular tools that were developed, used on an open real-time PCR system, were reliable for HBV DNA detection and quantitation. The qPCR2 performed better than the qPCR1 and had the additional advantage of various HBV genotype detection and quantitation. This low cost quantitative HBV DNA PCR assay may be an alternative solution when implementing national programmes to diagnose, monitor and treat HBV infection in low- to middle-income countries where testing for HBV DNA is not available in governmental health programmes.

  9. MicroRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue using real time quantitative PCR: the strengths and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, J R; Mekenkamp, L J M; Teerenstra, S; De Krijger, I; Nagtegaal, I D

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs with a huge impact in a wide range of biological processes, including cancer. The evidence collected to date demonstrates that miRNAs represent valid diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers in cancer. The identification of these miRNA biomarkers in archived tissues has been facilitated by novel development and refinement of detection methodologies. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods used to detect low levels of miRNAs with high sensitivity and specificity. However, several technical parameters should be identified and optimized in order to obtain meaningful and reproducible results. The purpose of this review is to describe some of these technical parameters and improve the validity and reliability of miRNA expression studies. PMID:22003827

  10. Improved radar data processing algorithms for quantitative rainfall estimation in real time.

    PubMed

    Krämer, S; Verworn, H R

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology to process C-band radar data for direct use as rainfall input to hydrologic and hydrodynamic models and in real time control of urban drainage systems. In contrast to the adjustment of radar data with the help of rain gauges, the new approach accounts for the microphysical properties of current rainfall. In a first step radar data are corrected for attenuation. This phenomenon has been identified as the main cause for the general underestimation of radar rainfall. Systematic variation of the attenuation coefficients within predefined bounds allows robust reflectivity profiling. Secondly, event specific R-Z relations are applied to the corrected radar reflectivity data in order to generate quantitative reliable radar rainfall estimates. The results of the methodology are validated by a network of 37 rain gauges located in the Emscher and Lippe river basins. Finally, the relevance of the correction methodology for radar rainfall forecasts is demonstrated. It has become clearly obvious, that the new methodology significantly improves the radar rainfall estimation and rainfall forecasts. The algorithms are applicable in real time.

  11. Detection of Thielaviopsis basicola in soil with real-time quantitative PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junli; Kang, Zhenhui

    2010-07-20

    Thielaviopsis basicola is a soil-borne fungus with a wide host range and a cosmopolitan distribution. It causes disease on many agricultural crops and in China it is the causal agent of black root rot on tobacco plant. Early diagnosis and detection of the pathogen in soil are critical to control this disease in field. The objective of this study was to develop sensitive and effective methods suitable for large-scale detection and quantification of T. basicola. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA genes of Thielaviopsis spp, primers and TaqMan probe were designed specifically to amplify DNA from T. basicola and real-time, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed for rapid, specific and sensitive detection and quantification of T. basicola. It was sensitive with the detection limit of 100 fg microl(-1) genomic DNA of T. basicola in qPCR assays. By combining the qPCR assays with the efficient protocol to extract DNA from soil, it was possible to achieve real-time detection of T. basicola in soil in 4-5 h and the detection limit of 3 conidia per reaction in qPCR was recorded. The assays were applied to survey soils from tobacco fields in China for the presence of T. basicola and the analyses of naturally infested soil showed the reliability of the qPCR assays.

  12. Evaluation of Lung Metastasis in Mouse Mammary Tumor Models by Quantitative Real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Abt, Melissa A.; Grek, Christina L.; Ghatnekar, Gautam S.; Yeh, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic disease is the spread of malignant tumor cells from the primary cancer site to a distant organ and is the primary cause of cancer associated death 1. Common sites of metastatic spread include lung, lymph node, brain, and bone 2. Mechanisms that drive metastasis are intense areas of cancer research. Consequently, effective assays to measure metastatic burden in distant sites of metastasis are instrumental for cancer research. Evaluation of lung metastases in mammary tumor models is generally performed by gross qualitative observation of lung tissue following dissection. Quantitative methods of evaluating metastasis are currently limited to ex vivo and in vivo imaging based techniques that require user defined parameters. Many of these techniques are at the whole organism level rather than the cellular level 3–6. Although newer imaging methods utilizing multi-photon microscopy are able to evaluate metastasis at the cellular level 7, these highly elegant procedures are more suited to evaluating mechanisms of dissemination rather than quantitative assessment of metastatic burden. Here, a simple in vitro method to quantitatively assess metastasis is presented. Using quantitative Real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), tumor cell specific mRNA can be detected within the mouse lung tissue. PMID:26862835

  13. Real time quantitative imaging for semiconductor crystal growth, control and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative real time image processing system has been developed which can be software-reconfigured for semiconductor processing and characterization tasks. In thermal imager mode, 2D temperature distributions of semiconductor melt surfaces (900-1600 C) can be obtained with temperature and spatial resolutions better than 0.5 C and 0.5 mm, respectively, as demonstrated by analysis of melt surface thermal distributions. Temporal and spatial image processing techniques and multitasking computational capabilities convert such thermal imaging into a multimode sensor for crystal growth control. A second configuration of the image processing engine in conjunction with bright and dark field transmission optics is used to nonintrusively determine the microdistribution of free charge carriers and submicron sized crystalline defects in semiconductors. The IR absorption characteristics of wafers are determined with 10-micron spatial resolution and, after calibration, are converted into charge carrier density.

  14. A fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR assay for accurate Pocillopora damicornis species identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Luke; Stat, Michael; Evans, Richard D.; Kennington, W. Jason

    2016-09-01

    Pocillopora damicornis is one of the most extensively studied coral species globally, but high levels of phenotypic plasticity within the genus make species identification based on morphology alone unreliable. As a result, there is a compelling need to develop cheap and time-effective molecular techniques capable of accurately distinguishing P. damicornis from other congeneric species. Here, we develop a fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to genotype a single nucleotide polymorphism that accurately distinguishes P. damicornis from other morphologically similar Pocillopora species. We trial the assay across colonies representing multiple Pocillopora species and then apply the assay to screen samples of Pocillopora spp. collected at regional scales along the coastline of Western Australia. This assay offers a cheap and time-effective alternative to Sanger sequencing and has broad applications including studies on gene flow, dispersal, recruitment and physiological thresholds of P. damicornis.

  15. Real-time quantitative PCR for the design of lentiviral vector analytical assays.

    PubMed

    Delenda, C; Gaillard, C

    2005-10-01

    From the recent and emerging concerns for approving lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer in human clinical applications, several analytical methods have been applied in preclinical models to address the lentiviral vector load in batches, cells or tissues. This review points out the oldest generation methods (blots, RT activity, standard PCR) as well as a full description of the newest real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) applications. Combinations of primer and probe sequences, which have worked in the lentiviral amplification context, have been included in the effort to dress an exhaustive list. Also, great variations have been observed from interlaboratory results, we have tempted to compare between them the different analytical methods that have been used to consider (i) the titration of lentiviral vector batches, (ii) the absence of the susceptible emerging replicative lentiviruses or (iii) the lentiviral vector biodistribution in the organism.

  16. Species identification of Cannabis sativa using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher E; Premasuthan, Amritha; Satkoski Trask, Jessica; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2013-03-01

    Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabis sativa. Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids. Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays. DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C. sativa materials, but they require several nanograms of template DNA. Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C. sativa chloroplast, we have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay that is capable of identifying picogram amounts of chloroplast DNA for species determination of suspected C. sativa material. This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. sativa.

  17. Detection and absolute quantitation of Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) by real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Vásquez, José Angel; Rubio, Luis; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana; Debreczeni, Diana Elvira; Font-San-Ambrosio, Isabel; Falk, Bryce W; Ferriol, Inmaculada

    2015-09-01

    Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) causes serious damage to the tomato industry and significant economic losses. A quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method using primers and a specific TaqMan(®) MGB probe for ToTV was developed for sensitive detection and quantitation of different ToTV isolates. A standard curve using RNA transcripts enabled absolute quantitation, with a dynamic range from 10(4) to 10(10) ToTV RNA copies/ng of total RNA. The specificity of the RT-qPCR was tested with twenty-three ToTV isolates from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.) collected in Spain, Australia, Hungary and France, which covered the genetic variation range of this virus. This new RT-qPCR assay enables a reproducible, sensitive and specific detection and quantitation of ToTV, which can be a valuable tool in disease management programs and epidemiological studies.

  18. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams.

  19. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR in Gentiana macrophylla

    PubMed Central

    He, Yihan; Yan, Hailing; Hua, Wenping; Huang, Yaya; Wang, Zhezhi

    2016-01-01

    Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR) has been extensively applied for analyzing gene expression because of its accuracy, sensitivity, and high throughput. However, the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s) can lead to a misinterpretation of results. We evaluated the stability of 10 candidates – five traditional housekeeping genes (UBC21, GAPC2, EF-1α4, UBQ10, and UBC10) and five novel genes (SAND1, FBOX, PTB1, ARP, and Expressed1) – using the transcriptome data of Gentiana macrophylla. Common statistical algorithms ΔCt, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were run with samples collected from plants under various experimental conditions. For normalizing expression levels from tissues at different developmental stages, GAPC2 and UBC21 had the highest rankings. Both SAND1 and GAPC2 proved to be the optimal reference genes for roots from plants exposed to abiotic stresses while EF-1α4 and SAND1 were optimal when examining expression data from the leaves of stressed plants. Based on a comprehensive ranking of stability under different experimental conditions, we recommend that SAND1 and EF-1α4 are the most suitable overall. In this study, to find a suitable reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for G. macrophylla DNA content quantification, we evaluated three target genes including WRKY30, G10H, and SLS, through qualitative and absolute quantitative PCR with leaves under elicitors stressed experimental conditions. Arbitrary use of reference genes without previous evaluation can lead to a misinterpretation of the data. Our results will benefit future research on the expression of genes related to secoiridoid biosynthesis in this species under different experimental conditions. PMID:27446172

  20. Real-Time PCR Quantitation of Clostridia in Feces of Autistic Children

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuli; Liu, Chengxu; Finegold, Sydney M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that intestinal clostridia play a role in late-onset autism, we have been characterizing clostridia from stools of autistic and control children. We applied the TaqMan real-time PCR procedure to detect and quantitate three Clostridium clusters and one Clostridium species, C. bolteae, in stool specimens. Group- and species-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA genes were designed, and specificity of the primers was confirmed with DNA from related bacterial strains. In this procedure, a linear relationship exists between the threshold cycle (CT) fluorescence value and the number of bacterial cells (CFU). The assay showed high sensitivity: as few as 2 cells of members of cluster I, 6 cells of cluster XI, 4 cells of cluster XIVab, and 0.6 cell of C. bolteae could be detected per PCR. Analysis of the real-time PCR data indicated that the cell count differences between autistic and control children for C. bolteae and the following Clostridium groups were statistically significant: mean counts of C. bolteae and clusters I and XI in autistic children were 46-fold (P = 0.01), 9.0-fold (P = 0.014), and 3.5-fold (P = 0.004) greater than those in control children, respectively, but not for cluster XIVab (2.6 × 108 CFU/g in autistic children and 4.8 × 108 CFU/g in controls; respectively). More subjects need to be studied. The assay is a rapid and reliable method, and it should have great potential for quantitation of other bacteria in the intestinal tract. PMID:15528506

  1. Rapid Detection of Ceratocystis platani Inoculum by Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ghelardini, Luisa; Belbahri, Lassaâd; Quartier, Marion; Santini, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Ceratocystis platani is the causal agent of canker stain of plane trees, a lethal disease able to kill mature trees in one or two successive growing seasons. The pathogen is a quarantine organism and has a negative impact on anthropogenic and natural populations of plane trees. Contaminated sawdust produced during pruning and sanitation fellings can contribute to disease spread. The goal of this study was to design a rapid, real-time quantitative PCR assay to detect a C. platani airborne inoculum. Airborne inoculum traps (AITs) were placed in an urban setting in the city of Florence, Italy, where the disease was present. Primers and TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB) probes were designed to target cerato-platanin (CP) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) genes. The detection limits of the assay were 0.05 pg/μl and 2 fg/μl of fungal DNA for CP and ITS, respectively. Pathogen detection directly from AITs demonstrated specificity and high sensitivity for C. platani, detecting DNA concentrations as low as 1.2 × 10−2 to 1.4 × 10−2 pg/μl, corresponding to ∼10 conidia per ml. Airborne inoculum traps were able to detect the C. platani inoculum within 200 m of the closest symptomatic infected plane tree. The combination of airborne trapping and real-time quantitative PCR assay provides a rapid and sensitive method for the specific detection of a C. platani inoculum. This technique may be used to identify the period of highest risk of pathogen spread in a site, thus helping disease management. PMID:23811499

  2. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams. PMID:26395288

  3. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR in Gentiana macrophylla.

    PubMed

    He, Yihan; Yan, Hailing; Hua, Wenping; Huang, Yaya; Wang, Zhezhi

    2016-01-01

    Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR) has been extensively applied for analyzing gene expression because of its accuracy, sensitivity, and high throughput. However, the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s) can lead to a misinterpretation of results. We evaluated the stability of 10 candidates - five traditional housekeeping genes (UBC21, GAPC2, EF-1α4, UBQ10, and UBC10) and five novel genes (SAND1, FBOX, PTB1, ARP, and Expressed1) - using the transcriptome data of Gentiana macrophylla. Common statistical algorithms ΔC t, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were run with samples collected from plants under various experimental conditions. For normalizing expression levels from tissues at different developmental stages, GAPC2 and UBC21 had the highest rankings. Both SAND1 and GAPC2 proved to be the optimal reference genes for roots from plants exposed to abiotic stresses while EF-1α4 and SAND1 were optimal when examining expression data from the leaves of stressed plants. Based on a comprehensive ranking of stability under different experimental conditions, we recommend that SAND1 and EF-1α4 are the most suitable overall. In this study, to find a suitable reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for G. macrophylla DNA content quantification, we evaluated three target genes including WRKY30, G10H, and SLS, through qualitative and absolute quantitative PCR with leaves under elicitors stressed experimental conditions. Arbitrary use of reference genes without previous evaluation can lead to a misinterpretation of the data. Our results will benefit future research on the expression of genes related to secoiridoid biosynthesis in this species under different experimental conditions. PMID:27446172

  4. BactQuant: An enhanced broad-coverage bacterial quantitative real-time PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial load quantification is a critical component of bacterial community analysis, but a culture-independent method capable of detecting and quantifying diverse bacteria is needed. Based on our analysis of a diverse collection of 16 S rRNA gene sequences, we designed a broad-coverage quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay—BactQuant—for quantifying 16 S rRNA gene copy number and estimating bacterial load. We further utilized in silico evaluation to complement laboratory-based qPCR characterization to validate BactQuant. Methods The aligned core set of 4,938 16 S rRNA gene sequences in the Greengenes database were analyzed for assay design. Cloned plasmid standards were generated and quantified using a qPCR-based approach. Coverage analysis was performed computationally using >670,000 sequences and further evaluated following the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines. Results A bacterial TaqMan® qPCR assay targeting a 466 bp region in V3-V4 was designed. Coverage analysis showed that 91% of the phyla, 96% of the genera, and >80% of the 89,537 species analyzed contained at least one perfect sequence match to the BactQuant assay. Of the 106 bacterial species evaluated, amplification efficiencies ranged from 81 to 120%, with r2-value of >0.99, including species with sequence mismatches. Inter- and intra-run coefficient of variance was <3% and <16% for Ct and copy number, respectively. Conclusions The BactQuant assay offers significantly broader coverage than a previously reported universal bacterial quantification assay BactQuant in vitro performance was better than the in silico predictions. PMID:22510143

  5. Rapid and Real-Time Detection of Chikungunya Virus by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay▿

    PubMed Central

    Parida, M. M.; Santhosh, S. R.; Dash, P. K.; Tripathi, N. K.; Lakshmi, V.; Mamidi, N.; Shrivastva, A.; Gupta, N.; Saxena, P.; Babu, J. Pradeep; Rao, P. V. Lakshmana; Morita, Kouichi

    2007-01-01

    The standardization and validation of a one-step, single-tube, accelerated, quantitative reverse transcription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the E1 gene for the rapid and real-time detection of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are reported. A linear relationship between the amount of template and time of positivity value over a range of 2 × 108 to 2 × 102 copies was obtained. The feasibility of CHIKV RT-LAMP for clinical diagnosis was validated with patient serum samples from an ongoing epidemic in Southern India. Optimal assay conditions with zero background were established for the detection of low levels of CHIKV in acute-phase patient serum samples. The comparative evaluation of the RT-LAMP assay with acute-phase patient serum samples demonstrated exceptionally higher sensitivity by correctly identifying 21 additional positive borderline cases that were missed by conventional RT-PCR (P < 0.0001) with a detection limit of 20 copies. The quantification of virus load in patient serum samples was also determined from the standard curve based on their time of positivity and was found to be in the range of 2 × 108 to 2 × 101 copies. In addition, the field applicability of the RT-LAMP assay was also demonstrated by standardizing SYBR Green I-based RT-LAMP wherein the amplification was carried out in a water bath at 63°C for 60 min, which was followed by monitoring gene amplification with the naked eye through color changes. These findings demonstrated that the RT-LAMP assay is a valuable tool for rapid, real-time detection as well as quantification of CHIKV in acute-phase serum samples without requiring any sophisticated equipment and has potential usefulness for clinical diagnosis and surveillance of CHIKV in developing countries. PMID:17135444

  6. Development of SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR for rapid detection, quantitation and diagnosis of unclassified bovine enteric calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ik; Park, Da-Hae; Saif, Linda J; Jeong, Young-Ju; Shin, Dong-Jun; Chun, Young-Hyun; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Hosmillo, Myra; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Kang, Mun-Il; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2009-07-01

    Unclassified bovine enteric calicivirus (BECV) is a newly recognized bovine enteric calicivirus that differs from bovine norovirus, and which causes diarrhea in the small intestines of calves. To date, methods such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) have not been developed for the rapid detection, quantitation and diagnosis of BECV. Presently, a BECV-specific SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was evaluated and optimized. Diarrheic specimens (n=118) collected from 2004 to 2005 were subjected to RT-PCR, nested PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR. By conventional RT-PCR and nested PCR, 9 (7.6%) and 59 (50%) samples tested positive, respectively, whereas the SYBR Green assay detected BECV in 91 (77.1%) samples. Using BECV RNA standards generated by in vitro transcription, the SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay sensitively detected BECV RNA to 1.1 x 10(0)copies/microl (correlation coefficiency=0.98). The detection limits of the RT-PCR and nested PCR were 1.1 x 10(5) and 1.1 x 10(2)copies/microl, respectively. These results indicate that the SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay is more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and nested PCR assays, and has potential as a reliable, reproducible, specific, sensitive and rapid tool for the detection, quantitation and diagnosis of unclassified BECV.

  7. Real-time quantitative nicking endonuclease-mediated isothermal amplification with small molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Wang, Chenguang; Zhu, Pengyu; Guo, Tianxiao; Xu, Yuancong; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2016-04-21

    Techniques of isothermal amplification have recently made great strides, and have generated significant interest in the field of point-of-care detection. Nicking endonuclease-mediated isothermal amplification (NEMA) is an example of simple isothermal technology. In this paper, a real-time quantitative nicking endonuclease-mediated isothermal amplification with small molecular beacons (SMB-NEMA) of improved specificity and sensitivity is described. First, we optimized the prohibition of de novo synthesis by choosing Nt·BstNBI endonuclease. Second, the whole genome was successfully amplified with Nt·BstNBI (6 U), betaine (1 M) and trehalose (60 mM) for the first time. Third, we achieved 10 pg sensitivity for the first time after adding a small molecular beacon that spontaneously undergoes a conformational change when hybridizing to target, and the practical test validated the assay's application. The small molecular beacon has a similar melting temperature to the reaction temperature, but is approximately 10 bp shorter than the length of a traditional molecular beacon. A new threshold regulation was also established for isothermal conditions. Finally, we established a thermodynamic model for designing small molecular beacons. This multistate model is more correct than the traditional algorithm. This theoretical and practical basis will help us to monitor SMB-NEMA in a quantitative way. In summary, our SMB-NEMA method allows the simple, specific and sensitive assessment of isothermal DNA quantification. PMID:27027375

  8. Real-time quantitative nicking endonuclease-mediated isothermal amplification with small molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Wang, Chenguang; Zhu, Pengyu; Guo, Tianxiao; Xu, Yuancong; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2016-04-21

    Techniques of isothermal amplification have recently made great strides, and have generated significant interest in the field of point-of-care detection. Nicking endonuclease-mediated isothermal amplification (NEMA) is an example of simple isothermal technology. In this paper, a real-time quantitative nicking endonuclease-mediated isothermal amplification with small molecular beacons (SMB-NEMA) of improved specificity and sensitivity is described. First, we optimized the prohibition of de novo synthesis by choosing Nt·BstNBI endonuclease. Second, the whole genome was successfully amplified with Nt·BstNBI (6 U), betaine (1 M) and trehalose (60 mM) for the first time. Third, we achieved 10 pg sensitivity for the first time after adding a small molecular beacon that spontaneously undergoes a conformational change when hybridizing to target, and the practical test validated the assay's application. The small molecular beacon has a similar melting temperature to the reaction temperature, but is approximately 10 bp shorter than the length of a traditional molecular beacon. A new threshold regulation was also established for isothermal conditions. Finally, we established a thermodynamic model for designing small molecular beacons. This multistate model is more correct than the traditional algorithm. This theoretical and practical basis will help us to monitor SMB-NEMA in a quantitative way. In summary, our SMB-NEMA method allows the simple, specific and sensitive assessment of isothermal DNA quantification.

  9. Absolute quantification of mRNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Bustin, S A

    2000-10-01

    The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most sensitive method for the detection of low-abundance mRNA, often obtained from limited tissue samples. However, it is a complex technique, there are substantial problems associated with its true sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity and, as a quantitative method, it suffers from the problems inherent in PCR. The recent introduction of fluorescence-based kinetic RT-PCR procedures significantly simplifies the process of producing reproducible quantification of mRNAs and promises to overcome these limitations. Nevertheless, their successful application depends on a clear understanding of the practical problems, and careful experimental design, application and validation remain essential for accurate quantitative measurements of transcription. This review discusses the technical aspects involved, contrasts conventional and kinetic RT-PCR methods for quantitating gene expression and compares the different kinetic RT-PCR systems. It illustrates the usefulness of these assays by demonstrating the significantly different levels of transcription between individuals of the housekeeping gene family, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

  10. Reliability of quantitative real-time PCR for bacterial detection in cystic fibrosis airway specimens.

    PubMed

    Zemanick, Edith T; Wagner, Brandie D; Sagel, Scott D; Stevens, Mark J; Accurso, Frank J; Harris, J Kirk

    2010-11-30

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) airway microbiome is complex; polymicrobial infections are common, and the presence of fastidious bacteria including anaerobes make culture-based diagnosis challenging. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) offers a culture-independent method for bacterial quantification that may improve diagnosis of CF airway infections; however, the reliability of qPCR applied to CF airway specimens is unknown. We sought to determine the reliability of nine specific bacterial qPCR assays (total bacteria, three typical CF pathogens, and five anaerobes) applied to CF airway specimens. Airway and salivary specimens from clinically stable pediatric CF subjects were collected. Quantitative PCR assay repeatability was determined using triplicate reactions. Split-sample measurements were performed to measure variability introduced by DNA extraction. Results from qPCR were compared to standard microbial culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae, common pathogens in CF. We obtained 84 sputa, 47 oropharyngeal and 27 salivary specimens from 16 pediatric subjects with CF. Quantitative PCR detected bacterial DNA in over 97% of specimens. All qPCR assays were highly reproducible at quantities≥10(2) rRNA gene copies/reaction with coefficient of variation less than 20% for over 99% of samples. There was also excellent agreement between samples processed in duplicate. Anaerobic bacteria were highly prevalent and were detected in mean quantities similar to that of typical CF pathogens. Compared to a composite gold standard, qPCR and culture had variable sensitivities for detection of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and H. influenzae from CF airway samples. By reliably quantifying fastidious airway bacteria, qPCR may improve our understanding of polymicrobial CF lung infections, progression of lung disease and ultimately improve antimicrobial treatments.

  11. Reliability of Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Bacterial Detection in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Zemanick, Edith T.; Wagner, Brandie D.; Sagel, Scott D.; Stevens, Mark J.; Accurso, Frank J.; Harris, J. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) airway microbiome is complex; polymicrobial infections are common, and the presence of fastidious bacteria including anaerobes make culture-based diagnosis challenging. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) offers a culture-independent method for bacterial quantification that may improve diagnosis of CF airway infections; however, the reliability of qPCR applied to CF airway specimens is unknown. We sought to determine the reliability of nine specific bacterial qPCR assays (total bacteria, three typical CF pathogens, and five anaerobes) applied to CF airway specimens. Airway and salivary specimens from clinically stable pediatric CF subjects were collected. Quantitative PCR assay repeatability was determined using triplicate reactions. Split-sample measurements were performed to measure variability introduced by DNA extraction. Results from qPCR were compared to standard microbial culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae, common pathogens in CF. We obtained 84 sputa, 47 oropharyngeal and 27 salivary specimens from 16 pediatric subjects with CF. Quantitative PCR detected bacterial DNA in over 97% of specimens. All qPCR assays were highly reproducible at quantities ≥102 rRNA gene copies/reaction with coefficient of variation less than 20% for over 99% of samples. There was also excellent agreement between samples processed in duplicate. Anaerobic bacteria were highly prevalent and were detected in mean quantities similar to that of typical CF pathogens. Compared to a composite gold standard, qPCR and culture had variable sensitivities for detection of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and H. influenzae from CF airway samples. By reliably quantifying fastidious airway bacteria, qPCR may improve our understanding of polymicrobial CF lung infections, progression of lung disease and ultimately improve antimicrobial treatments. PMID:21152087

  12. EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE REAL TIME PCR FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF HELICOBATER PYLORI AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To determine the performance of a rapid, real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the detection and quantitative analysis Helicobacter pylori at low concentrations in drinking water.

    Methods and Results: A rapid DNA extraction and quantitative PCR (QPCR)...

  13. On-chip single-copy real-time reverse-transcription PCR in isolated picoliter droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, N R; Wheeler, E; Lee-Houghton, L; Watkins, N; Nasarabadi, S; Hebert, N; Leung, P; Arnold, D; Bailey, C; Colston, B

    2007-12-19

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and RNA isolation, followed by reverse transcription, and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection in the trapped droplets has been developed. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a fused silica device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter-scale droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing thermal cycling for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification without droplet motion. This combination of the established real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy RNA and virions from a complex environment, and will be useful in viral discovery and gene-profiling applications.

  14. Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Su-Hua; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Hong; Tsai, I.-Shou; Lu, Huang-Chih; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2008-10-01

    Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested the effect of gold nanoparticles on four different PCR systems, including conventional PCR, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and SYBR green real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for diagnosis in the acute phase of JEV infection. Gold nanoparticles increased the amplification yield of the PCR product and shortened the PCR time compared to the conventional reaction. In addition, nanogold-based real-time RT-PCR showed a linear relationship between Ct and template amount using ten-fold dilutions of JEV. The nanogold-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were able to detect low levels (1-10 000 copies) of the JEV RNA genomes extracted from culture medium or whole blood, providing early diagnostic tools for the detection of low-level viremia in the acute-phase infection. The assays described here were simple, sensitive, and rapid approaches for detection and quantitation of JEV in tissue cultured samples as well as clinical samples.

  15. Selection of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Pinus massoniana Post Nematode Inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Dong, Hongyu; Zhou, Zhichun; Hao, Yanping; Chen, Xuelian; Xu, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Pinus massoniaia Lamb has gained more and more attention as the most important tree species for timber and forestation in South China. Gene expression studies are of great importance to identify new and elite cultivars. Real-time quantitative PCR, a highly sensitive and specific method, is commonly used in the analysis of gene expression. The appropriate reference genes must be employed to normalize the calculation program for ascertaining repeatable and significant results. Herein, eleven housekeeping genes were evaluated during different stages of P. massoniana post nematode inoculation in this study. Three statistical approaches such as geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were selected to analyze the stability of candidate genes. The results indicated that U2af and β-TUB were the most stable reference genes. These two genes could be used for the normalization in most of the experiments of P. massoniana, while Histone and AK were the least stable ones. In addition, EF expressed at the lowest average Ct value was the most abundant candidate gene. As an important gene associated with defense mechanisms, ABC transporter was analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the results were used to confirm the reliability of two genes. The selected reference genes in the present study will be conducive to future gene expression normalized by qRT-PCR in P. massoniana. PMID:26800152

  16. Selection of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Pinus massoniana Post Nematode Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Dong, Hongyu; Zhou, Zhichun; Hao, Yanping; Chen, Xuelian; Xu, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Pinus massoniaia Lamb has gained more and more attention as the most important tree species for timber and forestation in South China. Gene expression studies are of great importance to identify new and elite cultivars. Real-time quantitative PCR, a highly sensitive and specific method, is commonly used in the analysis of gene expression. The appropriate reference genes must be employed to normalize the calculation program for ascertaining repeatable and significant results. Herein, eleven housekeeping genes were evaluated during different stages of P. massoniana post nematode inoculation in this study. Three statistical approaches such as geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were selected to analyze the stability of candidate genes. The results indicated that U2af and β-TUB were the most stable reference genes. These two genes could be used for the normalization in most of the experiments of P. massoniana, while Histone and AK were the least stable ones. In addition, EF expressed at the lowest average Ct value was the most abundant candidate gene. As an important gene associated with defense mechanisms, ABC transporter was analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the results were used to confirm the reliability of two genes. The selected reference genes in the present study will be conducive to future gene expression normalized by qRT-PCR in P. massoniana. PMID:26800152

  17. Development of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for Different Clades of “Candidatus Accumulibacter”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, An Ni; Mao, Yanping; Zhang, Tong

    2016-05-01

    We designed novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primers for the polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene, targeting eight individual “Candidatus Accumulibacter” (referred to as Accumulibacter) clades. An evaluation of primer sets was conducted regarding the coverage, specificity, and PCR efficiency. (i) All primer sets were designed to cover all available sequences of the target clade. (ii) The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences retrieved from the qPCR products by each primer set demonstrated a high level of specificity. (iii) All calibration curves presented high PCR efficiencies in the range of 85–112% (R2 = 0.962–0.998). In addition, the possible interference of non-target amplicons was individually examined using the qPCR assay for 13 Accumulibacter clades, which were either undetected or showed negligible detection. With the primers designed by other research groups, a highly selective and sensitive qPCR-based method was developed to quantify all Accumulibacter clades, with the exception of Clade IE, in one assay, which enables more comprehensive insights into the community dynamics. The applicability to environmental samples was demonstrated by profiling the Accumulibacter clades in activated sludge samples of nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

  18. Looking for reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR experiments in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Majerowicz, D; Alves-Bezerra, M; Logullo, R; Fonseca-de-Souza, A L; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; Braz, G R C; Gondim, K C

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become one of the most used techniques to measure gene expression. However, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential, although these are usually used without any kind of validation. The expression of seven genes was compared in organs of Rhodnius prolixus under diverse conditions, using published software to test gene expression stability. Rp18S and elongation factor 1 (RpEF -1) were the most reliable genes for normalization in qPCR when gene expression in different organs was compared. Moreover, both genes were found to be the best references when transcript levels were compared in the posterior midgut of insects infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Rp18S was also the best reference gene in the fat bodies of unfed and fed insects. By contrast, RpEF-1 was found to be the best reference gene for comparison between posterior midguts, and RpMIP or RpActin should be used to compare gene expression in the ovaries. Although Rp18S is indicated here as the best reference in most cases, reports from the literature show that it is difficult to find an optimum reference gene. Nevertheless, validation of candidate genes to be taken as references is important when new experimental conditions are tested to avoid incorrect data interpretation. PMID:21929722

  19. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the seagrass pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Nina; Fricke, Birgit; Schmidt, Martina C; Tams, Verena; Beining, Katrin; Schwitte, Hildegard; Boettcher, Anne A; Martin, Daniel L; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Rauch, Gisep

    2011-11-01

    The protist Labyrinthula zosterae (Phylum Bigyra, sensu Tsui et al. 2009) has been identified as a causative agent of wasting disease in eelgrass (Zostera marina), of which the most intense outbreak led to the destruction of 90% of eelgrass beds in eastern North America and western Europe in the 1930s. Outbreaks still occur today, albeit at a smaller scale. Traditionally, L. zosterae has been quantified by measuring the necrotic area of Z. marina leaf tissue. This indirect method can however only lead to a very rough estimate of pathogen load. Here, we present a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach to directly detect and quantify L. zosterae in eelgrass tissue. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rRNA genes, species-specific primers were designed. Using our qPCR, we were able to quantify accurately and specifically L. zosterae load both from culture and eelgrass leaves using material from Europe and North America. Our detection limit was less than one L. zosterae cell. Our results demonstrate the potential of this qPCR assay to provide rapid, accurate and sensitive molecular identification and quantification of L. zosterae. In view of declining seagrass populations worldwide, this method will provide a valuable tool for seagrass ecologists and conservation projects. PMID:21777400

  20. Identification of four squid species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Feng, Junli; Liu, Shasha; Zhang, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaona; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Squids are distributed worldwide, including many species of commercial importance, and they are often made into varieties of flavor foods. The rapid identification methods for squid species especially their processed products, however, have not been well developed. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) systems based on specific primers and TaqMan probes have been established for rapid and accurate identification of four common squid species (Ommastrephes bartramii, Dosidicus gigas, Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus) in Chinese domestic market. After analyzing mitochondrial genes reported in GenBank, the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene was selected for O. bartramii detection, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for D. gigas and T. Pacificus detection, ATPase subunit 6 (ATPase 6) gene for I. Argentinus detection, and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rDNA) gene for designing Ommastrephidae-specific primers and probe. As a result, all the TaqMan systems are of good performance, and efficiency of each reaction was calculated by making standard curves. This method could detect target species either in single or mixed squid specimen, and it was applied to identify 12 squid processed products successfully. Thus, it would play an important role in fulfilling labeling regulations and squid fishery control.

  1. Cancer-germline gene expression in pediatric solid tumors using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Joannes F M; Brasseur, Francis; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; van de Rakt, Mandy W M M; Figdor, Carl G; Adema, Gosse J; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Coulie, Pierre G; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2007-01-01

    Cancer-germline genes (CGGs) code for immunogenic antigens that are present on various human tumors but not on normal tissues. The importance of CGGs in cancer immunotherapy has led to detailed studies of their expression in a range of human tumors. We measured the levels of expression of 12 CGGs in various pediatric solid tumors to identify targets for therapeutic cancer vaccines. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to measure the expression of 8 MAGE genes and of genes LAGE-2/NY-ESO-1 and GAGE-1, 2, 8 in 9 osteosarcomas, 10 neuroblastomas, 12 rhabdomyosarcomas and 18 Ewing's sarcomas. Nine tumors were also examined by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific for the MAGE-A1, MAGE-A4 and NY-ESO-1 proteins. All osteosarcoma and 80% of neuroblastoma samples expressed several CGGs at high levels. Six of 12 rhabdomyosarcomas and 11 of 18 Ewing's sarcomas expressed at least one CGG. Immunohistochemistry data correlated well with qPCR results and showed a homogeneous protein distribution pattern in most positive tumors. No correlation was found between the levels of CGG expression in the tumors and clinicopathological parameters of the patients. Pediatric solid tumors express several CGGs, which encode antigens that could be targeted in therapeutic vaccination trials. Several CGGs of the MAGE, GAGE and LAGE families are coexpressed in a large proportion of osteosarcoma and neuroblastoma samples. Some rhabdomyosarcomas express several of these genes at high levels. Ewing's sarcomas have an overall low CGG expression.

  2. Quantitative detection of Clostridium difficile in hospital environmental samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Mutters, R; Nonnenmacher, C; Susin, C; Albrecht, U; Kropatsch, R; Schumacher, S

    2009-01-01

    C. difficile-associated diarrhoea occurs commonly in hospitals and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Hospital surfaces are often contaminated with nosocomial pathogens and may be responsible for cross-transmission, especially if hardy Gram-positive and spore-forming organisms are involved. The aim of this study was to quantify C. difficile in the hospital environment near C. difficile-positive and -negative patients using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A total of 531 samples was collected from the clinical environment and classified into three groups according to patient and ward status for C. difficile. As expected, there were significantly higher counts of C. difficile on the floor and in the near environment of C. difficile patients. However, a significant correlation was found between C. difficile counts on the floor and on the hands of patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) in wards without evidence of C. difficile. This suggests that asymptomatic carriage among patients and HCWs can also contribute towards C. difficile transmission in hospitals. In conclusion, C. difficile can be transmitted via personal contact or via contaminated areas of the hospital environment.

  3. Identification of five highly priced tuna species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Xu, Kunhua; Wu, Zhigang; Xie, Xiao; Feng, Junli

    2016-09-01

    Tunas are economically important fishery worldwide, and are often used for commercial processed production. For effective fishery management and protection of consumers' rights, it is important to develop a molecular method to identify species in canned tuna products rapidly and reliably. Here, we have developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for identification of five highly priced tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus obesus, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga and Katsuwonus pelamis) from processed as well as fresh fish. After amplification and sequencing of seven genetic markers commonly used for species identification, 16S rDNA and control region (CR) of mitochondrial DNA were selected as the reference gene markers for genus Thunnus and tuna species identification, respectively. Subsequently, a 73 bp fragment of 16S rDNA and 85-99 bp fragment of CR were simultaneously amplified from each target species by qPCR. The qPCR efficiency of each reaction was calculated according to the standard curves, and the method was validated by amplification DNA extracted from single or mixed tuna specimen. The developed duplex qPCR system was applied to authenticate species of 14 commercial tuna products successfully, which demonstrated it was really a useful and academic technique to identify highly priced tuna species. PMID:25714139

  4. A real-time, quantitative PCR protocol for assessing the relative parasitemia of Leucocytozoon in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Matthew M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Apelgren, Chloe; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic examination of blood smears can be effective at diagnosing and quantifying hematozoa infections. However, this method requires highly trained observers, is time consuming, and may be inaccurate for detection of infections at low levels of parasitemia. To develop a molecular methodology for identifying and quantifying Leucocytozoon parasite infection in wild waterfowl (Anseriformes), we designed a real-time, quantitative PCR protocol to amplify Leucocytozoon mitochondrial DNA using TaqMan fluorogenic probes and validated our methodology using blood samples collected from waterfowl in interior Alaska during late summer and autumn (n = 105). By comparing our qPCR results to those derived from a widely used nested PCR protocol, we determined that our assay showed high levels of sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%) in detecting Leucocytozoon DNA from host blood samples. Additionally, results of a linear regression revealed significant correlation between the raw measure of parasitemia produced by our qPCR assay (Ct values) and numbers of parasites observed on blood smears (R2 = 0.694, P = 0.003), indicating that our assay can reliably determine the relative parasitemia levels among samples. This methodology provides a powerful new tool for studies assessing effects of haemosporidian infection in wild avian species.

  5. Development of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for Different Clades of “Candidatus Accumulibacter”

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, An Ni; Mao, Yanping; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    We designed novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primers for the polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene, targeting eight individual “Candidatus Accumulibacter” (referred to as Accumulibacter) clades. An evaluation of primer sets was conducted regarding the coverage, specificity, and PCR efficiency. (i) All primer sets were designed to cover all available sequences of the target clade. (ii) The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences retrieved from the qPCR products by each primer set demonstrated a high level of specificity. (iii) All calibration curves presented high PCR efficiencies in the range of 85–112% (R2 = 0.962–0.998). In addition, the possible interference of non-target amplicons was individually examined using the qPCR assay for 13 Accumulibacter clades, which were either undetected or showed negligible detection. With the primers designed by other research groups, a highly selective and sensitive qPCR-based method was developed to quantify all Accumulibacter clades, with the exception of Clade IE, in one assay, which enables more comprehensive insights into the community dynamics. The applicability to environmental samples was demonstrated by profiling the Accumulibacter clades in activated sludge samples of nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:27142574

  6. Real-time quantitative PCR detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in meat products.

    PubMed

    Klanicova, B; Slana, I; Vondruskova, H; Kaevska, M; Pavlik, I

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work was to examine various purchased meat products and to find out if any traces of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis could be detected in these samples. Analysis of the meat products (raw, cooked, and fermented) was performed using a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of specific insertion sequences: duplex qPCR for the detection of IS900 specific for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and triplex qPCR for the detection of IS901 specific for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and IS 1245 specific for M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Of the 77 analyzed meat samples, 17 (22%) were found to contain M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA, 4 (5%) samples contained Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium DNA, and in 12 (16%) samples M. avium subsp. hominissuis DNA was detected. The concentration of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis DNA in some meat products exceeded 10(4) genomes per g. Culture examination of these mycobacterial subspecies was negative. By analyzing a range of meat products, we have provided evidence to support the hypothesis that M. avium is present in everyday commodities sold to the general public.

  7. Quantitative real-time PCR assay for Clostridium septicum in poultry gangrenous dermatitis associated samples.

    PubMed

    Neumann, A P; Dunham, S M; Rehberger, T G; Siragusa, G R

    2010-08-01

    Clostridium septicum is a spore-forming anaerobe frequently implicated in cases of gangrenous dermatitis (GD) and other spontaneously occurring myonecrotic infections of poultry. Although C. septicum is readily cultured from diseased tissues it can be difficult to enumerate due to its tendency to swarm over the surface of agar plates. In this study a quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed in order to more accurately measure the levels of C. septicum in healthy as well as GD associated poultry samples. The assay was specifically designed to target the C. septicum alpha toxin gene, csa, which is, to our knowledge, carried by all strains of C. septicum and has been shown to be essential for virulence. Genomic DNAs from a diverse collection of bacterial species, including closely related Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium carnis, Clostridium tertium as well as several strains of Clostridium perfringens, all failed to produce a positive reaction. An approximate reproducible limit of detection in spiked extracts of at least 10(3) cfu/g of C. septicum was observed for a variety of different sample types. C. septicum levels in broiler chicken field samples estimated from the results of qPCR were statistically correlated to culture based enumerations obtained from those same tissues.

  8. Identification of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR experiments in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Proust, Hélène; Dolan, Liam; Langdale, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become widely used as a method to compare gene transcript levels across different conditions. However, selection of suitable reference genes to normalize qPCR data is required for accurate transcript level analysis. Recently, Marchantia polymorpha has been adopted as a model for the study of liverwort development and land plant evolution. Identification of appropriate reference genes has therefore become a necessity for gene expression studies. In this study, transcript levels of eleven candidate reference genes have been analyzed across a range of biological contexts that encompass abiotic stress, hormone treatment and different developmental stages. The consistency of transcript levels was assessed using both geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, and a consensus ranking of the different candidate genes was then obtained. MpAPT and MpACT showed relatively constant transcript levels across all conditions tested whereas the transcript levels of other candidate genes were clearly influenced by experimental conditions. By analyzing transcript levels of phosphate and nitrate starvation reporter genes, we confirmed that MpAPT and MpACT are suitable reference genes in M. polymorpha and also demonstrated that normalization with an inappropriate gene can lead to erroneous analysis of qPCR data. PMID:25798897

  9. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the seagrass pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Nina; Fricke, Birgit; Schmidt, Martina C; Tams, Verena; Beining, Katrin; Schwitte, Hildegard; Boettcher, Anne A; Martin, Daniel L; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Rauch, Gisep

    2011-11-01

    The protist Labyrinthula zosterae (Phylum Bigyra, sensu Tsui et al. 2009) has been identified as a causative agent of wasting disease in eelgrass (Zostera marina), of which the most intense outbreak led to the destruction of 90% of eelgrass beds in eastern North America and western Europe in the 1930s. Outbreaks still occur today, albeit at a smaller scale. Traditionally, L. zosterae has been quantified by measuring the necrotic area of Z. marina leaf tissue. This indirect method can however only lead to a very rough estimate of pathogen load. Here, we present a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach to directly detect and quantify L. zosterae in eelgrass tissue. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rRNA genes, species-specific primers were designed. Using our qPCR, we were able to quantify accurately and specifically L. zosterae load both from culture and eelgrass leaves using material from Europe and North America. Our detection limit was less than one L. zosterae cell. Our results demonstrate the potential of this qPCR assay to provide rapid, accurate and sensitive molecular identification and quantification of L. zosterae. In view of declining seagrass populations worldwide, this method will provide a valuable tool for seagrass ecologists and conservation projects.

  10. Microscopy, Culture, and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Examination Confirm Internalization of Mycobacteria in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lvoncik, S.; Slana, I.; Kulich, P.; Kralik, P.

    2014-01-01

    The environment is a reservoir of nontuberculous mycobacteria and is considered a source of infection for animals and humans. Mycobacteria can persist in different types of environments for a relatively long time. We have studied their possible internalization into plant tissue through intact, as well as damaged, root systems of different types of plants grown in vitro and under field conditions. The substrate into which plants were seeded was previously contaminated with different strains of Mycobacterium avium (108 to 1010 cells/g of soil) and feces from animals with paratuberculosis. We detected M. avium subsp. avium, hominissuis, and paratuberculosis in the stems and leaves of the plants by both culture and real-time quantitative PCR. The presence of mycobacteria in the plant tissues was confirmed by microscopy. The concentration of mycobacteria found inside plant tissue was several orders of magnitude lower (up to 104 cells/g of tissue) than the initial concentration of mycobacteria present in the culture medium or substrate. These findings led us to the hypothesis that plants may play a role in the spread and transmission of mycobacteria to other organisms in the environment. PMID:24747896

  11. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga. PMID:27399679

  12. Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in soil by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qingyun; Zhong, Xin; Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2013-03-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the best known entomopathogenic fungi in traditional Chinese medicine, parasitizes larvae of the moth genus Thitarodes, which lives in soil tunnels. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of O. sinensis in the soil. We established a protocol for DNA extraction, purification, and quantification of O. sinensis in soil with quantitative real-time PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. The method was assessed using 34 soil samples from Tibet. No inhibitory effects in purified soil DNA extracts were detected. The standard curve method for absolute DNA quantification generated crossing point values that were strongly and linearly correlated to the log10 of the initial amount of O. sinensis genomic DNA (r(2) = 0.999) over 7 orders of magnitude (4 × 10(1) to 4 × 10(7) fg). The amplification efficiency and y-intercept value of the standard curve were 1.953 and 37.70, respectively. The amount of O. sinensis genomic DNA decreased with increasing soil depth and horizontal distance from a sclerotium (P < 0.05). Our protocol is rapid, specific, sensitive, and provides a powerful tool for quantification of O. sinensis from soil.

  13. Analysis of gene expression in emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) using quantitative real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2010-05-04

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America. EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1(st)-, 2(nd)-, 3(rd)-, 4(th)-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium.

  14. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Reaumuria soongorica.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xia; Dong, Xicun; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Hengxia; Xiao, Honglang; Chen, Peng; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Despite its superiority for evaluating gene expression, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results can be significantly biased by the use of inappropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions. Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant species of desert ecosystems in arid central Asia. Given the increasing interest in ecological engineering and potential genetic resources for arid agronomy, it is important to analyze gene function. However, systematic evaluation of stable reference genes should be performed prior to such analyses. In this study, the stabilities of 10 candidate reference genes were analyzed under 4 kinds of abiotic stresses (drought, salt, dark, and heat) within 4 accessions (HG010, HG020, XGG030, and XGG040) from 2 different habitats using 3 algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). After validation of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unite (rbcL) expression pattern, our data suggested that histone H2A (H2A) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-2 (EIF4A2) were the most stable reference genes, cyclophilin (CYCL) was moderate, and elongation factor 1α (EF1α) was the worst choice. This first systematic analysis for stably expressed genes will facilitate future functional analyses and deep mining of genetic resources in R. soongorica and other species of the Reaumuria genus.

  15. Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in soil by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qingyun; Zhong, Xin; Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2013-03-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the best known entomopathogenic fungi in traditional Chinese medicine, parasitizes larvae of the moth genus Thitarodes, which lives in soil tunnels. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of O. sinensis in the soil. We established a protocol for DNA extraction, purification, and quantification of O. sinensis in soil with quantitative real-time PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. The method was assessed using 34 soil samples from Tibet. No inhibitory effects in purified soil DNA extracts were detected. The standard curve method for absolute DNA quantification generated crossing point values that were strongly and linearly correlated to the log10 of the initial amount of O. sinensis genomic DNA (r(2) = 0.999) over 7 orders of magnitude (4 × 10(1) to 4 × 10(7) fg). The amplification efficiency and y-intercept value of the standard curve were 1.953 and 37.70, respectively. The amount of O. sinensis genomic DNA decreased with increasing soil depth and horizontal distance from a sclerotium (P < 0.05). Our protocol is rapid, specific, sensitive, and provides a powerful tool for quantification of O. sinensis from soil. PMID:23540339

  16. Specific PCR and real-time PCR assays for detection and quantitation of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'.

    PubMed

    Jawhari, Maan; Abrahamian, Peter; Sater, Ali Abdel; Sobh, Hana; Tawidian, Patil; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2015-02-01

    Almond witches' broom (AlmWB) is a fast-spreading lethal disease of almond, peach and nectarine associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. The development of PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for the sensitive and specific detection of the phytoplasma is of prime importance for early detection of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' and for epidemiological studies. The developed qPCR assay herein uses a TaqMan(®) probe labeled with Black Hole Quencher Plus. The specificity of the PCR and that of the qPCR detection protocols were tested on 17 phytoplasma isolates belonging to 11 phytoplasma 16S rRNA groups, on samples of almond, peach, nectarine, native plants and insects infected or uninfected with the phytoplasma. The developed assays showed high specificity against 'Ca. P. phoenicium' and no cross-reactivity against any other phytoplasma, plant or insect tested. The sensitivity of the developed PCR and qPCR assays was similar to the conventional nested PCR protocol using universal primers. The qPCR assay was further validated by quantitating AlmWB phytoplasma in different hosts, plant parts and potential insect vectors. The highest titers of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' were detected in the phloem tissues of stems and roots of almond and nectarine trees, where they averaged from 10(5) to 10(6) genomic units per nanogram of host DNA (GU/ng of DNA). The newly developed PCR and qPCR protocols are reliable, specific and sensitive methods that are easily applicable to high-throughput diagnosis of AlmWB in plants and insects and can be used for surveys of potential vectors and alternative hosts.

  17. Expression of nisin genes in cheese--a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction approach.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Monnet, C; Rogelj, I; Bogovič Matijašić, B

    2011-01-01

    The role of bacteriocins in different environments has not been thoroughly explained, mainly because of the difficulties related to the detection of their production. Nisin, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactococcus lactis has a long history of safe use in food products and has been studied from many aspects of genetics, biosynthesis, immunity, regulation, and mode of action. Still, some aspects concerning the dynamics of nisin gene expression remain unknown, especially in complex media like cheese. The main objective of the present study was to quantify in a cheese-like medium the expression of nisin genes in L. lactis M78, a well-characterized nisin A producer isolated from raw milk. The expression of all 11 genes involved in nisin biosynthesis was evaluated during cheese production by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Total RNA was extracted from cheeses using a direct extraction method without prior separation of microbial cells. The M78 strain grew well in experimental cheeses, producing detectable amounts of nisin after 4 h of fermentation. The presence of nisin as an activator modified both the expression of nisin genes and the accumulation of active nisin. Four groups could be distinguished based on gene expression as a function of time: nisA, nisFEG, nisRK and nisBTCIP. Based on nisin-producing strain growth, nisin activity, function of nisin genes, and their location, correlations were established that contribute to the explanation of regulation of nisin biosynthesis and immunity. This study is the first in which the evolution of bacteriocin gene transcripts has been quantified rigorously in a cheese-like medium.

  18. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Canine distemper virus modified live vaccine shedding for differentiation from infection with wild-type strains.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Sanchez, Elena; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains a common cause of infectious disease in dogs, particularly in high-density housing situations such as shelters. Vaccination of all dogs against CDV is recommended at the time of admission to animal shelters and many use a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. From a diagnostic standpoint for dogs with suspected CDV infection, this is problematic because highly sensitive diagnostic real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests are able to detect MLV virus in clinical samples. Real-time PCR can be used to quantitate amount of virus shedding and can differentiate vaccine strains from wild-type strains when shedding is high. However, differentiation by quantitation is not possible in vaccinated animals during acute infection, when shedding is low and could be mistaken for low level vaccine virus shedding. While there are gel-based RT-PCR assays for differentiation of vaccine strains from field strains based on sequence differences, the sensitivity of these assays is unable to match that of the real-time RT-PCR assay currently used in the authors' laboratory. Therefore, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that detects CDV MLV vaccine strains and distinguishes them from wild-type strains based on nucleotide sequence differences, rather than the amount of viral RNA in the sample. The test is highly sensitive, with detection of as few as 5 virus genomic copies (corresponding to 10(-1) TCID(50)). Sequencing of the DNA real-time products also allows phylogenetic differentiation of the wild-type strains. This test will aid diagnosis during outbreaks of CDV in recently vaccinated animals.

  19. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for enumeration of Streptococcus mutans from oral samples.

    PubMed

    Childers, Noel K; Osgood, Robert C; Hsu, Kuei-Ling; Manmontri, Chanika; Momeni, Stephanie S; Mahtani, Harry K; Cutter, Gary R; Ruby, John D

    2011-12-01

    This study compared SYBR Green real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) with standard plate counting for the enumeration of Streptococcus mutans in oral samples. Oral samples (n = 710) were collected from high-caries-risk children for quantification of S. mutans by qPCR using primer pairs. The S. mutans copy number was calculated with reference to a qPCR quantification cycle (Cq) standard curve and compared with the absorbance value at 600 nm of a standard suspension of S. mutans UA159. The S. mutans copy number results were evaluated in relation to standard plate count (SPC) results obtained from each sample following culture on Petri plates containing S. mutans selective media and reported as colony-forming units (CFUs). The mean S. mutans copy number calculated from qPCR was higher than the SPC CFUs (1.3 × 10(6) and 1.5 × 10(5) CFUs, respectively). The qPCR values were usually higher in individual samples and qPCR detected the presence of S. mutans 84% (231/276) of the time that the SPC did not, compared with 33% (4/12) of the time when qPCR failed to detect S. mutans and the SPC did. The qPCR technique was found to be more sensitive for detection of S. mutans from oral samples, a method that is not dependent on the viability of the sample taken and therefore is proposed as a more reliable and efficient means of quantification of S. mutans.

  20. Quantitative real-time PCR for titration of infectious recombinant AAV-2 particles.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Ulrich-Peter; Heyd, Florian; Neukirchen, Judith; Wulf, Marc-Andre; Queitsch, Iris; Kroener-Lux, Gabriele; Steidl, Ulrich; Fenk, Roland; Haas, Rainer; Kronenwett, Ralf

    2005-07-01

    In this report, we present a fast, reliable and easy to perform method to quantify infectious titers of recombinant AAV-2 (rAAV-2) particles using the LightCycler technology, which is independent from the therapeutic transgene and without the presence of a marker gene. The method is based on the life cycle of AAV-2: after infection of the host cell, the single stranded (ss) AAV-2 genome is converted into a double stranded (ds) form. Following infection with rAAV-2, HeLa cells were lysed and ssDNA of transcriptionally inactive particles were efficiently removed by ssDNA-specific S1 nuclease digestion. The remaining viral dsDNA can be quantified by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). For validation of the new method, rAAV-2 preparations were analyzed by two other standard methods for titration of infectious particles in parallel, i.e. the infectious center assay (ICA) as well as flow cytometry using GFP as a marker. Comparing the infectious titers of 40 different AAV-2 fractions assessed by qPCR with the titers determined by FACS analysis a significant correlation (r=0.87, p<0.001) with a mean ratio of the titers assessed by qPCR and FACS of 1.92 (S.D.+/-1.59) was found. Further, the titers of seven rAAV-2 fractions using qPCR and ICA covering 5 log ranges were compared and a significant correlation was found between the results (r=0.80, p<0.001) with a mean ratio of 3.38 (S.D.+/-1.79), respectively.

  1. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Samson S. Y.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Chau, Sandy; Wong, Sally C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Fung, Kitty S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Scabies remains the most prevalent, endemic, and neglected ectoparasitic infestation globally and can cause institutional outbreaks. The sensitivity of routine microscopy for demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei mites or eggs in skin scrapings is only about 50%. Except for three studies using conventional or two-tube nested PCR on a small number of cases, no systematic study has been performed to improve the laboratory diagnosis of this important infection. We developed a conventional and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of S. scabiei. The cox1 gene is relatively well conserved, with its sequence having no high levels of similarity to the sequences of other human skin mites, pathogenic zoonotic mites, or common house dust mite species. This mitochondrial gene is also present in large quantities in arthropod cells, potentially improving the sensitivity of a PCR-based assay. In our study, both assays were specific and were more sensitive than microscopy in diagnosing scabies, with positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The S. scabiei DNA copy number in the microscopy-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in the microscopy-negative specimens (median S. scabiei DNA copy number, 3.604 versus 2.457 log10 copies per reaction; P = 0.0213). In the patient with crusted scabies, the qPCR assay performed on lesional skin swabs instead of scrapings revealed that the parasite DNA load took about 2 weeks to become negative after treatment. The utility of using lesional skin swabs as an alternative sample for diagnosis of scabies by PCR should be further evaluated. PMID:25903566

  2. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvey, Christine S.; Sherwood, Carly A.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2009-11-01

    Apoptosis-programmed cell death-is a cellular process exhibiting distinct biochemical and morphological changes. An understanding of the early morphological changes that a cell undergoes during apoptosis can provide the opportunity to monitor apoptosis in tissue, yielding diagnostic and prognostic information. There is avid interest regarding the involvement of apoptosis in cancer. The initial response of a tumor to successful cancer treatment is often massive apoptosis. Current apoptosis detection methods require cell culture disruption. Our aim is to develop a nondisruptive optical method to monitor apoptosis in living cells and tissues. This would allow for real-time evaluation of apoptotic progression of the same cell culture over time without alteration. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is used to monitor changes in light-scattering properties of cells in vitro due to apoptotic morphology changes. We develop a simple instrument capable of wavelength-resolved ESS measurements from cell cultures in the backward direction. Using Mie theory, we also develop an algorithm that extracts the size distribution of scatterers in the sample. The instrument and algorithm are validated with microsphere suspensions. For cell studies, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are cultured to confluence on plates and are rendered apoptotic with staurosporine. Backscattering measurements are performed on pairs of treated and control samples at a sequence of times up to 6-h post-treatment. Initial results indicate that ESS is capable of discriminating between treated and control samples as early as 10- to 15-min post-treatment, much earlier than is sensed by standard assays for apoptosis. Extracted size distributions from treated and control samples show a decrease in Rayleigh and 150-nm scatterers, relative to control samples, with a corresponding increase in 200-nm particles. Work continues to correlate these size distributions with underlying morphology. To our knowledge, this

  3. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and β-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens.

  4. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson S Y; Poon, Rosana W S; Chau, Sandy; Wong, Sally C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Fung, Kitty S C; Yuen, K Y

    2015-07-01

    Scabies remains the most prevalent, endemic, and neglected ectoparasitic infestation globally and can cause institutional outbreaks. The sensitivity of routine microscopy for demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei mites or eggs in skin scrapings is only about 50%. Except for three studies using conventional or two-tube nested PCR on a small number of cases, no systematic study has been performed to improve the laboratory diagnosis of this important infection. We developed a conventional and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of S. scabiei. The cox1 gene is relatively well conserved, with its sequence having no high levels of similarity to the sequences of other human skin mites, pathogenic zoonotic mites, or common house dust mite species. This mitochondrial gene is also present in large quantities in arthropod cells, potentially improving the sensitivity of a PCR-based assay. In our study, both assays were specific and were more sensitive than microscopy in diagnosing scabies, with positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The S. scabiei DNA copy number in the microscopy-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in the microscopy-negative specimens (median S. scabiei DNA copy number, 3.604 versus 2.457 log10 copies per reaction; P = 0.0213). In the patient with crusted scabies, the qPCR assay performed on lesional skin swabs instead of scrapings revealed that the parasite DNA load took about 2 weeks to become negative after treatment. The utility of using lesional skin swabs as an alternative sample for diagnosis of scabies by PCR should be further evaluated. PMID:25903566

  5. TaqMan real-time PCR for detection and quantitation of squash leaf curl virus in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Cheng-Ping; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Che; Lu, Yi-Lin

    2012-02-01

    A real-time PCR assay based on the TaqMan chemistry was developed for reliable detection and quantitation of the squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) in melon and squash plants. This method was highly specific to SLCV and it was about one thousand times more sensitive than the conventional PCR method. The protocol of the real-time PCR established in this study enabled detection of as little as 10(2) copies of SLCV DNA with CP gene as the target. This TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection and quantitation of SLCV would be a useful tool for application in quarantine and certification of SLCV in cucurbits as well as in the research of disease resistance and epidemiology.

  6. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a rapid and reliable method for gene expression studies. Normalization based on reference genes can increase the reliability of this technique; however, recent studies have shown that almost no single reference gene is universal for all possible experimental conditions. In this study, eight frequently used reference genes were investigated, including Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Actin2/7 (ACT), Tubulin alpha-5 (TUA), Tubulin beta-1 (TUB), 18S ribosomal RNA (18SrRNA), RNA polymerase-II transcription factor (RPII), Elongation factor 1-b (EF-1b) and Translation elongation factor 2 (TEF2). Expression stability of candidate reference genes was examined across 27 radish samples, representing a range of tissue types, cultivars, photoperiodic and vernalization treatments, and developmental stages. The eight genes in these sample pools displayed a wide range of Ct values and were variably expressed. Two statistical software packages, geNorm and NormFinder showed that TEF2, RPII and ACT appeared to be relatively stable and therefore the most suitable for use as reference genes. These results facilitate selection of desirable reference genes for accurate gene expression studies in radish. PMID:22771808

  7. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Volvox carteri using real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for analysis of gene expression under a wide diversity of biological conditions. However, the identification of suitable reference genes is a critical factor for analysis of gene expression data. To determine potential reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in the green alga Volvox carteri, the transcript levels of ten candidate reference genes were measured by qRT-PCR in three experimental sample pools containing different developmental stages, cell types and stress treatments. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was then calculated using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The genes for 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α2 (eef1) turned out to have the most stable expression levels among the samples both from different developmental stages and different stress treatments. The genes for the ribosomal protein L23 (rpl23) and the TATA-box binding protein (tbpA) showed equivalent transcript levels in the comparison of different cell types, and therefore, can be used as reference genes for cell-type specific gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that more than one reference gene is required for accurate normalization of qRT-PCRs in V. carteri. The reference genes in our study show a much better performance than the housekeeping genes used as a reference in previous studies.

  8. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Volvox carteri using real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for analysis of gene expression under a wide diversity of biological conditions. However, the identification of suitable reference genes is a critical factor for analysis of gene expression data. To determine potential reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in the green alga Volvox carteri, the transcript levels of ten candidate reference genes were measured by qRT-PCR in three experimental sample pools containing different developmental stages, cell types and stress treatments. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was then calculated using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The genes for 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α2 (eef1) turned out to have the most stable expression levels among the samples both from different developmental stages and different stress treatments. The genes for the ribosomal protein L23 (rpl23) and the TATA-box binding protein (tbpA) showed equivalent transcript levels in the comparison of different cell types, and therefore, can be used as reference genes for cell-type specific gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that more than one reference gene is required for accurate normalization of qRT-PCRs in V. carteri. The reference genes in our study show a much better performance than the housekeeping genes used as a reference in previous studies. PMID:24057254

  9. Quantitative detection of enteroviruses in activated sludge by cell culture and real-time RT-PCR using paramagnetic capturing.

    PubMed

    Pusch, D; Ihle, St; Lebuhn, M; Graeber, I; López-Pila, J M

    2005-09-01

    We have compared in extracts of activated sludge the number of enteroviruses detectable with buffalo green monkey (BGM) cell-cultures versus the number of enteroviral genomes determined by reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). In order to find conditions adequate for quantifying enteroviral RNA isolated from (waste)water we have investigated affinity capture of RNA with polystyrene beads (Dynabeads). The capture efficiency strongly depended on the genomic region chosen for the affinity binding. Capture of the RNA by its 3'-tail was most efficient (almost 100%); other regions within the genome yielded variable but lower results. Indirect capture (first hybridization of the RNA to the oligonucleotides, then attachment of the duplex molecules to the beads) was much more efficient than direct capture (attachment of the oligonucleotides to the beads first, then binding of the RNA), and resulted in RNA capture of maximally 60-80%. At least partly, this was due to incomplete hybridization of the RNA to the complementary oligonucleotides. No correlation was found between the number of cytopathic effects (CPE) determined by cell culture and the number of genomes quantified by RT-qPCR; RT-qPCR values were consistently much higher than the number of CPE. This points to overestimation of infectious enteroviruses by RT-qPCR and/or underestimation by the cell culture approach.

  10. Detection of Avian bornavirus in multiple tissues of infected psittacine birds using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Delnatte, Pauline; Mak, Matthew; Ojkic, Davor; Raghav, Raj; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale A

    2014-03-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV), the cause of proventricular dilation disease in psittacine birds, has been detected in multiple tissues of infected birds using immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the current study, real-time RT-PCR, using primers targeting the ABV matrix gene, was used to detect ABV in 146 tissues from 7 ABV-infected psittacine birds. Eighty-six percent of the samples tested positive, with crossing point values ranging from 13.82 to 37.82 and a mean of 22.3. These results were compared to the findings of a previous study using gel-based RT-PCR and IHC on the same samples. The agreement between the 2 RT-PCR techniques was 91%; when tests disagreed it was because samples were negative using gel-based RT-PCR but positive on real-time RT-PCR. Agreement with IHC was 77%; 16 out of 74 samples were negative using IHC but positive on real-time RT-PCR. The results suggest that real-time RT-PCR is a more sensitive technique than gel-based RT-PCR and IHC to detect ABV in tissues. The tissues that were ranked most frequently as having a high amount of viral RNA were proventriculus, kidney, colon, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Skeletal muscle, on the other hand, was found to have a consistently low amount of viral RNA.

  11. The use of reverse iontophoresis based surface plasmon resonance for the development of a noninvasive real time transdermal biomarker sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Niraj K.; Hwang, Yongsoon; Cameron, Brent D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in the identification of biomarkers offer a potential means to facilitate early disease detection, gauge treatment in drug therapy clinical trials, and to assess the impact of fatigue and/or stress as related to human physical and cognitive performance. For practical implementation, however, real-time sensing and quantification of such physiological biomarkers is preferred. Some key aspects in this process are continuous sample collection and real time detection. Traditionally, blood is considered the gold standard for samples but frequent phlebotomy is painful and inconvenient. Other sources like saliva and passive sweat cannot be precisely controlled and are affected by other limitations. Some of these can be addressed by reverse iontophoresis which is a noninvasive technique capable of facilitating controlled transport of biomolecules up to 20kDa in size across the skin barrier by passing a low level current between two dermal electrodes. The samples collected at the electrode site can then be monitored at site or transported via a microfluidic channel towards a sensor. In the case reported here, the sensor is based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which is a label free, real time, and highly sensitive optical sensing technique. The real time SPR detection of targeted biomarkers is then achieved through the use of aptamer surface modification. In this experiment, extraction and detection of orexin A, a stress related biomarker, is used for demonstration purposes.

  12. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  13. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  14. EVALUATION OF A RAPID, QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR METHOD FOR ENUMERATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDA CELLS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR) technology, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan?) chemistry, was developed for the specific detection and quantification of six pathogenic species of Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C....

  15. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method ...

  16. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method p...

  17. Development of a non invasion real-time PCR assay for the quantitation of chicken parvovirus in fecal swabs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study describes the development of a real time Taqman polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using a fluorescent labeled probe for the detection and quantitation of chicken parvovirus (ChPV) in feces. The primers and probes were designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the non struct...

  18. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal sourceidentification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data q...

  19. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR CALCULATING REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR CALIBRATION CURVES USING ABSOLUTE PLASMID DNA STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In real-time quantitative PCR studies using absolute plasmid DNA standards, a calibration curve is developed to estimate an unknown DNA concentration. However, potential differences in the amplification performance of plasmid DNA compared to genomic DNA standards are often ignore...

  20. A human fecal contamination index for ranking impaired recreational watersusing the HF183 quantitative real-time PCR method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human fecal pollution of surface water remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for recreational water quality risk managem...

  1. EVALUATION OF RAPID DNA EXTRACTION PROCEDURES FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF FUNGAL CELLS USING REAL TIME PCR ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ease and rapidity of quantitative DNA sequence detection by real-time PCR instruments promises to make their use increasingly common for the microbial analysis many different types of environmental samples. To fully exploit the capabilities of these instruments, correspondin...

  2. Quantitative detection of perchlorate-reducing bacteria by real-time PCR targeting the perchlorate reductase gene.

    PubMed

    Nozawa-Inoue, Mamie; Jien, Mercy; Hamilton, Nicholas S; Stewart, Valley; Scow, Kate M; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2008-03-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting the pcrA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of perchlorate reductase, detected pcrA genes from perchlorate-reducing bacteria in three different genera and from soil microbial communities. Partial pcrA sequences indicated differences in the composition of perchlorate-reducing bacterial communities following exposure to different electron donors.

  3. Analysis of Enterococci and Bacteriodales Fecal Indicator Bacteria in a Lake Michigan Tributary by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Salt Creek watershed in northwest Indiana drains into Lake Michigan near several heavily used recreational beaches. This study aimed to investigate the levels of fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci and Bacteroidales, in Salt Creek using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) an...

  4. Improved HF183 quantitative real-time PCR assay for characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface water samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time quantitative PCR assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster are considered to be some of the top performing methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. In response, the United States Environmental Protectio...

  5. Quantitative detection of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in cookies: ELISA versus real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Platteau, Céline; De Loose, Marc; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Taverniers, Isabel

    2011-11-01

    Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana) are used widely in the food industry, especially in confectionery, where they are used raw, roasted, or in a processed formulation (e.g., praline paste and hazelnut oil). Hazelnuts contain multiple allergenic proteins, which can induce an allergic reaction associated with symptoms ranging from mild irritation to life-threatening anaphylactic shock. To date, immunochemical (e.g., ELISA or dipstick) and PCR-based analyses are the only methods available that can be applied as routine tests. The aim of this study is to make a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of ELISA and real-time PCR in detecting and correctly quantifying hazelnut in food model systems. To this end, the performances of two commercial ELISAs were compared to those of two commercial and one in-house-developed real-time PCR assays. The results showed that although ELISA seemed to be more sensitive compared to real-time PCR, both detection techniques suffered from matrix effects and lacked robustness with regard to food processing. As these impacts were highly variable among the different evaluated assays (both ELISA and real-time PCR), no firm conclusion can be made as to which technique is suited best to detect hazelnut in (processed) food products. In this regard, the current lack of appropriate DNA calibrators to quantify an allergenic ingredient by means of real-time PCR is highlighted.

  6. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  7. Investigating reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis across four chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Bagés, S; Estany, J; Tor, M; Pena, R N

    2015-04-25

    Accurate normalization of data is required to correct for different efficiencies and errors during the processing of samples in reverse transcription PCR analysis. The chicken is one of the main livestock species and its genome was one of the first reported and used in large scale transcriptomic analysis. Despite this, the chicken has not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the quantitative PCR analysis of growth and fattening genes. In this study, five candidate reference genes (B2M, RPL32, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in the two main commercial muscles (pectoralis major (breast) and biceps femoris (thigh)), liver and abdominal fat. Four statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, CV and BestKeeper) were used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes. Additionally, a comprehensive ranking was established with the RefFinder tool. This analysis identified YWHAZ and TBP as the recommended combination for the analysis of biceps femoris and liver, YWHAZ and RPL32 for pectoralis major and RPL32 and B2M for abdominal fat and across-tissue studies. The final ranking for each tool changed slightly but overall the results, and most particularly the ability to discard the least robust candidates, were consistent between tools. The selection and number of reference genes were validated using SCD, a target gene related to fat metabolism. Overall, the results can be directly used to quantitate target gene expression in different tissues or in validation studies from larger transcriptomic experiments.

  8. Use of real-time quantitative PCR to detect Chlamydophila felis infection.

    PubMed

    Helps, C; Reeves, N; Tasker, S; Harbour, D

    2001-07-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed to detect and quantify Chlamydophila felis infection of cats. The assay uses a molecular beacon to specifically identify the major outer membrane protein gene, is highly reproducible, and is able to detect fewer than 10 genomic copies.

  9. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative RT-PCR studies in Talaromyces marneffei.

    PubMed

    Dankai, Wiyada; Pongpom, Monsicha; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-11-01

    Talaromyces marneffei (or Penicillium marneffei) is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, especially in Southeast Asia. T. marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus. Typically, T. marneffei has an adaptive morphology. It grows in a filamentous form (mould) at 25°C and can differentiate to produce asexual spores (conidia). In contrast, at 37°C, it grows as yeast cells that divide by fission. This study aimed to validate a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for gene expression analysis in T. marneffei. Analysis of relative gene expression by qRT-PCR requires normalization of data using a proper reference gene. However, suitable reference genes have not been identified in gene expression studies across different cell types or under different experimental conditions in T. marneffei. In this study, four housekeeping genes were selected for analysis: β-actin (act); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh); β-tubulin (benA) and 18S rRNA. Two analysis programs; BestKeeper and geNorm software tools were used to validate the expression of the candidate normalized genes. The results indicated that the actin gene was the one which was most stably expressed and was recommended for use as the endogenous control for gene expression analysis of all growth forms in T. marneffei by qRT-PCR under normal and stress conditions.

  10. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes. PMID:27242878

  11. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes. PMID:27242878

  12. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of the CCMC's Experimental Real-time SWMF-Geospace Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, Michael; Ganushkina, Natalia; De Zeeuw, Darren; Welling, Daniel; Toth, Gabor; Ilie, Raluca; Gombosi, Tamas; van der Holst, Bart; Kuznetsova, Maria; Maddox, Marlo; Rastaetter, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Experimental real-time simulations of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) are conducted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), with results available there (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/realtime.php), through the CCMC Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) site (http://iswa.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/IswaSystemWebApp/), and the Michigan SWMF site (http://csem.engin.umich.edu/realtime). Presently, two configurations of the SWMF are running in real time at CCMC, both focusing on the geospace modules, using the BATS-R-US magnetohydrodynamic model, the Ridley Ionosphere Model, and with and without the Rice Convection Model for inner magnetospheric drift physics. While both have been running for several years, nearly continuous results are available since July 2015. Dst from the model output is compared against the Kyoto real-time Dst, in particular the daily minimum value of Dst to quantify the ability of the model to capture storms. Contingency tables are presented, showing that the run with the inner magnetosphere model is much better at reproducing storm-time values. For disturbances with a minimum Dst lower than -50 nT, this version yields a probability of event detection of 0.86 and a Heidke Skill Score of 0.60. In the other version of the SWMF, without the inner magnetospheric module included, the modeled Dst never dropped below -50 nT during the examined epoch.

  14. Quantification of mRNA using real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR): trends and problems.

    PubMed

    Bustin, S A

    2002-08-01

    The fluorescence-based real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is widely used for the quantification of steady-state mRNA levels and is a critical tool for basic research, molecular medicine and biotechnology. Assays are easy to perform, capable of high throughput, and can combine high sensitivity with reliable specificity. The technology is evolving rapidly with the introduction of new enzymes, chemistries and instrumentation. However, while real-time RT-PCR addresses many of the difficulties inherent in conventional RT-PCR, it has become increasingly clear that it engenders new problems that require urgent attention. Therefore, in addition to providing a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in real-time RT-PCR, this review has an additional aim: it will describe and discuss critically some of the problems associated with interpreting results that are numerical and lend themselves to statistical analysis, yet whose accuracy is significantly affected by reagent and operator variability.

  15. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for quantitative detection of histamine-producing bacteria: use in cheese production.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M; del Río, B; Linares, D M; Martín, M C; Alvarez, M A

    2006-10-01

    Biogenic amines are toxic substances that appear in foods and beverages as a result of AA decarboxylation. The enzyme histidine decarboxylase catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine, the biogenic amine most frequently involved in food poisoning. The aim of the present work was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the direct detection and quantification of histamine-producing strains in milk and cheese. A set of primers was designed, based on the histidine decarboxylase gene sequence of different gram-positive bacteria. The results show the proposed procedure to be a rapid (total processing time < 2 h), specific and highly sensitive technique for detecting potential histamine-producing strains. Chromatographic methods (HPLC) verified the capacity of real-time quantitative PCR to correctly quantify histamine accumulation.

  16. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction: technical considerations for gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Doak, Shareen H; Zaïr, Zoulikha M

    2012-01-01

    The reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for the quantification of steady-state mRNA levels, particularly in samples with limited quantities of extracted RNA, or for analysis of low level transcripts. The procedure amplifies defined mRNA transcripts by taking advantage of retroviral enzymes with reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, coupled to PCR. The resultant PCR product concentration is directly proportional to the initial starting quantity of mRNA, therefore allowing quantification of gene expression by incorporation of a fluorescence detector for the appropriate amplicons. In this chapter, we describe a number of the most popular techniques for performing RT-PCR and detail the subsequent analysis methodologies required to interpret the resultant data in either a relative manner or through absolute quantification of gene expression levels.

  17. Successful Validation of Sample Processing and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Capabilities on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy; Tran, Luan; Boone, Travis; Almeida, Eduardo; Schonfeld, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The WetLab-2 system was developed by NASA Ames Research Center to offer new capabilities to researchers. The system can lyse cells and extract RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) on-orbit from different sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues. The purified RNA can then either be stabilized for return to Earth or can be used to conduct on-orbit quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) (qRT-PCR) analysis without the need for sample return. The qRT-PCR results can be downlinked to the ground a few hours after the completion of the run. The validation flight of the WetLab-2 system launched on SpaceX-8 on April 8, 2016. On orbit operations started on April 15th with system setup and was followed by three quantitative PCR runs using an E. coli genomic DNA template pre-loaded at three different concentrations. These runs were designed to discern if quantitative PCR functions correctly in microgravity and if the data is comparable to that from the ground control runs. The flight data showed no significant differences compared to the ground data though there was more variability in the values, this was likely due to the numerous small bubbles observed. The capability of the system to process samples and purify RNA was then validated using frozen samples prepared on the ground. The flight data for both E. coli and mouse liver clearly shows that RNA was successfully purified by our system. The E. coli qRT-PCR run showed successful singleplex, duplex and triplex capability. Data showed high variability in the resulting Cts (Cycle Thresholds [for the PCR]) likely due to bubble formation and insufficient mixing during the procedure run. The mouse liver qRT-PCR run had successful singleplex and duplex reactions and the variability was slightly better as the mixing operation was improved. The ability to purify and stabilize RNA and to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit is an important step towards utilizing the ISS as a National Laboratory facility. The

  18. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays to Detect Tembusu Virus in Culex tarsalis Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Petz, Lawrence N.; Turell, Michael J.; Padilla, Susana; Long, Lewis S.; Reinbold-Wasson, Drew D.; Smith, Darci R.; O'Guinn, Monica L.; Melanson, Vanessa R.; Lee, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is an important emerging arthropod-borne virus that may cause encephalitis in humans and has been isolated in regions of southeast Asia, including Malaysia, Thailand, and China. Currently, detection and identification of TMUV are limited to research laboratories, because quantitative rapid diagnostic assays for the virus do not exist. We describe the development of sensitive and specific conventional and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for detecting TMUV RNA in infected cell culture supernatant and Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. We used this assay to document the replication of TMUV in Cx. tarsalis, where titers increased 1,000-fold 5 days after inoculation. These assays resulted in the detection of virus-specific RNA in the presence of copurified mosquito nucleic acids. The use of these rapid diagnostic assays may have future applications for field pathogen surveillance and may assist in early detection, diagnosis, and control of the associated arthropod-borne pathogens. PMID:25114013

  19. Development of conventional and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to detect Tembusu virus in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Petz, Lawrence N; Turell, Michael J; Padilla, Susana; Long, Lewis S; Reinbold-Wasson, Drew D; Smith, Darci R; O'Guinn, Monica L; Melanson, Vanessa R; Lee, John S

    2014-10-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is an important emerging arthropod-borne virus that may cause encephalitis in humans and has been isolated in regions of southeast Asia, including Malaysia, Thailand, and China. Currently, detection and identification of TMUV are limited to research laboratories, because quantitative rapid diagnostic assays for the virus do not exist. We describe the development of sensitive and specific conventional and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for detecting TMUV RNA in infected cell culture supernatant and Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. We used this assay to document the replication of TMUV in Cx. tarsalis, where titers increased 1,000-fold 5 days after inoculation. These assays resulted in the detection of virus-specific RNA in the presence of copurified mosquito nucleic acids. The use of these rapid diagnostic assays may have future applications for field pathogen surveillance and may assist in early detection, diagnosis, and control of the associated arthropod-borne pathogens.

  20. Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR assay for the expression of metallothioneins in rat hippocampal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hai-Hong; Wang, Fu-Di; Guo, Jun-Sheng; Shen, Hui; Li, Run-Ping

    2004-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are short, cysteine-rich proteins for heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification; they can bind a variety of heavy metals and also act as radical scavengers. In brain cells, they play a neuroprotective role in many aspects. However, because the previous methods can't quantify their gene expression at the mRNA level, their regulation in brain, especially in neurons, is not well known by now. In this study, we use a more accurate method, the real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR technique, to determine the expression of three MT isomers on 100 μM zinc exposure after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours in primary culture rat hippocampal neurons. The result shows that the expression of all three MT isomers was higher compared with the values determined by other methods. This means that the roles played by neuron MTs in protecting neurons injury on zinc fluctuation was even stronger than what has been suspected before. In conclusion, our study proved that the real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR technique is a simple, rapid and more precise method than previous techniques in the detection of gene expression, especially for those genes with low abundant mRNA. Our study also suggest that may of the past studies about gene expression should be verified by real-time Fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR once more in order to reach a more scientific explanation on certain problem.

  1. Quantitative analysis of diet structure by real-time PCR, reveals different feeding patterns by two dominant grasshopper species.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xunbing; Wu, Huihui; McNeill, Mark Richard; Qin, Xinghu; Ma, Jingchuan; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Studies on grasshopper diets have historically employed a range of methodologies, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, some methodologies are qualitative instead of quantitative. Others require long experimental periods or examine population-level effects, only. In this study, we used real-time PCR to examine diets of individual grasshoppers. The method has the advantage of being both fast and quantitative. Using two grasshopper species, Oedaleus asiaticus and Dasyhippus barbipes, we designed ITS primer sequences for their three main host plants, Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis and Cleistogenes squarrosa and used real-time PCR method to test diet structure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lowest detection efficiency of the three grass species was ~80% with a strong correlation between actual and PCR-measured food intake. We found that Oedaleus asiaticus maintained an unchanged diet structure across grasslands with different grass communities. By comparison, Dasyhippus barbipes changed its diet structure. These results revealed why O. asiaticus distribution is mainly confined to Stipa-dominated grassland, and D. barbipes is more widely distributed across Inner Mongolia. Overall, real-time PCR was shown to be a useful tool for investigating grasshopper diets, which in turn offers some insight into grasshopper distributions and improved pest management. PMID:27562455

  2. Quantitative analysis of diet structure by real-time PCR, reveals different feeding patterns by two dominant grasshopper species

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xunbing; Wu, Huihui; McNeill, Mark Richard; Qin, Xinghu; Ma, Jingchuan; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Studies on grasshopper diets have historically employed a range of methodologies, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, some methodologies are qualitative instead of quantitative. Others require long experimental periods or examine population-level effects, only. In this study, we used real-time PCR to examine diets of individual grasshoppers. The method has the advantage of being both fast and quantitative. Using two grasshopper species, Oedaleus asiaticus and Dasyhippus barbipes, we designed ITS primer sequences for their three main host plants, Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis and Cleistogenes squarrosa and used real-time PCR method to test diet structure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lowest detection efficiency of the three grass species was ~80% with a strong correlation between actual and PCR-measured food intake. We found that Oedaleus asiaticus maintained an unchanged diet structure across grasslands with different grass communities. By comparison, Dasyhippus barbipes changed its diet structure. These results revealed why O. asiaticus distribution is mainly confined to Stipa-dominated grassland, and D. barbipes is more widely distributed across Inner Mongolia. Overall, real-time PCR was shown to be a useful tool for investigating grasshopper diets, which in turn offers some insight into grasshopper distributions and improved pest management. PMID:27562455

  3. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjing; Li, Yan; Gao, Pengfei; Sun, Zhihong; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2011-09-01

    Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a potential probiotic strain isolated from homemade koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China, has been sequenced and deposited in GenBank. Real-time quantitative PCR is one of the most widely used methods to study related gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data using one or more appropriate reference genes is essential. We used three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) to evaluate the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (GAPD, gyrB, LDH, 16s rRNA, and recA) under different culture conditions and different growth phases to find a suitable housekeeping gene which can be used as internal standard. The results showed that the best reference gene was GAPD, and a set of two genes, GAPD and gyrB (which were the most stable reference genes), is recommended for normalization of real-time quantitative PCR experiments under all the different experimental conditions tested. The systematic validation of candidate reference genes is important for obtaining reliable analysis results of real-time quantitative PCR studies in gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. PMID:21104423

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on the quantitative detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo; Kim, Minjeong; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kim, Dongho

    2008-09-01

    Food irradiation is an economically viable technology for inactivating foodborne pathogens, but irradiation can mask pathogens in unhygienically prepared food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment on the detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR. Three commercially available kits were tested, of which the InstaGene Matrix procedure was most effective in preparing template DNA from Salmonella exposed to radiation in broth culture. The minimum level of detection by real-time PCR combined with InstaGene Matrix was 3 log units of Salmonella per milliliter. However, when pure cultures of Salmonella were irradiated at 3 and 5 kGy, the cycle threshold ( CT) increased 1-1.5-fold compared to irradiation at 0 and 1 kGy. This indicated that irradiation treatment may result in an underestimation of bacterial counts due to radiation-induced DNA lesions. We also compared CT values in inoculated chicken homogenates before and after irradiation, which in this model caused a 1.3-3.3-fold underestimation of bacterial counts with respect to irradiation dose.

  5. Real time quantitative colourimetric test for methamphetamine detection using digital and mobile phone technology.

    PubMed

    Choodum, Aree; Parabun, Kaewalee; Klawach, Nantikan; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Wongniramaikul, Worawit

    2014-02-01

    The Simon presumptive color test was used in combination with the built-in digital camera on a mobile phone to detect methamphetamine. The real-time Red-Green-Blue (RGB) basic color data was obtained using an application installed on the mobile phone and the relationship profile between RGB intensity, including other calculated values, and the colourimetric product was investigated. A wide linear range (0.1-2.5mg mL(-1)) and a low detection limit (0.0110±0.0001-0.044±0.002mg mL(-1)) were achieved. The method also required a small sample size (20μL). The results obtained from the analysis of illicit methamphetamine tablets were comparable to values obtained from gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. Method validation indicated good intra- and inter-day precision (2.27-4.49%RSD and 2.65-5.62%RSD, respectively). The results suggest that this is a powerful real-time mobile method with the potential to be applied in field tests. PMID:24447445

  6. Analysis of THCA synthase gene expression in cannabis: a preliminary study by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cascini, Fidelia; Passerotti, Stella; Boschi, Ilaria

    2013-09-10

    In this paper we describe analyses performed by Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time RT-PCR) on RNA of 12 samples, carried out for forensic purposes to investigate a correlation between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration in Cannabis and the tetrahydrocannabinol acid synthase (THCAS) gene expression. Samples were obtained from an experimental cultivation of declared potency Cannabis variety seeds and from seizures. The Rubisco gene and the 26S ribosomal RNA gene were used as internal control genes for their constant expression and stability. As results we found minor gene expression in samples from leaves of young plants. Further, grouping results for cannabis samples with similar characteristics, we have found an increased relative expression in samples with the highest percentage of THC coming from seized sample and adult plants.

  7. The Quantitative Measurement Of Temperature Distribution In 3-D Thermal Field With High-Speed Real-Time Holographic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji-zong, Wu; Wei-qiao, Fu; Qin, Wu

    1989-06-01

    The theory of using high-speed real-time holographic interferometry to measure quantitatively 3-D thermal field is discussed in thispaper. An experimental arrangement, and the holographic interference fringes of thermal field formed by the electrAc heating coil wires which were taken by the high-speed camera are given. With CONCEPT 32/2725 computer system and corresponding programms the distribution of 3-D thermal field is calculated and plotted Finally, the problems required to be improved and solved for the method of measuring quantitatively 3-D thermal field are discussed.

  8. Comparative evaluation of three commercial quantitative cytomegalovirus standards by use of digital and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Hayden, R T; Gu, Z; Sam, S S; Sun, Y; Tang, L; Pounds, S; Caliendo, A M

    2015-05-01

    The recent development of the 1st WHO International Standard for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the introduction of commercially produced secondary standards have raised hopes of improved agreement among laboratories performing quantitative PCR for CMV. However, data to evaluate the trueness and uniformity of secondary standards and the consistency of results achieved when these materials are run on various assays are lacking. Three concentrations of each of the three commercially prepared secondary CMV standards were tested in quadruplicate by three real-time and two digital PCR methods. The mean results were compared in a pairwise fashion with nominal values provided by each manufacturer. The agreement of results among all methods for each sample and for like concentrations of each standard was also assessed. The relationship between the nominal values of standards and the measured values varied, depending upon the assay used and the manufacturer of the standards, with the degree of bias ranging from +0.6 to -1.0 log10 IU/ml. The mean digital PCR result differed significantly among the secondary standards, as did the results of the real-time PCRs, particularly when plotted against nominal log10 IU values. Commercially available quantitative secondary CMV standards produce variable results when tested by different real-time and digital PCR assays, with various magnitudes of bias compared to nominal values. These findings suggest that the use of such materials may not achieve the intended uniformity among laboratories measuring CMV viral load, as envisioned by adaptation of the WHO standard.

  9. A real-time one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method to quantify c-erbB-2 expression in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, V; Révillion, F; Hornez, L; Peyrat, J P

    2000-01-01

    We developed a real-time one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for the routine quantification of c-erbB-2 oncogene expression in breast cancer, using a 7700 ABI PRISM Sequence Detector System (Perkin Elmer-Applied Biosystems, Courtaboeuf, France). The real-time quantification of the polymerase chain reaction products is based on the TaqMan 5' nuclease assay. The optimal experimental conditions we determined were as follows: 6 mM MgCl2, 200 nM of fluorogenic probe, 200 nM of each primer, and 12.5 units MuLV reverse transcriptase. The GAPDH housekeeping gene was used for normalization of c-erbB-2 expression. In human breast cancer cell lines, the normalized expression of c-erbB-2 ranged from 8 x 10(-6) to 2,600 x 10(-6), the two highest values corresponding to the c-erbB-2 overexpressing cells MDA-MB-453 and SK-BR-3. In a series of 100 breast cancer samples, c-erbB-2 normalized expression was found to range from 0.4 x 10(-6) to 350 x 10(-6). A close correlation was observed between this real-time one-step quantitative RT-PCR method and both semiquantitative conventional RT-PCR (N = 22; r = 0.8543; P < .0001) and c-erbB-2 protein expression (p185) quantified by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (N = 27; r = 0.71; P < .0001). The current realtime RT-PCR assay is rapid, sensitive, and reproducible and appears particularly suitable to quantify gene expression in large series of samples.

  10. Sensitive and rapid quantitative detection of anthrax spores isolated from soil samples by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Chunsun; Lee, Kyunghee; Yoo, Cheonkwon; Seong, Won Keun; Oh, Hee-Bok

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of anthrax spores from environmental samples is essential for accurate detection and risk assessment since Bacillus anthracis spores have been shown to be one of the most effective biological weapons. Using TaqMan real-time PCR, specific primers and probes were designed for the identification of pathogenic B. anthracis strains from pag gene and cap gene on two plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, as well as a sap gene encoded on the S-layer. To select the appropriate lysis method of anthrax spore from environmental samples, several heat treatments and germination methods were evaluated with multiplex-PCR. Among them, heat treatment of samples suspended with sucrose plus non-ionic detergent was considered an effective spore disruption method because it detected up to 10(5) spores/g soil by multiplex-PCR. Serial dilutions of B. anthracis DNA and spore were detected up to a level of 0.1 ng/ microliters and 10 spores/ml, respectively, at the correlation coefficient of 0.99 by real-time PCR. Quantitative analysis of anthrax spore could be obtained from the comparison between C(T) value and serial dilutions of soil sample at the correlation coefficient of 0.99. Additionally, spores added to soil samples were detected up to 10(4) spores/g soil within 3 hr by real-time PCR. As a consequence, we established a rapid and accurate detection system for environmental anthrax spores using real-time PCR, avoiding time and labor-consuming preparation steps such as enrichment culturing and DNA preparation.

  11. Real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Bagaza virus.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Dolores; Rocha, Ana; Tena-Tomás, Cristina; Vigo, Marta; Agüero, Montserrat; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2012-09-01

    In September 2010, an outbreak of disease in 2 wild bird species (red-legged partridge, Alectoris rufa; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) occurred in southern Spain. Bagaza virus (BAGV) was identified as the etiological agent of the outbreak. BAGV had only been reported before in Western Africa (Central African Republic, Senegal) and in India. The first occurrence of BAGV in Spain stimulated a demand for rapid, reliable, and efficacious diagnostic methods to facilitate the surveillance of this disease in the field. This report describes a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method based on a commercial 5'-Taq nuclease-3' minor groove binder DNA probe and primers targeting the Bagaza NS5 gene. The method allowed the detection of BAGV with a high sensitivity, whereas other closely related flaviviruses (Usutu virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus) were not detected. The assay was evaluated using field samples of red-legged partridges dead during the outbreak (n = 11), as well as samples collected from partridges during surveillance programs (n = 81). The results were compared to those obtained with a pan-flaviviral hemi-nested RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, which was employed originally to identify the virus involved in the outbreak. The results obtained with both techniques were 100% matching, indicating that the newly developed real-time RT-PCR is a valid technique for BAGV genome detection, useful in both diagnosis and surveillance studies.

  12. Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for Detection of Mumps Virus RNA in Clinical Specimens▿

    PubMed Central

    Boddicker, Jennifer D.; Rota, Paul A.; Kreman, Trisha; Wangeman, Andrea; Lowe, Louis; Hummel, Kimberly B.; Thompson, Robert; Bellini, William J.; Pentella, Michael; DesJardin, Lucy E.

    2007-01-01

    The mumps virus is a negative-strand RNA virus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps infection results in an acute illness with symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgia, followed by swelling of the salivary glands. Complications of mumps can include meningitis, deafness, pancreatitis, orchitis, and first-trimester abortion. Laboratory confirmation of mumps infection can be made by the detection of immunoglobulin M-specific antibodies to mumps virus in acute-phase serum samples, the isolation of mumps virus in cell culture, or by detection of the RNA of the mumps virus by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. We developed and validated a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid mumps diagnosis in a clinical setting. This assay used oligonucleotide primers and a TaqMan probe targeting the mumps SH gene, as well as primers and a probe that targeted the human RNase P gene to assess the presence of PCR inhibitors and as a measure of specimen quality. The test was specific, since it did not amplify a product from near-neighbor viruses, as well as sensitive and accurate. Real-time RT-PCR results showed 100% correlation with results from viral culture, the gold standard for mumps diagnostic testing. Assay efficiency was over 90% and displayed good precision after performing inter- and intraassay replicates. Thus, we have developed and validated a molecular method for rapidly diagnosing mumps infection that may be used to complement existing techniques. PMID:17652480

  13. Quantitative detection of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in susceptible and partially resistant plants using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Picó, Belén; Sifres, Alicia; Nuez, Fernando

    2005-09-01

    A method for the detection of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) that combines reverse transcription with real-time PCR (SYBR((R)) Green chemistry) was developed using specific primers designed from a nucleotide sequence of the RNA polymerase gene (NIb) conserved among all the available CVYV strains. This method provided a linear assay over five to six orders of magnitude and reproducibly detected titres as low as 10(3) molecules of the target CVYV cDNA. Real-time PCR gave reproducible results for the quantification of CVYV in young leaves of susceptible and resistant cucumber landraces after mechanical inoculation. Significant differences in the starting amount of target cDNA were found between the analyzed genotypes, indicating differences in viral accumulation that correlated to their different levels of resistance. Real-time PCR results validated our previous findings using slot-blot hybridization, the dominance of the strong resistance to CVYV displayed by C.sat 10, and provided improved reliability and sensitivity of detection. This method has great potential in resistance breeding for germplasm screening, characterization of resistance mechanisms and genetic studies.

  14. Real-time quantitative PCR for Marek's disease vaccine virus in feather samples: applications and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Baigent, S; Nair, V; Currie, R

    2006-01-01

    Marek's disease, an economically-important lymphoid neoplasm of chickens, is controlled by vaccination with CVI988 strain of Marek's disease herpesvirus. Sub-optimal vaccinal protection can have multiple causes. Accurate quantification of CVI988 in vaccinated chickens will assist in understanding the causes of these vaccine breaks. We developed, optimised and validated a real-time PCR assay for quantification of CVI988 vaccine virus (in terms of CVI988 genomes per 10,000 cells) in the feather tips, a rich source of viral DNA which can easily be sampled in a non-invasive manner. CVI988 load in feathers was predictive of CVI988 load in spleen, so is anticipated to be a good predictor of protection. The optimal age of chicks for feather collection is between two to five weeks, and feathers are preferentially taken from the axillary tract. This PCR test is now used to monitor vaccine virus levels in commercial chicks. For each flock under test, fifty birds are feather sampled for q-PCR. We describe how the feather CVI988 genome profile can show the flock's response to vaccination, and the likelihood of vaccine breaks. Furthermore, the q-PCR test can be applied to researching optimal timing and vaccine delivery routes, and optimal vaccination regimes for different breeds of chick. PMID:17058503

  15. Quantitative real-time analysis of collective cancer invasion and dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    A grand challenge in biology is to understand the cellular and molecular basis of tissue and organ level function in mammals. The ultimate goals of such efforts are to explain how organs arise in development from the coordinated actions of their constituent cells and to determine how molecularly regulated changes in cell behavior alter the structure and function of organs during disease processes. Two major barriers stand in the way of achieving these goals: the relative inaccessibility of cellular processes in mammals and the daunting complexity of the signaling environment inside an intact organ in vivo. To overcome these barriers, we have developed a suite of tissue isolation, three dimensional (3D) culture, genetic manipulation, nanobiomaterials, imaging, and molecular analysis techniques to enable the real-time study of cell biology within intact tissues in physiologically relevant 3D environments. This manuscript introduces the rationale for 3D culture, reviews challenges to optical imaging in these cultures, and identifies current limitations in the analysis of complex experimental designs that could be overcome with improved imaging, imaging analysis, and automated classification of the results of experimental interventions.

  16. Statistical assessment of DNA extraction reagent lot variability in real-time quantitative PCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bushon, R.N.; Kephart, C.M.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, D.S.; Schaefer, F. W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability in lots of a DNA extraction kit using real-time PCR assays for Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Vibrio cholerae. Methods and Results: Replicate aliquots of three bacteria were processed in duplicate with three different lots of a commercial DNA extraction kit. This experiment was repeated in triplicate. Results showed that cycle threshold values were statistically different among the different lots. Conclusions: Differences in DNA extraction reagent lots were found to be a significant source of variability for qPCR results. Steps should be taken to ensure the quality and consistency of reagents. Minimally, we propose that standard curves should be constructed for each new lot of extraction reagents, so that lot-to-lot variation is accounted for in data interpretation. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study highlights the importance of evaluating variability in DNA extraction procedures, especially when different reagent lots are used. Consideration of this variability in data interpretation should be an integral part of studies investigating environmental samples with unknown concentrations of organisms. ?? 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Real-time PCR assay using molecular beacon for quantitation of hepatitis B virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Sum, Simon Siu-Man; Wong, Danny Ka-Ho; Yuen, Man-Fung; Yuan, He-Jun; Yu, Jian; Lai, Ching-Lung; Ho, David; Zhang, Linqi

    2004-08-01

    Levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the blood serve as an important marker in monitoring the disease progression and treatment efficacy of chronic HBV infection. Several commercial assays are available for accurate measurement of HBV genomic DNA, but many of them are hampered by relatively low sensitivity and limited dynamic range. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and accurate assay for measuring HBV genomic DNA using real-time PCR with a molecular beacon (HBV beacon assay). The performance of this assay was validated by testing serial dilutions of the two EUROHEP HBV DNA standards (ad and ay subtypes) of known concentrations. The assay showed low intra-assay (<7%) and interassay (<5%) variations for both subtypes. Its dynamic range was found to be 10(1) to 10(7) copies per reaction (1.0 x 10(2) to 1.0 x 10(9) copies ml(-1)). The assay was further evaluated clinically using serum samples from 175 individuals with chronic hepatitis B. The HBV DNA level measured by this assay showed good correlation with that measured by the commercially available COBAS AMPLICOR HBV Monitor test (r = 0.901; P < 0.001). The higher sensitivity and broader dynamic range of this assay compared to the existing commercial assays will provide an ideal tool for monitoring disease progression and treatment efficacy in HBV-infected patients, in particular for those with low levels of HBV viremia.

  18. Quantitative Analysis Of Sperm Motion Kinematics From Real-Time Video-Edge Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Russell O...; Katz, David F.

    1988-02-01

    A new model of sperm swimming kinematics, which uses signal processing methods and multivariate statistical techniques to identify individual cell-motion parameters and unique cell populations, is presented. Swimming paths of individual cells are obtained using real-time, video-edge digitization. Raw paths are adaptively filtered to identify average paths, and measurements of space-time oscillations about average paths are made. Time-dependent frequency information is extracted from spatial variations about average paths using harmonic analysis. Raw-path and average-path measures such as curvature, curve length, and straight-line length, and measures of oscillations about average paths such as time-dependent amplitude and frequency variations, are used in a multivariate, cluster analysis to identify unique cell populations. The entire process, including digitization of sperm video images, is computer-automated. Preliminary results indicate that this method of tracking, digitization, and kinematic analysis accurately identifies unique cell subpopulations, including: the relative numbers of cells in each subpopulation, how subpopulations differ, and the extent and significance of such differences. With appropriate work, this approach may be useful for clinical discrimination between normal and abnormal semen specimens.

  19. Development and validation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay to detect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii from onion seed.

    PubMed

    Robène, Isabelle; Perret, Marion; Jouen, Emmanuel; Escalon, Aline; Maillot, Marie-Véronique; Chabirand, Aude; Moreau, Aurélie; Laurent, Annie; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Pruvost, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial blight of onion is an emerging disease threatening world onion production. The causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii is seed transmitted and a reliable and sensitive tool is needed to monitor seed exchanges. A triplex quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed targeting two X. axonopodis pv. allii-specific markers and an internal control chosen in 5.8S rRNA gene from Alliaceae. Amplification of at least one marker indicates the presence of the bacterium in seed extracts. This real-time PCR assay detected all the 79 X. axonopodis pv. allii strains tested and excluded 85.2% of the 135 non-target strains and particularly all 39 saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria associated with onion. Cross-reactions were mainly obtained for strains assigned to nine phylogenetically related X. axonopodis pathovars. The cycle cut-off was estimated statistically at 36.3 considering a risk of false positive of 1%. The limit of detection obtained in at least 95% of the time (LOD 95%) was 5×10(3) CFU/g (colony forming unit/g). The sensitivity threshold was found to be 1 infected seed in 32,790 seeds. This real-time PCR assay should be useful for preventing the long-distance spread of X. axonopodis pv. allii via contaminated seed lots and determining the epidemiology of the bacterium.

  20. Comparison of nine different real-time PCR chemistries for qualitative and quantitative applications in GMO detection.

    PubMed

    Buh Gasparic, Meti; Tengs, Torstein; La Paz, Jose Luis; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Pla, Maria; Esteve, Teresa; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2010-03-01

    Several techniques have been developed for detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms, but quantitative real-time PCR is by far the most popular approach. Among the most commonly used real-time PCR chemistries are TaqMan probes and SYBR green, but many other detection chemistries have also been developed. Because their performance has never been compared systematically, here we present an extensive evaluation of some promising chemistries: sequence-unspecific DNA labeling dyes (SYBR green), primer-based technologies (AmpliFluor, Plexor, Lux primers), and techniques involving double-labeled probes, comprising hybridization (molecular beacon) and hydrolysis (TaqMan, CPT, LNA, and MGB) probes, based on recently published experimental data. For each of the detection chemistries assays were included targeting selected loci. Real-time PCR chemistries were subsequently compared for their efficiency in PCR amplification and limits of detection and quantification. The overall applicability of the chemistries was evaluated, adding practicability and cost issues to the performance characteristics. None of the chemistries seemed to be significantly better than any other, but certain features favor LNA and MGB technology as good alternatives to TaqMan in quantification assays. SYBR green and molecular beacon assays can perform equally well but may need more optimization prior to use.

  1. Development and validation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay to detect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii from onion seed.

    PubMed

    Robène, Isabelle; Perret, Marion; Jouen, Emmanuel; Escalon, Aline; Maillot, Marie-Véronique; Chabirand, Aude; Moreau, Aurélie; Laurent, Annie; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Pruvost, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial blight of onion is an emerging disease threatening world onion production. The causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii is seed transmitted and a reliable and sensitive tool is needed to monitor seed exchanges. A triplex quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed targeting two X. axonopodis pv. allii-specific markers and an internal control chosen in 5.8S rRNA gene from Alliaceae. Amplification of at least one marker indicates the presence of the bacterium in seed extracts. This real-time PCR assay detected all the 79 X. axonopodis pv. allii strains tested and excluded 85.2% of the 135 non-target strains and particularly all 39 saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria associated with onion. Cross-reactions were mainly obtained for strains assigned to nine phylogenetically related X. axonopodis pathovars. The cycle cut-off was estimated statistically at 36.3 considering a risk of false positive of 1%. The limit of detection obtained in at least 95% of the time (LOD 95%) was 5×10(3) CFU/g (colony forming unit/g). The sensitivity threshold was found to be 1 infected seed in 32,790 seeds. This real-time PCR assay should be useful for preventing the long-distance spread of X. axonopodis pv. allii via contaminated seed lots and determining the epidemiology of the bacterium. PMID:25940928

  2. Comparison of nine different real-time PCR chemistries for qualitative and quantitative applications in GMO detection.

    PubMed

    Buh Gasparic, Meti; Tengs, Torstein; La Paz, Jose Luis; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Pla, Maria; Esteve, Teresa; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2010-03-01

    Several techniques have been developed for detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms, but quantitative real-time PCR is by far the most popular approach. Among the most commonly used real-time PCR chemistries are TaqMan probes and SYBR green, but many other detection chemistries have also been developed. Because their performance has never been compared systematically, here we present an extensive evaluation of some promising chemistries: sequence-unspecific DNA labeling dyes (SYBR green), primer-based technologies (AmpliFluor, Plexor, Lux primers), and techniques involving double-labeled probes, comprising hybridization (molecular beacon) and hydrolysis (TaqMan, CPT, LNA, and MGB) probes, based on recently published experimental data. For each of the detection chemistries assays were included targeting selected loci. Real-time PCR chemistries were subsequently compared for their efficiency in PCR amplification and limits of detection and quantification. The overall applicability of the chemistries was evaluated, adding practicability and cost issues to the performance characteristics. None of the chemistries seemed to be significantly better than any other, but certain features favor LNA and MGB technology as good alternatives to TaqMan in quantification assays. SYBR green and molecular beacon assays can perform equally well but may need more optimization prior to use. PMID:20087729

  3. Quantitative, real-time analysis of base excision repair activity in cell lysates utilizing lesion-specific molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Svilar, David; Vens, Conchita; Sobol, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for the quantitative, real-time measurement of DNA glycosylase and AP endonuclease activities in cell nuclear lysates using base excision repair (BER) molecular beacons. The substrate (beacon) is comprised of a deoxyoligonucleotide containing a single base lesion with a 6-Carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) moiety conjugated to the 5'end and a Dabcyl moiety conjugated to the 3' end of the oligonucleotide. The BER molecular beacon is 43 bases in length and the sequence is designed to promote the formation of a stem-loop structure with 13 nucleotides in the loop and 15 base pairs in the stem. When folded in this configuration the 6-FAM moiety is quenched by Dabcyl in a non-fluorescent manner via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). The lesion is positioned such that following base lesion removal and strand scission the remaining 5 base oligonucleotide containing the 6-FAM moiety is released from the stem. Release and detachment from the quencher (Dabcyl) results in an increase of fluorescence that is proportionate to the level of DNA repair. By collecting multiple reads of the fluorescence values, real-time assessment of BER activity is possible. The use of standard quantitative real-time PCR instruments allows the simultaneous analysis of numerous samples. The design of these BER molecular beacons, with a single base lesion, is amenable to kinetic analyses, BER quantification and inhibitor validation and is adaptable for quantification of DNA Repair activity in tissue and tumor cell lysates or with purified proteins. The analysis of BER activity in tumor lysates or tissue aspirates using these molecular beacons may be applicable to functional biomarker measurements. Further, the analysis of BER activity with purified proteins using this quantitative assay provides a rapid, high-throughput method for the discovery and validation of BER inhibitors.

  4. Quantitative real-time PCR detection of Zika virus and evaluation with field-caught Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serology–which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of IgM and IgG antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. Therefore, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of ZIKV in the early stage of infection. So far, only one rRT-PCR assay has been described in the context of the outbreak in Micronesia in 2007. In this study, we described a one step rRT-PCR for ZIKV which can detect a wider genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates from Asia and Africa. Results The NS5 protein coding regions of African ZIKV isolates were sequenced and aligned with representative flaviviruses sequences from GenBank to design primers and probe from conserved regions. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was evaluated to be 32 genome-equivalents and 0.05 plaque forming unit (pfu). The assay was shown to detect 37 ZIKV isolates covering a wide geographic in Africa and Asia over 36 years but none of the 31 other flaviviruses tested showing high analytical specificity. The rRT-PCR could be performed in less than 3 hours. This method was used successfully to detect ZIKV strains from field-caught mosquitoes. Conclusion We have developed a rapid, sensitive and specific rRT – PCR for detection of ZIKV. This assay is a useful tool for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate. Further studies are needed to validate this assay in clinical positive samples collected during acute ZIKV infection. PMID:24148652

  5. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods for four genetically modified maize varieties and maize DNA content in food.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Peter D; Ilg, Evelyn C; Berthoud, Hélène; Herrmann, Andre

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative detection methods are needed for enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients. This labeling threshold, which is set to 1% in the European Union and Switzerland, must be applied to all approved GMOs. Four different varieties of maize are approved in the European Union: the insect-resistant Bt176 maize (Maximizer), Btl 1 maize, Mon810 (YieldGard) maize, and the herbicide-tolerant T25 (Liberty Link) maize. Because the labeling must be considered individually for each ingredient, a quantitation system for the endogenous maize content is needed in addition to the GMO-specific detection systems. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection methods were developed for the 4 approved genetically modified maize varieties and for an endogenous maize (invertase) gene system.

  6. Effect of carbon monoxide on gene expression in cerebrocortical astrocytes: Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara R; Vieira, Helena L A; Duarte, Carlos B

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique to characterize changes in gene expression in complex cellular and tissue processes, such as cytoprotection or inflammation. The accurate assessment of changes in gene expression depends on the selection of adequate internal reference gene(s). Carbon monoxide (CO) affects several metabolic pathways and de novo protein synthesis is crucial in the cellular responses to this gasotransmitter. Herein a selection of commonly used reference genes was analyzed to identify the most suitable internal control genes to evaluate the effect of CO on gene expression in cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes. The cells were exposed to CO by treatment with CORM-A1 (CO releasing molecule A1) and four different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of eight putative reference genes. Our results indicate that Gapdh (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) together with Ppia (peptidylpropyl isomerase A) is the most suitable gene pair for normalization of qRT-PCR results under the experimental conditions used. Pgk1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), Hprt1 (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase I), Sdha (Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A), Tbp (TATA box binding protein), Actg1 (actin gamma 1) and Rn18s (18S rRNA) genes presented less stable expression profiles in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to CORM-A1 for up to 60 min. For validation, we analyzed the effect of CO on the expression of Bdnf and bcl-2. Different results were obtained, depending on the reference genes used. A significant increase in the expression of both genes was found when the results were normalized with Gapdh and Ppia, in contrast with the results obtained when the other genes were used as reference. These findings highlight the need for a proper and accurate selection of the reference genes used in the quantification of qRT-PCR results

  7. Effect of carbon monoxide on gene expression in cerebrocortical astrocytes: Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara R; Vieira, Helena L A; Duarte, Carlos B

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique to characterize changes in gene expression in complex cellular and tissue processes, such as cytoprotection or inflammation. The accurate assessment of changes in gene expression depends on the selection of adequate internal reference gene(s). Carbon monoxide (CO) affects several metabolic pathways and de novo protein synthesis is crucial in the cellular responses to this gasotransmitter. Herein a selection of commonly used reference genes was analyzed to identify the most suitable internal control genes to evaluate the effect of CO on gene expression in cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes. The cells were exposed to CO by treatment with CORM-A1 (CO releasing molecule A1) and four different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of eight putative reference genes. Our results indicate that Gapdh (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) together with Ppia (peptidylpropyl isomerase A) is the most suitable gene pair for normalization of qRT-PCR results under the experimental conditions used. Pgk1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), Hprt1 (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase I), Sdha (Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A), Tbp (TATA box binding protein), Actg1 (actin gamma 1) and Rn18s (18S rRNA) genes presented less stable expression profiles in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to CORM-A1 for up to 60 min. For validation, we analyzed the effect of CO on the expression of Bdnf and bcl-2. Different results were obtained, depending on the reference genes used. A significant increase in the expression of both genes was found when the results were normalized with Gapdh and Ppia, in contrast with the results obtained when the other genes were used as reference. These findings highlight the need for a proper and accurate selection of the reference genes used in the quantification of qRT-PCR results

  8. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Oil Palm Elite Planting Materials Propagated by Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J.; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Background The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. Results In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Conclusions Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate

  9. Quantitation of mule duck in goose foie gras using TaqMan real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Miguel A; García, Teresa; González, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Hernández, Pablo E; Martín, Rosario

    2004-03-24

    A real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method has been developed for the quantitation of mule duck (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) in binary duck/goose foie gras mixtures. The method combines the use of real-time PCR with duck-specific and endogenous control "duck + goose" primers to measure duck content and total foie gras content, respectively. Both PCR systems (duck-specific and duck + goose) were designed on the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA). The duck-specific system amplifies a 96 bp fragment from duck DNA, whereas the duck + goose system amplifies a 120 bp fragment from duck and goose DNA. The method measures PCR product accumulation through a FAM-labeled fluorogenic probe (TaqMan). The C(t) (threshold cycle) values obtained from the duck + goose system are used to normalize the ones obtained from the duck-specific system. Analysis of experimental duck/goose foie gras binary mixtures demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection and quantitation of duck in the range of 1-25%. This genetic marker can be very useful to avoid mislabeling or fraudulent species substitution of goose by duck in foie gras.

  10. Novel quantitative TaqMan® MGB real-time PCR for sensitive detection of Vibrio aestuarianus in Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    McCleary, S; Henshilwood, K

    2015-06-01

    Validation of a novel quantitative real-time PCR using TaqMan® minor groove binder (MGB) chemistry is described for sensitive and rapid detection of Vibrio aestuarianus, an increasingly important pathogen of Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas aquaculture. Primers and TaqMan® MGB hydrolysis probe were designed to specifically amplify a 58bp DNA fragment of the V. aestuarianus dnaJ gene. Real-time PCR selectivity was empirically tested using DNA extracted from isolates of V. aestuarianus and a selection of different aquatic bacterial species, including other Vibrio spp. Theoretical selectivity was assessed through sequence comparison using the NCBI BLAST similarity tool. Quantitative PCR plasmid standards were generated to test assay linearity, amplification efficiency and the limit of quantitation (LOQ), according to International Organisation for Standardisation ISO 16140 validation recommendations. LOQ ranged between 5 and 10 PCR copies, although the detection range extended beyond this with reduced precision. Applied performance was tested using C. gigas samples taken from a selection of Irish aquaculture sites. Increasing levels of V. aestuarianus, accompanied by the development of tissue pathology in examined oysters, were found at 1 site that was sampled repeatedly in 2013. Rapid, sensitive and reproducible detections of V. aestuarianus from C. gigas tissue samples were attained during this validation study with a small sample size, and a practical application for disease management is described.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of periprosthetic infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction: a comparison with conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Yushi; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Choe, Hyonmin; Ike, Hiroyuki; Momose, Takako; Fujiwara, Shusuke; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2012-10-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated the limited accuracy of conventional culture methods for diagnosing periprosthetic infections. We have applied real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the rapid identification of bacteria around implants and reported its utility. However, the capability of quantification is also a useful feature of this type of assay. The aim of our study was to validate the usefulness of quantitative analyses using real-time PCR of cases with clinical periprosthetic infections in comparison with more established tests, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, microbiologic cultures, and histopathology. Fifty-six joints with suspected infections were reviewed retrospectively. A universal PCR assay was used to perform the quantitative analyses. The differences in the threshold cycles between clinical samples and a negative control (∆Ct) in each case were calculated. The results of the quantitative PCR assay were compared with CRP levels, microbiologic cultures, and histopathology. There was a significant correlation found between the CRP and ∆Ct values. There were also significant differences found in the ∆Ct values according to CRP levels, with higher CRP levels showing higher ∆Ct values. Similarly, there were significant differences in the ∆Ct measurements in our culture results and among our pathologic evaluations. We confirmed that quantification by universal PCR based on the ∆Ct correlated with preoperative CRP levels and was associated with the microbiologic culture results and pathologic severity. This quantification method may be valuable for assessing infection severity.

  12. Cloned plasmid DNA fragments as calibrators for controlling GMOs: different real-time duplex quantitative PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Taverniers, Isabel; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc

    2004-03-01

    Analytical real-time PCR technology is a powerful tool for implementation of the GMO labeling regulations enforced in the EU. The quality of analytical measurement data obtained by quantitative real-time PCR depends on the correct use of calibrator and reference materials (RMs). For GMO methods of analysis, the choice of appropriate RMs is currently under debate. So far, genomic DNA solutions from certified reference materials (CRMs) are most often used as calibrators for GMO quantification by means of real-time PCR. However, due to some intrinsic features of these CRMs, errors may be expected in the estimations of DNA sequence quantities. In this paper, two new real-time PCR methods are presented for Roundup Ready soybean, in which two types of plasmid DNA fragments are used as calibrators. Single-target plasmids (STPs) diluted in a background of genomic DNA were used in the first method. Multiple-target plasmids (MTPs) containing both sequences in one molecule were used as calibrators for the second method. Both methods simultaneously detect a promoter 35S sequence as GMO-specific target and a lectin gene sequence as endogenous reference target in a duplex PCR. For the estimation of relative GMO percentages both "delta C(T)" and "standard curve" approaches are tested. Delta C(T) methods are based on direct comparison of measured C(T) values of both the GMO-specific target and the endogenous target. Standard curve methods measure absolute amounts of target copies or haploid genome equivalents. A duplex delta C(T) method with STP calibrators performed at least as well as a similar method with genomic DNA calibrators from commercial CRMs. Besides this, high quality results were obtained with a standard curve method using MTP calibrators. This paper demonstrates that plasmid DNA molecules containing either one or multiple target sequences form perfect alternative calibrators for GMO quantification and are especially suitable for duplex PCR reactions.

  13. Application of sonication to release DNA from Bacillus cereus for quantitative detection by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Fykse, Else Marie; Olsen, Jaran Strand; Skogan, Gunnar

    2003-10-01

    A rapid sonication method for lysis of Gram-positive bacteria was evaluated for use in combination with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses for detection. Other criteria used for evaluation of lysis were microscopic cell count, colony forming units (cfu), optical density at 600 nm and total yield of DNA measured by PicoGreen fluorescence. The aim of this study was complete disruption of cellular structures and release of DNA without the need for lysing reagents and time-consuming sample preparation. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus cereus was used as a model organism for Gram-positive bacteria. It was demonstrated by real-time PCR that maximum yield of DNA was obtained after 3 to 5 min of sonication. The yield of DNA was affected by culture age and the cells from a 4-h-old culture in the exponential phase of growth gave a higher yield of DNA after 5 min of sonication than a 24-h-old culture in the stationary phase of growth. The 4-h-old culture was also more sensitive for lysis caused by heating. The maximum yield of DNA, evaluated by real-time PCR, from a culture of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, was obtained after 20 s of sonication. However, the yield of target DNA from E. coli rapidly decreased after 50 s of sonication due to degradation of DNA. Plate counting (cfu), microscopic counting and absorbance at 600 nm showed that the number of viable and structurally intact B. cereus cells decreased rapidly with sonication time, whereas the yield of DNA increased as shown by PicoGreen fluorescence and real-time PCR. The present results indicate that 3-5 min of sonication is sufficient for lysis and release of DNA from samples of Gram-positive bacteria.

  14. Endonuclease Restriction-Mediated Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Novel Technique for Rapid, Sensitive and Quantitative Detection of Nucleic-Acid Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Li, Machao; Luo, Lijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Li, Hua; Cao, Xiaolong; Hu, Shoukui; Jin, Dong; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    The article reported a novel methodology for real-time PCR analysis of nucleic acids, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time polymerase chain reaction (ET-PCR). Just like PCR, ET-PCR only required one pair of primers. A short sequence, which was recognized by restriction enzyme BstUI, was attached to the 5′ end of the forward (F) or reverse (R) PCR primer, and the new F or R primer was named EF or ER. EF/ER was labeled at the 5′ end with a reporter dye and in the middle with a quenching dye. BstUI cleaves the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5′ end recognition sequences and their complementary sequences) during the extension phase, which separates the reporter molecule from the quenching dye, leading to a gain of fluorescence signal. This process is repeated in each amplification cycle and unaffected the exponential synthesis of the PCR amplification. ET-PCR allowed real-time analysis of single or multiple targets in a single vessel, and provided the reproducible quantitation of nucleic acids. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of ET-PCR were successfully evaluated, detecting down to 250 fg of genomic DNA per tube of target pathogen DNA examined, and the positive results were generated in a relatively short period. Moreover, the practical application of ET-PCR for simultaneous detection of multiple target pathogens was also demonstrated in artificially contaminated blood samples. In conclusion, due to the technique’s simplicity of design, reproducible data and low contamination risk, ET-PCR assay is an appealing alternative to conventional approaches currently used for real-time nucleic acid analysis. PMID:27468284

  15. Endonuclease Restriction-Mediated Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Novel Technique for Rapid, Sensitive and Quantitative Detection of Nucleic-Acid Sequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Li, Machao; Luo, Lijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Li, Hua; Cao, Xiaolong; Hu, Shoukui; Jin, Dong; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    The article reported a novel methodology for real-time PCR analysis of nucleic acids, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time polymerase chain reaction (ET-PCR). Just like PCR, ET-PCR only required one pair of primers. A short sequence, which was recognized by restriction enzyme BstUI, was attached to the 5' end of the forward (F) or reverse (R) PCR primer, and the new F or R primer was named EF or ER. EF/ER was labeled at the 5' end with a reporter dye and in the middle with a quenching dye. BstUI cleaves the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5' end recognition sequences and their complementary sequences) during the extension phase, which separates the reporter molecule from the quenching dye, leading to a gain of fluorescence signal. This process is repeated in each amplification cycle and unaffected the exponential synthesis of the PCR amplification. ET-PCR allowed real-time analysis of single or multiple targets in a single vessel, and provided the reproducible quantitation of nucleic acids. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of ET-PCR were successfully evaluated, detecting down to 250 fg of genomic DNA per tube of target pathogen DNA examined, and the positive results were generated in a relatively short period. Moreover, the practical application of ET-PCR for simultaneous detection of multiple target pathogens was also demonstrated in artificially contaminated blood samples. In conclusion, due to the technique's simplicity of design, reproducible data and low contamination risk, ET-PCR assay is an appealing alternative to conventional approaches currently used for real-time nucleic acid analysis. PMID:27468284

  16. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)--based tool for detection and quantification of Cordyceps militaris in soil.

    PubMed

    Saragih, Syaiful Amri; Takemoto, S; Hisamoto, Y; Fujii, M; Sato, H; Kamata, N

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR using a primer pair CM2946F/CM3160R was developed for specific detection and quantification of Cordyceps militaris from soil. Standard curves were obtained for genomic DNA and DNA extracts from autoclaved soil with a certain dose of C. militaris suspension. C. militaris was detected from two forest soil samples out of ten that were collected when fruit bodies of C. militaris were found. This method seemed effective in detection of C. militaris in the soil and useful for rapid and reliable quantification of C. militaris in different ecosystems. PMID:25446034

  17. Taqman real-time quantitative PCR for identification of western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) for plant quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Huang, K. S.; Lee, S. E.; Yeh, Y.; Shen, G. S.; Mei, E.; Chang, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a major global pest of agricultural products. It directly damages crops through feeding, oviposition activity or transmission of several plant viruses. We describe a Taqman real-time quantitative PCR detection system, which can rapidly identify F. occidentalis from thrips larvae to complement the traditional morphological identification. The data showed that our detection system targeted on the ribosomal RNA gene regions of F. occidentalis has high sensitivity and specificity. The rapid method can be used for on-site testing of samples at ports-of-entry in the future. PMID:20129946

  18. [Use of real-time PCR for quantitative assessment of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in dairy products].

    PubMed

    Zelenaia, L B; Kovalenko, N K; Oblap, R V; Hovak, N B; Golubets, R A

    2012-01-01

    Composition of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in raw milk and home-made milk products has been analyzed using real-time PCR (quantitative PCR) with genus-specific primers to Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Bacteria belonging to these genera have been revealed in all samples analyzed (milk, sour cream, cottage cheese). It has been shown that the representatives of Enterococcus and Lactobacillus genera dominated in the samples analyzed (10(3)-10(7) genome equivalent/ml (mg)). The largest number of these microorganisms (10(7) genome equivalent/mg) has been detected in cottage cheese.

  19. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)--based tool for detection and quantification of Cordyceps militaris in soil.

    PubMed

    Saragih, Syaiful Amri; Takemoto, S; Hisamoto, Y; Fujii, M; Sato, H; Kamata, N

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR using a primer pair CM2946F/CM3160R was developed for specific detection and quantification of Cordyceps militaris from soil. Standard curves were obtained for genomic DNA and DNA extracts from autoclaved soil with a certain dose of C. militaris suspension. C. militaris was detected from two forest soil samples out of ten that were collected when fruit bodies of C. militaris were found. This method seemed effective in detection of C. militaris in the soil and useful for rapid and reliable quantification of C. militaris in different ecosystems.

  20. Detection of Zaire Ebola virus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Sierra Leone, 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Licheng; Sun, Yang; Kargbo, Brima; Zhang, Chuntao; Feng, Huahua; Lu, Huijun; Liu, Wenseng; Wang, Chengyu; Hu, Yi; Deng, Yongqiang; Jiang, Jiafu; Kang, Xiaoping; Yang, Honglei; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yinhui; Kargbo, David; Qian, Jun; Chen, Weijun

    2015-09-15

    During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was established to detect and identify the Zaire Ebola virus. We describe the use of this assay to screen 315 clinical samples from EVD suspected person in Sierra Leone. The detection rate in blood samples was 77.81% (207/266), and there were relatively higher detection rate (79.32% and 81.42%, respectively) during the first two weeks after onset of symptoms. In the two weeks that followed, the detection rate declined to 66.67% and 25.00%, respectively. There was the highest virus load at the first week and then decreased. The detection rate in swab samples was 89.79% (44/49). This may be benefit from the included patients. 46 of 49 swab samples were collected from died patients. Taken together, the results presented here indicate that the assay specifically and sensitively detects Zaire Ebola virus.

  1. Rapid detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid specimens with a novel single-tube real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Verstrepen, W A; Kuhn, S; Kockx, M M; Van De Vyvere, M E; Mertens, A H

    2001-11-01

    A single-tube real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for enterovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was developed based on a fluorogenic probe and primers directed to highly conserved sequences in the 5' untranslated region of the enterovirus genome. Quantitative detection of enterovirus genome was demonstrated in a linear range spanning at least 5 logs. Endpoint titration experiments revealed that the in-tube detection limit of the assay was 11.8 enterovirus genome equivalents (95% detection rate) corresponding in our current extraction protocol to 592 enterovirus genome equivalents per ml of CSF. Twenty CSF specimens not suspected of viral meningitis were all found to be negative, and no cross-reactivity with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, varicella-zoster virus, rhinovirus type 53, and influenza viruses A and B was observed. Nineteen CSF specimens from 70 patients suspected of viral meningitis were determined to be positive by PCR (27.1%), whereas only 17 were found to be positive by viral culture (24.3%). The sensitivity of the assay was 100% and the specificity was 96.2% compared to viral culture. Data from the real-time RT-PCR assay were available within 4 h. Our data suggest that the novel real-time RT-PCR assay may offer a reliable but significantly faster alternative to viral culture. Owing to the elimination of postamplification detection steps, its conduct required considerably less hands-on time and was associated with a substantially reduced carryover risk compared to previously described PCR-based enterovirus detection assays.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Three Commercial Quantitative Cytomegalovirus Standards by Use of Digital and Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Sam, S. S.; Sun, Y.; Tang, L.; Pounds, S.; Caliendo, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of the 1st WHO International Standard for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the introduction of commercially produced secondary standards have raised hopes of improved agreement among laboratories performing quantitative PCR for CMV. However, data to evaluate the trueness and uniformity of secondary standards and the consistency of results achieved when these materials are run on various assays are lacking. Three concentrations of each of the three commercially prepared secondary CMV standards were tested in quadruplicate by three real-time and two digital PCR methods. The mean results were compared in a pairwise fashion with nominal values provided by each manufacturer. The agreement of results among all methods for each sample and for like concentrations of each standard was also assessed. The relationship between the nominal values of standards and the measured values varied, depending upon the assay used and the manufacturer of the standards, with the degree of bias ranging from +0.6 to −1.0 log10 IU/ml. The mean digital PCR result differed significantly among the secondary standards, as did the results of the real-time PCRs, particularly when plotted against nominal log10 IU values. Commercially available quantitative secondary CMV standards produce variable results when tested by different real-time and digital PCR assays, with various magnitudes of bias compared to nominal values. These findings suggest that the use of such materials may not achieve the intended uniformity among laboratories measuring CMV viral load, as envisioned by adaptation of the WHO standard. PMID:25694529

  3. Application of Self-Quenched JH Consensus Primers for Real-Time Quantitative PCR of IGH Gene to Minimal Residual Disease Evaluation in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Martinez-Sanchez, Pilar; Garcia-Sanz, Ramon; Sarasquete, Maria Eugenia; Ayala, Rosa; Gonzalez, Marcos; Bautista, Jose Manuel; Gonzalez, David; Miguel, Jesus San; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Lahuerta, Juan Jose

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring multiple myeloma patients for relapse requires sensitive methods to measure minimal residual disease and to establish a more precise prognosis. The present study aimed to standardize a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the IgH gene with a JH consensus self-quenched fluorescence reverse primer and a VDJH or DJH allele-specific sense primer (self-quenched PCR). This method was compared with allele-specific real-time quantitative PCR test for the IgH gene using a TaqMan probe and a JH consensus primer (TaqMan PCR). We studied nine multiple myeloma patients from the Spanish group treated with the MM2000 therapeutic protocol. Self-quenched PCR demonstrated sensitivity of ≥10−4 or 16 genomes in most cases, efficiency was 1.71 to 2.14, and intra-assay and interassay reproducibilities were 1.18 and 0.75%, respectively. Sensitivity, efficiency, and residual disease detection were similar with both PCR methods. TaqMan PCR failed in one case because of a mutation in the JH primer binding site, and self-quenched PCR worked well in this case. In conclusion, self-quenched PCR is a sensitive and reproducible method for quantifying residual disease in multiple myeloma patients; it yields similar results to TaqMan PCR and may be more effective than the latter when somatic mutations are present in the JH intronic primer binding site. PMID:16825510

  4. Detection, quantitation and identification of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donaldson, K.A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Paul, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative detection of pathogenic human enteroviruses from surface waters in the Florida Keys using Taqman (R) one-step Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the Model 7700 ABI Prism (R) Sequence Detection System. Viruses were directly extracted from unconcentrated grab samples of seawater, from seawater concentrated by vortex flow filtration using a 100kD filter and from sponge tissue. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, purified and concentrated using spin-column chromatography. A 192-196 base pair portion of the 5??? untranscribed region was amplified from these extracts. Enterovirus concentrations were estimated using real-time RT-PCR technology. Nine of 15 sample sites or 60% were positive for the presence of pathogenic human enteroviruses. Considering only near-shore sites, 69% were positive with viral concentrations ranging from 9.3viruses/ml to 83viruses/g of sponge tissue (uncorrected for extraction efficiency). Certain amplicons were selected for cloning and sequencing for identification. Three strains of waterborne enteroviruses were identified as Coxsackievirus A9, Coxsackievirus A16, and Poliovirus Sabin type 1. Time and cost efficiency of this one-step real-time RT-PCR methodology makes this an ideal technique to detect, quantitate and identify pathogenic enteroviruses in recreational waters. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize.

  6. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize. PMID:21873818

  7. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR-Based Strategy for Molecular Evaluation of Nicotine Conversion in Burley Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Xue, Sheng-Ling; Zhang, Fen; Luo, Zhao-Peng; Wu, Ming-Zhu; Chen, Qing; Tang, Hao-Ru; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-17

    Nornicotine production in Nicotiana tabacum is undesirable because it is the precursor of the carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine. In some individual burley tobacco plants, a large proportion of the nicotine can be converted to nornicotine, and this process of nicotine conversion is mediated primarily by enzymatic N-demethylation of nicotine which is controlled mainly by CYP82E4. Here we report a novel strategy based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method, which analyzed the ratio of nicotine conversion through examining the transcript level of CYP82E4 in burley leaves and do not need ethylene induction before detected. The assay was linear in a range from 1 × 10¹ to 1 × 10⁵ copies/mL of serially diluted standards, and also showed high specificity and reproducibility (93%-99%). To assess its applicability, 55 plants of burley cultivar Ky8959 at leaf maturing stage were analyzed, and the results were in accordance with those from gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Moreover, a linear correlation existed between conversion level and CYP82E4 transcript abundance. Taken together, the quantitative real-time PCR assay is standardized, rapid and reproducible for estimation of nicotine conversion level in vivo, which is expected to shed new light on monitoring of burley tobacco converter.

  8. Application of real-time PCR for quantitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry, milk and environmental water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengbo; Jiang, Yuan; Huang, Kehe; Zhu, Changqing; Yin, Yulong

    2003-10-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading human food-borne pathogen. The rapid and sensitive detection of C. jejuni is necessary for the maintenance of a safe food/water supply. In this article, we present a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for quantitative detection of C. jejuni in naturally contaminated poultry, milk and environmental samples without an enrichment step. The whole assay can be completed in 60 min with a detection limit of approximately 1 CFU. The standard curve correlation coefficient for the threshold cycle versus the copy number of initial C. jejuni cells was 0.988. To test the PCR system, a set of 300 frozen chicken meat samples, 300 milk samples and 300 water samples were screened for the presence of C. jejuni. 30.6% (92/300) of chicken meat samples, 27.3% (82/300) of milk samples, and 13.6% (41/300) of water samples tested positive for C. jejuni. This result indicated that the real-time PCR assay provides a specific, sensitive and rapid method for quantitative detection of C. jejuni. Moreover, it is concluded that retail chicken meat, raw milk and environmental water are commonly contaminated with C. jejuni and could serve as a potential risk for consumers in eastern China, especially if proper hygienic and cooking conditions are not maintained.

  9. Development and application of a quantitative real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Surra in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Konnai, Satoru; Mekata, Hirohisa; Mingala, Claro N; Abes, Nancy S; Gutierrez, Charito A; Herrera, Jesus Rommel V; Dargantes, Alan P; Witola, William H; Cruz, Libertado C; Inoue, Noboru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2009-07-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) causes the disease called Surra in domestic animals, which is of great economic importance in South Asian countries. In order to improve the diagnosis of Surra, we endeavored to develop a real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of parasites in water buffaloes using specific primers for the T. evansi Rode Trypanozoon antigen type (RoTat) 1.2 Variable Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) gene, which is a known diverse DNA region in trypanosomes. The quantitative detection limit of the assay was 10(2) trypanosomes per mL of blood, and the identity of the amplicon was confirmed in all assays by melting curve analysis. To evaluate the clinical applicability of this procedure, detection and estimation of parasitemia in blood samples obtained from water buffaloes and horses were conducted. T. evansi was detected in 17/607 (2.8%) blood samples, with parasitemia levels ranging from >10(1) to 10(7) parasites per mL of blood. Interestingly, out of the 17 PCR positive animals, 3 had previously received trypanocidal treatment and 1 had abortion history. These data indicate that real-time PCR for the estimation of putative parasitemia levels is a quantitatively and objectively applicable technique for clinical diagnosis of Surra, and could help to understand disease stage and risk of transmission of T. evansi.

  10. Quantitative real-time PCR for rapid and accurate titration of recombinant baculovirus particles.

    PubMed

    Hitchman, Richard B; Siaterli, Evangelia A; Nixon, Clare P; King, Linda A

    2007-03-01

    We describe the use of quantitative PCR (QPCR) to titer recombinant baculoviruses. Custom primers and probe were designed to gp64 and used to calculate a standard curve of QPCR derived titers from dilutions of a previously titrated baculovirus stock. Each dilution was titrated by both plaque assay and QPCR, producing a consistent and reproducible inverse relationship between C(T) and plaque forming units per milliliter. No significant difference was observed between titers produced by QPCR and plaque assay for 12 recombinant viruses, confirming the validity of this technique as a rapid and accurate method of baculovirus titration.

  11. Modeling real-time PCR kinetics: Richards reparametrized equation for quantitative estimation of European hake (Merluccius merluccius).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ana; Vázquez, José A; Quinteiro, Javier; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2013-04-10

    Real-time PCR is the most sensitive method for detection and precise quantification of specific DNA sequences, but it is not usually applied as a quantitative method in seafood. In general, benchmark techniques, mainly cycle threshold (Ct), are the routine method for quantitative estimations, but they are not the most precise approaches for a standard assay. In the present work, amplification data from European hake (Merluccius merluccius) DNA samples were accurately modeled by three sigmoid reparametrized equations, where the lag phase parameter (λc) from the Richards equation with four parameters was demonstrated to be the perfect substitute for Ct for PCR quantification. The concentrations of primers and probes were subsequently optimized by means of that selected kinetic parameter. Finally, the linear correlation among DNA concentration and λc was also confirmed.

  12. Real-time quantitation of Cu(II) by a fluorescence-based biosensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Richard B.; Zeng, Hui-Hui; Maliwal, Badri P.; Fierke, Carol A.

    2001-05-01

    Recently, there has been substantial interest in reducing the levels of toxic heavy metals in wastewater effluents from activities such as shipyards. Of particular interest is copper, which comprises tens of percent by weight of the hundreds of pounds of antifouling paint coating the bottom of a large vessel, but which is toxic to commercially important shellfish at sub-part per billion levels. As a result wastewater effluents must be monitored closely with sensor(s) capable of rapidly and accurately detecting excess copper in time to prevent release. We have pursued a fluorescence-based biosensing approach to obtain sub-ppb sensitivity for Cu(II) and immunity from interference from other cations abundant in sea water, such as Ca, Mg, and Sr. Our approach uses a protein, apocarbonic anhydrase II, as a very sensitive and selective ligand for Cu(II) which transduces the (reversible) binding of the metal as a change in fluorescence intensity, lifetime, or anisotropy, the first two of which may be conveniently measured through optical fiber. Thus we have been able to measure sub-ppb levels of Cu added to sea water, and to characterize the speciation of the Cu(II) to some degree, due to the presence of other ligands.

  13. Nuclear microprobe - synchrotron synergy: towards integrated quantitative real-time elemental imaging using PIXE and SCRF.

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, C. G.; Etschmann, B. E.; Vogt, S.; Maser, J.; Harland, C. L.; van Achterbergh, E.; Legnini, D.; Experimental Facilities Division; CSIRO Exploration and Mining; Australian Synchrotron Research Program, ANSTO

    2005-01-01

    The Dynamic Analysis (DA) method, for the projection of quantitative elemental images using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), has been extended for use with energy-dispersive Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) data collected with the X-ray microprobe by making use of similarities and synergy with nuclear microscopy. The broad element sensitivity of PIXE is complemented by the selective nature of SXRF, where the beam energy can be tuned to optimize the sensitivity in a portion of the periodic table. PIXE combined with Proton Induced {gamma}-ray Emission (PIGE) in this study provided images of geological samples of 25 elements, including characteristic X-rays up to the energy of the Nd K lines (37 keV). Maximum sensitivity was achieved for elements around Z {approx} 33 with detection limits of {approx}250 ppb (in 5 h). SXRF using a 16.1 keV photon microbeam provided images of 16 elements, with optimum sensitivity around Z {approx} 35 with detection limits of {approx}70 ppb (in 11 h), an improvement of {approx}2.4 times when corrected for acquisition time.

  14. Habitat associations of two entomopathogenic nematodes: a quantitative study using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions.

    PubMed

    Torr, Peter; Spiridonov, Sergei E; Heritage, Stuart; Wilson, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    1. Despite nematodes being the most abundant animals on earth, very few animal ecologists study them, probably because of the difficulties of identifying them to species by morphological methods. 2. A group of nematodes that are important both ecologically and economically is the entomopathogenic nematodes, which play a key role in regulating soil food webs and are sold throughout the world as biological insecticides, yet for which very little is known of their population ecology. 3. A novel detection and quantification method was developed for soil nematodes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the technique was used to estimate numbers of two closely related species of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema kraussei and S. affine in 50 soil samples from 10 sites in Scotland representing two distinct habitats (woodland and grassland). 4. There was a high degree of correlation between our molecular and traditional morphological estimates of population size and our data clearly showed that Steinernema affine occurred only in grassland areas, whereas S. kraussei was found in grassland and woodland samples to a similar degree. 5. Real-time PCR offers a rapid and accurate method of detecting individual nematode species from soil samples without the need for a specialist taxonomist, and has much potential for use in studies of nematode population ecology.

  15. Application of SSH and quantitative real time PCR to construction of gene expression profiles from scallop Chlamys farreri in response to exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaoli; Pan, Luqing; Miao, Jingjing; Liu, Na

    2012-11-01

    TBBPA-induced genes were identified using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) from Chlamys farreri. A total of 203 and 44 clones from SSH forward and reverse library were respectively obtained including cellular process, immune system process, response to stimulus, metabolic process and signaling etc. Differential gene expressions were compared between scallops from control and TBBPA treatment groups (400 μg/L, 15 days) using quantitative real time RT-PCR. For further research, eight significant genes expression from scallops exposed to TBBPA (0; 100; 200; 400 μg/L) sampling at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 15 days, were utilized for Q-RT-PCR. The results revealed that the expression level of most selected cDNAs was dominantly up-regulated or down-regulated in the TBBPA-induced scallops. These findings provide basic genomic information of the bivalve and the selected genes may be the potential molecular biomarkers for TBBPA pollution in aquatic environment.

  16. Relationship Between Ebola Virus Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based Threshold Cycle Value and Virus Isolation From Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Jessica R.; McElroy, Anita K.; Harmon, Jessica R.; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart T.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a longitudinal analysis of plasma samples obtained from 4 patients with Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) to determine the relationship between the real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)–based threshold cycle (Ct) value and the presence of infectious EBOV. EBOV was not isolated from plasma samples with a Ct value of >35.5 or >12 days after onset of symptoms. EBOV was not isolated from plasma samples in which anti–EBOV nucleoprotein immunoglobulin G was detected. These data demonstrate the utility of interpreting qRT-PCR results in the context of the course of EBOV infection and associated serological responses for patient-management decisions. PMID:25941333

  17. Leptin receptor (LEPR) SNP polymorphisms in HELLP syndrome patients determined by quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown overexpression of leptin in microarray experiments in pre-eclampsia (PE) and in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. We decided to study four leptin receptor (LEPR) SNP polymorphisms in HELLP syndrome patients by using quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. Methods DNA was isolated from blood samples from 83 normotensive pregnant women and 75 HELLP syndrome patients. Four SNPs, LEPR c.326A>G (K109), LEPR c.668A>G (Q223R), LEPR c.1968G>C (K656N) and LEPR c.3024A>G (S1008) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. Investigators were blinded to clinical outcomes. Results LEPR c.326A>G, LEPR c.668A>G, LEPR c.1968G>C and LEPR c.3024A>G allele, genotype and haplotype polymorphisms were not different in HELLP syndrome patients and normotensive healthy pregnants. There were strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between loci c.326A>G and c.6687A>G (D' = 0.974), and c.668A>G and c.1968G>C (D' = 0.934), and c.326A>G and c.1968G>C (D' = 0.885), and c.1968G>C and c.3024A>G (D' = 1.0). However, linkages of c.3024A>G with c.668A>G (D' = 0.111) and c.326A>G (D' = 0.398) were weak. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for all polymorphisms. However the LEPR c.326A>G AG genotype was twice more frequent and the (AG AG GG AG) haplotype was three times more frequent in HELLP syndrome patients. The introduced quantitative real-time PCR combined with melting curve analysis is a fast and reliable method for the determination of LEPR SNPs. Conclusion Although certain LEPR haplotypes are more frequent in HELLP syndrome, we conclude that there is no compelling evidence that the four studied LEPR SNP polymorphisms associated with the development of HELLP syndrome. PMID:20149225

  18. Detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA in salmonid tissues by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, D.M.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is an important salmonid pathogen that is difficult to culture. We developed and assessed a real-time, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection and enumeration of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR is based on TaqMan technology and amplifies a 69-base pair (bp) region of the gene encoding the major soluble antigen (MSA) of R. salmoninarum. The qPCR assay consistently detected as few as 5 R. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue. The specificity of the qPCR was confirmed by testing the DNA extracts from a panel of microorganisms that were either common fish pathogens or reported to cause false-positive reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney samples from 38 juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a naturally infected population were examined by real-time qPCR, a nested PCR, and ELISA, and prevalences of R. salmoninarum detected were 71, 66, and 71%, respectively. The qPCR should be a valuable tool for evaluating the R. salmoninarum infection status of salmonids.

  19. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Kirsebom, Leif A; Olcén, Per; Blomberg, Jonas; Herrmann, Björn

    2009-08-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the omp P6 gene was developed to detect Haemophilus influenzae. Its specificity was determined by analysis of 29 strains of 11 different Haemophilus spp. and was compared with PCR assays having other target genes: rnpB, 16S rRNA, and bexA. The method was evaluated on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. When 10(4) DNA copies/mL was used as cutoff limit for the method, P6 PCR had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 96.0% compared with the culture. Of 20 culture-negative but P6 PCR-positive cases, 18 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Five (5.9%) of 84 nasopharyngeal aspirates from adult controls tested PCR positive. We conclude that the P6 real-time PCR is both sensitive and specific for identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. Quantification facilitates discrimination between disease-causing H. influenzae strains and commensal colonization. PMID:19446978

  20. Identification and quantitative detection of Legionella spp. in various aquatic environments by real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kao, Po-Min; Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chiu, Yi-Chou; She, Cheng-Yu; Shen, Shu-Min; Huang, Yu-Li; Huang, Wen-Chien

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR was developed to quantify and detect the Legionella spp. in various environmental water samples. The water samples were taken from watershed, water treatment plant, and thermal spring area in Taiwan. Legionella was detected in 13.6 % (24/176), and the detection rate for river water, raw drinking water, and thermal spring water was 10, 21.4, and 16.6 %, respectively. Using real-time PCR, concentration of Legionella spp. in detected samples ranged between 9.75 × 10(4) and 3.47 × 10(5) cells/L in river water, 6.92 × 10(4) and 4.29 × 10(5) cells/L in raw drinking water, and 5.71 × 10(4) and 2.12 × 10(6) cells/L for thermal spring water samples. The identified species included Legionella pneumophila (20.8 %), Legionella jordanis (4.2 %), Legionella nautarum (4.2 %), Legionella sp. (4.2 %), and uncultured Legionella sp. (66.6 %). The presence of L. pneumophila in aquatic environments suggested a potential public health threat that must be further examined.

  1. A real-time quantitative assay for hepatitis B DNA virus (HBV) developed to detect all HBV genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, Roberta; Paes, Angela; Mangueira, Cristovão Pitangueira; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Besides genotype, quantitative analysis of HBV infection is extensively used for monitoring disease progression and treatment. Affordable viral load monitoring is desirable in resource-limited settings and it has been already shown to be useful in developing countries for other viruses such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV. In this paper, we describe the validation of a real-time PCR assay for HBV DNA quantification with TaqMan chemistry and MGB probes. Primers and probes were designed using an alignment of sequences from all HBV genotypes in order to equally amplify all of them. The assay is internally controlled and was standardized with an international HBV panel. Its efficacy was evaluated comparing the results with two other methods: Versant HBV DNA Assay 3.0 (bDNA, Siemens, NY, USA) and another real-time PCR from a reference laboratory. Intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibilities were determined and the mean of CV values obtained were 0.12 and 0.09, respectively. The assay was validated with a broad dynamic range and is efficient for amplifying all HBV genotypes, providing a good option to quantify HBV DNA as a routine procedure, with a cheap and reliable protocol. PMID:20602019

  2. Validation of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for the detection of H7 avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pedersen, J.; Killian, M.L.; Hines, N.; Senne, D.; Panigrahy, B.; Ip, H.S.; Spackman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the validation of an avian influenza virus (AIV) H7 subtype-specific real-time reverse transcriptasePCR (rRT-PCR) assay developed at the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) for the detection of H7 AI in North and South American wild aquatic birds and poultry. The validation was a collaborative effort by the SEPRL and the National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The 2008 H7 rRT-PCR assay detects 101 50% embryo infectious doses per reaction, or 103104 copies of transcribed H7 RNA. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were estimated to be 97.5% and 82.4%, respectively; the assay was shown to be specific for H7 AI when tested with >270 wild birds and poultry viruses. Following validation, the 2008 H7 rRT-PCR procedure was adopted as an official U.S. Department of Agriculture procedure for the detection of H7 AIV. The 2008 H7 assay replaced the previously used (2002) assay, which does not detect H7 viruses currently circulating in wild birds in North and South America. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  3. Survey of Bovine Enterovirus in Biological and Environmental Samples by a Highly Sensitive Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Mansilla, Carmen; Gómez, Nuria; Córdoba, Laura; Roblas, Neftal; Ponz, Fernando; Ley, Victoria; Sáiz, Juan-Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Animal enteroviruses shed in the feces of infected animals are likely environmental contaminants and thus can be used as indicators of animal fecal pollution. Previous work has demonstrated that bovine enterovirus (BEV) present in bovine feces contaminates waters adjacent to cattle herds and that BEV-like sequences are also present in shellfish and in deer feces from the same geographical area. However, little information is available about the prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and genomic sequence variation of BEV field isolates. Here we describe an optimized highly sensitive real-time reverse transcription-PCR method to detect BEV RNA in biological and environmental samples. A combination of the amplification procedure with a previously described filtration step with electropositive filters allowed us to detect up to 12 BEV RNA molecules per ml of water. The feasibility of using the method to detect BEV in surface waters at a high risk of fecal pollution was confirmed after analysis of water samples obtained from different sources. The method was also used to study the prevalence of BEV in different cattle herds around Spain, and the results revealed that 78% (78 of 100) of the fecal samples were BEV positive. BEV-like sequences were also detected in feces from sheep, goats, and horses. Nucleotide sequence analyses showed that BEV isolates are quite heterogeneous and suggested the presence of species-specific BEV-like variants. Detection of BEV-like sequences may help in the differentiation and characterization of animal sources of contamination. PMID:16000759

  4. A One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection and Quantitation of Sugarcane Streak Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Sheng-Ren; Fu, Hua-Ying; Chen, Ru-Kai; Su, Jin-Wei; Gao, San-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane mosaic disease is caused by the Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV; genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae) which is common in some Asian countries. Here, we established a protocol of a one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) using the TaqMan probe for the detection of SCSMV in sugarcane. Primers and probes were designed within the conserved region of the SCSMV coat protein (CP) gene sequences. Standard single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) generated by PCR-based gene transcripts of recombinant pGEM-CP plasmid in vitro and total RNA extracted from SCSMV-infected sugarcane were used as templates of qRT-PCR. We further performed a sensitivity assay to show that the detection limit of the assay was 100 copies of ssRNA and 2 pg of total RNA with good reproducibility. The values obtained were approximately 100-fold more sensitive than those of the conventional RT-PCR. A higher incidence (68.6%) of SCSMV infection was detected by qRT-PCR than that (48.6%) with conventional RT-PCR in samples showing mosaic symptoms. SCSMV-free samples were verified by infection with Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) or a combination of both. The developed qRT-PCR assay may become an alternative molecular tool for an economical, rapid, and efficient detection and quantification of SCSMV. PMID:26185758

  5. Static and dynamic systems in Rickettsia slovaca life cycle evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Spitalská, E; Sparagano, O; Boldis, V

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to characterize the growth of Rickettsia slovaca, a tick-borne pathogen transmitted by Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus ticks, in static (L929 and Vero cells) and dynamic (D. marginatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks) cultivation systems. The highest points of bacterial multiplication and the time-spans between the inoculum and the maximum of rickettsial copies were increased in consecutive order from eukaryotic cells, I. ricinus to D. marginatus systems. In dynamic system, multiplication maximum of R. slovaca was achieved 9 days earlier in I. ricinus; however, the number of rickettsial DNA copies was approximately 3.6 x 10(6) more in D. marginatus. PMID:20537110

  6. Time-dependent post mortem changes in the composition of intestinal bacteria using real-time quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Post mortem or even normal changes during life occurring in major gut bacterial populations are not known. We investigated Bacteroides sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Clostridium leptum, Clostridium coccoides, Streptococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Enterobacteriacaea ratios in 7 fecal samples from healthy volunteers and in 61 autopsies rectum and cecum samples and studied the effect of post mortem time using quantitative real-time PCR. Bacterial ratios in stool samples from volunteers and rectum samples from autopsy cases were similar and did not change significantly up to 5 days post mortem. In cecum, significant post mortem time-dependent differences were observed in ratios of Bacteroides sp. (p = 0.014) and Lactobacillus sp. (p = 0.024). Our results showed that ratios of Bacteroides sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Clostridium leptum, Clostridium coccoides, Streptococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Enterobacteriacaea can be investigated in autopsy rectum samples up to 5 days after death. PMID:24267574

  7. Real-Time PCR-Based Quantitation Method for the Genetically Modified Soybean Line GTS 40-3-2.

    PubMed

    Kitta, Kazumi; Takabatake, Reona; Mano, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a real-time PCR-based method for quantitation of the relative amount of genetically modified (GM) soybean line GTS 40-3-2 [Roundup Ready(®) soybean (RRS)] contained in a batch. The method targets a taxon-specific soybean gene (lectin gene, Le1) and the specific DNA construct junction region between the Petunia hybrida chloroplast transit peptide sequence and the Agrobacterium 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene (epsps) sequence present in GTS 40-3-2. The method employs plasmid pMulSL2 as a reference material in order to quantify the relative amount of GTS 40-3-2 in soybean samples using a conversion factor (Cf) equal to the ratio of the RRS-specific DNA to the taxon-specific DNA in representative genuine GTS 40-3-2 seeds.

  8. Development and assessment of a novel real-time PCR assay for quantitation of hepatitis D virus RNA to study viral kinetics in chronic hepatitis D.

    PubMed

    Katsoulidou, A; Manesis, E; Rokka, C; Issaris, C; Pagoni, A; Sypsa, V; Hatzakis, A

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection is a usually severe type of viral hepatitis associated with increased mortality and rapid evolution to cirrhosis. Currently, treatment is limited to extended interferon administration and measurement of HDV RNA blood levels is essential to judge the response. The aim of this study was to develop a highly sensitive and reproducible real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) for the quantitation of circulating HDV RNA of all clades (1-8), and assess its usefulness in the follow-up of patients. The amplification was combined with molecular beacon technology using the LightCycler 2.0 system. The assay was specific and showed linearity over a wide range from 13 to 13 × 10(10) copies/mL. The 95% detection limit was 43.2 copies/mL. Intra-assay reproducibility, as expressed by the coefficient of variation, ranged from 1.84 to 18.61%, whereas the corresponding estimates for the inter-assay variability ranged from 0.57 to 10.18%. Finally, the dynamic profiles of six patients regarding virological (HDV RNA, HBV DNA), biochemical and serological data were constructed. We were able to observe that most patients who were treated with an interferon-based regime showed a significant reduction in delta viremia. In conclusion, our real-time RT-PCR for HDV RNA quantification combines high sensitivity and reproducibility in a high dynamic range, can provide important information for patient management and can be a useful tool for monitoring the response to antiviral therapies.

  9. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Three Types of Rat Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Xia; Fan, Jie; Ma, Jing; Rao, Yi-Song; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-06-22

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is the most classical technique in the field of gene expression study. This method requires an appropriate reference gene to normalize mRNA levels. In this study, the expression stability of four frequently-used reference genes in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal beige adipose tissue (iBeAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) from obese and lean rats were evaluated by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Based on the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines, the two most stable reference genes were recommended in each type of adipose tissue. Two target genes were applied to test the stability of the reference genes. The geNorm and NormFinder results revealed that GAPDH and 36B4 exhibited the highest expression stabilities in eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin had the highest expression stabilities in iBeAT and BAT. According to the results of the BestKeeper analysis, 36B4 was the most stable gene in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, in terms of the coefficient of variance. In terms of the coefficient of correlation, GAPDH, 36B4 and β-actin were the most stable genes in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, respectively. Additionally, expected results and statistical significance were obtained using a combination of two suitable reference genes for data normalization. In conclusion, 36B4 and GAPDH, in combination, are the best reference genes for eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin are two most suitable reference genes for both iBeAT and BAT. We recommend using these reference genes accordingly.

  10. Novel wide-range quantitative nested real-time PCR assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA: development and methodology.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Teruyuki; Tamura, Masato; Asami, Yukihiro; Kitamura, Eiko; Saito, Kosuke; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Takahashi, Sachiko Nonaka; Matsumoto, Koichi; Sawada, Shigemasa; Yokoyama, Eise; Takasu, Toshiaki

    2008-05-01

    Previously, we designed an internally controlled quantitative nested real-time (QNRT) PCR assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in order to rapidly diagnose tuberculous meningitis. This technique combined the high sensitivity of nested PCR with the accurate quantification of real-time PCR. In this study, we attempted to improve the original QNRT-PCR assay and newly developed the wide-range QNRT-PCR (WR-QNRT-PCR) assay, which is more accurate and has a wider detection range. For use as an internal-control "calibrator" to measure the copy number of M. tuberculosis DNA, an original new-mutation plasmid (NM-plasmid) was developed. It had artificial random nucleotides in five regions annealing specific primers and probes. The NM-plasmid demonstrated statistically uniform amplifications (F = 1.086, P = 0.774) against a range (1 to 10(5)) of copy numbers of mimic M. tuberculosis DNA and was regarded as appropriate for use as a new internal control in the WR-QNRT-PSR assay. In addition, by the optimization of assay conditions in WR-QNRT-PCR, two-step amplification of target DNA was completely consistent with the standard curve of this assay. Due to the development of the NM-plasmid as the new internal control, significantly improved quantitative accuracy and a wider detection range were realized with the WR-QNRT-PCR assay. In the next study, we will try to use this novel assay method with actual clinical samples and examine its clinical usefulness.

  11. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Three Types of Rat Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wan-Xia; Fan, Jie; Ma, Jing; Rao, Yi-Song; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is the most classical technique in the field of gene expression study. This method requires an appropriate reference gene to normalize mRNA levels. In this study, the expression stability of four frequently-used reference genes in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal beige adipose tissue (iBeAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) from obese and lean rats were evaluated by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Based on the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines, the two most stable reference genes were recommended in each type of adipose tissue. Two target genes were applied to test the stability of the reference genes. The geNorm and NormFinder results revealed that GAPDH and 36B4 exhibited the highest expression stabilities in eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin had the highest expression stabilities in iBeAT and BAT. According to the results of the BestKeeper analysis, 36B4 was the most stable gene in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, in terms of the coefficient of variance. In terms of the coefficient of correlation, GAPDH, 36B4 and β-actin were the most stable genes in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, respectively. Additionally, expected results and statistical significance were obtained using a combination of two suitable reference genes for data normalization. In conclusion, 36B4 and GAPDH, in combination, are the best reference genes for eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin are two most suitable reference genes for both iBeAT and BAT. We recommend using these reference genes accordingly. PMID:27338366

  12. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Three Types of Rat Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Xia; Fan, Jie; Ma, Jing; Rao, Yi-Song; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is the most classical technique in the field of gene expression study. This method requires an appropriate reference gene to normalize mRNA levels. In this study, the expression stability of four frequently-used reference genes in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal beige adipose tissue (iBeAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) from obese and lean rats were evaluated by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Based on the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines, the two most stable reference genes were recommended in each type of adipose tissue. Two target genes were applied to test the stability of the reference genes. The geNorm and NormFinder results revealed that GAPDH and 36B4 exhibited the highest expression stabilities in eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin had the highest expression stabilities in iBeAT and BAT. According to the results of the BestKeeper analysis, 36B4 was the most stable gene in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, in terms of the coefficient of variance. In terms of the coefficient of correlation, GAPDH, 36B4 and β-actin were the most stable genes in eWAT, iBeAT and BAT, respectively. Additionally, expected results and statistical significance were obtained using a combination of two suitable reference genes for data normalization. In conclusion, 36B4 and GAPDH, in combination, are the best reference genes for eWAT, while 36B4 and β-actin are two most suitable reference genes for both iBeAT and BAT. We recommend using these reference genes accordingly. PMID:27338366

  13. Quantitative detection of methanotrophs in soil by novel pmoA-targeted real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Steffen; Knief, Claudia; Stubner, Stephan; Conrad, Ralf

    2003-05-01

    Methane oxidation in soils is mostly accomplished by methanotrophic bacteria. Little is known about the abundance of methanotrophs in soils, since quantification by cultivation and microscopic techniques is cumbersome. Comparison of 16S ribosomal DNA and pmoA (alpha subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase) phylogenetic trees showed good correlation and revealed five distinct groups of methanotrophs within the alpha and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria: the Methylococcus group, the Methylobacter/Methylosarcina group, the Methylosinus group, the Methylocapsa group, and the forest clones group (a cluster of pmoA sequences retrieved from forest soils). We developed quantitative real-time PCR assays with SybrGreen for each of these five groups and for all methanotrophic bacteria by targeting the pmoA gene. Detection limits were between 10(1) and 10(2) target molecules per reaction for all assays. Real-time PCR analysis of soil samples spiked with cells of Methylococcus capsulatus, Methylomicrobium album, and Methylosinus trichosporium recovered almost all the added bacteria. Only the Methylosinus-specific assay recovered only 20% of added cells, possibly due to a lower lysis efficiency of type II methanotrophs. Analysis of the methanotrophic community structure in a flooded rice field soil showed (5.0 +/- 1.4) x 10(6) pmoA molecules g(-1) for all methanotrophs. The Methylosinus group was predominant (2.7 x 10(6) +/- 1.1 x 10(6) target molecules g(-1)). In addition, bacteria of the Methylobacter/Methylosarcina group were abundant (2.0 x 10(6) +/- 0.9 x 10(6) target molecules g of soil(-1)). On the other hand, pmoA affiliated with the forest clones and the Methylocapsa group was below the detection limit of 1.9 x 10(4) target molecules g of soil(-1). Our results showed that pmoA-targeted real-time PCR allowed fast and sensitive quantification of the five major groups of methanotrophs in soil. This approach will thus be useful for quantitative analysis of the

  14. Development of a Real-Time, TaqMan Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Lyssavirus Genotypes 1, 5, and 6

    PubMed Central

    Wakeley, P. R.; Johnson, N.; McElhinney, L. M.; Marston, D.; Sawyer, J.; Fooks, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Several reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods have been reported for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses. These methods invariably involve multiple transfers of nucleic acids between different tubes, with the risk of contamination leading to the production of false-positive results. Here we describe a single, closed-tube, nonnested RT-PCR with TaqMan technology that distinguishes between classical rabies virus (genotype 1) and European bat lyssaviruses 1 and 2 (genotypes 5 and 6) in real time. The TaqMan assay is rapid, sensitive, and specific and allows for the genotyping of unknown isolates concomitant with the RT-PCR. The assay can be applied quantitatively and the use of an internal control enables the quality of the isolated template to be assessed. Despite sequence heterogeneity in the N gene between the different genotypes, a universal forward and reverse primer set has been designed, allowing for the simplification of previously described assays. We propose that within a geographically constrained area, this assay will be a useful tool for the detection and differentiation of members of the Lyssavirus genus. PMID:15956398

  15. Passive Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of chemical plumes: an algorithm for quantitative interpretation and real-time background removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Mark L.; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Herr, Kenneth C.

    1995-08-01

    We present a ratioing algorithm for quantitative analysis of the passive Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of a chemical plume. We show that the transmission of a near-field plume is given by tau plume = (Lobsd - Lbb-plume)/(Lbkgd - Lbb-plume), where tau plume is the frequency-dependent transmission of the plume, L obsd is the spectral radiance of the scene that contains the plume, Lbkgd is the spectral radiance of the same scene without the plume, and Lbb-plume is the spectral radiance of a blackbody at the plume temperature. The algorithm simultaneously achieves background removal, elimination of the spectrometer internal signature, and quantification of the plume spectral transmission. It has applications to both real-time processing for plume visualization and quantitative measurements of plume column densities. The plume temperature (Lbb-plume ), which is not always precisely known, can have a profound effect on the quantitative interpretation of the algorithm and is discussed in detail. Finally, we provide an illustrative example of the use of the algorithm on a trichloroethylene and acetone plume.

  16. Comparison between Culture and a Multiplex Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay Detecting Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum

    PubMed Central

    Frølund, Maria; Björnelius, Eva; Lidbrink, Peter; Ahrens, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for simultaneous detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum was developed and compared with quantitative culture in Shepard's 10 C medium for ureaplasmas in urethral swabs from 129 men and 66 women, and cervical swabs from 61 women. Using culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the qPCR was 96% and 95% for female urethral and cervical swabs, respectively. In male urethral swabs the sensitivity was 89%. The corresponding specificities were 100%, 87% and 99%. The qPCR showed a linear increasing DNA copy number with increasing colour-changing units. Although slightly less sensitive than culture, this multiplex qPCR assay detecting U. urealyticum and U. parvum constitutes a simple and fast alternative to the traditional methods for identification of ureaplasmas and allows simultaneous species differentiation and quantitation in clinical samples. Furthermore, specimens overgrown by other bacteria using the culture method can be evaluated in the qPCR. PMID:25047036

  17. Real-Time Quantitative Analysis of H2, He, O2, and Ar by Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Andrew K.; Harrison, W. W.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The use of a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for quantitative analysis of hydrogen and helium as well as other permanent gases is demonstrated. The customized instrument utilizes the mass selective instability mode of mass analysis as with commercial instruments; however, this instrument operates at a greater RF trapping frequency and without a buffer gas. With these differences, a useable mass range from 2 to over 50 Da is achieved, as required by NASA for monitoring the Space Shuttle during a launch countdown. The performance of the ion trap is evaluated using part-per-million concentrations of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon mixed into a nitrogen gas stream. Relative accuracy and precision when quantitating the four analytes were better than the NASA-required minimum of 10% error and 5% deviation, respectively. Limits of detection were below the NASA requirement of 25-ppm hydrogen and 100-ppm helium; those for oxygen and argon were slightly higher than the requirement. The instrument provided adequate performance at fast data recording rates, demonstrating the utility of an ion trap mass spectrometer as a real-time quantitative monitoring device for permanent gas analysis.

  18. [Detection of hematopoietic chimera by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Xu, Xian-Guo; Liu, Ying; Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Hang-Jun; Yan, Li-Xing

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to establish the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene for detecting the hematopoietic chimera and to investigate the feasibility of this method. The TaqMan MGB probes and special primers were designed on basis of difference of erythrocyte Kidd blood group alleles, the hematopoietic chimerism was detected by RT-qPCR, the DNA chimerism was simulated by means of dilution of multiple proportions, and the sensitivity analysis was performed. The results showed that the RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene could effectively distinguish JK*A and JK*B alleles. There was no significant difference between the theoretic value and the practical measured value by this method (P > 0.05). As 156 donor's cells could be discriminated from 10(4) chimeric cells, this method may effectively detect donor's cells with correlation coefficient 0.998. It is concluded that the established RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene shows the feasibility for quantitative detection of hematopoietic chimera, and may be used to quantitatively detect chimera in a certain range.

  19. [Detection of hematopoietic chimera by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Xu, Xian-Guo; Liu, Ying; Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Hang-Jun; Yan, Li-Xing

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to establish the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene for detecting the hematopoietic chimera and to investigate the feasibility of this method. The TaqMan MGB probes and special primers were designed on basis of difference of erythrocyte Kidd blood group alleles, the hematopoietic chimerism was detected by RT-qPCR, the DNA chimerism was simulated by means of dilution of multiple proportions, and the sensitivity analysis was performed. The results showed that the RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene could effectively distinguish JK*A and JK*B alleles. There was no significant difference between the theoretic value and the practical measured value by this method (P > 0.05). As 156 donor's cells could be discriminated from 10(4) chimeric cells, this method may effectively detect donor's cells with correlation coefficient 0.998. It is concluded that the established RT-qPCR with erythrocyte Kidd blood group gene shows the feasibility for quantitative detection of hematopoietic chimera, and may be used to quantitatively detect chimera in a certain range. PMID:22739181

  20. Use of quantitative real-time PCR for direct detection of serratia marcescens in marine and other aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Jessica; Wanless, David; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Lipp, Erin K

    2014-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is the etiological agent of acroporid serratiosis, a distinct form of white pox disease in the threatened coral Acropora palmata. The pathogen is commonly found in untreated human waste in the Florida Keys, which may contaminate both nearshore and offshore waters. Currently there is no direct method for detection of this bacterium in the aquatic or reef environment, and culture-based techniques may underestimate its abundance in marine waters. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to detect S. marcescens directly from environmental samples, including marine water, coral mucus, sponge tissue, and wastewater. The assay targeted the luxS gene and was able to distinguish S. marcescens from other Serratia species with a reliable quantitative limit of detection of 10 cell equivalents (CE) per reaction. The method could routinely discern the presence of S. marcescens for as few as 3 CE per reaction, but it could not be reliably quantified at this level. The assay detected environmental S. marcescens in complex sewage influent samples at up to 761 CE ml(-1) and in septic system-impacted residential canals in the Florida Keys at up to 4.1 CE ml(-1). This detection assay provided rapid quantitative abilities and good sensitivity and specificity, which should offer an important tool for monitoring this ubiquitous pathogen that can potentially impact both human health and coral health.

  1. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  2. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  3. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-01-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  4. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for the rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella typhimurium from pork.

    PubMed

    Techathuvanan, Chayapa; Draughon, Frances Ann; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2010-03-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) detects the presence of mRNA and has a greater potential for detecting viable pathogens than do DNA-based PCR assays, with improved speed and sensitivity compared with traditional methods. Our objective was to rapidly and sensitively detect Salmonella Typhimurium from pork within two 8-h work shifts using a SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR (rt-RT-PCR) assay. Pork chop and sausage samples (25 g) were inoculated with 10(8) to 10(0) CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and stomached in 225 ml of tetrathionate broth. Serial dilutions were spread plated on xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar either immediately or after 10 h of selective preenrichment or preenrichment followed by 12 h of selective enrichment (for stressed cells) at 37 degrees C for standard cultural enumeration. RNA was extracted using the TRIzol method. The rt-RT-PCR assay was carried out in a Bio-Rad iCycler using a SYBR Green I one-step RT-PCR kit and Salmonella specific invA gene primers with an internal amplification control (IAC). The PCR was followed by melting temperature (T(m)) analysis to determine specific Salmonella invA (T(m) = 87.5 degrees C) and IAC (T(m) = 82 degrees C) products. Improved Salmonella detection up to 10(1) CFU/25 g of pork and 10(0) CFU/25 g of sausages was obtained after 10 h of enrichment within approximately 24 h. Even without enrichment, Salmonella could be detected from both pork chop and sausage at 10(6) CFU/25 g within 1 day. This robust rt-RT-PCR detects and confirms Salmonella in pork within approximately 24 h and thus is significantly faster than traditional methods that take >/=1 week. This assay shows promise for routine testing and monitoring of Salmonella by the pork industry.

  5. Development, optimization, and validation of a Classical swine fever virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Eberling, August J; Bieker-Stefanelli, Jill; Reising, Monica M; Siev, David; Martin, Barbara M; McIntosh, Michael T; Beckham, Tammy R

    2011-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically devastating disease of pigs. Instrumental to the control of CSF is a well-characterized assay that can deliver a rapid, accurate diagnosis prior to the onset of clinical signs. A real-time fluorogenic-probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CSF was developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (CSF PIADC assay) and evaluated for analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. A well-characterized panel including Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Border disease virus (BDV) isolates was utilized in initial feasibility and optimization studies. The assay was initially designed and validated for use on the ABI 7900HT using the Qiagen QuantiTect® Probe RT-PCR chemistry. However, demonstrating equivalency with multiple one-step RT-PCR chemistries and PCR platforms increased the versatility of the assay. Limit of detection experiments indicated that the Qiagen QuantiTect® Multiplex (NoROX) and the Invitrogen SuperScript® III RT-PCR kits were consistently the most sensitive one-step chemistries for use with the CSF PIADC primer/probe set. Analytical sensitivity of the CSF PIADC assay ranged from <1-2.95 log(10) TCID(50)/ml on both the ABI 7900HT and ABI 7500 platforms. The CSF PIADC assay had 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when tested on a panel of 152 clinical samples from the Dominican Republic and Colombia. The ability to perform this newly developed assay in 96-well formats provides an increased level of versatility for use in CSF surveillance programs.

  6. Using quantitative real-time PCR to detect chimeras in transgenic tobacco and apricot and to monitor their dissociation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The routine generation of transgenic plants involves analysis of transgene integration into the host genome by means of Southern blotting. However, this technique cannot distinguish between uniformly transformed tissues and the presence of a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic cells in the same tissue. On the other hand, the use of reporter genes often fails to accurately detect chimerical tissues because their expression can be affected by several factors, including gene silencing and plant development. So, new approaches based on the quantification of the amount of the transgene are needed urgently. Results We show here that chimeras are a very frequent phenomenon observed after regenerating transgenic plants. Spatial and temporal analyses of transformed tobacco and apricot plants with a quantitative, real-time PCR amplification of the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) transgene as well as of an internal control (β-actin), used to normalise the amount of target DNA at each reaction, allowed detection of chimeras at unexpected rates. The amount of the nptII transgene differed greatly along with the sub-cultivation period of these plants and was dependent on the localisation of the analysed leaves; being higher in roots and basal leaves, while in the apical leaves it remained at lower levels. These data demonstrate that, unlike the use of the gus marker gene, real-time PCR is a powerful tool for detection of chimeras. Although some authors have proposed a consistent, positive Southern analysis as an alternative methodology for monitoring the dissociation of chimeras, our data show that it does not provide enough proof of uniform transformation. In this work, however, real-time PCR was applied successfully to monitor the dissociation of chimeras in tobacco plants and apricot callus. Conclusions We have developed a rapid and reliable method to detect and estimate the level of chimeras in transgenic tobacco and apricot plants. This method can be

  7. Development of an efficient real-time quantitative PCR protocol for detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus species.

    PubMed

    Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; Cubero, Jaime; Cambra, Miguel A; Collados, Raquel; Berruete, Isabel M; López, María M

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruit, is considered a quarantine organism by the European Union and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). The bacterium can undergo an epiphytic phase and/or be latent and can be transmitted by plant material, but currently, only visual inspections are used to certify plants as being X. arboricola pv. pruni free. A novel and highly sensitive real-time TaqMan PCR detection protocol was designed based on a sequence of a gene for a putative protein related to an ABC transporter ATP-binding system in X. arboricola pv. pruni. Pathogen detection can be completed within a few hours with a sensitivity of 10(2) CFU ml(-1), thus surpassing the sensitivity of the existing conventional PCR. Specificity was assessed for X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different origins as well as for closely related Xanthomonas species, non-Xanthomonas species, saprophytic bacteria, and healthy Prunus samples. The efficiency of the developed protocol was evaluated with field samples of 14 Prunus species and rootstocks. For symptomatic leaf samples, the protocol was very efficient even when washed tissues of the leaves were directly amplified without any previous DNA extraction. For samples of 117 asymptomatic leaves and 285 buds, the protocol was more efficient after a simple DNA extraction, and X. arboricola pv. pruni was detected in 9.4% and 9.1% of the 402 samples analyzed, respectively, demonstrating its frequent epiphytic or endophytic phase. This newly developed real-time PCR protocol can be used as a quantitative assay, offers a reliable and sensitive test for X. arboricola pv. pruni, and is suitable as a screening test for symptomatic as well as asymptomatic plant material.

  8. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for Eimeria tenella replication — Implications for experimental refinement and animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Matthew J.; Tomley, Fiona M.; Kaiser, Pete; Blake, Damer P.

    2015-01-01

    The Eimeria species are highly pathogenic parasites of chickens. Research aimed at reducing their impact is hindered by a lack of non-subjective, quantitative, tools to measure parasite replication in the host. The time-consuming, and often time-sensitive, nature of existing approaches precludes their use in large-scale genetic, epidemiological, and evolutionary analyses. We have used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to accurately quantify Eimeria tenella in chicken tissue and shown this to be more efficient and sensitive than traditional methodologies. We tested four chicken-specific reference qPCR assays and found beta-actin (actb) to be optimal for sample normalisation. In an experimental setting, chickens were inoculated with 500, 1500, or 4500 E. tenella oocysts and parasite replication and the impact of infection measured by i) qPCR analysis of DNA extracted from caecal tissues collected at five and eight days post-infection (dpi), ii) faecal oocyst counts (FOCs) on samples taken from six to eight dpi, and iii) lesion scoring on caeca collected post-mortem at five and eight dpi. Quantitative real-time PCR test results indicated a significant dose-dependent increase in parasite numbers among study groups for samples collected five dpi (i.e., prior to gametogony) (R2 = 0.994) (p < 0.002) but not in those from day eight (after most oocyst shedding) (R2 = 0.006) (p > 0.379). A strong dose-dependent increase in parasite replication and severity of infection was also revealed by FOC (R2 = 0.997) and lesion scoring. Importantly, qPCR offers substantial improvements for animal welfare via improved statistical power and reduced group sizes in experimental studies. The described qPCR method overcomes subjective limitations of coproscopic quantification, allows reproducible medium- to high-throughput examination of tissues, faeces, and oocysts, and is a valuable tool for determining the impact of Eimeria infections in both experimental and field settings

  9. Rapid and direct quantitative detection of viable bifidobacteria in probiotic yogurt by combination of ethidium monoazide and real-time PCR using a molecular beacon approach.

    PubMed

    Meng, X C; Pang, R; Wang, C; Wang, L Q

    2010-11-01

    The potential of ethidium monoazide (EMA) real-time PCR method based on molecular beacon probe for rapid detection of viable bifidobacteria present in probiotic yogurt was evaluated in this work. A real-time PCR with molecular beacon assay was developed to determine genus Bifidobacterium quantitatively in order to increase the sensitivity and specificity of assay. EMA was used to treat probiotic yogurt prior to DNA extraction and real-time PCR detection to allow detection of only viable bacteria. The primer set of Bif-F/Bif-R which is genus-specific for Bifid. was designed. The specificity of the probes ensures that no signal is generated by non-target amplicons. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a good correlation (R² = 0·9948) between the EMA real-time PCR results and the plate counting, and real-time quantitative PCR results correlated adequately with enumeration of bifidobacteria by culture for commercial probiotic yogurt. This culture-independent approach is promising for the direct and rapid detection of viable bifidobacteria in commercial probiotic yogurt, and the detection can be carried out within 4 h. The detection limit for this method is about 10⁴ cell/ml. In conclusion, the direct quantitative EMA real-time PCR assay based on molecular beacon described in this research is a rapid and quantitative method.

  10. Clinical value of real-time elastography quantitative parameters in evaluating the stage of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    GE, LAN; SHI, BAOMIN; SONG, YE; LI, YUAN; WANG, SHUO; WANG, XIUYAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the value of real-time elastography (RTE) quantitative parameters, namely the liver fibrosis (LF) index and the ratio of blue area (%AREA), in evaluating the stage of liver fibrosis. RTE quantitative analysis software was used to examine 120 patients with chronic hepatitis in order to obtain the values for 12 quantitative parameters from the elastic images. The diagnostic performance of two such parameters, the LF index and %AREA, were assessed with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the optimal diagnostic cut-off values for liver cirrhosis and fibrosis. A good correlation was observed between the LF index and %AREA with the fibrosis stage. The areas under the ROC curve for the LF index were 0.985 for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and 0.790 for liver fibrosis. With regard to %AREA, the areas under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and fibrosis were 0.963 and 0.770, respectively. An LF index of >3.25 and a %AREA of >28.83 for the diagnosis of cirrhosis stage resulted in sensitivity values of 100 and 100%, specificity values of 88.9 and 85.9% and accuracy values of 90.8 and 88.3%, respectively. The LF index and %AREA parameters exhibited higher reliability in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis compared with the diagnosis of the liver fibrosis stage. However, the two parameters possessed a similar efficacy in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and the stage of liver fibrosis. Therefore, the quantitative RTE parameters of the LF index and %AREA may be clinically applicable as reliable indices for the early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, without the requirement of an invasive procedure. PMID:26622426

  11. A two-step real-time PCR assay for quantitation and genotyping of human parvovirus 4.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, E; Lahtinen, A; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Lappalainen, M; Hedman, K; Söderlund-Venermo, M

    2014-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) of the family Parvoviridae was discovered in a plasma sample of a patient with an undiagnosed acute infection in 2005. Currently, three PARV4 genotypes have been identified, however, with an unknown clinical significance. Interestingly, these genotypes seem to differ in epidemiology. In Northern Europe, USA and Asia, genotypes 1 and 2 have been found to occur mainly in persons with a history of injecting drug use or other parenteral exposure. In contrast, genotype 3 appears to be endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where it infects children and adults without such risk behaviour. In this study, a novel straightforward and cost-efficient molecular assay for both quantitation and genotyping of PARV4 DNA was developed. The two-step method first applies a single-probe pan-PARV4 qPCR for screening and quantitation of this relatively rare virus, and subsequently, only the positive samples undergo a real-time PCR-based multi-probe genotyping. The new qPCR-GT method is highly sensitive and specific regardless of the genotype, and thus being suitable for studying the clinical impact and occurrence of the different PARV4 genotypes.

  12. Detection and identification of Rift Valley fever virus in mosquito vectors by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mwaengo, D; Lorenzo, G; Iglesias, J; Warigia, M; Sang, R; Bishop, R P; Brun, A

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostic methods allowing for rapid identification of pathogens are crucial for controlling and preventing dissemination after disease outbreaks as well as for use in surveillance programs. For arboviruses, detection of the presence of virus in their arthropod hosts is important for monitoring of viral activity and quantitative information is useful for modeling of transmission dynamics. In this study, molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in mosquito samples from the 2006 to 2007 East African outbreaks was performed using quantitative real-time PCR assay (qRT-PCR). Specific RVFV sequence-based primer/fluorogenic (TaqMan) probe sets were derived from the L and S RNA segments of the virus. Both primer-probe L and S segment-based combinations detected genomic RVFV sequences, with generally comparable levels of sensitivity. Viral loads from three mosquito species, Aedes mcintoshi, Aedes ochraceus and Mansonia uniformis were estimated and significant differences of between 5- and 1000-fold were detected between Ae. mcintoshi and M. uniformis using both the L and S primer-probe-based assays. The genetic relationships of the viral sequences in mosquito samples were established by partial M segment sequencing and assigned to the two previously described viral lineages defined by analysis of livestock isolates obtained during the 2006-2007 outbreak, confirming that similar viruses were present in both the vector and mammalian host. The data confirms the utility of qRT-PCR for identification and initial quantification of virus in mosquito samples during RVFV outbreaks.

  13. A real-time PCR-based semi-quantitative breakpoint to aid in molecular identification of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Wendy L J; van der Donk, Christina F M; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Wolffs, Petra F G

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel approach to aid in diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A real-time PCR assay was used to screen for culture-positive urinary specimens and to identify the causative uropathogen. Semi-quantitative breakpoints were used to screen for significant bacteriuria (presence of ≥ 10(5) CFU/ml of uropathogens) or low-level bacteriuria (containing between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/ml of uropathogens). The 16S rDNA-based assay could identify the most prevalent uropathogens using probes for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species and Streptococcus species. 330 urinary specimens were analysed and results were compared with conventional urine culture. Using a PCR Ct value of 25 as semi-quantitative breakpoint for significant bacteriuria resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 80%, respectively. In 78% of the samples with monomicrobial infections the assay contained probes to detect the bacteria present in the urine specimens and 99% of these uropathogens was correctly identified. Concluding, this proof-of-concept approach demonstrates that the assay can distinguish bacteriuria from no bacteriuria as well as detect the involved uropathogen within 4 hours after sampling, allowing adequate therapy decisions within the same day as well as drastically reduce consequent urine culturing.

  14. Recombinant plasmid-based quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis of Salmonella enterica serotypes and its application to milk samples.

    PubMed

    Gokduman, Kurtulus; Avsaroglu, M Dilek; Cakiris, Aris; Ustek, Duran; Gurakan, G Candan

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop, a new, rapid, sensitive and quantitative Salmonella detection method using a Real-Time PCR technique based on an inexpensive, easy to produce, convenient and standardized recombinant plasmid positive control. To achieve this, two recombinant plasmids were constructed as reference molecules by cloning the two most commonly used Salmonella-specific target gene regions, invA and ttrRSBC. The more rapid detection enabled by the developed method (21 h) compared to the traditional culture method (90 h) allows the quantitative evaluation of Salmonella (quantification limits of 10(1)CFU/ml and 10(0)CFU/ml for the invA target and the ttrRSBC target, respectively), as illustrated using milk samples. Three advantages illustrated by the current study demonstrate the potential of the newly developed method to be used in routine analyses in the medical, veterinary, food and water/environmental sectors: I--The method provides fast analyses including the simultaneous detection and determination of correct pathogen counts; II--The method is applicable to challenging samples, such as milk; III--The method's positive controls (recombinant plasmids) are reproducible in large quantities without the need to construct new calibration curves.

  15. Development of a real time quantitative PCR assay for the hard clam pathogen Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX).

    PubMed

    Lyons, M Maille; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Dungan, Christopher F; Roberts, Steven B

    2006-09-14

    Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is a thraustochytrid pathogen responsible for catastrophic mortalities of the northern quahog (hard clam) Mercenaria mercenaria. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed to assist research efforts on QPX ecology and pathology. Sensitivity of the assay was evaluated with serial dilutions of QPX-cultured cells to determine the lowest concentration of DNA that remained detectable in both the presence and absence of extraneous environmental substances. QPX cells were quantified before DNA extraction to calibrate standard curves to cell counts. Based on our results, the qPCR assay is able to quantify QPX within the range of 1 to several thousand organisms per reaction. Specificity of the assay was assessed by testing 29 thraustochytrid-like protists isolated from suspension-feeding bivalves from China, Oregon, Maryland, and Virginia. Application of the assay was demonstrated with positive qPCR results from naturally contaminated environmental samples including marine aggregates (i.e. marine snow), clam pseudofeces, and inflammatory nodules from infected clams. This quantitative assay for QPX will provide a valuable tool for characterizing QPX parasite abundances in coastal environments and for improving clam disease diagnostics.

  16. Detection and quantitation of the new world Squash leaf curl virus by TaqMan real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Peter E; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2013-07-01

    Squash leaf curl diseases are caused by distinct virus species that are separated into two major phylogenetic groups, western and eastern hemisphere groups. The western group includes the new world Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) which causes major losses to cucurbit production and induces severe stunting and leaf curl in squash plants. A TaqMan-based real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay has been developed for detection and quantitation of SLCV. Designed primers and probe targeted the AV1 (coat protein) gene and in silico analysis showed that they detect a large number of SLCV isolates. The developed assay could detect the virus in 18fg of total nucleic acid and 30 genomic units. The qPCR assay was about 1000 times more sensitive than PCR and amplified successfully SLCV from a wide range of cucurbit hosts and from viruliferous whiteflies. The developed qPCR assay should be suitable for detection and quantitation purposes for all reported SLCV isolates of the western hemisphere.

  17. Design and Assessment of a Real Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Method to Genotype Single-Stranded RNA Male-Specific Coliphages (Family Leviviridae).

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was developed to differentiate the four genogroups of male-specific ssRNA coliphages (FRNA) (family Leviviridae). As FRNA display a trend of source-specificity (human sewage or animal waste) at the genogroup level, this assa...

  18. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification, quantitation and differentiation of avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, Mattia; Lupini, Caterina; Munoz Pogoreltseva, Olga Svetlana; Listorti, Valeria; Mondin, Alessandra; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, special attention has been paid to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) diagnosis, due to its numerous advantages over classical PCR. A new multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) with molecular beacon probe assay, designed to target the SH gene, was developed. The test was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, and compared with conventional RT nested-PCR based on the G gene. All of the AMPV subtype A and B strains tested were amplified and specifically detected while no amplification occurred with other non-target bird respiratory pathogens. The detection limit of the assay was 10(-0.41) median infectious dose/ml and 10(1.15) median infectious dose/ml when the AMPV-B strain IT/Ty/B/Vr240/87 and the AMPV-A strain IT/Ty/A/259-01/03 were used, respectively, as templates. In all cases, the amplification efficiency was approximately 2 and the error values were <0.2. Standard curves, generated either using the serial dilution of an RNA suspension or RNA extracted from the serial dilution of titrated viral suspensions as templates, exhibited good linearity (R (2)>0.9375) between crossing point values and virus quantities, making the assay herein designed reliable for quantification. When the newly developed qRT-PCR was compared with a conventional RT nested-PCR, it showed greater sensitivity with RNA extracted from both positive controls and from experimentally infected birds. This assay can be effectively used for the detection, identification, differentiation and quantitation of AMPV subtype A or subtype B to assist in disease diagnosis and to carry out rapid surveillance with high levels of sensitivity and specificity.

  19. Intra-laboratory validation of chronic bee paralysis virus quantitation using an accredited standardised real-time quantitative RT-PCR method.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Philippe; Regnault, Julie; Schurr, Frank; Dubois, Eric; Ribière, Magali

    2012-03-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is responsible for chronic bee paralysis, an infectious and contagious disease in adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). A real-time RT-PCR assay to quantitate the CBPV load is now available. To propose this assay as a reference method, it was characterised further in an intra-laboratory study during which the reliability and the repeatability of results and the performance of the assay were confirmed. The qPCR assay alone and the whole quantitation method (from sample RNA extraction to analysis) were both assessed following the ISO/IEC 17025 standard and the recent XP U47-600 standard issued by the French Standards Institute. The performance of the qPCR assay and of the overall CBPV quantitation method were validated over a 6 log range from 10(2) to 10(8) with a detection limit of 50 and 100 CBPV RNA copies, respectively, and the protocol of the real-time RT-qPCR assay for CBPV quantitation was approved by the French Accreditation Committee. PMID:22207079

  20. Real-time label-free quantitative fluorescence microscopy-based detection of ATP using a tunable fluorescent nano-aptasensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Sohn, Il-Yung; Son, Young-Min; Lee, Won-Il; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-11-01

    Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces, thereby providing cytotoxicity assessment. Compared with conventional fluorescence spectrometry methods, our highly efficient, universally applicable, and rational approach will facilitate broader implementation of imaging-based biosensing platforms for the quantitative evaluation of a range of target molecules.Although real-time label-free fluorescent aptasensors based on nanomaterials are increasingly recognized as a useful strategy for the detection of target biomolecules with high fidelity, the lack of an imaging-based quantitative measurement platform limits their implementation with biological samples. Here we introduce an ensemble strategy for a real-time label-free fluorescent graphene (Gr) aptasensor platform. This platform employs aptamer length-dependent tunability, thus enabling the reagentless quantitative detection of biomolecules through computational processing coupled with real-time fluorescence imaging data. We demonstrate that this strategy effectively delivers dose-dependent quantitative readouts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) Gr and reduced graphene oxide (r

  1. Quantitation of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 oncogene sequences by real-time or quantitative PCR with EvaGreen.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Arteaga, Socorro; López-Revilla, Rubén

    2008-09-01

    Quantitation of E6 oncogene sequences of the human papillomavirus type 16 by real-time or quantitative PCR (qPCR) is used to determine the viral load, which correlates with the degree of the cervical neoplastic lesions. In the presence of EvaGreen, a new DNA intercalating fluorochrome, we obtained consistent and reproducible qPCR amplification curves and thermal denaturation profiles identical to those of the authentic E6-HPV16 (human papillomavirus 16) genome from the amplification products derived from a construct carrying the E6-HPV16 oncogene. E6-HPV16 quantitation in the presence of EvaGreen, therefore, is reproducible and specific and may be used to determine HPV16 viral load.

  2. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the rapid detection of Salmonella using invA primers.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H; Critzer, Faith J; Golden, David A

    2009-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella linked to fresh produce emphasize the need for rapid detection methods to help control the spread of disease. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can detect the presence of mRNA (shorter half-life than DNA) with greater potential for detecting viable pathogens. The chromosomally located invA gene required for host invasion by Salmonella is widely used for detection of this pathogen by PCR. Detection of Salmonella was undertaken by real-time RT-PCR (rt-RT-PCR) using newly designed invA gene primers to develop a sensitive and specific assay. Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis were grown (7.68 log(10) CFU/mL) in Luria-Bertani broth overnight at 37 degrees C, and RNA was extracted, followed by rt-RT-PCR with and without SYBR green I and agarose gel electrophoresis. All experiments were replicated at least thrice. Detection for both serovars using traditional RT-PCR was lower ( approximately 10(5) CFU/mL) than rt-RT-PCR (10(3) CFU/mL) by gel electrophoresis. Melt curve analysis showed melt temperatures at 87.5 degrees C with Ct values from 12 to 15 for up to 10(3) CFU/mL and improved to 10(2) CFU/mL after further optimization. Further, addition of RNA internal amplification control constructed using in vitro transcription with a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, to the RT-PCR assay also gave detection limits of 10(2) CFU/mL. Cross-reactivity was not observed against a panel of 21 non-Salmonella bacteria. Heat-inactivated (autoclaved) Salmonella showed faint or no detection by rt-RT-PCR or gel electrophoresis. This method has potential to be applied for the detection of Salmonella serovars in fresh produce and the simultaneous detection of foodborne viral (RNA viruses) and bacterial pathogens in a multiplex format.

  3. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests.

  4. Gene transcription analysis of carrot allergens by relative quantification with single and duplex reverse transcription real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zagon, Jutta; Jansen, Bärbel; Knoppik, Meike; Ehlers, Anke; Kroh, Lothar W; Holzhauser, Thomas; Vieths, Stefan; Broll, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Single and duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems have been developed to quantify specific mRNA transcription of genes coding for the major Daucus carota allergen isoforms Dau c 1.01 and Dau c 1.02. Methods were tested with samples from the local market. Whereas the gene transcription levels for Dau c 1.01 were consistently high in all investigated samples, significant differences for the Dau c 1.02 transcription could be demonstrated in randomly collected market samples. The gene transcription level for the minor Dau c 1.02 variant is about one log below Dau c 1.01. Both formats, single or duplex real-time methods, exhibit ideal cycle threshold (CT) ranges and good reproducibility. In particular, the easily performed duplex real-time PCR system is potentially suited for the selection of hypoallergenic varieties and studying the impact of post-harvesting or environmental conditions.

  5. Evaluation of Virulence Gene Expression Patterns in Acinetobacter baumannii Using Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Array.

    PubMed

    Lannan, Ford M; O'conor, Daniel K; Broderick, Joseph C; Tate, Jamison F; Scoggin, Jacob T; Moran, Nicholas A; Husson, Christopher M; Hegeman, Erik M; Ogrydziak, Cole E; Singh, Sneha A; Vafides, Andrew G; Brinkley, Carl C; Goodin, Jeremy L

    2016-09-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control's recently devised National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii is a "serious" threat level pathogen. A. baumannii's notoriety stems from the fact that a large number of modern strains are multidrug resistant and persist in the hospital setting, thus causing numerous deaths per year. It is imperative that research focus on a more fundamental understanding of the factors responsible for the success of A. baumannii. Toward this end, our group investigated virulence gene expression patterns in a recently characterized wound isolate, AB5075, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array. Notably, several genes showed statistically significant upregulation at 37°C compared to 25°C; MviM, Wbbj, CarO, and certain genes of the Bas, Bar, and Csu operons. Additionally, we found that in vitro biofilm formation by Csu transposon insertion mutant strains is attenuated. These findings validate previous reports that suggest a link between the Csu operon and biofilm formation. More importantly, our results demonstrate a successful method for evaluating the significance of previously identified virulence factors in a modern and clinically relevant strain of A. baumannii, thereby providing a path toward a more fundamental understanding of the pathogenicity of A. baumannii. PMID:27612361

  6. Improved HF183 Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Characterization of Human Fecal Pollution in Ambient Surface Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Green, Hyatt C.; Haugland, Richard A.; Varma, Manju; Millen, Hana T.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Field, Katharine G.; Walters, William A.; Knight, R.; Sivaganesan, Mano; Kelty, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster within members of the genus Bacteroides are among the most widely used methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. In this study, we show that a current TaqMan HF183 qPCR assay (HF183/BFDrev) routinely forms nonspecific amplification products and introduce a modified TaqMan assay (HF183/BacR287) that alleviates this problem. The performance of each qPCR assay was compared in head-to-head experiments investigating limits of detection, analytical precision, predicted hybridization to 16S rRNA gene sequences from a reference database, and relative marker concentrations in fecal and sewage samples. The performance of the modified HF183/BacR287 assay is equal to or improves upon that of the original HF183/BFDrev assay. In addition, a qPCR chemistry designed to combat amplification inhibition and a multiplexed internal amplification control are included. In light of the expanding use of PCR-based methods that rely on the detection of extremely low concentrations of DNA template, such as qPCR and digital PCR, the new TaqMan HF183/BacR287 assay should provide more accurate estimations of human-derived fecal contaminants in ambient surface waters. PMID:24610857

  7. Reference Genes Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Using RankAggreg Method in Different Tissues of Capra hircus

    PubMed Central

    Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Identification of reference genes with stable levels of gene expression is an important prerequisite for obtaining reliable results in analysis of gene expression data using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Since the underlying assumption of reference genes is that expressed at the exact same level in all sample types, in this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine most commonly used endogenous controls (GAPDH, ACTB, 18S rRNA, RPS18, HSP-90, ALAS, HMBS, ACAC, and B2M) in four different tissues of the domestic goat, Capra hircus, including liver, visceral, subcutaneous fat and longissimus muscles, across different experimental treatments (a standard diet prepared using the NRC computer software as control and the same diet plus one mg chromium/day). We used six different software programs for ranking of reference genes and found that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. Additionally, there was a significant difference in ranking patterns of the studied genes among different tissues. A rank aggregation method was applied to combine the ranking lists of the six programs to a consensus ranking. Our results revealed that HSP-90 was nearly always among the two most stable genes in all studied tissues. Therefore, it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in goats, while GAPDH, ACTB, and RPS18 showed the most varied expressions and should be avoided as reference genes. PMID:24358246

  8. Development of a real-time quantitative RT-PCR to detect REV contamination in live vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luan, Huaibiao; Wang, Yixin; Li, Yang; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Based on the published Avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) whole genome sequence, primers and TaqMan probes were designed and synthesized, and the TaqMan probe fluorescence real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for detecting the REV pol gene was established by optimizing the reaction conditions. Sensitivity analysis showed that the qRT-PCR method had a sensitivity that was 1,000-fold higher than conventional PCR. Additionally, no amplification signals were obtained when we attempted to detect DNA or cDNA of ALV-A/B/J, MDV, CIAV, IBDV, ARV, NDV, AIV, or other viruses, suggesting a high specificity for our method. Various titers of REV were artificially "spiked" into the FPV and MDV vaccines to simulate REV contamination in attenuated vaccines to validate this qRT-PCR method. Our findings indicated that this qRT-PCR method could detect REV contamination at a dose of 1 TCID50/1,000 feathers, which was 10,000-fold more sensitive than the regular RT-PCR detection (10(4) TCID50/1000 feathers).

  9. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Mamidala, Praveen; Rajarapu, Swapna P; Jones, Susan C; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has emerged as robust methodology for gene expression studies, but reference genes are crucial for accurate normalization. Commonly used reference genes are housekeeping genes that are thought to be nonregulated; however, their expression can be unstable across different experimental conditions. We report the identification and validation of suitable reference genes in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, by using qRT-PCR. The expression stability of eight reference genes in different tissues (abdominal cuticle, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and ovary) and developmental stages (early instar nymphs, late instar nymphs, and adults) of pesticide-susceptible and pesticide-exposed C. lectularius were analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Overall expression analysis of the eight reference genes revealed significant variation among samples, indicating the necessity of validating suitable reference genes for accurate quantification of mRNA transcripts. Ribosomal protein (RPL18) exhibited the most stable gene expression across all the tissue and developmental-stage samples; a-tubulin revealed the least stability across all of the samples examined. Thus, we recommend RPL18 as a suitable reference gene for normalization in gene expression studies of C. lectularius. PMID:21845960

  10. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Assays in Aortic Tissue of Syrian Hamsters with Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-Martínez, Carmen; Fernández, M. Carmen; Soto-Navarrete, María Teresa; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Fernández, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation in humans, and appears frequently associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta. This association is likely the result of a common aetiology. Currently, a Syrian hamster strain with a relatively high (∼40%) incidence of BAV constitutes the only spontaneous animal model of BAV disease. The characterization of molecular alterations in the aorta of hamsters with BAV may serve to identify pathophysiological mechanisms and molecular markers of disease in humans. In this report, we evaluate the expression of ten candidate reference genes in aortic tissue of hamsters in order to identify housekeeping genes for normalization using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) assays. A total of 51 adult (180–240 days old) and 56 old (300–440 days old) animals were used. They belonged to a control strain of hamsters with normal, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV; n = 30), or to the affected strain of hamsters with TAV (n = 45) or BAV (n = 32). The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by RT-qPCR using three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable reference genes for the three algorithms employed were Cdkn1β, G3pdh and Polr2a. We propose the use of Cdkn1β, or both Cdkn1β and G3pdh as reference genes for mRNA expression analyses in Syrian hamster aorta. PMID:27711171

  11. Implementation of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection of Mycobacterium immunogenum in metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Glenn; Fluri, Alexandra; Ruefenacht, Andrea; Gerber, Marco; Pickup, Roger

    2011-08-01

    The bacterium Mycobacterium immunogenum has been implicated in causing the lung condition hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in factory workers exposed to colonized metalworking fluids (MWFs). M. immunogenum-specific, real-time quantitative PCR detection technique (MiRT-qPCR) was implemented on a large scale to 363 MWFs of varying types, originating from the United States and Europe, that had been in use for between 30 days and 1 year. In MWFs that contained between 10(3) and 10(9) culturable general heterotrophs mL(-1) the technique detected between 5 and 2 × 10(6) mL(-1) M. immunogenum cell equivalents (CE) in 12.2% (23 of 189) of U.S. samples and between 8 and 6 × 10(5) mL(-1) CE in 39.1% (68 of 174) of samples from Europe. In contrast, only three cultured presumptive mycobacterial isolates across all samples were confirmed as M. immunogenum. Implementation of the assay demonstrated its practicality and further emphasized the limitations of using cultivation alone. Interestingly, no M. immunogenum were detected in mineral oil-based Bio-Concept MWFs from the United States, while it was more commonly detected in used MWFs based on formaldehyde-releasing biocides than in MWFs free of formaldehyde-depot biocides. PMID:21756137

  12. Optimization of direct analysis in real time (DART) linear ion trap parameters for the detection and quantitation of glucose.

    PubMed

    Saang'onyo, Daudi S; Smith, Darrin L

    2012-02-15

    Presented here are findings for the development and optimization of a simple, high-throughput, and rapid method for the analysis of glucose. Because the applications of glucose and other six-carbon sugars is a growing field of interest especially in the production of biofuels, an efficient and rapid method for their quantitation from lignocelluloses is necessary. Glucose was analyzed using direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization and formed adducts (along with fragmentation) were observed with a linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometer. Since DART can be considered a complex thermal desorption ionization process, an optimization study of the helium gas temperature and introduction into the ionization region was performed. It was observed these parameters have a significant effect on the overall signal intensity as well as the signal-to-noise ratios in DART mass spectra. Using these optimized parameters, a set of different glucose concentrations (ranging from 10 to 3000  μM) were analyzed and used to determine a linear dynamic range (with the use of an internal standard). The analysis of the samples was done with minimal sample preparation and found to be reproducible on different days.

  13. An alternative quantitative acoustical and electrical method for detection of cell adhesion process in real-time.

    PubMed

    Le Guillou-Buffello, Delphine; Gindre, Marcel; Johnson, Paul; Laugier, Pascal; Migonney, Véronique

    2011-04-01

    Sauerbrey [(1956), Z Phys 55:206-222] showed that the shift in resonance frequency of thickness shear mode (TSM) of a quartz crystal sensor is proportional to the mass, which is deposited on it. However, new powerful electrical circuits were developed that are capable of operating TSM quartz crystal sensors in fluids which enabled this method to be introduced into electrochemical and biological applications. These applications include the detection of virus capsids, bacteria, mammalian cells, the interaction of DNA and RNA with complementary strands, specific recognition of protein ligands by immobilized receptors, and last but not least the study of complete immunosensors. Piezoelectric quartz transducers allow a label-free identification of molecules; they are more than mass sensors since the biosensor response is also influenced by the surface charge of adsorbed proteins, interfacial phenomena, surface roughness and viscoelastic properties of the adhered biomaterial. These new characteristics have recently been used to investigate cell, liposome, and protein adhesion onto surfaces, thus permitting the rapid determination of morphological cell changes as a response to pharmacological substances, and changes in the water content of biopolymers avoiding of time-consuming methods. We validated an alternative quantitative acoustical engineering for cell adhesion process monitored by the TSM. Shear acoustical results (motional resistance) are further correlated to cell counting procedures and are sensitive of adhesion processes in real-time.

  14. Nuclear matrix association of the human beta-globin locus utilizing a novel approach to quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ostermeier, G Charles; Liu, Zhandong; Martins, Rui Pires; Bharadwaj, Rikki R; Ellis, James; Draghici, Sorin; Krawetz, Stephen A

    2003-06-15

    The human beta-globin locus is home to five genes that are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner. While the exact mode of expression remains somewhat enigmatic, a significant effort has been focused at the locus control region (LCR). The LCR is marked by five DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HS) approximately 15 kb upstream of the epsilon-globin gene. Nuclear matrix-associated regions (MARs) organize chromatin into functional domains and at least one of the HS appears bound to the nuclear matrix. We have employed an in vivo based PCR MAR assay to investigate the role of MAR-mediated regulation of the beta-globin locus. This was facilitated with a novel reaction efficiency based quantitative real-time PCR analysis software tool, Target Analysis Quantification. Using a log-linear regression strategy, discordances were eliminated. This allowed us to reliably estimate the relative amount of initial template associated with the nuclear matrix at 15 unique regions spanning the beta-globin locus in both non-expressing and expressing cell lines. A dynamic association dependent on expression status was revealed both at the LCR/5'HS region and within the second intron of the beta-globin gene. These results provide the first evidence that nuclear matrix association dynamically mediates the looping of the beta-globin locus to achieve transcriptional control.

  15. Accurate, fast and cost-effective diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36 using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5-0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  16. Comparison of commercial DNA preparation kits for the detection of Brucellae in tissue using quantitative real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The detection of Brucellae in tissue specimens using PCR assays is difficult because the amount of bacteria is usually low. Therefore, optimised DNA extraction methods are critical. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial kits for the extraction of Brucella DNA. Methods Five kits were evaluated using clinical specimens: QIAamp™ DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN), peqGold™ Tissue DNA Mini Kit (PeqLab), UltraClean™ Tissue and Cells DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio), DNA Isolation Kit for Cells and Tissues (Roche), and NucleoSpin™ Tissue (Macherey-Nagel). DNA yield was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting IS711 that included an internal amplification control. Results Kits of QIAGEN and Roche provided the highest amount of DNA, Macherey-Nagel and Peqlab products were intermediate whereas MoBio yielded the lowest amount of DNA. Differences were significant (p < 0.05) and of diagnostic relevance. Sample volume, elution volume, and processing time were also compared. Conclusions We observed differences in DNA yield as high as two orders of magnitude for some samples between the best and the worst DNA extraction kits and inhibition was observed occasionally. This indicates that DNA purification may be more relevant than expected when the amount of DNA in tissue is very low. PMID:20403208

  17. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for human-dog-cat species identification and nuclear DNA quantification.

    PubMed

    Kanthaswamy, S; Premasuthan, A; Ng, J; Satkoski, J; Goyal, V

    2012-03-01

    In the United States, human forensic evidence collected from crime scenes is usually comingled with biomaterial of canine and feline origins. Knowledge of the concentration of nuclear DNA extracted from a crime scene biological sample and the species from which the sample originated is essential for DNA profiling. The ability to accurately detect and quantify target DNA in mixed-species samples is crucial when target DNA may be overwhelmed by non-target DNA. We have designed and evaluated a species-specific (human, dog and cat) nuclear DNA identification assay based on the TaqMan(®) quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technology that can simultaneously detect and measure minute quantities of DNA specific to either humans, dogs and/or cats. The fluorogenic triplex assay employs primers and hydrolysis probes that target the human TH01 locus as well as the dog and cat Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) sequences in a species-specific manner. We also demonstrate that the assay is a highly sensitive, reliable and robust method for identifying and quantifying mixed-species templates of human-dog-cat origin with as little as 0.4 pg of human and cat nuclear DNA, respectively, and 4.0 pg of dog nuclear DNA.

  18. Universal real-time PCR assay for quantitation and size evaluation of residual cell DNA in human viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    André, Murielle; Reghin, Sylviane; Boussard, Estelle; Lempereur, Laurent; Maisonneuve, Stéphane

    2016-05-01

    Residual host cellular DNA (rcDNA) is one of the principal risk associated with continuous cell lines derived medicines such as viral vaccines. To assess rcDNA degradation, we suggest two quantitative real-time PCR assays designed to separately quantify target sequences shorter and longer than the 200 bp risk limit, the relative abundance of both targets reflecting the extent of rcDNA fragmentation. The conserved multicopy ribosomal 18S RNA gene was targeted to detect host cell templates from most mammalian cell substrates commonly used in the manufacture of human viral vaccines. The detection range of the method was assessed on purified DNA templates from different animal origins. The standard calibrator origin and structural conformation were shown crucial to achieve accurate quantification. Artificial mixtures of PCR products shorter and longer than 200 bp were used as a model to check the ability of the assay to estimate the fragment size distribution. The method was successfully applied to a panel of Vero cell derived vaccines and could be used as a universal method for determination of both content and size distribution of rcDNA in vaccines.

  19. A multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panel for detecting neurologic pathogens in dogs with meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Chang, Dong-Woo; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Meningoencephalitis (ME) is a common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system in dogs. Clinically, ME has both infectious and non-infectious causes. In the present study, a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqPCR) panel was optimized for the detection of eight canine neurologic pathogens (Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus spp., Neospora caninum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Ehrlichia canis, and canine distemper virus [CDV]). The mqPCR panel was subsequently applied to 53 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from dogs with ME. The analytic sensitivity (i.e., limit of detection, expressed as molecules per 1 mL of recombinant vector) was 3.8 for CDV, 3.7 for Ehrlichia canis, 3.7 for Bartonella spp., 3.8 for Borrelia burgdorferi, 3.7 for Blastomyces dermatitidis, 3.7 for Cryptococcus spp., 38 for Neospora caninum, and 3.7 for Toxoplasma gondii. Among the tested CSF samples, seven (15%) were positive for the following pathogens in decreasing order of frequency: Cryptococcus spp. (3/7), Blastomyces dermatitidis (2/7), and Borrelia burgdorferi (2/7). In summary, use of an mqPCR panel with high analytic sensitivity as an initial screen for infectious agents in dogs with ME could facilitate the selection of early treatment strategies and improve outcomes. PMID:26040611

  20. Characterization and event specific-detection by quantitative real-time PCR of T25 maize insert.

    PubMed

    Collonnier, Cécile; Schattner, Alexandra; Berthier, Georges; Boyer, Francine; Coué-Philippe, Géraldine; Diolez, Annick; Duplan, Marie-Noëlle; Fernandez, Sophie; Kebdani, Naïma; Kobilinsky, André; Romaniuk, Marcel; de Beuckeleer, Marc; de Loose, Marc; Windels, Pieter; Bertheau, Yves

    2005-01-01

    T25 is one of the 4 maize transformation events from which commercial lines have so far been authorized in Europe. It was created by polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation using a construct bearing one copy of the synthetic pat gene associated with both promoter and terminator of the 35S ribosomal gene from cauliflower mosaic virus. In this article, we report the sequencing of the whole T25 insert and the characterization of its integration site by using a genome walking strategy. Our results confirmed that one intact copy of the initial construct had been integrated in the plant genome. They also revealed, at the 5' junction of the insert, the presence of a second truncated 35S promoter, probably resulting from rearrangements which may have occurred before or during integration of the plasmid DNA. The analysis of the junction fragments showed that the integration site of the insert presented high homologies with the Huck retrotransposon family. By using one primer annealing in the maize genome and the other in the 5' end of the integrated DNA, we developed a reliable event-specific detection system for T25 maize. To provide means to comply with the European regulation, a real-time PCR test was designed for specific quantitation of T25 event by using Taqman chemistry.

  1. Quantitative imaging reveals real-time Pou5f3–Nanog complexes driving dorsoventral mesendoderm patterning in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Camps, Mireia; Tian, Jing; Chng, Serene C; Sem, Kai Pin; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Teh, Cathleen; Wachsmuth, Malte; Korzh, Vladimir; Ahmed, Sohail; Reversade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the three embryonic germ layers is a fundamental developmental process that initiates differentiation. How the zebrafish pluripotency factor Pou5f3 (homologous to mammalian Oct4) drives lineage commitment is unclear. Here, we introduce fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to assess the formation of Pou5f3 complexes with other transcription factors in real-time in gastrulating zebrafish embryos. We show, at single-cell resolution in vivo, that Pou5f3 complexes with Nanog to pattern mesendoderm differentiation at the blastula stage. Later, during gastrulation, Sox32 restricts Pou5f3–Nanog complexes to the ventrolateral mesendoderm by binding Pou5f3 or Nanog in prospective dorsal endoderm. In the ventrolateral endoderm, the Elabela / Aplnr pathway limits Sox32 levels, allowing the formation of Pou5f3–Nanog complexes and the activation of downstream BMP signaling. This quantitative model shows that a balance in the spatiotemporal distribution of Pou5f3–Nanog complexes, modulated by Sox32, regulates mesendoderm specification along the dorsoventral axis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11475.001 PMID:27684073

  2. Validation of Direct Analysis Real Time source/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for organophosphate quantitation on wafer surface.

    PubMed

    Hayeck, Nathalie; Ravier, Sylvain; Gemayel, Rachel; Gligorovski, Sasho; Poulet, Irène; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Wortham, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Microelectronic wafers are exposed to airborne molecular contamination (AMC) during the fabrication process of microelectronic components. The organophosphate compounds belonging to the dopant group are one of the most harmful groups. Once adsorbed on the wafer surface these compounds hardly desorb and could diffuse in the bulk of the wafer and invert the wafer from p-type to n-type. The presence of these compounds on wafer surface could have electrical effect on the microelectronic components. For these reasons, it is of importance to control the amount of these compounds on the surface of the wafer. As a result, a fast quantitative and qualitative analytical method, nondestructive for the wafers, is needed to be able to adjust the process and avoid the loss of an important quantity of processed wafers due to the contamination by organophosphate compounds. Here we developed and validated an analytical method for the determination of organic compounds adsorbed on the surface of microelectronic wafers using the Direct Analysis in Real Time-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (DART-ToF-MS) system. Specifically, the developed methodology concerns the organophosphate group.

  3. Rapid method demonstration project at four New Jersey marine beaches using real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Ferretti, James A; Tran, Hiep V; Peterson, Sarah J; Loftin, Virginia

    2013-06-15

    Real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) was used at four marine bathing beaches in New Jersey as part of a demonstration project to evaluate the potential for use of qPCR as part of a routine beach monitoring program. Split sample analyses for Enterococcus spp. using membrane filtration (MF) and qPCR were performed for 11weeks during the summer of 2011 using swimming advisories based on qPCR results. Comparison of qPCR and MF results from split samples indicated that there was an 82% overall agreement rate between the two methods. Results from the qPCR tests were available by noon the same day of sample collection and swimming advisories were posted on a dedicated website. The qPCR method can be more labor intensive and requires a higher level of training to perform, however, qPCR was able to assess beach water quality in a timelier manner compared to conventional MF techniques. PMID:23623653

  4. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis survival during fermentation of soured milk products detected by culture and quantitative real time PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Klanicova, B; Slana, I; Roubal, P; Pavlik, I; Kralik, P

    2012-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), etiological agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants, is able to survive extreme conditions like very low pH (stomach), high temperature (pasteurization) or low temperature (refrigerated storage). Cheese, infant powder milk, cream and other milk and dairy products might thus be considered as possible sources of MAP for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of two MAP field isolates during fermentation of three different types of soured milk products (SMP; yogurt, acidophilus milk and kefir) under laboratory conditions. Pasteurized MAP-free milk was artificially contaminated with 10(6)MAPcells/mL and survival and absolute numbers of MAP were monitored during fermentation (4 or 16 h) and after six weeks of storage at 4°C by culture and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Viability of MAP was determined by culture using Herrold's egg yolk medium and Middlebrook 7H10 with antibiotics, supplemented with Mycobactin J and incubated at 37°C for up to 12 weeks. The absolute numbers of MAP were quantified by previously published qPCR assays targeting F57 and IS900 loci in MAP genome. We herein confirm that MAP can survive pH reduction, however, longer exposure to pH below 4 in SMP seems to be critical because it inhibits growth. Therefore, it is suggested that probiotic cultures that can decrease pH below 4 during fermentation could provide better inactivation of MAP in SMP.

  5. Characterization and event specific-detection by quantitative real-time PCR of T25 maize insert.

    PubMed

    Collonnier, Cécile; Schattner, Alexandra; Berthier, Georges; Boyer, Francine; Coué-Philippe, Géraldine; Diolez, Annick; Duplan, Marie-Noëlle; Fernandez, Sophie; Kebdani, Naïma; Kobilinsky, André; Romaniuk, Marcel; de Beuckeleer, Marc; de Loose, Marc; Windels, Pieter; Bertheau, Yves

    2005-01-01

    T25 is one of the 4 maize transformation events from which commercial lines have so far been authorized in Europe. It was created by polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation using a construct bearing one copy of the synthetic pat gene associated with both promoter and terminator of the 35S ribosomal gene from cauliflower mosaic virus. In this article, we report the sequencing of the whole T25 insert and the characterization of its integration site by using a genome walking strategy. Our results confirmed that one intact copy of the initial construct had been integrated in the plant genome. They also revealed, at the 5' junction of the insert, the presence of a second truncated 35S promoter, probably resulting from rearrangements which may have occurred before or during integration of the plasmid DNA. The analysis of the junction fragments showed that the integration site of the insert presented high homologies with the Huck retrotransposon family. By using one primer annealing in the maize genome and the other in the 5' end of the integrated DNA, we developed a reliable event-specific detection system for T25 maize. To provide means to comply with the European regulation, a real-time PCR test was designed for specific quantitation of T25 event by using Taqman chemistry. PMID:15859082

  6. Evaluation of Virulence Gene Expression Patterns in Acinetobacter baumannii Using Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Array.

    PubMed

    Lannan, Ford M; O'conor, Daniel K; Broderick, Joseph C; Tate, Jamison F; Scoggin, Jacob T; Moran, Nicholas A; Husson, Christopher M; Hegeman, Erik M; Ogrydziak, Cole E; Singh, Sneha A; Vafides, Andrew G; Brinkley, Carl C; Goodin, Jeremy L

    2016-09-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control's recently devised National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii is a "serious" threat level pathogen. A. baumannii's notoriety stems from the fact that a large number of modern strains are multidrug resistant and persist in the hospital setting, thus causing numerous deaths per year. It is imperative that research focus on a more fundamental understanding of the factors responsible for the success of A. baumannii. Toward this end, our group investigated virulence gene expression patterns in a recently characterized wound isolate, AB5075, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array. Notably, several genes showed statistically significant upregulation at 37°C compared to 25°C; MviM, Wbbj, CarO, and certain genes of the Bas, Bar, and Csu operons. Additionally, we found that in vitro biofilm formation by Csu transposon insertion mutant strains is attenuated. These findings validate previous reports that suggest a link between the Csu operon and biofilm formation. More importantly, our results demonstrate a successful method for evaluating the significance of previously identified virulence factors in a modern and clinically relevant strain of A. baumannii, thereby providing a path toward a more fundamental understanding of the pathogenicity of A. baumannii.

  7. Real-time fluorescent quantitative immuno-PCR method for determination of fluoranthene in water samples with a molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiyan; Zhuang, Huisheng; Zhou, Chun; Wang, Qiong'e

    2010-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive competitive real-time fluorescent quantitative immuno-PCR (RTFQ-IPCR) assay using a molecular beacon was developed for the determination of trace fluoranthene (FL) in the environment. Under optimized assay conditions, FL can be determined in the concentration range from 1 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL, withy = 0.194x + 7.859, and a correlation coefficient of 0.967 was identified, with a detection limit of 0.6 fg/mL. Environmental water samples were successfully analyzed, recovery was between 90% and 116%, with intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.7%-12.8% and inter-day RSD of 8.4%-15.2%. The results obtained from RTFQ-IPCR were confirmed by ELISA, showing good accuracy and suitability to analyze FL in field samples. As a highly sensitive method, the molecular beacon-based RTFQ-IPCR is acceptable and promising for providing reliable test results to make environmental decisions.

  8. Enumeration of Archaea and Bacteria in seafloor basalt using real-time quantitative PCR and fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Einen, Jørn; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Ovreås, Lise

    2008-05-01

    A SYBR Green real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assay for the detection and quantification of Bacteria and Archaea present in the glassy rind of seafloor basalts of different ages and water depths is presented. Two sets of domain-specific primers were designed and validated for specific detection and quantification of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes in DNA extracted from basaltic glass. Total cell numbers were also estimated by fluorescence microscopy analysis of SYBR Gold-stained samples. The results from the two different approaches were concurrent, and Q-PCR results showed that the total number of cells present in basalts was in the range from 6 x 10(5) to 4 x 10(6) cells g(-1) basaltic glass. Further, it was demonstrated that these cells were almost exclusively from the domain Bacteria. When applying the same methods on samples of different ages (22 years-0.1 Ma) and water depths (139-3390 mbsl), no significant differences in cell concentrations or in the relative abundance of Archaea and Bacteria were detected.

  9. A multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panel for detecting neurologic pathogens in dogs with meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-Ik; Chang, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Meningoencephalitis (ME) is a common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system in dogs. Clinically, ME has both infectious and non-infectious causes. In the present study, a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqPCR) panel was optimized for the detection of eight canine neurologic pathogens (Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus spp., Neospora caninum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Ehrlichia canis, and canine distemper virus [CDV]). The mqPCR panel was subsequently applied to 53 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from dogs with ME. The analytic sensitivity (i.e., limit of detection, expressed as molecules per 1 µL of recombinant vector) was 3.8 for CDV, 3.7 for Ehrlichia canis, 3.7 for Bartonella spp., 3.8 for Borrelia burgdorferi, 3.7 for Blastomyces dermatitidis, 3.7 for Cryptococcus spp., 38 for Neospora caninum, and 3.7 for Toxoplasma gondii. Among the tested CSF samples, seven (15%) were positive for the following pathogens in decreasing order of frequency: Cryptococcus spp. (3/7), Blastomyces dermatitidis (2/7), and Borrelia burgdorferi (2/7). In summary, use of an mqPCR panel with high analytic sensitivity as an initial screen for infectious agents in dogs with ME could facilitate the selection of early treatment strategies and improve outcomes. PMID:26040611

  10. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B.; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs. PMID:24839341

  11. Comparison of the mosquito inoculation technique and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to measure dengue virus concentration.

    PubMed

    Choy, Milly M; Ellis, Brett R; Ellis, Esther M; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-11-01

    An accurate measure of infectious dengue virus in human and mosquito tissues is critical to fully understand virus-host relationships, disease severity, viral fitness, and pathogenesis. In recent years, RNA copy number measured by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction has been used to measure dengue virus concentration in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we detail important differences in the measurement of viral growth kinetics in Vero and C6/36 tissue cultures, in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and in viremic human sera using RNA genomic equivalents and mosquito infectious dose 50 (MID50). Although there was reasonably good correlation between the two methods, RNA copy number was 2 to 5 logs greater than infectious virus titers. These differences varied significantly depending on virus strain, viral platform, infectious virus assay, and viral growth phase. The results have important implications for the correct interpretation of biological and epidemiological data from experimental and clinical studies, and show that genomic equivalents should be interpreted with caution when used as a proxy for infectious virus in such studies.

  12. Improved HF183 quantitative real-time PCR assay for characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface water samples.

    PubMed

    Green, Hyatt C; Haugland, Richard A; Varma, Manju; Millen, Hana T; Borchardt, Mark A; Field, Katharine G; Walters, William A; Knight, R; Sivaganesan, Mano; Kelty, Catherine A; Shanks, Orin C

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster within members of the genus Bacteroides are among the most widely used methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. In this study, we show that a current TaqMan HF183 qPCR assay (HF183/BFDrev) routinely forms nonspecific amplification products and introduce a modified TaqMan assay (HF183/BacR287) that alleviates this problem. The performance of each qPCR assay was compared in head-to-head experiments investigating limits of detection, analytical precision, predicted hybridization to 16S rRNA gene sequences from a reference database, and relative marker concentrations in fecal and sewage samples. The performance of the modified HF183/BacR287 assay is equal to or improves upon that of the original HF183/BFDrev assay. In addition, a qPCR chemistry designed to combat amplification inhibition and a multiplexed internal amplification control are included. In light of the expanding use of PCR-based methods that rely on the detection of extremely low concentrations of DNA template, such as qPCR and digital PCR, the new TaqMan HF183/BacR287 assay should provide more accurate estimations of human-derived fecal contaminants in ambient surface waters.

  13. Quantitative analysis of herpes virus sequences from normal tissue and fibropapillomas of marine turtles with real-time PCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quackenbush, S.L.; Casey, R.N.; Murcek, R.J.; Paul, T.A.; Work, T.M.; Limpus, C.J.; Chaves, A.; duToit, L.; Perez, J.V.; Aguirre, A.A.; Spraker, T.R.; Horrocks, J.A.; Vermeer, L.A.; Balazs, G.S.; Casey, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR has been used to measure fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) pol DNA loads in fibropapillomas, fibromas, and uninvolved tissues of green, loggerhead, and olive ridley turtles from Hawaii, Florida, Costa Rica, Australia, Mexico, and the West Indies. The viral DNA loads from tumors obtained from terminal animals were relatively homogenous (range 2a??20 copies/cell), whereas DNA copy numbers from biopsied tumors and skin of otherwise healthy turtles displayed a wide variation (range 0.001a??170 copies/cell) and may reflect the stage of tumor development. FPTHV DNA loads in tumors were 2.5a??4.5 logs higher than in uninvolved skin from the same animal regardless of geographic location, further implying a role for FPTHV in the etiology of fibropapillomatosis. Although FPTHV pol sequences amplified from tumors are highly related to each other, single signature amino acid substitutions distinguish the Australia/Hawaii, Mexico/Costa Rica, and Florida/Caribbean groups.

  14. Analysis of caecal microbiota in rats fed with genetically modified rice by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Li, Liting; Lu, Jiao; Luo, YunBo; Shang, Ying; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of genetically modified rice (GMR) on bacterial communities in caecal content was analyzed in a 90-d feeding rat model. A total of 12 groups of rats, which included male and female, were fed with the basal diets containing 30%, 50%, 70% GMR (B(1), B(2), B(3)) or 30%, 50%, 70% non-GMR (D(1), D(2), D(3)). The structure of intestinal microflora was estimated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) based on genus-specific 16s rDNA primers. SYBR Green was used for accurate detection and quantification of 6 kinds of major bacteria shared by humans and rats. According to RQ-PCR, the genome copies of Lactobacillus group from the cecum of male rats fed with 70% non-GMR was higher than those fed with 70% GMR and the relative abundance of Lactobacillus group also higher for group D. This result was in contrast with the E. coli subgroup, which was more numerous in proportion of group B, except D(2) and B(2) for male rats. The Clostridium perfringens subgroup was numerically more abundant in group D than group B of the same level, also except D(2) and B(2) for male rats. These results suggested that GMR had a complex effect on caecal microflora that may be related to the health of the host.

  15. Leptin in Whales: Validation and Measurement of mRNA Expression by Absolute Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Hope C.; Holmes, Robert K.; Londraville, Richard L.; Thewissen, Johannes G. M.; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: “relative” and “absolute”. To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR “background” material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and

  16. Evaluation of putative reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Lilium regale during development and under stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Normalization to reference genes is the most common method to avoid bias in real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), which has been widely used for quantification of gene expression. Despite several studies on gene expression, Lilium, and particularly L. regale, has not been fully investigated regarding the evaluation of reference genes suitable for normalization. In this study, nine putative reference genes, namely 18S rRNA, ACT, BHLH, CLA, CYP, EF1, GAPDH, SAND and TIP41, were analyzed for accurate quantitative PCR normalization at different developmental stages and under different stress conditions, including biotic (Botrytis elliptica), drought, salinity, cold and heat stress. All these genes showed a wide variation in their Cq (quantification Cycle) values, and their stabilities were calculated by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In a combination of the results from the three algorithms, BHLH was superior to the other candidates when all the experimental treatments were analyzed together; CLA and EF1 were also recommended by two of the three algorithms. As for specific conditions, EF1 under various developmental stages, SAND under biotic stress, CYP/GAPDH under drought stress, and TIP41 under salinity stress were generally considered suitable. All the algorithms agreed on the stability of SAND and GAPDH under cold stress, while only CYP was selected under heat stress by all of them. Additionally, the selection of optimal reference genes under biotic stress was further verified by analyzing the expression level of LrLOX in leaves inoculated with B. elliptica. Our study would be beneficial for future studies on gene expression and molecular breeding of Lilium. PMID:27019788

  17. Leptin in whales: validation and measurement of mRNA expression by absolute quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ball, Hope C; Holmes, Robert K; Londraville, Richard L; Thewissen, Johannes G M; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: "relative" and "absolute". To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR "background" material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and that the use of

  18. WetLab-2: Tools for Conducting On-Orbit Quantitative Real-Time Gene Expression Analysis on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Jung, Jimmy; Schonfeld, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of NASA Ames Research Centers WetLab-2 Project is to place on the ISS a research platform capable of conducting gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of biological specimens sampled or cultured on orbit. The project has selected a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR system, the Cepheid SmartCycler and will fly it in its COTS configuration. The SmartCycler has a number of advantages including modular design (16 independent PCR modules), low power consumption, rapid ramp times and the ability to detect up to four separate fluorescent channels at one time enabling multiplex assays that can be used for normalization and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The team is currently working with Cepheid to enable the downlink of data from the ISS to the ground and provide uplink capabilities for programming, commanding, monitoring, and instrument maintenance. The project has adapted commercial technology to design a module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use in qRT-PCR reactions while using a housekeeping gene to normalize RNA concentration and integrity. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing multiple sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit eliminates the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples. The system can be used to validate terrestrial analyses of samples returned from ISS by providing on-orbit gene expression benchmarking prior to sample return. The ability to get on orbit data will provide investigators with the opportunity to adjust experiment parameters for subsequent trials based on the real-time data analysis without need for sample return and re-flight. Researchers will also be able to sample multigenerational changes in organisms. Finally, the system can be

  19. Quantitation of cytokine mRNA by real-time RT-PCR during a vaccination trial in a rabbit model of fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Espino, Ana M; Rivera, Francheska

    2010-04-19

    Use of the rabbit as disease model has long been hampered by a lack of immunological assays specific to this species. In the present study we developed a SYBR Green-based, real-time RT-PCR protocol to quantitate cytokine mRNA in freshly harvested rabbit peripheral mononuclear cells. The method was validated in the course of a vaccination trial in which animals vaccinated with the recombinant antigen FhSAP2 were challenged with Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. Changes in the levels of rabbit interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) mRNA were determined. Messenger RNA from the universally expressed housekeeping gene GAPDH was used as an amplification control and allowed for correction of variations in the efficiencies of RNA extraction and reverse transcription. Rabbits vaccinated with FhSAP2 showed an 83.3% reduction in liver fluke burden after challenge infection when compared to non-vaccinated controls. All cytokine mRNAs were found at detectable levels; however, the levels of IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-2 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the vaccinated group compared to the non-vaccinated group. These results suggest that protection conferred by FhSAP2 protein could be associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response in which Th1 cytokines are dominant. The real-time RT-PCR method described herein can be a useful tool for monitoring changes in basic immune functions in the rabbit model of fascioliasis and may also aid in studies of human diseases for which the rabbit is an important experimental model. PMID:20056331

  20. Detection of Citrus leprosis virus C using specific primers and TaqMan probe in one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Wei, G; Govindarajulu, A; Roy, Avijit; Li, Wenbin; Picton, Deric D; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2015-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent of the leprosis disease in citrus, is mostly present in the South and Central America and spreading toward the North America. To enable better diagnosis and inhibit the further spread of this re-emerging virus a quantitative (q) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay is needed for early detection of CiLV-C when the virus is present in low titer in citrus leprosis samples. Using the genomic sequence of CiLV-C, specific primers and probe were designed and synthesized to amplify a 73 nt amplicon from the movement protein (MP) gene. A standard curve of the 73 nt amplicon MP gene was developed using known 10(10)-10(1) copies of in vitro synthesized RNA transcript to estimate the copy number of RNA transcript in the citrus leprosis samples. The one-step qRT-PCR detection assays for CiLV-C were determined to be 1000 times more sensitive when compared to the one-step conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) CiLV-C detection method. To evaluate the quality of the total RNA extracts, NADH dehydrogenase gene specific primers (nad5) and probe were included in reactions as an internal control. The one-step qRT-PCR specificity was successfully validated by testing for the presence of CiLV-C in the total RNA extracts of the citrus leprosis samples collected from Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. Implementation of the one-step qRT-PCR assays for CiLV-C diagnosis should assist regulatory agencies in surveillance activities to monitor the distribution pattern of CiLV-C in countries where it is present and to prevent further dissemination into citrus growing countries where there is no report of CiLV-C presence. PMID:26341059

  1. Detection of Citrus leprosis virus C using specific primers and TaqMan probe in one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Wei, G; Govindarajulu, A; Roy, Avijit; Li, Wenbin; Picton, Deric D; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2015-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent of the leprosis disease in citrus, is mostly present in the South and Central America and spreading toward the North America. To enable better diagnosis and inhibit the further spread of this re-emerging virus a quantitative (q) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay is needed for early detection of CiLV-C when the virus is present in low titer in citrus leprosis samples. Using the genomic sequence of CiLV-C, specific primers and probe were designed and synthesized to amplify a 73 nt amplicon from the movement protein (MP) gene. A standard curve of the 73 nt amplicon MP gene was developed using known 10(10)-10(1) copies of in vitro synthesized RNA transcript to estimate the copy number of RNA transcript in the citrus leprosis samples. The one-step qRT-PCR detection assays for CiLV-C were determined to be 1000 times more sensitive when compared to the one-step conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) CiLV-C detection method. To evaluate the quality of the total RNA extracts, NADH dehydrogenase gene specific primers (nad5) and probe were included in reactions as an internal control. The one-step qRT-PCR specificity was successfully validated by testing for the presence of CiLV-C in the total RNA extracts of the citrus leprosis samples collected from Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. Implementation of the one-step qRT-PCR assays for CiLV-C diagnosis should assist regulatory agencies in surveillance activities to monitor the distribution pattern of CiLV-C in countries where it is present and to prevent further dissemination into citrus growing countries where there is no report of CiLV-C presence.

  2. Comparison of droplet digital PCR and quantitative real-time PCR for examining population dynamics of bacteria in soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Jeong, So-Yeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-07-01

    The newly developed droplet digital PCR (DD-PCR) has shown promise as a DNA quantification technology in medical diagnostic fields. This study evaluated the applicability of DD-PCR as a quantitative tool for soil DNA using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) as a reference technology. Cupriavidus sp. MBT14 and Sphingopyxis sp. MD2 were used, and a primer/TaqMan probe set was designed for each (CupMBT and SphMD2, respectively). Standard curve analyses on tenfold dilution series showed that both qRT-PCR and DD-PCR exhibited excellent linearity (R (2) = 1.00) and PCR efficiency (≥92 %) across their detectable ranges. However, DD-PCR showed a tenfold greater sensitivity than qRT-PCR. MBT14 and MD2 were added to non-sterile soil at 0 ~ 5 × 10(8) and 0 ~ 5 × 10(7) cells per gram of soil, respectively (n = 5). This bacterial load test indicated that DD-PCR was more sensitive and discriminating than qRT-PCR. For instance, DD-PCR showed a gradual DNA increase from 14 to 141,160 MBT14 rDNA copies μL DNA extract(-1) as the bacterial load increased, while qRT-PCR could quantify the DNA (6,432 copies μL DNA(-1)) at ≥5 × 10(5) MBT14 per gram of soil. When temporal DNA changes were monitored for 3 weeks in the amended soils, the two technologies exhibited nearly identical changes over time. Linearity tests (y = a · x) revealed excellent quantitative agreement between the two technologies (a = 0.98, R (2) = 0.97 in the CupMBT set and a = 0.90, R (2) = 0.94 in the SphMD2 set). These results suggest that DD-PCR is a promising tool to examine temporal dynamics of microorganisms in complex environments.

  3. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  4. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  5. Evaluation and Validation of Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Based Gene Expression Studies in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Cindhuri, Katamreddy Sri; Sharma, Kiran K.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based techniques have become essential for gene expression studies and high-throughput molecular characterization of transgenic events. Normalizing to reference gene in relative quantification make results from qPCR more reliable when compared to absolute quantification, but requires robust reference genes. Since, ideal reference gene should be species specific, no single internal control gene is universal for use as a reference gene across various plant developmental stages and diverse growth conditions. Here, we present validation studies of multiple stably expressed reference genes in cultivated peanut with minimal variations in temporal and spatial expression when subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stability in the expression of eight candidate reference genes including ADH3, ACT11, ATPsyn, CYP2, ELF1B, G6PD, LEC and UBC1 was compared in diverse peanut plant samples. The samples were categorized into distinct experimental sets to check the suitability of candidate genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression using qPCR. Stability in expression of the references genes in eight sets of samples was determined by geNorm and NormFinder methods. While three candidate reference genes including ADH3, G6PD and ELF1B were identified to be stably expressed across experiments, LEC was observed to be the least stable, and hence must be avoided for gene expression studies in peanut. Inclusion of the former two genes gave sufficiently reliable results; nonetheless, the addition of the third reference gene ELF1B may be potentially better in a diverse set of tissue samples of peanut. PMID:24167633

  6. Comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR-based aneuploidy screening of blastocyst biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Capalbo, Antonio; Treff, Nathan R; Cimadomo, Danilo; Tao, Xin; Upham, Kathleen; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Rienzi, Laura; Scott, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) methods are being extensively used to select chromosomally normal embryos in human assisted reproduction. Some concerns related to the stage of analysis and which aneuploidy screening method to use still remain. In this study, the reliability of blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening and the diagnostic performance of the two mostly used CCS methods (quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH)) has been assessed. aCGH aneuploid blastocysts were rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by qPCR. Discordant cases were subsequently rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based CCS. Although 81.7% of embryos showed the same diagnosis when comparing aCGH and qPCR-based CCS, 18.3% (22/120) of embryos gave a discordant result for at least one chromosome. SNP array reanalysis showed that a discordance was reported in ten blastocysts for aCGH, mostly due to false positives, and in four cases for qPCR. The discordant aneuploidy call rate per chromosome was significantly higher for aCGH (5.7%) compared with qPCR (0.6% P<0.01). To corroborate these findings, 39 embryos were simultaneously biopsied for aCGH and qPCR during blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening cycles. 35 matched including all 21 euploid embryos. Blinded SNP analysis on rebiopsies of the four embryos matched qPCR. These findings demonstrate the high reliability of diagnosis performed at the blastocyst stage with the use of different CCS methods. However, the application of aCGH can be expected to result in a higher aneuploidy rate than other contemporary methods of CCS. PMID:25351780

  7. Systematic Evaluation of Three microRNA Profiling Platforms: Microarray, Beads Array, and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Howel, Paul; Bruheim, Skjalg; Ju, Jingfang; Owen, Laurie B.; Fodstad, Oystein; Xi, Yaguang

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of gene-profiling methodologies have been applied to microRNA research. The diversity of the platforms and analytical methods makes the comparison and integration of cross-platform microRNA profiling data challenging. In this study, we systematically analyze three representative microRNA profiling platforms: Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) microarray, beads array, and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR Low Density Array (TLDA). Methodology/Principal Findings The microRNA profiles of 40 human osteosarcoma xenograft samples were generated by LNA array, beads array, and TLDA. Results show that each of the three platforms perform similarly regarding intra-platform reproducibility or reproducibility of data within one platform while LNA array and TLDA had the best inter-platform reproducibility or reproducibility of data across platforms. The endogenous controls/probes contained in each platform have been observed for their stability under different treatments/environments; those included in TLDA have the best performance with minimal coefficients of variation. Importantly, we identify that the proper selection of normalization methods is critical for improving the inter-platform reproducibility, which is evidenced by the application of two non-linear normalization methods (loess and quantile) that substantially elevated the sensitivity and specificity of the statistical data assessment. Conclusions Each platform is relatively stable in terms of its own microRNA profiling intra-reproducibility; however, the inter-platform reproducibility among different platforms is low. More microRNA specific normalization methods are in demand for cross-platform microRNA microarray data integration and comparison, which will improve the reproducibility and consistency between platforms. PMID:21347261

  8. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization and Its Applications in Lycium

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shaohua; Liu, Yongliang; Wu, Min; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum and L. ruthenicum are extensively used as traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Next generation sequencing technology provides a powerful tool for analyzing transcriptomic profiles of gene expression in non-model species. Such gene expression can then be confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Therefore, use of systematically identified suitable reference genes is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable gene expression data. Here, we calculated the expression stability of 18 candidate reference genes across samples from different tissues and grown under salt stress using geNorm and NormFinder procedures. The geNorm-determined rank of reference genes was similar to those defined by NormFinder with some differences. Both procedures confirmed that the single most stable reference gene was ACNTIN1 for L. barbarum fruits, H2B1 for L. barbarum roots, and EF1α for L. ruthenicum fruits. PGK3, H2B2, and PGK3 were identified as the best stable reference genes for salt-treated L. ruthenicum leaves, roots, and stems, respectively. H2B1 and GAPDH1+PGK1 for L. ruthenicum and SAMDC2+H2B1 for L. barbarum were the best single and/or combined reference genes across all samples. Finally, expression of salt-responsive gene NAC, fruit ripening candidate gene LrPG, and anthocyanin genes were investigated to confirm the validity of the selected reference genes. Suitable reference genes identified in this study provide a foundation for accurately assessing gene expression and further better understanding of novel gene function to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind particular biological/physiological processes in Lycium. PMID:24810586

  9. Fast and reliable titration of recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Ulrich-Peter; Wulf, Marc-Andre; Stahn, Susanne; Steidl, Ulrich; Haas, Rainer; Kronenwett, Ralf

    2002-10-01

    In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was developed to determine genomic rAAV-2 titers using the Light-Cycler technology. Since the CMV promoter is the most commonly used promoter in gene therapeutic approaches, primers were designed which hybridize with the human CMV promoter sequence. PCR products were detected by the addition of SYBR green. qPCR of a 5 log spanning serial dilution of the vector plasmid containing one CMV promoter per plasmid molecule yielded a high amplification efficiency of 1.99 per cycle. To quantify the copy number of viral genomes, the qPCR curves of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) samples were related to a standard curve assessed by the 5 log spanning serial vector plasmid dilution (0.01-100 pg DNA). For validation of the method, rAAV-2 preparations were analyzed by a standard method and qPCR in parallel. As standard method, flow cytometry was used for titration of infectious viral particles on HeLa cells using the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein as a marker. A significant correlation was found between the results obtained by flow cytometry and the results from the qPCR over a 5 log range (r=0.85, P<0.0001). The mean ratio between infectious rAAV-2 particles titrated via flow cytometry and genomic copies of rAAV-2 measured by qPCR of the same sample was 1:253. The higher titers found by qPCR might be due to multiple transduction of a single cell or to non-infectious particles generated during rAAV-2 preparation. In conclusion, qPCR is a fast and reliable method for determination of rAAV-2 titers and might be a powerful tool for standardization of rAAV-2 preparations particularly in the context of clinical studies.

  10. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis of gene expression in Cichorium intybus.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Marianne; Legrand, Guillaume; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Gagneul, David

    2015-01-01

    Plant polyphenols represent a huge reservoir of bioactive compounds. Industrial chicory, an important crop from northwestern Europe, accumulates an original combination of such compounds, i.e., chlorogenic, isochlorogenic, caftaric, and chicoric acids arising from the phenylpropanoid pathway. For a complete understanding of these biochemical pathways, analyses of gene expression using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) should be considered. Because cell cultures are a model of choice for specialized metabolism investigations, this study described for the first time the validation of reference genes for this system in chicory. Eighteen potential reference genes were obtained by mining expressed sequence tag databases of chicory for orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes currently used as reference genes. Twelve genes passed the qRT-PCR standard requirements and their expression stability across different samples was tested using three distinct softwares: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. In cell cultures grown under various conditions, TIP41 (TIP41 like protein) was shown to be the most stable gene. Further validation of the proposed reference genes was done by normalization of expression levels of a group of genes of interest. In order to assess the potentiality of the proposed list of candidate reference genes, theses genes were in parallel tested on another experimental design, i.e., chicory seedlings. In this case, the best reference gene identified was Clath (Clathrin adaptator complex subunit). The results highlight the importance of the use of properly validated reference genes to achieve relevant interpretation of qRT-PCR analyses. Here, we provide a list of reference genes suitable for future gene expression studies in chicory. PMID:26347767

  11. Threshold microsclerotial inoculum for cotton verticillium wilt determined through wet-sieving and real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Fan, Rong; Dong, Haitao; Shang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiangming; Zhu, Heqin; Yang, Jiarong; Hu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    Quantification of Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia is an important component of wilt management on a range of crops. Estimation of microsclerotia by dry or wet sieving and plating of soil samples on semiselective medium is a commonly used technique but this method is resource-intensive. We developed a new molecular quantification method based on Synergy Brands (SYBR) Green real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of wet-sieving samples (wet-sieving qPCR). This method can detect V. dahliae microsclerotia as low as 0.5 CFU g(-1) of soil. There was a high correlation (r=0.98) between the estimates of conventional plating analysis and the new wet-sieving qPCR method for 40 soil samples. To estimate the inoculum threshold for cotton wilt, >400 soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere of individual plants with or without visual wilt symptoms in experimental and commercial cotton fields at the boll-forming stage. Wilt inoculum was estimated using the wet-sieving qPCR method and related to wilt development. The estimated inoculum threshold varied with cultivar, ranging from 4.0 and 7.0 CFU g(-1) of soil for susceptible and resistant cultivars, respectively. In addition, there was an overall relationship of wilt incidence with inoculum density across 31 commercial fields where a single composite soil sample was taken at each field, with an estimated inoculum threshold of 11 CFU g(-1) of soil. These results suggest that wilt risk can be predicted from the estimated soil inoculum density using the new wet-sieving qPCR method. We recommend the use of 4.0 and 7.0 CFU g(-1) as an inoculum threshold on susceptible and resistant cultivars, respectively, in practical risk prediction schemes.

  12. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A.; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G.; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  13. Quantitative real-time PCR method with internal amplification control to quantify cyclopiazonic acid producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) method that includes an internal amplification control (IAC) to quantify cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing molds in foods has been developed. A specific primer pair (dmaTF/dmaTR) and a TaqMan probe (dmaTp) were designed on the basis of dmaT gene which encodes the enzyme dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase involved in the biosynthesis of CPA. The IAC consisted of a 105 bp chimeric DNA fragment containing a region of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-two mold reference strains representing CPA producers and non-producers of different mold species were used in this study. All strains were tested for CPA production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the designed qPCR method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves relating to the dmaT gene copy numbers and the Ct values obtained from the different CPA producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocol to quantify CPA-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 1-4 log cfu/g in the different food matrices. The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g. This qPCR protocol including an IAC showed good efficiency to quantify CPA-producing molds in naturally contaminated foods avoiding false negative results. This method could be used to monitor the CPA producers in the HACCP programs to prevent the risk of CPA formation throughout the food chain. PMID:22986206

  14. A duplex real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection of Naegleria fowleri in water samples.

    PubMed

    Behets, Jonas; Declerck, Priscilla; Delaedt, Yasmine; Verelst, Lieve; Ollevier, Frans

    2007-01-01

    A fast and accurate duplex real-time PCR (qPCR) was developed to detect and quantify the human pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri in water samples. In this study, primers and probe based on the Mp2Cl5 gene were designed to amplify and quantify N. fowleri DNA in a single duplex reaction. The qPCR detection limit (DL) corresponds to the minimum DNA quantity showing significant fluorescence with at least 90% of the positive controls in a duplex reaction. Using fluorescent Taqman technology the qPCR was found to be 100% specific for N. fowleri with a DL of 3 N. fowleri cell equivalents and a PCR efficiency of 99%. The quantification limit (QL) was 16 N. fowleri cell equivalents (corresponded with 320 N. fowleri cell equivalents l(-1) water sample) in a duplex qPCR reaction and corresponds to the lowest DNA quantity amplifiable with a coefficient of variation less than 25%. To detect inhibition an exogenous internal positive control (IPC) was included in each PCR reaction preventing false negative results. Comparison of qPCR and most probable number (MPN) culture results confirms that the developed qPCR is well suited for rapid and quantitative detection of this human pathogen in real water samples. Nevertheless 'low contamination levels' of water samples (<200 N. fowleri cells l(-1)) still require culture method analyses. When other thermophilic Naegleria are very dominant, the MPN culture method could result in an underestimation in the real number of N. fowleri and some caution is necessary to interpret the data. The N. fowleri qPCR could be a useful tool to study further competitive phenomena between thermophilic Naegleria strains.

  15. Culture-independent identification and quantification of Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Robles, Francisco; Ramirez, Saul; Riber, Anja Brinch; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2016-10-01

    Gallibacterium is a genus within the family Pasteurellaceae characterized by a high level of phenotypic and genetic diversity. No diagnostic method has yet been described, which allows species-specific identification of Gallibacterium anatis. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method allowing species-specific identification and quantification of G. anatis. A G. anatis specific DNA sequence was identified in the gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) and used to design a TaqMan probe and corresponding primers. The specificity of the assay was tested on 52 bacterial strains. Twenty-two of the strains represented all of the presently available 13 phenotypic variants of G. anatis originating from different geographical locations. Nine strains represented each of the additional six Gallibacterium species and 21 strains represented other poultry associated bacterial species of the families Pasteurellaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Regarding specificity none of non-G. anatis strains tested positive with the proposed assay. To test and compare the qPCR method's ability to detect G. anatis from field samples, the sensitivity was compared to a previously published conventional PCR method and culture-based identification, respectively. The detection rates were 97%, 78% and 34% for the current qPCR, the conventional PCR and the culture-based identification method, respectively. The qPCR assay was able to detect the gene gyrB in serial dilutions of 10(8) colony forming units (CFU)/ml to as low as 10(0) CFU/ml copies. The proposed qPCR method is thus highly specific, sensitive and reproducible. In conclusion, we have developed a qPCR method that allows species-specific identification of G. anatis.

  16. In vitro evaluation of five different herbal extracts as an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Thilla S; Rubin, Mohamed I; Balaji, Lakshmi; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used irrigant but it has disadvantage like high cytotoxicity. So there is a need to find an alternative to 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite against microorganism Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Literature has shown that these 5 extracts namely Terminalia chebula, Myristica frangrans, Aloe barbadensis, Curcuma longa and Azadaricta indica has good properties which can be used as a potential endodontic irrigant. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of various herbal extracts namely Curcuma longa (CL), Azadiracta indica (AI), Aloe barbadensis (AV), Myristica fragrans (MF) and Terminalia chebula (TC) as endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Materials and Methods: Eighty-four teeth were extracted and suspended with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. A preliminary study was first performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts. The irrigating groups were divided into five herbal groups and 2 control groups. After irrigating the teeth the remaining microbial load was determined using qPCR. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Oneway Anova/Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Tukey's HSD and was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: It was shown that Neem was highly efficient to 5.25% NaOCl in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans within the root canals when compared with other extracts. Conclusions: Neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans compared to 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. PMID:23716972

  17. Direct real-time quantitative PCR for measurement of host-cell residual DNA in therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Peper, Grit; Fankhauser, Alexander; Merlin, Thomas; Roscic, Ana; Hofmann, Matthias; Obrdlik, Petr

    2014-11-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is important for quantification of residual host cell DNA (resDNA) in therapeutic protein preparations. Typical qPCR protocols involve DNA extraction steps complicating sample handling. Here, we describe a "direct qPCR" approach without DNA extraction. To avoid interferences of DNA polymerase with a therapeutic protein, proteins in the samples were digested with proteinase K (PK) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Tween 20 and NaCl were included to minimize precipitation of therapeutic proteins in the PK/SDS mix. After PK treatment, the solution was applied directly for qPCR. Inhibition of DNA polymerase by SDS was prevented by adding 2% (v/v) of Tween 20 to the final qPCR mix. The direct qPCR approach was evaluated for quantification of resDNA in therapeutic proteins manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cells. First, direct qPCR was compared with qPCR applied on purified DNA ("extraction qPCR"). For both qPCRs, the same CHO-specific primers and probes were used. Comparable residual DNA levels were detected with both PCR approaches in purified and highly concentrated drug proteins as well as in in-process-control samples. Finally, the CHO-specific direct qPCR protocol was validated according to ICH guidelines and applied for 25 different therapeutic proteins. The specific limits of quantification were 0.1-0.8ppb for 24 proteins, and 2.0ppb for one protein. General applicability of the direct qPCR was demonstrated by applying the sample preparation protocol for quantification of resDNA in therapeutic proteins manufactured in other hosts such as Escherichia coli and mouse cells.

  18. Characterization of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in various tissues of Anoectochilus roxburghii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Mingming; Song, Chao; Luo, Anxiong; Bai, Jianfa; Guo, Shunxing

    2012-05-01

    Accurate quantification of transcript profiling with quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) relies on the reliable normalization of an appropriate reference gene. This study reported the identification and validation of nine reference genes, including β-tubulin (β-TUB), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1α), elongation factor 1 beta (EF-1β), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ubiquitin (UBQ), actin 1/2(ACT-1 and ACT-2), 18S rRNA, and 26S rRNA, from Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl., a valuable herb remedy widely used for various diseases treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Transcriptional levels of the candidate reference genes were examined using qRT-PCR analysis and revealed differential expression of the genes in the leaf, stem, root, flower, and peduncle tissues. The relative quantities data were subjected to geNorm software for ranking the expression stability of the reference genes and the results showed that EF-1β and ACT-2 were the two best stable genes whereas GAPDH and 26S rRNA did not favor normalization of qRT-PCR in these tissues. The expression pattern of a squalene synthase encoding gene (SS) was also determined in parallel. The analyses were in great consistency when the qRT-PCR data was normalized to the expression of each or both of EF-1β and ACT-2 as the internal control, further confirming the reliability of EF-1β and ACT-2 as the best internal control. The present study provided the first important clues for accurate data normalization in transcript profiling in A. roxburghii, which will be essential to further functional genomics study in the valuable medicinal plant. PMID:22201024

  19. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) Assays in Tissue from Human Ascending Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-Martínez, Carmen; Lamas, Oscar; Mataró, María José; Robledo-Carmona, Juan; Sánchez-Espín, Gemma; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Such-Martínez, Miguel; Fernández, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Dilatation of the ascending aorta (AAD) is a prevalent aortopathy that occurs frequently associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most common human congenital cardiac malformation. The molecular mechanisms leading to AAD associated with BAV are still poorly understood. The search for differentially expressed genes in diseased tissue by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is an invaluable tool to fill this gap. However, studies dedicated to identify reference genes necessary for normalization of mRNA expression in aortic tissue are scarce. In this report, we evaluate the qPCR expression of six candidate reference genes in tissue from the ascending aorta of 52 patients with a variety of clinical and demographic characteristics, normal and dilated aortas, and different morphologies of the aortic valve (normal aorta and normal valve n = 30; dilated aorta and normal valve n = 10; normal aorta and BAV n = 4; dilated aorta and BAV n = 8). The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined with three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable genes for the three algorithms employed were CDKN1β, POLR2A and CASC3, independently of the structure of the aorta and the valve morphology. In conclusion, we propose the use of these three genes as reference genes for mRNA expression analysis in human ascending aorta. However, we suggest searching for specific reference genes when conducting qPCR experiments with new cohort of samples. PMID:24841551

  20. QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR COCHLODINIUM FULVESCENS (DINOPHYCEAE), A HARMFUL DINOFLAGELLATE FROM CALIFORNIA COASTAL WATERS(1).

    PubMed

    Howard, Meredith D A; Jones, Adriane C; Schnetzer, Astrid; Countway, Peter D; Tomas, Carmelo R; Kudela, Raphael M; Hayashi, Kendra; Chia, Pamela; Caron, David A

    2012-04-01

    Harmful blooms formed by species of the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium have caused massive fish kills and substantial economic losses in the Pacific Ocean. Recently, prominent blooms of Cochlodinium have occurred in central and southern California (2004-2008), and Cochlodinium cells are now routinely observed in microscopical analysis of algal assemblages from Californian coastal waters. The first documented economic loss due to a Cochlodinium bloom in California occurred in Monterey Bay and resulted in the mortality of commercially farmed abalone. Increasing occurrences of Cochlodinium blooms, the fact that these cells preserve poorly using standard techniques, and the difficulty of identifying preserved specimens using morphological criteria make Cochlodinium species prime candidates for the development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach. The 18S rDNA gene sequenced from Cochlodinium cells obtained from California coastal waters, as well as GenBank sequences of Cochlodinium, were used to design and test a Molecular Beacon(®) approach. The qPCR method developed in this study is species specific, sensitive for the detection of C. fulvescens that has given rise to the recent blooms in the eastern Pacific Ocean, and spans a dynamic abundance range of seven orders of magnitude. Initial application of the method to archived field samples collected during blooms in Monterey Bay revealed no statistically significant correlations between gene copy number and environmental parameters. However, the onset of Cochlodinium blooms in central California was consistent with previously reported findings of correlations to decreased surface temperature and increased inputs of nitrogenous nutrients.

  1. Exploring the Bacterial Diversity of Belgian Steak Tartare Using Metagenetics and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Nezer, C; Burteau, S; Delcenserie, V; Poullet, J B; Daube, G

    2016-02-01

    Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium. It is prepared with raw minced beef and is eaten with sauce, vegetables, and spices. Because it contains raw meat, steak tartare is highly prone to bacterial spoilage. The objective of this study was to explore the diversity of bacterial flora in steak tartare in Belgium according to the source and to determine which bacteria are able to grow during shelf life. A total of 58 samples from butchers' shops, restaurants, sandwich shops, and supermarkets were collected. These samples were analyzed using 16S rDNA metagenetics, a classical microbiological technique, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the Lactobacillus genus. Samples were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of their shelf life, except for those from restaurants and sandwich shops, which were analyzed only on the purchase date. Metagenetic analysis identified up to 180 bacterial species and 90 genera in some samples. But only seven bacterial species were predominant in the samples, depending on the source: Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactococcus piscium, Leuconostoc gelidum, Photobacterium kishitani, Pseudomonas spp., and Xanthomonas oryzae. With this work, an alternative method is proposed to evaluate the total flora in food samples based on the number of reads from metagenetic analysis and the results of qPCR. The degree of underestimation of aerobic plate counts at 30°C estimated with the classical microbiology method was demonstrated in comparison with the proposed culture-independent method. Compared with culture-based methods, metagenetic analysis combined with qPCR targeting Lactobacillus provides valuable information for characterizing the bacterial flora of raw meat.

  2. Comparison of PCR and quantitative real-time PCR methods for the characterization of ruminant and cattle fecal pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Raith, Meredith R; Kelty, Catherine A; Griffith, John F; Schriewer, Alexander; Wuertz, Stefan; Mieszkin, Sophie; Gourmelon, Michele; Reischer, Georg H; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Ervin, Jared S; Holden, Patricia A; Ebentier, Darcy L; Jay, Jennifer A; Wang, Dan; Boehm, Alexandria B; Aw, Tiong Gim; Rose, Joan B; Balleste, E; Meijer, W G; Sivaganesan, Mano; Shanks, Orin C

    2013-11-15

    The State of California has mandated the preparation of a guidance document on the application of fecal source identification methods for recreational water quality management. California contains the fifth highest population of cattle in the United States, making the inclusion of cow-associated methods a logical choice. Because the performance of these methods has been shown to change based on geography and/or local animal feeding practices, laboratory comparisons are needed to determine which assays are best suited for implementation. We describe the performance characterization of two end-point PCR assays (CF128 and CF193) and five real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays (Rum2Bac, BacR, BacCow, CowM2, and CowM3) reported to be associated with either ruminant or cattle feces. Each assay was tested against a blinded set of 38 reference challenge filters (19 duplicate samples) containing fecal pollution from 12 different sources suspected to impact water quality. The abundance of each host-associated genetic marker was measured for qPCR-based assays in both target and non-target animals and compared to quantities of total DNA mass, wet mass of fecal material, as well as Bacteroidales, and enterococci determined by 16S rRNA qPCR and culture-based approaches (enterococci only). Ruminant- and cow-associated genetic markers were detected in all filters containing a cattle fecal source. However, some assays cross-reacted with non-target pollution sources. A large amount of variability was evident across laboratories when protocols were not fixed suggesting that protocol standardization will be necessary for widespread implementation. Finally, performance metrics indicate that the cattle-associated CowM2 qPCR method combined with either the BacR or Rum2Bac ruminant-associated methods are most suitable for implementation.

  3. Optimization of methods for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples using quantitative, real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kimberly L; Britt, Jenks S

    2007-04-01

    Detection of Johne's disease, an enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), has been impeded by the lack of rapid, reliable detection methods. The goal of this study was to optimize methodologies for detecting M. paratuberculosis in manure from an infected dairy cow or in contaminated soil samples using a quantitative, real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) based analysis. Three different nucleic acid extraction techniques, the efficiency of direct versus indirect sample extraction, and sample pooling were assessed. The limit of detection was investigated by adding dilutions of M. paratuberculosis to soil. Results show that the highest yield (19.4+/-2.3 microg(-1) DNA extract) and the highest copy number of the targeted M. paratuberculosis IS900 sequence (1.3+/-0.2x10(8) copies g(-1) manure) were obtained with DNA extracted from manure using Qbiogene's Fast DNA Spin kit for soil. Pooling ten samples of M. paratuberculosis-contaminated soil improved the limit of detection ten fold (between 20 and 115 M. paratuberculosis cells g(-1) soil). Detection was between 65% and 95% higher when samples were extracted directly using bead-beating than when using pre-treatment with cell extraction buffers. The final soil-sampling and extraction regime was applied for detection of M. paratuberculosis in pasture soil after the removal of a M. paratuberculosis culture positive dairy cow. M. paratuberculosis remained in the pasture soil for more than 200 days. Results from these studies suggest that DNA extraction method, sampling protocol and PCR conditions each critically influence the outcome and validity of the QRT-PCR analysis of M. paratuberculosis concentrations in environmental samples.

  4. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Larvae of Three Species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A.; Timm, Alicia E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae. PMID:26030743

  5. Quantitative real-time PCR method with internal amplification control to quantify cyclopiazonic acid producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) method that includes an internal amplification control (IAC) to quantify cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing molds in foods has been developed. A specific primer pair (dmaTF/dmaTR) and a TaqMan probe (dmaTp) were designed on the basis of dmaT gene which encodes the enzyme dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase involved in the biosynthesis of CPA. The IAC consisted of a 105 bp chimeric DNA fragment containing a region of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-two mold reference strains representing CPA producers and non-producers of different mold species were used in this study. All strains were tested for CPA production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the designed qPCR method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves relating to the dmaT gene copy numbers and the Ct values obtained from the different CPA producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocol to quantify CPA-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 1-4 log cfu/g in the different food matrices. The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g. This qPCR protocol including an IAC showed good efficiency to quantify CPA-producing molds in naturally contaminated foods avoiding false negative results. This method could be used to monitor the CPA producers in the HACCP programs to prevent the risk of CPA formation throughout the food chain.

  6. Validation of suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in the halophyte Salicornia europaea by real-time quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinlong; Ma, Jinbiao; Wang, Junru; Wu, Xiaomeng; Li, Pengbo; Yao, Yinan

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. Salicornia europaea, a stem succulent halophyte with remarkable salt resistance and high capacity for ion accumulation, has not been investigated with regards to the selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR. In this study, the expression of 11 candidate reference genes, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), Actin, α-Tub (α-tubulin), β-Tub (β-tubulin), EF1-α (Elongation factor 1-α), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), UBQ (Polyubiquitin), CYP (Cyclophilin), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), CAC (Clathrin adaptor complexes), and DNAJ (DnaJ-like protein), was analyzed in S. europaea samples, which were classified into groups according to various abiotic stresses (NaCl, nitrogen, drought, cold and heat), tissues and ages. Three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of gene expression, and comprehensive ranks of stability were generated by aggregate analysis. The results show that the relatively stable genes for each group are the following: (1) CAC and UBC for whole samples; (2) CAC and UBC for NaCl stress; (3) Actin and α-Tub for nitrogen treatment; (4) Actin and GAPDH for drought stress; (5) α-Tub and UBC for cold stress; (6) TIP41 and DNAJ for heat stress; (7) UBC and UBQ for different tissues; and (8) UBC and Actin for various developmental stages. These genes were validated by comparing transcriptome profiles. Using two stable reference genes was recommended in the normalization of RT-qPCR data. This study identifies optimal reference genes for RT-qPCR in S. europaea, which will benefit gene expression analysis under these conditions. PMID:25653658

  7. Evaluation and validation of reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR based gene expression studies in peanut.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Cindhuri, Katamreddy Sri; Sharma, Kiran K

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based techniques have become essential for gene expression studies and high-throughput molecular characterization of transgenic events. Normalizing to reference gene in relative quantification make results from qPCR more reliable when compared to absolute quantification, but requires robust reference genes. Since, ideal reference gene should be species specific, no single internal control gene is universal for use as a reference gene across various plant developmental stages and diverse growth conditions. Here, we present validation studies of multiple stably expressed reference genes in cultivated peanut with minimal variations in temporal and spatial expression when subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stability in the expression of eight candidate reference genes including ADH3, ACT11, ATPsyn, CYP2, ELF1B, G6PD, LEC and UBC1 was compared in diverse peanut plant samples. The samples were categorized into distinct experimental sets to check the suitability of candidate genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression using qPCR. Stability in expression of the references genes in eight sets of samples was determined by geNorm and NormFinder methods. While three candidate reference genes including ADH3, G6PD and ELF1B were identified to be stably expressed across experiments, LEC was observed to be the least stable, and hence must be avoided for gene expression studies in peanut. Inclusion of the former two genes gave sufficiently reliable results; nonetheless, the addition of the third reference gene ELF1B may be potentially better in a diverse set of tissue samples of peanut.

  8. Detection and quantification of viable Bacillus cereus group species in milk by propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Cattani, Fernanda; Barth, Valdir C; Nasário, Jéssica S R; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2016-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes important spore-forming bacteria that present spoilage capability and may cause foodborne diseases. These microorganisms are traditionally evaluated in food using culturing methods, which can be laborious and time-consuming, and may also fail to detect bacteria in a viable but nonculturable state. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to analyze the contamination of UHT milk by B. cereus group species viable cells. Thirty micrograms per milliliter of PMA was shown to be the most effective concentration for reducing the PCR amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA from dead cells. The quantification limit of the PMA-qPCR assay was 7.5 × 10(2) cfu/mL of milk. One hundred thirty-five UHT milk samples were analyzed to evaluate the association of PMA to qPCR to selectively detect viable cells. The PMA-qPCR was able to detect B. cereus group species in 44 samples (32.6%), whereas qPCR without PMA detected 78 positive samples (57.8%). Therefore, the PMA probably inhibited the amplification of DNA from cells that were killed during UHT processing, which avoided an overestimation of bacterial cells when using qPCR and, thus, did not overvalue potential health risks. A culture-based method was also used to detect and quantify B. cereus sensu stricto in the same samples and showed positive results in 15 (11.1%) samples. The culture method and PMA-qPCR allowed the detection of B. cereus sensu stricto in quantities compatible with the infective dose required to cause foodborne disease in 3 samples, indicating that, depending on the storage conditions, even after UHT treatment, infective doses may be reached in ready-to-consume products. PMID:26830746

  9. Exploring the Bacterial Diversity of Belgian Steak Tartare Using Metagenetics and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Nezer, C; Burteau, S; Delcenserie, V; Poullet, J B; Daube, G

    2016-02-01

    Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium. It is prepared with raw minced beef and is eaten with sauce, vegetables, and spices. Because it contains raw meat, steak tartare is highly prone to bacterial spoilage. The objective of this study was to explore the diversity of bacterial flora in steak tartare in Belgium according to the source and to determine which bacteria are able to grow during shelf life. A total of 58 samples from butchers' shops, restaurants, sandwich shops, and supermarkets were collected. These samples were analyzed using 16S rDNA metagenetics, a classical microbiological technique, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the Lactobacillus genus. Samples were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of their shelf life, except for those from restaurants and sandwich shops, which were analyzed only on the purchase date. Metagenetic analysis identified up to 180 bacterial species and 90 genera in some samples. But only seven bacterial species were predominant in the samples, depending on the source: Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactococcus piscium, Leuconostoc gelidum, Photobacterium kishitani, Pseudomonas spp., and Xanthomonas oryzae. With this work, an alternative method is proposed to evaluate the total flora in food samples based on the number of reads from metagenetic analysis and the results of qPCR. The degree of underestimation of aerobic plate counts at 30°C estimated with the classical microbiology method was demonstrated in comparison with the proposed culture-independent method. Compared with culture-based methods, metagenetic analysis combined with qPCR targeting Lactobacillus provides valuable information for characterizing the bacterial flora of raw meat. PMID:26818982

  10. Development of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of marine caliciviruses (genus Vesivirus).

    PubMed

    Reid, Scott M; King, Donald P; Shaw, Andrew E; Knowles, Nick J; Hutchings, Geoffrey H; Cooper, Emily J; Smith, Alvin W; Ferris, Nigel P

    2007-03-01

    Marine caliciviruses form a distinct lineage within the genus Vesivirus (family Caliciviridae). This group includes vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV) and San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) and other related viruses which have been proposed to be marine in origin isolated from a variety of terrestrial and marine animals. Rapid and reliable detection of marine caliciviruses is important as these viruses appear to be widespread and can cause vesicular disease in a wide variety of susceptible hosts including pigs and experimentally infected cattle where clinical signs cannot be easily distinguished from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), swine vesicular disease (SVD) and vesicular stomatitis (VS). A real-time RT-PCR assay targeting conserved nucleotide sequences in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D) region of the genome successfully detected cell culture-grown virus preparations of more than thirty marine calicivirus serotypes. Only the atypical SMSV serotypes 8 and 12 failed to be detected, which provided further indication of genetic divergence between these and the other calicivirus serotypes said to be marine in origin. The real-time RT-PCR assay also specifically amplified RNA from samples collected following experimental inoculation of pigs with VESV. No cross-reactivity was demonstrated when the assay was tested with RNA prepared from representative viruses of FMD, SVD and VS. The real-time RT-PCR assay described is a sensitive and specific tool for detection and differential diagnosis of these viruses from other vesicular-disease causing viruses. PMID:17187870

  11. Detection of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in bovine peripheral blood samples by duplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Reinbold, James B; Coetzee, Johann F; Sirigireddy, Kamesh R; Ganta, Roman R

    2010-07-01

    Insufficient diagnostic sensitivity and specificity coupled with the potential for cross-reactivity among closely related Anaplasma species has made the accurate determination of infection status problematic. A method for the development of simplex and duplex real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA in plasma-free bovine peripheral blood samples is described. The duplex assay was able to detect as few as 100 copies of 16S rRNA of both A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum in the same reaction. The ratio of 16S rRNA to 16S DNA copies for A. marginale was determined to be 117.9:1 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 100.7:1, 135.2:1). Therefore, the detection limit is the minimum infective unit of one A. marginale bacterium. The duplex assay detected nonequivalent molar ratios as high as 100-fold. Additionally, the duplex assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) were used to screen 237 samples collected from herds in which anaplasmosis was endemic. When the cELISA was evaluated by the results of the qRT-PCR, its sensitivity and specificity for the detection of A. marginale infection were found to be 65.2% (95% CI, 55.3%, 75.1%) and 97.3% (95% CI, 94.7%, 99.9%), respectively. A. phagocytophilum infection was not detected in the samples analyzed. One- and two-way receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed in order to recommend the optimum negative cutoff value for the cELISA. Percentages of inhibition of 20 and 15.3% were recommended for the one- and two-way curves, respectively. In conclusion, the duplex real-time qRT-PCR assay is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for the accurate and precise detection of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum infections in cattle.

  12. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Zarivi, Osvaldo; Cesare, Patrizia; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Leonardi, Marco; Bonfigli, Antonella; Colafarina, Sabrina; Poma, Anna Maria; Miranda, Michele; Pacioni, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    The symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum Vittad. (Périgord black truffle) belongs to the Ascomycota and forms mutualistic symbiosis with tree and shrub roots. This truffle has a high value in a global market and is cultivated in many countries of both hemispheres. The publication of the T. melanosporum genome has given researchers unique opportunities to learn more about the biology of the fungus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is a definitive technique for quantitating differences in transcriptional gene expression levels between samples. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes must show stable expression under given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in T. melanosporum development. In this study, we present a morphological and microscopical classification of the developmental stages of T. melanosporum fruit body, and investigate the expression levels of 12 candidate reference genes (18S rRNA; 5.8S rRNA; Elongation factor 1-alpha; Elongation factor 1-beta; α-tubulin; 60S ribosomal protein L29; β-tubulin; 40S ribosomal protein S1; 40S ribosomal protein S3; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-actin; Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme). To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, five software-based approaches and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. We demonstrate here that the 18S rRNA gene shows the most stable expression during T. melanosporum development and that a set of three genes, 18S rRNA, Elongation factor 1-alpha and 40S ribosomal protein S3, is the most suitable to normalize qRT-PCR data from all the analyzed developmental stages; conversely, 18S rRNA, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Elongation factor 1-alpha are the most suitable

  13. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya.

  14. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya. PMID:26666186

  15. Real-time quantitative PCR detection of WT1 gene expression in children with AML: prognostic significance, correlation with disease status and residual disease detection by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Trka, J; Kalinová, M; Hrusák, O; Zuna, J; Krejcí, O; Madzo, J; Sedlácek, P; Vávra, V; Michalová, K; Jarosová, M; Starý, J

    2002-07-01

    The clinical significance of WT1 gene expression at diagnosis and during therapy of AML has not yet been resolved. We analysed WT1 expression at presentation in an unselected group of 47 childhood AML patients using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. We also showed that within the first 30 h following aspiration RQ-RT-PCR results were not influenced by transportation time. We observed lower levels of WT1 transcript in AML M5 (P = 0.0015); no association was found between expression levels and sex, initial leukocyte count and karyotype-based prognostic groups. There was significant correlation between very low WT1 expression at presentation and excellent outcome (EFS P = 0.0014). Combined analysis of WT1 levels, three-colour flow cytometry residual disease detection and the course of the disease in 222 samples from 28 children with AML showed remarkable correlation. Fourteen patients expressed high WT1 levels at presentation. In eight of them, who suffered relapse or did not reach complete remission, dynamics of WT1 levels clearly correlated with the disease status and residual disease by flow cytometry. We conclude that very low WT1 levels at presentation represent a good prognostic factor and that RQ-RT-PCR-based analysis of WT1 expression is a promising and rapid approach for monitoring of MRD in approximately half of paediatric AML patients.

  16. Validation of housekeeping genes as an internal control for gene expression studies in Giardia lamblia using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Fierro, Francisco; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2016-04-25

    The analysis of transcript levels of specific genes is important for understanding transcriptional regulation and for the characterization of gene function. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a powerful tool to quantify gene expression. The objective of this study was to identify reliable housekeeping genes in Giardia lamblia. Twelve genes were selected for this purpose, and their expression was analyzed in the wild type WB strain and in two strains with resistance to nitazoxanide (NTZ) and metronidazole (MTZ), respectively. RefFinder software analysis showed that the expression of the genes is different in the three strains. The integrated data from the four analyses showed that the NADH oxidase (NADH) and aldolase (ALD) genes were the most steadily expressed genes, whereas the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was the most unstable. Additionally, the relative expression of seven genes were quantified in the NTZ- and MTZ-resistant strains by RT-qPCR, using the aldolase gene as the internal control, and the results showed a consistent differential pattern of expression in both strains. The housekeeping genes found in this work will facilitate the analysis of mRNA expression levels of other genes of interest in G. lamblia.

  17. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  18. The applicability of TaqMan-based quantitative real-time PCR assays for detecting and enumeratIng Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular detection methods such as PCR have been extensively used to type Cryptosporidium oocysts detected in the environment. More recently, studies have developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of microbial contaminants in water as well as ...

  19. Evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR method with propidium monazide treatment for analyses of viable fecal indicator bacteria in wastewater samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is currently evaluating rapid, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for determining recreational water quality based on measurements of fecal indicator bacteria DNA sequences. In order to potentially use qPCR for other Clean Water Act needs, such as updating cri...

  20. QUANTITATION OF INTRACELLULAR NAD(P)H IN LIVING CELLS CAN MONITOR AN IMBALANCE OF DNA SINGLE STRAND BREAK REPAIR IN REAL TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitation of intracellular NAD(P)H in living cells can monitor an imbalance of DNA single strand break repair in real time.

    ABSTRACT

    DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) are one of the most frequent DNA lesions in genomic DNA generated either by oxidative stress or du...

  1. A De Novo Transcriptome and Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Colaphellus bowringi

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qian-Qian; Zhu, Li; Li, Yi; Liu, Wen; Ma, Wei-Hua; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background The cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi Baly is a serious insect pest of crucifers and undergoes reproductive diapause in soil. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms of diapause regulation, insecticide resistance, and other physiological processes is helpful for developing new management strategies for this beetle. However, the lack of genomic information and valid reference genes limits knowledge on the molecular bases of these physiological processes in this species. Results Using Illumina sequencing, we obtained more than 57 million sequence reads derived from C. bowringi, which were assembled into 39,390 unique sequences. A Clusters of Orthologous Groups classification was obtained for 9,048 of these sequences, covering 25 categories, and 16,951 were assigned to 255 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Eleven candidate reference gene sequences from the transcriptome were then identified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Among these candidate genes, EF1α, ACT1, and RPL19 proved to be the most stable reference genes for different reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction experiments in C. bowringi. Conversely, aTUB and GAPDH were the least stable reference genes. Conclusion The abundant putative C. bowringi transcript sequences reported enrich the genomic resources of this beetle. Importantly, the larger number of gene sequences and valid reference genes provide a valuable platform for future gene expression studies, especially with regard to exploring the molecular mechanisms of different physiological processes in this species. PMID:25692689

  2. Repertoire of novel sequence signatures for the detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus by quantitative real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is a devastating disease of citrus. The gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) belonging to the α-proteobacteria is responsible for HLB in North America as well as in Asia. Currently, there is no cure for this disease. Early detection and quarantine of Las-infected trees are important management strategies used to prevent HLB from invading HLB-free citrus producing regions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) based molecular diagnostic assays have been routinely used in the detection and diagnosis of Las. The oligonucleotide primer pairs based on conserved genes or regions, which include 16S rDNA and the β-operon, have been widely employed in the detection of Las by qRT-PCR. The availability of whole genome sequence of Las now allows the design of primers beyond the conserved regions for the detection of Las explicitly. Results We took a complimentary approach by systematically screening the genes in a genome-wide fashion, to identify the unique signatures that are only present in Las by an exhaustive sequence based similarity search against the nucleotide sequence database. Our search resulted in 34 probable unique signatures. Furthermore, by designing the primer pair specific to the identified signatures, we showed that most of our primer sets are able to detect Las from the infected plant and psyllid materials collected from the USA and China by qRT-PCR. Overall, 18 primer pairs of the 34 are found to be highly specific to Las with no cross reactivity to the closely related species Ca. L. americanus (Lam) and Ca. L. africanus (Laf). Conclusions We have designed qRT-PCR primers based on Las specific genes. Among them, 18 are suitable for the detection of Las from Las-infected plant and psyllid samples. The repertoire of primers that we have developed and characterized in this study enhanced the qRT-PCR based molecular diagnosis of HLB. PMID:24533511

  3. Direct quantification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lanienae in feces of cattle by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G Douglas; Kalischuk, Lisa D

    2004-04-01

    Campylobacter species are fastidious to culture, and the ability to directly quantify biomass in microbiologically complex substrates using real-time quantitative (RTQ) PCR may enhance our understanding of their biology and facilitate the development of efficacious mitigation strategies. This study reports the use of nested RTQ-PCR to directly quantify Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lanienae in cattle feces. For C. jejuni, the single-copy mapA gene was selected. For C. lanienae, the three-copy 16S rRNA gene was targeted. RTQ-PCR primers were tested alone or they were nested with species-specific primers, and amplification products were detected using the intercalating dye SYBR Green. Nesting did not increase the specificity or sensitivity of C. jejuni quantification, and the limit of quantification was 19 to 25 genome copies ( approximately 3 x 10(3) CFU/g of feces). In contrast, nested RTQ-PCR was necessary to confer specificity on C. lanienae by targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The limit of quantification was 1.8 genome copies ( approximately 250 CFU/g of feces), and there was no discernible difference between the two C. lanienae secondary primer sets evaluated. Detection and quantification of C. jejuni in naturally infested cattle feces by RTQ-PCR were comparable to the results of culture-based methods. In contrast, culturing did not detect C. lanienae in 6 of 10 fecal samples positive for the bacterium and substantially underestimated cell densities relative to nested RTQ-PCR. The results of this study illustrate that RTQ-PCR can be used to directly quantify campylobacters, including very fastidious species, in a microbiologically and chemically complex substrate. Furthermore, targeting of a multicopy universal gene provided highly sensitive quantification of C. lanienae, but nested RTQ-PCR was necessary to confer specificity. This method will facilitate subsequent studies to elucidate the impact of this group of bacteria within the gastrointestinal tracts

  4. Selection and Validation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Lycoris aurea

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Xu, Sheng; Zhao, Yucheng; Xia, Bing; Wang, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Lycoris aurea (L' Hér.) Herb, a perennial grass species, produces a unique variety of pharmacologically active Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. However, the key enzymes and their expression pattern involved in the biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (especially for galanthamine) are far from being fully understood. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), a commonly used method for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. In this study, to choose the appropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions, 14 genes including YLS8 (mitosis protein YLS8), CYP2 (Cyclophilin 2), CYP 1 (Cyclophilin 1), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), EXP2 (Expressed protein 2), PTBP1 (Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1), EXP1 (Expressed protein 1), PP2A (Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A), β-TUB (β-tubulin), α-TUB (α-tubulin), EF1-α (Elongation factor 1-α), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), ACT (Actin) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were selected from the transcriptome datasets of L. aurea. And then, expressions of these genes were assessed by qRT-PCR in various tissues and the roots under different treatments. The expression stability of the 14 candidates was analyzed by three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper), and their results were further integrated into a comprehensive ranking based on the geometric mean. The results show the relatively stable genes for each subset as follows: (1) EXP1 and TIP41 for all samples; (2) UBC and EXP1 for NaCl stress; (3) PTBP1 and EXP1 for heat stress, polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress and ABA treatment; (4) UBC and CYP2 for cold stress; (5) PTBP1 and PP2A for sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment; (6) CYP1 and TIP41 for methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment; and (7) EXP1 and TIP41 for various tissues. The reliability of these results was further enhanced through comparison between part qRT-PCR result and RNA

  5. Quantitative real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches for enumerating Brevundimonas diminuta in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, Robert S; Bestervelt, Lorelle L; Saha, Ratul; Bagley, Susan T

    2010-09-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta is a small Gram-negative bacterium used for validation of membranes and filters used in the pharmaceutical and drinking water treatment industries. Current assays are time consuming, nonselective, and may be subject to interference by competing indigenous microorganisms. The focus of this study is to develop rapid and specific enumeration methodologies for B. diminuta. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were developed based on the gyrB (1,166 bp) and rpoD (829 bp) gene sequences of B. diminuta ATCC 19146. Species-specific primers and probes were designed, and a 100-200 bp segment of each gene was targeted in the qPCR studies. For both the qPCR and FISH assays, an internal 25 bp sequence was selected for use as a TaqMan probe (labeled with 6-FAM and a Black Hole Quencher). Probe specificity studies, conducted against Gram-negative and Gram-positive reference strains as well as environmental strains, revealed high specificity of the primer/probe pairs to B. diminuta. Sensitivities of the qPCR reactions using purified genomic DNA from B. diminuta were determined to be 0.89 pg for rpoD and 8.9 pg for gyrB. The feasibility of using whole-cell B. diminuta suspensions directly with the rpoD qPCR protocol was also evaluated. The greatest sensitivity observed for B. diminuta was 1 x 10(3) colony forming units (CFU) per mL when tryptic soy broth was used as the growth medium. When compared with direct microscopic enumeration using a 5' 6-FAM FISH probe, traditional plating methods showed significant underestimation of B. diminuta concentration (P = 0.01) when this organism was cultivated in saline lactose broth. The results of this investigation demonstrate that qPCR and FISH are effective methods for rapid (<4 h) enumeration of B. diminuta and may be viable alternatives to plating when validating drinking water filtration systems.

  6. A comparison of real-time PCR protocols for the quantitative monitoring of asymptomatic olive infections by Verticillium dahliae pathotypes.

    PubMed

    Gramaje, D; Pérez-Serrano, V; Montes-Borrego, M; Navas-Cortés, J A; Jiménez-Díaz, R M; Landa, B B

    2013-10-01

    Early, specific, and accurate in planta detection and quantification of Verticillium dahliae are essential to prevent the spread of Verticillium wilt in olive using certified pathogen-free planting material and development of resistance. We comparatively assessed the accuracy, specificity, and efficiency of eight real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction protocols published since 2002 for the specific detection and quantification of V. dahliae in various host plant species and in soil, using a background of DNAs extracted from olive roots, stems, and leaves. Results showed that some of those protocols were not specific for V. dahliae or were inhibited when using backgrounds other than water. Ranking of protocols according to a weighted score system placed protocols TAQ (based on intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA target gene) and SYBR-4 (based on the β-tubulin 2 target gene) first in sensitivity and efficiency for the quantification of V. dahliae DNA in small amounts and different types of olive tissues (root and stem) tested. Use of TAQ and SYBR-4 protocols allowed accurate quantification of V. dahliae DNA regardless of the background DNA, with a detection limit being fixed at a cycle threshold of 36 (≈18 fg for SYBR-4 and 15 fg for TAQ) of V. dahliae. The amount of DNA from defoliating (D) and nondefoliating (ND) V. dahliae pathotypes was monitored in Verticillium wilt-resistant 'Frantoio' olive using the TAQ and SYBR-4 protocols. In the infection bioassay, higher amounts of D V. dahliae DNA were measured in olive stems, whereas the average amount of fungal DNA in roots was higher for ND-infected plants than D-infected ones. Overall, V. dahliae DNA amounts in all olive tissues tested tended to slightly decrease or remain stable by the end of the experiment (35 days after inoculation). The SYBR-4 and TAQ protocols further enabled detection of V. dahliae in tissues of symptomless plants, suggesting that both techniques can be useful for implementing

  7. Characterization of fecal concentrations in human and other animal sources by physical, culture-based, and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Jared S; Russell, Todd L; Layton, Blythe A; Yamahara, Kevan M; Wang, Dan; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Cao, Yiping; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Boehm, Alexandria B; Holden, Patricia A; Weisberg, Stephen B; Shanks, Orin C

    2013-11-15

    The characteristics of fecal sources, and the ways in which they are measured, can profoundly influence the interpretation of which sources are contaminating a body of water. Although feces from various hosts are known to differ in mass and composition, it is not well understood how those differences compare across fecal sources and how differences depend on characterization methods. This study investigated how nine different fecal characterization methods provide different measures of fecal concentration in water, and how results varied across twelve different fecal pollution sources. Sources investigated included chicken, cow, deer, dog, goose, gull, horse, human, pig, pigeon, septage and sewage. A composite fecal slurry was prepared for each source by mixing feces from 6 to 22 individual samples with artificial freshwater. Fecal concentrations were estimated by physical (wet fecal mass added and total DNA mass extracted), culture-based (Escherichia coli and enterococci by membrane filtration and defined substrate), and quantitative real-time PCR (Bacteroidales, E. coli, and enterococci) characterization methods. The characteristics of each composite fecal slurry and the relationships between physical, culture-based and qPCR-based characteristics varied within and among different fecal sources. An in silico exercise was performed to assess how different characterization methods can impact identification of the dominant fecal pollution source in a mixed source sample. A comparison of simulated 10:90 mixtures based on enterococci by defined substrate predicted a source reversal in 27% of all possible combinations, while mixtures based on E. coli membrane filtration resulted in a reversal 29% of the time. This potential for disagreement in minor or dominant source identification based on different methods of measurement represents an important challenge for water quality managers and researchers.

  8. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR during Flower Development in Tree Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.).

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Han, Jigang; Hu, Yonghong; Yang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) is a perennial plant indigenous to China known for its elegant and vibrantly colorful flowers. A few genes involved in petal pigmentation have been cloned in tree peony. However, to date, there have been few studies on the comparison and selection of stable reference genes for gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in this species. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were evaluated for the normalization of qRT-PCR in three tree peony cultivars. GAPDH and UBC were identified as the top two most stable reference genes in 'Feng Dan' and 'Xi Shi,' and EF-1α/UBC was recommended to be the best combination for 'Que Hao.' The expression stability of various reference genes differed across cultivars, suggesting that selection and validation of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis was necessary not only for different species but also for different cultivars. The results provided a list of reference genes for further study on gene expression in P. suffruticosa. However, in any case, a preliminary check on the accuracy of the best performing reference genes is requested for each qRT-PCR experiment.

  9. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR during Flower Development in Tree Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Han, Jigang; Hu, Yonghong; Yang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) is a perennial plant indigenous to China known for its elegant and vibrantly colorful flowers. A few genes involved in petal pigmentation have been cloned in tree peony. However, to date, there have been few studies on the comparison and selection of stable reference genes for gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in this species. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were evaluated for the normalization of qRT-PCR in three tree peony cultivars. GAPDH and UBC were identified as the top two most stable reference genes in ‘Feng Dan’ and ‘Xi Shi,’ and EF-1α/UBC was recommended to be the best combination for ‘Que Hao.’ The expression stability of various reference genes differed across cultivars, suggesting that selection and validation of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis was necessary not only for different species but also for different cultivars. The results provided a list of reference genes for further study on gene expression in P. suffruticosa. However, in any case, a preliminary check on the accuracy of the best performing reference genes is requested for each qRT-PCR experiment. PMID:27148337

  10. Validation of tumor markers in central nervous system germ cell tumors by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dowhan; Lee, Da Hye; Choi, Junjeong; Shim, Kyu Won; Kim, Se Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic protocols for treatment of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) are completely different, so it is important to distinguish pure germinomas from NGGCTs. As it can be difficult to diagnose by morphology alone, immunohisto-chemistry (IHC) has been widely used as an ancillary test to improve diagnostic accuracy. However, IHC has limitations due to the misinterpretation of results or the aberrant loss of immunoreactivity. However, real-time RT-PCR has certain advantages over IHC, including its quantitative nature. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of real-time RT-PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks for the diagnosis of germ cell tumors of the central nervous system. We selected eight markers of germ cell tumors using a literature search, and validated them using real-time RT-PCR. Among them, POU5F1, NANOG and TGFB2 were statistically significant (P=0.05) in multiple comparisons (MANOVA) of three groups (pure germinomas, mature teratomas and malignant germ cell tumors). Two-group (pure germinomas and NGGCTs) discriminant analysis achieved a 70.0% success rate in cross-validation. We concluded that real-time RT-PCR using FFPE tissue has adequate validating power comparable to IHC in the diagnosis of central nervous system germ cell tumors; therefore, when IHC is not available, not conclusive or not informative, RT-PCR is a potential alternative to a repeat biopsy.

  11. Validation of tumor markers in central nervous system germ cell tumors by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dowhan; Lee, Da Hye; Choi, Junjeong; Shim, Kyu Won; Kim, Se Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic protocols for treatment of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) are completely different, so it is important to distinguish pure germinomas from NGGCTs. As it can be difficult to diagnose by morphology alone, immunohisto-chemistry (IHC) has been widely used as an ancillary test to improve diagnostic accuracy. However, IHC has limitations due to the misinterpretation of results or the aberrant loss of immunoreactivity. However, real-time RT-PCR has certain advantages over IHC, including its quantitative nature. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of real-time RT-PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks for the diagnosis of germ cell tumors of the central nervous system. We selected eight markers of germ cell tumors using a literature search, and validated them using real-time RT-PCR. Among them, POU5F1, NANOG and TGFB2 were statistically significant (P=0.05) in multiple comparisons (MANOVA) of three groups (pure germinomas, mature teratomas and malignant germ cell tumors). Two-group (pure germinomas and NGGCTs) discriminant analysis achieved a 70.0% success rate in cross-validation. We concluded that real-time RT-PCR using FFPE tissue has adequate validating power comparable to IHC in the diagnosis of central nervous system germ cell tumors; therefore, when IHC is not available, not conclusive or not informative, RT-PCR is a potential alternative to a repeat biopsy. PMID:23124437

  12. Quantitative real-time PCR assays for sensitive detection of Canada goose-specific fecal pollution in water sources.

    PubMed

    Fremaux, B; Boa, T; Yost, C K

    2010-07-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) are prevalent in North America and may contribute to fecal pollution of water systems where they congregate. This work provides two novel real-time PCR assays (CGOF1-Bac and CGOF2-Bac) allowing for the specific and sensitive detection of Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene markers present within Canada goose feces.

  13. A frequency response analysis approach for quantitative assessment of actuator tracking for real-time hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tong; Chen, Cheng; Xu, WeiJie; Sanchez, Frank

    2014-04-01

    Real-time hybrid simulation is a viable and economical technique that allows researchers to observe the behavior of critical elements at full scale when an entire structure is subjected to dynamic loading. To ensure reliable experimental results, it is necessary to evaluate the actuator tracking after the test, even when sophisticated compensation methods are used to negate the detrimental effect of servo-hydraulic dynamics. Existing methods for assessment of actuator tracking are often based on time-domain analysis. This paper proposes a frequency-domain-based approach to the assessment of actuator tracking for real-time hybrid simulations. To ensure the accuracy of the proposed frequency response approach, the effects of spectrum leakage are investigated as well as the length and sampling frequency requirements of the signals. Two signal pre-processing techniques (data segmentation and window transform) are also discussed and compared to improve the accuracy of the proposed approach. Finally the effectiveness of the proposed frequency-domain-based approach is demonstrated through both computational analyses and laboratory tests, including real-time tests with predefined displacement and real-time hybrid simulation.

  14. Two quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens.

    PubMed

    Eischeid, Anne C; Kim, Bang-hyun; Kasko, Sasha M

    2013-06-19

    Food allergen detection methods must be able to specifically detect minute quantities of an allergenic food in a complex food matrix. One technique that can be used is real-time PCR. For the work described here, real-time PCR assays were developed to detect penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens. The method was tested using shrimp meat and crab meat spiked into several types of foods, including canned soups, deli foods, meat, seafood, and prepared seafood products. Foods were spiked with either shrimp or crab at levels ranging from 0.1 to 10⁶ parts per million (ppm) and analyzed either raw or cooked by a variety of methods. Real-time PCR data were used to generate linear standard curves, and assays were evaluated with respect to linear range and reaction efficiency. Results indicate that both assays performed well in a variety of food types. High reaction efficiencies were achieved across a linear range of 6-8 orders of magnitude. Limits of detection were generally between 0.1 and 1 ppm. Cooking methods used to simulate thermal processing of foods had little effect on assay performance. This work demonstrates that real-time PCR can be a valuable tool in the detection of crustacean shellfish.

  15. Duplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR to determine cytokine mRNA expression in a hamster model of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, has distinct immunological features and is uniquely susceptible to intracellular pathogens. Studies in hamsters are limited by the relative unavailability of tools to conduct immunological studies. To address this limitation we developed duplex real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR assays for the relative quantification of the mRNAs of hamster cytokines, chemokines, and related immune response molecules. Results Real-time RT-PCR primers and probes were synthesized for analysis of interleukin (IL)-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12p40, TGF-β, IL-13, IL-21, chemokine ligand (CCL) 22, CCL17, Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4 and FoxP3 expression. Standard curves and validation experiments were performed for each real-time RT-PCR assay, allowing us to use the comparative Ct (2-ΔΔCt) method to calculate changes in gene expression. Application of the real-time RT PCR assays to a biological model was demonstrated by comparing mRNA expression in skin and lymph node tissues between uninfected and Leishmania panamensis infected hamsters. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT PCR assays provide a powerful approach for the quantification of cytokine transcription in hamsters, and their application to a model of cutaneous leishmaniasis suggests that a balanced type 1 and type 2 cytokine response contributes to the chronic, nonprogressive course of disease. These new molecular tools will further facilitate investigation into the mechanisms of disease in the hamster, not only for models of leishmaniasis, but also for other viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections. PMID:20569429

  16. Development of a novel ultrasonic technique for real-time measurement of membrane fouling in reverse osmosis desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairal, Anurag Prabhakar

    1998-09-01

    Fouling is readily acknowledged to be one of the most critical problems with respect to wider application of membranes in liquid separations. The overall thrust of this research was the development of a novel means for in situ monitoring of the membrane fouling process, ultrasonic time-domain reflectometry (UTDR), to provide real-time characterization of the fouling layer. The specific objectives of this research were to adapt UTDR as an analytical tool to study inorganic membrane fouling, to use the information obtained from UTDR to evaluate membrane fouling models in more detail than previously possible, and to develop improved fouling models, if necessary. A completely-automated separation system and a 75 cm-long rectangular module were developed in this work to adapt and optimize UTDR for the measurement of membrane fouling; six measurement ports in the module permitted simultaneous monitoring of permeate flux, permeate concentration, and UTDR response in terms of reflected signal amplitude, as a function of time and axial position. The experimental results obtained using this module show that there is an excellent correspondence between the flux decline behavior and the UTDR response with respect to initiation of fouling. Moreover, the ultrasonic technique was capable of detecting two distinct modes of fouling layer growth at high axial velocities (>=4.6 cm/s); the first mode was characterized by rapid growth of randomly-oriented crystals, and was followed by a second mode exhibiting a more gradual growth of laterally-oriented crystals. In contrast, permeation data were unable to provide any information about the subtle dynamics of the fouling process. In addition to the measurement of fouling, the ultrasonic technique was also successfully employed for monitoring membrane cleaning at ambient conditions. Since no real-time permeation data are available during such cleaning operations in industrial installations, UTDR may prove to be a very useful implement for

  17. Development of field-based real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darci R; Lee, John S; Jahrling, Jordan; Kulesh, David A; Turell, Michael J; Groebner, Jennifer L; O'Guinn, Monica L

    2009-10-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) and O'nyong-nyong (ONN) are important emerging arthropod-borne diseases. Molecular diagnosis of these two viruses in mosquitoes has not been evaluated, and the effects of extraneous mosquito tissue on assay performance have not been tested. Additionally, no real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay exists for detecting ONN virus (ONNV) RNA. We describe the development of sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detecting CHIK and ONN viral RNA in mosquitoes, which have application for field use. In addition, we compared three methods for primer/probe design for assay development by evaluating their sensitivity and specificity. This comparison resulted in development of virus-specific assays that could detect less than one plaque-forming unit equivalent of each of the viruses in mosquitoes. The use of these assays will aid in arthropod-borne disease surveillance and in the control of the associated diseases.

  18. Comparison of Two Commercial Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction and Integrated Quantitation Real-Time PCR Platforms for the Detection of Cytomegalovirus in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huey-Pin; Tsai, You-Yuan; Lin, I-Ting; Kuo, Pin-Hwa; Chen, Tsai-Yun; Chang, Kung-Chao; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load in the transplant patients has become a standard practice for monitoring the response to antiviral therapy. The cut-off values of CMV viral load assays for preemptive therapy are different due to the various assay designs employed. To establish a sensitive and reliable diagnostic assay for preemptive therapy of CMV infection, two commercial automated platforms including m2000sp extraction system integrated the Abbott RealTime (m2000rt) and the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep for extraction integrated COBAS Taqman (CAP/CTM) were evaluated using WHO international CMV standards and 110 plasma specimens from transplant patients. The performance characteristics, correlation, and workflow of the two platforms were investigated. The Abbott RealTime assay correlated well with the Roche CAP/CTM assay (R2 = 0.9379, P<0.01). The Abbott RealTime assay exhibited higher sensitivity for the detection of CMV viral load, and viral load values measured with Abbott RealTime assay were on average 0.76 log10 IU/mL higher than those measured with the Roche CAP/CTM assay (P<0.0001). Workflow analysis on a small batch size at one time, using the Roche CAP/CTM platform had a shorter hands-on time than the Abbott RealTime platform. In conclusion, these two assays can provide reliable data for different purpose in a clinical virology laboratory setting. PMID:27494707

  19. Quantitative detection of pork in commercial meat products by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miju; Yoo, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Young; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2016-11-01

    The TaqMan® real-time PCR assay using the mitochondrial D-loop region was developed for the quantitative detection of pork in processed meat products. The newly designed primers and probe specifically amplified pork without any cross-reactivity with non-target animal species. The limit of detection of the real-time PCR assay was 0.1pg of heat-treated pork meat and 0.1% (w/w) pork meat in beef and chicken meat mixtures. The quantitative real-time PCR assay was applied to analyze the pork meat content in 22 commercial processed meat products including jerkies, press hams, sausages, hamburger patties and steaks, grilled short rib patties, and nuggets. The developed real-time PCR method was able to detect pork meat in various types of processed meat products that declared the use of pork meat on their label. All processed meat products that declared no use of pork meat showed a negative result in the assay. The method developed in this study showed sensitivity and specificity in the quantification of pork meat in commercial processed meat products.

  20. Development of a combined air sampling and quantitative real-time PCR method for detection of Legionella spp.

    PubMed

    Sirigul, Chomrach; Wongwit, Waranya; Phanprasit, Wantanee; Paveenkittiporn, Wantana; Blacksell, Stuart D; Ramasoota, Pongrama

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and optimize the combined methods of air sampling and real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for quantifying aerosol Legionella spp. Primers and TaqMan hydrolysis probe based on 5S rRNA gene specific for Legionella spp were used to amplify a specific DNA product of 84 bp. The impinger air sampler plus T-100 sampling pump was used to collect aerosol Legionella and as low as 10 fg of Legionella DNA per reaction could detected. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the developed method could detect aerosol Legionella spp 1.5-185 organisms /500 l of air within 5 hours, in contrast to culture method, that required a minimum of 7-10 days. PMID:17120970

  1. A real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in the horticultural soil and plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Xin; Ma, Zhong-Hua; Li, Bo; Allen, Caitilyn; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    A specific and rapid real-time PCR assay for detecting Ralstonia solanacearum in the horticultural soil and plant tissues was developed in this study. The specific primers RSF/RSR were designed based on the upstream region of UDP-3-O-acyl-GlcNAc deacetylase gene from R. solanacearum, and a PCR product of 159 bp was amplified specifically from 28 strains of R. solanacearum, which represent all genetically diverse AluI types and all 6 biovars, but not from any other nontarget species. The detection limit of 102 CFU/g tomato stem and horticultural soil was achieved in this real-time PCR assay. The high sensitivity and specificity observed with filed samples as well as with artificially infected samples suggested that this method might be a useful tool for detection and quantification of R. solanacearum in precise forecast and diagnosis.

  2. A quantitative real-time PCR assay for the identification and enumeration of Alexandrium cysts in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Erdner, D.L.; Percy, L.; Keafer, B.; Lewis, J.; Anderson, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global problem that affects both human and ecosystem health. One of the most serious and widespread HAB poisoning syndromes is paralytic shellfish poisoning, commonly caused by Alexandrium spp. dinoflagellates. Like many toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium produces resistant resting cysts as part of its life cycle. These cysts play a key role in bloom initiation and decline, as well as dispersal and colonization of new areas. Information on cyst numbers and identity is essential for understanding and predicting blooms, yet comprehensive cyst surveys are extremely time- and labor-intensive. Here we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique for the enumeration of cysts of A. tamarense of the toxic North American/Group I ribotype. The method uses a cloned fragment of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene as a standard for cyst quantification, with an experimentally determined conversion factor of 28,402±6152 LSU ribosomal gene copies per cyst. Tests of DNA extraction and PCR efficiency show that mechanical breakage is required for adequate cyst lysis, and that it was necessary to dilute our DNA extracts 50-fold in order to abolish PCR inhibition from compounds co-extracted from the sediment. The resulting assay shows a linear response over 6 orders of magnitude and can reliably quantify ≥10cysts/cc sediment. For method validation, 129 natural sediment samples were split and analyzed in parallel, using both the qPCR and primulin-staining techniques. Overall, there is a significant correlation (p<0.001) between the cyst abundances determined by the two methods, although the qPCR counts tend to be lower than the primulin values. This underestimation is less pronounced in those samples collected from the top 1 cm of sediment, and more pronounced in those derived from the next 1–3 cm of the core. These differences may be due to the condition of the cysts in the different layers, as the top

  3. A quantitative real-time PCR assay for the identification and enumeration of Alexandrium cysts in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdner, D. L.; Percy, L.; Keafer, B.; Lewis, J.; Anderson, D. M.

    2010-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global problem that affects both human and ecosystem health. One of the most serious and widespread HAB poisoning syndromes is paralytic shellfish poisoning, commonly caused by Alexandrium spp. dinoflagellates. Like many toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium produces resistant resting cysts as part of its life cycle. These cysts play a key role in bloom initiation and decline, as well as dispersal and colonization of new areas. Information on cyst numbers and identity is essential for understanding and predicting blooms, yet comprehensive cyst surveys are extremely time- and labor-intensive. Here we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique for the enumeration of cysts of A. tamarense of the toxic North American/Group I ribotype. The method uses a cloned fragment of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene as a standard for cyst quantification, with an experimentally determined conversion factor of 28,402±6152 LSU ribosomal gene copies per cyst. Tests of DNA extraction and PCR efficiency show that mechanical breakage is required for adequate cyst lysis, and that it was necessary to dilute our DNA extracts 50-fold in order to abolish PCR inhibition from compounds co-extracted from the sediment. The resulting assay shows a linear response over 6 orders of magnitude and can reliably quantify ≥10 cysts/cm 3 sediment. For method validation, 129 natural sediment samples were split and analyzed in parallel, using both the qPCR and primulin-staining techniques. Overall, there is a significant correlation ( p<0.001) between the cyst abundances determined by the two methods, although the qPCR counts tend to be lower than the primulin values. This underestimation is less pronounced in those samples collected from the top 1 cm of sediment, and more pronounced in those derived from the next 1-3 cm of the core. These differences may be due to the condition of the cysts in the different layers, as the

  4. Identification of appropriate reference genes for human mesenchymal stem cell analysis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuying; Yang, Qiwei; Bai, Jinping; Xuan, Yali; Wang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Normalization to a reference gene is the method of choice for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. The stability of reference genes is critical for accurate experimental results and conclusions. We have evaluated the expression stability of eight commonly used reference genes found in four different human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms, we show that beta-2-microglobulin and peptidyl-prolylisomerase A were the optimal reference genes for normalizing RT-qPCR data obtained from MSC, whereas the TATA box binding protein was not suitable due to its extensive variability in expression. Our findings emphasize the significance of validating reference genes for qPCR analyses. We offer a short list of reference genes to use for normalization and recommend some commercially-available software programs as a rapid approach to validate reference genes. We also demonstrate that the two reference genes, β-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are frequently used are not always successful in many cases.

  5. In-depth analysis of internal control genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, X G; Zhao, Z Q; Yu, H F; Wang, J S; Zheng, C F; Gu, H H

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a versatile technique for the analysis of gene expression. The selection of stable reference genes is essential for the application of this technique. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) is a commonly consumed vegetable that is rich in vitamin, calcium, and iron. Thus far, to our knowledge, there have been no reports on the validation of suitable reference genes for the data normalization of qRT-PCR in cauliflower. In the present study, we analyzed 12 candidate housekeeping genes in cauliflower subjected to different abiotic stresses, hormone treatment conditions, and accessions. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the expression stability of these genes. ACT2 and TIP41 were selected as suitable reference genes across all experimental samples in this study. When different accessions were compared, ACT2 and UNK3 were found to be the most suitable reference genes. In the hormone and abiotic stress treatments, ACT2, TIP41, and UNK2 were the most stably expressed. Our study also provided guidelines for selecting the best reference genes under various experimental conditions. PMID:27525844

  6. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples. PMID:26492259

  7. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  8. Validation and application of a PCR primer set to quantify fungal communities in the soil environment by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Christen, Richard; Dequiedt, Samuel; Mougel, Christophe; Lelièvre, Mélanie; Jolivet, Claudy; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza; Guillou, Laure; Arrouays, Dominique; Ranjard, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Fungi constitute an important group in soil biological diversity and functioning. However, characterization and knowledge of fungal communities is hampered because few primer sets are available to quantify fungal abundance by real-time quantitative PCR (real-time Q-PCR). The aim in this study was to quantify fungal abundance in soils by incorporating, into a real-time Q-PCR using the SYBRGreen® method, a primer set already used to study the genetic structure of soil fungal communities. To satisfy the real-time Q-PCR requirements to enhance the accuracy and reproducibility of the detection technique, this study focused on the 18S rRNA gene conserved regions. These regions are little affected by length polymorphism and may provide sufficiently small targets, a crucial criterion for enhancing accuracy and reproducibility of the detection technique. An in silico analysis of 33 primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene was performed to select the primer set with the best potential for real-time Q-PCR: short amplicon length; good fungal specificity and coverage. The best consensus between specificity, coverage and amplicon length among the 33 sets tested was the primer set FR1/FF390. This in silico analysis of the specificity of FR1/FF390 also provided additional information to the previously published analysis on this primer set. The specificity of the primer set FR1/FF390 for Fungi was validated in vitro by cloning--sequencing the amplicons obtained from a real time Q-PCR assay performed on five independent soil samples. This assay was also used to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the method. Finally, fungal abundance in samples from 24 soils with contrasting physico-chemical and environmental characteristics was examined and ranked to determine the importance of soil texture, organic carbon content, C∶N ratio and land use in determining fungal abundance in soils.

  9. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples. PMID:26492259

  10. Detection and discrimination of European isolates of Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus using immunocapture real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Trzmiel, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Marzena

    2015-12-01

    Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a viral pathogen of cereal crops. Although first detected in the United States, it has since been reported in Germany and Poland. To date, two SBWMV strains (Nebraska-like and New-York-like types) have been detected. While the nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP) genes from the two strains show only 89% similarity, the deduced amino acid sequences of this region are identical. Therefore, the isolates cannot be differentiated serologically using the double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An immunocapture real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-real-time-RT-PCR) assay was developed for detection and discrimination of SBWMV strains based on the amplification of short CP fragments (∼250bp). The results showed distinct melting curve profiles related to each strain. The primer pairs gave similar melting points, with a Tm of 82.1°C for Nebraska-like and 83.5°C for New-York-like SBWMV strains. This work confirms that IC-real-time-RT-PCR is a valuable technique for rapid detection and discrimination of SBWMV strains.

  11. Detection and discrimination of European isolates of Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus using immunocapture real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Trzmiel, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Marzena

    2015-12-01

    Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a viral pathogen of cereal crops. Although first detected in the United States, it has since been reported in Germany and Poland. To date, two SBWMV strains (Nebraska-like and New-York-like types) have been detected. While the nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP) genes from the two strains show only 89% similarity, the deduced amino acid sequences of this region are identical. Therefore, the isolates cannot be differentiated serologically using the double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An immunocapture real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-real-time-RT-PCR) assay was developed for detection and discrimination of SBWMV strains based on the amplification of short CP fragments (∼250bp). The results showed distinct melting curve profiles related to each strain. The primer pairs gave similar melting points, with a Tm of 82.1°C for Nebraska-like and 83.5°C for New-York-like SBWMV strains. This work confirms that IC-real-time-RT-PCR is a valuable technique for rapid detection and discrimination of SBWMV strains. PMID:26384757

  12. Multichannel series piezoelectric quartz crystal cell sensor for real time and quantitative monitoring of the living cell and assessment of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Feifei; Lian, Yan; Zhou, Huang; Shi, Xiaohong; He, Fengjiao

    2014-10-21

    A new multichannel series piezoelectric quartz crystal (MSPQC) cell sensor for real time monitoring of living cells in vitro was reported in this paper. The constructed sensor was used successfully to monitor adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and apoptosis of MG63 osteosarcoma cells and investigate the effects of different concentrations of cobalt chloride on MG63 cells. Quantitative real time and dynamic cell analyses data were conducted using the MSPQC cell sensor. Compared with methods such as fluorescence staining and morphology observation by microscopy, the MSPQC cell sensor is noninvasive, label free, simple, cheap, and capable of online monitoring. It can automatically record the growth status of cells and quantitatively evaluate cell proliferation and the apoptotic response to drugs. It will be a valuable detection and analysis tool for the acquisition of cellular level information and is anticipated to have application in the field of cell biology research or cytotoxicity testing in the future.

  13. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for measurement of cytokine and growth factor mRNA expression with fluorogenic probes or SYBR Green I.

    PubMed

    Yin, J L; Shackel, N A; Zekry, A; McGuinness, P H; Richards, C; Putten, K V; McCaughan, G W; Eris, J M; Bishop, G A

    2001-06-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the method of choice for rapid and reproducible measurements of cytokine or growth factor expression in small samples. Fluorescence detection methods for monitoring real-time PCR include fluorogenic probes labelled with reporter and quencher dyes, such as Taqman probes or Molecular Beacons and the dsDNA-binding dye SYBR Green I. Fluorogenic (Taqman) probes for a range of human and rat cytokines and growth factors were tested for sensitivity and compared with an assay for SYBR Green I quantification using real-time fluorescence monitoring (PE Applied Biosystems Model 7700 sequence detector). SYBR Green I detection involved analysis of the melting temperature of the PCR product and measurement of fluorescence at the optimum temperature. Fluorogenic probes provided sensitive and reproducible detection of targets that ranged from low (<10 copies/reaction) to high (>107 copies/ reaction) expression. SYBR Green I gave reproducible quantification when the target gene was expressed at moderate to high levels (> or =1000 copies/reaction), but did not give consistently reproducible quantification when the target gene was expressed at low levels. Although optimization of melting temperature improved the specificity of SYBR Green I detection, in our hands it did not equal the reproducible sensitivity and specificity of fluorogenic probes. The latter method is the first choice for measurement of low-level gene expression, although SYBR Green I is a simple and reproducible means to quantify genes that are expressed at moderate to high levels.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Four Real-Time PCR Methods for the Quantitative Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus from Whole Blood Specimens.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Daelynn; Sun, Yilun; Tang, Li; Gu, Zhengming; Pounds, Stanley; Hayden, Randall

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in immunocompromised patients has become integral to their care. An increasing number of reagents are available for quantitative detection of EBV; however, there are little published comparative data. Four real-time PCR systems (one using laboratory-developed reagents and three using analyte-specific reagents) were compared with one another for detection of EBV from whole blood. Whole blood specimens seeded with EBV were used to determine quantitative linearity, analytical measurement range, lower limit of detection, and CV for each assay. Retrospective testing of 198 clinical samples was performed in parallel with all methods; results were compared to determine relative quantitative and qualitative performance. All assays showed similar performance. No significant difference was found in limit of detection (3.12-3.49 log10 copies/mL; P = 0.37). A strong qualitative correlation was seen with all assays that used clinical samples (positive detection rates of 89.5%-95.8%). Quantitative correlation of clinical samples across assays was also seen in pairwise regression analysis, with R(2) ranging from 0.83 to 0.95. Normalizing clinical sample results to IU/mL did not alter the quantitative correlation between assays. Quantitative EBV detection by real-time PCR can be performed over a wide linear dynamic range, using three different commercially available reagents and laboratory-developed methods. EBV was detected with comparable sensitivity and quantitative correlation for all assays.

  15. Identification of normalization factors for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Boguang; Fang, Shasha; Sun, Li; Liu, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in studies of gene expression. In most of these studies, housekeeping genes are used as internal references without validation. To identify appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai, we examined the transcription stability of six housekeeping genes in abalone tissues in the presence and absence of bacterial infection. For this purpose, abalone were infected with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum for 12 h and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the housekeeping genes in five tissues (digestive glands, foot muscle, gill, hemocyte, and mantle) were determined by qRT-PCR. The PCR data was subsequently analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results show that in the absence of bacterial infection, elongation factor-1-alpha and beta-actin were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues, and thus are suitable as cross-tissue type normalization factors. However, we did not identify any universal reference genes post infection because the most stable genes varied between tissue types. Furthermore, for most tissues, the optimal reference genes identified by both algorithms at 12 h and 48 h post-infection differed. These results indicate that bacterial infection induced significant changes in the expression of abalone housekeeping genes in a manner that is dependent on tissue type and duration of infection. As a result, different normalization factors must be used for different tissues at different infection points.

  16. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Panax ginseng at Different Stages of Growth and in Different Organs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Qun; Sun, Minying; Zhu, Linlin; Yang, Michael; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression analysis; however, its data interpretation largely depends on the stability of reference genes. The transcriptomics of Panax ginseng, one of the most popular and traditional ingredients used in Chinese medicines, is increasingly being studied. Furthermore, it is vital to establish a series of reliable reference genes when qRT-PCR is used to assess the gene expression profile of ginseng. In this study, we screened out candidate reference genes for ginseng using gene expression data generated by a high-throughput sequencing platform. Based on the statistical tests, 20 reference genes (10 traditional housekeeping genes and 10 novel genes) were selected. These genes were tested for the normalization of expression levels in five growth stages and three distinct plant organs of ginseng by qPCR. These genes were subsequently ranked and compared according to the stability of their expressions using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper computational programs. Although the best reference genes were found to vary across different samples, CYP and EF-1α were the most stable genes amongst all samples. GAPDH/30S RPS20, CYP/60S RPL13 and CYP/QCR were the optimum pair of reference genes in the roots, stems, and leaves. CYP/60S RPL13, CYP/eIF-5A, aTUB/V-ATP, eIF-5A/SAR1, and aTUB/pol IIa were the most stably expressed combinations in each of the five developmental stages. Our study serves as a foundation for developing an accurate method of qRT-PCR and will benefit future studies on gene expression profiles of Panax Ginseng. PMID:25393243

  17. The importance of selecting the appropriate reference genes for quantitative real time PCR as illustrated using colon cancer cells and tissue.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Catríona M; Walsh, Dara; Coffey, John C; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) remains the most sensitive technique for nucleic acid quantification. Its popularity is reflected in the remarkable number of publications reporting RT-qPCR data. Careful normalisation within RT-qPCR studies is imperative to ensure accurate quantification of mRNA levels. This is commonly achieved through the use of reference genes as an internal control to normalise the mRNA levels between different samples. The selection of appropriate reference genes can be a challenge as transcript levels vary with physiology, pathology and development, making the information within the transcriptome flexible and variable. In this study, we examined the variation in expression of a panel of nine candidate reference genes in HCT116 and HT29 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures, as well as in normal and cancerous colon tissue. Using normfinder we identified the top three most stable genes for all conditions. Further to this we compared the change in expression of a selection of PKC coding genes when the data was normalised to one reference gene and three reference genes. Here we demonstrated that there is a variation in the fold changes obtained dependent on the number of reference genes used. As well as this, we highlight important considerations namely; assay efficiency tests, inhibition tests and RNA assessment which should also be implemented into all RT-qPCR studies. All this data combined demonstrates the need for careful experimental design in RT-qPCR studies to help eliminate false interpretation and reporting of results.

  18. Pitfalls in target mRNA quantification for real-time quantitative RT-PCR in overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, T; Malgoyre, A; Banzet, S; Chapot, R; Koulmann, N; Pugnière, P; Beaudry, M; Bigard, X; Peinnequin, A

    2011-02-24

    Quantifying target mRNA using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction requires an accurate normalization method. Determination of normalization factors (NFs) based on validated reference genes according to their relative stability is currently the best standard method in most usual situations. This method controls for technical errors, but its physiological relevance requires constant NF values for a fixed weight of tissue. In the functional overload model, the increase in the total RNA concentration must be considered in determining the NF values. Here, we pointed out a limitation of the classical geNorm-derived normalization. geNorm software selected reference genes despite that the NF values extensively varied under experiment. Only the NF values calculated from four intentionally selected genes were constant between groups. However, a normalization based on these genes is questionable. Indeed, three out of four genes belong to the same functional class (negative regulator of muscle mass), and their use is physiological nonsense in a hypertrophic model. Thus, we proposed guidelines for optimizing target mRNA normalization and quantification, useful in models of muscle mass modulation. In our study, the normalization method by multiple reference genes was not appropriate to compare target mRNA levels between overloaded and control muscles. A solution should be to use an absolute quantification of target mRNAs per unit weight of tissue, without any internal normalization. Even if the technical variations will stay present as a part of the intergroup variations, leading to less statistical power, we consider this method acceptable because it will not generate misleading results.

  19. Selection of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge using transcriptome datasets under abiotic stress treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Huihui; Fu, Yanping; He, Wei; Wang, Lin; Wei, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge, an indigenous locoweed species in China, poses great threats to livestock on grasslands. There is a need for further genetic study in the plants per se, for understanding the basis of its acclimation mechanism in various unfavorable environmental conditions and to implement effective control measures. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most commonly used method for gene expression analysis. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable reference genes is required. The aim of this study was to select the most stable reference genes for transcriptional analysis in O. ochrocephala. Results: We selected 12 candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S RNA), actin2/7 (ACT7), β-actin (ACTB), actin101 (ACT101), actin11 (ACT11), β-tubulin (TUB), α-tubulin (TUA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 (GAPDH1), GAPDH2, metallothionein-like protein (MET), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and histone H3 (HIS), from the transcriptome datasets of O. ochrocephala and determined the suitability by analyzing their expression levels when exposed to a range of abiotic stress conditions. By employing software packages including geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, HIS, ACT7, and ACT101 were assessed as the most suitable set for normalization in all samples. When normalized with the most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of the three target genes were in accordance with those in the transcriptome data, indicating that the reference genes selected in this study are suitable. Conclusions: The study provided appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in O. ochrocephala and emphasized the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under specific experimental condition. The usage of inappropriate reference gene would cause misinterpretation. PMID

  20. Evaluation of potential internal references for quantitative real-time RT-PCR normalization of gene expression in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo-Guang; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively for studying gene expression in diverse organisms including fish. In this study, with an aim to identify reliable reference genes for qRT-PCR in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an economic fish species, we determined the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in healthy and bacterium-infected red drum. Each of the selected candidate genes was amplified by qRT-PCR from the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and spleen of red drum infected with or without a bacterial pathogen for 12 and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the genes were analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that in the absence of bacterial infection, translation initiation factor 3, NADH dehydrogenase 1, and QM-like protein may be used together as internal references across the eight examined tissues. Bacterial infection caused variations in the rankings of the most stable genes in a tissue-dependent manner. For all tissues, two genes sufficed for reliable normalization at both 12 and 48 h post-infection. However, the optimal gene pairs differed among tissues and, for four of the examined eight tissues, between infection points. These results indicate that when studying gene expression in red drum under conditions of bacterial infection, the optimal reference genes should be selected on the basis of tissue type and, for accurate normalization, infection stage. PMID:25743365

  1. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Panax ginseng at different stages of growth and in different organs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Qun; Sun, Minying; Zhu, Linlin; Yang, Michael; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression analysis; however, its data interpretation largely depends on the stability of reference genes. The transcriptomics of Panax ginseng, one of the most popular and traditional ingredients used in Chinese medicines, is increasingly being studied. Furthermore, it is vital to establish a series of reliable reference genes when qRT-PCR is used to assess the gene expression profile of ginseng. In this study, we screened out candidate reference genes for ginseng using gene expression data generated by a high-throughput sequencing platform. Based on the statistical tests, 20 reference genes (10 traditional housekeeping genes and 10 novel genes) were selected. These genes were tested for the normalization of expression levels in five growth stages and three distinct plant organs of ginseng by qPCR. These genes were subsequently ranked and compared according to the stability of their expressions using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper computational programs. Although the best reference genes were found to vary across different samples, CYP and EF-1α were the most stable genes amongst all samples. GAPDH/30S RPS20, CYP/60S RPL13 and CYP/QCR were the optimum pair of reference genes in the roots, stems, and leaves. CYP/60S RPL13, CYP/eIF-5A, aTUB/V-ATP, eIF-5A/SAR1, and aTUB/pol IIa were the most stably expressed combinations in each of the five developmental stages. Our study serves as a foundation for developing an accurate method of qRT-PCR and will benefit future studies on gene expression profiles of Panax Ginseng.

  2. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang Geng; Wang, Xian Li; Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Fan; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua

    2013-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been used frequently to study gene expression related to fish immunology. In such studies, a stable reference gene should be selected to correct the expression of the target gene. In this study, seven candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCE), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), tubulin alpha chain-like (TUBA) and beta actin (ACTB)), were selected to analyze their stability and normalization in seven tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, muscle and intestine) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae or Streptococcus iniae, respectively. The results showed that all the candidate reference genes exhibited tissue-dependent transcriptional variations. With PBS injection as a control, UBCE was the most stable and suitable single reference gene in the intestine, liver, brain, kidney, and spleen after S. iniae infection, and in the liver, kidney, and spleen after S. agalactiae infection. EF1A was the most suitable in heart and muscle after S. iniae or S. agalactiae infection. GADPH was the most suitable gene in intestine and brain after S. agalactiae infection. In normal conditions, UBCE and 18S rRNA were the most stably expressed genes across the various tissues. These results showed that for RT-qPCR analysis of tilapia, selecting two or more reference genes may be more suitable for cross-tissue analysis of gene expression.

  3. Validation of reference genes in Penicillium echinulatum to enable gene expression study using real-time quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Denise; Nora, Luísa C; Basso, Vanessa; Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a methodology that facilitates the quantification of mRNA expression in a given sample. Analysis of relative gene expression by qRT-PCR requires normalization of the data using a reference gene that is expressed at a similar level in all evaluated conditions. Determining an internal control gene is essential for gene expression studies. Gene expression studies in filamentous fungi frequently use the β-actin gene (actb), β-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as reference genes because they are known to have consistent expression levels. Until now, no study has been performed to select an internal control gene for the filamentous fungal species Penicillium echinulatum. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate internal control genes to enable the study of gene expression in P. echinulatum using qRT-PCR. P. echinulatum strain S1M29 was grown in conditions to either induce (cellulose and sugar cane bagasse) or repress (glucose) gene expression to analyze 23 candidate normalization genes for stable expression. Two software programs, BestKeeper and geNorm, were used to assess the expression of the candidate normalization genes. The results indicate that the actb reference gene is more stably expressed in P. echinulatum. This is the first report in the literature that determines a normalization gene for this fungus. From the results obtained, we recommend the use of the P. echinulatum actb gene as an endogenous control for gene expression studies of cellulases and hemicellulases by qRT-PCR. PMID:24509829

  4. Validation of reference genes in Penicillium echinulatum to enable gene expression study using real-time quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Denise; Nora, Luísa C; Basso, Vanessa; Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a methodology that facilitates the quantification of mRNA expression in a given sample. Analysis of relative gene expression by qRT-PCR requires normalization of the data using a reference gene that is expressed at a similar level in all evaluated conditions. Determining an internal control gene is essential for gene expression studies. Gene expression studies in filamentous fungi frequently use the β-actin gene (actb), β-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as reference genes because they are known to have consistent expression levels. Until now, no study has been performed to select an internal control gene for the filamentous fungal species Penicillium echinulatum. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate internal control genes to enable the study of gene expression in P. echinulatum using qRT-PCR. P. echinulatum strain S1M29 was grown in conditions to either induce (cellulose and sugar cane bagasse) or repress (glucose) gene expression to analyze 23 candidate normalization genes for stable expression. Two software programs, BestKeeper and geNorm, were used to assess the expression of the candidate normalization genes. The results indicate that the actb reference gene is more stably expressed in P. echinulatum. This is the first report in the literature that determines a normalization gene for this fungus. From the results obtained, we recommend the use of the P. echinulatum actb gene as an endogenous control for gene expression studies of cellulases and hemicellulases by qRT-PCR.

  5. Evaluation of a rapid and completely automated real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Frederick S; Rogers, Beverly B; Tang, Yi-Wei; Oberste, M Steven; Robinson, Christine C; Kehl, K Sue; Rand, Kenneth A; Rotbart, Harley A; Romero, Jose R; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Persing, David H

    2011-02-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have emerged as the new gold standard for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis, and their use can improve the management and decrease the costs for caring for children with enteroviral meningitis. The Xpert EV assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a rapid, fully automated real-time PCR test for the detection of enterovirus RNA that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for in vitro diagnostic use in March 2007. In this multicenter trial we established the clinical performance characteristics of the Xpert EV assay in patients presenting with meningitis symptoms relative to clinical truth. Clinical truth for enteroviral meningitis was defined as clinical evidence of meningitis, the absence of another detectable pathogen in CSF, and detection of enterovirus in CSF either by two reference NAATs or by viral culture. A total of 199 prospectively and 235 retrospectively collected specimens were eligible for inclusion in this study. The overall prevalence of enteroviral meningitis was 26.04%. The Xpert EV assay had a sensitivity of 94.69% (90% confidence interval [CI] = 89.79 to 97.66%), specificity of 100% (90% CI = 99.07 to 100%), positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 98.17, and an accuracy of 98.62% relative to clinical truth. The Xpert EV assay demonstrated a high degree of accuracy for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis. The simplicity and on-demand capability of the Xpert EV assay should prove to be a valuable adjunct to the evaluation of suspected meningitis cases.

  6. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  7. Native denaturation differential scanning fluorimetry: Determining the effect of urea using a quantitative real-time thermocycler.

    PubMed

    Childers, Christine L; Green, Stuart R; Dawson, Neal J; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-09-01

    The effect of protein stability on kinetic function is monitored with many techniques that often require large amounts of expensive substrates and specialized equipment not universally available. We present differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), a simple high-throughput assay performed in real-time thermocyclers, as a technique for analysis of protein unfolding. Furthermore, we demonstrate a correlation between the half-maximal rate of protein unfolding (Knd), and protein unfolding by urea (I50). This demonstrates that DSF methods can determine the structural stability of an enzyme's active site and can compare the relative structural stability of homologous enzymes with a high degree of sequence similarity.

  8. Evaluation of HER2 Gene Status in Breast Cancer Samples with Indeterminate Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization by Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Koudelakova, Vladimira; Berkovcova, Jitka; Trojanec, Radek; Vrbkova, Jana; Radova, Lenka; Ehrmann, Jiri; Kolar, Zdenek; Melichar, Bohuslav; Hajduch, Marian

    2015-07-01

    Administration of drugs targeting HER2 (official symbol ERBB2) is an important component of therapy for breast cancer patients with HER2 amplification/overexpression as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In approximately 5% of breast cancers, ISH assays fail. In these cases, HER2 protein expression is evaluated by IHC alone that may yield false negatives/positives for poor-quality samples. Therefore, we developed a method that was based on quantitative real-time PCR applicable for DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Its limit of detection was determined with breast cancer cell lines and validated with 223 breast cancer patient samples. On the basis of comparisons with fluorescent ISH (FISH) and IHC data, the sensitivity of the new method was 94.2% and 95.1%, its specificity was 100% and 99.1%, and overall concordance between results obtained with the quantitative real-time PCR method and FISH/IHC was 97.6% for both methods. The quantitative real-time PCR method was then used to evaluate the HER2 status of 198 of 3696 breast cancer tissues that yielded indeterminate FISH results. The HER2 copy number was successfully determined in 69.2% of these indeterminate samples. Thus, the DNA-based technique appears to be a specific, sensitive method for determining HER2 copy numbers when the FISH assay fails, which may complement IHC tests. PMID:25956448

  9. Detection of viable murine norovirus using the plaque assay and propidium-monoazide-combined real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Seo, Jina; Oh, Hyejin; Jeon, Su Been; Ha, Sang-Do; Myoung, Jinjong; Choi, In-Soo; Choi, Changsun

    2015-09-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the most common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a virus culture system makes it difficult to determine the viability of norovirus by only reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The aim of this study was to investigate the detection of viable murine norovirus (MNV) by combining propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) with qRT-PCR. MNV (5.21log10PFU/mL) was subjected to heat treatment at room temperature, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, or 90°C in a water bath for 1min. The plaque assay, qRT-PCR, PMA-combined qRT-PCR, and EMA-combined qRT-PCR were then performed with heat exposed MNV samples. The MNV titer was reduced by 0.38, 1.34, and 3.71log10PFU/mL at temperatures of 65, 70, and 75°C, respectively. MNV was reduced >4.21log10PFU/mL at 80, 85, and 90°C heat inactivation. PMA (EMA) value equation for the interpretation of the viability of MNV was derived as follows: PMA (EMA) value=-logRN-logRP (RN: the relative quantity value of the not-treated sample, and RP: the relative quantity value of the PMA- or EMA-treated sample as determined by qRT-PCR). By PMA-combined qRT-PCR, the viable PMA value was 0.32, 0.83, and 2.62 for the 65, 70, and 75°C preheated MNVs, respectively. The viable PMA values for the viruses heated at 80, 85, and 90°C were all greater than 3.0, which was the cutoff value for discriminating between live and dead MNVs. The results of EMA-combined qRT-PCR were similar to those of qRT-PCR. Thus, PMA-combined qRT-PCR correlated well with the plaque assay in detecting viable MNVs.

  10. Quantitative assessment of prion infectivity in tissues and body fluids by real-time quaking-induced conversion

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Davin M.; Davenport, Kristen A.; Haley, Nicholas J.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Mathiason, Candace K.

    2015-01-01

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving the templated conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) to a pathogenic misfolded conformation. Templated conversion has been modelled in several in vitro assays, including serial protein misfolding amplification, amyloid seeding and real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC). As RT-QuIC measures formation of amyloid fibrils in real-time, it can be used to estimate the rate of seeded conversion. Here, we used samples from deer infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) in RT-QuIC to show that serial dilution of prion seed was linearly related to the rate of amyloid formation over a range of 10−3 to 10−8 µg. We then used an amyloid formation rate standard curve derived from a bioassayed reference sample (CWD+ brain homogenate) to estimate the prion seed concentration and infectivity in tissues, body fluids and excreta. Using these methods, we estimated that urine and saliva from CWD-infected deer both contained 1–5 LD50 per 10 ml. Thus, over the 1–2 year course of an infection, a substantial environmental reservoir of CWD prion contamination accumulates. PMID:25304654

  11. Quantitative detection and differentiation of free-living amoeba species using SYBR green-based real-time PCR melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Behets, Jonas; Declerck, Priscilla; Delaedt, Yasmine; Verelst, Lieve; Ollevier, Frans

    2006-12-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction melting curve analysis (MCA) allows differentiation of several free-living amoebae species. Distinctive characteristics were found for Naegleria fowleri, N. lovaniensis, N. australiensis, N. gruberi, Hartmanella vermiformis, and Willaertia magna. Species specificity of the amplicons was confirmed using agarose gel electrophoresis and sequence-based approaches. Amplification efficiency ranged from 91% to 98%, indicating the quantitative potential of the assay. This MCA approach can be used for quantitative detection of free-living amoebae after cultivation but also as a culture-independent detection method.

  12. Comprehensive selection of reference genes for expression studies in meniscus injury using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Debieux, Pedro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2016-06-10

    The meniscus plays critical roles in the knee function. Meniscal tears can lead to knee osteoarthritis. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding meniscus tears, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. We evaluated the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1 and TBP) using meniscus samples of (1) 19 patients with isolated meniscal tears, (2) 20 patients with meniscal tears and combined anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL), and (3) 11 controls without meniscal tears. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper DataAssist and RefFinder software packages and comparative ΔCt method. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene. However, GenEx software demonstrated that two or more reference genes should be used for gene expression normalization, which was confirmed when we evaluated TGFβR1 expression using several reference gene combinations. HPRT1+TBP was the most frequently identified pair from the analysis of samples of (1) meniscal tear samples of patients with a concomitant ACL tears, (2) all meniscal tears, and (3) all samples. HPRT1+GAPDH was the most frequently identified pair from the analysis of samples of isolated meniscal tear samples and controls. In the analysis involving only controls, GAPDH+18S was the most frequently identified pair. In the analysis of only isolated meniscal tear samples and in the analysis of meniscal tear samples of patients with concomitant ACL tears and controls, both HPRT1+TBP and HPRT1+GAPDH were identified as suitable pairs. If the gene expression study aims to compare non-injured meniscus, isolated meniscal tears and meniscal tears of patients with ACL tears as three independent groups, the trio of HPRT1+TBP+GAPDH is the most suitable

  13. Comprehensive selection of reference genes for expression studies in meniscus injury using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Debieux, Pedro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2016-06-10

    The meniscus plays critical roles in the knee function. Meniscal tears can lead to knee osteoarthritis. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding meniscus tears, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. We evaluated the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1 and TBP) using meniscus samples of (1) 19 patients with isolated meniscal tears, (2) 20 patients with meniscal tears and combined anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL), and (3) 11 controls without meniscal tears. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper DataAssist and RefFinder software packages and comparative ΔCt method. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene. However, GenEx software demonstrated that two or more reference genes should be used for gene expression normalization, which was confirmed when we evaluated TGFβR1 expression using several reference gene combinations. HPRT1+TBP was the most frequently identified pair from the analysis of samples of (1) meniscal tear samples of patients with a concomitant ACL tears, (2) all meniscal tears, and (3) all samples. HPRT1+GAPDH was the most frequently identified pair from the analysis of samples of isolated meniscal tear samples and controls. In the analysis involving only controls, GAPDH+18S was the most frequently identified pair. In the analysis of only isolated meniscal tear samples and in the analysis of meniscal tear samples of patients with concomitant ACL tears and controls, both HPRT1+TBP and HPRT1+GAPDH were identified as suitable pairs. If the gene expression study aims to compare non-injured meniscus, isolated meniscal tears and meniscal tears of patients with ACL tears as three independent groups, the trio of HPRT1+TBP+GAPDH is the most suitable

  14. Analysis of Gene and Protein Expression in Atherosclerotic Mouse Aorta by Western Blot and Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Torres, José

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis involves changes in gene and protein expression patterns in affected arteries. Quantification of these alterations is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Western blot and real-time PCR-used to quantify protein and messenger RNA levels, respectively-are invaluable molecular biology tools, particularly when material is limited. The availability of many genetically modified mouse models of atherosclerosis makes the mouse aorta an ideal tissue in which to carry out these expression pattern analyses. In this chapter, protocols are presented for mRNA and protein extraction from mouse aorta and for the accurate quantification of mRNA expression by RT-PCR and of proteins by western blot.

  15. Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in soil.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Zhan, Yuanfeng; Zeng, Fanyun; Long, Haibo; Pei, Yuelin; Guo, Jianrong

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) is one of the major limiting factors for watermelon production worldwide. Rapid and accurate detection of the causal pathogen is the cornerstone of integrated disease management. In this paper, a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Fon in soil. Positive products were amplified only from Fon isolates and not from any other species or formae speciales of F. oxysporum tested, showing a high specificity of the primer sets. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was 1.2 pg μL(-1) genomic DNA or 10(3) spores g(-1) of artificially inoculated soil, whereas real-time PCR could detect as low as 12 fg μL(-1) or 10(2) spores g(-1). The RealAmp assay was further applied to detect eight artificially inoculated and 85 field soil samples. No significant differences were found between the results tested by the RealAmp and real-time PCR assays. The RealAmp assay is a simple, rapid and effective technique for the quantitative detection and monitoring of Fon in soil under natural conditions.

  16. Real-time sub-Ångstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible conformations in rhodium catalysts and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisielowski, Christian; Wang, Lin-Wang; Specht, Petra; Calderon, Hector A.; Barton, Bastian; Jiang, Bin; Kang, Joo H.; Cieslinski, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic responses of a rhodium catalyst and a graphene sheet are investigated upon random excitation with 80 kV electrons. An extraordinary electron microscope stability and resolution allow studying temporary atom displacements from their equilibrium lattice sites into metastable sites across projected distances as short as 60 pm. In the rhodium catalyst, directed and reversible atom displacements emerge from excitations into metastable interstitial sites and surface states that can be explained by single atom trajectories. Calculated energy barriers of 0.13 eV and 1.05 eV allow capturing single atom trapping events at video rates that are stabilized by the Rh [110] surface corrugation. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that randomly delivered electrons can also reversibly enhance the sp3 and the sp1 characters of the sp2-bonded carbon atoms in graphene. The underlying collective atom motion can dynamically stabilize characteristic atom displacements that are unpredictable by single atom trajectories. We detect three specific displacements and use two of them to propose a path for the irreversible phase transformation of a graphene nanoribbon into carbene. Collectively stabilized atom displacements greatly exceed the thermal vibration amplitudes described by Debye-Waller factors and their measured dose rate dependence is attributed to tunable phonon contributions to the internal energy of the systems. Our experiments suggest operating electron microscopes with beam currents as small as zepto-amperes/nm2 in a weak-excitation approach to improve on sample integrity and allow for time-resolved studies of conformational object changes that probe for functional behavior of catalytic surfaces or molecules.

  17. Utility of IgM ELISA, TaqMan real-time PCR, reverse transcription PCR, and RT-LAMP assay for the diagnosis of Chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vijayalakshmi; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Desai, Anita; Parida, Manmohan; Powers, Ann M; Johnson, Barbara W

    2012-11-01

    Chikungunya fever a re-emerging infection with expanding geographical boundaries, can mimic symptoms of other infections like dengue, malaria which makes the definitive diagnosis of the infection important. The present study compares the utility of four laboratory diagnostic methods viz. IgM capture ELISA, an in house reverse transcription PCR for the diagnosis of Chikungunya fever, TaqMan real-time PCR, and a one step reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP). Out of the 70 serum samples tested, 29 (41%) were positive for Chikungunya IgM antibody by ELISA and 50 (71%) samples were positive by one of the three molecular assays. CHIKV specific nucleic acid was detected in 33/70 (47%) by reverse transcription PCR, 46/70 (66%) by TaqMan real-time PCR, and 43/70 (62%) by RT-LAMP assay. A majority of the samples (62/70; 89%) were positive by at least one of the four assays used in the study. The molecular assays were more sensitive for diagnosis in the early stages of illness (2-5 days post onset) when antibodies were not detectable. In the later stages of illness, the IgM ELISA is a more sensitive diagnostic test. In conclusion we recommend that the IgM ELISA be used as an initial screening test followed one of the molecular assays in samples that are collected in the early phase of illness and negative for CHIKV IgM antibodies. Such as approach would enable rapid confirmation of the diagnosis and implementation of public health measures especially during outbreaks.

  18. Environmental Detection of Genogroup I, II, and IV Noroviruses by Using a Generic Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takayuki; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Grodzki, Marco; Okabe, Satoshi; Atmar, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Norovirus is the most common agent implicated in food-borne outbreaks and is frequently detected in environmental samples. These viruses are highly diverse, and three genogroups (genogroup I [GI], GII, and GIV) infect humans. Being noncultivable viruses, real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) is the only sensitive method available for their detection in food or environmental samples. Selection of consensus sequences for the design of sensitive assays has been challenging due to sequence diversity and has led to the development of specific real-time RT-PCR assays for each genogroup. Thus, sample screening can require several replicates for amplification of each genogroup (without considering positive and negative controls or standard curves). This study reports the development of a generic assay that detects all three human norovirus genogroups on a qualitative basis using a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay. The generic assay achieved good specificity and sensitivity for all three genogroups, detected separately or in combination. At variance with multiplex assays, the choice of the same fluorescent dye for all three probes specific to each genogroup allows the levels of fluorescence to be added and may increase assay sensitivity when multiple strains from different genogroups are present. When it was applied to sewage sample extracts, this generic assay successfully detected norovirus in all samples found to be positive by the genogroup-specific RT-PCRs. The generic assay also identified all norovirus-positive samples among 157 archived nucleic acid shellfish extracts, including samples contaminated by all three genogroups. PMID:23956397

  19. Real time bolt preload monitoring using piezoceramic transducers and time reversal technique—a numerical study with experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvasi, Seyed Mohammad; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Kong, Qingzhao; Mousavi, Reza; Song, Gangbing

    2016-08-01

    Bolted joints are ubiquitous structural elements, and form critical connections in mechanical and civil structures. As such, loosened bolted joints may lead to catastrophic failures of these structures, thus inspiring a growing interest in monitoring of bolted joints. A novel energy based wave method is proposed in this study to monitor the axial load of bolted joint connections. In this method, the time reversal technique was used to focus the energy of a piezoelectric (PZT)-generated ultrasound wave from one side of the interface to be measured as a signal peak by another PZT transducer on the other side of the interface. A tightness index (TI) was defined and used to correlate the peak amplitude to the bolt axial load. The TI bypasses the need for more complex signal processing required in other energy-based methods. A coupled, electro-mechanical analysis with elasto-plastic finite element method was used to simulate and analyze the PZT based ultrasonic wave propagation through the interface of two steel plates connected by a single nut and bolt connection. Numerical results, backed by experimental results from testing on a bolted connection between two steel plates, revealed that the peak amplitude of the focused signal increases as the bolt preload (torque level) increases due to the enlarging true contact area of the steel plates. The amplitude of the focused peak saturates and the TI reaches unity as the bolt axial load reaches a threshold value. These conditions are associated with the maximum possible true contact area between the surfaces of the bolted connection.

  20. Optimization of the elution buffer and concentration method for detecting hepatitis E virus in swine liver using a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Son, Na Ry; Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Sheungwoo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Lee, Jeong-Su; Joo, In-Sun; Hwang, In-Gyun; Choi, Changsun

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal technique for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine livers. Here, three elution buffers and two concentration methods were compared with respect to enhancing recovery of HEV from swine liver samples. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR were performed to detect HEV RNA. When phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) was used to concentrate HEV in swine liver samples using ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 6 of the 26 samples. When threonine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 of the 26 samples, respectively. When glycine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using ultrafiltration and PEG precipitation, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 samples of the 26 samples, respectively. When nested RT-PCR was used to detect HEV, all samples tested negative regardless of the type of elution buffer or concentration method used. Therefore, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and ultrafiltration with PBS buffer was the most sensitive and reliable method for detecting HEV in swine livers.

  1. Quantification of Norwalk virus inocula: Comparison of endpoint titration and real-time reverse transcription-PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengbo; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. In order to fully characterize features such as persistence and infectious dose, precise quantification of virus concentration is necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods [endpoint titration RT-PCR and quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR)] with respect to quantification of Norwalk virus (NV) in inocula made from purified stock suspensions of human fecal specimens. A full-length NV RNA transcript was developed to facilitate quantification using RT-qPCR and provided log linear detection in the range of 49-4.9 x 10(4) genome equivalent copies (GEC) per reaction. Endpoint titration RT-PCR was used to estimate PCR detection units, and RT-qPCR was used to estimate genome copies in two NV inocula (8fIIa and 8fIIb) used in previous human challenge studies. Overall, RT-qPCR was 1.1-1.6 log(10) more sensitive (lower detection limit) than endpoint titration RT-PCR when the same RNA release method, PCR primers and thermocycle program were used. These findings have important implications for many experimental interpretations, not the least of which is estimating the median infectious dose in human challenge studies.

  2. Relative quantification of HLA-DRA1 and -DQA1 expression by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, S; Wassmuth, R; Knerr, I; Frank, C; Haas, J P

    2003-04-01

    Polymorphism in the upstream regulatory region (URR) of the MHC class II DQA1 gene defines 10 different alleles named QAP (DQA1 promoter). In vitro studies have suggested that allelic polymorphism in the HLA-DQA promoter region may result in differences in HLA-DQA1 gene expression. In the present study, we used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to quantify differences in HLA-DQA1 gene expression. After the isolation of total mRNA, reverse transcription into cDNA was carried out using random hexamer priming and moloney murine leukaemia virus (MMLV) reverse transcriptase. Quantification of DQA1 mRNA species using a set of six group-specific primer pairs for the detection of HLA-DQA1*01, *02, *03, *04, *05 and *06 was carried out on an ABI PRISM GeneAmp 7700 Sequence Detection System (Perkin Elmer, Foster City, CA) with real-time detection and quantification taking advantage of the fluorescence TaqMan technology (Perkin Elmer, Foster City, CA). Normalization of cDNA templates was achieved by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) quantification. In addition, the total amount of mRNA produced by HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DRA1 expression was quantified for comparison. Subsequently, this approach was validated using Raji and HUT-78 cell lines and tested with peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 45 samples taken from healthy volunteers. The sensitivity was determined with > or = 10(2) copies. Comparison of the allele-specific DQA1 expression with the total expression of DQA1 and DRA1 mRNA indicated that DQA1*04 expression was increased compared with the expression of other alleles of the DQA1 gene. Thus, allele-specific quantification of DQA1 gene products could be achieved by real-time RT-PCR suitable for the analysis of differential expression of DQA1 mRNAs in homozygote and heterozygote combinations.

  3. Rapid Diagnosis of Mycobacterial Infections and Quantitation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Load by Two Real-Time Calibrated PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Broccolo, Francesco; Scarpellini, Paolo; Locatelli, Giuseppe; Zingale, Anna; Brambilla, Anna M.; Cichero, Paola; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lusso, Paolo; Malnati, Mauro S.

    2003-01-01

    Sensitive and specific techniques to detect and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly in clinical specimens are important for the diagnosis and management of patients with tuberculosis (TB). We developed two real-time PCR assays, based on the IS6110 multicopy element and on the senX3-regX3 intergenic region, which provide a rapid method for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infections. The sensitivity and specificity of both assays were established by using purified DNA from 71 clinical isolates and 121 clinical samples collected from 83 patients, 20 of whom were affected by TB. Both assays are accurate, sensitive, and specific, showing a complementary pattern of Mycobacterium recognition: broader for the IS6110-based assay and restricted to the M. tuberculosis complex for the senX3-regX3-based assay. Moreover, the addition of a synthetic DNA calibrator prior to DNA extraction allowed us to measure the efficiency of DNA recovery and to control for the presence of PCR inhibitors. The mycobacterial burden of the clinical samples, as assessed by direct microscopy, correlates with the M. tuberculosis DNA load measured by the senX3-regX3-based assay. In addition, reduced levels of M. tuberculosis DNA load are present in those patients subjected to successful therapy, suggesting a potential use of this assay for monitoring treatment efficacy. Therefore, these assays represent a fully controlled high-throughput system for the evaluation of mycobacterial burden in clinical specimens. PMID:14532183

  4. Development of a quantitative immunocapture real-time PCR assay for detecting structurally intact adenoviral particles in water.

    PubMed

    Ogorzaly, Leslie; Bonot, Sébastien; Moualij, Benaissa El; Zorzi, Willy; Cauchie, Henry-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Development of rapid, sensitive and specific methods for detection of infectious enteric viruses in water is challenging but crucial for gaining reliable information for risk assessment. An immunocapture real-time PCR (IC-qPCR) was designed to detect jointly the two major viral particle components, i.e. the capsid protein and the viral genome. Targeting both constituents helps circumventing the technical limits of cell culture approaches and the inability of PCR based methods to predict the infectious status. Two waterborne pathogenic virus models, human adenovirus types 2 and 41, were chosen for this study. IC-qPCR showed a detection limit of 10MPNCU/reaction with a dynamic range from 10(2) to 10(6)MPNCU/reaction. Sensitivity was thus 100-fold higher compared to ELISA-based capture employing the same anti-hexon antibodies. After optimisation, application on environmental water samples was validated, and specificity towards the targeted virus types was obtained through the qPCR step. Heat-treated pure samples as well as surface water samples brought evidence that this method achieves detection of encapsidated viral genomes while excluding free viral genome amplification. As a consequence, adenovirus concentrations estimated by IC-qPCR were below those calculated by direct qPCR. The results demonstrate that the IC-qPCR method is a sensitive and rapid tool for detecting, in a single-tube assay, structurally intact and thus potentially infectious viral particles in environmental samples. PMID:23850702

  5. Development and validation of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for the early diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Gago, Sara; Buitrago, María José; Clemons, Karl V; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mirels, Laurence F; Stevens, David A

    2014-06-01

    A new real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay based on a Coccidioides genus-specific molecular beacon probe was developed for the detection of coccidioidomycosis and validated with tissues from animal models and clinical samples. The assay showed high analytic reproducibility (r(2) > 0.99) and specificity for cultured strains (100%); the lower limit of detection was 1 fg of genomic DNA/μL of reaction. Fungal burdens in the organs of mice infected with Coccidioides posadasii strain Silveira were more accurately quantified by RT-PCR compared to colony-forming unit for all tissues. The RT-PCR assay was positive for 97.7% of spleen and 100% of liver or lung. Progression of infection in all organs was similar by both methods (P > 0.05). The sensitivity of the assay also was 100% for paraffin-embedded samples and samples from patients with positive cultures. Our RT-PCR assay is effective for the diagnosis and monitoring of Coccidioides infection, and its use also avoids the biohazard and time delay of identifying cultures in the clinical setting.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms by label-free real-time plasmonic sensing.

    PubMed

    Huertas, César S; Carrascosa, L G; Bonnal, S; Valcárcel, J; Lechuga, L M

    2016-04-15

    Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors enables cells to generate different protein outputs from the same gene depending on their developmental or homeostatic status. Its deregulation is strongly linked to disease onset and progression. Current methodologies for monitoring alternative splicing demand elaborate procedures and often present difficulties in discerning between closely related isoforms, e.g. due to cross-hybridization during their detection. Herein, we report a general methodology using a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor for label-free monitoring of alternative splicing events in real-time, without any cDNA synthesis or PCR amplification requirements. We applied this methodology to RNA isolated from HeLa cells for the quantification of alternatively spliced isoforms of the Fas gene, involved in cancer progression through regulation of programmed cell death. We demonstrate that our methodology is isoform-specific, with virtually no cross-hybridization, achieving limits of detection (LODs) in the picoMolar (pM) range. Similar results were obtained for the detection of the BCL-X gene mRNA isoforms. The results were independently validated by RT-qPCR, with excellent concordance in the determination of isoform ratios. The simplicity and robustness of this biosensor technology can greatly facilitate the exploration of alternative splicing biomarkers in disease diagnosis and therapy.

  7. Rapid differentiation and identification of potential severe strains of Citrus tristeza virus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Yokomi, R K; Saponari, M; Sieburth, P J

    2010-04-01

    A multiplex Taqman-based real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to identify potential severe strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and separate genotypes that react with the monoclonal antibody MCA13. Three strain-specific probes were developed using intergene sequences between the major and minor coat protein genes (CPi) in a multiplex reaction. Probe CPi-VT3 was designed for VT and T3 genotypes; probe CPi-T36 for T36 genotypes; and probe CPi-T36-NS to identify isolates in an outgroup clade of T36-like genotypes mild in California. Total nucleic acids extracted by chromatography on silica particles, sodium dodecyl sulfate-potassium acetate, and CTV virion immunocapture all yielded high quality templates for real-time PCR detection of CTV. These assays successfully differentiated CTV isolates from California, Florida, and a large panel of CTV isolates from an international collection maintained in Beltsville, MD. The utility of the assay was validated using field isolates collected in California and Florida. PMID:20205535

  8. Development, evaluation, and standardization of a real-time TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR assay for quantification of hepatitis A virus in clinical and shellfish samples.

    PubMed

    Costafreda, M Isabel; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa M

    2006-06-01

    A standardized real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay has been developed for an accurate estimation of the number of genome copies of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in clinical and shellfish samples. Real-time procedures were based on the amplification of a fragment of the highly conserved 5' noncoding region and detection through an internal fluorescent probe, including TaqMan and beacon chemistries, in one- and two-step RT-PCR formats. The best performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility was achieved by a one-step TaqMan RT-PCR, with a sensitivity enabling the detection of 0.05 infectious unit and 10 copies of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) synthetic transcript. Standard reagents, such as a mengovirus strain and an ssRNA transcript, were employed as controls of nucleic acid extraction and RT-PCR, respectively. The test proved to be highly specific after a broad panel of enteric viruses was tested. Sequence alignment of target regions of the primers and probe proved them to be adequate for the quantification of all HAV genotypes. In addition, a quasispecies analysis of the mutant spectrum indicated that these regions are not prone to variability, thus confirming their robustness.

  9. A capsid gene-based real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of marine vesiviruses in the Caliciviridae

    PubMed Central

    McClenahan, Shasta D.; Bok, Karin; Neill, John D.; Smith, Alvin W.; Rhodes, Crystal R.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Green, Kim Y.; Romero, Carlos H.

    2009-01-01

    A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) assay was developed for the identification of marine vesiviruses. The primers were designed to target a 176-nucleotide fragment within a highly conserved region of the San Miguel sea lion viruses (SMSVs) capsid gene. The assay detected viral RNA from nine marine vesivirus serotypes described previously, including two serotypes (SMSV-8 and SMSV-12) not identified with presently available molecular assays, a highly-related bovine vesivirus strain (Bos-1), a mink vesivirus strain (MCV), and two novel genotypes isolated recently from Steller sea lions (SSL V810 and V1415). The real-time assay did not amplify sequences from the corresponding genomic regions of feline calicivirus (also in the genus Vesivirus) and representative members of the genus Norovirus. The rtRT-PCR assay described below may prove useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of currently circulating, emerging and previously described marine vesiviruses in clinical samples, especially when large numbers are screened in surveillance studies of these restricted viruses. PMID:19410604

  10. The validation and utility of a quantitative one-step multiplex RT real-time PCR targeting rotavirus A and norovirus.

    PubMed

    Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; My, Phan Vu Tra; Duy, Pham Thanh; Campbell, James I; Thuy, Cao Thu; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Van Minh, Pham; Le Phuc, Hoang; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Vinh, Ha; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Huy, Huynh Le Anh; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Hau, Nguyen Thi Thu; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Simmons, Cameron; Farrar, Jeremy J; Baker, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus (RoV) and Norovirus (NoV) are the main causes of viral gastroenteritis. Currently, there is no validated multiplex real-time PCR that can detect and quantify RoV and NoV simultaneously. The aim of the study was to develop, validate, and internally control a multiplex one-step RT real-time PCR to detect and quantify RoV and NoV in stool samples. PCR sensitivity was assessed by comparing amplification against the current gold standard, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), on stool samples from 94 individuals with diarrhea and 94 individuals without diarrhea. PCR detected 10% more RoV positive samples than EIA in stools samples from patients with diarrhea. PCR detected 23% more NoV genogroup II positive samples from individuals with diarrhea and 9% more from individuals without diarrhea than EIA, respectively. Genotyping of the PCR positive/EIA negative samples suggested the higher rate of PCR positivity, in comparison to EIA, was due to increased sensitivity, rather than nonspecific hybridization. Quantitation demonstrated that the viral loads of RoV and NoV in the stools of diarrheal patients were an order of magnitude greater than in individuals without diarrhea. This internally controlled real-time PCR method is robust, exhibits a high degree of reproducibility, and may have a greater utility and sensitivity than commercial EIA kits. PMID:23046990

  11. Probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Li, Wansi (May); Wernike, Kerstin; Marshall, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has tremendous impact on the pork industry in North America. The molecular diagnosis of infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) is hampered by its considerable strain diversity. In this study, 43 previously published or newly developed primers for probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were evaluated on their sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and repeatability, using a diverse panel of 36 PRRSV strains as well as other arteriviruses and unrelated porcine viruses. Three primer pairs had excellent diagnostic and analytical sensitivity on par with a probe-based reference assay, absolute specificity to virus genotype and species, as well as over 95% reproducibility and repeatability across a wide dynamic range. PMID:26130848

  12. Methods for monitoring dynamics of pulmonary RSV replication by viral culture and by real-time reverse transcription-PCR in vivo: Detection of abortive viral replication.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalova, Marina S; Yim, Kevin C; Prince, Gregory A; Blanco, Jorge C G

    2010-03-01

    Viral infection is normally detected either by viral culture or by PCR methods. Rarely is a combination of the two techniques used in the same study. Yet, when applied simultaneously, viral culture and PCR may reveal important features of viral biology, such as an abortive replication, as in the case of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. In this unit, we describe methods for detecting abortive RSV replication in a cotton rat model by using the plaque-forming unit assay and the real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay. All steps of the process of monitoring viral replication in vivo are described, starting from the design of animal infection protocols. We continue on to the methods for extracting and processing lung samples for viral culture and RNA extraction, and finish with the actual methods of viral titration by the qRT-PCR and the plaque-forming unit assays.

  13. Probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Canada.

    PubMed

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Li, Wansi May; Wernike, Kerstin; Marshall, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has tremendous impact on the pork industry in North America. The molecular diagnosis of infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) is hampered by its considerable strain diversity. In this study, 43 previously published or newly developed primers for probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were evaluated on their sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and repeatability, using a diverse panel of 36 PRRSV strains as well as other arteriviruses and unrelated porcine viruses. Three primer pairs had excellent diagnostic and analytical sensitivity on par with a probe-based reference assay, absolute specificity to virus genotype and species, as well as over 95% reproducibility and repeatability across a wide dynamic range.

  14. A Field-Portable Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometer for Real-time Quantitation and Spatial Mapping of Atmospheric and Aqueous Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Ryan J.; Davey, Nicholas G.; Martinsen, Morten; Collin-Hansen, Christian; Krogh, Erik T.; Gill, Christopher G.

    2015-02-01

    Environmental concentrations of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC/SVOCs) can vary dramatically in time and space under the influence of environmental conditions. In an industrial setting, multiple point and diffuse sources can contribute to fugitive emissions. Assessments and monitoring programs using periodic grab sampling provide limited information, often with delay times of days or weeks. We report the development and use of a novel, portable membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) system capable of resolving and quantifying VOC and SVOCs with high spatial and temporal resolution, in the field, in real-time. An electron impact ionization cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer modified with a capillary hollow fiber polydimethylsiloxane membrane interface was used for continuous air and water sampling. Tandem mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring scans performed in series allowed for the quantitation of target analytes, and full scan mode was used to survey for unexpected analytes. Predeployment and in-field external calibrations were combined with a continuously infused internal standard to enable real-time quantitation and monitor instrument performance. The system was operated in a moving vehicle with internet-linked data processing and storage. Software development to integrate MIMS and relevant meta-data for visualization and geospatial presentation in Google Earth is presented. Continuous quantitation enables the capture of transient events that may be missed or under-represented by traditional grab sampling strategies. Real-time geospatial maps of chemical concentration enable adaptive sampling and in-field decision support. Sample datasets presented in this work were collected in Northern Alberta in 2010-2012.

  15. A field-portable membrane introduction mass spectrometer for real-time quantitation and spatial mapping of atmospheric and aqueous contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ryan J; Davey, Nicholas G; Martinsen, Morten; Collin-Hansen, Christian; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Christopher G

    2015-02-01

    Environmental concentrations of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC/SVOCs) can vary dramatically in time and space under the influence of environmental conditions. In an industrial setting, multiple point and diffuse sources can contribute to fugitive emissions. Assessments and monitoring programs using periodic grab sampling provide limited information, often with delay times of days or weeks. We report the development and use of a novel, portable membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) system capable of resolving and quantifying VOC and SVOCs with high spatial and temporal resolution, in the field, in real-time. An electron impact ionization cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer modified with a capillary hollow fiber polydimethylsiloxane membrane interface was used for continuous air and water sampling. Tandem mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring scans performed in series allowed for the quantitation of target analytes, and full scan mode was used to survey for unexpected analytes. Predeployment and in-field external calibrations were combined with a continuously infused internal standard to enable real-time quantitation and monitor instrument performance. The system was operated in a moving vehicle with internet-linked data processing and storage. Software development to integrate MIMS and relevant meta-data for visualization and geospatial presentation in Google Earth is presented. Continuous quantitation enables the capture of transient events that may be missed or under-represented by traditional grab sampling strategies. Real-time geospatial maps of chemical concentration enable adaptive sampling and in-field decision support. Sample datasets presented in this work were collected in Northern Alberta in 2010-2012.

  16. A field-portable membrane introduction mass spectrometer for real-time quantitation and spatial mapping of atmospheric and aqueous contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ryan J; Davey, Nicholas G; Martinsen, Morten; Collin-Hansen, Christian; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Christopher G

    2015-02-01

    Environmental concentrations of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC/SVOCs) can vary dramatically in time and space under the influence of environmental conditions. In an industrial setting, multiple point and diffuse sources can contribute to fugitive emissions. Assessments and monitoring programs using periodic grab sampling provide limited information, often with delay times of days or weeks. We report the development and use of a novel, portable membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) system capable of resolving and quantifying VOC and SVOCs with high spatial and temporal resolution, in the field, in real-time. An electron impact ionization cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer modified with a capillary hollow fiber polydimethylsiloxane membrane interface was used for continuous air and water sampling. Tandem mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring scans performed in series allowed for the quantitation of target analytes, and full scan mode was used to survey for unexpected analytes. Predeployment and in-field external calibrations were combined with a continuously infused internal standard to enable real-time quantitation and monitor instrument performance. The system was operated in a moving vehicle with internet-linked data processing and storage. Software development to integrate MIMS and relevant meta-data for visualization and geospatial presentation in Google Earth is presented. Continuous quantitation enables the capture of transient events that may be missed or under-represented by traditional grab sampling strategies. Real-time geospatial maps of chemical concentration enable adaptive sampling and in-field decision support. Sample datasets presented in this work were collected in Northern Alberta in 2010-2012. PMID:25477082

  17. Quantification of viable Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater using propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Alonso, José L; Amorós, Inmaculada; Guy, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) is a rapid tool to quantify pathogens in the aquatic environment; however, it quantifies all pathogens, including both viable and nonviable. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a membrane-impairment dye that penetrates only membrane-damaged cells. Once inside the cell, PMA is covalently cross-linked to DNA through light photoactivation, and PCR amplification is strongly inhibited. The goal of this study was to evaluate PMA-qPCR assays for rapid quantification of viable and heat-treated Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater. We observed a reduction in detection of heat-treated Giardia duodenalis cysts of 83.2, 89.9, 98.2, or 97% with PMA-qPCR assays amplifying a 75 base-pair (bp) β-giardin target, 77-bp triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), 133-bp glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and 143-bp β-giardin gene target, respectively. Thus, the exclusion of dead cysts was more effective when qPCR assays that produced larger amplicons were used. The PMA treatment of Cryptosporidium oocysts plus/minus heat treatment abolished the fluorescent signal for dead oocysts with a PMA-qPCR assay amplifying a Cryptosporidium parvum (150-bp) oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. The PMA-qPCR 143-bp β-giardin assay for Giardia and the PMA-qPCR 150-bp COWP assay for Cryptosporidium accurately quantified live oo(cysts), and failed to detect dead oo(cysts), when phosphate-buffered saline and tertiary effluent wastewater were spiked with concentrations of 10(3) or 10(2) dead oo(cysts), respectively. Therefore, these assays are suitable for the detection of viable parasites that are typically present in tertiary wastewater effluents at concentrations of <10(3) oo(cysts)/l and can provide rapid risk assessments of environmental water.

  18. Clinical validation study of quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection and monitoring of BK virus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kudose, Satoru; Dong, Jianli

    2014-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) causes nephropathy (BKVN) in renal transplant patients, but monitoring of BKV loads provides an opportunity to prevent BKVN. However, because viral load measurement is not standardized, each laboratory must validate their methodology. We performed a retrospective analysis of 1371 plasma and 600 urine BKV loads measured by the laboratory developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of BKV DNA and 346 biopsies from 284 patients in our renal transplant program. We assessed the ability of plasma and urine viral loads to predict the presence of BKVN in biopsy using the receiver-operator characteristic curve. We determined that the cut-offs 3.7 and 7.2 log copies/ml have the best sensitivity (100% and 100%) and specificity (97.6% and 97.5%) for the detection of concurrent biopsy with BKVN by plasma and urine viral load, respectively. Also, we determined that the presence of at least two viral loads greater than 2.8 log copies/ml for plasma and 6.4 log copies/ml for urine within 30 days of biopsy can detect BKVN with similar operating characteristics. Lastly, among pairs of urine and plasma viral loads from the same day, we found that 375 of 376 urine viral loads <4 log copies/ml were accompanied by plasma viral loads <2.6 log copies/ml, a finding which can alleviate the need for plasma viral load for most patients. In summary, our RT-PCR of BKV DNA has good operating characteristics, and our findings above can help in development of a better strategy to monitor BKV.

  19. Real-time PCR for quantitative analysis of human commensal Escherichia coli populations reveals a high frequency of subdominant phylogroups.

    PubMed

    Smati, Mounira; Clermont, Olivier; Le Gal, Frédéric; Schichmanoff, Olivier; Jauréguy, Françoise; Eddi, Alain; Denamur, Erick; Picard, Bertrand

    2013-08-01

    Escherichia coli is divided into four main phylogenetic groups, which each exhibit ecological specialization. To understand the population structure of E. coli in its primary habitat, we directly assessed the relative proportions of these phylogroups from the stools of 100 healthy human subjects using a new real-time PCR method, which allows a large number of samples to be studied. The detection threshold for our technique was 0.1% of the E. coli population, i.e., 10(5) CFU/g of feces; in other methods based on individual colony analysis, the threshold is 10%. One, two, three, or four phylogenetic groups were simultaneously found in 21%, 48%, 21%, and 8% of the subjects, respectively. Phylogroups present at a threshold of less than 10% of the population were found in 40% of the subjects, revealing high within-individual diversity. Phylogroups A and B2 were detected in 74% and 70% of the subjects, respectively; phylogroups B1 and D were detected in 36% and 32%, respectively. When phylogroup B2 was dominant, it tended not to cooccur with other phylogroups. In contrast, other phylogroups were present when phylogroup A was dominant. These data indicate a complex pattern of interactions between the members of a single species within the human gut and identify a reservoir of clones that are present at a low frequency. The presence of these minor clones could explain the fluctuation in the composition of the E. coli microbiota within single individuals that may be seen over time. They could also constitute reservoirs of virulent and/or resistant strains.

  20. Optimization of rapid Salmonella enterica detection in liquid whole eggs by SYBR green I-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Techathuvanan, Chayapa; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2011-04-01

    Eggs and egg products have a high risk of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis contamination leading to gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. Thus, a rapid screening tool for viable Salmonella Enteritidis cells in the egg industry is needed. Our objective was to rapidly and sensitively detect viable Salmonella Enteritidis from spiked liquid whole eggs (LWEs) within 24 h using SYBR green I-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the Salmonella specific invA gene along with an internal amplification control in a Bio-Rad iCycler. LWE was inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis and mixed with tetrathionate broth, and 100 μL of serially diluted portions in phosphate-buffered saline was plated on Xylose Lysine Tergitol 4 agar or 5 mL were used for RNA extraction by the TRIzol method immediately or after enrichment of 6, 12, or 16 h at 37 °C. The real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay was carried out using previously described Salmonella invA gene primers. Melt temperature analysis of the PCR product was included to determine specific invA amplification. Without enrichment, the assay detection limit was 10(7) colony forming units (CFU)/25 mL LWE. After enrichment for 6 and 12 h, Salmonella Enteritidis could be detected from LWE up to 10(4) and 10(2) CFU/25 mL, respectively. Improved Salmonella Enteritidis detection up to 10(0) CFU/25 mL was obtained after 16-h enrichment. Even with 16-h enrichment, the results could be still be obtained within 24 h, which is much faster than by traditional cultural detection that takes several days. Therefore, this assay appears suitable for routine detection of Salmonella enterica contamination by the egg industry to help prevent the transmission of egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks and timely recall of contaminated products.

  1. Improvement of radar quantitative precipitation estimation based on real-time adjustments to Z-R relationships and inverse distance weighting correction schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaili; Liu, Liping; Ding, Yuanyuan

    2012-05-01

    The errors in radar quantitative precipitation estimations consist not only of systematic biases caused by random noises but also spatially nonuniform biases in radar rainfall at individual rain-gauge stations. In this study, a real-time adjustment to the radar reflectivity-rainfall rates ( Z-R) relationship scheme and the gauge-corrected, radar-based, estimation scheme with inverse distance weighting interpolation was developed. Based on the characteristics of the two schemes, the two-step correction technique of radar quantitative precipitation estimation is proposed. To minimize the errors between radar quantitative precipitation estimations and rain gauge observations, a real-time adjustment to the Z-R relationship scheme is used to remove systematic bias on the time-domain. The gauge-corrected, radar-based, estimation scheme is then used to eliminate non-uniform errors in space. Based on radar data and rain gauge observations near the Huaihe River, the two-step correction technique was evaluated using two heavy-precipitation events. The results show that the proposed scheme improved not only in the underestimation of rainfall but also reduced the root-mean-square error and the mean relative error of radar-rain gauge pairs.

  2. Development of a highly sensitive semi-quantitative real-time PCR and molecular beacon probe assay for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Cane, Patricia A

    2004-06-15

    Molecular beacons are a novel class of oligonucleotide probe capable of reporting the accumulation of target amplicon during real-time PCR by the emission of a fluorescent signal. A novel assay for the detection and estimation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleic acid in clinical specimens based on real-time PCR utilising such a probe was developed. The probe consisted of two short arm sequences and a central loop sequence complementary to a region of the N gene (the target amplicon). The probe was characterised and a semi-quantitative nested real-time PCR using a LightCycler instrument was optimised. Standard curves were generated using cycle threshold (C(t)) values calculated from several assays over a range of logarithmic RSV titres. Linear coefficient correlations were close to one ( r(2) = 0.998) and the detection limit of the optimised assay was reproducibly shown to be 1 x 10 (-4) pfu/ml. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of C(t) values of the optimal assay was 0.8% and the CV of quantification data was 6.6%. The interassay CV of C(t) values was 2.0% and the quantification CV was 6.7%. The validity of the assay for the detection of RSV in clinical specimens was assessed by analysing ten specimens previously assayed in a different laboratory. Real-time PCR analysis was completely consistent with the results of prior analysis. The rapidity, sensitivity and specificity of the assay should greatly facilitate epidemiological studies, particularly in adults as existing methods perform better on clinical specimens from children.

  3. Quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection of Paenibacillus polymyxa using membrane-fusion protein-based primers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Seok; Park, Dong Suk; Lee, Jung Won; Chi, Hee Youn; Sohn, Soo-In; Jeon, Bong-Kyun; Ma, Jong-Beom

    2012-11-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa is known to be a plant-growthpromoting rhizobacterium. The present study describes a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the specific detection and quantitation of P. polymyxa using a primer pair based on the sequence of a membranefusion protein for the amplification of a 268 bp DNA fragment. This study reports that the qPCR-based method is applicable for the rapid and sensitive detection of P. polymyxa and can be used as an alternative method for agricultural soil monitoring.

  4. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assays for the sensitive detection of Besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine besnoitiosis, an economically important disease in cattle in many countries of Africa and Asia, has re-emerged in Europe. Sensitive and quantitative DNA detection methods are needed to determine whether serologically positive animals are infectious and to examine the role of vectors (e.g. ha...

  5. Quantitation of minimal residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with t(15;17) translocation using real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Cassinat, B; Zassadowski, F; Balitrand, N; Barbey, C; Rain, J D; Fenaux, P; Degos, L; Vidaud, M; Chomienne, C

    2000-02-01

    We took advantage of a recently developed system allowing performance of real-time quantitation of polymerase chain reaction to develop a quantitative method of measurement of PML-RARalpha transcripts which are hallmarks of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(15;17) translocation. Indeed, although quantitation of minimal residual disease has proved to be useful in predicting clinical outcome in other leukemias such as chronic myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia, no quantitative data have been provided in the case of APL. We present here a method for quantitation of the most frequent subtypes of t(15;17) transcripts (namely bcr1 and bcr3). One specific forward primer is used for each subtype in order to keep amplicon length under 200 bp. The expression of PML-RARalpha transcripts is normalized using the housekeeping porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) gene. This technique allows detection of 10 copies of PML-RARalpha or PBGD plasmids, and quantitation was efficient up to 100 copies. One t(15;17)-positive NB4 cell could be detected among 106 HL60 cells, although quantitation was efficient up to one cell among 105. Repeatability and reproducibility of the method were satisfying as intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients were not higher than 15%. The efficiency of the method was finally tested in patient samples, showing a decrease of the PML-RARalpha copy number during therapy, and an increase at the time of relapse.

  6. Development of a one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara and Rio Mamore hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Machado, Alex Martins; de Souza, William Marciel; de Pádua, Michelly; da Silva Rodrigues Machado, Aline Rafaela; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-09-19

    Hantaviruses are members of the family Bunyaviridae and are an emerging cause of disease worldwide with high lethality in the Americas. In Brazil, the diagnosis for hantaviruses is based on immunologic techniques associated with conventional RT-PCR. A novel one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR was developed for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara (ARAV) and Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV). The detection limit of assay was 10 copies/μL of RNA in vitro transcribed of segment S. The specificity of assay was evaluated by melting curve analysis, which showed that the Araraquara virus amplified product generated a melt peak at 80.83 ± 0.89 °C without generating primer-dimers or non-specific products. The assay was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and we detected two samples undetected by conventional RT-PCR. The one-step SYBR Green real-time quantitative RT-PCR is specific, sensible and reproducible, which makes it a powerful tool in both diagnostic applications and general research of ARAV and RIOMV and possibly other Brazilian hantaviruses.

  7. Determination of low bacterial concentrations in hyperarid Atacama soils: comparison of biochemical and microscopy methods with real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Lauren E; Conley, Catharine A; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E; Perez-Montaño, Saul; Condori-Apaza, Renee; Kovacs, Gregory T A; Glavin, Daniel P; McKay, Christopher P

    2011-11-01

    Hyperarid Atacama soils are reported to contain significantly reduced numbers of microbes per gram of soil relative to soils from other environments. Molecular methods have been used to evaluate microbial populations in hyperarid Atacama soils; however, conflicting results across the various studies, possibly caused by this low number of microorganisms and consequent biomass, suggest that knowledge of expected DNA concentrations in these soils becomes important to interpreting data from any method regarding microbial concentrations and diversity. In this paper we compare the number of bacteria per gram of Atacama Desert soils determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction with the number of bacteria estimated by the standard methods of phospholipids fatty acid analysis, adenine composition (determined by liquid chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry), and SYBR-green microscopy. The number determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction as implemented in this study was several orders of magnitude lower than that determined by the other three methods and probably underestimates the concentrations of soil bacteria, most likely because of soil binding during the DNA extraction methods. However, the other methods very possibly overestimate the bacteria concentrations owing to desiccated, intact organisms, which would stain positive in microscopy and preserve both adenine and phospholipid fatty acid for the other methods.

  8. [Detection of JAK2V617F mutation rate by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR using allele specific primer and TaqMan-MGB probe for dual inhibiting amplification of wild type alleles].

    PubMed

    Liang, Guo-Wei; Shao, Dong-Hua; He, Mei-Ling; Cao, Qing-Yun

    2012-12-01

    This study was purposed to develop a real-time PCR assay for sensitive quantification of JAK2V617F allele burden in peripheral blood and to evaluate the clinical value of this method. Both allele-specific mutant reverse primer and wild-type TaqMan-MGB probe were used for dual-inhibiting amplification of wild-type alleles in a real-time PCR, and then the JAK2V617F mutant alleles were amplified specially. The standard curve for quantification of JAK2V617F was established by percentages of JAK2V617F alleles with threshold cycle (Ct) values in a real-time PCR. Furthermore, 89 apparent healthy donors were tested by this method. The results showed that the quantitative lower limit of this method for JAK2V617F was 0.1%, and the intra- and inter-assay average variability for quantifying percentage of JAK2V617F in total DNA was 4.1% and 6.1%, respectively. Two JAK2V617F-positive individuals were identified (the percentage of JAK2V617F alleles were 0.64% and 0.98%, respectively) using this method in blood from 89 apparently healthy donors. It is concluded that the developed method with highly sensitive and reproducible quantification of JAK2V617F mutant burden can be used clinically for diagnosis and evaluation of disease prognosis and efficacy of therapy in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Moreover, this technique can be also used for quantitative detection of variety of single nucleotide mutation.

  9. Development of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection of Vibrio tubiashii targeting the metalloprotease gene.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Dima N; Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Häse, Claudia C

    2009-03-01

    Vibrio tubiashii has recently re-emerged as a pathogen of bivalve larvae, causing a marked increase in the mortality of these species within shellfish rearing facilities. This has resulted in substantial losses of seed production and thus created the need for specific as well as sensitive detection methods for this pathogen. In this project, quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers were developed and optimized based upon analysis of the V. tubiashii vtpA gene sequence, encoding a metalloprotease known to cause larval mortality. Standard curves were developed utilizing dilutions of known quantities of V. tubiashii cells that were compared to colony forming unit (CFU) plate counts. The assay was optimized for detection of vtpA with both lab-grown V. tubiashii samples and filter-captured environmental seawater samples seeded with V. tubiashii. In addition, the primers were confirmed to specifically detect only V. tubiashii when tested against a variety of non-target Vibrio species. Validation of the assay was completed by analyzing samples obtained from a shellfish hatchery. The development of this rapid and sensitive assay for quantitative detection of V. tubiashii will accurately determine levels of this bacterium in a variety of seawater samples, providing a useful tool for oyster hatcheries and a method to assess the presence of this bacterium in the current turbulent ocean environment.

  10. Evaluation of a rapid, quantitative real-time PCR method for enumeration of pathogenic Candida cells in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinkman, Nichole E.; Haugland, Richard A.; Wymer, Larry J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Vesper, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (QPCR) technology, incorporating fluorigenic 5′ nuclease (TaqMan) chemistry, was utilized for the specific detection and quantification of six pathogenic species of Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. lusitaniae) in water. Known numbers of target cells were added to distilled and tap water samples, filtered, and disrupted directly on the membranes for recovery of DNA for QPCR analysis. The assay's sensitivities were between one and three cells per filter. The accuracy of the cell estimates was between 50 and 200% of their true value (95% confidence level). In similar tests with surface water samples, the presence of PCR inhibitory compounds necessitated further purification and/or dilution of the DNA extracts, with resultant reductions in sensitivity but generally not in quantitative accuracy. Analyses of a series of freshwater samples collected from a recreational beach showed positive correlations between the QPCR results and colony counts of the corresponding target species. Positive correlations were also seen between the cell quantities of the target Candida species detected in these analyses and colony counts of Enterococcus organisms. With a combined sample processing and analysis time of less than 4 h, this method shows great promise as a tool for rapidly assessing potential exposures to waterborne pathogenic Candida species from drinking and recreational waters and may have applications in the detection of fecal pollution.

  11. Nested-PCR and TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR assays for human adenoviruses in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chien; Chou, Yi-Pen; Kao, Po-Min; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Su, Hung-Chang; Ho, Ying-Ning; Yang, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Bing-Mu

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) infections can occur throughout the year. Cases of HAdV-associated respiratory disease have been more common in the late winter, spring, and early summer. In this study, to provide viral pollution data for further epidemiological studies and governmental actions, the presence of HAdV in the aquatic environment was quantitatively surveyed in the summer. This study was conducted to compare the efficiencies of nested-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and qPCR (quantitative PCR) for detecting HAdV in environmental waters. A total of 73 water samples were collected from Puzi River in Taiwan and subjected to virus concentration methods. In the results, qPCR had much better efficiency for specifying the pathogen in river sample. HAdV41 was detected most frequently in the river water sample (10.9%). The estimated HAdV concentrations ranged between 6.75 × 10(2) and 2.04 × 10(9) genome copies/L. Significant difference was also found in heterotrophic plate counts, conductivity, water temperature, and water turbidity between presence/absence of HAdV. HAdV in the Puzi River may pose a significant health risk. PMID:27120637

  12. Development of a high-throughput screening platform for DNA 3'-phosphatases and their inhibitors based on a universal molecular beacon and quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Song, Chen; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Mei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    DNA 3'-phosphatases play a unique role in the repair of strand breaks induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation or oxidative stress. In this paper, we present an efficient detection system for rapid screening of DNA 3'-phosphatases and their inhibitors. A unique template substrate has been designed to hybridize with the universal molecular beacon (U-MB), and the detection process is carried out in a quantitative real-time PCR. The method is successfully applied to monitor the activity and kinetics of two typical 3'-phosphatases, that is, T4 polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (PNKP) and calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIP). The inhibition effect of heparin on T4 PNKP and theophylline on CIP is also quantitatively characterized. The proposed method is demonstrated to be very useful for sensitive, high-throughput, and precise measurement of various 3'-phosphatases and their inhibitors.

  13. Real-time quantitative monitoring of hiPSC-based model of macular degeneration on Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Gamal, W.; Borooah, S.; Smith, S.; Underwood, I.; Srsen, V.; Chandran, S.; Bagnaninchi, P.O.; Dhillon, B.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Humanized disease models are required to develop new therapies for currently incurable forms of AMD. In this work, a tissue-on-a-chip approach was developed through combining human induced pluripotent stem cells, Electric Cell–substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) and reproducible electrical wounding assays to model and quantitatively study AMD. Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells generated from a patient with an inherited macular degeneration and from an unaffected sibling were used to test the model platform on which a reproducible electrical wounding assay was conducted to model RPE damage. First, a robust and reproducible real-time quantitative monitoring over a 25-day period demonstrated the establishment and maturation of RPE layers on the microelectrode arrays. A spatially controlled RPE layer damage that mimicked cell loss in AMD disease was then initiated. Post recovery, significant differences (P<0.01) in migration rates were found between case (8.6±0.46 μm/h) and control cell lines (10.69±0.21 μm/h). Quantitative data analysis suggested this was achieved due to lower cell–substrate adhesion in the control cell line. The ECIS cell–substrate adhesion parameter (α) was found to be 7.8±0.28 Ω1/2 cm for the case cell line and 6.5±0.15 Ω1/2 cm for the control. These findings were confirmed using cell adhesion biochemical assays. The developed disease model-on-a-chip is a powerful platform for translational studies with considerable potential to investigate novel therapies by enabling real-time, quantitative and reproducible patient-specific RPE cell repair studies. PMID:25950942

  14. Real-time quantitative monitoring of hiPSC-based model of macular degeneration on Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Gamal, W; Borooah, S; Smith, S; Underwood, I; Srsen, V; Chandran, S; Bagnaninchi, P O; Dhillon, B

    2015-09-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Humanized disease models are required to develop new therapies for currently incurable forms of AMD. In this work, a tissue-on-a-chip approach was developed through combining human induced pluripotent stem cells, Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) and reproducible electrical wounding assays to model and quantitatively study AMD. Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells generated from a patient with an inherited macular degeneration and from an unaffected sibling were used to test the model platform on which a reproducible electrical wounding assay was conducted to model RPE damage. First, a robust and reproducible real-time quantitative monitoring over a 25-day period demonstrated the establishment and maturation of RPE layers on the microelectrode arrays. A spatially controlled RPE layer damage that mimicked cell loss in AMD disease was then initiated. Post recovery, significant differences (P < 0.01) in migration rates were found between case (8.6 ± 0.46 μm/h) and control cell lines (10.69 ± 0.21 μm/h). Quantitative data analysis suggested this was achieved due to lower cell-substrate adhesion in the control cell line. The ECIS cell-substrate adhesion parameter (α) was found to be 7.8 ± 0.28 Ω(1/2)cm for the case cell line and 6.5 ± 0.15 Ω(1/2)cm for the control. These findings were confirmed using cell adhesion biochemical assays. The developed disease model-on-a-chip is a powerful platform for translational studies with considerable potential to investigate novel therapies by enabling real-time, quantitative and reproducible patient-specific RPE cell repair studies.

  15. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assessment of spinal microglial and astrocytic activation markers in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Tanga, F Y; Raghavendra, V; DeLeo, J A

    2004-01-01

    Activated spinal glial cells have been strongly implicated in the development and maintenance of persistent pain states following a variety of stimuli including traumatic nerve injury. The present study was conducted to characterize the time course of surface markers indicative of microglial and astrocytic activation at the transcriptional level following an L5 nerve transection that results in behavioral hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a normal group, a sham surgery group with an L5 spinal nerve exposure and an L5 spinal nerve transected group. Mechanical allodynia (heightened response to a non-noxious stimulus) of the ipsilateral hind paw was assessed throughout the study. Spinal lumbar mRNA levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), integrin alpha M (ITGAM), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cluster determinant 14 (CD14) were assayed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at 4 h, 1, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days post surgery. The spinal lumbar mRNA expression of ITGAM, TLR4, and CD14 was upregulated at 4 h post surgery, CD14 peaked 4 days after spinal nerve transection while ITGAM and TLR4 continued to increase until day 14 and returned to almost normal levels by postoperative day 28. In contrast, spinal GFAP mRNA did not significantly increase until postoperative day 4 and then continued to increase over the duration of the study. Our optimized real-time RT-PCR method was highly sensitive, specific and reproducible at a wide dynamic range. This study demonstrates that peripheral nerve injury induces an early spinal microglial activation that precedes astrocytic activation using mRNA for surface marker expression; the delayed but sustained expression of mRNA coding for GFAP implicates astrocytes in the maintenance phase of persistent pain states. In summary, these data demonstrate a distinct spinal glial response following nerve injury using real-time RT-PCR. PMID:15145554

  16. Modified H5 real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR oligonucleotides for detection of divergent avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdelwhab, E M; Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Erfan, Ahmed M; Aly, Mona M; Hafez, Hafez M

    2010-12-01

    The efforts exerted to prevent circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in birds are the best way to prevent the emergence of a new virus subtype with pandemic potential. Despite the blanket vaccination strategy against HPAI H5N1 in Egypt, continuous circulation of the virus in poultry has increased since late 2007 as a result of the presence of genetic and antigenic distinct variant strains that have escaped during the immune response of vaccinated birds. Although the suspected poultry flocks have had signs and lesions commonly seen in HPAI H5N1-infected birds, escape of variant strains from detection by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RRT-PCR) was observed. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed multiple single nucleotide substitutions in the primers and probe target sequences of the H5 gene by real-time RT-PCR. This study describes the results of RRT-PCR, modified from an existing protocol with regard to the detection of the partial H5 gene segment of the Egyptian H5N1 divergent viruses and applied to nationwide surveillance. The modified RRT-PCR assay was more sensitive than the original one in the detection of Egyptian isolates, with 104% amplification efficiency. Sixty-one field samples were found to be positive in our assay, but only 51 samples tested positive by the original protocol and were more sensitive than matrix gene RRT-PCR detection assay. A detection limit of 10 mean embryo infective dose (EID50) with the updated oligonucleotides primers and probe set was found. For the foreseeable future, mutation of H5N1 viruses and the endemic situation in developing countries require continuous improvement of current diagnostics to aid in the containment of the H5N1 virus in poultry sectors and to lower the threat of influenza virus spread. PMID:21313854

  17. A Real-Time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction for Differentiation of Massachusetts Vaccine and Brazilian Field Genotypes of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Aline Padilha de; Ikuta, Nilo; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Balestrin, Eder; Rodrigues, Carolina Dias; Canal, Cláudio Wageck; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus is classified into serotypes or genotypes (or both) in different poultry-producing countries of the world. In Brazil, Massachusetts type (Mass), used as a live vaccine, and local field Brazilian variants (genotypes; BR) predominate in the commercial poultry flocks. This study describes the development and validation of two real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR) for the specific detection of Mass and BR genotypes in allantoic fluids and clinical samples. Genotype-specific primers, combined with a generic probe targeted to the S1 gene, originated Mass RT-qPCR and BR RT-qPCR-specific assays. Analytical sensitivity and linearity of these assays were determined in comparison with an IBV generic real-time RT-PCR based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR RT-qPCR). Mass RT-qPCR detected five Mass field isolates, three vaccine samples, and one coinfected sample (BR and Mass) while BR RT-qPCR detected 16 BR field isolates. Both assays were linear (R(2) > 0.98), reproducible, and as sensitive as the classical 5'UTR RT-qPCR used to detect IBV. In the analysis of 141 IBV clinical samples, 8 were positive for Mass RT-qPCR, 76 for BR RT-qPCR, and 2 for both assays. In the remaining 55 samples, 25 were positive only for 5'UTR RT-qPCR and 30 were negative for the three assays. In conclusion, both assays were able to detect Mass and BR genotypes, allowing rapid and easy IBV molecular typing from allantoic fluids and clinical samples.

  18. Targeted profiling of oral bacteria in human saliva and in vitro biofilms with quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Price, R R; Viscount, H B; Stanley, M C; Leung, K-P

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro plaque model based on the use of human salivary bacteria and tooth-like surfaces was previously developed for studying the formation of oral biofilm and its use for pre-clinical testing of candidate antimicrobial or antiplaque agents. In this study, a quantitative Taqman PCR assay (QPCR) was developed to compare the bacterial compositions of in vitro biofilms to parent saliva samples, and to determine the relative contributions of different species in the formation of the oral biofilm. In addition, the growth inhibition of saliva-derived plaque was evaluated by chlorhexidine. With this assay, which consisted of primer/probe sets targeting either 16S rDNA sequences present in public databases or cloned ribosomal intergenic spacer region (ISR) sequences, 15 oral bacteria derived from saliva as well as those that were responsible for biofilm formation in an in vitro plaque model were rapidly identified and quantified. Among the target organisms were Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micromonas micros, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Tannerella forsythensis, and Veillonella parvula. Primer and probe sets developed were both sensitive and specific. The relative profiles of a number of bacteria in 45-h-old biofilms were determined and, when compared to saliva samples, it was found that most of the bacteria identified in saliva also populated the in vitro plaque, including some anaerobes. Brief exposure of biofilms to chlorhexidine resulted in significant losses in viability. This new broad spectrum QPCR assay in combination with the in vitro plaque model will be of significant value in the quantitative study of the microbial composition of human saliva, saliva-derived plaque, and pre-clinical evaluation of potential antimicrobial and antiplaque molecules.

  19. Combining real-time PCR and next-generation DNA sequencing to provide quantitative comparisons of fungal aerosol populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannemiller, Karen C.; Lang-Yona, Naama; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Rudich, Yinon; Peccia, Jordan

    2014-02-01

    We examined fungal communities associated with the PM10 mass of Rehovot, Israel outdoor air samples collected in the spring and fall seasons. Fungal communities were described by 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the fungal ribosomal RNA encoding gene. To allow for a more quantitative comparison of fungal exposure in humans, the relative abundance values of specific taxa were transformed to absolute concentrations through multiplying these values by the sample's total fungal spore concentration (derived from universal fungal qPCR). Next, the sequencing-based absolute concentrations for Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium/Aspergillus spp. were compared to taxon-specific qPCR concentrations for A. alternata, C. cladosporioides, E. nigrum, and Penicillium/Aspergillus spp. derived from the same spring and fall aerosol samples. Results of these comparisons showed that the absolute concentration values generated from pyrosequencing were strongly associated with the concentration values derived from taxon-specific qPCR (for all four species, p < 0.005, all R > 0.70). The correlation coefficients were greater for species present in higher concentrations. Our microbial aerosol population analyses demonstrated that fungal diversity (number of fungal operational taxonomic units) was higher in the spring compared to the fall (p = 0.02), and principal coordinate analysis showed distinct seasonal differences in taxa distribution (ANOSIM p = 0.004). Among genera containing allergenic and/or pathogenic species, the absolute concentrations of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Cladosporium were greater in the fall, while Cryptococcus, Penicillium, and Ulocladium concentrations were greater in the spring. The transformation of pyrosequencing fungal population relative abundance data to absolute concentrations can improve next-generation DNA sequencing-based quantitative aerosol exposure

  20. A two-stage method of quantitative flood risk analysis for reservoir real-time operation using ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of the risk for reservoir real-time operation is a hard task owing to the difficulty of accurate description of inflow uncertainties. The ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts directly depict the inflows not only the marginal distributions but also their persistence via scenarios. This motivates us to analyze the reservoir real-time operating risk with ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts as inputs. A method is developed by using the forecast horizon point to divide the future time into two stages, the forecast lead-time and the unpredicted time. The risk within the forecast lead-time is computed based on counting the failure number of forecast scenarios, and the risk in the unpredicted time is estimated using reservoir routing with the design floods and the reservoir water levels of forecast horizon point. As a result, a two-stage risk analysis method is set up to quantify the entire flood risks by defining the ratio of the number of scenarios that excessive the critical value to the total number of scenarios. The China's Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is selected as a case study, where the parameter and precipitation uncertainties are implemented to produce ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts. The Bayesian inference, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, is used to account for the parameter uncertainty. Two reservoir operation schemes, the real operated and scenario optimization, are evaluated for the flood risks and hydropower profits analysis. With the 2010 flood, it is found that the improvement of the hydrologic forecast accuracy is unnecessary to decrease the reservoir real-time operation risk, and most risks are from the forecast lead-time. It is therefore valuable to decrease the avarice of ensemble-based hydrologic forecasts with less bias for a reservoir operational purpose.

  1. Propidium monoazide combined with real-time quantitative PCR to quantify viable Alternaria spp. contamination in tomato products.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Estiarte, Núria; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2013-08-01

    Alternaria is a common contaminating genus of fungi in fruits, grains, and vegetables that causes severe economic losses to farmers and the food industry. Furthermore, it is claimed that Alternaria spp. are able to produce phytotoxic metabolites, and mycotoxins that are unsafe for human and animal health. DNA amplification techniques are being increasingly applied to detect, identify, and quantify mycotoxigenic fungi in foodstuffs, but the inability of these methods to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells might lead to an overestimation of mycotoxin-producing living cells. A promising technique to overcome this problem is the pre-treatment of samples with nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA selectively penetrates cells with a damaged membrane inhibiting DNA amplification during qPCRs. In our study, a primer pair (Alt4-Alt5) to specifically amplify and quantify Alternaria spp. by qPCR was designed. Quantification data of qPCR achieved a detection limit of 10(2)conidia/g of tomato. Here, we have optimized for the first time a DNA amplification-based PMA sample pre-treatment protocol for detecting viable Alternaria spp. cells. Artificially inoculated tomato samples treated with 65μM of PMA, showed a reduction in the signal by almost 7cycles in qPCR between live and heat-killed Alternaria spp. conidia. The tomato matrix had a protective effect on the cells against PMA toxicity, reducing the efficiency to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells. The results reported here indicate that the PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantifying viable Alternaria cells, which could be useful for estimating potential risks of mycotoxin contamination.

  2. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR in Solanum lycopersicum L. inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Alejandra; Ortiz, Javier; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A; Meneses, Claudio; Arriagada, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    The gene expression stability of candidate reference genes in the roots and leaves of Solanum lycopersicum inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was investigated. Eight candidate reference genes including elongation factor 1 α (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Acs), ribosomal protein L2 (RPL2), β-tubulin (TUB), ubiquitin (UBI) and actin (ACT) were selected, and their expression stability was assessed to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in S. lycopersicum inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The stability of each gene was analysed in leaves and roots together and separated using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Differences were detected between leaves and roots, varying among the best-ranked genes depending on the algorithm used and the tissue analysed. PGK, TUB and EF1 genes showed higher stability in roots, while EF1 and UBI had higher stability in leaves. Statistical algorithms indicated that the GAPDH gene was the least stable under the experimental conditions assayed. Then, we analysed the expression levels of the LePT4 gene, a phosphate transporter whose expression is induced by fungal colonization in host plant roots. No differences were observed when the most stable genes were used as reference genes. However, when GAPDH was used as the reference gene, we observed an overestimation of LePT4 expression. In summary, our results revealed that candidate reference genes present variable stability in S. lycopersicum arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis depending on the algorithm and tissue analysed. Thus, reference gene selection is an important issue for obtaining reliable results in gene expression quantification. PMID:26874621

  3. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR in Solanum lycopersicum L. inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Alejandra; Ortiz, Javier; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A; Meneses, Claudio; Arriagada, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    The gene expression stability of candidate reference genes in the roots and leaves of Solanum lycopersicum inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was investigated. Eight candidate reference genes including elongation factor 1 α (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Acs), ribosomal protein L2 (RPL2), β-tubulin (TUB), ubiquitin (UBI) and actin (ACT) were selected, and their expression stability was assessed to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in S. lycopersicum inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The stability of each gene was analysed in leaves and roots together and separated using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Differences were detected between leaves and roots, varying among the best-ranked genes depending on the algorithm used and the tissue analysed. PGK, TUB and EF1 genes showed higher stability in roots, while EF1 and UBI had higher stability in leaves. Statistical algorithms indicated that the GAPDH gene was the least stable under the experimental conditions assayed. Then, we analysed the expression levels of the LePT4 gene, a phosphate transporter whose expression is induced by fungal colonization in host plant roots. No differences were observed when the most stable genes were used as reference genes. However, when GAPDH was used as the reference gene, we observed an overestimation of LePT4 expression. In summary, our results revealed that candidate reference genes present variable stability in S. lycopersicum arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis depending on the algorithm and tissue analysed. Thus, reference gene selection is an important issue for obtaining reliable results in gene expression quantification.

  4. Real-time PCR-based assay for quantitative detection of Hematodinium sp. in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Nagle, L; Place, A R; Schott, E J; Jagus, R; Messick, G; Pitula, J S

    2009-03-01

    Hematodinium sp. is a parasitic dinoflagellate infecting the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and other crustaceans. PCR-based assays are currently being used to identify infections in crabs that would have been undetectable by traditional microscopic examination. We therefore sought to define the limits of quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection within the context of field collection protocols. We present a qPCR assay based on the Hematodinium sp. 18S rRNA gene that can detect 10 copies of the gene per reaction. Analysis of a cell dilution series vs. defined numbers of a cloned Hematodinium sp. 18S rRNA gene suggests a copy number of 10,000 per parasite and predicts a sensitivity of 0.001 cell equivalents. In practice, the assays are based on analysis of 1% of the DNA extracted from 200 microl of serum, yielding a theoretical detection limit of 5 cells ml(-1) hemolymph, assuming that 1 cell is present per sample. When applied to a limited field survey of blue crabs collected in Maryland coastal bays from May to August 2005, 24 of 128 crabs (18.8%) were identified as positive for Hematodinium sp. infection using qPCR. In comparison, only 6 of 128 crabs (4.7%) were identified as positive using traditional hemolymph microscopic examination. The qPCR method also detected the parasite in gill, muscle, heart and hepatopancreas tissues, with 17.2% of the crabs showing infection in at least one of these tissues. Importantly, it is now possible to enumerate parasites within defined quantities of crab tissue, which permits collection of more detailed information on the epizootiology of the pathogen.

  5. Quantitation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wound biopsy samples: from bacterial culture to rapid `real-time' polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; De Vos, Daniel; Duinslaeger, Luc; Reper, Pascal; Vandenvelde, Christian; Cornelis, Pierre; Vanderkelen, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Early diagnosis of wound colonisation or prediction of wound sepsis provides an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. There is need for qualitative and quantitative tests that are more rapid than bacterial culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in high morbidity and mortality rates, is inherently resistant to common antibiotics, and is increasingly being isolated as a nosocomial pathogen. We developed three PCR-based methods to detect and quantify P aeruginosa in wound biopsy samples: conventional PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-PCR, and RTD-PCR with rapid thermal cycling (LightCycler™ technology), all based on the amplification of the outer membrane lipoprotein gene oprL. We compared the efficacy of these methods to bacterial culture by quantitatively measuring levels of P aeruginosa in serial dilutions, in reconstituted skin samples and 21 burn wound biopsy samples. Materials and methods: Serial 10-fold dilutions were made from an overnight P aeruginosa culture and plated out onto Luria-Bertani and cetrimide agar plates. The agar plates were incubated overnight at 37°C, and the colonies were counted in order to estimate the number of CFU per dilution tube. A sample was taken from each dilution tube as a template for the three PCR-based methods. Serial P aeruginosa dilutions (see above) were added to uninfected cadaveric skin. The reconstituted biopsy samples were homogenized using a tissue tearer and DNA was extracted using XTRAX DNA buffer. The DNA was resuspended in distilled water. A sample was taken as a template for the PCR-based methods. Twenty-one burn wound biopsy samples were taken from nine patients with suspected P aeruginosa burn wound infection. The biopsy samples were longitudinally divided into two pieces. From one piece, DNA was extracted (using XTRAX DNA buffer) and used as a template for PCR-based techniques (see above). The other piece was homogenized, in physiological water, using a tissue tearer. Serial 10

  6. A quantitative analysis of Propionibacterium acnes in lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    de Morais Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria; de França, Emmanuel Rodrigues; Magalhães, Marcelo; Lins, Ana Kelly; Brandão, Laura Costa; Magalhães, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the etiology of progressive macular hypomelanosis, although it has been suggested that Propionibacterium acnes plays an important role. While microbiological culture is commonly employed to identify Propionibacterium acnes, new identification methods have been under investigation, amongst them polymerase chain reaction. To determine the